WorldWideScience

Sample records for character est sequencing

  1. EST2Prot: Mapping EST sequences to proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin David M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EST libraries are used in various biological studies, from microarray experiments to proteomic and genetic screens. These libraries usually contain many uncharacterized ESTs that are typically ignored since they cannot be mapped to known genes. Consequently, new discoveries are possibly overlooked. Results We describe a system (EST2Prot that uses multiple elements to map EST sequences to their corresponding protein products. EST2Prot uses UniGene clusters, substring analysis, information about protein coding regions in existing DNA sequences and protein database searches to detect protein products related to a query EST sequence. Gene Ontology terms, Swiss-Prot keywords, and protein similarity data are used to map the ESTs to functional descriptors. Conclusion EST2Prot extends and significantly enriches the popular UniGene mapping by utilizing multiple relations between known biological entities. It produces a mapping between ESTs and proteins in real-time through a simple web-interface. The system is part of the Biozon database and is accessible at http://biozon.org/tools/est/.

  2. Dyslexia and Configural Perception of Character Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Houpt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable nonword, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient - words and pseudowords were processed at supercapacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across conditions. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four conditions and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia.

  3. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Joseph W; Sussman, Bethany L; Townsend, James T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable non-word, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient-words and pseudowords were processed at super-capacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across string-type. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four string-types and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia. PMID:25954234

  4. Gnathostome phylogenomics utilizing lungfish EST sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Björn M; Janke, Axel

    2009-02-01

    The relationship between the Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes), the Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes), and the piscine Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes) and how the Tetrapoda (four-limbed terrestrial vertebrates) are related to these has been a contentious issue for more than a century. A general consensus about the relationship of these vertebrate clades has gradually emerged among morphologists, but no molecular study has yet provided conclusive evidence for any specific hypothesis. In order to examine these relationships on the basis of more extensive sequence data, we have produced almost 1,000,000 bp of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the African marbled lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus. This new data set yielded 771 transcribed nuclear sequences that had not been previously described. The lungfish EST sequences were combined with EST data from two cartilaginous fishes and whole genome data from an agnathan, four ray-finned fishes, and four tetrapods. Phylogenomic analysis of these data yielded, for the first time, significant maximum likelihood support for a traditional gnathostome tree with a split between the Chondrichthyes and remaining (bone) gnathostomes. Also, the sister group relationship between Dipnoi (lungfishes) and Tetrapoda received conclusive support. Previously proposed hypotheses, such as the monophyly of fishes, could be rejected significantly. The divergence time between lungfishes and tetrapods was estimated to 382-388 Ma by the current data set and six calibration points. PMID:19029191

  5. EST-PAC a web package for EST annotation and protein sequence prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strahm Yvan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the decreasing cost of DNA sequencing technology and the vast diversity of biological resources, researchers increasingly face the basic challenge of annotating a larger number of expressed sequences tags (EST from a variety of species. This typically consists of a series of repetitive tasks, which should be automated and easy to use. The results of these annotation tasks need to be stored and organized in a consistent way. All these operations should be self-installing, platform independent, easy to customize and amenable to using distributed bioinformatics resources available on the Internet. In order to address these issues, we present EST-PAC a web oriented multi-platform software package for expressed sequences tag (EST annotation. EST-PAC provides a solution for the administration of EST and protein sequence annotations accessible through a web interface. Three aspects of EST annotation are automated: 1 searching local or remote biological databases for sequence similarities using Blast services, 2 predicting protein coding sequence from EST data and, 3 annotating predicted protein sequences with functional domain predictions. In practice, EST-PAC integrates the BLASTALL suite, EST-Scan2 and HMMER in a relational database system accessible through a simple web interface. EST-PAC also takes advantage of the relational database to allow consistent storage, powerful queries of results and, management of the annotation process. The system allows users to customize annotation strategies and provides an open-source data-management environment for research and education in bioinformatics.

  6. AcEST(EST sequences of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) - AcEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us AcEST AcEST(EST sequence...s of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) Data detail Data name AcEST(EST sequence...s of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) Description of data contents EST sequence of A...db/view/archive_acest#en Data acquisition method Capillary sequencer Data analysi...atabases) Number of data entries Adiantum capillus-veneris ESTs: 30,540. Data item Description Clone id Clone ID of EST sequence

  7. Linear discriminant analysis of character sequences using occurrences of words

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Subhajit

    2014-02-01

    Classification of character sequences, where the characters come from a finite set, arises in disciplines such as molecular biology and computer science. For discriminant analysis of such character sequences, the Bayes classifier based on Markov models turns out to have class boundaries defined by linear functions of occurrences of words in the sequences. It is shown that for such classifiers based on Markov models with unknown orders, if the orders are estimated from the data using cross-validation, the resulting classifier has Bayes risk consistency under suitable conditions. Even when Markov models are not valid for the data, we develop methods for constructing classifiers based on linear functions of occurrences of words, where the word length is chosen by cross-validation. Such linear classifiers are constructed using ideas of support vector machines, regression depth, and distance weighted discrimination. We show that classifiers with linear class boundaries have certain optimal properties in terms of their asymptotic misclassification probabilities. The performance of these classifiers is demonstrated in various simulated and benchmark data sets.

  8. ConiferEST: an integrated bioinformatics system for data reprocessing and mining of conifer expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Kikia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of low-cost, high-throughput sequencing, the amount of public domain Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequence data available for both model and non-model organism is growing exponentially. While these data are widely used for characterizing various genomes, they also present a serious challenge for data quality control and validation due to their inherent deficiencies, particularly for species without genome sequences. Description ConiferEST is an integrated system for data reprocessing, visualization and mining of conifer ESTs. In its current release, Build 1.0, it houses 172,229 loblolly pine EST sequence reads, which were obtained from reprocessing raw DNA sequencer traces using our software – WebTraceMiner. The trace files were downloaded from NCBI Trace Archive. ConiferEST provides biologists unique, easy-to-use data visualization and mining tools for a variety of putative sequence features including cloning vector segments, adapter sequences, restriction endonuclease recognition sites, polyA and polyT runs, and their corresponding Phred quality values. Based on these putative features, verified sequence features such as 3' and/or 5' termini of cDNA inserts in either sense or non-sense strand have been identified in-silico. Interestingly, only 30.03% of the designated 3' ESTs were found to have an authenticated 5' terminus in the non-sense strand (i.e., polyT tails, while fewer than 5.34% of the designated 5' ESTs had a verified 5' terminus in the sense strand. Such previously ignored features provide valuable insight for data quality control and validation of error-prone ESTs, as well as the ability to identify novel functional motifs embedded in large EST datasets. We found that "double-termini adapters" were effective indicators of potential EST chimeras. For all sequences with in-silico verified termini/terminus, we used InterProScan to assign protein domain signatures, results of which are available

  9. On the origins of birds: the sequence of character acquisition in the evolution of avian flight

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, J. P.; & Taylor, G. K.; Thomas, A. L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Assessment of competing theories for the evolution of avian flight is problematic, and tends to rest too heavily on reconstruction of the mode of life of one or a few specimens representing still fewer species. A more powerful method is to compare the sequence of character acquisition predicted by the various theories with the empirical sequence provided by cladistic phylogeny. Arboreal and cursorial theories incorrectly predict the sequence of character acquisition for several key features o...

  10. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bies Dawn H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa represents one of the most valued fruit crops in the United States. Despite its economic importance, the octoploid genome presents a formidable barrier to efficient study of genome structure and molecular mechanisms that underlie agriculturally-relevant traits. Many potentially fruitful research avenues, especially large-scale gene expression surveys and development of molecular genetic markers have been limited by a lack of sequence information in public databases. As a first step to remedy this discrepancy a cDNA library has been developed from salicylate-treated, whole-plant tissues and over 1800 expressed sequence tags (EST's have been sequenced and analyzed. Results A putative unigene set of 1304 sequences – 133 contigs and 1171 singlets – has been developed, and the transcripts have been functionally annotated. Homology searches indicate that 89.5% of sequences share significant similarity to known/putative proteins or Rosaceae ESTs. The ESTs have been functionally characterized and genes relevant to specific physiological processes of economic importance have been identified. A set of tools useful for SSR development and mapping is presented. Conclusion Sequences derived from this effort may be used to speed gene discovery efforts in Fragaria and the Rosaceae in general and also open avenues of comparative mapping. This report represents a first step in expanding molecular-genetic analyses in strawberry and demonstrates how computational tools can be used to optimally mine a large body of useful information from a relatively small data set.

  11. Characterization of simple sequence repeats (SSRs from Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamarsheh Omar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomus papatasi is a natural vector of Leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in many countries. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites, are common in eukaryotic genomes and are short, repeated nucleotide sequence elements arrayed in tandem and flanked by non-repetitive regions. The enrichment methods used previously for finding new microsatellite loci in sand flies remain laborious and time consuming; in silico mining, which includes retrieval and screening of microsatellites from large amounts of sequence data from sequence data bases using microsatellite search tools can yield many new candidate markers. Results Simple sequence repeats (SSRs were characterized in P. papatasi expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived from a public database, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. A total of 42,784 sequences were mined, and 1,499 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 3.5% and an average density of 15.55 kb per SSR. Dinucleotide motifs were the most common SSRs, accounting for 67% followed by tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide repeats, accounting for 31.1%, 1.5%, and 0.1%, respectively. The length of microsatellites varied from 5 to 16 repeats. Dinucleotide types; AG and CT have the highest frequency. Dinucleotide SSR-ESTs are relatively biased toward an excess of (AXn repeats and a low GC base content. Forty primer pairs were designed based on motif lengths for further experimental validation. Conclusion The first large-scale survey of SSRs derived from P. papatasi is presented; dinucleotide SSRs identified are more frequent than other types. EST data mining is an effective strategy to identify functional microsatellites in P. papatasi.

  12. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  13. Expressed Sequence Tag-Simple Sequence Repeat (EST-SSR Marker Resources for Diversity Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie L. Dillon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a collection of 24,840 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from five mango (Mangifera indica L. cDNA libraries was mined for EST-based simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Over 1,000 ESTs with SSR motifs were detected from more than 24,000 EST sequences with di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant. Of these, 25 EST-SSRs in genes involved in plant development, stress response, and fruit color and flavor development pathways were selected, developed into PCR markers and characterized in a population of 32 mango selections including M. indica varieties, and related Mangifera species. Twenty-four of the 25 EST-SSR markers exhibited polymorphisms, identifying a total of 86 alleles with an average of 5.38 alleles per locus, and distinguished between all Mangifera selections. Private alleles were identified for Mangifera species. These newly developed EST-SSR markers enhance the current 11 SSR mango genetic identity panel utilized by the Australian Mango Breeding Program. The current panel has been used to identify progeny and parents for selection and the application of this extended panel will further improve and help to design mango hybridization strategies for increased breeding efficiency.

  14. Sequence alignment status and amplicon size difference affecting EST-SSR primer performance and polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little attention has been given to failed, poorly-performing, and non-polymorphic expressed sequence tag (EST) simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. This is due in part to a lack of interest and value in reporting them but also because of the difficulty in addressing the causes of failure on a prime...

  15. Identification of true EST alignments and exon regions of gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yanhong; JING Hui; LI Yanen; LIU Huailan

    2004-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs), which have piled up considerably so far, provide a valuable resource for finding new genes, disease-relevant genes, and for recognizing alternative splicing variants, SNP sites, etc. The prerequisite for carrying out these researches is to correctly ascertain the gene-sequence-related ESTs. Based on analysis of the alignment results between some known gene sequences and ESTs in public database, several measures including Identity Check, Gap Check, Inclusion Check and Length Check have been introduced to judge whether an EST alignment is related to a gene sequence or not. A computational program EDSAc1.0 has been developed to identify true EST alignments and exon regions of query gene sequences. When tested with human gene sequences in the standard dataset HMR195 and evaluated with the standard measures of gene prediction performance, EDSAc1.0 can identify protein- coding regions with specificity of 0.997 and sensitivity of 0.88 at the nucleotide level, which outperform that of the counterpart TAP. A web server of EDSAc1.0 is available at http://infosci.hust.edu.cn.

  16. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for marker development in yam (Dioscorea alata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Asiedu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a major limiting factor in the production of yam (Dioscorea spp. worldwide. Availability of high quality sequence information is necessary for designing molecular markers associated with resistance. However, very limited sequence information pertaining to yam is available at public genome databases. Therefore, this collaborative project was developed for genetic improvement and germplasm characterization of yams using molecular markers. The current investigation is focused on studying gene expression, by large scale generation of ESTs, from one susceptible (TDa 95-0310 and two resistant yam genotypes (TDa 87-01091, TDa 95-0328 challenged with the fungus. Total RNA was isolated from young leaves of resistant and susceptible genotypes and cDNA libraries were sequenced using Roche 454 technology. Results A total of 44,757 EST sequences were generated from the cDNA libraries of the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Greater than 56% of ESTs were annotated using MapMan Mercator tool and Blast2GO search tools. Gene annotations were used to characterize the transcriptome in yam and also perform a differential gene expression analysis between the resistant and susceptible EST datasets. Mining for SSRs in the ESTs revealed 1702 unique sequences containing SSRs and 1705 SSR markers were designed using those sequences. Conclusion We have developed a comprehensive annotated transcriptome data set in yam to enrich the EST information in public databases. cDNA libraries were constructed from anthracnose fungus challenged leaf tissues for transcriptome characterization, and differential gene expression analysis. Thus, it helped in identifying unique transcripts in each library for disease resistance. These EST resources provide the basis for future microarray development, marker validation, genetic linkage mapping and QTL analysis in Dioscorea species.

  17. Genomic Resources for Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L.: Analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo Sequencing and GBS Libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Saski

    Full Text Available The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp. is a major food and cash crop in many countries but research efforts have been limited to understand the genetics and generate genomic information for the crop. The availability of a large number of genomic resources including genome-wide molecular markers will accelerate the breeding efforts and application of genomic selection in yams. In the present study, several methods including expressed sequence tags (EST-sequencing, de novo sequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS profiles on two yam (Dioscorea alata L. genotypes (TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310 was performed to generate genomic resources for use in its improvement programs. This includes a comprehensive set of EST-SSRs, genomic SSRs, whole genome SNPs, and reduced representation SNPs. A total of 1,152 EST-SSRs were developed from >40,000 EST-sequences generated from the two genotypes. A set of 388 EST-SSRs were validated as polymorphic showing a polymorphism rate of 34% when tested on two diverse parents targeted for anthracnose disease. In addition, approximately 40X de novo whole genome sequence coverage was generated for each of the two genotypes, and a total of 18,584 and 15,952 genomic SSRs were identified for TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310, respectively. A custom made pipeline resulted in the selection of 573 genomic SSRs common across the two genotypes, of which only eight failed, 478 being polymorphic and 62 monomorphic indicating a polymorphic rate of 83.5%. Additionally, 288,505 high quality SNPs were also identified between these two genotypes. Genotyping by sequencing reads on these two genotypes also revealed 36,790 overlapping SNP positions that are distributed throughout the genome. Our efforts in using

  18. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs from immune tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus challenged with pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Manuel L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Scophthalmidae; Pleuronectiformes is a flatfish species of great relevance for marine aquaculture in Europe. In contrast to other cultured flatfish, very few genomic resources are available in this species. Aeromonas salmonicida and Philasterides dicentrarchi are two pathogens that affect turbot culture causing serious economic losses to the turbot industry. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms for disease resistance and host-pathogen interactions in this species. In this work, thousands of ESTs for functional genomic studies and potential markers linked to ESTs for mapping (microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are provided. This information enabled us to obtain a preliminary view of regulated genes in response to these pathogens and it constitutes the basis for subsequent and more accurate microarray analysis. Results A total of 12584 cDNAs partially sequenced from three different cDNA libraries of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus infected with Aeromonas salmonicida, Philasterides dicentrarchi and from healthy fish were analyzed. Three immune-relevant tissues (liver, spleen and head kidney were sampled at several time points in the infection process for library construction. The sequences were processed into 9256 high-quality sequences, which constituted the source for the turbot EST database. Clustering and assembly of these sequences, revealed 3482 different putative transcripts, 1073 contigs and 2409 singletons. BLAST searches with public databases detected significant similarity (e-value ≤ 1e-5 in 1766 (50.7% sequences and 816 of them (23.4% could be functionally annotated. Two hundred three of these genes (24.9%, encoding for defence/immune-related proteins, were mostly identified for the first time in turbot. Some ESTs showed significant differences in the number of transcripts when comparing the three libraries, suggesting regulation in response to these

  19. Signs of positive selection of somatic mutations in human cancers detected by EST sequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinogenesis typically involves multiple somatic mutations in caretaker (DNA repair) and gatekeeper (tumor suppressors and oncogenes) genes. Analysis of mutation spectra of the tumor suppressor that is most commonly mutated in human cancers, p53, unexpectedly suggested that somatic evolution of the p53 gene during tumorigenesis is dominated by positive selection for gain of function. This conclusion is supported by accumulating experimental evidence of evolution of new functions of p53 in tumors. These findings prompted a genome-wide analysis of possible positive selection during tumor evolution. A comprehensive analysis of probable somatic mutations in the sequences of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from malignant tumors and normal tissues was performed in order to access the prevalence of positive selection in cancer evolution. For each EST, the numbers of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions were calculated. In order to identify genes with a signature of positive selection in cancers, these numbers were compared to: i) expected numbers and ii) the numbers for the respective genes in the ESTs from normal tissues. We identified 112 genes with a signature of positive selection in cancers, i.e., a significantly elevated ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, in tumors as compared to 37 such genes in an approximately equal-sized EST collection from normal tissues. A substantial fraction of the tumor-specific positive-selection candidates have experimentally demonstrated or strongly predicted links to cancer. The results of EST analysis should be interpreted with extreme caution given the noise introduced by sequencing errors and undetected polymorphisms. Furthermore, an inherent limitation of EST analysis is that multiple mutations amenable to statistical analysis can be detected only in relatively highly expressed genes. Nevertheless, the present results suggest that positive selection might affect a substantial number of genes during

  20. Signs of positive selection of somatic mutations in human cancers detected by EST sequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogozin Igor B

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinogenesis typically involves multiple somatic mutations in caretaker (DNA repair and gatekeeper (tumor suppressors and oncogenes genes. Analysis of mutation spectra of the tumor suppressor that is most commonly mutated in human cancers, p53, unexpectedly suggested that somatic evolution of the p53 gene during tumorigenesis is dominated by positive selection for gain of function. This conclusion is supported by accumulating experimental evidence of evolution of new functions of p53 in tumors. These findings prompted a genome-wide analysis of possible positive selection during tumor evolution. Methods A comprehensive analysis of probable somatic mutations in the sequences of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from malignant tumors and normal tissues was performed in order to access the prevalence of positive selection in cancer evolution. For each EST, the numbers of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions were calculated. In order to identify genes with a signature of positive selection in cancers, these numbers were compared to: i expected numbers and ii the numbers for the respective genes in the ESTs from normal tissues. Results We identified 112 genes with a signature of positive selection in cancers, i.e., a significantly elevated ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, in tumors as compared to 37 such genes in an approximately equal-sized EST collection from normal tissues. A substantial fraction of the tumor-specific positive-selection candidates have experimentally demonstrated or strongly predicted links to cancer. Conclusion The results of EST analysis should be interpreted with extreme caution given the noise introduced by sequencing errors and undetected polymorphisms. Furthermore, an inherent limitation of EST analysis is that multiple mutations amenable to statistical analysis can be detected only in relatively highly expressed genes. Nevertheless, the present results suggest that positive

  1. Generation and analysis of 9792 EST sequences from cold acclimated oat, Avena sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Björn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oat is an important crop in North America and northern Europe. In Scandinavia, yields are limited by the fact that oat cannot be used as a winter crop. In order to develop such a crop, more knowledge about mechanisms of cold tolerance in oat is required. Results From an oat cDNA library 9792 single-pass EST sequences were obtained. The library was prepared from pooled RNA samples isolated from leaves of four-week old Avena sativa (oat plants incubated at +4°C for 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours. Exclusion of sequences shorter than 100 bp resulted in 8508 high-quality ESTs with a mean length of 710.7 bp. Clustering and assembly identified a set of 2800 different transcripts denoted the Avena sativa cold induced UniGene set (AsCIUniGene set. Taking advantage of various tools and databases, putative functions were assigned to 1620 (58% of these genes. Of the remaining 1180 unclassified sequences, 427 appeared to be oat-specific since they lacked any significant sequence similarity (Blast E values > 10-10 to any sequence available in the public databases. Of the 2800 UniGene sequences, 398 displayed significant homology (BlastX E values ≤ 10-10 to genes previously reported to be involved in cold stress related processes. 107 novel oat transcription factors were also identified, out of which 51 were similar to genes previously shown to be cold induced. The CBF transcription factors have a major role in regulating cold acclimation. Four oat CBF sequences were found, belonging to the monocot cluster of DREB family ERF/AP2 domain proteins. Finally in the total EST sequence data (5.3 Mbp approximately 400 potential SSRs were found, a frequency similar to what has previously been identified in Arabidopsis ESTs. Conclusion The AsCIUniGene set will now be used to fabricate an oat biochip, to perform various expression studies with different oat cultivars incubated at varying temperatures, to generate molecular markers and provide tools for

  2. Gene Identification and Expression Analysis of 86,136 Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) from the Rice Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhou; Lin Ye; Li Lin; Jun Li; Xuegang Wang; Hao Xu; Yibin Pan; Wei Lin; Wei Tian; Jing Liu; Liping Wei; Jiabin Tang; Siqi Liu; Huanming Yang; Jun Yu; Jian Wang; Michael G. Walker; Xiuqing Zhang; Jun Wang; Songnian Hu; Huayong Xu; Yajun Deng; Jianhai Dong

    2003-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) analysis has pioneered genome-wide gene discovery and expression profiling. In order to establish a gene expression index in the rice cultivar indica, we sequenced and analyzed 86,136 ESTs from nine rice cDNA libraries from the super hybrid cultivar LYP9 and its parental cultivars. We assembled these ESTs into 13,232 contigs and leave 8,976 singletons. Overall, 7,497 sequences were found similar to the existing sequences in GenBank and 14,711 are novel. These sequences are classified by molecular function, biological process and pathways according to the Gene Ontology. We compared our sequenced ESTs with the publicly available 95,000 ESTs from japonica, and found little sequence variation, despite the large difference between genome sequences. We then assembled the combined 173,000 rice ESTs for further analysis. Using the pooled ESTs, we compared gene expression in metabolism pathway between rice and Avabidopsis according to KEGG. We further profiled gene expression patterns in different tis sues, developmental stages, and in a conditional sterile mutant, after checking the libraries are comparable by means of sequence coverage. We also identified some possible library specific genes and a number of enzymes and transcription factors that contribute to rice development.

  3. Construction of full-length cDNA library and development of EST-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers in Senecio scandens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Gang; Ping, Junjiao; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Lei; Xu, Delin

    2014-12-01

    Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (Compositae) is a crucial source of Chinese traditional medicine with antibacterial properties. We constructed a cDNA library and obtained expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to show the distribution of gene ontology annotations for mRNAs, using an individual plant with superior antibacterial characteristics. Analysis of comparative genomics indicates that the putative uncharacterized proteins (21.07%) might be derived from "molecular function unknown" clones or rare transcripts. Furthermore, the Compositae had high cross-species transferability of EST-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR), based on valid amplifications of 206 primer pairs developed from the newly assembled expressed sequence tag sequences in Artemisia annua L. Among those EST-SSR markers, 52 primers showed polymorphic amplifications between individuals with contrasting diverse antibacterial traits. Our sequence data and molecular markers will be cost-effective tools for further studies such as genome annotation, molecular breeding, and novel transcript profiles within Compositae species. PMID:25007751

  4. Development of EST-SSR and TRAP markers from transcriptome sequencing data of the mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C; Wu, H X; Yao, Q S; Wang, S B; Xu, W T

    2015-01-01

    Mango is one of the most commercially important fruit crops in tropical and subtropical regions. To increase the efficiency of breeding strategies, two EST-derived marker systems were developed in the present study using information from the mango fruit transcriptome. Using simple sequence repeats, 218 of 230 primer pairs showed stable amplification for 7 mango genotypes with amplicons ranging from 84 to 160 bp; 93 of the primer pairs yielded polymorphic products. The proportion of polymorphic bands ranged from 16.67 to 100%, with a mean of 55.64%. In contrast, 86 primer pairs exhibited good amplification with clear bands for target region amplification polymorphism analysis, and a total of 66 primer combinations were polymorphic. These two novel sets of EST-derived markers will be of use in future studies of genetic diversity, genetic map construction, and marker-assisted selection in mango. PMID:26214472

  5. [Isolation and expression of novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from ovarian follicles of Shaoxing ducks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Gang; Chen, Jie; Ni, Ying-Dong; Zhou, Yu-Chuan; Zhao, Ru-Qian

    2004-10-01

    Three expressed sequence tags ( ESTs), SXDF0201 (271 bp), SXDF0202 (200 bp) and SXDF0203 (173 bp), were isolated from ovarian follicles of Shaoxing ducks by using silver staining mRNA differential display. GenBank/BLAST analysis revealed that SXDF0201 was not homologous to any of the published sequences from all species, indicating that it was a novel EST and was then registered in GenBank (GenBank Accession No.: CB072629), while SXDF0202 and SXDF0203 were found to be highly homologous to seven known chicken ESTs and chicken mRNA for gizzard smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. 5'-RACE was employed to extend the SXDF0201 to 544 bp which was confirmed as novel in BLAST search. The temporal and spatial expression of SXDF0201 and SXDF0202 were also investigated with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The result showed that: both SXDF0201 and SXDF0202 were found to be expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, muscle, liver, and fat tissues of Shaoxing ducks; SXDF0201 was expressed significantly higher in ovaries of 30-day-old Shaoxing ducks compared with that of 60-day-old (P hierarchical follicles, the expression of SXDF0202 in granulose layers increased along with follicular maturation (P < 0.01) from Fw to F3 follicles, but decreased dramatically to the lowest in F1 follicles (P < 0.01). In theca layers, the highest expression of SXDF0202 was found in Fw follicles (P < 0.01). PMID:15552044

  6. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  7. Phylogeny of the Labeoninae (Teleostei, Cypriniformes) based on nuclear DNA sequences and implications on character evolution and biogeography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanping ZHENG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The Labeoninae is a subfamily of the family Cyprinidae,Order Cypriniformes.Oromandibular morphology within the Labeoninae is the greatest among cyprinid fishes.Although several phylogenetic studies about labeonines have been undertaken the results have been inconsistent and a comprehensive phylogeny is needed.Further,an incongruence between morphological and molecular phylogeny requires a systematic exploration of the significance of morphological characters on the basis of the molecular phylogeny.In this study,a total of 292 nucleotide sequences from 73 individuals (representing 24 genera and 73 species) of Labeoninae were analyzed.The results of the phylogenetic analysis indicate that there are four major clades within Labeoninae and three monophyletic lineages within the fourth clade.Results of the character evolution show that all oromandibular morphological characters are homoplastically distributed on the molecular phylogenetic tree and suggests that these characters evolved several times during the history of labeonines.In particular,the labeonine,a specific disc on the lower lip,has been acquired three times and reversed twice.These morphological characters do not have systematic significance but can be useful for taxonomy.The results of biogeography suggest that the Labeoninae originated from Southeast Asia and separately dispersed to Africa,East Asia and South Asia.

  8. Sequencing and analysis of full-length cDNAs, 5'-ESTs and 3'-ESTs from a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).

    KAUST Repository

    Brenner, Sydney

    2012-10-08

    Cartilaginous fishes are the most ancient group of living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and are, therefore, an important reference group for understanding the evolution of vertebrates. The elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a holocephalan cartilaginous fish, has been identified as a model cartilaginous fish genome because of its compact genome (∼910 Mb) and a genome project has been initiated to obtain its whole genome sequence. In this study, we have generated and sequenced full-length enriched cDNA libraries of the elephant shark using the \\'oligo-capping\\' method and Sanger sequencing. A total of 6,778 full-length protein-coding cDNA and 10,701 full-length noncoding cDNA were sequenced from six tissues (gills, intestine, kidney, liver, spleen, and testis) of the elephant shark. Analysis of their polyadenylation signals showed that polyadenylation usage in elephant shark is similar to that in mammals. Furthermore, both coding and noncoding transcripts of the elephant shark use the same proportion of canonical polyadenylation sites. Besides BLASTX searches, protein-coding transcripts were annotated by Gene Ontology, InterPro domain, and KEGG pathway analyses. By comparing elephant shark genes to bony vertebrate genes, we identified several ancient genes present in elephant shark but differentially lost in tetrapods or teleosts. Only ∼6% of elephant shark noncoding cDNA showed similarity to known noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The rest are either highly divergent ncRNAs or novel ncRNAs. In addition to full-length transcripts, 30,375 5\\'-ESTs and 41,317 3\\'-ESTs were sequenced and annotated. The clones and transcripts generated in this study are valuable resources for annotating transcription start sites, exon-intron boundaries, and UTRs of genes in the elephant shark genome, and for the functional characterization of protein sequences. These resources will also be useful for annotating genes in other cartilaginous fishes whose genomes have been targeted for

  9. Genomic resources for Myzus persicae: EST sequencing, SNP identification, and microarray design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malloch Gaynor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, is a world-wide insect pest capable of infesting more than 40 plant families, including many crop species. However, despite the significant damage inflicted by M. persicae in agricultural systems through direct feeding damage and by its ability to transmit plant viruses, limited genomic information is available for this species. Results Sequencing of 16 M. persicae cDNA libraries generated 26,669 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Aphids for library construction were raised on Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Brassica oleracea, B. napus, and Physalis floridana (with and without Potato leafroll virus infection. The M. persicae cDNA libraries include ones made from sexual and asexual whole aphids, guts, heads, and salivary glands. In silico comparison of cDNA libraries identified aphid genes with tissue-specific expression patterns, and gene expression that is induced by feeding on Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, 2423 genes that are novel to science and potentially aphid-specific were identified. Comparison of cDNA data from three aphid lineages identified single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers and, in some cases, may represent functional differences in the protein products. In particular, non-conservative amino acid substitutions in a highly expressed gut protease may be of adaptive significance for M. persicae feeding on different host plants. The Agilent eArray platform was used to design an M. persicae oligonucleotide microarray representing over 10,000 unique genes. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for M. persicae, an agriculturally important insect pest. These include previously unknown sequence data, a collection of expressed genes, molecular markers, and a DNA microarray that can be used to study aphid gene expression. These resources will help elucidate the adaptations that allow M. persicae to develop compatible

  10. Sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Rose Lucia Braz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignins are phenolic polymers found in the secondary wall of plant conductive systems where they play an important role by reducing the permeability of the cell wall to water. Lignins are also responsible for the rigidity of the cell wall and are involved in mechanisms of resistance to pathogens. The metabolic routes and enzymes involved in synthesis of lignins have been largely characterized and representative genes that encode enzymes involved in these processes have been cloned from several plant species. The synthesis of lignins is liked to the general metabolism of the phenylpropanoids in plants, having enzymes (e.g. phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT common to other processes as well as specific enzymes such as cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. Some maize and sorghum mutants, shown to have defective in CAD and/or COMT activity, are easier to digest because they have a reduced lignin content, something which has motivated different research groups to alter the lignin content and composition of model plants by genetic engineering try to improve, for example, the efficiency of paper pulping and digestibility. In the work reported in this paper, we have made an inventory of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (EST coding for enzymes involved in lignin metabolism which are present in the sugarcane EST genome project (SUCEST database. Our analysis focused on the key enzymes ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT, hydroxycinnamate CoA ligase (4CL, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. The comparative analysis of these genes with those described in other species could be used as molecular markers for breeding as well as for the manipulation of lignin metabolism in sugarcane.

  11. Super-resolution Image Created from a Sequence of Images with Application of Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luiz de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution techniques allow combine multiple images of the same scene to obtain an image with increased geometric and radiometric resolution, called super-resolution image. In this image are enhanced features allowing to recover important details and information. The objective of this work is to develop efficient algorithm, robust and automated fusion image frames to obtain a super-resolution image. Image registration is a fundamental step in combining several images that make up the scene. Our research is based on the determination and extraction of characteristics defined by the SIFT and RANSAC algorithms for automatic image registration. We use images containing characters and perform recognition of these characters to validate and show the effectiveness of our proposed method. The distinction of this work is the way to get the matching and merging of images because it occurs dynamically between elements common images that are stored in a dynamic matrix.

  12. Gene identification and analysis of transcripts differentially regulated in fracture healing by EST sequencing in the domestic sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecht Jochen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sheep is an important model animal for testing novel fracture treatments and other medical applications. Despite these medical uses and the well known economic and cultural importance of the sheep, relatively little research has been performed into sheep genetics, and DNA sequences are available for only a small number of sheep genes. Results In this work we have sequenced over 47 thousand expressed sequence tags (ESTs from libraries developed from healing bone in a sheep model of fracture healing. These ESTs were clustered with the previously available 10 thousand sheep ESTs to a total of 19087 contigs with an average length of 603 nucleotides. We used the newly identified sequences to develop RT-PCR assays for 78 sheep genes and measured differential expression during the course of fracture healing between days 7 and 42 postfracture. All genes showed significant shifts at one or more time points. 23 of the genes were differentially expressed between postfracture days 7 and 10, which could reflect an important role for these genes for the initiation of osteogenesis. Conclusion The sequences we have identified in this work are a valuable resource for future studies on musculoskeletal healing and regeneration using sheep and represent an important head-start for genomic sequencing projects for Ovis aries, with partial or complete sequences being made available for over 5,800 previously unsequenced sheep genes.

  13. An approach to identify the novel miRNA encoded from H. Annuus EST sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hemant; Tiwari, Tanushree; Patel, Maulik; Mehta, Aditya; Ghosh, Arpita

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs are a newly discovered class of non-protein small RNAs with 22-24 nucleotides. They play multiple roles in biological processes including development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, stress responses and many other cell functions. In this research, several approaches were combined to make a computational prediction of potential miRNAs and their targets in Helianthus annuus (H. annuus). The already available information of the plant miRNAs present in miRBase v21 was used against expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of three miRNAs were detected from which one potential novel miRNA was identified following a range of strict filtering criteria. The target prediction was carried out for these three miRNAs having various targets. These targets were functionally annotated and GO terms were assigned. To study the conserved nature of the miRNAs, predicted phylogenetic analysis was carried out. These findings will significantly provide the broader picture for understanding the functions in H. annuus. PMID:26697356

  14. Transcriptome analysis of the Amazonian viper Bothrops atrox venom gland using expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Márcia; Arraes, Fabricio B M; de Souza, Jonso Vieira; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Prieto da Silva, Alvaro R B; Walter, Maria Emilia M T; Brigido, Marcelo de Macedo; Yamane, Tetsuo; López-Lozano, Jorge Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco

    2009-03-15

    Bothrops atrox is a highly dangerous pit viper in the Brazilian Amazon region. We produced a global catalogue of gene transcripts to identify the main toxin and other protein families present in the B. atrox venom gland. We prepared a directional cDNA library, from which a set of 610 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated by bioinformatics processing. Our data indicated a predominance of transcripts encoding mainly metalloproteinases (59% of the toxins). The expression pattern of the B. atrox venom was similar to Bothrops insularis, Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu in terms of toxin type, although some differences were observed. B. atrox showed a higher amount of the PIII class of metalloproteinases which correlates well with the observed intense hemorrhagic action of its toxin. Also, the PLA2 content was the second highest in this sample compared to the other three Bothrops transcriptomes. To our knowledge, this work is the first transcriptome analysis of an Amazonian rain forest pit viper and it will contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the gene diversity of the venom gland of members of the Bothrops genus. Moreover, our results can be used for future studies with other snake species from the Amazon region to investigate differences in gene patterns or phylogenetic relationships. PMID:19708221

  15. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Paula; Paniego, Norma; Lew, Sergio; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth A

    2003-01-01

    Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4). The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60%) did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences putatively related to responses

  16. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4. The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60% did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences

  17. Exploiting EST databases for the mining and characterization of short sequence repeat (SSR) markers in Catharanthus roseus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Kar, Basudeba; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2011-01-01

    Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.) (Family: Apocyanaceae) is a ornamental plants with great medicinal properties. Although it is represented by seven species, little work has been carried out on its genetic characterization due to non-availability of reliable molecular markers. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been widely applied as molecular markers in genetic studies. With the rapid increase in the deposition of nucleotide sequences in the public databases and advent of bioinformatics tools, it has become a cost effective and fast approach to scan for microsatellite repeats and exploit the possibility of converting it into potential genetic markers. Expressed sequence tags (EST's) from Catharanthus roseus were used for the screening of Class I (hyper variable) simple sequence repeats (SSR's). A total of 502 microsatellite repeats were detected from 21730 EST sequences of turmeric after redundancy elimination. The average density of Class I SSRs account to 1 SSR per 10.21 kb of EST. Mononucleotides was the most abundant class of microsatellite motifs. It accounted for 44.02% of the total, followed by the trinucleotide (26.09%) and dinucleotide repeats (14.34%). Among all the repeat motifs, (A/T)n accounted for the highest Proportion (36.25%) followed by (AAG)n. These detected SSRs can be used to design primers that have functional importance and should also facilitate the analysis of genetic diversity, variability, linkage mapping and evolutionary relationships in plants especially medicinal plants. PMID:21383904

  18. Construction and EST sequencing of full-length, drought stress cDNA libraries for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair Matthew W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean is an important legume crop with only a moderate number of short expressed sequence tags (ESTs made with traditional methods. The goal of this research was to use full-length cDNA technology to develop ESTs that would overlap with the beginning of open reading frames and therefore be useful for gene annotation of genomic sequences. The library was also constructed to represent genes expressed under drought, low soil phosphorus and high soil aluminum toxicity. We also undertook comparisons of the full-length cDNA library to two previous non-full clone EST sets for common bean. Results Two full-length cDNA libraries were constructed: one for the drought tolerant Mesoamerican genotype BAT477 and the other one for the acid-soil tolerant Andean genotype G19833 which has been selected for genome sequencing. Plants were grown in three soil types using deep rooting cylinders subjected to drought and non-drought stress and tissues were collected from both roots and above ground parts. A total of 20,000 clones were selected robotically, half from each library. Then, nearly 10,000 clones from the G19833 library were sequenced with an average read length of 850 nucleotides. A total of 4,219 unigenes were identified consisting of 2,981 contigs and 1,238 singletons. These were functionally annotated with gene ontology terms and placed into KEGG pathways. Compared to other EST sequencing efforts in common bean, about half of the sequences were novel or represented the 5' ends of known genes. Conclusions The present full-length cDNA libraries add to the technological toolbox available for common bean and our sequencing of these clones substantially increases the number of unique EST sequences available for the common bean genome. All of this should be useful for both functional gene annotation, analysis of splice site variants and intron/exon boundary determination by comparison to soybean genes or with common bean whole

  19. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Hee Joung; Jerry L.Hill; Jung Oh Hyun; Ding Mu; Juchun Luo; Do Hyung Lee; Takayuki Kawahara; Jeung Keun Suh; Mark S.Roh

    2013-01-01

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population ofPinus densiflora × P.sylvestris in Jilin,China,we used needles and seeds from P.densiflora,P.sylvestris,and P.densiflora × P.sylvestris collected from natural stands or experimental stations to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSRs).Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to sequence analysis of the pine cpDNA SSR marker Pt15169.Results show that morphological characters from 4-year old seedlings did not correlate with sequence variants of this marker.Marker haplotypes from all P.sylvestris trees had a CTAT element that was absent from all sampled P.densiflora trees.However,both haplotype classes involving this insertion/deletion element were found in a P.densiflora × P.sylvestris population and its seedling progeny.It was concluded that the P.densiflora × P.sylvestris accessions sampled from Jilin,China resulted from bi-directional crosses,as evidenced by both species' cpDNA haplotypes within the hybrid swarm population.

  20. Cross-Species, Amplifiable EST-SSR Markers for Amentotaxus Species Obtained by Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiuan-Yu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amentotaxus, a genus of Taxaceae, is an ancient lineage with six relic and endangered species. Four Amentotaxus species, namely A. argotaenia, A. formosana, A. yunnanensis, and A. poilanei, are considered a species complex because of their morphological similarities. Small populations of these species are allopatrically distributed in Asian forests. However, only a few codominant markers have been developed and applied to study population genetic structure of these endangered species. In this study, we developed and characterized polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs from the transcriptome of A. formosana. We identified 4955 putative EST-SSRs from 68,281 unigenes as potential molecular markers. Twenty-six EST-SSRs were selected for estimating polymorphism and transferability among Amentotaxus species, of which 23 EST-SSRs were polymorphic within Amentotaxus species. Among these, the number of alleles ranged from 1–4, the polymorphism information content ranged from 0.000–0.692, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.000–1.000 and 0.080–0.740, respectively. Population genetic structure analyses confirmed that A. argotaenia and A. formosana were separate species and A. yunnanensis and A. poilanei were the same species. These novel EST-SSRs can facilitate further population genetic structure research of Amentotaxus species.

  1. 基于坏字符序检测的快速模式匹配算法%QUICK PATTERN MATCHING ALGORITHM BASED ON BAD CHARACTER SEQUENCE CHECKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 张霖

    2012-01-01

    提出一种基于坏字符序检测的快速模式匹配算法( BCSBM).该算法利用相邻字符序列在模式串中不出现的概率较单字符高的特性,基于好字符和坏字符序表实现字符匹配过程的“跳跃”.BCSBM算法显著减少了匹配窗口内字符的匹配次数,同时增大了匹配窗口的平均移动距离.算法的实际测试效率较高,在文本或模式串相对较长的情况下该算法的效率提高明显.%The paper introduces BCSBM algorithm based on bad characters sequence checking. BCSBM algorithm takes advantages of the less probability of the presence of an adjacent character sequence than that of a single character within a pattern string, and realizes the jumping of the character matching process according to good characters and bad character sequences. BCSBM algorithm significantly reduces the times of character matching inside the matching window while increases the average movement distance of the matching window. Ab tested in reality, the algorithm* s efficiency is higher than other pattern matching algorithms, especially when there are longer texts or pattern strings.

  2. Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Muscle Full-Length cDNA Library of Wujin Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Su-mei; LIU Yong-gang; PAN Hong-bing; ZHANG Xi; GE Chang-rong; JIA Jun-jing; GAO Shi-zheng

    2014-01-01

    Porcine skeletal muscle genes play a major role in determining muscle growth and meat quality. Construction of a full-length cDNA library is an effective way to understand the expression of functional genes in muscle tissues. In addition, novel genes for further research could be identiifed in the library. In this study, we constructed a full-length cDNA library from porcine muscle tissue. The estimated average size of the cDNA inserts was 1076 bp, and the cDNA fullness ratio was 86.2%. A total of 1058 unique sequences with 342 contigs (32.3%) and 716 singleton (67.7%) expressed sequence tags (EST) were obtained by clustering and assembling. Meanwhile, 826 (78.1%) ESTs were categorized as known genes, and 232 (21.9%) ESTs were categorized as unknown genes. 65 novel porcine genes that exhibit no identity in the TIGR gene index ofSus scrofa and 124 full-length sequences with unknown functions were deposited in the dbEST division of GenBank (accession numbers: EU650784-EU650788, GE843306, GH228978-GH229100). The abundantly expressed genes in porcine muscle tissue were related to muscle ifber development, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Gene ontology analysis showed that sequences expressed in porcine muscle tissue contained a high percentage of binding activity, catalytic activity, structural molecule activity and motor activity, which involved mainly in metabolic, cellular and developmental process, distributed mainly in intracellular region. The sequence data generated in this study would provide valuable information for identifying porcine genes expressed in muscle tissue and help to advance the study on the structure and function of genes in pigs.

  3. De novo assembly of transcriptome sequencing in Caragana korshinskii Kom. and characterization of EST-SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Long

    Full Text Available Caragana korshinskii Kom. is widely distributed in various habitats, including gravel desert, clay desert, fixed and semi-fixed sand, and saline land in the Asian and African deserts. To date, no previous genomic information or EST-SSR marker has been reported in Caragana Fabr. genus. In this study, more than two billion bases of high-quality sequence of C. korshinskii were generated by using illumina sequencing technology and demonstrated the de novo assembly and annotation of genes without prior genome information. These reads were assembled into 86,265 unigenes (mean length = 709 bp. The similarity search indicated that 33,955 and 21,978 unigenes showed significant similarities to known proteins from NCBI non-redundant and Swissprot protein databases, respectively. Among these annotated unigenes, 26,232 a unigenes were separately assigned to Gene Ontology (GO database. When 22,756 unigenes searched against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG database, 5,598 unigenes were assigned to 5 main categories including 32 KEGG pathways. Among the main KEGG categories, metabolism was the biggest category (2,862, 43.7%, suggesting the active metabolic processes in the desert tree. In addition, a total of 19,150 EST-SSRs were identified from 15,484 unigenes, and the characterizations of EST-SSRs were further compared with other four species in Fabraceae. 126 potential marker sites were randomly selected to validate the assembly quality and develop EST-SSR markers. Among the 9 germplasms in Caranaga Fabr. genus, PCR success rate were 93.7% and the phylogenic tree was constructed based on the genotypic data. This research generated a substantial fraction of transcriptome sequences, which were very useful resources for gene annotation and discovery, molecular markers development, genome assembly and annotation. The EST-SSR markers identified and developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding.

  4. Flavonoid Biosynthesis Genes Putatively Identified in the Aromatic Plant Polygonum minus via Expressed Sequences Tag (EST Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamri Zainal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available P. minus is an aromatic plant, the leaf of which is widely used as a food additive and in the perfume industry. The leaf also accumulates secondary metabolites that act as active ingredients such as flavonoid. Due to limited genomic and transcriptomic data, the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids is currently unclear. Identification of candidate genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway will significantly contribute to understanding the biosynthesis of active compounds. We have constructed a standard cDNA library from P. minus leaves, and two normalized full-length enriched cDNA libraries were constructed from stem and root organs in order to create a gene resource for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, especially flavonoid biosynthesis. Thus, large‑scale sequencing of P. minus cDNA libraries identified 4196 expressed sequences tags (ESTs which were deposited in dbEST in the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI. From the three constructed cDNA libraries, 11 ESTs encoding seven genes were mapped to the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Finally, three flavonoid biosynthetic pathway-related ESTs chalcone synthase, CHS (JG745304, flavonol synthase, FLS (JG705819 and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, LDOX (JG745247 were selected for further examination by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR in different P. minus organs. Expression was detected in leaf, stem and root. Gene expression studies have been initiated in order to better understand the underlying physiological processes.

  5. Identification of EST-SSRs in Taxus cuspidata based on high-throughput sequencing%基于高通量测序的红豆杉EST-SSRs标记研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼; 段小群; 陈旭; 肖培根

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Taxus species are highly valued for the production of taxol. Based on high-throughput sequenceing, EST-SSRs were explored and studied in the transcriptome of Taxus cuspidata. Method: T cuspidata leaf cDNA was extracted and se-quenced by 454 GS FLX Titanium. High-quality sequences were assembled using Newbler Assembler Software, which produced unique sequences. SSRs motif was explored using simple sequence repeat identification tool ( Perl Script). Primers were designed using PRIMERS. Result:A total of 81 148 high-quality reads from the needles of T. cuspidata were produced using the Roche GS FLX Titanium system. A total of 20 557 unique sequences were obtained. There were 753 simple sequence repeat motifs identified. Primers of PCR were obtained for 519 EST-SSRs, randomly selected cloning sequencing revealed that 87. 5% of ESTs were the same as the results of Sanger sequencing. Conclusion: The results provide the first EST-SSRs collection in Taxus and are essential for future efforts of gene discovery, functional genomics, and genome annotation in related species.%目的:利用高通量测序,对红豆杉Taxus cuspidata转录组进行EST-SSRs发掘和研究.方法:提取红豆杉叶片cDNA,应用454 GS FLX Titanium测序,采用Newbler Assembler Software软件对序列(high-quality sequences)进行从头拼接,获得一致性序列(unique sequences).用Simple Sequence Repeat Identification Tool (Perl Script)对一致性序列进行分析,检索SSRs模体;采用PRIMER3设计扩增引物.结果:高通量测序获得红豆杉81 148条ESTs,经拼接得到20 557条unique sequences,从中发现了753个EST-SSRs.依据其邻近序列设计引物,共有519条EST-SSRs获得了扩增引物.在红豆杉EST-SSRs中随机挑选序列构建小样本,克隆测序结果表明87.5%的序列与Sanger测序结果一致.结论:首次获得了红豆杉属EST-SSRs,为红豆杉的种质资源培育、功能基因及基因组差异研究奠定了基础.

  6. An expressed sequence tag (EST library for Drosophila serrata, a model system for sexual selection and climatic adaptation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGraw Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The native Australian fly Drosophila serrata belongs to the highly speciose montium subgroup of the melanogaster species group. It has recently emerged as an excellent model system with which to address a number of important questions, including the evolution of traits under sexual selection and traits involved in climatic adaptation along latitudinal gradients. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of such traits has been limited by a lack of genomic resources for this species. Here, we present the first expressed sequence tag (EST collection for D. serrata that will enable the identification of genes underlying sexually-selected phenotypes and physiological responses to environmental change and may help resolve controversial phylogenetic relationships within the montium subgroup. Results A normalized cDNA library was constructed from whole fly bodies at several developmental stages, including larvae and adults. Assembly of 11,616 clones sequenced from the 3' end allowed us to identify 6,607 unique contigs, of which at least 90% encoded peptides. Partial transcripts were discovered from a variety of genes of evolutionary interest by BLASTing contigs against the 12 Drosophila genomes currently sequenced. By incorporating into the cDNA library multiple individuals from populations spanning a large portion of the geographical range of D. serrata, we were able to identify 11,057 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, with 278 different contigs having at least one "double hit" SNP that is highly likely to be a real polymorphism. At least 394 EST-associated microsatellite markers, representing 355 different contigs, were also found, providing an additional set of genetic markers. The assembled EST library is available online at http://www.chenowethlab.org/serrata/index.cgi. Conclusion We have provided the first gene collection and largest set of polymorphic genetic markers, to date, for the fly D. serrata. The EST

  7. Comparative high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and development of SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marais Gabriel AB

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Silene is widely used as a model system for addressing ecological and evolutionary questions in plants, but advances in using the genus as a model system are impeded by the lack of available resources for studying its genome. Massively parallel sequencing cDNA has recently developed into an efficient method for characterizing the transcriptomes of non-model organisms, generating massive amounts of data that enable the study of multiple species in a comparative framework. The sequences generated provide an excellent resource for identifying expressed genes, characterizing functional variation and developing molecular markers, thereby laying the foundations for future studies on gene sequence and gene expression divergence. Here, we report the results of a comparative transcriptome sequencing study of eight individuals representing four Silene and one Dianthus species as outgroup. All sequences and annotations have been deposited in a newly developed and publicly available database called SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database. Results A total of 1,041,122 EST reads were generated in two runs on a Roche GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencing platform. EST reads were analyzed separately for all eight individuals sequenced and were assembled into contigs using TGICL. These were annotated with results from BLASTX searches and Gene Ontology (GO terms, and thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were characterized. Unassembled reads were kept as singletons and together with the contigs contributed to the unigenes characterized in each individual. The high quality of unigenes is evidenced by the proportion (49% that have significant hits in similarity searches with the A. thaliana proteome. The SiESTa database is accessible at http://www.siesta.ethz.ch. Conclusion The sequence collections established in the present study provide an important genomic resource for four Silene and one Dianthus species and will help to

  8. Transcriptome sequencing of mung bean (Vigna radiate L. genes and the identification of EST-SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Chen

    Full Text Available Mung bean (Vigna radiate (L. Wilczek is an important traditional food legume crop, with high economic and nutritional value. It is widely grown in China and other Asian countries. Despite its importance, genomic information is currently unavailable for this crop plant species or some of its close relatives in the Vigna genus. In this study, more than 103 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from mung bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The processed reads were assembled into 48,693 unigenes with an average length of 874 bp. Of these unigenes, 25,820 (53.0% and 23,235 (47.7% showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases, respectively. Furthermore, 19,242 (39.5% could be classified into gene ontology categories, 18,316 (37.6% into Swiss-Prot categories and 10,918 (22.4% into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5. A total of 6,585 (8.3% were mapped onto 244 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG pathway database. Among the unigenes, 10,053 sequences contained a unique simple sequence repeat (SSR, and 2,303 sequences contained more than one SSR together in the same expressed sequence tag (EST. A total of 13,134 EST-SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers, with mono-nucleotide A/T repeats being the most abundant motif class and G/C repeats being rare. In this SSR analysis, we found five main repeat motifs: AG/CT (30.8%, GAA/TTC (12.6%, AAAT/ATTT (6.8%, AAAAT/ATTTT (6.2% and AAAAAT/ATTTTT (1.9%. A total of 200 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by PCR amplification as EST-SSR markers. Of these, 66 marker primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 31 mung bean accessions selected from diverse geographical locations. The large number of SSR-containing sequences found in this study will be valuable for the construction of a high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association

  9. Characterization of a transcriptome from a non-model organism, Cladonia rangiferina, the grey reindeer lichen, using high-throughput next generation sequencing and EST sequence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junttila Sini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lichens are symbiotic organisms that have a remarkable ability to survive in some of the most extreme terrestrial climates on earth. Lichens can endure frequent desiccation and wetting cycles and are able to survive in a dehydrated molecular dormant state for decades at a time. Genetic resources have been established in lichen species for the study of molecular systematics and their taxonomic classification. No lichen species have been characterised yet using genomics and the molecular mechanisms underlying the lichen symbiosis and the fundamentals of desiccation tolerance remain undescribed. We report the characterisation of a transcriptome of the grey reindeer lichen, Cladonia rangiferina, using high-throughput next-generation transcriptome sequencing and traditional Sanger EST sequencing data. Results Altogether 243,729 high quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 16,204 contigs and 49,587 singletons. The genome of origin for the sequences produced was predicted using Eclat with sequences derived from the axenically grown symbiotic partners used as training sequences for the classification model. 62.8% of the sequences were classified as being of fungal origin while the remaining 37.2% were predicted as being of algal origin. The assembled sequences were annotated by BLASTX comparison against a non-redundant protein sequence database with 34.4% of the sequences having a BLAST match. 29.3% of the sequences had a Gene Ontology term match and 27.9% of the sequences had a domain or structural match following an InterPro search. 60 KEGG pathways with more than 10 associated sequences were identified. Conclusions Our results present a first transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly for a lichen species and describe the ongoing molecular processes and the most active pathways in C. rangiferina. This brings a meaningful contribution to publicly available lichen sequence information. These data provide a first

  10. Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Development of EST-SSR Markers for Pinus koraiensis%红松转录组SSR分析及EST-SSR标记开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振; 张含国; 莫迟; 张磊

    2015-01-01

    ) breeding programs,lack of co-dominant genetic markers constrained the development of molecular marker assisted breeding. At present,development of SSR markers based on transcriptome data is still an economic and efficient development strategy of DNA molecular markers. In this study,we used high-throughput sequencing technology to develop EST-SSR markers for Korean pine. Distribution patterns of the markers in the transcriptome sequences and their characteristics were analyzed,in order to provide a basis for analysis of SSR diversity and mutation of Korean pine. [Method]A total of 1 757 SSR sites were identified from 41 476 unigenes in Korean pine transcriptome by using SSR searching program. Statistical analyses were conducted for number,distribution and characteristics of the SSR loci. And 101 pairs of SSR primers were designed and synthesized. Agarose electrophoresis was used for initial check and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for separation and detection of the polymorphisms of primers. Then amplification products were collected and sequenced for validation. Finally,16 pairs of SSR primers and 6 pairs of fluorescence primers were identified. To study the genetic variation,53 samples of open-pollinated progeny were collected from four seed orchards respectively in Hegang,Linkou,Tieli and Weihe. [Result]The distribution frequency of EST-SSRs ( ratio of the number of SSRs to the total number of unigenes) was 4. 24%,based on the transcriptome sequences. Mononucleotide dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats were 46. 90% ,17. 12% and 34. 66% of total SSR, respectively. The SSR repeat number of SSR repeat units was between 5 and 24. Twenty-one pairs of primers showed polymorphism among 101 pairs of primer,which accounting for 20. 8% of the total number of primer pairs. By sequencing validation,16 pairs of primers amplified the target sequence. Eighteen alleles were tested from 6 pairs of fluorescence primers. Polymorphic information content ( PIC) was 0. 036 3 - 0. 667 4

  11. A deep sequencing analysis of transcriptomes and the development of EST-SSR markers in mungbean (Vigna radiata)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHANGYOU LIU; BAOJIE FAN; ZHIMIN CAO; QIUZHU SU; YAN WANG; ZHIXIAO ZHANG; JING WU; JING TIAN

    2016-09-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is one of the most important leguminous food crops in Asia. We employed Illumina paired-end sequencing to analyse transcriptomes of three different mungbean genotypes. A total of 38.3–39.8 million paired-end reads with 73 bp lengths were generated. The pooled reads from the three libraries were assembled into 56,471 transcripts. Following a cluster analysis, 43,293 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 739 bp and N50 length of 1176 bp. Of the unigenes, 34,903 (80.6%) had significant similarity to known proteins in the NCBI nonredundant protein database (Nr), while 21,450 (58.4%) had BLAST hits in the Swiss-Prot database (E-value < 10⁻⁵). Further, 1245 differential expression genes were detected among three mungbean genotypes. In addition, we identified 3788 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) motifs that could be used as potential molecular markers. Among 320 tested loci, 310 (96.5%) yielded amplification products, and 151 (47.0%) exhibited polymorphisms among six mungbean accessions. These transcriptome data and mungbean EST-SSRs could serve as a valuable resource for novel gene discovery and the marker-assisted selective breeding of this specie

  12. Genetic Diversity in Lens Species Revealed by EST and Genomic Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Kumar Dikshit

    Full Text Available Low productivity of pilosae type lentils grown in South Asia is attributed to narrow genetic base of the released cultivars which results in susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. For enhancement of productivity and production, broadening of genetic base is essentially required. The genetic base of released cultivars can be broadened by using diverse types including bold seeded and early maturing lentils from Mediterranean region and related wild species. Genetic diversity in eighty six accessions of three species of genus Lens was assessed based on twelve genomic and thirty one EST-SSR markers. The evaluated set of genotypes included diverse lentil varieties and advanced breeding lines from Indian programme, two early maturing ICARDA lines and five related wild subspecies/species endemic to the Mediterranean region. Genomic SSRs exhibited higher polymorphism in comparison to EST SSRs. GLLC 598 produced 5 alleles with highest gene diversity value of 0.80. Among the studied subspecies/species 43 SSRs detected maximum number of alleles in L. orientalis. Based on Nei's genetic distance cultivated lentil L. culinaris subsp. culinaris was found to be close to its wild progenitor L. culinaris subsp. orientalis. The Prichard's structure of 86 genotypes distinguished different subspecies/species. Higher variability was recorded among individuals within population than among populations.

  13. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from multiple tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Weng-Wah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the second largest source of edible oil which contributes to approximately 20% of the world's production of oils and fats. In order to understand the molecular biology involved in in vitro propagation, flowering, efficient utilization of nitrogen sources and root diseases, we have initiated an expressed sequence tag (EST analysis on oil palm. Results In this study, six cDNA libraries from oil palm zygotic embryos, suspension cells, shoot apical meristems, young flowers, mature flowers and roots, were constructed. We have generated a total of 14537 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from these libraries, from which 6464 tentative unique contigs (TUCs and 2129 singletons were obtained. Approximately 6008 of these tentative unique genes (TUGs have significant matches to the non-redundant protein database, from which 2361 were assigned to one or more Gene Ontology categories. Predominant transcripts and differentially expressed genes were identified in multiple oil palm tissues. Homologues of genes involved in many aspects of flower development were also identified among the EST collection, such as CONSTANS-like, AGAMOUS-like (AGL2, AGL20, LFY-like, SQUAMOSA, SQUAMOSA binding protein (SBP etc. Majority of them are the first representatives in oil palm, providing opportunities to explore the cause of epigenetic homeotic flowering abnormality in oil palm, given the importance of flowering in fruit production. The transcript levels of two flowering-related genes, EgSBP and EgSEP were analysed in the flower tissues of various developmental stages. Gene homologues for enzymes involved in oil biosynthesis, utilization of nitrogen sources, and scavenging of oxygen radicals, were also uncovered among the oil palm ESTs. Conclusion The EST sequences generated will allow comparative genomic studies between oil palm and other monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, development of gene-targeted markers for the reference genetic map

  14. Refined annotation and assembly of the Tetrahymena thermophila genome sequence through EST analysis, comparative genomic hybridization, and targeted gap closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Suzanne R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetrahymena thermophila, a widely studied model for cellular and molecular biology, is a binucleated single-celled organism with a germline micronucleus (MIC and somatic macronucleus (MAC. The recent draft MAC genome assembly revealed low sequence repetitiveness, a result of the epigenetic removal of invasive DNA elements found only in the MIC genome. Such low repetitiveness makes complete closure of the MAC genome a feasible goal, which to achieve would require standard closure methods as well as removal of minor MIC contamination of the MAC genome assembly. Highly accurate preliminary annotation of Tetrahymena's coding potential was hindered by the lack of both comparative genomic sequence information from close relatives and significant amounts of cDNA evidence, thus limiting the value of the genomic information and also leaving unanswered certain questions, such as the frequency of alternative splicing. Results We addressed the problem of MIC contamination using comparative genomic hybridization with purified MIC and MAC DNA probes against a whole genome oligonucleotide microarray, allowing the identification of 763 genome scaffolds likely to contain MIC-limited DNA sequences. We also employed standard genome closure methods to essentially finish over 60% of the MAC genome. For the improvement of annotation, we have sequenced and analyzed over 60,000 verified EST reads from a variety of cellular growth and development conditions. Using this EST evidence, a combination of automated and manual reannotation efforts led to updates that affect 16% of the current protein-coding gene models. By comparing EST abundance, many genes showing apparent differential expression between these conditions were identified. Rare instances of alternative splicing and uses of the non-standard amino acid selenocysteine were also identified. Conclusion We report here significant progress in genome closure and reannotation of Tetrahymena

  15. EST sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search) - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available and VS) derived from five developmental stages. Clone ID ID of cDNA clone Atlas ID ID of Atlas database ( ht...tp://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~tools/bin/ISH/index.html ) and link to Atlas database NBRP ID ID of cDNA c...ir annotations (amino acid sequence, homology search results (with target DBs: dicty EST-DB, DNA-DB and prot...ein-DB)). Links to the Atlas database ( http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~tools/bin/ISH/index.html ), whic

  16. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs between drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes of chickpea under terminal drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju N L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important grain-legume crop that is mainly grown in rainfed areas, where terminal drought is a major constraint to its productivity. We generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH to identify differentially expressed genes in drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes in chickpea. Results EST libraries were generated by SSH from root and shoot tissues of IC4958 (drought tolerant and ICC 1882 (drought resistant exposed to terminal drought conditions by the dry down method. SSH libraries were also constructed by using 2 sets of bulks prepared from the RNA of root tissues from selected recombinant inbred lines (RILs (10 each for the extreme high and low root biomass phenotype. A total of 3062 unigenes (638 contigs and 2424 singletons, 51.4% of which were novel in chickpea, were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 5949 ESTs. Only 2185 (71% unigenes showed significant BLASTX similarity ( Conclusion Our study compares not only genes that are up- and down-regulated in a drought-tolerant genotype under terminal drought stress and a drought susceptible genotype but also between the bulks of the selected RILs exhibiting extreme phenotypes. More than 50% of the genes identified have been shown to be associated with drought stress in chickpea for the first time. This study not only serves as resource for marker discovery, but can provide a better insight into the selection of candidate genes (both up- and downregulated associated with drought tolerance. These results can be used to identify suitable targets for manipulating the drought-tolerance trait in chickpea.

  17. Veronica: Chemical characters for the support of phylogenetic relationships based on nuclear ribosomal and plastid DNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Özgökce, Fevzi;

    2005-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed many relationships in Veronica (Plantaginaceae) never anticipated before. However, phytochemical characters show good congruence with DNA-based analyses. We have analysed a combined data set of 49 species and subspecies derived from the nuclear...

  18. An expressed sequence tag (EST) library from developing fruits of an Hawaiian endemic mint (Stenogyne rugosa, Lamiaceae): characterization and microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Leebens-Mack James H; Oppenheimer David G; Yoo Mi-Jeong; Grey Paris; Scheen Anne-Cathrine; Lindqvist Charlotte; Soltis Douglas E; Soltis Pamela S; Albert Victor A

    2006-01-01

    Background The endemic Hawaiian mints represent a major island radiation that likely originated from hybridization between two North American polyploid lineages. In contrast with the extensive morphological and ecological diversity among taxa, ribosomal DNA sequence variation has been found to be remarkably low. In the past few years, expressed sequence tag (EST) projects on plant species have generated a vast amount of publicly available sequence data that can be mined for...

  19. Unraveling new genes associated with seed development and metabolism in Bixa orellana L. by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Virgínia L F; Rodrigues, Simone M; de Oliveira, Tahise M; de Queiroz, Talisson O; Lima, Lívia S; Hora-Júnior, Braz T; Gramacho, Karina P; Micheli, Fabienne; Cascardo, Júlio C M; Otoni, Wagner C; Gesteira, Abelmon S; Costa, Marcio G C

    2011-02-01

    The tropical tree Bixa orellana L. produces a range of secondary metabolites which biochemical and molecular biosynthesis basis are not well understood. In this work we have characterized a set of ESTs from a non-normalized cDNA library of B. orellana seeds to obtain information about the main developmental and metabolic processes taking place in developing seeds and their associated genes. After sequencing a set of randomly selected clones, most of the sequences were assigned with putative functions based on similarity, GO annotations and protein domains. The most abundant transcripts encoded proteins associated with cell wall (prolyl 4-hydroxylase), fatty acid (acyl carrier protein), and hormone/flavonoid (2OG-Fe oxygenase) synthesis, germination (MADS FLC-like protein) and embryo development (AP2/ERF transcription factor) regulation, photosynthesis (chlorophyll a-b binding protein), cell elongation (MAP65-1a), and stress responses (metallothionein- and thaumatin-like proteins). Enzymes were assigned to 16 different metabolic pathways related to both primary and secondary metabolisms. Characterization of two candidate genes of the bixin biosynthetic pathway, BoCCD and BoOMT, showed that they belong, respectively, to the carotenoid-cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) families, and are up-regulated during seed development. It indicates their involvement in the synthesis of this commercially important carotenoid pigment in seeds of B. orellana. Most of the genes identified here are the first representatives of their gene families in B. orellana. PMID:20563648

  20. A second generation framework for the analysis of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags and the development of EST-SSR markers for a conifer, Cryptomeria japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno Saneyoshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs in expressed sequence tags (ESTs are useful resources for genome analysis because of their abundance, functionality and polymorphism. The advent of commercial second generation sequencing machines has lead to new strategies for developing EST-SSR markers, necessitating the development of bioinformatic framework that can keep pace with the increasing quality and quantity of sequence data produced. We describe an open scheme for analyzing ESTs and developing EST-SSR markers from reads collected by Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica. Results We collected 141,097 sequence reads by Sanger sequencing and 1,333,444 by pyrosequencing. After trimming contaminant and low quality sequences, 118,319 Sanger and 1,201,150 pyrosequencing reads were passed to the MIRA assembler, generating 81,284 contigs that were analysed for SSRs. 4,059 SSRs were found in 3,694 (4.54% contigs, giving an SSR frequency lower than that in seven other plant species with gene indices (5.4–21.9%. The average GC content of the SSR-containing contigs was 41.55%, compared to 40.23% for all contigs. Tri-SSRs were the most common SSRs; the most common motif was AT, which was found in 655 (46.3% di-SSRs, followed by the AAG motif, found in 342 (25.9% tri-SSRs. Most (72.8% tri-SSRs were in coding regions, but 55.6% of the di-SSRs were in non-coding regions; the AT motif was most abundant in 3′ untranslated regions. Gene ontology (GO annotations showed that six GO terms were significantly overrepresented within SSR-containing contigs. Forty–four EST-SSR markers were developed from 192 primer pairs using two pipelines: read2Marker and the newly-developed CMiB, which combines several open tools. Markers resulting from both pipelines showed no differences in PCR success rate and polymorphisms, but PCR success and polymorphism were significantly affected by the expected PCR product size

  1. Gene discovery in EST sequences from the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina sexual spores, asexual spores and haustoria, compared to other rust and corn smut fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynhoven Brian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rust fungi are biotrophic basidiomycete plant pathogens that cause major diseases on plants and trees world-wide, affecting agriculture and forestry. Their biotrophic nature precludes many established molecular genetic manipulations and lines of research. The generation of genomic resources for these microbes is leading to novel insights into biology such as interactions with the hosts and guiding directions for breakthrough research in plant pathology. Results To support gene discovery and gene model verification in the genome of the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt, we have generated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs by sampling several life cycle stages. We focused on several spore stages and isolated haustorial structures from infected wheat, generating 17,684 ESTs. We produced sequences from both the sexual (pycniospores, aeciospores and teliospores and asexual (germinated urediniospores stages of the life cycle. From pycniospores and aeciospores, produced by infecting the alternate host, meadow rue (Thalictrum speciosissimum, 4,869 and 1,292 reads were generated, respectively. We generated 3,703 ESTs from teliospores produced on the senescent primary wheat host. Finally, we generated 6,817 reads from haustoria isolated from infected wheat as well as 1,003 sequences from germinated urediniospores. Along with 25,558 previously generated ESTs, we compiled a database of 13,328 non-redundant sequences (4,506 singlets and 8,822 contigs. Fungal genes were predicted using the EST version of the self-training GeneMarkS algorithm. To refine the EST database, we compared EST sequences by BLASTN to a set of 454 pyrosequencing-generated contigs and Sanger BAC-end sequences derived both from the Pt genome, and to ESTs and genome reads from wheat. A collection of 6,308 fungal genes was identified and compared to sequences of the cereal rusts, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt and stripe rust, P. striiformis f. sp

  2. Generation and analysis of large-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a full-length enriched cDNA library of porcine backfat tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hae-Young

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome research in farm animals will expand our basic knowledge of the genetic control of complex traits, and the results will be applied in the livestock industry to improve meat quality and productivity, as well as to reduce the incidence of disease. A combination of quantitative trait locus mapping and microarray analysis is a useful approach to reduce the overall effort needed to identify genes associated with quantitative traits of interest. Results We constructed a full-length enriched cDNA library from porcine backfat tissue. The estimated average size of the cDNA inserts was 1.7 kb, and the cDNA fullness ratio was 70%. In total, we deposited 16,110 high-quality sequences in the dbEST division of GenBank (accession numbers: DT319652-DT335761. For all the expressed sequence tags (ESTs, approximately 10.9 Mb of porcine sequence were generated with an average length of 674 bp per EST (range: 200–952 bp. Clustering and assembly of these ESTs resulted in a total of 5,008 unique sequences with 1,776 contigs (35.46% and 3,232 singleton (65.54% ESTs. From a total of 5,008 unique sequences, 3,154 (62.98% were similar to other sequences, and 1,854 (37.02% were identified as having no hit or low identity (Sus scrofa. Gene ontology (GO annotation of unique sequences showed that approximately 31.7, 32.3, and 30.8% were assigned molecular function, biological process, and cellular component GO terms, respectively. A total of 1,854 putative novel transcripts resulted after comparison and filtering with the TIGR SsGI; these included a large percentage of singletons (80.64% and a small proportion of contigs (13.36%. Conclusion The sequence data generated in this study will provide valuable information for studying expression profiles using EST-based microarrays and assist in the condensation of current pig TCs into clusters representing longer stretches of cDNA sequences. The isolation of genes expressed in backfat tissue is the

  3. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Camelina sativa to mine drought stress-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, Bashistha Kumar; Kumari, Shipra; Choi, Seo Hee; Ha, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Geung-Joo

    2015-11-01

    Camelina sativa is an oil-producing crop belonging to the family of Brassicaceae. Due to exceptionally high content of omega fatty acid, it is commercially grown around the world as edible oil, biofuel, and animal feed. A commonly referred 'false flax' or gold-of-pleasure Camelina sativa has been interested as one of biofuel feedstocks. The species can grow on marginal land due to its superior drought tolerance with low requirement of agricultural inputs. This crop has been unexploited due to very limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Use of gene-specific molecular markers is an important strategy for new cultivar development in breeding program. In this study, Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools were used to obtain expression profiling of genes responding to drought stress in Camelina sativa BN14. A total of more than 60,000 loci were assembled, corresponding to approximately 275 K transcripts. When the species was exposed to 10 kPa drought stress, 100 kPa drought stress, and rehydrated conditions, a total of 107, 2,989, and 982 genes, respectively, were up-regulated, while 146, 3,659, and 1189 genes, respectively, were down-regulated compared to control condition. Some unknown genes were found to be highly expressed under drought conditions, together with some already reported gene families such as senescence-associated genes, CAP160, and LEA under 100 kPa soil water condition, cysteine protease, 2OG, Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase, and RAD-like 1 under rehydrated condition. These genes will be further validated and mapped to determine their function and loci. This EST library will be favorably applied to develop gene-specific molecular markers and discover genes responsible for drought tolerance in Camelina species. PMID:26410535

  4. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Actinidia: applications of a cross species EST database for gene discovery in the areas of flavor, health, color and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp. are a relatively new, but economically important crop grown in many different parts of the world. Commercial success is driven by the development of new cultivars with novel consumer traits including flavor, appearance, healthful components and convenience. To increase our understanding of the genetic diversity and gene-based control of these key traits in Actinidia, we have produced a collection of 132,577 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results The ESTs were derived mainly from four Actinidia species (A. chinensis, A. deliciosa, A. arguta and A. eriantha and fell into 41,858 non redundant clusters (18,070 tentative consensus sequences and 23,788 EST singletons. Analysis of flavor and fragrance-related gene families (acyltransferases and carboxylesterases and pathways (terpenoid biosynthesis is presented in comparison with a chemical analysis of the compounds present in Actinidia including esters, acids, alcohols and terpenes. ESTs are identified for most genes in color pathways controlling chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid biosynthesis. In the health area, data are presented on the ESTs involved in ascorbic acid and quinic acid biosynthesis showing not only that genes for many of the steps in these pathways are represented in the database, but that genes encoding some critical steps are absent. In the convenience area, genes related to different stages of fruit softening are identified. Conclusion This large EST resource will allow researchers to undertake the tremendous challenge of understanding the molecular basis of genetic diversity in the Actinidia genus as well as provide an EST resource for comparative fruit genomics. The various bioinformatics analyses we have undertaken demonstrates the extent of coverage of ESTs for genes encoding different biochemical pathways in Actinidia.

  5. Deep sequencing of ESTs from nacreous and prismatic layer producing tissues and a screen for novel shell formation-related genes in the pearl oyster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Kinoshita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its economic importance, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying shell formation in pearl oysters, wherein the calcium carbonate crystals, nacre and prism, are formed in a highly controlled manner. We constructed comprehensive expressed gene profiles in the shell-forming tissues of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and identified novel shell formation-related genes candidates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the GS FLX 454 system and constructed transcriptome data sets from pallial mantle and pearl sac, which form the nacreous layer, and from the mantle edge, which forms the prismatic layer in P. fucata. We sequenced 260477 reads and obtained 29682 unique sequences. We also screened novel nacreous and prismatic gene candidates by a combined analysis of sequence and expression data sets, and identified various genes encoding lectin, protease, protease inhibitors, lysine-rich matrix protein, and secreting calcium-binding proteins. We also examined the expression of known nacreous and prismatic genes in our EST library and identified novel isoforms with tissue-specific expressions. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed EST data sets from the nacre- and prism-producing tissues in P. fucata and found 29682 unique sequences containing novel gene candidates for nacreous and prismatic layer formation. This is the first report of deep sequencing of ESTs in the shell-forming tissues of P. fucata and our data provide a powerful tool for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of molluscan biomineralization.

  6. 基于字序列标注的中文关键词抽取研究%Research on Chinese Keywords Extraction Based on Characters Sequence Annotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 邓三鸿; 苏新宁

    2011-01-01

    以某大学图书馆的所有馆藏书目为研究对象,在对图书关键词标引信息进行分析的基础上,总结中文关键词的基本特点及其抽取规律,构建一个基于字序列标注的中文关键词抽取模型,提出中文关键词抽取的基础思路和实现方案,并通过实验论证模型的合理性、正确性和实用性,认为字序列标注方法优于词序列标注,基本上可以解决不分词情况下的中文关键词抽取问题。%Based on the whole Chinese booklist of a certain university library as well as the analysis of its book indexing information, the paper summarizes the features and extracting laws of Chinese keywords, and establishes a Chinese key- words extraction model based on characters sequence annotation, which proposes the basic idea and implementation scheme for extracting keywords. It verifies the feasibility, rationality and practicality of the model by large - scale experiments, and basically solves the problems of Chinese keywords extraction without executing words segmentation, which shows that characters sequence annotation is better than words sequence annotation.

  7. An expressed sequence tag (EST library from developing fruits of an Hawaiian endemic mint (Stenogyne rugosa, Lamiaceae: characterization and microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leebens-Mack James H

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic Hawaiian mints represent a major island radiation that likely originated from hybridization between two North American polyploid lineages. In contrast with the extensive morphological and ecological diversity among taxa, ribosomal DNA sequence variation has been found to be remarkably low. In the past few years, expressed sequence tag (EST projects on plant species have generated a vast amount of publicly available sequence data that can be mined for simple sequence repeats (SSRs. However, these EST projects have largely focused on crop or otherwise economically important plants, and so far only few studies have been published on the use of intragenic SSRs in natural plant populations. We constructed an EST library from developing fleshy nutlets of Stenogyne rugosa principally to identify genetic markers for the Hawaiian endemic mints. Results The Stenogyne fruit EST library consisted of 628 unique transcripts derived from 942 high quality ESTs, with 68% of unigenes matching Arabidopsis genes. Relative frequencies of Gene Ontology functional categories were broadly representative of the Arabidopsis proteome. Many unigenes were identified as putative homologs of genes that are active during plant reproductive development. A comparison between unigenes from Stenogyne and tomato (both asterid angiosperms revealed many homologs that may be relevant for fruit development. Among the 628 unigenes, a total of 44 potentially useful microsatellite loci were predicted. Several of these were successfully tested for cross-transferability to other Hawaiian mint species, and at least five of these demonstrated interesting patterns of polymorphism across a large sample of Hawaiian mints as well as close North American relatives in the genus Stachys. Conclusion Analysis of this relatively small EST library illustrated a broad GO functional representation. Many unigenes could be annotated to involvement in reproductive development

  8. Genomic resources for a commercial flatfish, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis: EST sequencing, oligo microarray design, and development of the Soleamold bioinformatic platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planas Josep V

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, is a highly prized flatfish of growing commercial interest for aquaculture in Southern Europe. However, despite the industrial production of Senegalese sole being hampered primarily by lack of information on the physiological mechanisms involved in reproduction, growth and immunity, very limited genomic information is available on this species. Results Sequencing of a S. senegalensis multi-tissue normalized cDNA library, from adult tissues (brain, stomach, intestine, liver, ovary, and testis, larval stages (pre-metamorphosis, metamorphosis, juvenile stages (post-metamorphosis, abnormal fish, and undifferentiated gonads, generated 10,185 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Clones were sequenced from the 3'-end to identify isoform specific sequences. Assembly of the entire EST collection into contigs gave 5,208 unique sequences of which 1,769 (34% had matches in GenBank, thus showing a low level of redundancy. The sequence of the 5,208 unigenes was used to design and validate an oligonucleotide microarray representing 5,087 unique Senegalese sole transcripts. Finally, a novel interactive bioinformatic platform, Soleamold, was developed for the Senegalese sole EST collection as well as microarray and ISH data. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for S. senegalensis, an economically important fish in aquaculture, which include a collection of expressed genes, an oligonucleotide microarray, and a publicly available bioinformatic platform that can be used to study gene expression in this species. These resources will help elucidate transcriptional regulation in wild and captive Senegalese sole for optimization of its production under intensive culture conditions.

  9. Genomic resources for a commercial flatfish, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): EST sequencing, oligo microarray design, and development of the Soleamold bioinformatic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Joan; Mercadé, Jaume; Lozano, Juan José; Manchado, Manuel; Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Astola, Antonio; Infante, Carlos; Halm, Silke; Viñas, Jordi; Castellana, Barbara; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, Pedro; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Piferrer, Francesc; Planas, Josep V; Prat, Francesc; Yúfera, Manuel; Durany, Olga; Subirada, Francesc; Rosell, Elisabet; Maes, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Background The Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, is a highly prized flatfish of growing commercial interest for aquaculture in Southern Europe. However, despite the industrial production of Senegalese sole being hampered primarily by lack of information on the physiological mechanisms involved in reproduction, growth and immunity, very limited genomic information is available on this species. Results Sequencing of a S. senegalensis multi-tissue normalized cDNA library, from adult tissues (brain, stomach, intestine, liver, ovary, and testis), larval stages (pre-metamorphosis, metamorphosis), juvenile stages (post-metamorphosis, abnormal fish), and undifferentiated gonads, generated 10,185 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Clones were sequenced from the 3'-end to identify isoform specific sequences. Assembly of the entire EST collection into contigs gave 5,208 unique sequences of which 1,769 (34%) had matches in GenBank, thus showing a low level of redundancy. The sequence of the 5,208 unigenes was used to design and validate an oligonucleotide microarray representing 5,087 unique Senegalese sole transcripts. Finally, a novel interactive bioinformatic platform, Soleamold, was developed for the Senegalese sole EST collection as well as microarray and ISH data. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for S. senegalensis, an economically important fish in aquaculture, which include a collection of expressed genes, an oligonucleotide microarray, and a publicly available bioinformatic platform that can be used to study gene expression in this species. These resources will help elucidate transcriptional regulation in wild and captive Senegalese sole for optimization of its production under intensive culture conditions. PMID:18973667

  10. Discovery and analysis of Rosa rugosa EST-SNP site based on EST sequences%基于EST序列的玫瑰EST-SNP位点发掘与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁芳; 张继; 吕平; 龙凌云; 黄惠芳; 檀小辉; 韦丽君

    2016-01-01

    [目的]发掘出一批玫瑰SNP候选位点,为进一步开发玫瑰EST-SNP标记及研究玫瑰遗传背景、相关性状的分子标记等打下基础.[方法]从美国国立生物技术信息中心(NCBI)的dbEST数据库下载27125条玫瑰EST序列,经生物信息学方法分析,发掘玫瑰EST-SNP位点,并对其所在核苷酸序列进行功能注释分析.[结果]对27125条EST进行拼接,共得到3544条重叠群(Contigs),其中有243个Contigs含有SNP候选位点.从中筛选出224个候选EST-SNP位点,其碱基突变类型中转换和颠换的数量分别占SNP候选位点总数的59.8%和27.2%.通过序列比对分析,发现有22个SNP位点来源于蔷薇科植物(与玫瑰同科),其中来源于野草莓的基因最多(8个),另有15个SNP位点所在的EST序列与某些软体动物门物种的基因具有较高同源性.[结论]NCBI中的玫瑰EST数据库数据庞大,足够发掘出大量的SNP标记,使得以EST-SNP对蔷薇科玫瑰等植物进行品种鉴定、分类、遗传多样性分析具有可行性.

  11. Differential characters

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Providing a systematic introduction to differential characters as introduced by Cheeger and Simons, this text describes important concepts such as fiber integration, higher dimensional holonomy, transgression, and the product structure in a geometric manner. Differential characters form a model of what is nowadays called differential cohomology, which is the mathematical structure behind the higher gauge theories in physics.  

  12. Chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Oedogonium cardiacum (Chlorophyceae: Unique genome architecture, derived characters shared with the Chaetophorales and novel genes acquired through horizontal transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Claude

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain insight into the branching order of the five main lineages currently recognized in the green algal class Chlorophyceae and to expand our understanding of chloroplast genome evolution, we have undertaken the sequencing of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA from representative taxa. The complete cpDNA sequences previously reported for Chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonadales, Scenedesmus (Sphaeropleales, and Stigeoclonium (Chaetophorales revealed tremendous variability in their architecture, the retention of only few ancestral gene clusters, and derived clusters shared by Chlamydomonas and Scenedesmus. Unexpectedly, our recent phylogenies inferred from these cpDNAs and the partial sequences of three other chlorophycean cpDNAs disclosed two major clades, one uniting the Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales (CS clade and the other uniting the Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales (OCC clade. Although molecular signatures provided strong support for this dichotomy and for the branching of the Oedogoniales as the earliest-diverging lineage of the OCC clade, more data are required to validate these phylogenies. We describe here the complete cpDNA sequence of Oedogonium cardiacum (Oedogoniales. Results Like its three chlorophycean homologues, the 196,547-bp Oedogonium chloroplast genome displays a distinctive architecture. This genome is one of the most compact among photosynthetic chlorophytes. It has an atypical quadripartite structure, is intron-rich (17 group I and 4 group II introns, and displays 99 different conserved genes and four long open reading frames (ORFs, three of which are clustered in the spacious inverted repeat of 35,493 bp. Intriguingly, two of these ORFs (int and dpoB revealed high similarities to genes not usually found in cpDNA. At the gene content and gene order levels, the Oedogonium genome most closely resembles its Stigeoclonium counterpart. Characters shared by these chlorophyceans but missing in members

  13. Analysis of SSR characteristics in EST sequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacg.)%油棕EST序列中SSR的分布特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春太; 陈青; 刘锐; 李维国

    2012-01-01

    In order to make full use of the EST resources in the present public database to develop the EST -SSR primers, in this study, 39 227 ESTs of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacg. ) from GenBank database were downloaded and analyzed, resulting in 15 716 non - redundant sequences with total length about 7 977. 734 kb. 699 SSRs were discovered, the frequency of these EST - SSRs was 4.45% and the mean distance was 11.41 kb in non - redundant ESTs. Among them the dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats were dominant types, accounting for 38.48% and 25. 32% respectively. AG/CT was repeated most in all nucleotide repeat motifs, accounting for 27. 47% . Blast analysis showed that 44. 95% of SSR - ESTs were homologous with functional gene in non - redundant protein sequences databases ( Nr database). The homology with known functions from Vitis vinifera had the greatest proportion and reached up to 4.42%. Simultaneously, the functional classification of 54 SSR -ESTs as made by GO system, of which 46 were found in the Nr and EST database, and the other 8 showed no homology. These ESTs can be divided into 18 functional subclasses, and the functional items and SSR -ESTs relevant to binding presented higher quantity than all other functional subclasses. The function of other 580 ESTs was not researched.%为充分利用现有公共数据库中的EST资源开发EST - SSR引物,本研究从GenBank数据库获取39 227条油棕EST,通过聚类拼接和处理,得到全长为7 977.734 kb的无冗余序列15 716条.在这些序列中共检索出699个SSRs,检出率为4.45%,平均11.41 kb出现1个SSR,包括99种重复基元.其中,二核苷酸和三核苷酸重复是主要的类型,分别占总SSRs的38.48%和25.32%.在所有的核苷酸重复基序中,二核苷酸重复序列AG/CT所占比例最高,约占27.47%.Blastx分析发现44.95%的SSR - ESTs与非冗余蛋白质序列数据库(nr)中功能基因同源,功能已知的蛋白质中葡萄来源的SSR - ESTs

  14. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz Ruth A; Lew Sergio; Hopp H; Paniego Norma; Fernández Paula

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative str...

  15. Exploiting EST databases for the mining and characterization of short sequence repeat (SSR) markers in Catharanthus roseus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Kar, Basudeba; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2011-01-01

    Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.) (Family: Apocyanaceae) is a ornamental plants with great medicinal properties. Although it is represented by seven species, little work has been carried out on its genetic characterization due to non-availability of reliable molecular markers. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been widely applied as molecular markers in genetic studies. With the rapid increase in the deposition of nucleotide sequences in the public databases and advent of bioinformatics t...

  16. EST sequencing and gene expression profiling of defence-related genes from Persea americana infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahomed Waheed

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avocado (Persea americana belongs to the Lauraceae family and is an important commercial fruit crop in over 50 countries. The most serious pathogen affecting avocado production is Phytophthora cinnamomi which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR. Root pathogens such as P. cinnamomi and their interactions with hosts are poorly understood and despite the importance of both the avocado crop and the effect Phytophthora has on its cultivation, there is a lack of molecular knowledge underpinning our understanding of defence strategies against the pathogen. In order to initiate a better understanding of host-specific defence we have generated EST data using 454 pyrosequencing and profiled nine defence-related genes from Pc-infected avocado roots. Results 2.0 Mb of data was generated consisting of ~10,000 reads on a single lane of the GS FLX platform. Using the Newbler assembler 371 contigs were assembled, of which 367 are novel for Persea americana. Genes were classified according to Gene Ontology terms. In addition to identifying root-specific ESTs we were also able to identify and quantify the expression of nine defence-related genes that were differentially regulated in response to P. cinnamomi. Genes such as metallothionein, thaumatin and the pathogenesis related PsemI, mlo and profilin were found to be differentially regulated. Conclusions This is the first study in elucidating the avocado root transcriptome as well as identifying defence responses of avocado roots to the root pathogen P. cinnamomi. Our data is currently the only EST data that has been generated for avocado rootstocks, and the ESTs identified in this study have already been useful in identifying defence-related genes as well as providing gene information for other studies looking at processes such as ROS regulation as well as hypoxia in avocado roots. Our EST data will aid in the elucidation of the avocado transcriptome and identification of markers for improved

  17. Exploiting Illumina Sequencing for the Development of 95 Novel Polymorphic EST-SSR Markers in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa, a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  18. 中华蜜蜂工蜂 cDNA 文库的构建及ESTs 测序分析%Construction of cDNA libraries and ESTs sequencing of Apis cerana cerana workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫星; 郗学鹏; 秦明; 王帅; 刘春蕾; 王红芳; 胥保华

    2016-01-01

    Objectives] To build a cDNA library to improve understanding of how honey bee workers respond to adverse conditions and analyze the quality of the resultant library. [Methods] A cDNA library of Apis cerana cerana was constructed using the SMART technique. [Results] The library’s capacity was 3.6×106 cfu/mL, the recombination rate was 97% and the average length of inserts was approximately 1 000 bp. 306 ESTs were generated by ESTs sequencing. Additionally, 234 non-repetitive sequences were formed, including 207 singletons and 27 contigs after initial assembly. Using Blastx to query, compare and annotate these sequences with those in GenBank, revealed that 141 sequences could be assigned putative functions because they were homologous to known genes. Other sequences had no obvious homology, which suggests there is potential for the discovery of new functional genes. [Conclusion] The construction of a cDNA library has important benefits for cloning, screening and gene function research in Apis cerana cerana.%【目的】为了解中华蜜蜂 Apis cerana cerana 工蜂的抗逆性,构建了中华蜜蜂工蜂的 cDNA 文库,并对文库质量进行分析。【方法】本研究利用 SMART 技术构建了中华蜜蜂工蜂的全长 cDNA 文库。【结果】文库库容为3.6×106 cfu/mL,文库重组率为97%,插入片段长度多数分布在1000 bp 左右。挑取 cDNA克隆进行 EST 测序,共进行了306个成功反应,软件拼接共得到234个单基因簇(Unigene),其中包括207个单拷贝(Singletons)序列及27个重叠群(Contigs)。使用 Blastx 将这些序列同 GenBank 等数据库进行查询、比对和注释,结果显示141条序列有相关同源性,其他序列没有明显的同源性,这也为我们发现新功能基因提供了可靠依据。【结论】此文库的构建在中华蜜蜂功能基因的分离、克隆、筛选以及基因功能研究等方面具有重要作用。

  19. The characterization of a new set of EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers as a resource for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borba Tereza CO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over recent years, a growing effort has been made to develop microsatellite markers for the genomic analysis of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris to broaden the knowledge of the molecular genetic basis of this species. The availability of large sets of expressed sequence tags (ESTs in public databases has given rise to an expedient approach for the identification of SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats, specifically EST-derived SSRs. In the present work, a battery of new microsatellite markers was obtained from a search of the Phaseolus vulgaris EST database. The diversity, degree of transferability and polymorphism of these markers were tested. Results From 9,583 valid ESTs, 4,764 had microsatellite motifs, from which 377 were used to design primers, and 302 (80.11% showed good amplification quality. To analyze transferability, a group of 167 SSRs were tested, and the results showed that they were 82% transferable across at least one species. The highest amplification rates were observed between the species from the Phaseolus (63.7%, Vigna (25.9%, Glycine (19.8%, Medicago (10.2%, Dipterix (6% and Arachis (1.8% genera. The average PIC (Polymorphism Information Content varied from 0.53 for genomic SSRs to 0.47 for EST-SSRs, and the average number of alleles per locus was 4 and 3, respectively. Among the 315 newly tested SSRs in the BJ (BAT93 X Jalo EEP558 population, 24% (76 were polymorphic. The integration of these segregant loci into a framework map composed of 123 previously obtained SSR markers yielded a total of 199 segregant loci, of which 182 (91.5% were mapped to 14 linkage groups, resulting in a map length of 1,157 cM. Conclusions A total of 302 newly developed EST-SSR markers, showing good amplification quality, are available for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris. These markers showed satisfactory rates of transferability, especially between species that have great economic and genomic values. Their diversity

  20. Character & Cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  1. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  2. Classification, expression pattern and comparative analysis of sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding glycine-rich proteins (GRPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusaro Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the isolation of the first glycine-rich proteins (GRPs in plants a wealth of new GRPs have been identified. The highly specific but diverse expression pattern of grp genes, taken together with the distinct sub-cellular localization of some GRP groups, clearly indicate that these proteins are involved in several independent physiological processes. Notwithstanding the absence of a clear definition of the role of GRPs in plant cells, studies conducted with these proteins have provided new and interesting insights into the molecular biology and cell biology of plants. Complexly regulated promoters and distinct mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression have been demonstrated and new protein targeting pathways, as well as the exportation of GRPs from different cell types have been discovered. These data show that GRPs can be useful as markers and/or models to understand distinct aspects of plant biology. In this paper, the structural and functional features of these proteins in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. are summarized. Since this is the first description of GRPs in sugarcane, special emphasis has been given to the expression pattern of these GRP genes by studying their abundance and prevalence in the different cDNA-libraries of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project . The comparison of sugarcane GRPs with GRPs from other species is also discussed.

  3. Gene discovery from Jatropha curcas by sequencing of ESTs from normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from developing seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugantham Priyanka Annabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas L. is promoted as an important non-edible biodiesel crop worldwide. Jatropha oil, which is a triacylglycerol, can be directly blended with petro-diesel or transesterified with methanol and used as biodiesel. Genetic improvement in jatropha is needed to increase the seed yield, oil content, drought and pest resistance, and to modify oil composition so that it becomes a technically and economically preferred source for biodiesel production. However, genetic improvement efforts in jatropha could not take advantage of genetic engineering methods due to lack of cloned genes from this species. To overcome this hurdle, the current gene discovery project was initiated with an objective of isolating as many functional genes as possible from J. curcas by large scale sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas. The cDNA library contained about 1 × 106 clones and average insert size of the clones was 2.1 kb. Totally 12,084 ESTs were sequenced to average high quality read length of 576 bp. Contig analysis revealed 2258 contigs and 4751 singletons. Contig size ranged from 2-23 and there were 7333 ESTs in the contigs. This resulted in 7009 unigenes which were annotated by BLASTX. It showed 3982 unigenes with significant similarity to known genes and 2836 unigenes with significant similarity to genes of unknown, hypothetical and putative proteins. The remaining 191 unigenes which did not show similarity with any genes in the public database may encode for unique genes. Functional classification revealed unigenes related to broad range of cellular, molecular and biological functions. Among the 7009 unigenes, 6233 unigenes were identified to be potential full-length genes. Conclusions The high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas for the first time and 7009 unigenes coding

  4. An Expressed Sequence Tag (EST-enriched genetic map of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus: a useful framework for comparative genomics across model and farmed teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouza Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus is a relevant species in European aquaculture. The small turbot genome provides a source for genomics strategies to use in order to understand the genetic basis of productive traits, particularly those related to sex, growth and pathogen resistance. Genetic maps represent essential genomic screening tools allowing to localize quantitative trait loci (QTL and to identify candidate genes through comparative mapping. This information is the backbone to develop marker-assisted selection (MAS programs in aquaculture. Expressed sequenced tag (EST resources have largely increased in turbot, thus supplying numerous type I markers suitable for extending the previous linkage map, which was mostly based on anonymous loci. The aim of this study was to construct a higher-resolution turbot genetic map using EST-linked markers, which will turn out to be useful for comparative mapping studies. Results A consensus gene-enriched genetic map of the turbot was constructed using 463 SNP and microsatellite markers in nine reference families. This map contains 438 markers, 180 EST-linked, clustered at 24 linkage groups. Linkage and comparative genomics evidences suggested additional linkage group fusions toward the consolidation of turbot map according to karyotype information. The linkage map showed a total length of 1402.7 cM with low average intermarker distance (3.7 cM; ~2 Mb. A global 1.6:1 female-to-male recombination frequency (RF ratio was observed, although largely variable among linkage groups and chromosome regions. Comparative sequence analysis revealed large macrosyntenic patterns against model teleost genomes, significant hits decreasing from stickleback (54% to zebrafish (20%. Comparative mapping supported particular chromosome rearrangements within Acanthopterygii and aided to assign unallocated markers to specific turbot linkage groups. Conclusions The new gene-enriched high-resolution turbot

  5. galaxieEST: addressing EST identity through automated phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Karl-Henrik

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving expressed sequence tags (ESTs is intricately coupled to the existence of large, well-annotated sequence repositories. Comparatively complete and satisfactory annotated public sequence libraries are, however, available only for a limited range of organisms, rendering the absence of sequences and gene structure information a tangible problem for those working with taxa lacking an EST or genome sequencing project. Paralogous genes belonging to the same gene family but distinguished by derived characteristics are particularly prone to misidentification and erroneous annotation; high but incomplete levels of sequence similarity are typically difficult to interpret and have formed the basis of many unsubstantiated assumptions of orthology. In these cases, a phylogenetic study of the query sequence together with the most similar sequences in the database may be of great value to the identification process. In order to facilitate this laborious procedure, a project to employ automated phylogenetic analysis in the identification of ESTs was initiated. Results galaxieEST is an open source Perl-CGI script package designed to complement traditional similarity-based identification of EST sequences through employment of automated phylogenetic analysis. It uses a series of BLAST runs as a sieve to retrieve nucleotide and protein sequences for inclusion in neighbour joining and parsimony analyses; the output includes the BLAST output, the results of the phylogenetic analyses, and the corresponding multiple alignments. galaxieEST is available as an on-line web service for identification of fungal ESTs and for download / local installation for use with any organism group at http://galaxie.cgb.ki.se/galaxieEST.html. Conclusions By addressing sequence relatedness in addition to similarity, galaxieEST provides an integrative view on EST origin and identity, which may prove particularly useful in cases where similarity searches

  6. Constructing Pairs of Compatible Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathias Kratzer

    2003-01-01

    Given a finite group X such that both the conjugacy of elements in X and the length of any conjugacy class in X can be decided/computed efficiently,the first algorithm described in this article constructs a uniquely determined sequence of representatives for all the conjugacy classes of X. In particular, based on this sequence, any two characters of different groups isomorphic to X become comparable against each other which is utilized by a second algorithm designed to construct so-called compatible characters of given finite groups G and H having isomorphic subgroups U ≤ G and V ≤ H, respectively.

  7. Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags-Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequences(EST-CAPS) for Wheat Leaf Rust Resistance Gene Lr45%小麦抗叶锈病基因Lr45的表达序列标签-酶切扩增多态性(EST-CAPS)分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭楠; 刘春燕; 赵盼盼; 杨文香; 闫红飞; 刘大群

    2013-01-01

    为了获得与小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)抗叶锈基因Lr45更多的分子标记,建立更丰富的遗传连锁图谱,本研究利用表达序列标签-酶切扩增多态性(EST-CAPS)标记技术,选择小麦2A染色体短臂的26对EST引物与4种限制性内切酶共104对组合,对小麦抗叶锈近等基因系(near-isogenic line,NILs)TcLr45和感病对照Thatcher进行了多态性分析.EST引物BE426158与BE442876的PCR产物在亲本间存在差异,多态性检出率为7.7%; 104个引物/酶切组合中,CD454036/Msp Ⅰ、CD454036/HaeⅢ、BE406923/Msp Ⅰ和BE425962/RsaⅠ共4组在Thatcher和TcLr45之间呈现多态性,多态性检出率为3.8%.将BE426158标记成功转化为一个更稳定的序列标签位点(sequence tagged site,STS)标记,命名为LR45-1,经在TcLr45×ThatcherF2群体、抗叶锈近等基因系及黑麦品种中验证,LR45-1与Lr45连锁,遗传距离为8.2 cM.研究结果提示,EST-CAPS技术可应用于小麦抗叶锈病基因的多态性分析及分子标记的开发.%The objective of this study is to develop more molecular markers for construction of high density genetic map of the leaf rust resistance gene Lr45 in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).Twenty-six pairs of expressed sequence tag(EST) primers located on the short arm of wheat chromosome 2A in combination with 4 kinds of restriction enzyme,resulting in a total of 104 pairs of EST-CAPS(expressed sequence tags-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences) markers were used to analyze the polymorphism between TcLr45 and Thatcher.The EST primers BE426158 and BE442876 expressed polymorphsim of the PCR products between TcLr45(resistant leaf rust parent) and Thatcher(susceptible leaf rust parent) with the polymorphism rate of 7.7%.Four of 104 primers/restriction enzyme combinations (3.8%),CD454036/Msp Ⅰ,CD454036/Hae Ⅲ,BE406923/Msp Ⅰ and BE425962 / Rsa Ⅰ,were polymorphic between Thatcher and TcLr45.In addition,a pair of primers designed based on the sequence of band

  8. Identification and EST Sequence Analysis of Polymorphic EST-SSRs Between Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)%大白菜与结球甘蓝多态性EST-SSRs标记筛选及其EST序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽娟; 许愿超; 秦艳梅; 顾爱侠; 赵建军; 申书兴; 王彦华; 王玉海

    2015-01-01

    为了实现大白菜遗传背景下结球甘蓝染色体、染色体片段的准确鉴定,探索结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜的影响,本研究以不同类型大白菜(Brassica rapa,AA)和结球甘蓝(Brassica oleracea,CC)为材料,对来自结球甘蓝的797个表达序列标签简单序列重复(expressed sequence tag SSR,EST-SSRs)标记进行筛选,获得了269个结球甘蓝相对于大白菜具有多态性的标记.选取其中扩增产物清晰稳定和多态性差异明显的176个EST-SSRs,对其对应的EST序列进行BLAST分析,将EST序列与基因本体(Gene Ontology,GO)、京都基因与基因组百科全书(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes,KEGG)数据库比对,获得EST序列的注释信息,其中属于细胞组件C有124条,占总数的12.29%,属于分子功能F有184条,占总数的18.24%,属于生物学途径P有688条占总数的68.19%,未知功能N有13条,占总数的1.29%.EST序列参与的生物学过程方面的功能主要集中在细胞过程、代谢过程、生物调节和刺激应答、系统形态构成、信号转导与信号传递系统、免疫系统等方面.结球甘蓝相对于大白菜多态性的EST-SSRs标记的获得,为大白菜-结球甘蓝异附加系、易位系中附加的结球甘蓝染色体及染色体片段的鉴定奠定了基础.本研究建立了EST-SSRs标记靶向基因的功能注释,为进一步推断结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜性状的影响提供参考.

  9. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  10. 中国蛇岛蝮蛇毒腺cDNA文库ESTs序列测定及生物信息学分析%Sequence Determination and Bioinformatics Analysis of ESTs from Chinese Gloydius shedaoensis shedaoensis Venom Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春梅; 孙明忠; 郑体花; 任一鑫; 刘淑清

    2012-01-01

    前期我们构建了中国蛇岛蝮蛇(Gloydius shedaoensis shedaoensis,GSS)毒腺(GSSG)的cDNA(GSSG-cDNA)文库.本文从构建的GSSG-cDNA文库阳性重组子中随机挑选了216个单克隆进行5'端表达序列标签(EST)单向测序,获得了211条高质量的ESTs.生物信息学序列比对分析结果表明84个克隆为已知功能基因,29个克隆为未知功能基因,98个克隆为新基因,分别占总ESTs的39.8%、13.7%和46.5%.成功获得了GSSG的部分ESTs序列,为GSS蛋白活性组分基因的克隆、表达和功能研究奠定了一定基础.%Previously, we have successfully constructed a cDNA library of Chinese Gloydius shedaoensis shedaoensis (GSS) venom gland (GSSG). In current work,a total of 216 GSSG-cDNAs were randomly picked up and analyzed by single-pass sequencing from the 5' end. A total of 211 ESTs in high quality were generated and sequenced. Bioinformatics sequencing blasting results indicated that 84 ESTs could be annotated as the genes with known function,29 ESTs as similar genes with unknown function,and the rest of 98 ESTs were identified as novel genes,which account 39. 8% ,13.7% and 46. 5% of 211 obtained ESTs,respectively. Taken together,the partial ESTs of GSSG were obtained in current work, which provides certain useful information for cloning and expressing target protein genes and studying the biological functions of target proteins from GSS.

  11. Research Advance of Expressed Sequence Tag(EST) and Its Application in Crustacean%表达序列标签研究进展及其在甲壳动物中的应用概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐景斌; 赵大显

    2012-01-01

    随着生物信息学的发展,表达序列标签(EST)在分子标记开发、新基因分离鉴定、基因表达谱分析、基因组功能注释、基因电子克隆等方面具有重要作用.简要介绍了EST分析的原理及其在基因识别、基因预测、物理图谱的构建、DNA芯片制备等方面的应用概况.综述了甲壳动物EST的研究现状,并对EST的应用前景进行了展望.%With the development of bioinformatics, expressed sequence tag (EST) played an important role in molecular markers development, new genes isolation and identification, gene expression profile analysis, genome functional annotation and silico gene cloning. The principle of EST analysis and its applications in gene identification, gene prediction, physical map construction and DNA chip preparation was briefly introduced. In addition, the research status of crustacean EST and the prospect of EST application were also summarized.

  12. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from avocado seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) reveals abundant expression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide snakin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina J; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis María; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Jimenez-Moraila, Beatriz; López-Meza, Joel E; López-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2013-09-01

    Avocado is one of the most important fruits in the world. Avocado "native mexicano" (Persea americana var. drymifolia) seeds are widely used in the propagation of this plant and are the primary source of rootstocks globally for a variety of avocado cultivars, such as the Hass avocado. Here, we report the isolation of 5005 ESTs from the 5' ends of P. americana var. drymifolia seed cDNA clones representing 1584 possible unigenes. These avocado seed ESTs were compared with the avocado flower EST library, and we detected several genes that are expressed either in both tissues or only in the seed. The snakin gene, which encodes an element of the innate immune response in plants, was one of those most frequently found among the seed ESTs, and this suggests that it is abundantly expressed in the avocado seed. We expressed the snakin gene in a heterologous system, namely the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Conditioned media from transfected BVE-E6E7 cells showed antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first study of the function of the snakin gene in plant seed tissue, and our observations suggest that this gene might play a protective role in the avocado seed.

  13. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from avocado seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) reveals abundant expression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide snakin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina J; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis María; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Jimenez-Moraila, Beatriz; López-Meza, Joel E; López-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2013-09-01

    Avocado is one of the most important fruits in the world. Avocado "native mexicano" (Persea americana var. drymifolia) seeds are widely used in the propagation of this plant and are the primary source of rootstocks globally for a variety of avocado cultivars, such as the Hass avocado. Here, we report the isolation of 5005 ESTs from the 5' ends of P. americana var. drymifolia seed cDNA clones representing 1584 possible unigenes. These avocado seed ESTs were compared with the avocado flower EST library, and we detected several genes that are expressed either in both tissues or only in the seed. The snakin gene, which encodes an element of the innate immune response in plants, was one of those most frequently found among the seed ESTs, and this suggests that it is abundantly expressed in the avocado seed. We expressed the snakin gene in a heterologous system, namely the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Conditioned media from transfected BVE-E6E7 cells showed antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first study of the function of the snakin gene in plant seed tissue, and our observations suggest that this gene might play a protective role in the avocado seed. PMID:23811120

  14. CitEST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa P. Natividade Targon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a better understanding of what is citrus, 33 cDNA libraries were constructed from different citrus species and genera. Total RNA was extracted from fruits, leaves, flowers, bark, seeds and roots, and subjected or not to different biotic and abiotic stresses (pathogens and drought and at several developmental stages. To identify putative promoter sequences, as well as molecular markers that could be useful for breeding programs, one shotgun library was prepared from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var. Olimpia. In addition, EST libraries were also constructed for a citrus pathogen, the oomycete Phythophthora parasitica in either virulent or avirulent form. A total of 286,559 cDNA clones from citrus were sequenced from their 5’ end, generating 242,790 valid reads of citrus. A total of 9,504 sequences were produced in the shotgun library and the valid reads were assembled using CAP3. In this procedure, we obtained 1,131 contigs and 4,083 singletons. A total of 19,200 cDNA clones from P. parasitica were sequenced, resulting in 16,400 valid reads. The number of ESTs generated in this project is, to our knowledge, the largest citrus sequence database in the world.

  15. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  16. Transcriptome analysis of colored calla lily (Zantedeschia rehmannii Engl.) by Illumina sequencing: de novo assembly, annotation and EST-SSR marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zunzheng; Sun, Zhenzhen; Cui, Binbin; Zhang, Qixiang; Xiong, Min; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Di

    2016-01-01

    Colored calla lily is the short name for the species or hybrids in section Aestivae of genus Zantedeschia. It is currently one of the most popular flower plants in the world due to its beautiful flower spathe and long postharvest life. However, little genomic information and few molecular markers are available for its genetic improvement. Here, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed to produce large transcript sequences for Z. rehmannii cv. 'Rehmannii' using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument. More than 59.9 million cDNA sequence reads were obtained and assembled into 39,298 unigenes with an average length of 1,038 bp. Among these, 21,077 unigenes showed significant similarity to protein sequences in the non-redundant protein database (Nr) and in the Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Moreover, a total of 117 unique transcripts were then defined that might regulate the flower spathe development of colored calla lily. Additionally, 9,933 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 7,162 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as putative molecular markers. High-quality primers for 200 SSR loci were designed and selected, of which 58 amplified reproducible amplicons were polymorphic among 21 accessions of colored calla lily. The sequence information and molecular markers in the present study will provide valuable resources for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization and marker-assisted selection in the genus Zantedeschia. PMID:27635342

  17. Transcriptome analysis of colored calla lily (Zantedeschia rehmannii Engl.) by Illumina sequencing: de novo assembly, annotation and EST-SSR marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zunzheng; Sun, Zhenzhen; Cui, Binbin; Zhang, Qixiang; Xiong, Min; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Di

    2016-01-01

    Colored calla lily is the short name for the species or hybrids in section Aestivae of genus Zantedeschia. It is currently one of the most popular flower plants in the world due to its beautiful flower spathe and long postharvest life. However, little genomic information and few molecular markers are available for its genetic improvement. Here, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed to produce large transcript sequences for Z. rehmannii cv. 'Rehmannii' using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument. More than 59.9 million cDNA sequence reads were obtained and assembled into 39,298 unigenes with an average length of 1,038 bp. Among these, 21,077 unigenes showed significant similarity to protein sequences in the non-redundant protein database (Nr) and in the Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Moreover, a total of 117 unique transcripts were then defined that might regulate the flower spathe development of colored calla lily. Additionally, 9,933 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 7,162 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as putative molecular markers. High-quality primers for 200 SSR loci were designed and selected, of which 58 amplified reproducible amplicons were polymorphic among 21 accessions of colored calla lily. The sequence information and molecular markers in the present study will provide valuable resources for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization and marker-assisted selection in the genus Zantedeschia.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of colored calla lily (Zantedeschia rehmannii Engl.) by Illumina sequencing: de novo assembly, annotation and EST-SSR marker development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Binbin; Zhang, Qixiang; Xiong, Min; Wang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Colored calla lily is the short name for the species or hybrids in section Aestivae of genus Zantedeschia. It is currently one of the most popular flower plants in the world due to its beautiful flower spathe and long postharvest life. However, little genomic information and few molecular markers are available for its genetic improvement. Here, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed to produce large transcript sequences for Z. rehmannii cv. ‘Rehmannii’ using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument. More than 59.9 million cDNA sequence reads were obtained and assembled into 39,298 unigenes with an average length of 1,038 bp. Among these, 21,077 unigenes showed significant similarity to protein sequences in the non-redundant protein database (Nr) and in the Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Moreover, a total of 117 unique transcripts were then defined that might regulate the flower spathe development of colored calla lily. Additionally, 9,933 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 7,162 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as putative molecular markers. High-quality primers for 200 SSR loci were designed and selected, of which 58 amplified reproducible amplicons were polymorphic among 21 accessions of colored calla lily. The sequence information and molecular markers in the present study will provide valuable resources for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization and marker-assisted selection in the genus Zantedeschia.

  19. “Datamining” dos genes da celulose sintase relacionados com ESTs de Eucalyptus spp. (Nota Científica. Cellulose synthase genes dataming related with Eucalyptus spp. expressed sequence tags. (SCIENTIFIC NOTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo ZIMBACK

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo sobre “datamining”envolvendo genes ligados ao crescimento decontrole não hormonal, utilizando o banco dedados de ESTs de eucalipto, efetuado atravésdo Projeto Genoma do Eucalipto (FORESTscomparados ao nível de aminoácidos. Foramidentificados os clusters de ESTsEGBGFB1211D01.g, EGEZRT6201E10.g,EGCCFB1220G07.g, EGRFCL1206E01.g,EGEQST2006A06.g, EGRFCL1206E01.g,EGEQRT3001H05.b e EGBFRT3106G11.g,similares às proteínas de celulose sintase e suassubunidades controlando o crescimento emArabidopsis thaliana, Gossipium hirsutum,Populus tremuloides, Zea mays e Nicotiana alata,registradas no National Center of BiotechnologiesInformation - NCBI, informação valiosa parafuturos programas de melhoramento genético dogênero Eucalyptus.This is a study about data mining ofexpressed sequence tags (ESTs involved withcellulose synthase growth effect genes resultedfrom the Eucalyptus ESTs Genome Project(FORESTs compared at aminoacids level. Using asequencing of derived from cDNAs librariesinduced and not induced by bacteria, wereidentified EST clusters EGBGFB1211D01.g,EGEZRT6201E10.g, EGCCFB1220G07.g,EGRFCL1206E01.g, EGEQST2006A06.g,EGRFCL1206E01.g, EGEQRT3001H05.b, andEGBFRT3106G11.g, similar to cellulose synthaseproteins controlling growth effect in Arabidopsisthaliana, Gossipium hirsutum, Populustremuloides, Zea mays, and Nicotiana alata,registered on National Center of BiotechnologiesInformation - NCBI. These mining results areimportant to improve Eucalyptus breeding programs.

  20. Making and consuming characters

    OpenAIRE

    Kanai, Masae; Hara, Yoritoshi; Kobayashi, Hajime; Takemura, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper shall introduce a new phenomenon about consumption. This is related to consumption of characters like Mickey Mouse and Hello, Kitty. The phenomenon appears prominently in Japan. In order to examine consumption of characters and the strategies for creating characters, we conducted a case study on a set of marketing strategies of a toy manufacturer in Japan. Traditionally, consumption research is asserted using the uni-methodological paradigm. The uni-methodological paradigm here mea...

  1. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Houpt, Joseph W.; Sussman, Bethany L.; Townsend, James T.; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained ...

  2. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The character "力" li (strength) was originally written "(?)" The curving " (?) " indicates bulging muscles, while the "(?)" component represents skin. Despite its evolution over the centuries, "力" still symbolizes a strong arm.In combination with other characters "力" conveys the meaning "力量" liliang (strength), "力气"liqi (strength), "力求" liqiu (pursue) and "力争" lizheng (strive).

  3. Character in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2007-01-01

    Qualities of personal character would appear to play a significant role in the professional conduct of teachers. It is often said that we remember teachers as much for the kinds of people they were than for anything they may have taught us, and some kinds of professional expertise may best be understood as qualities of character. After (roughly)…

  4. In silco mapping of ESTs from the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kent M; Knutson, Todd P; Krueth, Stacy B; Sullivan, Laura R; Chaves, Lee D

    2005-01-01

    Sequence similarity was used to predict the position of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the genome of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Turkey EST sequences were compared with the draft assembly of the chicken whole-genome sequence and the chicken EST database by BLASTN. Among the 877 ESTs examined, 788 had significant matches in the chicken genome sequence. Position of orthologous sequences in the chicken genome and the predicted position of the EST loci in the turkey genome are presented Genetic assignments suggest a high level of accuracy for the COMPASS predictions.

  5. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  6. Identification of microRNA in Cajanus cajan based on EST and GSS Sequences%基于EST和GSS序列的木豆miRNA生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李崇奇; 周鹏; 蔡望伟

    2014-01-01

    应用miRtour在线分析工具对木豆EST和GSS序列进行miRNA生物信息学预测,应用psRNATarget进行靶基因预测。结果发现,43条不同的木豆miRNA成熟序列,隶属于33个不同的miRNA家族。靶基因预测发现有36条编码序列受miRNA调控,其中17条序列编码酶,2条编码转录因子,7条编码参与细胞信号转导的蛋白,5条编码参与蛋白质降解通路的蛋白。%Cajanus cajan microRNA has been predicted based on EST and GSS Sequences by miRtour, whereas miRNA-targeted mRNAs has been predicted by psRNATarget. 43 unique mature miRNA sequenc-es were found belonging to 33 different miRNA familes in Cajanus cajan. 36 coding RNAs were regulated by miRNA in which 17 targets were enzymes,2 targets were transcription factors,7 targets were protein in-volved in signaling transduction,5 targets were protein participated in protein degradation pathway.

  7. Printed Arabic Character Recognition Using HMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas H.Hassin; Xiang-Long Tang; Jia-Feng Liu; Wei Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Language has a very rich vocabulary.More than 200 million people speak this language as their native speaking,and over 1 billion people use it in several religion-related activities.In this paper a new technique is presented for recognizing printed Arabic characters.After a word is segmented,each character/word is entirely transformed into a feature vector.The features of printed Arabic characters include strokes and bays in various directions,endpoints,intersection points,loops,dots and zigzags.The word skeleton is decomposed into a number of links in orthographic order,and then it is transferred into a sequence of symbols using vector quantization.Single hidden Markov model has been used for recognizing the printed Arabic characters.Experimental results show that the high recognition rate depends on the number of states in each sample.

  8. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  9. 利用高通量测序技术分析核桃基因组微卫星特征1)%Microsatellite Characters in Juglans regia L.Genome by High Throughput Sequencing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖卓毅; 马秋月; 戴晓港; 张得芳; 李淑娴

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the partially genome of Juglans regia with a 454-high-throughput sequencer and analyzed the character-istics of microsatellites based on the obtained sequences.Totally, we sequenced 104.5 Mb genome sequences of J.regia and detected 9 787 microsatellites (SSRs) in the assembled genome sequence.Among these SSRs, the hexanucleotied re-peats are the most abundant (5 883), accounting for 60.11%of the repetition sequence.Monomers (1 289) and Tetranu-cleotide (889) are the second and third abundant.There are 768 dinucleotide, 549 trinucleotide and 409 pentanucleotide, accounted for 7.85%, 5.61%and 4.18% of repetitive sequences, respectively.For the composition of microsatellites, A/T repeats are the most frequent motifs in mononucleotide repeats, and AT/TA, AG/TC repeats are the richest in dinu-cleotide repeats, while AAN, AAAN and AAAAAN repeats are dominant in tri-, tetra-and hexanucleotide repeats.For pentanucleotide, AGATG and AAAAT are the main repeats.In the microsatellite sequence repeats of Juglans, nucleotide A/T has a large content, while the C/G content is relatively small.In Juglans genome, the second type of SSRs (length<20bp ) is predominant .%利用454高通量测序技术对核桃( Juglans regia)基因组进行了部分测序,并利用测得的序列进行核桃基因组微卫星特征分析。结果表明:研究共测得了104.5 Mb的核桃基因组序列,经序列组装得到了9787个微卫星重复序列。其中六碱基重复类型的重复数目最多,共5883个,占重复序列总数的60.11%;其次是单碱基重复类型(1289个)和四碱基重复类型(889个),分别占重复序列总数的13.17%和9.07%;另外二碱基重复768个,三碱基重复549个,五碱基409个,分别占重复序列总数的7.85%、5.61%和4.18%。在单碱基重复类型中,重复单元最多的为A/T;二碱基重复中,AT/TA和AG/CT为主要优势重复类型;三碱基、四碱基和六碱

  10. Associação de fases meióticas e estádios dos micrósporos com características morfológicas de botões florais de pimentão Association of meiotic phases and microspore stages with morphological characters of floral buds of pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Augusto de Toledo Picoli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Fases meióticas e estádios de micrósporos de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Azeth foram determinados e associados com características morfológicas adotadas para a seleção de botões florais a serem utilizados na indução de androgênese. Plantas foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação para coleta dos botões florais, que foram separados em seis classes de acordo com a relação de tamanho entre cálice e corola e presença de pigmentos nas anteras. As anteras foram fixadas em metanol: ácido acético na proporção de 3:1 e armazenadas a -20º C. Preparações citogenéticas desse material foram montadas pela técnica de dissociação e secagem ao ar e coradas com solução de Giemsa. As observações dos botões foram realizadas sob lupa e as preparações citogenéticas em microscópio ótico. Imagens dos botões florais, das anteras e das fases meióticas foram digitalizadas em computador para documentação. Variações de fases meióticas dentro de cada classe de botão floral foram observadas. Embora o critério de presença de antocianina na extremidade das anteras tenha sido aplicado para outras variedades, o mesmo não se mostrou adequado para a determinação do estádio de micrósporo neste estudo. As fases meióticas foram citogeneticamente identificadas; contudo, não foi possível estabelecer sua associação com as classes dos botões florais. Entretanto, botões com o tamanho de cálice coincidindo com o da corola apresentaram maior número de micrósporos em estádio adequado para a cultura de anteras.In the present study, morphological characters adopted for floral bud selection used for androgenesis induction were associated with pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Azeth meiotic phases and microspore stages. Floral buds were harvested from greenhouse-grown plants and separated into six classes according to size relationships between calyx and corolla, and anthocyanin pigmentation in anthers. After sorting by size, buds

  11. Development of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)using expressed sequence tags%紫贻贝EST-SNP的筛选及多态性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏俊; 梁瑜; 邢坤; 苏浩; 高祥刚; 隋立军; 赫崇波

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)has very broad prospects in the research fields of population genetics of aquacultural species, molecular marker-assisted breeding and biological evolution.The development of SNP markers is normally obtained through genome sequencing, by sequence comparison.However, for the species for which no large-scale genome sequencing has been carried out, using EST database is often an important way for the development of SNP markers.In this study, the SNP genotyping assays and development of SNP markers for blue mussel( Mytilus galloprovincialis)were conducted through expressed sequence tags (ESTs) database mining.Some 19 709 EST sequences of blue mussel from the GenBank were clustered into 2 486 contigs, of which 963 contained four or more ESTs.After manual quality filtering ,4 833 putative SNPs were identified from these SNP-containing contigs.The average putative SNP frequency was one per 129.2 bp of contig sequences.C/T and A/G with high frequency account for 28.8%and 27.4% ,respectively.31 of the putative SNPs were chosen for validation by allele specific PCR with melting temperature( Tm)-shift analysis, and 14 (47%)of them were polymorphic with the minor allele frequency ranging from 0.083 to 0.446.The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity were distributed from 0.166 7 to 0.615 4 and 0.155 4 to 0.503 2, respectively.Six primers (20%)amplified no any product and 10 (33%)were monomorphic.BLASTX showed that significant hits for all 14 genotyped SNP-contalning contigs, 12 of which were located in coding regions and all resulted in a synonymous substitution.The result of present study shows that ESTs could provide effective means for SNP identification in species with limited genome sequence resources, and Tm-shift analysis is a simple, efficient and reliable SNP genotyping method for non-model organisms.%利用EST数据库开发SNP是筛选SNP标记的重要途径.本研究利用EST数据库开发紫贻贝的SNP

  12. Construction of a cDNA Library from Male Adult Toxocara canis and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)%犬弓首蛔虫雄虫cDNA文库构建及EST分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马光旭; 周琪; 魏志鹏; 王德恒; 陈昱鸣; 周荣琼

    2012-01-01

    successfully, and 189 efficient ES-Ts (expressed sequence tags) of 5' end were obtained from this cDNA library. Cluster analysis of these ESTs identified 101 unique sequences containing 27 Contigs and 74 Singletons. All the unique sequences were deposited under dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: HO348195-HO348295). BLASTX searches revealed that 45 Unigenes (44. 55% of the total) or 88 ESTs (46. 56% of the total) were novel genes that had no significant matches to any protein sequences in the public databases. The rest 56 Unigenes (55. 44% of the total) or 101 ESTs (53. 44% of the total) were closely matched to the known genes or sequences deposited in the public databases. This work will provide a valuable resource for further research on gene function and molecule mechanism of T. canis.

  13. Sequence Analysis and Comparison of EST-SSRs in Pine, Poplar and Eucalyptus%松树、杨树及桉树表达基因序列微卫星比对分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎毛毛; 戴晓港; 李淑娴; 尹佟明

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most variable sequences in the genome of different organisms. Changes in repeat motif numbers will cause frameshift mutation of the corresponding genes, and lead to the expression of completely different or shortened proteins. During the evolutionary time, microsatellites in transcribed sequences have undergone strong selection. In order to explore the variation trends of genic SSRs in different tree species, thirty thousand ESTs were analyzed for Pinus spp. Populus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. respectively in this study. The results showed that the percentage of ESTs containing SSRs was similar in eucalyptus and poplars, accounting for 18.71% and 15.33% respectively. By contrast, this ratio was significantly lower in pine, only accounting for 8.22%.A common phenomenon observed in the three tree species was that the triplet repeats were the dominant microsatellites in the investigated EST sequences. Except for the triplet SSRs, richness of different type SSRs decreased with an increase in repeat motif length both in eucalyptus and poplars, while an opposite variation trend was observed in pine. It was noteworthy that content of highly polymorphic microsatellites (>20 bp) was higher in ESTs of eucalyptus and poplars than that of pine. The results also showed that, in the investigated tree species, the frequency of microsatellite gaining or losing repeat unit/units decreased with increment in the repeat motif lengths of different types of microsatellites. We first report the comparison of genic SSRs in different tree species, and find some interesting variation trends in comparison pine with poplar and eucalyptus. Since genic SSRs significantly affect the gene function, the results provide some important parameters to learn the characteristics of genic SSRs in different organisms. Meanwhile, our results also supply useful bioinformatics guidance for developing high variable EST-SSRs in the investigated tree species.%微卫星是生物

  14. Character Development. Does Sport Affect Character Development in Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, George

    1998-01-01

    Examines the impact of sport on character development, noting that historically British and American schools have valued sports for helping develop social character and citizenship. The paper discusses research on sport as a character builder, suggesting that the effect of sport on character depends on the positive or negative social contextual…

  15. Cinematography and character depiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Francis Nicholson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under the three main headings of lighting, camera view point and the camera’s mode of perception. The outcome is an accessible and systematised foundation for film makers to consult as an entry point into understanding the relationship between character depiction and cinematography:
    “Cinematography captures and expresses what a character is
    feeling – their attitude towards the rest of the world, their interior state” Ian Gabriel, director of Forgiveness (2004 [personal interview 2009].

  16. 黄瓜幼果cDNA文库构建与EST测序分析%Construction of a Young Fruit cDNA Library and EST Sequencing in Cucumis sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘宇; 蒲志群; 肖雅文; 赵名琛; 郑浴; 石士涛; 胡小燕; 张兴国

    2013-01-01

    将黄瓜授粉前后多个发育阶段的幼果组织等量混合后提取总RNA和mRNA,以λTriplEx2为栽体、XL1-Blue为宿主茵,构建了1个黄瓜幼果cDNA文库;其滴度为1.165×106pfu/mL,重组率在94.4%左右.测序获得116条EST,92.2%的长度在400 bp以上,19%为重叠序列.在GenBank中进行BLAST分析后确认与已知功能基因相似的EST序列有71条,有相似序列而功能未知的基因和没有相似序列的EST序列各占19.83%和18.97%.从对文库的检验结果看,构建的cDNA文库重组率较高,库容达到预期要求.%The growth and development of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit is closely related to its yield and quality.To gain the gene expression pattern of the young fruit just before and after pollination is important to exploring the molecular mechanisms of parthenocarpy and fruit growth initiation.In this study,tissues of young fruit of cucumber at different development stages before and after pollination were mixed and total RNA and mRNA were extracted.Then,a cDNA library of cucumber young fruit with a titer of 1.165 × 106 pfu/mL and a recombinant frequency of 94.4% was constructed,using λTriplEx2 as a vector and XL1-Blue as the host strain.One hundred and sixteen EST sequences were obtained,of which 92.2% were over 400 bp in size and 19% were contigs.BLAST analysis in GenBank revealed that 71 of the 116 ESTs were homologous to genes of known function,19.83% were related to genes with unknown functions and 18.97 % were novel.The cDNA library sufficed the criteria with high recombinant efficiency and wide representativeness.The results will facilitate the cloning of development-related genes from cucumber fruit.

  17. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention to...

  18. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  19. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  20. 利用EST序列鉴定葡萄应答外源赤霉素的基因%Identification of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Genes from EST Sequences Responding to Exogenous Gibberellins Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官凌飞; 韩键; 房经贵; 王西成; 冷翔鹏

    2012-01-01

    To identify grape (Vitis vinifera L.) genes in response to exogenous gibberellins (GA) treatment, a large number of grape EST sequences collected at NCBI were analyzed. Forty-five non-redundant EST sequences that only expressed after GA treatment were obtained by using local Blast, Blast2go and other programs. Blastx annotation results indicated that twenty-five sequences (55.6%) were of hypothetical or unknown protein, fourteen sequences (31.1%) did not have available information, and six sequences (13.1%) had predict functions. The six sequences with annotated functions carried genes encoding integrase (EE077049), SPX domain (EE085000), serine carboxypeptidase-like 44(EE091188), CHY1 (EE092187), pseudouridine synthase/ transporter (EE106096) and K+ channel protein (EE108944). Blast2go analysis showed that only twenty-nine sequences (64.4%) had available Gene Ontology (GO) annotations, belonging to categories of molecular function, cellular component or biological process. Taken together, the GA-responsive gene products mainly had binding activities (46.34%) or catalytic activities (39.02%), distributed in the whole cell (44.68%) or in specific organelles (40.43%), participatedl in cellular processes (28.57%) or metabolic processes (25.71%) in responding to the exogenous GA treatment. This study provides basic information for further analysis of gene expression in response to exogenous GA treatment.%为了利用NCBI上大量的葡萄(Vitis vinifera L.) EST序列进行葡萄应答外源赤霉素基因的信息挖掘,通过本地化Blast、Blast2go等工具以及其他生物信息学工具和数据库,对NCBI上经过赤霉素(gibberellins,GA)诱导后的葡萄EST序列进行处理,获得了45条仅在赤霉素处理后表达的无冗余EST序列.Blastx注释结果显示,45条序列中有25条序列注释为假定蛋白或未知蛋白(约占55.6%),14条序列无注释信息(约占31.1%),6条序列(13.1%)注释有推定功能,其中包括整合酶蛋

  1. Annotation of Ehux ESTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2009-06-12

    22 percent ESTs do no align with scaffolds. EST Pipeleine assembles 17126 consensi from the noaligned ESTs. Annotation Pipeline predicts 8564 ORFS on the consensi. Domain analysis of ORFs reveals missing genes. Cluster analysis reveals missing genes. Expression analysis reveals potential strain specific genes.

  2. EST Pipeline System: Detailed and Automated EST Data Processing and Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xu; Liang Zhang; Hong Yu; Yan Zhou; Ling He; Yuanzhong Zhu; Wei Huang; Lijun Fang; Lin Tao; Yuedong Zhu; Lin Cai; Huayong Xu

    2003-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are widely used in gene survey research these years. The EST Pipeline System, software developed by Hangzhou Genomics Institute (HGI), can automatically analyze different scalar EST sequences by suitable methods. All the analysis reports, including those of vector masking, sequence assembly, gene annotation, Gene Ontology classification, and some other analyses,can be browsed and searched as well as downloaded in the Excel format from the web interface, saving research efforts from routine data processing for biological rules embedded in the data.

  3. Development of ESTs and data mining of pineapple EST-SSRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, W D; Voo, C L Y; Kumar, S V

    2012-05-01

    Improving the quality of the non-climacteric fruit, pineapple, is possible with information on the expression of genes that occur during the process of fruit ripening. This can be made known though the generation of partial mRNA transcript sequences known as expressed sequence tags (ESTs). ESTs are useful not only for gene discovery but also function as a resource for the identification of molecular markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs). This paper reports on firstly, the construction of a normalized library of the mature green pineapple fruit and secondly, the mining of EST-SSRs markers using the newly obtained pineapple ESTs as well as publically available pineapple ESTs deposited in GenBank. Sequencing of the clones from the EST library resulted in 282 good sequences. Assembly of sequences generated 168 unique transcripts (UTs) consisting of 34 contigs and 134 singletons with an average length of ≈500 bp. Annotation of the UTs categorized the known proteins transcripts into the three ontologies as: molecular function (34.88%), biological process (38.43%), and cellular component (26.69%). Approximately 7% (416) of the pineapple ESTs contained SSRs with an abundance of trinucleotide SSRs (48.3%) being identified. This was followed by dinucleotide and tetranucleotide SSRs with frequency of 46 and 57%, respectively. From these EST-containing SSRs, 355 (85.3%) matched to known proteins while 133 contained flanking regions for primer design. Both the ESTs were sequenced and the mined EST-SSRs will be useful in the understanding of non-climacteric ripening and the screening of biomarkers linked to fruit quality traits. PMID:22207174

  4. Closed surfaces and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Chesebro, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The powerful character variety techniques of Culler and Shalen can be used to find essential surfaces in knot manifolds. We show that module structures on the coordinate ring of the character variety can be used to identify detected boundary slopes as well as when closed surfaces are detected. This approach also yields new number theoretic invariants for the character varieties of knot manifolds.

  5. Modular Character System

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos Miquel, José Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en el desarrollo de una herramienta que nos permita crear de forma sencilla personajes 3D que puedan ser utilizados en videojuegos. El editor permitirá crear modelos 3D de personajes sin necesidad de saber utilizar herramientas de modelado, permitiendo configurar las diferentes partes del modelo. Estará orientado tanto a desarrolladores de videojuegos que necesiten crear personajes 3D, como a videojuegos que permitan que el usuario personalice su personaje.

  6. Differential gene expression analysis based on expressed sequence tags(EST) from different tissues of Fenneropenaeus chinensis%基于中国明对虾不同组织EST数据的基因表达差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗健凯; 柳承璋; 张晓军; 王兵; 董波; 李富花; 相建海

    2013-01-01

    Bioinformatics analysis was conducted based on the acquired expressed sequence tags(ESTs) data from different tissues of Fenneropenaeus chinensis.A total of 10 446,2 690,1 067 and 1 282 original ESTs were obtained from cephalothorax,blood,eyestalk,and ovary of adult F.chinensis respectively.By clustering and assembling,3 454,1 053,406 and 544 unigenes were generated,and then annotated by searching in NR,GO,KEGG databases.The tissue specific transcripts were identified through sequence homology analysis and classified by GO annotation.The result indicated that specific transcripts in blood group were specifically enriched in the GO term of virion part,locomotion,rhythmic process,cell killing and multi-organism process.Specific transcripts in eyestalk group were specifically enriched in the GO term of molecular transducer activity,response to stimulus,multicellular organismal process,pigmentation and biological regulation.Specific transcripts in ovary group were specifically enriched in the GO term of nutrient reservoir activity,reproduction,anatomical structure formation,transporter activity and establishment of localization.We also analyzed the highly expressed genes in each tissue according to the number of ESTs of each unigene.The result indicated that genes encoding peritrophin,elongation factor 1-alpha,thrombospondin and arginine kinase were widespread and highly expressed in tissues,suggesting that they were involved in a variety of important biological processes in shrimp.In addition,genes encoding penaeidin,cytochrome c oxidase and 14-3-3-like protein were highly expressed in blood group and genes encoding arrestin and rhodopsin were highly expressed in eyestalk group.For understanding the expressions of common genes,we analyzed genes related to peritrophin and peroxiredoxin,revealing that genes of peritrophin in F.chinensis were multiform and highly expressed.This result may provide reference for further functional study of peritrophin.%对前期获得的

  7. A global assembly of cotton ESTs

    OpenAIRE

    Udall, Joshua A.; Swanson, Jordan M; Haller, Karl; Rapp, Ryan A.; Sparks, Michael E; Hatfield, Jamie; Yu, Yeisoo; Wu, Yingru; Dowd, Caitriona; Arpat, Aladdin B.; Sickler, Brad A.; Wilkins, Thea A; Guo, Jin Ying; Chen, Xiao Ya; Scheffler, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 185,000 Gossypium EST sequences comprising >94,800,000 nucleotides were amassed from 30 cDNA libraries constructed from a variety of tissues and organs under a range of conditions, including drought stress and pathogen challenges. These libraries were derived from allopolyploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum; AT and DT genomes) as well as its two diploid progenitors, Gossypium arboreum (A genome) and Gossypium raimondii (D genome). ESTs were assembled using the Program for Assemblin...

  8. ViOC-optical Alphanumeric Character Extraction from Video Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi R. Nair

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main motto of the study is to provide the new distinct method to extract the optical characters in the form of alpha numeric characters from the video frames. In this study we proposed a new methodology to recognize the optical characters from the video frames; the methodology is taken with two step process, in first step the video frames are separated into frame by frames. Then the text detection phase is revoked with text localization and text verification and the second step is to recognize the characters. In this phase the text is verified and recognized. The final outcome is the recognized characters from the video frames. The experimental results are demonstrated clearly and the proposed method has an optimality over the video frames without any jitter or noise sequence in processing the extraction phase. The method performs better result than the existing algorithm and the results yields 94% accuracy in the MATLAB R2013b simulation environment.

  9. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  10. Characters of DNA Constitution in the Rye B Chromosome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Long; Zhong-Xia Qi; Xiao-Ming Sun; Cheng-Bin Chen; Xiu-Lan Li; Wen-Qin Song; Rui-Yang Chen

    2008-01-01

    We have used chromosome microdissection and microcloning to construct a DNA library of the entire B chromosome (B) of rye. New rye B-specific sequences have been screened from this pool, blasted with other sequences and analyzed to elucidate the characters of DNA constitution and the possible pathway of the origin of the rye B chromosome. We report the discovery of a new sequence that is specific to the rye B centromere.

  11. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mehta; Marilia Santos Silva; Simone Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine Carrer; Marco Aurélio Takita; Natália F. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis) was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under differe...

  12. PAVE: Program for assembling and viewing ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomhoff Matthew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New sequencing technologies are rapidly emerging. Many laboratories are simultaneously working with the traditional Sanger ESTs and experimenting with ESTs generated by the 454 Life Science sequencers. Though Sanger ESTs have been used to generate contigs for many years, no program takes full advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information, hence, many tentative transcripts are assembled into two separate contigs. The new 454 technology has the benefit of high-throughput expression profiling, but introduces time and space problems for assembling large contigs. Results The PAVE (Program for Assembling and Viewing ESTs assembler takes advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information by requiring that the mate-pairs be assembled into the same contig and joined by n's if the two sub-contigs do not overlap. It handles the depth of 454 data sets by "burying" similar ESTs during assembly, which retains the expression level information while circumventing time and space problems. PAVE uses MegaBLAST for the clustering step and CAP3 for assembly, however it assembles incrementally to enforce the mate-pair constraint, bury ESTs, and reduce incorrect joins and splits. The PAVE data management system uses a MySQL database to store multiple libraries of ESTs along with their metadata; the management system allows multiple assemblies with variations on libraries and parameters. Analysis routines provide standard annotation for the contigs including a measure of differentially expressed genes across the libraries. A Java viewer program is provided for display and analysis of the results. Our results clearly show the benefit of using the PAVE assembler to explicitly use mate-pair information and bury ESTs for large contigs. Conclusion The PAVE assembler provides a software package for assembling Sanger and/or 454 ESTs. The assembly software, data management software, Java viewer and user's guide are freely available.

  13. Seqüência de estímulos durante o fortalecimento da resposta de bicar: efeitos sobre a aquisição de desempenhos em matching e oddity Stimuli sequencing during pecking responses build up: effects upon matching and oddity acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Damiani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o efeito da seqüência de apresentação de estímulos durante o fortalecimento da resposta (pré-treino de bicar em pombos, sobre a aquisição do matching de identidade (IMTS e oddity-from-sample (OFS com 3 cores como estímulos e 2 escolhas. O problema se remete à disparidade no desempenho inicial em OFS em relação aos níveis do acaso, reiteradamente relatado na literatura. Durante o pré-treino, apenas uma cor era apresentada em qualquer uma de 3 chaves de resposta. O sorteio da seqüência de estímulos nas tentativas foi realizado com a restrição de que a probabilidade de 2 estímulos iguais serem apresentados em tentativas consecutivas foi semelhante à probabilidade de 2 estímulos diferentes serem apresentados em tentativas consecutivas. Em seguida, os sujeitos foram submetidos ou ao treino IMTS ou ao OFS. Os resultados replicaram aqueles descritos na literatura, indicando que o controle realizado sobre a seqüência de tentativas no pré-treino não teve efeito sobre a aquisição do IMTS e OFS.This study was aimed to investigate the question why oddity-from-sample acquisition in animals always start at above chance level. A question was raised concerning the role of stimuli sequences and a possible bias introduced in responding. Thus, this study analyzed the effects of stimuli sequencing during response build up in the pigeon (pre-training upon the acquisition of identity matching (IMTS and oddity-from-sample (OFS with three color stimuli and two comparisons. During pre-training one color was presented at the time in any one of three response key. Color presentation was randomized but for the restriction that the probability of two like colors being presented consecutively was the same as the probability of two non-like colors being presented consecutively. This controlled for any sequencing bias effects upon responding. Following, subjects were submitted either to IMTS or to OFS training. Results

  14. An EST database from saffron stigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiusano Maria Luisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part – the stigmas – are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. Results We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is accessible and searchable through the Saffron Genes database http://www.saffrongenes.org. The ESTs have been grouped into 1,893 Clusters, each corresponding to a different expressed gene, and annotated. The complete set of raw EST sequences, as well as of their electopherograms, are maintained in the database, allowing users to investigate sequence qualities and EST structural features (vector contamination, repeat regions. The saffron stigma transcriptome contains a series of interesting sequences (putative sex determination genes, lipid and carotenoid metabolism enzymes, transcription factors. Conclusion The Saffron Genes database represents the first reference collection for the genomics of Iridaceae, for the molecular biology of stigma biogenesis, as well as for the metabolic pathways underlying saffron secondary metabolism.

  15. Character theory of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacs, I Martin

    2011-01-01

    ""The book is a pleasure to read. There is no question but that it will become, and deserves to be, a widely used textbook and reference."" - Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society.Character theory provides a powerful tool for proving theorems about finite groups. In addition to dealing with techniques for applying characters to ""pure"" group theory, a large part of this book is devoted to the properties of the characters themselves and how these properties reflect and are reflected in the structure of the group.Chapter I consists of ring theoretic preliminaries. Chapters 2 to 6 and 8

  16. Elementary Character Education: Local Perspectives, Echoed Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Pat; Field, Sherry L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents information based on a yearlong study of character education in an elementary school that was implementing "Kids with Character." Offers an analysis of the responses by students, teachers, and parents about character, development of character, and the program. Indicates that contemporary character education programs are similar to…

  17. Mining and modeling character networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, Anthony; Elenberg, Ethan R; Gleich, David F; Hou, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate social networks of characters found in cultural works such as novels and films. These character networks exhibit many of the properties of complex networks such as skewed degree distribution and community structure, but may be of relatively small order with a high multiplicity of edges. Building on recent work of beveridge, we consider graph extraction, visualization, and network statistics for three novels: Twilight by Stephanie Meyer, Steven King's The Stand, and J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Coupling with 800 character networks from films found in the http://moviegalaxies.com/ database, we compare the data sets to simulations from various stochastic complex networks models including random graphs with given expected degrees (also known as the Chung-Lu model), the configuration model, and the preferential attachment model. Using machine learning techniques based on motif (or small subgraph) counts, we determine that the Chung-Lu model best fits character networks and we ...

  18. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  19. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Woo Taek; Cho Hye-Sun; Lee Bong-Woo; Kim JungEun; Lee Seung-Won; Baek Kwang-Hyun; Kim Hyun-Jin; Choi Doil; Hur Cheol-Goo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum), although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was desi...

  20. Studying Characters in "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinhawa, Wilhelmina

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity in which high school students who are reading "Romeo and Juliet" compile information on major characters and create a collection of cards similar to sports cards, to help them understand each character and that character's motives. (SR)

  1. Character Sums Over The Prime Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Carella, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    A few elementary estimates of a basic character sum over the prime numbers are derived here. These estimates are nontrivial for character sums modulo large q. In addition, an omega result for character sums over the primes is also included.

  2. Recognition of Characters by Adaptive Combination of Classifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; LI Zai-ming

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the visual feature space based on the long Horizontals, the long Verticals,and the radicals are given. An adaptive combination of classifiers, whose coefficients vary with the input pattern, is also proposed. Experiments show that the approach is promising for character recognition in video sequences.

  3. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment. PMID:25133716

  4. New identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taormina, A. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom))

    1994-10-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels m = 3, 4, 5 are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and the tricritical Ising models since the m = 3 Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of m = 4 Virasoro characters. The second identity gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of N = 4 superconformal characters into SU(2) x SU(2) characters is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  6. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runko Suzan J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate, female (megasporangiate, and vegetative organs (leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and

  7. Character Interviews Help Bring Literature to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindall, Vickie; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Character Interviews," a class activity that guides children, especially reluctant readers, to the meaning of a story through a thoughtful understanding of character as they consider a character's emotions and motives, to respond to a question as that character would. Describes the interview process. Offers sample interviews and…

  8. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  9. Hamlet and His Melancholy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2007-01-01

    @@ What's the theme of hamlet?His tragedies often portray some noble hero who faces the injustice of human life and is caught in a difficult situation whose fate is closely connected with the fate of the whole nation.The heroes have some weaknesses in their characters,which finally lead to their tragic thin falls.

  10. Character Analysis of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis analyses Jane Eyre' s character. No matter what Jane met, no matter where she was, she always rebelled against that unfair society, she never gave up to try her best to get free, independent, fair life and true love. By unremitting efforts she finally got dignity, freedom and true love.

  11. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  12. Moral Character and Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  13. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  14. Character Education: Developing Effective Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Annette Kusgen

    1998-01-01

    A literature review revealed what does not work in character education: lecturing, authoritative teaching styles, external codes of ethics, and lack of student participation in setting ethics agendas. What works are use of community context; enhanced school, family, and community environment; peer education; cooperative learning; and giving…

  15. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  16. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  17. A global assembly of cotton ESTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udall, Joshua A; Swanson, Jordan M; Haller, Karl; Rapp, Ryan A; Sparks, Michael E; Hatfield, Jamie; Yu, Yeisoo; Wu, Yingru; Dowd, Caitriona; Arpat, Aladdin B; Sickler, Brad A; Wilkins, Thea A; Guo, Jin Ying; Chen, Xiao Ya; Scheffler, Jodi; Taliercio, Earl; Turley, Ricky; McFadden, Helen; Payton, Paxton; Klueva, Natalya; Allen, Randell; Zhang, Deshui; Haigler, Candace; Wilkerson, Curtis; Suo, Jinfeng; Schulze, Stefan R; Pierce, Margaret L; Essenberg, Margaret; Kim, Hyeran; Llewellyn, Danny J; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Kudrna, David; Wing, Rod; Paterson, Andrew H; Soderlund, Cari; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2006-03-01

    Approximately 185,000 Gossypium EST sequences comprising >94,800,000 nucleotides were amassed from 30 cDNA libraries constructed from a variety of tissues and organs under a range of conditions, including drought stress and pathogen challenges. These libraries were derived from allopolyploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum; A(T) and D(T) genomes) as well as its two diploid progenitors, Gossypium arboreum (A genome) and Gossypium raimondii (D genome). ESTs were assembled using the Program for Assembling and Viewing ESTs (PAVE), resulting in 22,030 contigs and 29,077 singletons (51,107 unigenes). Further comparisons among the singletons and contigs led to recognition of 33,665 exemplar sequences that represent a nonredundant set of putative Gossypium genes containing partial or full-length coding regions and usually one or two UTRs. The assembly, along with their UniProt BLASTX hits, GO annotation, and Pfam analysis results, are freely accessible as a public resource for cotton genomics. Because ESTs from diploid and allotetraploid Gossypium were combined in a single assembly, we were in many cases able to bioinformatically distinguish duplicated genes in allotetraploid cotton and assign them to either the A or D genome. The assembly and associated information provide a framework for future investigation of cotton functional and evolutionary genomics. PMID:16478941

  18. An EST database from saffron stigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Chiusano Maria Luisa; Pizzichini Daniele; D'Agostino Nunzio; Giuliano Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part – the stigmas – are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. Results We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is access...

  19. Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Skeletal Muscle specific cDNA Library of Chinese Native Xiang Pig%中国地方品种香猪的肌肉特异组织表达序列标签(ESTs)的

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀利; 吴克亮; 李宁; 李长绿; 仇雪梅; 王爱华; 吴常信

    2006-01-01

    通过构建香猪肌肉组织cDNA文库,并在文库中随机挑选克隆进行测序的方法,获得了131个香猪肌肉EST序列.在这131个EST序列所代表的109个单一克隆中,有99个为人类及其他物种的同源序列,3个为已知的猪的ESTs,7个为未知ESTs.对这10个已知、未知ESTs进行开放阅读框预测并进行B1ast分析,没有找到高度同源的氨基酸序列.对上述EST所对应的基因功能分析结果表明,除去27.27%的EST未能分类外,克隆到的EST大多来自与基因/蛋白的表达调控相关的基因(占45.46%).来自具有其他功能的基因的EST依次是细胞代谢占10.10%、细胞结构/迁移占10.10%、细胞/机体防御占5.05%和细胞信号/传导占2.02%.没有发现和细胞分裂相关的已知功能基因.本研究结果为中国地方品种香猪提供了第一个骨骼肌的基因表达谱,为今后寻找猪肌肉生长和肉用品质的候选基因奠定了基础.%A Longissimus Dorsi muscle cDNA library of Xiang Pig was constructed, and 131 randomly isolated clones were sequenced in this study. The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that 131 ESTs represented 109 unique clones sequences, of which 99 showed homology to previously identified genes in humans or other mammals, 3 matched other uncharacterized expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and 7 showed no significant matches to sequences already present in DNA databases. No protein matches were found for 10 ESTs. Functional analysis of the ESTs showed that a considerable proportion of them encoded proteins involved in gene/protein expression (45.46%). Other classes included genes involved in metabolism (10.10%), cell structure/motility (10.10%), cell/organism defense (5.05%), cell signaling/communication (2.02%), and cell division (0.0%).Unclassified genes constituted the remaining 27.27%. This study reported the results of the first gene expression profile analysis of Chinese native Xiang Pig skeletal muscle cells, thereby greatly

  20. Development, chromosome location and genetic mapping of EST-SSR markers in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Haimei; LI Linzhi; WEI Xianyun; LI Sishen; LEI Tiandong; HU Haizhou; WANG Honggang; ZHANG Xiansheng

    2005-01-01

    A number of 151695 wheat expression sequence tags (ESTs) that originated from GenBank/dbEST from July 14, 2003 to August 24, 2004 were used to search for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with motif 2―5 bp, and 2038 simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs), which accounted for 1.34% of EST database, were identified. Based on these SSR sequences, 249 EST-SSR primer pairs and 166 amplified clear bands in various wheat cultivars were designed. These EST-SSR markers can be used as new molecular markers in wheat and related species. Using Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic lines, 93 EST-SSR primer pairs and 193 EST-SSR loci were located on 19 wheat chromosomes except for 4A and 4B. Forty-three loci were mapped on 11 chromosomes of the genetic framework map previously constructed using recombinant inbred lines.

  1. CHARACTERS THAT SUFFERED DUE TO SHORTAGE IN THE CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the theories about motif and type will be used for analyzing the very types ofcharacters that suffered because of the shortages. To begin with, the analyzing of the differences andsimilarities of the shortages of each character will be counted on the inside and outside parts of theirsufferings. Then the theories of Nietzsche’s and of some myths will be used for analyzing the furtherreason of the sufferings. At last, investigating the special value those sufferings have brought forliteratures and for TV series. Multi-angle perspective is useful for investigating the unique charms ofthe shortages of characters as well as for finding out new understandings for the types of sufferings.

  2. Towards the ictalurid catfish transcriptome: generation and analysis of 31,215 catfish ESTs

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham Rex; Muir William; Liu Lei; Turan Cemal; Simmons Micah; Serapion Jerry; Somridhivej Benjaporn; Nandi Samiran; Kucuktas Huseyin; Xu Peng; Baoprasertkul Puttharat; He Chongbo; Feng Jinian; Wang Shaolin; Peatman Eric

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background EST sequencing is one of the most efficient means for gene discovery and molecular marker development, and can be additionally utilized in both comparative genome analysis and evaluation of gene duplications. While much progress has been made in catfish genomics, large-scale EST resources have been lacking. The objectives of this project were to construct primary cDNA libraries, to conduct initial EST sequencing to generate catfish EST resources, and to obtain baseline inf...

  3. Action Capture: A VR-Based Method for Character Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bernhard; Amor, Heni Ben; Heumer, Guido; Vitzthum, Arnd

    This contribution describes a Virtual Reality (VR) based method for character animation that extends conventional motion capture by not only tracking an actor's movements but also his or her interactions with the objects of a virtual environment. Rather than merely replaying the actor's movements, the idea is that virtual characters learn to imitate the actor's goal-directed behavior while interacting with the virtual scene. Following Arbib's equation action = movement + goal we call this approach Action Capture. For this, the VR user's body movements are analyzed and transformed into a multi-layered action representation. Behavioral animation techniques are then applied to synthesize animations which closely resemble the demonstrated action sequences. As an advantage, captured actions can often be naturally applied to virtual characters of different sizes and body proportions, thus avoiding retargeting problems of motion capture.

  4. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  5. Discovery of immune related factors in Fenneropenaeus chinensis by annotation of ESTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yaoqing; XIANG Jianhai; WANG Bing; LI Fuhua; TONG Wei

    2004-01-01

    A total of 10446 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are obtained by a large-scale sequencing of a cDNA library from cephalothorax of adult Fenneropenaeus chinensis.An EST analysis platform was built up based on local computers and bioinformatic techniques were used to annotate these ESTs in order to promptly find possible functional genes, especially for immune related factors.About 4% of the ESTs show similarity to the coding sequences of such factors, including lectin, serine protease, serpin, lysozyme, etc.These ESTs provide a partial profile of the immune system in F.chinensis and useful information for further study on these genes.

  6. Facial animation of game characters

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    Facial animation in games has increased significantly in the past ten years. This is why the thesis introduces the basic technology in facial animation. The thesis only covers the basic tools and techniques used to create facial animation of game characters. The software used during this thesis were Autodesk’s 3Ds Max and Mudbox, and Substance Painter by Allegoritmic. The basic tools for creating game assets were explored. First the thesis goes through the basics of modeling 3D objects fo...

  7. Generalized Notion of Character Amenability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Bodaghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the investigation of the rst author begun in [1]. The hereditaryproperties of n-homomorphism amenability for Banach algebras are investigated and the relationsbetween n-homomorphism amenability of a Banach algebra and its ideals are found. Analogous tothe character amenability, it is shown that the tensor product of two unital Banach algebras is n-homomorphism amenable if and only if each one is n-homomorphism amenable.

  8. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...... is usually too large but can be reduced automatically by the use of a predictive code length or predictive error criterion...

  9. CHARACTER EDUCATION THROUGH ENGLISH MODALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Subur Wardoyo

    2010-01-01

    The spread of English in Indonesia carries an inherent philosophy with it. This essay will focus on how the view that ‘there is no absolute truth’ is ingrained in the linguistic modality of English. Furthermore it will show how this philosophy of modality may inevitably shape a student’s character since it allows people to create the shared truths they need or to downgrade the truths of others, with all the potential positive or negative consequences. Finally this essay will...

  10. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  11. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  12. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  13. New identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Anne

    1994-10-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels m=3, 4, 5 are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and the tricritical Ising models since the m=3 Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of m=4 Virasoro characters. The second identity given the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m=5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of N=4 superconformal characters intoSwidehat{U(2)} × Swidehat{U(2)} characters is discussed.

  14. New Identities between Unitary Minimal Virasoro Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Taormina, A

    1994-01-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels $m=3,4,5$ are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and tricritical Ising models since the $m=3$ Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of $m=4$ Virasoro characters. The second identity gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of $m=5$ Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of $N=4$ superconformal characters into $\\widehat{SU(2)} \\times \\widehat{SU(2)}$ characters is discussed.

  15. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  16. EST Express: PHP/MySQL based automated annotation of ESTs from expression libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardinas Jose R

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several biological techniques result in the acquisition of functional sets of cDNAs that must be sequenced and analyzed. The emergence of redundant databases such as UniGene and centralized annotation engines such as Entrez Gene has allowed the development of software that can analyze a great number of sequences in a matter of seconds. Results We have developed "EST Express", a suite of analytical tools that identify and annotate ESTs originating from specific mRNA populations. The software consists of a user-friendly GUI powered by PHP and MySQL that allows for online collaboration between researchers and continuity with UniGene, Entrez Gene and RefSeq. Two key features of the software include a novel, simplified Entrez Gene parser and tools to manage cDNA library sequencing projects. We have tested the software on a large data set (2,016 samples produced by subtractive hybridization. Conclusion EST Express is an open-source, cross-platform web server application that imports sequences from cDNA libraries, such as those generated through subtractive hybridization or yeast two-hybrid screens. It then provides several layers of annotation based on Entrez Gene and RefSeq to allow the user to highlight useful genes and manage cDNA library projects.

  17. Public domain optical character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, Michael D.; Blue, James L.; Candela, Gerald T.; Dimmick, Darrin L.; Geist, Jon C.; Grother, Patrick J.; Janet, Stanley A.; Wilson, Charles L.

    1995-03-01

    A public domain document processing system has been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The system is a standard reference form-based handprint recognition system for evaluating optical character recognition (OCR), and it is intended to provide a baseline of performance on an open application. The system's source code, training data, performance assessment tools, and type of forms processed are all publicly available. The system recognizes the handprint entered on handwriting sample forms like the ones distributed with NIST Special Database 1. From these forms, the system reads hand-printed numeric fields, upper and lowercase alphabetic fields, and unconstrained text paragraphs comprised of words from a limited-size dictionary. The modular design of the system makes it useful for component evaluation and comparison, training and testing set validation, and multiple system voting schemes. The system contains a number of significant contributions to OCR technology, including an optimized probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifier that operates a factor of 20 times faster than traditional software implementations of the algorithm. The source code for the recognition system is written in C and is organized into 11 libraries. In all, there are approximately 19,000 lines of code supporting more than 550 subroutines. Source code is provided for form registration, form removal, field isolation, field segmentation, character normalization, feature extraction, character classification, and dictionary-based postprocessing. The recognition system has been successfully compiled and tested on a host of UNIX workstations. This paper gives an overview of the recognition system's software architecture, including descriptions of the various system components along with timing and accuracy statistics.

  18. Analysis of ESTs from multiple Gossypium hirsutum tissues and identification of SSRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliercio, Earl; Allen, Randy D; Essenberg, Margaret; Klueva, Natalya; Nguyen, Henry; Patil, Mohini A; Payton, Paxton; Millena, Ana Cecilia M; Phillips, Angela L; Pierce, Margaret L; Scheffler, Brian; Turley, Rickie; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Deshui; Scheffler, Jodi

    2006-04-01

    In an effort to expand the Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) expressed sequence tag (EST) database, ESTs representing a variety of tissues and treatments were sequenced. Assembly of these sequences with ESTs already in the EST database (dbEST, GenBank) identified 9675 cotton sequences not present in GenBank. Statistical analysis of a subset of these ESTs identified genes likely differentially expressed in stems, cotyledons, and drought-stressed tissues. Annotation of the differentially expressed cDNAs tentatively identified genes involved in lignin metabolism, starch biosynthesis and stress response, consistent with pathways likely to be active in the tissues under investigation. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified among these ESTs, and an inexpensive method was developed to screen genomic DNA for the presence of these SSRs. At least 69 SSRs potentially useful in mapping were identified. Selected amplified SSRs were isolated and sequenced. The sequences corresponded to the EST containing the SSRs, confirming that these SSRs will potentially map the gene represented by the EST. The ESTs containing SSRs were annotated to help identify the genes that may be mapped using these markers. PMID:16699550

  19. Character Balance in MOBA Games

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor, Norén; Emanuel, Palm

    2015-01-01

    As live streaming of video games has become easier, electronic sports have grown quickly and they are still increasing as tournaments grow in viewers and prizes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory Metagame Bounds by applying it to League of Legends and Dota 2, to see if it is a valid way of looking at character balance in the Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game genre. The main mode of both games consist of matches played on a map where a team of five players is up against ano...

  20. A Note on Generalized Characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Bhatt; H V Dedania

    2005-11-01

    For a compactly generated LCA group , it is shown that the set $H(G)$ of all generalized characters on equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and $H(G)=\\hat{G}$ (the dual group of ) if and only if is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if is second countable, then the Gel’fand space of the commutative convolution algebra $C_c(G)$ equipped with the inductive limit topology is topologically homeomorphic to $H(G)$.

  1. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  2. AcEST: BP920571 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein homolog OS=... 34 0.62 sp|Q9Y239|NOD1_HUMAN Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-c... 33 1.1 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended...ITAKGTAQLADALQSNTGITEICLNGNLIKPEEAKVYEDEKRII 951 >sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-A OS=Xenopu

  3. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  4. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character. PMID:26217753

  5. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  6. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  7. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  8. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  9. Acerca de este sitio web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Página de guía que permite al lector entender la forma en que está organizado el sitio web del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), las categorías de información disponibles y las políticas que rigen este sitio web.

  10. EST Table - KAIKOcDNA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KAIKOcDNA EST Table Data detail Data name EST Table Description of data contents List of silkworm ESTs (cDNAs) consisting of public...ly available data in addition to sequences registered to public database as of Septem

  11. Character design for soccer commmentary

    CERN Document Server

    Binsted, K

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present early work on an animated talking head commentary system called {\\bf Byrne}\\footnote{David Byrne is the lead singer of the Talking Heads.}. The goal of this project is to develop a system which can take the output from the RoboCup soccer simulator, and generate appropriate affective speech and facial expressions, based on the character's personality, emotional state, and the state of play. Here we describe a system which takes pre-analysed simulator output as input, and which generates text marked-up for use by a speech generator and a face animation system. We make heavy use of inter-system standards, so that future versions of Byrne will be able to take advantage of advances in the technologies that it incorporates.

  12. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  13. The Contingent Character of Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent criticisms raised against Hegel has to do with the totalizing aspect of his system, which determines what is as absolutely necessary. The Science of Logic, being the conceptual edifice upon which his whole system is built, is the appropriate place to determine the specific meaning of the Hegelian concepts. The following paper offers a detailed analysis on the chapter on Actuality (Wirklichkeit in the Science of Logic, in order to show how the concept of absolute necessity not only includes within it, but also contains as a structural element, the concept of contingency. In this manner a deflationary interpretation is generated in which the absolutely necessary character of actuality should not be understood as grounded on a pre-established end that inexorably determines actuality, but rather as an interpretive movement, in recollection, of its process.

  14. All 3' EST - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...e name: CSV: kome_est_3end_all.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome/LATEST/kome_est_3end_al...p://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome/LATEST/kome_est_3end_all.fasta.zip File size: 76 MB Simple search URL ...ST name SEQUENCE 3' EST sequence Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download ...License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us All 3' EST - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  15. All 5' EST - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...e name: CSV: kome_est_5end_all.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome/LATEST/kome_est_5end_al...p://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome/LATEST/kome_est_5end_all.fasta.zip File size: 27 MB Simple search URL ...ST name SEQUENCE 5' EST sequence Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download ...License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us All 5' EST - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Transcriptome analysis of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. based on next-generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Koji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., in the family Caryophyllaceae, can be found in a wide range of colors and is a model system for studies of flower senescence. In addition, it is one of the most important flowers in the global floriculture industry. However, few genomics resources, such as sequences and markers are available for carnation or other members of the Caryophyllaceae. To increase our understanding of the genetic control of important characters in carnation, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST database for a carnation cultivar important in horticulture by high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results We constructed a normalized cDNA library and a 3’-UTR library of carnation, obtaining a total of 1,162,126 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 300,740 unigenes consisting of 37,844 contigs and 262,896 singlets. The contigs were searched against an Arabidopsis sequence database, and 61.8% (23,380 of them had at least one BLASTX hit. These contigs were also annotated with Gene Ontology (GO and were found to cover a broad range of GO categories. Furthermore, we identified 17,362 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs in 14,291 of the unigenes. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of flower color and ethylene biosynthesis. Transcripts were identified for almost every gene involved in flower chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism and in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transcripts were also identified for every step in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions We present the first large-scale sequence data set for carnation, generated using next-generation sequencing technology. The large EST database generated from these sequences is an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in carnation and provides an EST resource for understanding the genetic diversity of this plant.

  17. An approach to offline handwritten Chinese character recognition based on segment evaluation of adaptive duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国宏; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for off-line handwritten Chinese character recognition based on mergence of consecutive segments of adaptive duration. The handwritten Chinese character string is partitioned into a sequence of consecutive segments, which are combined to implement dissimilarity evaluation within a sliding window whose durations are determined adaptively by the integration of shapes and context of evaluations. The average stroke width is estimated for the handwritten Chinese character string, and a set of candidate character segmentation boundaries is found by using the integration of pixel and stroke features. The final decisions on segmentation and recognition are made under minimal arithmetical mean dissimilarities. Experiments proved that the proposed approach of adaptive duration outperforms the method of fixed duration, and is very effective for the recognition of overlapped, broken, touched, loosely configured Chinese characters.

  18. An approach to offline handwritten Chinese character recognition based on segment evaluation of adaptive duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国宏; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for off-line handwritten Chinese character recognition based on mergence of consecutive segments of adaptive duration. The handwritten Chinese character string is partitioned into a sequence of consecutive segments,which are combined to implement dissimilarity evaluation within a sliding window whose durations are determined adaptively by the integration of shapes and context of evaluations. The average stroke width is estimated for the handwritten Chinese character string,and a set of candidate character segmentation boundaries is found by using the integration of pixel and stroke features. The final decisions on segmentation and recognition are made under minimal arithmetical mean dissimilarities. Experiments proved that the proposed approach of adaptive duration outperforms the method of fixed duration,and is very effective for the recognition of overlapped,broken,touched,loosely configured Chinese characters.

  19. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Gary L

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST and bacterial artificial chromosome (BACsequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum of 216 (366 informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum of 55 (191 informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other

  20. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Stylophora pistillata

    KAUST Repository

    Zoccola, Didier

    2011-04-09

    Coral reefs are the most productive marine ecosystems with highest species diversity. During the last decades, reefs have been facing multiples global and anthropogenic stressors leading to bleaching and death of entire reefs.

  1. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  2. Mining, characterization and validation of EST derived microsatellites from the transcriptome database of Allium sativum L

    OpenAIRE

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with comprehensive transcript information are valuable resources for development of molecular markers as they are derived from conserved genic regions. The present study highlights the mining of EST database to deduce the class I hyper variable SSRs in A. sativum. From 21694 garlic EST sequences, 642 non-redundant SSRs were identified with an average frequency of 1 per 14.9 kb of garlic transcriptome. The most abundant SSR motifs were the mononucleotides (32.86%...

  3. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo Taek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum, although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was designed and constructed to enable comprehensive analysis of chili pepper gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Results We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat. The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/. Conclusion The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.

  4. The spatial character of sensor technology

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Stuart; Pridmore, Tony; Crabtree, Andy; Green, Jonathan; Benford, Steve; O'Malley, Claire

    2006-01-01

    By considering the spatial character of sensor-based interactive systems, this paper investigates how discussions of seams and seamlessness in ubiquitous computing neglect the complex spatial character that is constructed as a side-effect of deploying sensor technology within a space. Through a study of a torch (`flashlight') based interface, we develop a framework for analysing this spatial character generated by sensor technology. This framework is then used to analyse and compare a range o...

  5. ESTs and EST-linked polymorphisms for genetic mapping and phylogenetic reconstruction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Namita

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is a well-known model organism for studying inheritance and variation of male ornamental traits as well as adaptation to different river habitats. However, genomic resources for studying this important model were not previously widely available. Results With the aim of generating molecular markers for genetic mapping of the guppy, cDNA libraries were constructed from embryos and different adult organs to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs. About 18,000 ESTs were annotated according to BLASTN and BLASTX results and the sequence information from the 3' UTRs was exploited to generate PCR primers for re-sequencing of genomic DNA from different wild type strains. By comparison of EST-linked genomic sequences from at least four different ecotypes, about 1,700 polymorphisms were identified, representing about 400 distinct genes. Two interconnected MySQL databases were built to organize the ESTs and markers, respectively. A robust phylogeny of the guppy was reconstructed, based on 10 different nuclear genes. Conclusion Our EST and marker databases provide useful tools for genetic mapping and phylogenetic studies of the guppy.

  6. Complex root networks of Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Po-Han; Chen, Jia-Ling; Wang, Po-Cheng; Chi, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Zhi-Ren; Jhang, Zih-Jian; Yeh, Yeong-Nan; Chen, Yih-Yuh; Hu, Chin-Kun

    There are several sets of Chinese characters still available today, including Oracle Bone Inscriptions (OBI) in Shang Dynasty, Chu characters (CC) used in Chu of Warring State Period, Small Seal Script in dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (SJ) in Eastern Han Dynasty, and Kangxi Dictionary (KD) in Qing Dynasty. Such as Chinese characters were all constructed via combinations of meaningful patterns, called roots. Our studies for the complex networks of all roots indicate that the roots of the characters in OBI, CC, SJ and KD have characteristics of small world networks and scale-free networks.

  7. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea).

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Voigt; Eilika Wülfing; Gert Wörheide

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU) rDNA and the alm...

  8. On the Character of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annila, Arto

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together, or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature's hierarchy. PMID:27065819

  9. On the Character of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annila, Arto

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together, or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature's hierarchy. PMID:27065819

  10. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  11. AcEST: BP915586 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10 OS=Homo s... 29 7.3 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 29 7.3 sp|O43610|...SPY3_HUMAN Protein sprouty homolog 3 OS=Homo sapiens G... 29 9.6 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended... synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 29 9.6 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-A ...EDISKEQ 501 Query: 319 FYPFHLAKL 345 P HL++L Sbjct: 502 LLPRHLSQL 510 >sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synapt... S Sbjct: 72 LQPLPQHLSQ--SSIASSMSHSTTAS 95 >sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synapt

  12. AcEST: DK952058 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 09 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 63 2e-09 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended...=... 62 2e-09 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 62 3e-09 sp|Q7TNF0|DOC2A_M... OS=Mus musculus... 61 5e-09 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Ho

  13. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  14. Character Education, K-12, in Uniondale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis-Seinik, Cynthia; McCarthy, Margaret; Nadal, Kathleen; Pfeiffer, Deborah; Tella, Adeola; Wagner, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    The Uniondale, New York School District and community believe that their character education program creates a safe and positive environment for their students. Through character education, they are increasing students' social competence and reducing students' aggressive behaviors. Their school district's goal is to build a district and school…

  15. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters.  Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  16. Character, Civility, and the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    As the educational community works together to improve academic achievement, the importance of character traits such as honesty, trustworthiness, self discipline, kindness, empathy, respect, responsibility, and courage must not be neglected. This guide has been designed to help educators and families in Massachusetts link character development and…

  17. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters. Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  18. Development and annotation of perennial Triticeae ESTs and SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, B Shaun; Larson, Steve R; Mott, Ivan W; Cliften, Paul F; Wang, Richard R-C; Chatterton, N Jerry; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Ali, Shahjahan; Kim, Ryan W; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Gong, George; Liu, Lei; Mikel, Mark A

    2008-10-01

    Triticeae contains hundreds of species of both annual and perennial types. Although substantial genomic tools are available for annual Triticeae cereals such as wheat and barley, the perennial Triticeae lack sufficient genomic resources for genetic mapping or diversity research. To increase the amount of sequence information available in the perennial Triticeae, three expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries were developed and annotated for Pseudoroegneria spicata, a mixture of both Elymus wawawaiensis and E. lanceolatus, and a Leymus cinereus x L. triticoides interspecific hybrid. The ESTs were combined into unigene sets of 8 780 unigenes for P. spicata, 11 281 unigenes for Leymus, and 7 212 unigenes for Elymus. Unigenes were annotated based on putative orthology to genes from rice, wheat, barley, other Poaceae, Arabidopsis, and the non-redundant database of the NCBI. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed, tested for amplification and polymorphism, and aligned to the rice genome. Leymus EST markers homologous to rice chromosome 2 genes were syntenous on Leymus homeologous groups 6a and 6b (previously 1b), demonstrating promise for in silico comparative mapping. All ESTs and SSR markers are available on an EST information management and annotation database (http://titan.biotec.uiuc.edu/triticeae/). PMID:18923529

  19. Transcript Mapping and Genome Annotation of Ascidian mtDNA Using EST Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gissi, Carmela; Pesole, Graziano

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcripts of two ascidian species were reconstructed through sequence assembly of publicly available ESTs resembling mitochondrial DNA sequences (mt-ESTs). This strategy allowed us to analyze processing and mapping of the mitochondrial transcripts and to investigate the gene organization of a previously uncharacterized mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). This new strategy would greatly facilitate the sequencing and annotation of mtDNAs. In Ciona intestinalis, the assembled mt-...

  20. Un ami qui est toujours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2012-01-01

    Un jour,pendant la récréation,je suis descendue dans le bureau du secrétariat.Quand je préparais un café,une femme professeur d'espagnol s'est exclamée:《Tiens! Tu es de bonne humeur ce matin ! 》 (E)tonnée,je lui ai demandé pourquoi.Elle a répondu:《 Parce que tu prends un ca fé.》Quelle réponse inattendue! Ce n'est qu'un café instantané,un peu fade,pas très bon,à dire vrai.Si j'en prends une petite tasse,ce n'est pas que je suis de bonne humeur.C'est plut(o)t mon habitude,ou bien c'est que le café me donne une belle humeur.

  1. Keys to Chinese Character Writing. Step-by-Step Directions to Writing Characters Quickly and Easily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing Heng Sheng

    The most interesting and challenging aspect of studying Chinese is writing Chinese characters. Unfortunately, the learning of Chinese characters receives only marginal attention in a typical classroom. Given that vocabularies in textbooks are based on spoken language rather than the principles of character formation, and also given the pressures…

  2. Phenotypic character gradient variation of Melia azedarach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shiming; GU Wanchun

    2007-01-01

    Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was applied on the research data of five geographical-climatic factors and 18 phenotypic characters of 729 trees of 24 populations of Melia azedarach distributed in China.The eigenvalue of the first canonical variable is 0.997 9 (significant at 0.01 level),accounting for 78% of all eigenvalues.A study on the principal component analysis (PCA) was done,taking the first canonical variable coordinate values as the phenotypic character gradient axes (PCGA).The isogram of the PCGA was drawn out with 0.2 contours,which showed a geographical model with a northeast-southwest variation trend of the phenotypic characters of M.azedarach.Meanwhile,the path analysis results show the direct and indirect effects of phenotypic characters with phenotypic character gradient values,which prove that the propagative organs,are steadily changing.

  3. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  4. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  5. AcEST: DK944235 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  6. AcEST: BP913070 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMB...L (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  7. AcEST: BP919324 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (rele...ase 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  8. AcEST: BP915968 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (releas...e 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  9. AcEST: DK945427 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  10. AcEST: DK946907 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  11. AcEST: DK945232 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  12. AcEST: CL1509Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1509Contig1 1477 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1509contig1 sequence. Link... to clone list Show CL1509Contig1 Contig ID CL1509Contig1 Length 1477 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL1509contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916497 DK

  13. AcEST: DK943603 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available st op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  14. AcEST: DK944629 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available st op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  15. AcEST: DK945631 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  16. AcEST: BP917598 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report...Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  17. AcEST: BP919261 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (releas...e 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  18. AcEST: BP913042 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (rel...ease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  19. AcEST: DK945690 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  20. AcEST: DK944711 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ... ...Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence...-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length -

  1. AcEST: BP914271 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (...release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  2. AcEST: DK944039 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  3. AcEST: DK947324 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  4. AcEST: BP917289 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (re...lease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  5. AcEST: DK947631 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available st op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  6. AcEST: DK943690 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequenc...e too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  7. AcEST: BP920443 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (r...elease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  8. AcEST: BP916142 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (re...lease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  9. AcEST: BP914899 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMB...L (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  10. AcEST: DK943854 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  11. AcEST: DK945249 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  12. AcEST: DK947281 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequenc...e too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  13. AcEST: DK954550 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequenc...e too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  14. AcEST: DK946891 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  15. AcEST: DK943742 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  16. AcEST: DK945745 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  17. AcEST: DK945388 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  18. AcEST: BP916279 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMB...L (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  19. AcEST: BP917384 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (rel...ease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  20. AcEST: DK955552 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  1. AcEST: DK947030 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  2. AcEST: DK947363 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ... ...Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence...-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length -

  3. AcEST: DK947804 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  4. AcEST: DK946081 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequenc...e too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  5. AcEST: DK945594 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  6. AcEST: DK947876 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  7. AcEST: DK959527 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ... ...ength - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. ... : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align l

  8. AcEST: DK945083 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  9. AcEST: DK945775 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK945775 - Show DK945775 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0010_G12 Library YMU02 Length 110 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0010_G12. 5' end sequence. Accession DK945775 Tissue t

  10. AcEST: DK945686 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  11. AcEST: BP919093 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMB...L (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  12. AcEST: DK944247 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  13. AcEST: DK947893 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  14. AcEST: DK944432 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8. 5' end sequence. DK944432 - Show DK944432 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0006_A18 Library YMU02 Length 104 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0006_A18. 5' end sequence. Accession DK944432 Tissue t

  15. MELOGEN: an EST database for melon functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomènech Pere

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo L. is one of the most important fleshy fruits for fresh consumption. Despite this, few genomic resources exist for this species. To facilitate the discovery of genes involved in essential traits, such as fruit development, fruit maturation and disease resistance, and to speed up the process of breeding new and better adapted melon varieties, we have produced a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from eight normalized cDNA libraries from different tissues in different physiological conditions. Results We determined over 30,000 ESTs that were clustered into 16,637 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, comprising 6,023 tentative consensus sequences (contigs and 10,614 unclustered sequences (singletons. Many potential molecular markers were identified in the melon dataset: 1,052 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 356 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were found. Sixty-nine percent of the melon unigenes showed a significant similarity with proteins in databases. Functional classification of the unigenes was carried out following the Gene Ontology scheme. In total, 9,402 unigenes were mapped to one or more ontology. Remarkably, the distributions of melon and Arabidopsis unigenes followed similar tendencies, suggesting that the melon dataset is representative of the whole melon transcriptome. Bioinformatic analyses primarily focused on potential precursors of melon micro RNAs (miRNAs in the melon dataset, but many other genes potentially controlling disease resistance and fruit quality traits were also identified. Patterns of transcript accumulation were characterised by Real-Time-qPCR for 20 of these genes. Conclusion The collection of ESTs characterised here represents a substantial increase on the genetic information available for melon. A database (MELOGEN which contains all EST sequences, contig images and several tools for analysis and data mining has been created. This set of

  16. Development and production of an oligonucleotide MuscleChip: use for validation of ambiguous ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfranchi Gerolamo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the development, validation, and use of a highly redundant 120,000 oligonucleotide microarray (MuscleChip containing 4,601 probe sets representing 1,150 known genes expressed in muscle and 2,075 EST clusters from a non-normalized subtracted muscle EST sequencing project (28,074 EST sequences. This set included 369 novel EST clusters showing no match to previously characterized proteins in any database. Each probe set was designed to contain 20–32 25 mer oligonucleotides (10–16 paired perfect match and mismatch probe pairs per gene, with each probe evaluated for hybridization kinetics (Tm and similarity to other sequences. The 120,000 oligonucleotides were synthesized by photolithography and light-activated chemistry on each microarray. Results Hybridization of human muscle cRNAs to this MuscleChip (33 samples showed a correlation of 0.6 between the number of ESTs sequenced in each cluster and hybridization intensity. Out of 369 novel EST clusters not showing any similarity to previously characterized proteins, we focused on 250 EST clusters that were represented by robust probe sets on the MuscleChip fulfilling all stringent rules. 102 (41% were found to be consistently "present" by analysis of hybridization to human muscle RNA, of which 40 ESTs (39% could be genome anchored to potential transcription units in the human genome sequence. 19 ESTs of the 40 ESTs were furthermore computer-predicted as exons by one or more than three gene identification algorithms. Conclusion Our analysis found 40 transcriptionally validated, genome-anchored novel EST clusters to be expressed in human muscle. As most of these ESTs were low copy clusters (duplex and triplex in the original 28,000 EST project, the identification of these as significantly expressed is a robust validation of the transcript units that permits subsequent focus on the novel proteins encoded by these genes.

  17. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  18. Teaching Virtual Characters to use Body Language

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Doron; Gillies, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Non-verbal communication, or “body language”, is a critical component in constructing believable virtual characters. Most often, body language is implemented by a set of ad-hoc rules.We propose a new method for authors to specify and refine their character’s body-language responses. Using our method, the author watches the character acting in a situation, and provides simple feedback on-line. The character then learns to use its body language to maximize the rewards, based on a reinforcement ...

  19. On Hemingway’s Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Miruna Ciocoi-Pop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a brief outline of Hemingway’s characters and the way in which they correspond to the author himself. It is known for a fact that Hemingway evinced a tendency to imitate his characters when they were coming to grips with diverse situations. Thus I have tried to briefly pinpoint the fading boundaries between reality and imagination in his work. By doing so, I have focused on both male and female characters, underlining the major dissimilarities between these two categories, as well as their main features.

  20. AcEST: BP913108 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value...equence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  1. AcEST: DK945519 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value...ce too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  2. AcEST: BP912478 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...hort.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  3. AcEST: BP920339 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report ... short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  4. AcEST: BP919034 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEM....) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  5. AcEST: DK943988 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available o blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report...rt.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  6. AcEST: BP914708 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report...o short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  7. AcEST: BP915821 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report -...short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  8. AcEST: BP918763 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report -...short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  9. AcEST: BP912333 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - T...ort.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  10. AcEST: BP916851 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - T...ort.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  11. AcEST: BP914811 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report ... short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  12. AcEST: DK944755 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available o blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report...rt.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  13. AcEST: BP914799 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report...oo short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  14. AcEST: BP914910 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report...too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  15. AcEST: BP915201 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrE...t.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  16. AcEST: BP915714 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available o blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - Tr...rt.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  17. AcEST: BP916763 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...hort.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  18. AcEST: BP912619 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report -...short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  19. AcEST: BP920903 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report...too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  20. AcEST: DK944745 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value...too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  1. AcEST: BP917838 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available wiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value -...ence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  2. AcEST: DK946822 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value...ort.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  3. AcEST: BP915540 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrE...t.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  4. AcEST: BP911939 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Rep... too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  5. AcEST: DK945715 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-valu...uence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  6. AcEST: BP916975 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Repor...oo short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  7. AcEST: DK956073 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-valu...uence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  8. AcEST: BP915503 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEM....) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  9. AcEST: DK955280 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ryza sati... 86 1e-16 sp|Q25AG5|ERG3_ORYSI Elicitor-responsive protein 3 OS=Oryza sati... 86 1e-16 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended...6e-11 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 67 8e-1...ne domain-conta... 59 2e-08 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 59 2e-08 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extend...ed synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 58 3e-08 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended...MOUSE Ras GTPase-activating protein 4 OS=Mus mus... 52 2e-06 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-3

  10. AcEST: DK959751 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 86 1e-16 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 72 3e-12 sp|Q6PFQ7|RASL2_MOU...SE Ras GTPase-activating protein 4 OS=Mus mus... 72 4e-12 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended...ivating-like protein 1 OS=Mus mu... 65 3e-10 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropi... 1 OS=Homo s... 61 6e-09 sp|Q8L7A4|AGD11_ARATH Probable ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-ac... 61 6e-09 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended... synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 60 1e-08 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended

  11. AcEST: DK959757 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hit_id Q5DTI8 Definition sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Mus musculus Align length 95 Scor... alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Mus m...usculus G... 56 2e-07 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 55 5e-07 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended... synaptotagmin-3 OS=Homo sapiens G... 53 2e-06 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended synaptota...gmin-2-A OS=Xenopus laev... 52 3e-06 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 49

  12. AcEST: DK960778 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _HUMAN Myoferlin OS=Homo sapiens GN=FER1L3 PE=1 SV=1 40 0.007 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2...-B OS=Xenopus laev... 38 0.037 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-A OS=Xenopus laev... 38 0.037 ...sp|Q9VVI3|NEDD4_DROME E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Nedd-4 OS=Dros... 37 0.063 sp|Q9BSJ8|ESYT1_HUMAN Extended ...synaptotagmin-1 OS=Homo sapiens G... 37 0.063 sp|Q3U7R1|ESYT1_MOUSE Extended syna

  13. AcEST: DK955788 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oryza sati... 67 6e-11 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 66 1e-10 sp|Q9ZT4...848_DICDI Probable serine/threonine-protein kinase D... 65 3e-10 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmi...p|P41823|SY65_APLCA Synaptotagmin-1 OS=Aplysia californica GN=S... 60 7e-09 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended s...ynaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 60 7e-09 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus lae...v... 60 9e-09 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-A OS=Xenopus laev... 60 9e-09 sp|P48231|TCB2_YE

  14. On the JLO Character and Loop Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung Lun Alan

    In type II noncommutative geometry, the geometry on a C*-algebra A is given by an unbounded Breuer--Fredholm module (rho, N,D ) over A. Here rho : A → N is a *-homomorphism from A to the semi-finite von Neumann algebra N⊂BH , and D is an unbounded Breuer--Fredholm operator affiliated with N that satisfies certain axioms. Each Breuer--Fredholm module assigns an index to a given element in the K-theory of A. The Breuer--Fredholm index provides a real-valued pairing between the K-homology of A and the K-theory of A. When N=BH , a construction of Jaffe-Lesniewski-Osterwalder associates to the module (rho, N,D ) a cocycle Ch•JLOD in the entire cyclic cohomology group HE·( A) for D is theta-summable. The JLO character and the K-theory character ch· : K·(A) → HE ·(A) intertwine the K-theoretical pairing with the pairing between HE·(A) and HE ·(A). If (rho, N,F ) is a finitely summable bounded Breuer--Fredholm module, Benameur-Fack defined a character formula chn(F ) generalizing the Connes character formula for bounded Fredholm modules. On the other hand, given a finitely-summable unbounded Breuer--Fredholm module (rho, N,D ), there is a canonically associated bounded Breuer--Fredholm module. The first main result of this thesis extends the JLO theory to Breuer--Fredholm modules (possibly N≠BH ) in the graded case, and proves that the JLO character formula Ch•JLOD and Connes character formula chn( F) define the same class in HE·(A). This extends a result of Connes-Moscovici[21] for ordinary Fredholm modules. An important example of an unbounded Breuer--Fredholm module is given by the noncommutative space of G-connections due to Aastrup-Grimstrup-Nest[3, 4]. In their original work, the authors limit their construction to the case that the group G is either U(1) or SU(2). Another main result of the thesis extends AGN's construction to any connected compact Lie group G; and generalizes by considering connections defined on sequences of graphs, using limits

  15. AcEST: CL3499Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3499Contig1 690 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3499contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3499Contig1 Contig ID CL3499Contig1 Length 690 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3499contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948868 DK95

  16. AcEST: CL3229Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3229Contig1 791 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3229contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3229Contig1 Contig ID CL3229Contig1 Length 791 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3229contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK955761 DK96

  17. AcEST: CL3989Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3989Contig1 550 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3989contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3989Contig1 Contig ID CL3989Contig1 Length 550 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3989contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK946923 DK94

  18. AcEST: CL3009Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3009Contig1 571 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3009contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3009Contig1 Contig ID CL3009Contig1 Length 571 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3009contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919782 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL4019Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4019Contig1 513 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4019contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4019Contig1 Contig ID CL4019Contig1 Length 513 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4019contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917846 BP91

  20. AcEST: CL2239Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2239Contig1 915 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2239contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2239Contig1 Contig ID CL2239Contig1 Length 915 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2239contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914517 DK95

  1. AcEST: CL4009Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4009Contig1 530 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4009contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4009Contig1 Contig ID CL4009Contig1 Length 530 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4009contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917355 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL4249Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4249Contig1 797 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4249contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4249Contig1 Contig ID CL4249Contig1 Length 797 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4249contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK950942 DK95

  3. AcEST: CL4079Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4079Contig1 514 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4079contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4079Contig1 Contig ID CL4079Contig1 Length 514 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4079contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914721 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL1049Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1049Contig1 704 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1049contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1049Contig1 Contig ID CL1049Contig1 Length 704 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1049contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919672 DK94

  5. AcEST: CL4179Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4179Contig1 659 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4179contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4179Contig1 Contig ID CL4179Contig1 Length 659 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4179contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK946839 DK96

  6. AcEST: CL2939Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2939Contig1 595 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2939contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2939Contig1 Contig ID CL2939Contig1 Length 595 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2939contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912753 BP91

  7. AcEST: CL2869Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2869Contig1 543 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2869contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2869Contig1 Contig ID CL2869Contig1 Length 543 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2869contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917758 BP92

  8. AcEST: CL4169Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4169Contig1 508 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4169contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4169Contig1 Contig ID CL4169Contig1 Length 508 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4169contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918892 BP92

  9. AcEST: CL4189Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4189Contig1 527 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4189contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4189Contig1 Contig ID CL4189Contig1 Length 527 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4189contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953497 DK95

  10. AcEST: CL2199Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2199Contig1 746 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2199contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2199Contig1 Contig ID CL2199Contig1 Length 746 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2199contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913617 DK95

  11. AcEST: CL1929Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1929Contig1 684 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1929contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1929Contig1 Contig ID CL1929Contig1 Length 684 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1929contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913609 BP91

  12. AcEST: CL2179Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2179Contig1 509 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2179contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2179Contig1 Contig ID CL2179Contig1 Length 509 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2179contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920806 BP91

  13. AcEST: CL3249Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3249Contig1 549 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3249contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3249Contig1 Contig ID CL3249Contig1 Length 549 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3249contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914216 BP91

  14. AcEST: CL2109Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2109Contig1 462 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2109contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2109Contig1 Contig ID CL2109Contig1 Length 462 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2109contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917476 BP91

  15. AcEST: CL2269Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2269Contig1 735 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2269contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2269Contig1 Contig ID CL2269Contig1 Length 735 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2269contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915041 BP91

  16. AcEST: CL2379Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2379Contig1 634 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2379contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2379Contig1 Contig ID CL2379Contig1 Length 634 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2379contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914162 DK95

  17. AcEST: CL2009Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2009Contig1 630 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2009contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2009Contig1 Contig ID CL2009Contig1 Length 630 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2009contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917084 BP91

  18. AcEST: CL289Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL289Contig1 1247 8 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL289contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL289C...ontig1 Contig ID CL289Contig1 Length 1247 Number of clones 8 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL289contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918911 DK95600

  19. AcEST: CL3129Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3129Contig1 736 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3129contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3129Contig1 Contig ID CL3129Contig1 Length 736 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3129contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957418 DK96

  20. AcEST: CL119Contig2 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL119Contig2 1799 9 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL119contig2 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL119C...ontig2 Contig ID CL119Contig2 Length 1799 Number of clones 9 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL119contig2 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916247 BP92045

  1. AcEST: CL209Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL209Contig1 887 10 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL209C...ontig1 Contig ID CL209Contig1 Length 887 Number of clones 10 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK946036 DK94588

  2. AcEST: CL2049Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2049Contig1 590 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2049contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2049Contig1 Contig ID CL2049Contig1 Length 590 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2049contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915153 BP92

  3. AcEST: CL3879Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3879Contig1 724 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3879contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3879Contig1 Contig ID CL3879Contig1 Length 724 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3879contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912314 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL2519Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2519Contig1 671 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2519contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2519Contig1 Contig ID CL2519Contig1 Length 671 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2519contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945822 DK95

  5. AcEST: CL1749Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1749Contig1 432 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1749contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1749Contig1 Contig ID CL1749Contig1 Length 432 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1749contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918055 BP91

  6. AcEST: CL1859Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1859Contig1 551 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1859contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1859Contig1 Contig ID CL1859Contig1 Length 551 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1859contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911746 BP91

  7. AcEST: CL2629Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2629Contig1 552 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2629contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2629Contig1 Contig ID CL2629Contig1 Length 552 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2629contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916663 BP92

  8. AcEST: CL3749Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3749Contig1 529 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3749contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3749Contig1 Contig ID CL3749Contig1 Length 529 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3749contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912718 BP91

  9. AcEST: CL3239Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3239Contig1 584 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3239contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3239Contig1 Contig ID CL3239Contig1 Length 584 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3239contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914227 BP91

  10. AcEST: CL1679Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1679Contig1 879 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1679contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1679Contig1 Contig ID CL1679Contig1 Length 879 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1679contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912652 BP91

  11. AcEST: CL3819Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3819Contig1 519 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3819contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3819Contig1 Contig ID CL3819Contig1 Length 519 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3819contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920148 BP92

  12. AcEST: CL4209Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4209Contig1 573 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4209contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4209Contig1 Contig ID CL4209Contig1 Length 573 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911729 BP91

  13. AcEST: CL139Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL139Contig1 724 15 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL139contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL139C...ontig1 Contig ID CL139Contig1 Length 724 Number of clones 15 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL139contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920076 DK94821

  14. AcEST: CL1109Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1109Contig1 592 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1109contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1109Contig1 Contig ID CL1109Contig1 Length 592 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1109contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912925 BP91

  15. AcEST: CL3119Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3119Contig1 745 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3119contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3119Contig1 Contig ID CL3119Contig1 Length 745 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3119contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918231 DK95

  16. AcEST: CL2019Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2019Contig1 584 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2019contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2019Contig1 Contig ID CL2019Contig1 Length 584 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2019contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912181 BP91

  17. AcEST: CL3319Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3319Contig1 535 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3319contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3319Contig1 Contig ID CL3319Contig1 Length 535 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3319contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945469 DK94

  18. AcEST: CL1439Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1439Contig1 670 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1439contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1439Contig1 Contig ID CL1439Contig1 Length 670 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1439contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918356 DK95

  19. AcEST: CL4259Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4259Contig1 520 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4259contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4259Contig1 Contig ID CL4259Contig1 Length 520 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4259contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP921312 BP91

  20. AcEST: CL1999Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1999Contig1 785 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1999contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1999Contig1 Contig ID CL1999Contig1 Length 785 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1999contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952297 DK95

  1. AcEST: CL2059Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2059Contig1 889 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2059contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2059Contig1 Contig ID CL2059Contig1 Length 889 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2059contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917351 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL3049Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3049Contig1 684 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3049contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3049Contig1 Contig ID CL3049Contig1 Length 684 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3049contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957598 DK95

  3. AcEST: CL3429Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3429Contig1 693 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3429contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3429Contig1 Contig ID CL3429Contig1 Length 693 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3429contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948061 DK95

  4. AcEST: CL4069Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4069Contig1 719 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4069contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4069Contig1 Contig ID CL4069Contig1 Length 719 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4069contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953252 DK95

  5. AcEST: CL3069Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3069Contig1 683 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3069contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3069Contig1 Contig ID CL3069Contig1 Length 683 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3069contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948634 DK96

  6. AcEST: CL2999Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2999Contig1 581 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2999contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2999Contig1 Contig ID CL2999Contig1 Length 581 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2999contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957259 DK95

  7. AcEST: CL2799Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2799Contig1 939 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2799contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2799Contig1 Contig ID CL2799Contig1 Length 939 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2799contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912108 DK95

  8. AcEST: CL4059Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4059Contig1 629 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4059contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4059Contig1 Contig ID CL4059Contig1 Length 629 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4059contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952423 BP91

  9. AcEST: CL3569Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3569Contig1 705 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3569contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3569Contig1 Contig ID CL3569Contig1 Length 705 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3569contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953048 DK95

  10. AcEST: CL4239Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4239Contig1 526 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4239contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4239Contig1 Contig ID CL4239Contig1 Length 526 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4239contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914138 BP91

  11. AcEST: CL4029Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4029Contig1 668 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4029contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4029Contig1 Contig ID CL4029Contig1 Length 668 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4029contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917248 DK95

  12. AcEST: CL3139Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3139Contig1 584 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3139contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3139Contig1 Contig ID CL3139Contig1 Length 584 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3139contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913382 BP91

  13. AcEST: CL1259Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1259Contig1 722 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1259contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1259Contig1 Contig ID CL1259Contig1 Length 722 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1259contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952711 DK95

  14. AcEST: CL1079Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1079Contig1 623 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1079contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1079Contig1 Contig ID CL1079Contig1 Length 623 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1079contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915698 BP91

  15. AcEST: CL2249Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2249Contig1 486 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2249contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2249Contig1 Contig ID CL2249Contig1 Length 486 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2249contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918790 BP92

  16. AcEST: CL109Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL109Contig1 546 18 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL109contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL109C...ontig1 Contig ID CL109Contig1 Length 546 Number of clones 18 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL109contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945962 DK94394

  17. AcEST: CL3709Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3709Contig1 496 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3709contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3709Contig1 Contig ID CL3709Contig1 Length 496 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3709contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920778 BP92

  18. AcEST: CL3639Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3639Contig1 565 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3639contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3639Contig1 Contig ID CL3639Contig1 Length 565 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3639contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912278 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL4149Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4149Contig1 681 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4149contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4149Contig1 Contig ID CL4149Contig1 Length 681 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4149contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953002 DK95

  20. AcEST: CL3169Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3169Contig1 578 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3169contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3169Contig1 Contig ID CL3169Contig1 Length 578 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3169contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945610 DK95

  1. AcEST: CL2449Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2449Contig1 677 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2449contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2449Contig1 Contig ID CL2449Contig1 Length 677 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2449contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912531 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL3179Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3179Contig1 541 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3179contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3179Contig1 Contig ID CL3179Contig1 Length 541 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3179contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916723 BP92

  3. AcEST: CL1989Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1989Contig1 569 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1989contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1989Contig1 Contig ID CL1989Contig1 Length 569 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1989contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916431 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL1189Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1189Contig1 769 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1189contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1189Contig1 Contig ID CL1189Contig1 Length 769 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1189contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK955823 DK94

  5. AcEST: CL4129Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4129Contig1 580 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4129contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4129Contig1 Contig ID CL4129Contig1 Length 580 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4129contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920361 BP91

  6. AcEST: CL4219Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4219Contig1 746 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4219contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4219Contig1 Contig ID CL4219Contig1 Length 746 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4219contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK954211 DK95

  7. AcEST: CL1499Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1499Contig1 685 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1499contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1499Contig1 Contig ID CL1499Contig1 Length 685 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1499contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK951279 DK95

  8. AcEST: CL2689Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2689Contig1 977 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2689contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2689Contig1 Contig ID CL2689Contig1 Length 977 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2689contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916904 DK95

  9. AcEST: CL1329Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1329Contig1 918 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1329contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1329Contig1 Contig ID CL1329Contig1 Length 918 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1329contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957626 DK94

  10. AcEST: CL3309Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3309Contig1 739 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3309contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3309Contig1 Contig ID CL3309Contig1 Length 739 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3309contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK950644 DK95

  11. AcEST: CL1889Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1889Contig1 491 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1889contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1889Contig1 Contig ID CL1889Contig1 Length 491 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1889contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919609 BP91

  12. AcEST: CL3059Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3059Contig1 695 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3059contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3059Contig1 Contig ID CL3059Contig1 Length 695 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3059contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK954354 DK95

  13. AcEST: CL2119Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2119Contig1 448 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2119contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2119Contig1 Contig ID CL2119Contig1 Length 448 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2119contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK944112 DK94

  14. AcEST: CL4199Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4199Contig1 587 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4199contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4199Contig1 Contig ID CL4199Contig1 Length 587 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4199contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913316 BP91

  15. AcEST: CL2069Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2069Contig1 568 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2069contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2069Contig1 Contig ID CL2069Contig1 Length 568 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2069contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916627 BP92

  16. AcEST: CL3209Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3209Contig1 759 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3209contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3209Contig1 Contig ID CL3209Contig1 Length 759 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP921454 DK94

  17. AcEST: CL3019Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3019Contig1 749 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3019contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3019Contig1 Contig ID CL3019Contig1 Length 749 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3019contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948832 DK95

  18. AcEST: CL3029Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3029Contig1 796 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3029contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3029Contig1 Contig ID CL3029Contig1 Length 796 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3029contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK951643 DK95

  19. AcEST: CL3389Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3389Contig1 639 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3389contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3389Contig1 Contig ID CL3389Contig1 Length 639 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3389contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK959149 DK96

  20. AcEST: CL2016Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2016Contig1 715 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2016contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2016...Contig1 Contig ID CL2016Contig1 Length 715 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2016contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957912 DK95

  1. AcEST: BP917285 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ... ...to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Repo...rt - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMB

  2. AcEST: CL2015Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2015Contig1 803 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2015contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2015...Contig1 Contig ID CL2015Contig1 Length 803 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2015contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945591 DK94

  3. AcEST: CL2212Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2212Contig1 501 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2212contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...212Contig1 Contig ID CL2212Contig1 Length 501 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2212contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914042 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL2681Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2681Contig1 555 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2681contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...681Contig1 Contig ID CL2681Contig1 Length 555 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2681contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911531 BP91

  5. AcEST: CL2393Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2393Contig1 527 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2393contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...393Contig1 Contig ID CL2393Contig1 Length 527 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2393contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915519 BP92

  6. AcEST: CL2065Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2065Contig1 463 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2065contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...065Contig1 Contig ID CL2065Contig1 Length 463 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2065contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916982 BP91

  7. AcEST: CL2343Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2343Contig1 904 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2343contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...343Contig1 Contig ID CL2343Contig1 Length 904 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2343contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916643 BP92

  8. AcEST: CL2295Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2295Contig1 482 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2295contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...295Contig1 Contig ID CL2295Contig1 Length 482 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2295contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916151 BP91

  9. AcEST: CL2861Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2861Contig1 1048 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2861contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...861Contig1 Contig ID CL2861Contig1 Length 1048 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2861contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912360 DK

  10. AcEST: CL2488Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2488Contig1 839 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2488contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...488Contig1 Contig ID CL2488Contig1 Length 839 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2488contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914436 BP92

  11. AcEST: CL2498Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2498Contig1 827 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2498contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...498Contig1 Contig ID CL2498Contig1 Length 827 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2498contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917993 DK95

  12. AcEST: CL2142Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2142Contig1 782 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2142contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...142Contig1 Contig ID CL2142Contig1 Length 782 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2142contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916901 DK95

  13. AcEST: CL2617Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2617Contig1 729 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2617contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...617Contig1 Contig ID CL2617Contig1 Length 729 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2617contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913961 BP92

  14. AcEST: CL2603Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2603Contig1 1169 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2603contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...603Contig1 Contig ID CL2603Contig1 Length 1169 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2603contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953431 DK

  15. AcEST: CL215Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL215Contig1 2114 10 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL215contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...15Contig1 Contig ID CL215Contig1 Length 2114 Number of clones 10 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL215contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK951912 DK946

  16. AcEST: CL2928Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2928Contig1 682 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2928contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...928Contig1 Contig ID CL2928Contig1 Length 682 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2928contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915131 BP91

  17. AcEST: CL2738Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2738Contig1 1072 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2738contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...738Contig1 Contig ID CL2738Contig1 Length 1072 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2738contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915383 DK

  18. AcEST: CL2966Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2966Contig1 535 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2966contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...966Contig1 Contig ID CL2966Contig1 Length 535 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2966contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919897 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL2655Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2655Contig1 503 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2655contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...655Contig1 Contig ID CL2655Contig1 Length 503 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2655contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912162 BP91

  20. AcEST: CL2370Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2370Contig1 760 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2370contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...370Contig1 Contig ID CL2370Contig1 Length 760 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2370contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913325 BP92

  1. AcEST: CL2500Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2500Contig1 581 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2500contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...500Contig1 Contig ID CL2500Contig1 Length 581 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2500contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK959826 DK96

  2. AcEST: CL2175Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2175Contig1 778 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2175contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...175Contig1 Contig ID CL2175Contig1 Length 778 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2175contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912837 DK95

  3. AcEST: CL2320Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2320Contig1 934 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2320contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...320Contig1 Contig ID CL2320Contig1 Length 934 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2320contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912683 DK96

  4. AcEST: CL2823Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2823Contig1 925 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2823contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...823Contig1 Contig ID CL2823Contig1 Length 925 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2823contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917209 DK94

  5. AcEST: CL2070Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2070Contig1 676 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2070contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...070Contig1 Contig ID CL2070Contig1 Length 676 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2070contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918735 DK94

  6. AcEST: CL2027Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2027Contig1 482 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2027contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...027Contig1 Contig ID CL2027Contig1 Length 482 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2027contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916735 BP91

  7. AcEST: CL2425Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2425Contig1 711 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2425contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...425Contig1 Contig ID CL2425Contig1 Length 711 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2425contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948390 DK95

  8. AcEST: CL2533Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2533Contig1 1096 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2533contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...533Contig1 Contig ID CL2533Contig1 Length 1096 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2533contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK955367 DK

  9. AcEST: CL2535Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2535Contig1 260 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2535contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...535Contig1 Contig ID CL2535Contig1 Length 260 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2535contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920973 BP92

  10. AcEST: CL2683Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2683Contig1 1040 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2683contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...683Contig1 Contig ID CL2683Contig1 Length 1040 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2683contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920353 DK

  11. AcEST: CL2573Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2573Contig1 542 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2573contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...573Contig1 Contig ID CL2573Contig1 Length 542 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2573contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914432 BP92

  12. AcEST: CL2453Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2453Contig1 859 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2453contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...453Contig1 Contig ID CL2453Contig1 Length 859 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2453contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917255 DK95

  13. AcEST: CL2067Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2067Contig1 571 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2067contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...067Contig1 Contig ID CL2067Contig1 Length 571 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2067contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912097 BP91

  14. AcEST: CL2846Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2846Contig1 794 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2846contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...846Contig1 Contig ID CL2846Contig1 Length 794 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2846contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915179 BP92

  15. AcEST: CL2210Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2210Contig1 715 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2210contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...210Contig1 Contig ID CL2210Contig1 Length 715 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2210contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK943758 DK95

  16. AcEST: CL2753Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2753Contig1 543 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2753contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...753Contig1 Contig ID CL2753Contig1 Length 543 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2753contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912326 BP91

  17. AcEST: CL2798Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2798Contig1 577 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2798contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...798Contig1 Contig ID CL2798Contig1 Length 577 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2798contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916706 BP92

  18. AcEST: CL2177Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2177Contig1 559 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2177contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...177Contig1 Contig ID CL2177Contig1 Length 559 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2177contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912603 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL2821Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2821Contig1 683 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2821contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...821Contig1 Contig ID CL2821Contig1 Length 683 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2821contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920051 DK96

  20. AcEST: CL2367Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2367Contig1 716 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2367contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...367Contig1 Contig ID CL2367Contig1 Length 716 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2367contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912235 BP91

  1. AcEST: CL2032Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2032Contig1 517 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2032contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...032Contig1 Contig ID CL2032Contig1 Length 517 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2032contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918977 DK94

  2. AcEST: CL2933Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2933Contig1 686 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2933contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...933Contig1 Contig ID CL2933Contig1 Length 686 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2933contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK959920 DK96

  3. AcEST: CL2856Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2856Contig1 403 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2856contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...856Contig1 Contig ID CL2856Contig1 Length 403 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2856contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912144 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL2463Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2463Contig1 432 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2463contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...463Contig1 Contig ID CL2463Contig1 Length 432 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2463contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912920 BP91

  5. AcEST: CL2315Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2315Contig1 1068 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2315contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...315Contig1 Contig ID CL2315Contig1 Length 1068 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2315contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948790 DK

  6. AcEST: CL2713Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2713Contig1 504 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2713contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...713Contig1 Contig ID CL2713Contig1 Length 504 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2713contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912885 BP91

  7. AcEST: CL2283Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2283Contig1 1088 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2283contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...283Contig1 Contig ID CL2283Contig1 Length 1088 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2283contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948856 DK

  8. AcEST: CL2678Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2678Contig1 873 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2678contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...678Contig1 Contig ID CL2678Contig1 Length 873 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2678contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952476 DK95

  9. AcEST: CL2931Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2931Contig1 704 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2931contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...931Contig1 Contig ID CL2931Contig1 Length 704 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2931contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915200 BP91

  10. AcEST: CL2873Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2873Contig1 604 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2873contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...873Contig1 Contig ID CL2873Contig1 Length 604 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2873contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914182 BP91

  11. AcEST: CL2818Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2818Contig1 611 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2818contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...818Contig1 Contig ID CL2818Contig1 Length 611 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2818contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920155 DK95

  12. AcEST: CL2791Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2791Contig1 484 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2791contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...791Contig1 Contig ID CL2791Contig1 Length 484 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2791contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920886 BP91

  13. AcEST: CL2260Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2260Contig1 565 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2260contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...260Contig1 Contig ID CL2260Contig1 Length 565 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2260contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917578 BP91

  14. AcEST: CL2751Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2751Contig1 885 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2751contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...751Contig1 Contig ID CL2751Contig1 Length 885 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2751contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953070 DK96

  15. AcEST: CL2355Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2355Contig1 527 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2355contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...355Contig1 Contig ID CL2355Contig1 Length 527 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2355contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915676 BP92

  16. AcEST: CL2510Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2510Contig1 854 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2510contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...510Contig1 Contig ID CL2510Contig1 Length 854 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2510contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920473 BP92

  17. AcEST: CL2222Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2222Contig1 540 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2222contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...222Contig1 Contig ID CL2222Contig1 Length 540 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2222contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919671 DK95

  18. AcEST: CL2896Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2896Contig1 559 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2896contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...896Contig1 Contig ID CL2896Contig1 Length 559 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2896contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918886 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL2180Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2180Contig1 665 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2180contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...180Contig1 Contig ID CL2180Contig1 Length 665 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2180contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917015 DK95

  20. AcEST: CL2568Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2568Contig1 603 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2568contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...568Contig1 Contig ID CL2568Contig1 Length 603 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2568contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914644 BP91

  1. AcEST: CL2571Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2571Contig1 788 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2571contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...571Contig1 Contig ID CL2571Contig1 Length 788 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2571contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914683 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL2140Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2140Contig1 528 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2140contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...140Contig1 Contig ID CL2140Contig1 Length 528 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2140contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911849 BP91

  3. AcEST: CL2430Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2430Contig1 790 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2430contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...430Contig1 Contig ID CL2430Contig1 Length 790 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2430contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917565 DK96

  4. AcEST: CL2427Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2427Contig1 389 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2427contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...427Contig1 Contig ID CL2427Contig1 Length 389 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2427contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918213 BP92

  5. AcEST: CL2643Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2643Contig1 708 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2643contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...643Contig1 Contig ID CL2643Contig1 Length 708 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2643contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913636 BP91

  6. AcEST: CL2137Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2137Contig1 805 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2137contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...137Contig1 Contig ID CL2137Contig1 Length 805 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2137contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913369 DK94

  7. AcEST: CL2395Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2395Contig1 929 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2395contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...395Contig1 Contig ID CL2395Contig1 Length 929 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2395contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920655 DK95

  8. AcEST: CL2207Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2207Contig1 750 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2207contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...207Contig1 Contig ID CL2207Contig1 Length 750 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2207contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918838 DK94

  9. AcEST: CL2786Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2786Contig1 800 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2786contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...786Contig1 Contig ID CL2786Contig1 Length 800 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2786contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920244 DK94

  10. AcEST: CL2317Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2317Contig1 541 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2317contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...317Contig1 Contig ID CL2317Contig1 Length 541 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2317contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917682 BP91

  11. AcEST: CL2905Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2905Contig1 508 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2905contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...905Contig1 Contig ID CL2905Contig1 Length 508 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2905contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918928 BP91

  12. AcEST: CL2523Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2523Contig1 562 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2523contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...523Contig1 Contig ID CL2523Contig1 Length 562 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2523contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920992 DK96

  13. AcEST: CL2285Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2285Contig1 807 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2285contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...285Contig1 Contig ID CL2285Contig1 Length 807 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2285contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914617 DK94

  14. AcEST: CL2102Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2102Contig1 758 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2102contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...102Contig1 Contig ID CL2102Contig1 Length 758 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2102contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914542 BP91

  15. AcEST: CL2030Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2030Contig1 559 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2030contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...030Contig1 Contig ID CL2030Contig1 Length 559 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2030contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913053 BP91

  16. AcEST: CL2381Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2381Contig1 508 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2381contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...381Contig1 Contig ID CL2381Contig1 Length 508 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2381contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912877 BP92

  17. AcEST: CL2858Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2858Contig1 857 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2858contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...858Contig1 Contig ID CL2858Contig1 Length 857 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2858contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953967 DK95

  18. AcEST: CL2605Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2605Contig1 495 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2605contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...605Contig1 Contig ID CL2605Contig1 Length 495 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2605contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916819 BP92

  19. AcEST: CL2748Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2748Contig1 706 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2748contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...748Contig1 Contig ID CL2748Contig1 Length 706 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2748contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914439 BP91

  20. AcEST: CL2029Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2029Contig1 489 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2029contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...029Contig1 Contig ID CL2029Contig1 Length 489 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2029contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK947409 BP91

  1. AcEST: CL2257Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2257Contig1 1075 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2257contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...257Contig1 Contig ID CL2257Contig1 Length 1075 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2257contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK949703 DK

  2. AcEST: CL2788Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2788Contig1 614 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2788contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...788Contig1 Contig ID CL2788Contig1 Length 614 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2788contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914783 BP91

  3. AcEST: CL2250Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2250Contig1 403 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2250contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...250Contig1 Contig ID CL2250Contig1 Length 403 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2250contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919205 BP92

  4. AcEST: CL2209Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2209Contig1 880 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...209Contig1 Contig ID CL2209Contig1 Length 880 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913872 DK94

  5. AcEST: CL2715Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2715Contig1 806 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2715contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...715Contig1 Contig ID CL2715Contig1 Length 806 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2715contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913565 DK95

  6. AcEST: CL2139Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2139Contig1 481 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2139contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...139Contig1 Contig ID CL2139Contig1 Length 481 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2139contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916823 BP92

  7. AcEST: CL2971Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2971Contig1 1029 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2971contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...971Contig1 Contig ID CL2971Contig1 Length 1029 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2971contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK951083 DK

  8. AcEST: CL2968Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2968Contig1 554 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2968contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...968Contig1 Contig ID CL2968Contig1 Length 554 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2968contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919866 BP91

  9. AcEST: CL2245Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2245Contig1 1056 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2245contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...245Contig1 Contig ID CL2245Contig1 Length 1056 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2245contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917210 DK

  10. AcEST: CL2703Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2703Contig1 417 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2703contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...703Contig1 Contig ID CL2703Contig1 Length 417 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2703contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916144 BP91

  11. AcEST: CL2465Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2465Contig1 1181 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2465contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...465Contig1 Contig ID CL2465Contig1 Length 1181 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2465contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK954174 DK

  12. AcEST: CL2247Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2247Contig1 1020 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2247contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...247Contig1 Contig ID CL2247Contig1 Length 1020 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2247contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948571 DK

  13. AcEST: CL2628Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2628Contig1 555 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2628contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...628Contig1 Contig ID CL2628Contig1 Length 555 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2628contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920586 BP92

  14. AcEST: CL1984Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1984Contig1 553 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1984contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1984...Contig1 Contig ID CL1984Contig1 Length 553 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1984contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919579 DK94

  15. AcEST: DK949406 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3. 5' end sequence. DK949406 - Show DK949406 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0005_O13 Library TST38 Length 717 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0005_O13. 5' end sequence. Accession DK949406 Tissue t...rch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK949406|Adiantum capillus-... database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK949406|Adian

  16. AcEST: DK943672 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7. 5' end sequence. DK943672 - Show DK943672 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0003_J07 Library YMU02 Length 108 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0003_J07. 5' end sequence. Accession DK943672 Tissue t...YMU02A01NGRL0003_J07 108 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0003_J0

  17. AcEST: DK947750 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4. 5' end sequence. DK947750 - Show DK947750 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0016_O04 Library YMU02 Length 101 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0016_O04. 5' end sequence. Accession DK947750 Tissue t...YMU02A01NGRL0016_O04 101 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0016_O0

  18. AcEST: CL1980Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1980Contig1 668 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1980contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1980...Contig1 Contig ID CL1980Contig1 Length 668 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1980contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918473 BP92

  19. AcEST: CL3000Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3000Contig1 615 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3000contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL3000...Contig1 Contig ID CL3000Contig1 Length 615 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3000contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945747 DK94

  20. AcEST: CL1941Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1941Contig1 803 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1941contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1941...Contig1 Contig ID CL1941Contig1 Length 803 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1941contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952552 DK95