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Sample records for character est sequencing

  1. Genomic analysis of a sexually-selected character: EST sequencing and microarray analysis of eye-antennal imaginal discs in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni (Diopsidae

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    Wang Xianhui

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many species of stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae possess highly-exaggerated, sexually dimorphic eye-stalks that play an important role in the mating system of these flies. Eye-stalks are increasingly being used as a model system for studying sexual selection, but little is known about the genetic mechanisms producing variation in these ornamental traits. Therefore, we constructed an EST database of genes expressed in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc of the highly dimorphic species Teleopsis dalmanni. We used this set of genes to construct microarray slides and compare patterns of gene expression between lines of flies with divergent eyespan. Results We generated 33,229 high-quality ESTs from three non-normalized libraries made from the developing eye-stalk tissue at different developmental stages. EST assembly and annotation produced a total of 7,066 clusters comprising 3,424 unique genes with significant sequence similarity to a protein in either Drosophila melanogaster or Anopheles gambiae. Comparisons of the transcript profiles at different stages reveal a developmental shift in relative expression from genes involved in anatomical structure formation, transcription, and cell proliferation at the larval stage to genes involved in neurological processes and cuticle production during the pupal stages. Based on alignments of the EST fragments to homologous sequences in Drosophila and Anopheles, we identified 20 putative gene duplication events in T. dalmanni and numerous genes undergoing significantly faster rates of evolution in T. dalmanni relative to the other Dipteran species. Microarray experiments identified over 350 genes with significant differential expression between flies from lines selected for high and low relative eyespan but did not reveal any primary biological process or pathway that is driving the expression differences. Conclusion The catalogue of genes identified in the EST database provides a valuable

  2. Sequence to Sequence Learning for Optical Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu, Devendra Kumar; Sukhwani, Mohak

    2015-01-01

    We propose an end-to-end recurrent encoder-decoder based sequence learning approach for printed text Optical Character Recognition (OCR). In contrast to present day existing state-of-art OCR solution which uses connectionist temporal classification (CTC) output layer, our approach makes minimalistic assumptions on the structure and length of the sequence. We use a two step encoder-decoder approach -- (a) A recurrent encoder reads a variable length printed text word image and encodes it to a f...

  3. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Joseph W; Sussman, Bethany L; Townsend, James T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable non-word, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient-words and pseudowords were processed at super-capacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across string-type. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four string-types and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia. PMID:25954234

  4. Dyslexia and Configural Perception of Character Sequences

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    Joseph W Houpt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable nonword, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient - words and pseudowords were processed at supercapacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across conditions. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four conditions and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia.

  5. EST2Prot: Mapping EST sequences to proteins

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    Lin David M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EST libraries are used in various biological studies, from microarray experiments to proteomic and genetic screens. These libraries usually contain many uncharacterized ESTs that are typically ignored since they cannot be mapped to known genes. Consequently, new discoveries are possibly overlooked. Results We describe a system (EST2Prot that uses multiple elements to map EST sequences to their corresponding protein products. EST2Prot uses UniGene clusters, substring analysis, information about protein coding regions in existing DNA sequences and protein database searches to detect protein products related to a query EST sequence. Gene Ontology terms, Swiss-Prot keywords, and protein similarity data are used to map the ESTs to functional descriptors. Conclusion EST2Prot extends and significantly enriches the popular UniGene mapping by utilizing multiple relations between known biological entities. It produces a mapping between ESTs and proteins in real-time through a simple web-interface. The system is part of the Biozon database and is accessible at http://biozon.org/tools/est/.

  6. Gnathostome phylogenomics utilizing lungfish EST sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Björn M; Janke, Axel

    2009-02-01

    The relationship between the Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes), the Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes), and the piscine Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes) and how the Tetrapoda (four-limbed terrestrial vertebrates) are related to these has been a contentious issue for more than a century. A general consensus about the relationship of these vertebrate clades has gradually emerged among morphologists, but no molecular study has yet provided conclusive evidence for any specific hypothesis. In order to examine these relationships on the basis of more extensive sequence data, we have produced almost 1,000,000 bp of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the African marbled lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus. This new data set yielded 771 transcribed nuclear sequences that had not been previously described. The lungfish EST sequences were combined with EST data from two cartilaginous fishes and whole genome data from an agnathan, four ray-finned fishes, and four tetrapods. Phylogenomic analysis of these data yielded, for the first time, significant maximum likelihood support for a traditional gnathostome tree with a split between the Chondrichthyes and remaining (bone) gnathostomes. Also, the sister group relationship between Dipnoi (lungfishes) and Tetrapoda received conclusive support. Previously proposed hypotheses, such as the monophyly of fishes, could be rejected significantly. The divergence time between lungfishes and tetrapods was estimated to 382-388 Ma by the current data set and six calibration points. PMID:19029191

  7. Linear discriminant analysis of character sequences using occurrences of words

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Subhajit

    2014-02-01

    Classification of character sequences, where the characters come from a finite set, arises in disciplines such as molecular biology and computer science. For discriminant analysis of such character sequences, the Bayes classifier based on Markov models turns out to have class boundaries defined by linear functions of occurrences of words in the sequences. It is shown that for such classifiers based on Markov models with unknown orders, if the orders are estimated from the data using cross-validation, the resulting classifier has Bayes risk consistency under suitable conditions. Even when Markov models are not valid for the data, we develop methods for constructing classifiers based on linear functions of occurrences of words, where the word length is chosen by cross-validation. Such linear classifiers are constructed using ideas of support vector machines, regression depth, and distance weighted discrimination. We show that classifiers with linear class boundaries have certain optimal properties in terms of their asymptotic misclassification probabilities. The performance of these classifiers is demonstrated in various simulated and benchmark data sets.

  8. EST-PAC a web package for EST annotation and protein sequence prediction

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    Strahm Yvan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the decreasing cost of DNA sequencing technology and the vast diversity of biological resources, researchers increasingly face the basic challenge of annotating a larger number of expressed sequences tags (EST from a variety of species. This typically consists of a series of repetitive tasks, which should be automated and easy to use. The results of these annotation tasks need to be stored and organized in a consistent way. All these operations should be self-installing, platform independent, easy to customize and amenable to using distributed bioinformatics resources available on the Internet. In order to address these issues, we present EST-PAC a web oriented multi-platform software package for expressed sequences tag (EST annotation. EST-PAC provides a solution for the administration of EST and protein sequence annotations accessible through a web interface. Three aspects of EST annotation are automated: 1 searching local or remote biological databases for sequence similarities using Blast services, 2 predicting protein coding sequence from EST data and, 3 annotating predicted protein sequences with functional domain predictions. In practice, EST-PAC integrates the BLASTALL suite, EST-Scan2 and HMMER in a relational database system accessible through a simple web interface. EST-PAC also takes advantage of the relational database to allow consistent storage, powerful queries of results and, management of the annotation process. The system allows users to customize annotation strategies and provides an open-source data-management environment for research and education in bioinformatics.

  9. AcEST(EST sequences of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) - AcEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AcEST AcEST(EST sequences of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) Data detail Data name AcEST(EST... sequences of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) Description of data contents EST sequence of Adiantum capi...db/view/archive_acest#en Data acquisition method Capillary sequencer Data analysi...atabases) Number of data entries Adiantum capillus-veneris ESTs: 30,540. Data item Description Clone id Clon...e ID of EST sequence of Adiantum capillus-veneris. Library Library name Length Nu

  10. An extendible software for learning to write Chinese characters in correct stroke sequences on smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, V.; Huang, C.

    2011-01-01

    With the fast economic development in China, learning to understand Chinese becomes very crucial and popular worldwide. To most foreigners and even native Chinese students, one of the major challenges in learning Chinese is to write Chinese characters in correct stroke sequences since the correct stroke sequences of writing any Chinese character is regarded as crucial in the Chinese culture. Intrinsically, there were very few available character recognition techniques that can tackle the comp...

  11. On the origins of birds: the sequence of character acquisition in the evolution of avian flight

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, J. P.; & Taylor, G. K.; Thomas, A. L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Assessment of competing theories for the evolution of avian flight is problematic, and tends to rest too heavily on reconstruction of the mode of life of one or a few specimens representing still fewer species. A more powerful method is to compare the sequence of character acquisition predicted by the various theories with the empirical sequence provided by cladistic phylogeny. Arboreal and cursorial theories incorrectly predict the sequence of character acquisition for several key features o...

  12. Characterization of simple sequence repeats (SSRs from Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae expressed sequence tags (ESTs

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    Hamarsheh Omar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomus papatasi is a natural vector of Leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in many countries. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites, are common in eukaryotic genomes and are short, repeated nucleotide sequence elements arrayed in tandem and flanked by non-repetitive regions. The enrichment methods used previously for finding new microsatellite loci in sand flies remain laborious and time consuming; in silico mining, which includes retrieval and screening of microsatellites from large amounts of sequence data from sequence data bases using microsatellite search tools can yield many new candidate markers. Results Simple sequence repeats (SSRs were characterized in P. papatasi expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived from a public database, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. A total of 42,784 sequences were mined, and 1,499 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 3.5% and an average density of 15.55 kb per SSR. Dinucleotide motifs were the most common SSRs, accounting for 67% followed by tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide repeats, accounting for 31.1%, 1.5%, and 0.1%, respectively. The length of microsatellites varied from 5 to 16 repeats. Dinucleotide types; AG and CT have the highest frequency. Dinucleotide SSR-ESTs are relatively biased toward an excess of (AXn repeats and a low GC base content. Forty primer pairs were designed based on motif lengths for further experimental validation. Conclusion The first large-scale survey of SSRs derived from P. papatasi is presented; dinucleotide SSRs identified are more frequent than other types. EST data mining is an effective strategy to identify functional microsatellites in P. papatasi.

  13. ContEst: estimating cross-contamination of human samples in next-generation sequencing data

    OpenAIRE

    Cibulskis, Kristian; McKenna, Aaron; Fennell, Tim; Banks, Eric; dePristo, Mark; Getz, Gad

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Here, we present ContEst, a tool for estimating the level of cross-individual contamination in next-generation sequencing data. We demonstrate the accuracy of ContEst across a range of contamination levels, sources and read depths using sequencing data mixed in silico at known concentrations. We applied our tool to published cancer sequencing datasets and report their estimated contamination levels.

  14. OrfPredictor: predicting protein-coding regions in EST-derived sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiang Jia; Butler, Gregory; Storms, Reginald; Tsang, Adrian

    2005-07-01

    OrfPredictor is a web server designed for identifying protein-coding regions in expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived sequences. For query sequences with a hit in BLASTX, the program predicts the coding regions based on the translation reading frames identified in BLASTX alignments, otherwise, it predicts the most probable coding region based on the intrinsic signals of the query sequences. The output is the predicted peptide sequences in the FASTA format, and a definition line that includes the query ID, the translation reading frame and the nucleotide positions where the coding region begins and ends. OrfPredictor facilitates the annotation of EST-derived sequences, particularly, for large-scale EST projects. OrfPredictor is available at https://fungalgenome.concordia.ca/tools/OrfPredictor.html. PMID:15980561

  15. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

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    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  16. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome-specific EST sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chuan-Liang Deng; Wei-Li Zhang; Ying Cao; Shao-Jing Wang; Shu-Fen Li; Wu-Jun Gao; Long-Dou Lu

    2015-12-01

    The genome of spinach single chromosome complement is about 1000 Mbp, which is the model material to study the molecular mechanisms of plant sex differentiation. The cytological study showed that the biggest spinach chromosome (chromosome 1) was taken as spinach sex chromosome. It had three alleles of sex-related , m and . Many researchers have been trying to clone the sex-determining genes and investigated the molecular mechanism of spinach sex differentiation. However, there are no successful cloned reports about these genes. A new technology combining chromosome microdissection with hybridization-specific amplification (HSA) was adopted. The spinach Y chromosome degenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR (DOP-PCR) products were hybridized with cDNA of the male spinach flowers in florescence. The female spinach genome was taken as blocker and cDNA library specifically expressed in Y chromosome was constructed. Moreover, expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences in cDNA library were cloned, sequenced and bioinformatics was analysed. There were 63 valid EST sequences obtained in this study. The fragment size was between 53 and 486 bp. BLASTn homologous alignment indicated that 12 EST sequences had homologous sequences of nucleic acids, the rest were new sequences. BLASTx homologous alignment indicated that 16 EST sequences had homologous protein-encoding nucleic acid sequence. The spinach Y chromosome-specific EST sequences laid the foundation for cloning the functional genes, specifically expressed in spinach Y chromosome. Meanwhile, the establishment of the technology system in the research provided a reference for rapid cloning of other biological sex chromosome-specific EST sequences.

  17. Expressed Sequence Tag-Simple Sequence Repeat (EST-SSR Marker Resources for Diversity Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.

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    Natalie L. Dillon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a collection of 24,840 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from five mango (Mangifera indica L. cDNA libraries was mined for EST-based simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Over 1,000 ESTs with SSR motifs were detected from more than 24,000 EST sequences with di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant. Of these, 25 EST-SSRs in genes involved in plant development, stress response, and fruit color and flavor development pathways were selected, developed into PCR markers and characterized in a population of 32 mango selections including M. indica varieties, and related Mangifera species. Twenty-four of the 25 EST-SSR markers exhibited polymorphisms, identifying a total of 86 alleles with an average of 5.38 alleles per locus, and distinguished between all Mangifera selections. Private alleles were identified for Mangifera species. These newly developed EST-SSR markers enhance the current 11 SSR mango genetic identity panel utilized by the Australian Mango Breeding Program. The current panel has been used to identify progeny and parents for selection and the application of this extended panel will further improve and help to design mango hybridization strategies for increased breeding efficiency.

  18. Identification of true EST alignments and exon regions of gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yanhong; JING Hui; LI Yanen; LIU Huailan

    2004-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs), which have piled up considerably so far, provide a valuable resource for finding new genes, disease-relevant genes, and for recognizing alternative splicing variants, SNP sites, etc. The prerequisite for carrying out these researches is to correctly ascertain the gene-sequence-related ESTs. Based on analysis of the alignment results between some known gene sequences and ESTs in public database, several measures including Identity Check, Gap Check, Inclusion Check and Length Check have been introduced to judge whether an EST alignment is related to a gene sequence or not. A computational program EDSAc1.0 has been developed to identify true EST alignments and exon regions of query gene sequences. When tested with human gene sequences in the standard dataset HMR195 and evaluated with the standard measures of gene prediction performance, EDSAc1.0 can identify protein- coding regions with specificity of 0.997 and sensitivity of 0.88 at the nucleotide level, which outperform that of the counterpart TAP. A web server of EDSAc1.0 is available at http://infosci.hust.edu.cn.

  19. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for marker development in yam (Dioscorea alata L.

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    Robert Asiedu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a major limiting factor in the production of yam (Dioscorea spp. worldwide. Availability of high quality sequence information is necessary for designing molecular markers associated with resistance. However, very limited sequence information pertaining to yam is available at public genome databases. Therefore, this collaborative project was developed for genetic improvement and germplasm characterization of yams using molecular markers. The current investigation is focused on studying gene expression, by large scale generation of ESTs, from one susceptible (TDa 95-0310 and two resistant yam genotypes (TDa 87-01091, TDa 95-0328 challenged with the fungus. Total RNA was isolated from young leaves of resistant and susceptible genotypes and cDNA libraries were sequenced using Roche 454 technology. Results A total of 44,757 EST sequences were generated from the cDNA libraries of the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Greater than 56% of ESTs were annotated using MapMan Mercator tool and Blast2GO search tools. Gene annotations were used to characterize the transcriptome in yam and also perform a differential gene expression analysis between the resistant and susceptible EST datasets. Mining for SSRs in the ESTs revealed 1702 unique sequences containing SSRs and 1705 SSR markers were designed using those sequences. Conclusion We have developed a comprehensive annotated transcriptome data set in yam to enrich the EST information in public databases. cDNA libraries were constructed from anthracnose fungus challenged leaf tissues for transcriptome characterization, and differential gene expression analysis. Thus, it helped in identifying unique transcripts in each library for disease resistance. These EST resources provide the basis for future microarray development, marker validation, genetic linkage mapping and QTL analysis in Dioscorea species.

  20. Genomic Resources for Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L.): Analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo Sequencing and GBS Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saski, Christopher A.; Bhattacharjee, Ranjana; Scheffler, Brian E.; Asiedu, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is a major food and cash crop in many countries but research efforts have been limited to understand the genetics and generate genomic information for the crop. The availability of a large number of genomic resources including genome-wide molecular markers will accelerate the breeding efforts and application of genomic selection in yams. In the present study, several methods including expressed sequence tags (EST)-sequencing, de novo sequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) profiles on two yam (Dioscorea alata L.) genotypes (TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310) was performed to generate genomic resources for use in its improvement programs. This includes a comprehensive set of EST-SSRs, genomic SSRs, whole genome SNPs, and reduced representation SNPs. A total of 1,152 EST-SSRs were developed from >40,000 EST-sequences generated from the two genotypes. A set of 388 EST-SSRs were validated as polymorphic showing a polymorphism rate of 34% when tested on two diverse parents targeted for anthracnose disease. In addition, approximately 40X de novo whole genome sequence coverage was generated for each of the two genotypes, and a total of 18,584 and 15,952 genomic SSRs were identified for TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310, respectively. A custom made pipeline resulted in the selection of 573 genomic SSRs common across the two genotypes, of which only eight failed, 478 being polymorphic and 62 monomorphic indicating a polymorphic rate of 83.5%. Additionally, 288,505 high quality SNPs were also identified between these two genotypes. Genotyping by sequencing reads on these two genotypes also revealed 36,790 overlapping SNP positions that are distributed throughout the genome. Our efforts in using different approaches

  1. Genomic Resources for Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L.: Analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo Sequencing and GBS Libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Saski

    Full Text Available The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp. is a major food and cash crop in many countries but research efforts have been limited to understand the genetics and generate genomic information for the crop. The availability of a large number of genomic resources including genome-wide molecular markers will accelerate the breeding efforts and application of genomic selection in yams. In the present study, several methods including expressed sequence tags (EST-sequencing, de novo sequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS profiles on two yam (Dioscorea alata L. genotypes (TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310 was performed to generate genomic resources for use in its improvement programs. This includes a comprehensive set of EST-SSRs, genomic SSRs, whole genome SNPs, and reduced representation SNPs. A total of 1,152 EST-SSRs were developed from >40,000 EST-sequences generated from the two genotypes. A set of 388 EST-SSRs were validated as polymorphic showing a polymorphism rate of 34% when tested on two diverse parents targeted for anthracnose disease. In addition, approximately 40X de novo whole genome sequence coverage was generated for each of the two genotypes, and a total of 18,584 and 15,952 genomic SSRs were identified for TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310, respectively. A custom made pipeline resulted in the selection of 573 genomic SSRs common across the two genotypes, of which only eight failed, 478 being polymorphic and 62 monomorphic indicating a polymorphic rate of 83.5%. Additionally, 288,505 high quality SNPs were also identified between these two genotypes. Genotyping by sequencing reads on these two genotypes also revealed 36,790 overlapping SNP positions that are distributed throughout the genome. Our efforts in using

  2. Identification and analysis of gene families from the duplicated genome of soybean using EST sequences

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    Shoemaker Randy

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large scale gene analysis of most organisms is hampered by incomplete genomic sequences. In many organisms, such as soybean, the best source of sequence information is the existence of expressed sequence tag (EST libraries. Soybean has a large (1115 Mbp genome that has yet to be fully sequenced. However it does have the 6th largest EST collection comprised of ESTs from a variety of soybean genotypes. Many EST libraries were constructed from RNA extracted from various genetic backgrounds, thus gene identification from these sources is complicated by the existence of both gene and allele sequence differences. We used the ESTminer suite of programs to identify potential soybean gene transcripts from a single genetic background allowing us to observe functional classifications between gene families as well as structural differences between genes and gene paralogs within families. The identification of potential gene sequences (pHaps from soybean allows us to begin to get a picture of the genomic history of the organism as well as begin to observe the evolutionary fates of gene copies in this highly duplicated genome. Results We identified approximately 45,000 potential gene sequences (pHaps from EST sequences of Williams/Williams82, an inbred genotype of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. using a redundancy criterion to identify reproducible sequence differences between related genes within gene families. Analysis of these sequences revealed single base substitutions and single base indels are the most frequently observed form of sequence variation between genes within families in the dataset. Genomic sequencing of selected loci indicate that intron-like intervening sequences are numerous and are approximately 220 bp in length. Functional annotation of gene sequences indicate functional classifications are not randomly distributed among gene families containing few or many genes. Conclusion The predominance of single nucleotide

  3. CoffeebEST: an integrated resource for Coffea spp expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, A R; Fernandes, E D M; Silva, J C; Lopes, F M; Pereira, L F P; Domingues, D S

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important commodities in the world, and its production relies mainly on two species, Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Although there are diverse transcriptome datasets available for coffee trees, few research groups have exploited the potential knowledge contained in these data, especially with respect to fruit and seed development. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora with a focus on fruit development using publicly available expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the fruit and seed EST data has been obtained from C. canephora. Therefore, we performed a fruit EST analysis of the 5 developmental stages of this species (18, 22, 30, 42, and 46 weeks after flowering) comprising 29,009 sequences. We compared C. canephora fruit ESTs to reference unigenes of C. canephora (7710 contigs and 8955 singletons) and C. arabica (15,656 contigs and 16,351 singletons). Additional analyses included functional annotation based on Gene Onthology, as well as an annotation using PlantCyc, a curated plant protein database. The Coffee Bean EST (CoffeebEST) is a public database available at http://bioinfo-02.cp.utfpr.edu.br/. This database represents an additional resource for the coffee scientific community, offering a user-friendly collection of information for non-specialists in coffee molecular biology to support experimental research on comparative and functional genomics. PMID:25526212

  4. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs from immune tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus challenged with pathogens

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    Lemos Manuel L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Scophthalmidae; Pleuronectiformes is a flatfish species of great relevance for marine aquaculture in Europe. In contrast to other cultured flatfish, very few genomic resources are available in this species. Aeromonas salmonicida and Philasterides dicentrarchi are two pathogens that affect turbot culture causing serious economic losses to the turbot industry. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms for disease resistance and host-pathogen interactions in this species. In this work, thousands of ESTs for functional genomic studies and potential markers linked to ESTs for mapping (microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are provided. This information enabled us to obtain a preliminary view of regulated genes in response to these pathogens and it constitutes the basis for subsequent and more accurate microarray analysis. Results A total of 12584 cDNAs partially sequenced from three different cDNA libraries of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus infected with Aeromonas salmonicida, Philasterides dicentrarchi and from healthy fish were analyzed. Three immune-relevant tissues (liver, spleen and head kidney were sampled at several time points in the infection process for library construction. The sequences were processed into 9256 high-quality sequences, which constituted the source for the turbot EST database. Clustering and assembly of these sequences, revealed 3482 different putative transcripts, 1073 contigs and 2409 singletons. BLAST searches with public databases detected significant similarity (e-value ≤ 1e-5 in 1766 (50.7% sequences and 816 of them (23.4% could be functionally annotated. Two hundred three of these genes (24.9%, encoding for defence/immune-related proteins, were mostly identified for the first time in turbot. Some ESTs showed significant differences in the number of transcripts when comparing the three libraries, suggesting regulation in response to these

  5. Phylogeny of the Labeoninae (Teleostei, Cypriniformes) based on nuclear DNA sequences and implications on character evolution and biogeography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanping ZHENG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The Labeoninae is a subfamily of the family Cyprinidae,Order Cypriniformes.Oromandibular morphology within the Labeoninae is the greatest among cyprinid fishes.Although several phylogenetic studies about labeonines have been undertaken the results have been inconsistent and a comprehensive phylogeny is needed.Further,an incongruence between morphological and molecular phylogeny requires a systematic exploration of the significance of morphological characters on the basis of the molecular phylogeny.In this study,a total of 292 nucleotide sequences from 73 individuals (representing 24 genera and 73 species) of Labeoninae were analyzed.The results of the phylogenetic analysis indicate that there are four major clades within Labeoninae and three monophyletic lineages within the fourth clade.Results of the character evolution show that all oromandibular morphological characters are homoplastically distributed on the molecular phylogenetic tree and suggests that these characters evolved several times during the history of labeonines.In particular,the labeonine,a specific disc on the lower lip,has been acquired three times and reversed twice.These morphological characters do not have systematic significance but can be useful for taxonomy.The results of biogeography suggest that the Labeoninae originated from Southeast Asia and separately dispersed to Africa,East Asia and South Asia.

  6. Signs of positive selection of somatic mutations in human cancers detected by EST sequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinogenesis typically involves multiple somatic mutations in caretaker (DNA repair) and gatekeeper (tumor suppressors and oncogenes) genes. Analysis of mutation spectra of the tumor suppressor that is most commonly mutated in human cancers, p53, unexpectedly suggested that somatic evolution of the p53 gene during tumorigenesis is dominated by positive selection for gain of function. This conclusion is supported by accumulating experimental evidence of evolution of new functions of p53 in tumors. These findings prompted a genome-wide analysis of possible positive selection during tumor evolution. A comprehensive analysis of probable somatic mutations in the sequences of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from malignant tumors and normal tissues was performed in order to access the prevalence of positive selection in cancer evolution. For each EST, the numbers of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions were calculated. In order to identify genes with a signature of positive selection in cancers, these numbers were compared to: i) expected numbers and ii) the numbers for the respective genes in the ESTs from normal tissues. We identified 112 genes with a signature of positive selection in cancers, i.e., a significantly elevated ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, in tumors as compared to 37 such genes in an approximately equal-sized EST collection from normal tissues. A substantial fraction of the tumor-specific positive-selection candidates have experimentally demonstrated or strongly predicted links to cancer. The results of EST analysis should be interpreted with extreme caution given the noise introduced by sequencing errors and undetected polymorphisms. Furthermore, an inherent limitation of EST analysis is that multiple mutations amenable to statistical analysis can be detected only in relatively highly expressed genes. Nevertheless, the present results suggest that positive selection might affect a substantial number of genes during

  7. Gene identification in prokaryotic genomes, phages, metagenomes, and EST sequences with GeneMarkS suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodovsky, Mark; Lomsadze, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes how to use several gene-finding programs from the GeneMark line developed for finding protein-coding ORFs in genomic DNA of prokaryotic species, in genomic DNA of eukaryotic species with intronless genes, in genomes of viruses and phages, and in prokaryotic metagenomic sequences, as well as in EST sequences with spliced-out introns. These bioinformatics tools were demonstrated to have state-of-the-art accuracy, and have been frequently used for gene annotation in novel nucleotide sequences. An additional advantage of these sequence-analysis tools is that the problem of algorithm parameterization is solved automatically, with parameters estimated by iterative self-training (unsupervised training). PMID:24510847

  8. GarlicESTdb: an online database and mining tool for garlic EST sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Sang-Haeng

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allium sativum., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus (Allium, which is a large and diverse one containing over 1,250 species. Its close relatives include chives, onion, leek and shallot. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for culinary, medicinal use and health benefits. Currently, the interest in garlic is highly increasing due to nutritional and pharmaceutical value including high blood pressure and cholesterol, atherosclerosis and cancer. For all that, there are no comprehensive databases available for Expressed Sequence Tags(EST of garlic for gene discovery and future efforts of genome annotation. That is why we developed a new garlic database and applications to enable comprehensive analysis of garlic gene expression. Description GarlicESTdb is an integrated database and mining tool for large-scale garlic (Allium sativum EST sequencing. A total of 21,595 ESTs collected from an in-house cDNA library were used to construct the database. The analysis pipeline is an automated system written in JAVA and consists of the following components: automatic preprocessing of EST reads, assembly of raw sequences, annotation of the assembled sequences, storage of the analyzed information into MySQL databases, and graphic display of all processed data. A web application was implemented with the latest J2EE (Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition software technology (JSP/EJB/JavaServlet for browsing and querying the database, for creation of dynamic web pages on the client side, and for mapping annotated enzymes to KEGG pathways, the AJAX framework was also used partially. The online resources, such as putative annotation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and tandem repeat data sets, can be searched by text, explored on the website, searched using BLAST, and downloaded. To archive more significant BLAST results, a curation system was introduced with which biologists can easily edit best-hit annotation

  9. Generation and analysis of 9792 EST sequences from cold acclimated oat, Avena sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Björn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oat is an important crop in North America and northern Europe. In Scandinavia, yields are limited by the fact that oat cannot be used as a winter crop. In order to develop such a crop, more knowledge about mechanisms of cold tolerance in oat is required. Results From an oat cDNA library 9792 single-pass EST sequences were obtained. The library was prepared from pooled RNA samples isolated from leaves of four-week old Avena sativa (oat plants incubated at +4°C for 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours. Exclusion of sequences shorter than 100 bp resulted in 8508 high-quality ESTs with a mean length of 710.7 bp. Clustering and assembly identified a set of 2800 different transcripts denoted the Avena sativa cold induced UniGene set (AsCIUniGene set. Taking advantage of various tools and databases, putative functions were assigned to 1620 (58% of these genes. Of the remaining 1180 unclassified sequences, 427 appeared to be oat-specific since they lacked any significant sequence similarity (Blast E values > 10-10 to any sequence available in the public databases. Of the 2800 UniGene sequences, 398 displayed significant homology (BlastX E values ≤ 10-10 to genes previously reported to be involved in cold stress related processes. 107 novel oat transcription factors were also identified, out of which 51 were similar to genes previously shown to be cold induced. The CBF transcription factors have a major role in regulating cold acclimation. Four oat CBF sequences were found, belonging to the monocot cluster of DREB family ERF/AP2 domain proteins. Finally in the total EST sequence data (5.3 Mbp approximately 400 potential SSRs were found, a frequency similar to what has previously been identified in Arabidopsis ESTs. Conclusion The AsCIUniGene set will now be used to fabricate an oat biochip, to perform various expression studies with different oat cultivars incubated at varying temperatures, to generate molecular markers and provide tools for

  10. Gene Identification and Expression Analysis of 86,136 Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) from the Rice Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhou; Lin Ye; Li Lin; Jun Li; Xuegang Wang; Hao Xu; Yibin Pan; Wei Lin; Wei Tian; Jing Liu; Liping Wei; Jiabin Tang; Siqi Liu; Huanming Yang; Jun Yu; Jian Wang; Michael G. Walker; Xiuqing Zhang; Jun Wang; Songnian Hu; Huayong Xu; Yajun Deng; Jianhai Dong

    2003-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) analysis has pioneered genome-wide gene discovery and expression profiling. In order to establish a gene expression index in the rice cultivar indica, we sequenced and analyzed 86,136 ESTs from nine rice cDNA libraries from the super hybrid cultivar LYP9 and its parental cultivars. We assembled these ESTs into 13,232 contigs and leave 8,976 singletons. Overall, 7,497 sequences were found similar to the existing sequences in GenBank and 14,711 are novel. These sequences are classified by molecular function, biological process and pathways according to the Gene Ontology. We compared our sequenced ESTs with the publicly available 95,000 ESTs from japonica, and found little sequence variation, despite the large difference between genome sequences. We then assembled the combined 173,000 rice ESTs for further analysis. Using the pooled ESTs, we compared gene expression in metabolism pathway between rice and Avabidopsis according to KEGG. We further profiled gene expression patterns in different tis sues, developmental stages, and in a conditional sterile mutant, after checking the libraries are comparable by means of sequence coverage. We also identified some possible library specific genes and a number of enzymes and transcription factors that contribute to rice development.

  11. Super-resolution Image Created from a Sequence of Images with Application of Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luiz de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution techniques allow combine multiple images of the same scene to obtain an image with increased geometric and radiometric resolution, called super-resolution image. In this image are enhanced features allowing to recover important details and information. The objective of this work is to develop efficient algorithm, robust and automated fusion image frames to obtain a super-resolution image. Image registration is a fundamental step in combining several images that make up the scene. Our research is based on the determination and extraction of characteristics defined by the SIFT and RANSAC algorithms for automatic image registration. We use images containing characters and perform recognition of these characters to validate and show the effectiveness of our proposed method. The distinction of this work is the way to get the matching and merging of images because it occurs dynamically between elements common images that are stored in a dynamic matrix.

  12. EST sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search) - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lone covering full-length ORF provided by the National BioResource Project ( http://www.nbrp.jp/ ). The...ein Coding Gene in dictyBase ( http://dictybase.org/ ). The link to dictyBase is provided in the...Dicty_cDB EST sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search) Data detai...l Data name EST sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search) Descript...ion of data contents Sequences of cDNA clones of Dictyostelium discoideum and the

  13. Construction of full-length cDNA library and development of EST-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers in Senecio scandens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Gang; Ping, Junjiao; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Lei; Xu, Delin

    2014-12-01

    Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don (Compositae) is a crucial source of Chinese traditional medicine with antibacterial properties. We constructed a cDNA library and obtained expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to show the distribution of gene ontology annotations for mRNAs, using an individual plant with superior antibacterial characteristics. Analysis of comparative genomics indicates that the putative uncharacterized proteins (21.07%) might be derived from "molecular function unknown" clones or rare transcripts. Furthermore, the Compositae had high cross-species transferability of EST-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR), based on valid amplifications of 206 primer pairs developed from the newly assembled expressed sequence tag sequences in Artemisia annua L. Among those EST-SSR markers, 52 primers showed polymorphic amplifications between individuals with contrasting diverse antibacterial traits. Our sequence data and molecular markers will be cost-effective tools for further studies such as genome annotation, molecular breeding, and novel transcript profiles within Compositae species. PMID:25007751

  14. Development of EST-SSR and TRAP markers from transcriptome sequencing data of the mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C; Wu, H X; Yao, Q S; Wang, S B; Xu, W T

    2015-01-01

    Mango is one of the most commercially important fruit crops in tropical and subtropical regions. To increase the efficiency of breeding strategies, two EST-derived marker systems were developed in the present study using information from the mango fruit transcriptome. Using simple sequence repeats, 218 of 230 primer pairs showed stable amplification for 7 mango genotypes with amplicons ranging from 84 to 160 bp; 93 of the primer pairs yielded polymorphic products. The proportion of polymorphic bands ranged from 16.67 to 100%, with a mean of 55.64%. In contrast, 86 primer pairs exhibited good amplification with clear bands for target region amplification polymorphism analysis, and a total of 66 primer combinations were polymorphic. These two novel sets of EST-derived markers will be of use in future studies of genetic diversity, genetic map construction, and marker-assisted selection in mango. PMID:26214472

  15. Generation of a large scale repertoire of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from normalised rainbow trout cDNA libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiguen Yann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the framework of a genomics project on livestock species (AGENAE, we initiated a high-throughput DNA sequencing program of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Results We constructed three cDNA libraries including one highly complex pooled-tissue library. These libraries were normalized and subtracted to reduce clone redundancy. ESTs sequences were produced, and 96 472 ESTs corresponding to high quality sequence reads were released on the international database, currently representing 42.5% of the overall sequence knowledge in this species. All these EST sequences and other publicly available ESTs in rainbow trout have been included on a publicly available Website (SIGENAE and have been clustered into a total of 52 930 clusters of putative transcripts groups, including 24 616 singletons. 57.1% of these 52 930 clusters are represented by at least one Agenae EST and 14 343 clusters (27.1% are only composed by Agenae ESTs. Sequence analysis also reveals that normalization and especially subtraction were effective in decreasing redundancy, and that the pooled-tissue library was representative of the initial tissue complexity. Conclusion Due to present work on the construction of rainbow trout normalized cDNA libraries and their extensive sequencing, along with other large scale sequencing programs, rainbow trout is now one of the major fish models in term of EST sequences available in a public database, just after Zebrafish, Danio rerio. This information is now used for the selection of a non redundant set of clones for producing DNA micro-arrays in order to examine global gene expression.

  16. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  17. [Isolation and expression of novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from ovarian follicles of Shaoxing ducks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Gang; Chen, Jie; Ni, Ying-Dong; Zhou, Yu-Chuan; Zhao, Ru-Qian

    2004-10-01

    Three expressed sequence tags ( ESTs), SXDF0201 (271 bp), SXDF0202 (200 bp) and SXDF0203 (173 bp), were isolated from ovarian follicles of Shaoxing ducks by using silver staining mRNA differential display. GenBank/BLAST analysis revealed that SXDF0201 was not homologous to any of the published sequences from all species, indicating that it was a novel EST and was then registered in GenBank (GenBank Accession No.: CB072629), while SXDF0202 and SXDF0203 were found to be highly homologous to seven known chicken ESTs and chicken mRNA for gizzard smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. 5'-RACE was employed to extend the SXDF0201 to 544 bp which was confirmed as novel in BLAST search. The temporal and spatial expression of SXDF0201 and SXDF0202 were also investigated with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The result showed that: both SXDF0201 and SXDF0202 were found to be expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, muscle, liver, and fat tissues of Shaoxing ducks; SXDF0201 was expressed significantly higher in ovaries of 30-day-old Shaoxing ducks compared with that of 60-day-old (P hierarchical follicles, the expression of SXDF0202 in granulose layers increased along with follicular maturation (P < 0.01) from Fw to F3 follicles, but decreased dramatically to the lowest in F1 follicles (P < 0.01). In theca layers, the highest expression of SXDF0202 was found in Fw follicles (P < 0.01). PMID:15552044

  18. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Hee Joung; Jerry L.Hill; Jung Oh Hyun; Ding Mu; Juchun Luo; Do Hyung Lee; Takayuki Kawahara; Jeung Keun Suh; Mark S.Roh

    2013-01-01

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population ofPinus densiflora × P.sylvestris in Jilin,China,we used needles and seeds from P.densiflora,P.sylvestris,and P.densiflora × P.sylvestris collected from natural stands or experimental stations to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSRs).Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to sequence analysis of the pine cpDNA SSR marker Pt15169.Results show that morphological characters from 4-year old seedlings did not correlate with sequence variants of this marker.Marker haplotypes from all P.sylvestris trees had a CTAT element that was absent from all sampled P.densiflora trees.However,both haplotype classes involving this insertion/deletion element were found in a P.densiflora × P.sylvestris population and its seedling progeny.It was concluded that the P.densiflora × P.sylvestris accessions sampled from Jilin,China resulted from bi-directional crosses,as evidenced by both species' cpDNA haplotypes within the hybrid swarm population.

  19. Sequencing and analysis of full-length cDNAs, 5'-ESTs and 3'-ESTs from a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).

    KAUST Repository

    Brenner, Sydney

    2012-10-08

    Cartilaginous fishes are the most ancient group of living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and are, therefore, an important reference group for understanding the evolution of vertebrates. The elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a holocephalan cartilaginous fish, has been identified as a model cartilaginous fish genome because of its compact genome (∼910 Mb) and a genome project has been initiated to obtain its whole genome sequence. In this study, we have generated and sequenced full-length enriched cDNA libraries of the elephant shark using the \\'oligo-capping\\' method and Sanger sequencing. A total of 6,778 full-length protein-coding cDNA and 10,701 full-length noncoding cDNA were sequenced from six tissues (gills, intestine, kidney, liver, spleen, and testis) of the elephant shark. Analysis of their polyadenylation signals showed that polyadenylation usage in elephant shark is similar to that in mammals. Furthermore, both coding and noncoding transcripts of the elephant shark use the same proportion of canonical polyadenylation sites. Besides BLASTX searches, protein-coding transcripts were annotated by Gene Ontology, InterPro domain, and KEGG pathway analyses. By comparing elephant shark genes to bony vertebrate genes, we identified several ancient genes present in elephant shark but differentially lost in tetrapods or teleosts. Only ∼6% of elephant shark noncoding cDNA showed similarity to known noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The rest are either highly divergent ncRNAs or novel ncRNAs. In addition to full-length transcripts, 30,375 5\\'-ESTs and 41,317 3\\'-ESTs were sequenced and annotated. The clones and transcripts generated in this study are valuable resources for annotating transcription start sites, exon-intron boundaries, and UTRs of genes in the elephant shark genome, and for the functional characterization of protein sequences. These resources will also be useful for annotating genes in other cartilaginous fishes whose genomes have been targeted for

  20. Genomic resources for Myzus persicae: EST sequencing, SNP identification, and microarray design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malloch Gaynor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, is a world-wide insect pest capable of infesting more than 40 plant families, including many crop species. However, despite the significant damage inflicted by M. persicae in agricultural systems through direct feeding damage and by its ability to transmit plant viruses, limited genomic information is available for this species. Results Sequencing of 16 M. persicae cDNA libraries generated 26,669 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Aphids for library construction were raised on Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Brassica oleracea, B. napus, and Physalis floridana (with and without Potato leafroll virus infection. The M. persicae cDNA libraries include ones made from sexual and asexual whole aphids, guts, heads, and salivary glands. In silico comparison of cDNA libraries identified aphid genes with tissue-specific expression patterns, and gene expression that is induced by feeding on Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, 2423 genes that are novel to science and potentially aphid-specific were identified. Comparison of cDNA data from three aphid lineages identified single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers and, in some cases, may represent functional differences in the protein products. In particular, non-conservative amino acid substitutions in a highly expressed gut protease may be of adaptive significance for M. persicae feeding on different host plants. The Agilent eArray platform was used to design an M. persicae oligonucleotide microarray representing over 10,000 unique genes. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for M. persicae, an agriculturally important insect pest. These include previously unknown sequence data, a collection of expressed genes, molecular markers, and a DNA microarray that can be used to study aphid gene expression. These resources will help elucidate the adaptations that allow M. persicae to develop compatible

  1. Sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Rose Lucia Braz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignins are phenolic polymers found in the secondary wall of plant conductive systems where they play an important role by reducing the permeability of the cell wall to water. Lignins are also responsible for the rigidity of the cell wall and are involved in mechanisms of resistance to pathogens. The metabolic routes and enzymes involved in synthesis of lignins have been largely characterized and representative genes that encode enzymes involved in these processes have been cloned from several plant species. The synthesis of lignins is liked to the general metabolism of the phenylpropanoids in plants, having enzymes (e.g. phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT common to other processes as well as specific enzymes such as cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. Some maize and sorghum mutants, shown to have defective in CAD and/or COMT activity, are easier to digest because they have a reduced lignin content, something which has motivated different research groups to alter the lignin content and composition of model plants by genetic engineering try to improve, for example, the efficiency of paper pulping and digestibility. In the work reported in this paper, we have made an inventory of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (EST coding for enzymes involved in lignin metabolism which are present in the sugarcane EST genome project (SUCEST database. Our analysis focused on the key enzymes ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT, hydroxycinnamate CoA ligase (4CL, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. The comparative analysis of these genes with those described in other species could be used as molecular markers for breeding as well as for the manipulation of lignin metabolism in sugarcane.

  2. Gene identification and analysis of transcripts differentially regulated in fracture healing by EST sequencing in the domestic sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecht Jochen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sheep is an important model animal for testing novel fracture treatments and other medical applications. Despite these medical uses and the well known economic and cultural importance of the sheep, relatively little research has been performed into sheep genetics, and DNA sequences are available for only a small number of sheep genes. Results In this work we have sequenced over 47 thousand expressed sequence tags (ESTs from libraries developed from healing bone in a sheep model of fracture healing. These ESTs were clustered with the previously available 10 thousand sheep ESTs to a total of 19087 contigs with an average length of 603 nucleotides. We used the newly identified sequences to develop RT-PCR assays for 78 sheep genes and measured differential expression during the course of fracture healing between days 7 and 42 postfracture. All genes showed significant shifts at one or more time points. 23 of the genes were differentially expressed between postfracture days 7 and 10, which could reflect an important role for these genes for the initiation of osteogenesis. Conclusion The sequences we have identified in this work are a valuable resource for future studies on musculoskeletal healing and regeneration using sheep and represent an important head-start for genomic sequencing projects for Ovis aries, with partial or complete sequences being made available for over 5,800 previously unsequenced sheep genes.

  3. An approach to identify the novel miRNA encoded from H. Annuus EST sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hemant; Tiwari, Tanushree; Patel, Maulik; Mehta, Aditya; Ghosh, Arpita

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs are a newly discovered class of non-protein small RNAs with 22-24 nucleotides. They play multiple roles in biological processes including development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, stress responses and many other cell functions. In this research, several approaches were combined to make a computational prediction of potential miRNAs and their targets in Helianthus annuus (H. annuus). The already available information of the plant miRNAs present in miRBase v21 was used against expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of three miRNAs were detected from which one potential novel miRNA was identified following a range of strict filtering criteria. The target prediction was carried out for these three miRNAs having various targets. These targets were functionally annotated and GO terms were assigned. To study the conserved nature of the miRNAs, predicted phylogenetic analysis was carried out. These findings will significantly provide the broader picture for understanding the functions in H. annuus. PMID:26697356

  4. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Paula; Paniego, Norma; Lew, Sergio; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth A

    2003-01-01

    Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4). The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60%) did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences putatively related to responses

  5. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4. The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60% did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences

  6. Development of expressed sequence tag resources for Vanda Mimi Palmer and data mining for EST-SSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Seow-Ling; Chan, Wai-Sun; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2011-08-01

    Vanda Mimi Palmer (VMP) is a highly sought as fragrant-orchid hybrid in Malaysia. It is economically important in cosmetic and beauty industries and also a famous potted ornamental plant. To date, no work on fragrance-related genes of vandaceous orchids has been reported from other research groups although the analysis of floral fragrance or volatiles have been extensively studied. An expressed sequence tag (EST) resource was developed for VMP principally to mine any potential fragrance-related expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) for future development as markers in the identification of fragrant vandaceous orchids endemic to Malaysia. Clustering, annotation and assembling of the ESTs identified 1,196 unigenes which defined 966 singletons and 230 contigs. The VMP dbEST was functionally classified by gene ontology (GO) into three groups: molecular functions (51.2%), cellular components (16.4%) and biological processes (24.6%) while the remaining 7.8% showed no hits with GO identifier. A total of 112 EST-SSR (9.4%) was mined on which at least five units of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, or hexa-nucleotide repeats were predicted. The di-nucleotide motif repeats appeared to be the most frequent repeats among the detected SSRs with the AT/TA types as the most abundant among the dimerics, while AAG/TTC, AGA/TCT-type were the most frequent trimerics. The mined EST-SSR is believed to be useful in the development of EST-SSR markers that is applicable in the screening and characterization of fragrance-related transcripts in closely related species. PMID:21116862

  7. Exploiting EST databases for the mining and characterization of short sequence repeat (SSR) markers in Catharanthus roseus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Kar, Basudeba; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2011-01-01

    Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.) (Family: Apocyanaceae) is a ornamental plants with great medicinal properties. Although it is represented by seven species, little work has been carried out on its genetic characterization due to non-availability of reliable molecular markers. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been widely applied as molecular markers in genetic studies. With the rapid increase in the deposition of nucleotide sequences in the public databases and advent of bioinformatics tools, it has become a cost effective and fast approach to scan for microsatellite repeats and exploit the possibility of converting it into potential genetic markers. Expressed sequence tags (EST's) from Catharanthus roseus were used for the screening of Class I (hyper variable) simple sequence repeats (SSR's). A total of 502 microsatellite repeats were detected from 21730 EST sequences of turmeric after redundancy elimination. The average density of Class I SSRs account to 1 SSR per 10.21 kb of EST. Mononucleotides was the most abundant class of microsatellite motifs. It accounted for 44.02% of the total, followed by the trinucleotide (26.09%) and dinucleotide repeats (14.34%). Among all the repeat motifs, (A/T)n accounted for the highest Proportion (36.25%) followed by (AAG)n. These detected SSRs can be used to design primers that have functional importance and should also facilitate the analysis of genetic diversity, variability, linkage mapping and evolutionary relationships in plants especially medicinal plants. PMID:21383904

  8. Cross-Species, Amplifiable EST-SSR Markers for Amentotaxus Species Obtained by Next-Generation Sequencing

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    Chiuan-Yu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amentotaxus, a genus of Taxaceae, is an ancient lineage with six relic and endangered species. Four Amentotaxus species, namely A. argotaenia, A. formosana, A. yunnanensis, and A. poilanei, are considered a species complex because of their morphological similarities. Small populations of these species are allopatrically distributed in Asian forests. However, only a few codominant markers have been developed and applied to study population genetic structure of these endangered species. In this study, we developed and characterized polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs from the transcriptome of A. formosana. We identified 4955 putative EST-SSRs from 68,281 unigenes as potential molecular markers. Twenty-six EST-SSRs were selected for estimating polymorphism and transferability among Amentotaxus species, of which 23 EST-SSRs were polymorphic within Amentotaxus species. Among these, the number of alleles ranged from 1–4, the polymorphism information content ranged from 0.000–0.692, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.000–1.000 and 0.080–0.740, respectively. Population genetic structure analyses confirmed that A. argotaenia and A. formosana were separate species and A. yunnanensis and A. poilanei were the same species. These novel EST-SSRs can facilitate further population genetic structure research of Amentotaxus species.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 applying high-throughput sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberg, Daniel; Jelonek, Lukas; Rupp, Oliver; Kröber, Magdalena; Goesmann, Alexander; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne plant pathogenic fungus of the phylum Basidiomycota. It affects a wide range of agriculturally important crops and hence is responsible for economically relevant crop losses. Transcriptome analysis of the bottom rot pathogen R. solani AG1-1B (isolate 7/3/14) by applying high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods addressing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data interpretation provided new insights in expressed genes of this fungus. Two normalized cDNA libraries representing different cultivation conditions of the fungus were sequenced on the 454 FLX (Roche) system. Subsequent to cDNA sequence assembly and quality control, ESTs were analysed applying advanced bioinformatics methods. More than 14 000 transcript isoforms originating from approximately 10 000 predictable R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 genes are represented in each dataset. Comparative analyses revealed several differentially expressed genes depending on the growth conditions applied. Determinants with predicted functions in recognition processes between the fungus and the host plant were identified. Moreover, many R. solani AG1-IB ESTs were predicted to encode putative cellulose, pectin, and lignin degrading enzymes. Furthermore, genes playing a possible role in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades, 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism, melanin synthesis, plant defence antagonism, phytotoxin, and mycotoxin synthesis were detected. PMID:25209639

  10. Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Muscle Full-Length cDNA Library of Wujin Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Su-mei; LIU Yong-gang; PAN Hong-bing; ZHANG Xi; GE Chang-rong; JIA Jun-jing; GAO Shi-zheng

    2014-01-01

    Porcine skeletal muscle genes play a major role in determining muscle growth and meat quality. Construction of a full-length cDNA library is an effective way to understand the expression of functional genes in muscle tissues. In addition, novel genes for further research could be identiifed in the library. In this study, we constructed a full-length cDNA library from porcine muscle tissue. The estimated average size of the cDNA inserts was 1076 bp, and the cDNA fullness ratio was 86.2%. A total of 1058 unique sequences with 342 contigs (32.3%) and 716 singleton (67.7%) expressed sequence tags (EST) were obtained by clustering and assembling. Meanwhile, 826 (78.1%) ESTs were categorized as known genes, and 232 (21.9%) ESTs were categorized as unknown genes. 65 novel porcine genes that exhibit no identity in the TIGR gene index ofSus scrofa and 124 full-length sequences with unknown functions were deposited in the dbEST division of GenBank (accession numbers: EU650784-EU650788, GE843306, GH228978-GH229100). The abundantly expressed genes in porcine muscle tissue were related to muscle ifber development, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Gene ontology analysis showed that sequences expressed in porcine muscle tissue contained a high percentage of binding activity, catalytic activity, structural molecule activity and motor activity, which involved mainly in metabolic, cellular and developmental process, distributed mainly in intracellular region. The sequence data generated in this study would provide valuable information for identifying porcine genes expressed in muscle tissue and help to advance the study on the structure and function of genes in pigs.

  11. DNA repair-related genes in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

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    R.M.A. Costa

    2001-12-01

    écies. Os mecanismos relacionados à remoção de danos pelo reparo de DNA, bem como suas conseqüências biológicas, já são bem conhecidas em bactérias, leveduras e animais. Entretanto, no que diz respeito a organismos vegetais, ainda há muito a ser investigado. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a identificação dos genes envolvidos nas principais vias de reparo de DNA em cana-de-açúcar, através de uma análise de similaridade do banco de dados do projeto brasileiro Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST com seqüências protéicas conhecidas disponíveis em outros bancos de dados públicos (National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI e Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana. Esta busca revelou que a gama de proteínas envolvidas no reparo de DNA em cana-de-açúcar é similar a de outros eucariotos. Mesmo assim, foi possível identificar algumas características interessantes encontradas apenas em vegetais, provavelmente em função do seu processo evolutivo independente. As vias de reparo de DNA aqui representadas incluem fotorreativação, reparo excisão de bases, reparo excisão de nucleotídeos, reparo mismatch, end-joinning não homólogo, reparo por recombinação homóloga e tolerância a lesões. Este trabalho descreve as principais diferenças encontradas na maquinaria de reparo de DNA de células vegetais em relação àquela de organismos nos quais encontra-se bem descrita. Tais diferenças chamam a atenção para um potencial de mecanismos distintos em vegetais, que merecem futuras investigações.

  12. De novo assembly of transcriptome sequencing in Caragana korshinskii Kom. and characterization of EST-SSR markers.

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    Yan Long

    Full Text Available Caragana korshinskii Kom. is widely distributed in various habitats, including gravel desert, clay desert, fixed and semi-fixed sand, and saline land in the Asian and African deserts. To date, no previous genomic information or EST-SSR marker has been reported in Caragana Fabr. genus. In this study, more than two billion bases of high-quality sequence of C. korshinskii were generated by using illumina sequencing technology and demonstrated the de novo assembly and annotation of genes without prior genome information. These reads were assembled into 86,265 unigenes (mean length = 709 bp. The similarity search indicated that 33,955 and 21,978 unigenes showed significant similarities to known proteins from NCBI non-redundant and Swissprot protein databases, respectively. Among these annotated unigenes, 26,232 a unigenes were separately assigned to Gene Ontology (GO database. When 22,756 unigenes searched against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG database, 5,598 unigenes were assigned to 5 main categories including 32 KEGG pathways. Among the main KEGG categories, metabolism was the biggest category (2,862, 43.7%, suggesting the active metabolic processes in the desert tree. In addition, a total of 19,150 EST-SSRs were identified from 15,484 unigenes, and the characterizations of EST-SSRs were further compared with other four species in Fabraceae. 126 potential marker sites were randomly selected to validate the assembly quality and develop EST-SSR markers. Among the 9 germplasms in Caranaga Fabr. genus, PCR success rate were 93.7% and the phylogenic tree was constructed based on the genotypic data. This research generated a substantial fraction of transcriptome sequences, which were very useful resources for gene annotation and discovery, molecular markers development, genome assembly and annotation. The EST-SSR markers identified and developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding.

  13. Flavonoid Biosynthesis Genes Putatively Identified in the Aromatic Plant Polygonum minus via Expressed Sequences Tag (EST Analysis

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    Zamri Zainal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available P. minus is an aromatic plant, the leaf of which is widely used as a food additive and in the perfume industry. The leaf also accumulates secondary metabolites that act as active ingredients such as flavonoid. Due to limited genomic and transcriptomic data, the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids is currently unclear. Identification of candidate genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway will significantly contribute to understanding the biosynthesis of active compounds. We have constructed a standard cDNA library from P. minus leaves, and two normalized full-length enriched cDNA libraries were constructed from stem and root organs in order to create a gene resource for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, especially flavonoid biosynthesis. Thus, large‑scale sequencing of P. minus cDNA libraries identified 4196 expressed sequences tags (ESTs which were deposited in dbEST in the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI. From the three constructed cDNA libraries, 11 ESTs encoding seven genes were mapped to the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Finally, three flavonoid biosynthetic pathway-related ESTs chalcone synthase, CHS (JG745304, flavonol synthase, FLS (JG705819 and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, LDOX (JG745247 were selected for further examination by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR in different P. minus organs. Expression was detected in leaf, stem and root. Gene expression studies have been initiated in order to better understand the underlying physiological processes.

  14. Characterization of a transcriptome from a non-model organism, Cladonia rangiferina, the grey reindeer lichen, using high-throughput next generation sequencing and EST sequence data

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    Junttila Sini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lichens are symbiotic organisms that have a remarkable ability to survive in some of the most extreme terrestrial climates on earth. Lichens can endure frequent desiccation and wetting cycles and are able to survive in a dehydrated molecular dormant state for decades at a time. Genetic resources have been established in lichen species for the study of molecular systematics and their taxonomic classification. No lichen species have been characterised yet using genomics and the molecular mechanisms underlying the lichen symbiosis and the fundamentals of desiccation tolerance remain undescribed. We report the characterisation of a transcriptome of the grey reindeer lichen, Cladonia rangiferina, using high-throughput next-generation transcriptome sequencing and traditional Sanger EST sequencing data. Results Altogether 243,729 high quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 16,204 contigs and 49,587 singletons. The genome of origin for the sequences produced was predicted using Eclat with sequences derived from the axenically grown symbiotic partners used as training sequences for the classification model. 62.8% of the sequences were classified as being of fungal origin while the remaining 37.2% were predicted as being of algal origin. The assembled sequences were annotated by BLASTX comparison against a non-redundant protein sequence database with 34.4% of the sequences having a BLAST match. 29.3% of the sequences had a Gene Ontology term match and 27.9% of the sequences had a domain or structural match following an InterPro search. 60 KEGG pathways with more than 10 associated sequences were identified. Conclusions Our results present a first transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly for a lichen species and describe the ongoing molecular processes and the most active pathways in C. rangiferina. This brings a meaningful contribution to publicly available lichen sequence information. These data provide a first

  15. An expressed sequence tag (EST library for Drosophila serrata, a model system for sexual selection and climatic adaptation studies

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    McGraw Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The native Australian fly Drosophila serrata belongs to the highly speciose montium subgroup of the melanogaster species group. It has recently emerged as an excellent model system with which to address a number of important questions, including the evolution of traits under sexual selection and traits involved in climatic adaptation along latitudinal gradients. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of such traits has been limited by a lack of genomic resources for this species. Here, we present the first expressed sequence tag (EST collection for D. serrata that will enable the identification of genes underlying sexually-selected phenotypes and physiological responses to environmental change and may help resolve controversial phylogenetic relationships within the montium subgroup. Results A normalized cDNA library was constructed from whole fly bodies at several developmental stages, including larvae and adults. Assembly of 11,616 clones sequenced from the 3' end allowed us to identify 6,607 unique contigs, of which at least 90% encoded peptides. Partial transcripts were discovered from a variety of genes of evolutionary interest by BLASTing contigs against the 12 Drosophila genomes currently sequenced. By incorporating into the cDNA library multiple individuals from populations spanning a large portion of the geographical range of D. serrata, we were able to identify 11,057 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, with 278 different contigs having at least one "double hit" SNP that is highly likely to be a real polymorphism. At least 394 EST-associated microsatellite markers, representing 355 different contigs, were also found, providing an additional set of genetic markers. The assembled EST library is available online at http://www.chenowethlab.org/serrata/index.cgi. Conclusion We have provided the first gene collection and largest set of polymorphic genetic markers, to date, for the fly D. serrata. The EST

  16. Transcriptome sequencing of mung bean (Vigna radiate L. genes and the identification of EST-SSR markers.

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    Honglin Chen

    Full Text Available Mung bean (Vigna radiate (L. Wilczek is an important traditional food legume crop, with high economic and nutritional value. It is widely grown in China and other Asian countries. Despite its importance, genomic information is currently unavailable for this crop plant species or some of its close relatives in the Vigna genus. In this study, more than 103 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from mung bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The processed reads were assembled into 48,693 unigenes with an average length of 874 bp. Of these unigenes, 25,820 (53.0% and 23,235 (47.7% showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases, respectively. Furthermore, 19,242 (39.5% could be classified into gene ontology categories, 18,316 (37.6% into Swiss-Prot categories and 10,918 (22.4% into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5. A total of 6,585 (8.3% were mapped onto 244 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG pathway database. Among the unigenes, 10,053 sequences contained a unique simple sequence repeat (SSR, and 2,303 sequences contained more than one SSR together in the same expressed sequence tag (EST. A total of 13,134 EST-SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers, with mono-nucleotide A/T repeats being the most abundant motif class and G/C repeats being rare. In this SSR analysis, we found five main repeat motifs: AG/CT (30.8%, GAA/TTC (12.6%, AAAT/ATTT (6.8%, AAAAT/ATTTT (6.2% and AAAAAT/ATTTTT (1.9%. A total of 200 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by PCR amplification as EST-SSR markers. Of these, 66 marker primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 31 mung bean accessions selected from diverse geographical locations. The large number of SSR-containing sequences found in this study will be valuable for the construction of a high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association

  17. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from multiple tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Lee Weng-Wah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the second largest source of edible oil which contributes to approximately 20% of the world's production of oils and fats. In order to understand the molecular biology involved in in vitro propagation, flowering, efficient utilization of nitrogen sources and root diseases, we have initiated an expressed sequence tag (EST analysis on oil palm. Results In this study, six cDNA libraries from oil palm zygotic embryos, suspension cells, shoot apical meristems, young flowers, mature flowers and roots, were constructed. We have generated a total of 14537 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from these libraries, from which 6464 tentative unique contigs (TUCs and 2129 singletons were obtained. Approximately 6008 of these tentative unique genes (TUGs have significant matches to the non-redundant protein database, from which 2361 were assigned to one or more Gene Ontology categories. Predominant transcripts and differentially expressed genes were identified in multiple oil palm tissues. Homologues of genes involved in many aspects of flower development were also identified among the EST collection, such as CONSTANS-like, AGAMOUS-like (AGL2, AGL20, LFY-like, SQUAMOSA, SQUAMOSA binding protein (SBP etc. Majority of them are the first representatives in oil palm, providing opportunities to explore the cause of epigenetic homeotic flowering abnormality in oil palm, given the importance of flowering in fruit production. The transcript levels of two flowering-related genes, EgSBP and EgSEP were analysed in the flower tissues of various developmental stages. Gene homologues for enzymes involved in oil biosynthesis, utilization of nitrogen sources, and scavenging of oxygen radicals, were also uncovered among the oil palm ESTs. Conclusion The EST sequences generated will allow comparative genomic studies between oil palm and other monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, development of gene-targeted markers for the reference genetic map

  18. Refined annotation and assembly of the Tetrahymena thermophila genome sequence through EST analysis, comparative genomic hybridization, and targeted gap closure

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    Lee Suzanne R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetrahymena thermophila, a widely studied model for cellular and molecular biology, is a binucleated single-celled organism with a germline micronucleus (MIC and somatic macronucleus (MAC. The recent draft MAC genome assembly revealed low sequence repetitiveness, a result of the epigenetic removal of invasive DNA elements found only in the MIC genome. Such low repetitiveness makes complete closure of the MAC genome a feasible goal, which to achieve would require standard closure methods as well as removal of minor MIC contamination of the MAC genome assembly. Highly accurate preliminary annotation of Tetrahymena's coding potential was hindered by the lack of both comparative genomic sequence information from close relatives and significant amounts of cDNA evidence, thus limiting the value of the genomic information and also leaving unanswered certain questions, such as the frequency of alternative splicing. Results We addressed the problem of MIC contamination using comparative genomic hybridization with purified MIC and MAC DNA probes against a whole genome oligonucleotide microarray, allowing the identification of 763 genome scaffolds likely to contain MIC-limited DNA sequences. We also employed standard genome closure methods to essentially finish over 60% of the MAC genome. For the improvement of annotation, we have sequenced and analyzed over 60,000 verified EST reads from a variety of cellular growth and development conditions. Using this EST evidence, a combination of automated and manual reannotation efforts led to updates that affect 16% of the current protein-coding gene models. By comparing EST abundance, many genes showing apparent differential expression between these conditions were identified. Rare instances of alternative splicing and uses of the non-standard amino acid selenocysteine were also identified. Conclusion We report here significant progress in genome closure and reannotation of Tetrahymena

  19. Genetic Diversity in Lens Species Revealed by EST and Genomic Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis.

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    Harsh Kumar Dikshit

    Full Text Available Low productivity of pilosae type lentils grown in South Asia is attributed to narrow genetic base of the released cultivars which results in susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. For enhancement of productivity and production, broadening of genetic base is essentially required. The genetic base of released cultivars can be broadened by using diverse types including bold seeded and early maturing lentils from Mediterranean region and related wild species. Genetic diversity in eighty six accessions of three species of genus Lens was assessed based on twelve genomic and thirty one EST-SSR markers. The evaluated set of genotypes included diverse lentil varieties and advanced breeding lines from Indian programme, two early maturing ICARDA lines and five related wild subspecies/species endemic to the Mediterranean region. Genomic SSRs exhibited higher polymorphism in comparison to EST SSRs. GLLC 598 produced 5 alleles with highest gene diversity value of 0.80. Among the studied subspecies/species 43 SSRs detected maximum number of alleles in L. orientalis. Based on Nei's genetic distance cultivated lentil L. culinaris subsp. culinaris was found to be close to its wild progenitor L. culinaris subsp. orientalis. The Prichard's structure of 86 genotypes distinguished different subspecies/species. Higher variability was recorded among individuals within population than among populations.

  20. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs between drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes of chickpea under terminal drought stress

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    Raju N L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important grain-legume crop that is mainly grown in rainfed areas, where terminal drought is a major constraint to its productivity. We generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH to identify differentially expressed genes in drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes in chickpea. Results EST libraries were generated by SSH from root and shoot tissues of IC4958 (drought tolerant and ICC 1882 (drought resistant exposed to terminal drought conditions by the dry down method. SSH libraries were also constructed by using 2 sets of bulks prepared from the RNA of root tissues from selected recombinant inbred lines (RILs (10 each for the extreme high and low root biomass phenotype. A total of 3062 unigenes (638 contigs and 2424 singletons, 51.4% of which were novel in chickpea, were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 5949 ESTs. Only 2185 (71% unigenes showed significant BLASTX similarity ( Conclusion Our study compares not only genes that are up- and down-regulated in a drought-tolerant genotype under terminal drought stress and a drought susceptible genotype but also between the bulks of the selected RILs exhibiting extreme phenotypes. More than 50% of the genes identified have been shown to be associated with drought stress in chickpea for the first time. This study not only serves as resource for marker discovery, but can provide a better insight into the selection of candidate genes (both up- and downregulated associated with drought tolerance. These results can be used to identify suitable targets for manipulating the drought-tolerance trait in chickpea.

  1. An expressed sequence tag (EST) library from developing fruits of an Hawaiian endemic mint (Stenogyne rugosa, Lamiaceae): characterization and microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Leebens-Mack James H; Oppenheimer David G; Yoo Mi-Jeong; Grey Paris; Scheen Anne-Cathrine; Lindqvist Charlotte; Soltis Douglas E; Soltis Pamela S; Albert Victor A

    2006-01-01

    Background The endemic Hawaiian mints represent a major island radiation that likely originated from hybridization between two North American polyploid lineages. In contrast with the extensive morphological and ecological diversity among taxa, ribosomal DNA sequence variation has been found to be remarkably low. In the past few years, expressed sequence tag (EST) projects on plant species have generated a vast amount of publicly available sequence data that can be mined for...

  2. A second generation framework for the analysis of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags and the development of EST-SSR markers for a conifer, Cryptomeria japonica

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    Ueno Saneyoshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs in expressed sequence tags (ESTs are useful resources for genome analysis because of their abundance, functionality and polymorphism. The advent of commercial second generation sequencing machines has lead to new strategies for developing EST-SSR markers, necessitating the development of bioinformatic framework that can keep pace with the increasing quality and quantity of sequence data produced. We describe an open scheme for analyzing ESTs and developing EST-SSR markers from reads collected by Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica. Results We collected 141,097 sequence reads by Sanger sequencing and 1,333,444 by pyrosequencing. After trimming contaminant and low quality sequences, 118,319 Sanger and 1,201,150 pyrosequencing reads were passed to the MIRA assembler, generating 81,284 contigs that were analysed for SSRs. 4,059 SSRs were found in 3,694 (4.54% contigs, giving an SSR frequency lower than that in seven other plant species with gene indices (5.4–21.9%. The average GC content of the SSR-containing contigs was 41.55%, compared to 40.23% for all contigs. Tri-SSRs were the most common SSRs; the most common motif was AT, which was found in 655 (46.3% di-SSRs, followed by the AAG motif, found in 342 (25.9% tri-SSRs. Most (72.8% tri-SSRs were in coding regions, but 55.6% of the di-SSRs were in non-coding regions; the AT motif was most abundant in 3′ untranslated regions. Gene ontology (GO annotations showed that six GO terms were significantly overrepresented within SSR-containing contigs. Forty–four EST-SSR markers were developed from 192 primer pairs using two pipelines: read2Marker and the newly-developed CMiB, which combines several open tools. Markers resulting from both pipelines showed no differences in PCR success rate and polymorphisms, but PCR success and polymorphism were significantly affected by the expected PCR product size

  3. Gene discovery in EST sequences from the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina sexual spores, asexual spores and haustoria, compared to other rust and corn smut fungi

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    Wynhoven Brian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rust fungi are biotrophic basidiomycete plant pathogens that cause major diseases on plants and trees world-wide, affecting agriculture and forestry. Their biotrophic nature precludes many established molecular genetic manipulations and lines of research. The generation of genomic resources for these microbes is leading to novel insights into biology such as interactions with the hosts and guiding directions for breakthrough research in plant pathology. Results To support gene discovery and gene model verification in the genome of the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt, we have generated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs by sampling several life cycle stages. We focused on several spore stages and isolated haustorial structures from infected wheat, generating 17,684 ESTs. We produced sequences from both the sexual (pycniospores, aeciospores and teliospores and asexual (germinated urediniospores stages of the life cycle. From pycniospores and aeciospores, produced by infecting the alternate host, meadow rue (Thalictrum speciosissimum, 4,869 and 1,292 reads were generated, respectively. We generated 3,703 ESTs from teliospores produced on the senescent primary wheat host. Finally, we generated 6,817 reads from haustoria isolated from infected wheat as well as 1,003 sequences from germinated urediniospores. Along with 25,558 previously generated ESTs, we compiled a database of 13,328 non-redundant sequences (4,506 singlets and 8,822 contigs. Fungal genes were predicted using the EST version of the self-training GeneMarkS algorithm. To refine the EST database, we compared EST sequences by BLASTN to a set of 454 pyrosequencing-generated contigs and Sanger BAC-end sequences derived both from the Pt genome, and to ESTs and genome reads from wheat. A collection of 6,308 fungal genes was identified and compared to sequences of the cereal rusts, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt and stripe rust, P. striiformis f. sp

  4. Chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Oedogonium cardiacum (Chlorophyceae: Unique genome architecture, derived characters shared with the Chaetophorales and novel genes acquired through horizontal transfer

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    Lemieux Claude

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain insight into the branching order of the five main lineages currently recognized in the green algal class Chlorophyceae and to expand our understanding of chloroplast genome evolution, we have undertaken the sequencing of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA from representative taxa. The complete cpDNA sequences previously reported for Chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonadales, Scenedesmus (Sphaeropleales, and Stigeoclonium (Chaetophorales revealed tremendous variability in their architecture, the retention of only few ancestral gene clusters, and derived clusters shared by Chlamydomonas and Scenedesmus. Unexpectedly, our recent phylogenies inferred from these cpDNAs and the partial sequences of three other chlorophycean cpDNAs disclosed two major clades, one uniting the Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales (CS clade and the other uniting the Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales (OCC clade. Although molecular signatures provided strong support for this dichotomy and for the branching of the Oedogoniales as the earliest-diverging lineage of the OCC clade, more data are required to validate these phylogenies. We describe here the complete cpDNA sequence of Oedogonium cardiacum (Oedogoniales. Results Like its three chlorophycean homologues, the 196,547-bp Oedogonium chloroplast genome displays a distinctive architecture. This genome is one of the most compact among photosynthetic chlorophytes. It has an atypical quadripartite structure, is intron-rich (17 group I and 4 group II introns, and displays 99 different conserved genes and four long open reading frames (ORFs, three of which are clustered in the spacious inverted repeat of 35,493 bp. Intriguingly, two of these ORFs (int and dpoB revealed high similarities to genes not usually found in cpDNA. At the gene content and gene order levels, the Oedogonium genome most closely resembles its Stigeoclonium counterpart. Characters shared by these chlorophyceans but missing in members

  5. Generation and analysis of large-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a full-length enriched cDNA library of porcine backfat tissue

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    Lee Hae-Young

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome research in farm animals will expand our basic knowledge of the genetic control of complex traits, and the results will be applied in the livestock industry to improve meat quality and productivity, as well as to reduce the incidence of disease. A combination of quantitative trait locus mapping and microarray analysis is a useful approach to reduce the overall effort needed to identify genes associated with quantitative traits of interest. Results We constructed a full-length enriched cDNA library from porcine backfat tissue. The estimated average size of the cDNA inserts was 1.7 kb, and the cDNA fullness ratio was 70%. In total, we deposited 16,110 high-quality sequences in the dbEST division of GenBank (accession numbers: DT319652-DT335761. For all the expressed sequence tags (ESTs, approximately 10.9 Mb of porcine sequence were generated with an average length of 674 bp per EST (range: 200–952 bp. Clustering and assembly of these ESTs resulted in a total of 5,008 unique sequences with 1,776 contigs (35.46% and 3,232 singleton (65.54% ESTs. From a total of 5,008 unique sequences, 3,154 (62.98% were similar to other sequences, and 1,854 (37.02% were identified as having no hit or low identity (Sus scrofa. Gene ontology (GO annotation of unique sequences showed that approximately 31.7, 32.3, and 30.8% were assigned molecular function, biological process, and cellular component GO terms, respectively. A total of 1,854 putative novel transcripts resulted after comparison and filtering with the TIGR SsGI; these included a large percentage of singletons (80.64% and a small proportion of contigs (13.36%. Conclusion The sequence data generated in this study will provide valuable information for studying expression profiles using EST-based microarrays and assist in the condensation of current pig TCs into clusters representing longer stretches of cDNA sequences. The isolation of genes expressed in backfat tissue is the

  6. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Actinidia: applications of a cross species EST database for gene discovery in the areas of flavor, health, color and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp. are a relatively new, but economically important crop grown in many different parts of the world. Commercial success is driven by the development of new cultivars with novel consumer traits including flavor, appearance, healthful components and convenience. To increase our understanding of the genetic diversity and gene-based control of these key traits in Actinidia, we have produced a collection of 132,577 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results The ESTs were derived mainly from four Actinidia species (A. chinensis, A. deliciosa, A. arguta and A. eriantha and fell into 41,858 non redundant clusters (18,070 tentative consensus sequences and 23,788 EST singletons. Analysis of flavor and fragrance-related gene families (acyltransferases and carboxylesterases and pathways (terpenoid biosynthesis is presented in comparison with a chemical analysis of the compounds present in Actinidia including esters, acids, alcohols and terpenes. ESTs are identified for most genes in color pathways controlling chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid biosynthesis. In the health area, data are presented on the ESTs involved in ascorbic acid and quinic acid biosynthesis showing not only that genes for many of the steps in these pathways are represented in the database, but that genes encoding some critical steps are absent. In the convenience area, genes related to different stages of fruit softening are identified. Conclusion This large EST resource will allow researchers to undertake the tremendous challenge of understanding the molecular basis of genetic diversity in the Actinidia genus as well as provide an EST resource for comparative fruit genomics. The various bioinformatics analyses we have undertaken demonstrates the extent of coverage of ESTs for genes encoding different biochemical pathways in Actinidia.

  7. Deep sequencing of ESTs from nacreous and prismatic layer producing tissues and a screen for novel shell formation-related genes in the pearl oyster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Kinoshita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its economic importance, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying shell formation in pearl oysters, wherein the calcium carbonate crystals, nacre and prism, are formed in a highly controlled manner. We constructed comprehensive expressed gene profiles in the shell-forming tissues of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and identified novel shell formation-related genes candidates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the GS FLX 454 system and constructed transcriptome data sets from pallial mantle and pearl sac, which form the nacreous layer, and from the mantle edge, which forms the prismatic layer in P. fucata. We sequenced 260477 reads and obtained 29682 unique sequences. We also screened novel nacreous and prismatic gene candidates by a combined analysis of sequence and expression data sets, and identified various genes encoding lectin, protease, protease inhibitors, lysine-rich matrix protein, and secreting calcium-binding proteins. We also examined the expression of known nacreous and prismatic genes in our EST library and identified novel isoforms with tissue-specific expressions. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed EST data sets from the nacre- and prism-producing tissues in P. fucata and found 29682 unique sequences containing novel gene candidates for nacreous and prismatic layer formation. This is the first report of deep sequencing of ESTs in the shell-forming tissues of P. fucata and our data provide a powerful tool for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of molluscan biomineralization.

  8. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Camelina sativa to mine drought stress-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, Bashistha Kumar; Kumari, Shipra; Choi, Seo Hee; Ha, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Geung-Joo

    2015-11-01

    Camelina sativa is an oil-producing crop belonging to the family of Brassicaceae. Due to exceptionally high content of omega fatty acid, it is commercially grown around the world as edible oil, biofuel, and animal feed. A commonly referred 'false flax' or gold-of-pleasure Camelina sativa has been interested as one of biofuel feedstocks. The species can grow on marginal land due to its superior drought tolerance with low requirement of agricultural inputs. This crop has been unexploited due to very limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Use of gene-specific molecular markers is an important strategy for new cultivar development in breeding program. In this study, Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools were used to obtain expression profiling of genes responding to drought stress in Camelina sativa BN14. A total of more than 60,000 loci were assembled, corresponding to approximately 275 K transcripts. When the species was exposed to 10 kPa drought stress, 100 kPa drought stress, and rehydrated conditions, a total of 107, 2,989, and 982 genes, respectively, were up-regulated, while 146, 3,659, and 1189 genes, respectively, were down-regulated compared to control condition. Some unknown genes were found to be highly expressed under drought conditions, together with some already reported gene families such as senescence-associated genes, CAP160, and LEA under 100 kPa soil water condition, cysteine protease, 2OG, Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase, and RAD-like 1 under rehydrated condition. These genes will be further validated and mapped to determine their function and loci. This EST library will be favorably applied to develop gene-specific molecular markers and discover genes responsible for drought tolerance in Camelina species. PMID:26410535

  9. Character & Cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  10. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  11. Constructing Physical and Genomic Maps for Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the Wheat Stripe Rust Pathogen, by Comparing Its EST Sequences to the Genomic Sequence of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, the Wheat Stem Rust Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Zhensheng Kang; Meinan Wang; Xianming Chen; Jinbiao Ma

    2010-01-01

    The wheat stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), does not have a known alternate host for sexual reproduction, which makes it impossible to study gene linkages through classic genetic and molecular mapping approaches. In this study, we compared 4,219 Pst expression sequence tags (ESTs) to the genomic sequence of P. graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), the wheat stem rust fungus, using BLAST searches. The percentages of homologous genes varied greatly among different Pst libr...

  12. An expressed sequence tag (EST library from developing fruits of an Hawaiian endemic mint (Stenogyne rugosa, Lamiaceae: characterization and microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leebens-Mack James H

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic Hawaiian mints represent a major island radiation that likely originated from hybridization between two North American polyploid lineages. In contrast with the extensive morphological and ecological diversity among taxa, ribosomal DNA sequence variation has been found to be remarkably low. In the past few years, expressed sequence tag (EST projects on plant species have generated a vast amount of publicly available sequence data that can be mined for simple sequence repeats (SSRs. However, these EST projects have largely focused on crop or otherwise economically important plants, and so far only few studies have been published on the use of intragenic SSRs in natural plant populations. We constructed an EST library from developing fleshy nutlets of Stenogyne rugosa principally to identify genetic markers for the Hawaiian endemic mints. Results The Stenogyne fruit EST library consisted of 628 unique transcripts derived from 942 high quality ESTs, with 68% of unigenes matching Arabidopsis genes. Relative frequencies of Gene Ontology functional categories were broadly representative of the Arabidopsis proteome. Many unigenes were identified as putative homologs of genes that are active during plant reproductive development. A comparison between unigenes from Stenogyne and tomato (both asterid angiosperms revealed many homologs that may be relevant for fruit development. Among the 628 unigenes, a total of 44 potentially useful microsatellite loci were predicted. Several of these were successfully tested for cross-transferability to other Hawaiian mint species, and at least five of these demonstrated interesting patterns of polymorphism across a large sample of Hawaiian mints as well as close North American relatives in the genus Stachys. Conclusion Analysis of this relatively small EST library illustrated a broad GO functional representation. Many unigenes could be annotated to involvement in reproductive development

  13. Discovery and analysis of Rosa rugosa EST-SNP site based on EST sequences%基于EST序列的玫瑰EST-SNP位点发掘与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁芳; 张继; 吕平; 龙凌云; 黄惠芳; 檀小辉; 韦丽君

    2016-01-01

    [目的]发掘出一批玫瑰SNP候选位点,为进一步开发玫瑰EST-SNP标记及研究玫瑰遗传背景、相关性状的分子标记等打下基础.[方法]从美国国立生物技术信息中心(NCBI)的dbEST数据库下载27125条玫瑰EST序列,经生物信息学方法分析,发掘玫瑰EST-SNP位点,并对其所在核苷酸序列进行功能注释分析.[结果]对27125条EST进行拼接,共得到3544条重叠群(Contigs),其中有243个Contigs含有SNP候选位点.从中筛选出224个候选EST-SNP位点,其碱基突变类型中转换和颠换的数量分别占SNP候选位点总数的59.8%和27.2%.通过序列比对分析,发现有22个SNP位点来源于蔷薇科植物(与玫瑰同科),其中来源于野草莓的基因最多(8个),另有15个SNP位点所在的EST序列与某些软体动物门物种的基因具有较高同源性.[结论]NCBI中的玫瑰EST数据库数据庞大,足够发掘出大量的SNP标记,使得以EST-SNP对蔷薇科玫瑰等植物进行品种鉴定、分类、遗传多样性分析具有可行性.

  14. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz Ruth A; Lew Sergio; Hopp H; Paniego Norma; Fernández Paula

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative str...

  15. Exploiting EST databases for the mining and characterization of short sequence repeat (SSR) markers in Catharanthus roseus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Kar, Basudeba; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2011-01-01

    Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L.) (Family: Apocyanaceae) is a ornamental plants with great medicinal properties. Although it is represented by seven species, little work has been carried out on its genetic characterization due to non-availability of reliable molecular markers. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been widely applied as molecular markers in genetic studies. With the rapid increase in the deposition of nucleotide sequences in the public databases and advent of bioinformatics t...

  16. Exploiting Illumina Sequencing for the Development of 95 Novel Polymorphic EST-SSR Markers in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa, a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  17. EST sequencing and gene expression profiling of defence-related genes from Persea americana infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahomed Waheed

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avocado (Persea americana belongs to the Lauraceae family and is an important commercial fruit crop in over 50 countries. The most serious pathogen affecting avocado production is Phytophthora cinnamomi which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR. Root pathogens such as P. cinnamomi and their interactions with hosts are poorly understood and despite the importance of both the avocado crop and the effect Phytophthora has on its cultivation, there is a lack of molecular knowledge underpinning our understanding of defence strategies against the pathogen. In order to initiate a better understanding of host-specific defence we have generated EST data using 454 pyrosequencing and profiled nine defence-related genes from Pc-infected avocado roots. Results 2.0 Mb of data was generated consisting of ~10,000 reads on a single lane of the GS FLX platform. Using the Newbler assembler 371 contigs were assembled, of which 367 are novel for Persea americana. Genes were classified according to Gene Ontology terms. In addition to identifying root-specific ESTs we were also able to identify and quantify the expression of nine defence-related genes that were differentially regulated in response to P. cinnamomi. Genes such as metallothionein, thaumatin and the pathogenesis related PsemI, mlo and profilin were found to be differentially regulated. Conclusions This is the first study in elucidating the avocado root transcriptome as well as identifying defence responses of avocado roots to the root pathogen P. cinnamomi. Our data is currently the only EST data that has been generated for avocado rootstocks, and the ESTs identified in this study have already been useful in identifying defence-related genes as well as providing gene information for other studies looking at processes such as ROS regulation as well as hypoxia in avocado roots. Our EST data will aid in the elucidation of the avocado transcriptome and identification of markers for improved

  18. The characterization of a new set of EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers as a resource for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borba Tereza CO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over recent years, a growing effort has been made to develop microsatellite markers for the genomic analysis of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris to broaden the knowledge of the molecular genetic basis of this species. The availability of large sets of expressed sequence tags (ESTs in public databases has given rise to an expedient approach for the identification of SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats, specifically EST-derived SSRs. In the present work, a battery of new microsatellite markers was obtained from a search of the Phaseolus vulgaris EST database. The diversity, degree of transferability and polymorphism of these markers were tested. Results From 9,583 valid ESTs, 4,764 had microsatellite motifs, from which 377 were used to design primers, and 302 (80.11% showed good amplification quality. To analyze transferability, a group of 167 SSRs were tested, and the results showed that they were 82% transferable across at least one species. The highest amplification rates were observed between the species from the Phaseolus (63.7%, Vigna (25.9%, Glycine (19.8%, Medicago (10.2%, Dipterix (6% and Arachis (1.8% genera. The average PIC (Polymorphism Information Content varied from 0.53 for genomic SSRs to 0.47 for EST-SSRs, and the average number of alleles per locus was 4 and 3, respectively. Among the 315 newly tested SSRs in the BJ (BAT93 X Jalo EEP558 population, 24% (76 were polymorphic. The integration of these segregant loci into a framework map composed of 123 previously obtained SSR markers yielded a total of 199 segregant loci, of which 182 (91.5% were mapped to 14 linkage groups, resulting in a map length of 1,157 cM. Conclusions A total of 302 newly developed EST-SSR markers, showing good amplification quality, are available for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris. These markers showed satisfactory rates of transferability, especially between species that have great economic and genomic values. Their diversity

  19. Gene discovery from Jatropha curcas by sequencing of ESTs from normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from developing seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugantham Priyanka Annabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas L. is promoted as an important non-edible biodiesel crop worldwide. Jatropha oil, which is a triacylglycerol, can be directly blended with petro-diesel or transesterified with methanol and used as biodiesel. Genetic improvement in jatropha is needed to increase the seed yield, oil content, drought and pest resistance, and to modify oil composition so that it becomes a technically and economically preferred source for biodiesel production. However, genetic improvement efforts in jatropha could not take advantage of genetic engineering methods due to lack of cloned genes from this species. To overcome this hurdle, the current gene discovery project was initiated with an objective of isolating as many functional genes as possible from J. curcas by large scale sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas. The cDNA library contained about 1 × 106 clones and average insert size of the clones was 2.1 kb. Totally 12,084 ESTs were sequenced to average high quality read length of 576 bp. Contig analysis revealed 2258 contigs and 4751 singletons. Contig size ranged from 2-23 and there were 7333 ESTs in the contigs. This resulted in 7009 unigenes which were annotated by BLASTX. It showed 3982 unigenes with significant similarity to known genes and 2836 unigenes with significant similarity to genes of unknown, hypothetical and putative proteins. The remaining 191 unigenes which did not show similarity with any genes in the public database may encode for unique genes. Functional classification revealed unigenes related to broad range of cellular, molecular and biological functions. Among the 7009 unigenes, 6233 unigenes were identified to be potential full-length genes. Conclusions The high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas for the first time and 7009 unigenes coding

  20. Classification, expression pattern and comparative analysis of sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding glycine-rich proteins (GRPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusaro Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the isolation of the first glycine-rich proteins (GRPs in plants a wealth of new GRPs have been identified. The highly specific but diverse expression pattern of grp genes, taken together with the distinct sub-cellular localization of some GRP groups, clearly indicate that these proteins are involved in several independent physiological processes. Notwithstanding the absence of a clear definition of the role of GRPs in plant cells, studies conducted with these proteins have provided new and interesting insights into the molecular biology and cell biology of plants. Complexly regulated promoters and distinct mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression have been demonstrated and new protein targeting pathways, as well as the exportation of GRPs from different cell types have been discovered. These data show that GRPs can be useful as markers and/or models to understand distinct aspects of plant biology. In this paper, the structural and functional features of these proteins in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. are summarized. Since this is the first description of GRPs in sugarcane, special emphasis has been given to the expression pattern of these GRP genes by studying their abundance and prevalence in the different cDNA-libraries of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project . The comparison of sugarcane GRPs with GRPs from other species is also discussed.

  1. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  2. Making and consuming characters

    OpenAIRE

    Kanai, Masae; Hara, Yoritoshi; Kobayashi, Hajime; Takemura, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper shall introduce a new phenomenon about consumption. This is related to consumption of characters like Mickey Mouse and Hello, Kitty. The phenomenon appears prominently in Japan. In order to examine consumption of characters and the strategies for creating characters, we conducted a case study on a set of marketing strategies of a toy manufacturer in Japan. Traditionally, consumption research is asserted using the uni-methodological paradigm. The uni-methodological paradigm here mea...

  3. Character in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2007-01-01

    Qualities of personal character would appear to play a significant role in the professional conduct of teachers. It is often said that we remember teachers as much for the kinds of people they were than for anything they may have taught us, and some kinds of professional expertise may best be understood as qualities of character. After (roughly)…

  4. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The character "力" li (strength) was originally written "(?)" The curving " (?) " indicates bulging muscles, while the "(?)" component represents skin. Despite its evolution over the centuries, "力" still symbolizes a strong arm.In combination with other characters "力" conveys the meaning "力量" liliang (strength), "力气"liqi (strength), "力求" liqiu (pursue) and "力争" lizheng (strive).

  5. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  6. Identification and EST Sequence Analysis of Polymorphic EST-SSRs Between Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)%大白菜与结球甘蓝多态性EST-SSRs标记筛选及其EST序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽娟; 许愿超; 秦艳梅; 顾爱侠; 赵建军; 申书兴; 王彦华; 王玉海

    2015-01-01

    为了实现大白菜遗传背景下结球甘蓝染色体、染色体片段的准确鉴定,探索结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜的影响,本研究以不同类型大白菜(Brassica rapa,AA)和结球甘蓝(Brassica oleracea,CC)为材料,对来自结球甘蓝的797个表达序列标签简单序列重复(expressed sequence tag SSR,EST-SSRs)标记进行筛选,获得了269个结球甘蓝相对于大白菜具有多态性的标记.选取其中扩增产物清晰稳定和多态性差异明显的176个EST-SSRs,对其对应的EST序列进行BLAST分析,将EST序列与基因本体(Gene Ontology,GO)、京都基因与基因组百科全书(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes,KEGG)数据库比对,获得EST序列的注释信息,其中属于细胞组件C有124条,占总数的12.29%,属于分子功能F有184条,占总数的18.24%,属于生物学途径P有688条占总数的68.19%,未知功能N有13条,占总数的1.29%.EST序列参与的生物学过程方面的功能主要集中在细胞过程、代谢过程、生物调节和刺激应答、系统形态构成、信号转导与信号传递系统、免疫系统等方面.结球甘蓝相对于大白菜多态性的EST-SSRs标记的获得,为大白菜-结球甘蓝异附加系、易位系中附加的结球甘蓝染色体及染色体片段的鉴定奠定了基础.本研究建立了EST-SSRs标记靶向基因的功能注释,为进一步推断结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜性状的影响提供参考.

  7. EST data: 5477 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EH1844 AU031556 AU101584 E61844 5 D DPlate 057 E01 5' TCA GGT TGC CAG CTA GAT CC 3' 5' GGT CAA T ... iation factor EIF3-P66 subunit, EST, GSS, STS, CpG island , complete sequence; &HSU54558_1(U54558|pid:g235137 ...

  8. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Houpt, Joseph W.; Sussman, Bethany L.; Townsend, James T.; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained ...

  9. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Actinidia: applications of a cross species EST database for gene discovery in the areas of flavor, health, color and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson Annette C; Rassam Maysoon; McNeilage Mark A; Nain Bhawana; MacDiarmid Robin M; Lo Kim R; Klages Karin; Janssen Bart J; Hellens Roger P; Gera Emma; Fraser Lena G; Ferguson A Ross; Eckloff Rheinhart; Davy Marcus W; Bowen Judith H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) are a relatively new, but economically important crop grown in many different parts of the world. Commercial success is driven by the development of new cultivars with novel consumer traits including flavor, appearance, healthful components and convenience. To increase our understanding of the genetic diversity and gene-based control of these key traits in Actinidia, we have produced a collection of 132,577 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Results...

  10. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  11. Use of Splines in Handwritten Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten Character Recognition is software used to identify the handwritten characters and receive and interpret intelligible andwritten input from sources such as manuscript documents. The recent past several years has seen the development of many systems which are able to simulate the human brain actions. Among the many, the neural networks and the artificial intelligence are the most two important paradigms used. In this paper we propose a new algorithm for recognition of handwritten texts based on the spline function and neural network is proposed. In this approach the converse order of thehandwritten character structure task is used to recognize the character. The spline function and the steepest descent methodsare applied on the optimal notes to interpolate and approximatecharacter shape. The sampled data of the handwritten text are used to obtain these optimal notes. Each character model is constructed by training the sequence of optimal notes using the neural network. Lastly the unknown input character is compared by all characters models to get the similitude scores.

  12. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from avocado seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) reveals abundant expression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide snakin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina J; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis María; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Jimenez-Moraila, Beatriz; López-Meza, Joel E; López-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2013-09-01

    Avocado is one of the most important fruits in the world. Avocado "native mexicano" (Persea americana var. drymifolia) seeds are widely used in the propagation of this plant and are the primary source of rootstocks globally for a variety of avocado cultivars, such as the Hass avocado. Here, we report the isolation of 5005 ESTs from the 5' ends of P. americana var. drymifolia seed cDNA clones representing 1584 possible unigenes. These avocado seed ESTs were compared with the avocado flower EST library, and we detected several genes that are expressed either in both tissues or only in the seed. The snakin gene, which encodes an element of the innate immune response in plants, was one of those most frequently found among the seed ESTs, and this suggests that it is abundantly expressed in the avocado seed. We expressed the snakin gene in a heterologous system, namely the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Conditioned media from transfected BVE-E6E7 cells showed antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first study of the function of the snakin gene in plant seed tissue, and our observations suggest that this gene might play a protective role in the avocado seed. PMID:23811120

  13. 利用高通量测序技术分析核桃基因组微卫星特征1)%Microsatellite Characters in Juglans regia L.Genome by High Throughput Sequencing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖卓毅; 马秋月; 戴晓港; 张得芳; 李淑娴

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the partially genome of Juglans regia with a 454-high-throughput sequencer and analyzed the character-istics of microsatellites based on the obtained sequences.Totally, we sequenced 104.5 Mb genome sequences of J.regia and detected 9 787 microsatellites (SSRs) in the assembled genome sequence.Among these SSRs, the hexanucleotied re-peats are the most abundant (5 883), accounting for 60.11%of the repetition sequence.Monomers (1 289) and Tetranu-cleotide (889) are the second and third abundant.There are 768 dinucleotide, 549 trinucleotide and 409 pentanucleotide, accounted for 7.85%, 5.61%and 4.18% of repetitive sequences, respectively.For the composition of microsatellites, A/T repeats are the most frequent motifs in mononucleotide repeats, and AT/TA, AG/TC repeats are the richest in dinu-cleotide repeats, while AAN, AAAN and AAAAAN repeats are dominant in tri-, tetra-and hexanucleotide repeats.For pentanucleotide, AGATG and AAAAT are the main repeats.In the microsatellite sequence repeats of Juglans, nucleotide A/T has a large content, while the C/G content is relatively small.In Juglans genome, the second type of SSRs (length<20bp ) is predominant .%利用454高通量测序技术对核桃( Juglans regia)基因组进行了部分测序,并利用测得的序列进行核桃基因组微卫星特征分析。结果表明:研究共测得了104.5 Mb的核桃基因组序列,经序列组装得到了9787个微卫星重复序列。其中六碱基重复类型的重复数目最多,共5883个,占重复序列总数的60.11%;其次是单碱基重复类型(1289个)和四碱基重复类型(889个),分别占重复序列总数的13.17%和9.07%;另外二碱基重复768个,三碱基重复549个,五碱基409个,分别占重复序列总数的7.85%、5.61%和4.18%。在单碱基重复类型中,重复单元最多的为A/T;二碱基重复中,AT/TA和AG/CT为主要优势重复类型;三碱基、四碱基和六碱

  14. Cinematography and character depiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Francis Nicholson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under the three main headings of lighting, camera view point and the camera’s mode of perception. The outcome is an accessible and systematised foundation for film makers to consult as an entry point into understanding the relationship between character depiction and cinematography:
    “Cinematography captures and expresses what a character is
    feeling – their attitude towards the rest of the world, their interior state” Ian Gabriel, director of Forgiveness (2004 [personal interview 2009].

  15. CitEST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa P. Natividade Targon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a better understanding of what is citrus, 33 cDNA libraries were constructed from different citrus species and genera. Total RNA was extracted from fruits, leaves, flowers, bark, seeds and roots, and subjected or not to different biotic and abiotic stresses (pathogens and drought and at several developmental stages. To identify putative promoter sequences, as well as molecular markers that could be useful for breeding programs, one shotgun library was prepared from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var. Olimpia. In addition, EST libraries were also constructed for a citrus pathogen, the oomycete Phythophthora parasitica in either virulent or avirulent form. A total of 286,559 cDNA clones from citrus were sequenced from their 5’ end, generating 242,790 valid reads of citrus. A total of 9,504 sequences were produced in the shotgun library and the valid reads were assembled using CAP3. In this procedure, we obtained 1,131 contigs and 4,083 singletons. A total of 19,200 cDNA clones from P. parasitica were sequenced, resulting in 16,400 valid reads. The number of ESTs generated in this project is, to our knowledge, the largest citrus sequence database in the world.

  16. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  17. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention to...

  18. Algebraic Differential Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Esnault, H

    1996-01-01

    We give a construction of algebraic differential characters, receiving classes of algebraic bundles with connection, lifitng the Chern-Simons invariants defined with S. Bloch, the classes in the Chow group and the analytic secondary invariants if the variety is defined over the field of complex numbers.

  19. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  20. Characters as Someonewhos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Martin

    London: College Publications, 2012 - (Currie, G.; Koťátko, P.; Pokorný, M.), s. 132-177 ISBN 978-1-84890-056-1 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : fictional characters * general types Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. A Novel Technique to Read Small and Capital Handwritten Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Tiwari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A system has been developed for text writing systems using Support Vector Machines (SVM is called Handwritten Character Recognition (HCR. The main challenge in handwritten character recognition for Small and Capital letter is to build a system that is able to distinguish between variation in writing the same stroke (when the same stroke is written by different writers or the same writer at different times and minor variation in similar characters in the script. Other issues faced can be attributed to the large number of character and stroke classes. Some Indian scripts have character modifiers occurring in multiple non-overlapping horizontal units which are positioned on one or both sides of the main consonant. In such cases, we may also need to keep track of the sequence of horizontal units as they are written. The main problem in handwritten character recognition is recognition for Small and Capital letter is to build a system that is able to distinguish between variation in writing the same stroke and minor variation in similar characters in the script. Handwritten character recognition is not a new technology but it not gained public attention. The various features that are considered for classification are the character height, character width, the number of horizontal lines (long and short, image centroid and special dots. In this research paper extracted features were passed to a Support Vector Machine (SVM where the characters are classified by Supervised Learning Algorithm. These classes are mapped onto for recognition. Then the text is reconstructed using fonts.

  2. Cinematography and character depiction

    OpenAIRE

    William Francis Nicholson

    2011-01-01

    This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography) with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under th...

  3. Modular Character System

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos Miquel, José Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en el desarrollo de una herramienta que nos permita crear de forma sencilla personajes 3D que puedan ser utilizados en videojuegos. El editor permitirá crear modelos 3D de personajes sin necesidad de saber utilizar herramientas de modelado, permitiendo configurar las diferentes partes del modelo. Estará orientado tanto a desarrolladores de videojuegos que necesiten crear personajes 3D, como a videojuegos que permitan que el usuario personalice su personaje.

  4. Development of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)using expressed sequence tags%紫贻贝EST-SNP的筛选及多态性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏俊; 梁瑜; 邢坤; 苏浩; 高祥刚; 隋立军; 赫崇波

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)has very broad prospects in the research fields of population genetics of aquacultural species, molecular marker-assisted breeding and biological evolution.The development of SNP markers is normally obtained through genome sequencing, by sequence comparison.However, for the species for which no large-scale genome sequencing has been carried out, using EST database is often an important way for the development of SNP markers.In this study, the SNP genotyping assays and development of SNP markers for blue mussel( Mytilus galloprovincialis)were conducted through expressed sequence tags (ESTs) database mining.Some 19 709 EST sequences of blue mussel from the GenBank were clustered into 2 486 contigs, of which 963 contained four or more ESTs.After manual quality filtering ,4 833 putative SNPs were identified from these SNP-containing contigs.The average putative SNP frequency was one per 129.2 bp of contig sequences.C/T and A/G with high frequency account for 28.8%and 27.4% ,respectively.31 of the putative SNPs were chosen for validation by allele specific PCR with melting temperature( Tm)-shift analysis, and 14 (47%)of them were polymorphic with the minor allele frequency ranging from 0.083 to 0.446.The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity were distributed from 0.166 7 to 0.615 4 and 0.155 4 to 0.503 2, respectively.Six primers (20%)amplified no any product and 10 (33%)were monomorphic.BLASTX showed that significant hits for all 14 genotyped SNP-contalning contigs, 12 of which were located in coding regions and all resulted in a synonymous substitution.The result of present study shows that ESTs could provide effective means for SNP identification in species with limited genome sequence resources, and Tm-shift analysis is a simple, efficient and reliable SNP genotyping method for non-model organisms.%利用EST数据库开发SNP是筛选SNP标记的重要途径.本研究利用EST数据库开发紫贻贝的SNP

  5. ViOC-optical Alphanumeric Character Extraction from Video Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi R. Nair

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main motto of the study is to provide the new distinct method to extract the optical characters in the form of alpha numeric characters from the video frames. In this study we proposed a new methodology to recognize the optical characters from the video frames; the methodology is taken with two step process, in first step the video frames are separated into frame by frames. Then the text detection phase is revoked with text localization and text verification and the second step is to recognize the characters. In this phase the text is verified and recognized. The final outcome is the recognized characters from the video frames. The experimental results are demonstrated clearly and the proposed method has an optimality over the video frames without any jitter or noise sequence in processing the extraction phase. The method performs better result than the existing algorithm and the results yields 94% accuracy in the MATLAB R2013b simulation environment.

  6. Sequence Analysis and Comparison of EST-SSRs in Pine, Poplar and Eucalyptus%松树、杨树及桉树表达基因序列微卫星比对分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎毛毛; 戴晓港; 李淑娴; 尹佟明

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most variable sequences in the genome of different organisms. Changes in repeat motif numbers will cause frameshift mutation of the corresponding genes, and lead to the expression of completely different or shortened proteins. During the evolutionary time, microsatellites in transcribed sequences have undergone strong selection. In order to explore the variation trends of genic SSRs in different tree species, thirty thousand ESTs were analyzed for Pinus spp. Populus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. respectively in this study. The results showed that the percentage of ESTs containing SSRs was similar in eucalyptus and poplars, accounting for 18.71% and 15.33% respectively. By contrast, this ratio was significantly lower in pine, only accounting for 8.22%.A common phenomenon observed in the three tree species was that the triplet repeats were the dominant microsatellites in the investigated EST sequences. Except for the triplet SSRs, richness of different type SSRs decreased with an increase in repeat motif length both in eucalyptus and poplars, while an opposite variation trend was observed in pine. It was noteworthy that content of highly polymorphic microsatellites (>20 bp) was higher in ESTs of eucalyptus and poplars than that of pine. The results also showed that, in the investigated tree species, the frequency of microsatellite gaining or losing repeat unit/units decreased with increment in the repeat motif lengths of different types of microsatellites. We first report the comparison of genic SSRs in different tree species, and find some interesting variation trends in comparison pine with poplar and eucalyptus. Since genic SSRs significantly affect the gene function, the results provide some important parameters to learn the characteristics of genic SSRs in different organisms. Meanwhile, our results also supply useful bioinformatics guidance for developing high variable EST-SSRs in the investigated tree species.%微卫星是生物

  7. Character strengths and virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gancedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004. This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003, a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the superposition of implicit paradigms. It also takes notice of a causal and elementary logic -which goes against today’s scientific paradigm-, and the strong American culture zeitgeist present in the principles of Positive Psychology. Finally, some ethic problems are displayed, in particular the step taken from a descriptive attitude –characteristic of science- toward a prescriptive attitude –characteristic of moral codes-. 

  8. Character Education: Christian Education Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Gretchen M.; Firmin, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Character is defined broadly by leading authorities, including concepts such as practicing apt behavior and teaching right from wrong. Virtue and moral undertones tend to pervade most experts' use of character, although in secular settings, the notion of ethics is more prominent. Overall, developing in students a desire for the good is how most…

  9. Character theory of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacs, I Martin

    2011-01-01

    ""The book is a pleasure to read. There is no question but that it will become, and deserves to be, a widely used textbook and reference."" - Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society.Character theory provides a powerful tool for proving theorems about finite groups. In addition to dealing with techniques for applying characters to ""pure"" group theory, a large part of this book is devoted to the properties of the characters themselves and how these properties reflect and are reflected in the structure of the group.Chapter I consists of ring theoretic preliminaries. Chapters 2 to 6 and 8

  10. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria;

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... plays an important role in processing the information generated by these methods. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current publicly available sequence assembly programs. We describe the basic principles of computational assembly along with the main concerns, such as repetitive sequences...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  11. EST and EST-SSR marker resources for Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Christopher A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited DNA sequence and DNA marker resources have been developed for Iris (Iridaceae, a monocot genus of 200–300 species in the Asparagales, several of which are horticulturally important. We mined an I. brevicaulis-I. fulva EST database for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and developed ortholog-specific EST-SSR markers for genetic mapping and other genotyping applications in Iris. Here, we describe the abundance and other characteristics of SSRs identified in the transcript assembly (EST database and the cross-species utility and polymorphisms of I. brevicaulis-I. fulva EST-SSR markers among wild collected ecotypes and horticulturally important cultivars. Results Collectively, 6,530 ESTs were produced from normalized leaf and root cDNA libraries of I. brevicaulis (IB72 and I. fulva (IF174, and assembled into 4,917 unigenes (1,066 contigs and 3,851 singletons. We identified 1,447 SSRs in 1,162 unigenes and developed 526 EST-SSR markers, each tracing a different unigene. Three-fourths of the EST-SSR markers (399/526 amplified alleles from IB72 and IF174 and 84% (335/399 were polymorphic between IB25 and IF174, the parents of I. brevicaulis × I. fulva mapping populations. Forty EST-SSR markers were screened for polymorphisms among 39 ecotypes or cultivars of seven species – 100% amplified alleles from wild collected ecotypes of Louisiana Iris (I.brevicaulis, I.fulva, I. nelsonii, and I. hexagona, whereas 42–52% amplified alleles from cultivars of three horticulturally important species (I. pseudacorus, I. germanica, and I. sibirica. Ecotypes and cultivars were genetically diverse – the number of alleles/locus ranged from two to 18 and mean heterozygosity was 0.76. Conclusion Nearly 400 ortholog-specific EST-SSR markers were developed for comparative genetic mapping and other genotyping applications in Iris, were highly polymorphic among ecotypes and cultivars, and have broad utility for genotyping applications within

  12. Mining and modeling character networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, Anthony; Elenberg, Ethan R; Gleich, David F; Hou, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate social networks of characters found in cultural works such as novels and films. These character networks exhibit many of the properties of complex networks such as skewed degree distribution and community structure, but may be of relatively small order with a high multiplicity of edges. Building on recent work of beveridge, we consider graph extraction, visualization, and network statistics for three novels: Twilight by Stephanie Meyer, Steven King's The Stand, and J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Coupling with 800 character networks from films found in the http://moviegalaxies.com/ database, we compare the data sets to simulations from various stochastic complex networks models including random graphs with given expected degrees (also known as the Chung-Lu model), the configuration model, and the preferential attachment model. Using machine learning techniques based on motif (or small subgraph) counts, we determine that the Chung-Lu model best fits character networks and we ...

  13. Innovative Technique for Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sumant Raj Chauhan; Punit Soni

    2010-01-01

    Development of OCRs for Indian script is an active area of activity today. Optical character recognition (OCR) is the mechanical or electronic translation of images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text (usually captured by a scanner) into machine-editable text. In simple words OCR is a visual recognition process that turns printed or written text into an electronic character based file. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and machine vision. India...

  14. Impact of Mastering Traditional Characters to Learn Simplified Characters in Analogy Simplified Picto-phonogram Characters as Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiato Lim

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of Southeast Asian students begin to learn Chinese in their own country based on traditional Chinese characters. Therefore, author based on own learning experience talked about the influence of mastering traditional characters to learn simplified Chinese characters. By collecting the traditional character texts, summarizing the occurrence of error categories of simplified Chinese characters, and based on the Chinese character simplification methods in Fan Jian Z...

  15. EST Pipeline System: Detailed and Automated EST Data Processing and Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xu; Liang Zhang; Hong Yu; Yan Zhou; Ling He; Yuanzhong Zhu; Wei Huang; Lijun Fang; Lin Tao; Yuedong Zhu; Lin Cai; Huayong Xu

    2003-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are widely used in gene survey research these years. The EST Pipeline System, software developed by Hangzhou Genomics Institute (HGI), can automatically analyze different scalar EST sequences by suitable methods. All the analysis reports, including those of vector masking, sequence assembly, gene annotation, Gene Ontology classification, and some other analyses,can be browsed and searched as well as downloaded in the Excel format from the web interface, saving research efforts from routine data processing for biological rules embedded in the data.

  16. Studying Characters in "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinhawa, Wilhelmina

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity in which high school students who are reading "Romeo and Juliet" compile information on major characters and create a collection of cards similar to sports cards, to help them understand each character and that character's motives. (SR)

  17. Character Sums Over The Prime Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Carella, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    A few elementary estimates of a basic character sum over the prime numbers are derived here. These estimates are nontrivial for character sums modulo large q. In addition, an omega result for character sums over the primes is also included.

  18. Development of ESTs and data mining of pineapple EST-SSRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, W D; Voo, C L Y; Kumar, S V

    2012-05-01

    Improving the quality of the non-climacteric fruit, pineapple, is possible with information on the expression of genes that occur during the process of fruit ripening. This can be made known though the generation of partial mRNA transcript sequences known as expressed sequence tags (ESTs). ESTs are useful not only for gene discovery but also function as a resource for the identification of molecular markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs). This paper reports on firstly, the construction of a normalized library of the mature green pineapple fruit and secondly, the mining of EST-SSRs markers using the newly obtained pineapple ESTs as well as publically available pineapple ESTs deposited in GenBank. Sequencing of the clones from the EST library resulted in 282 good sequences. Assembly of sequences generated 168 unique transcripts (UTs) consisting of 34 contigs and 134 singletons with an average length of ≈500 bp. Annotation of the UTs categorized the known proteins transcripts into the three ontologies as: molecular function (34.88%), biological process (38.43%), and cellular component (26.69%). Approximately 7% (416) of the pineapple ESTs contained SSRs with an abundance of trinucleotide SSRs (48.3%) being identified. This was followed by dinucleotide and tetranucleotide SSRs with frequency of 46 and 57%, respectively. From these EST-containing SSRs, 355 (85.3%) matched to known proteins while 133 contained flanking regions for primer design. Both the ESTs were sequenced and the mined EST-SSRs will be useful in the understanding of non-climacteric ripening and the screening of biomarkers linked to fruit quality traits. PMID:22207174

  19. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment. PMID:25133716

  20. New identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taormina, A. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom))

    1994-10-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels m = 3, 4, 5 are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and the tricritical Ising models since the m = 3 Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of m = 4 Virasoro characters. The second identity gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of N = 4 superconformal characters into SU(2) x SU(2) characters is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Differential gene expression analysis based on expressed sequence tags(EST) from different tissues of Fenneropenaeus chinensis%基于中国明对虾不同组织EST数据的基因表达差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗健凯; 柳承璋; 张晓军; 王兵; 董波; 李富花; 相建海

    2013-01-01

    Bioinformatics analysis was conducted based on the acquired expressed sequence tags(ESTs) data from different tissues of Fenneropenaeus chinensis.A total of 10 446,2 690,1 067 and 1 282 original ESTs were obtained from cephalothorax,blood,eyestalk,and ovary of adult F.chinensis respectively.By clustering and assembling,3 454,1 053,406 and 544 unigenes were generated,and then annotated by searching in NR,GO,KEGG databases.The tissue specific transcripts were identified through sequence homology analysis and classified by GO annotation.The result indicated that specific transcripts in blood group were specifically enriched in the GO term of virion part,locomotion,rhythmic process,cell killing and multi-organism process.Specific transcripts in eyestalk group were specifically enriched in the GO term of molecular transducer activity,response to stimulus,multicellular organismal process,pigmentation and biological regulation.Specific transcripts in ovary group were specifically enriched in the GO term of nutrient reservoir activity,reproduction,anatomical structure formation,transporter activity and establishment of localization.We also analyzed the highly expressed genes in each tissue according to the number of ESTs of each unigene.The result indicated that genes encoding peritrophin,elongation factor 1-alpha,thrombospondin and arginine kinase were widespread and highly expressed in tissues,suggesting that they were involved in a variety of important biological processes in shrimp.In addition,genes encoding penaeidin,cytochrome c oxidase and 14-3-3-like protein were highly expressed in blood group and genes encoding arrestin and rhodopsin were highly expressed in eyestalk group.For understanding the expressions of common genes,we analyzed genes related to peritrophin and peroxiredoxin,revealing that genes of peritrophin in F.chinensis were multiform and highly expressed.This result may provide reference for further functional study of peritrophin.%对前期获得的

  2. Linear characters and block algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jiwen

    2011-01-01

    This paper will prove that: 1. $G$ has a block only having linear ordinary characters if and only if $G$ is a $p$-nilpotent group with an abelian Sylow $p$-subgroup; 2. $G$ has a block only having linear Brauer characters if and only if $O_{p'}(G)\\leq O_{p'p}(G)=HO_{p'}(G)= \\textrm{Ker}(B_{0}^{*}) \\leq O_{p'pp'}=G$, where $H=G^{'}O^{p'}(G), \\textrm{Ker}(B_{0}^{*})=\\bigcap_{\\lambda \\in \\textrm{IBr}(B_{0})} \\textrm{Ker}(V_{\\lambda}), B_{0}$ is the principal block of $G$ and $V_{\\lambda}$ is the $F[G]$-module affording the Brauer character $\\lambda$; 3. if $G$ satisfies the conditions above, then for any block algebra $B$ of $G$, we have

  3. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  4. Character Interviews Help Bring Literature to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindall, Vickie; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Character Interviews," a class activity that guides children, especially reluctant readers, to the meaning of a story through a thoughtful understanding of character as they consider a character's emotions and motives, to respond to a question as that character would. Describes the interview process. Offers sample interviews and…

  5. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  6. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  7. Advertising and Defamation of Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Defamation of character, as applied to libel and slander legal decisions, is the subject of this paper. After briefly describing the basis of liability, the author discusses "libels per quod." He then cites numerous court decisions in commenting on mitigating circumstances in action for libel or slander, including absolute privilege, fair comment,…

  8. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...

  9. Hamlet and His Melancholy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2007-01-01

    @@ What's the theme of hamlet?His tragedies often portray some noble hero who faces the injustice of human life and is caught in a difficult situation whose fate is closely connected with the fate of the whole nation.The heroes have some weaknesses in their characters,which finally lead to their tragic thin falls.

  10. Innovative Technique for Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumant Raj Chauhan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of OCRs for Indian script is an active area of activity today. Optical character recognition (OCR is the mechanical or electronic translation of images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text (usually captured by a scanner into machine-editable text. In simple words OCR is a visual recognition process that turns printed or written text into an electronic character based file. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and machine vision. Indian scripts present great challenges to an OCR designer due to the large number of letters in the alphabet, the sophisticated ways in which they combine, and the complicated graphemes they result in. The problem is compounded by the unstructured manner in which popular fonts are designed. There is a lot of common structure in the different Indian scripts. All existing OCR systems developed for various Indian scripts do not provide sufficient efficiency due to various factors. The objective of this paper is to discuss a more efficient character recognition technique. This paper introduces a new technical approach to recognize Indian script characters which are unpredictable due to different problems in other OCR’s.

  11. Building Character through Shadow Puppetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susannah

    2004-01-01

    Puppetry captures the imagination and interest of young students. Stories are told and retold to children through pictures, puppets, stuffed animals, toys, dolls, gestures, dramatic voices, and theatrical effects. Many of the stories involve some moral decision or event, such as fairy tales in which the characters "live happily ever after" after…

  12. L-functions of p-adic characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Wan, Daqing

    2014-01-01

    zero. To such a p-adic character we associate an L-function, and we prove that this L-function is p-adic meromorphic if the corresponding sequence is overconvergent. If more generally the sequence is Clog-convergent, we show that the associated L-function is meromorphic in the open disk of radius q......C . Finally, we exhibit examples of Clog-convergent sequences with associated L-functions which are not meromorphic in the disk of radius qC+ε for any ε > 0....

  13. Segmentation of Handwritten Text Document Written in Devanagri Script for Simple character, skewed character and broken character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vneeta Rani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OCR (optical character recognition is a technology that is commonly used for recognizing patterns artificial intelligence & computer machine. With the help of OCR we can convert scanned document into editable documents which can be further used in various research areas. In this paper, we are presenting a character segmentation technique that can segment simple characters, skewed characters as well as broken characters. Character segmentation is very important phase in any OCR process because output of this phase will be served as input to various other phase like character recognition phase etc. If there is some problem in character segmentation phase then recognition of the corresponding character is very difficult or nearly impossible.

  14. AcEST Contig - AcEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credit s ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us AcEST AcEST C ... c.jp/togodb/view/archive_acestcontig#en Data acquisit ion method - Data analysis method - Number of data ... entries 4,298 entries Data it em Description Contig ID ID of contig sequence of A ... ris Number of clones The number of EST clones constit uting the contig sequence of Adiantum capillus-vene ... ris Definit ion Definit ion Link to clone list In the TogoDB edi ...

  15. Action Capture: A VR-Based Method for Character Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bernhard; Amor, Heni Ben; Heumer, Guido; Vitzthum, Arnd

    This contribution describes a Virtual Reality (VR) based method for character animation that extends conventional motion capture by not only tracking an actor's movements but also his or her interactions with the objects of a virtual environment. Rather than merely replaying the actor's movements, the idea is that virtual characters learn to imitate the actor's goal-directed behavior while interacting with the virtual scene. Following Arbib's equation action = movement + goal we call this approach Action Capture. For this, the VR user's body movements are analyzed and transformed into a multi-layered action representation. Behavioral animation techniques are then applied to synthesize animations which closely resemble the demonstrated action sequences. As an advantage, captured actions can often be naturally applied to virtual characters of different sizes and body proportions, thus avoiding retargeting problems of motion capture.

  16. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  17. Facial animation of game characters

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    Facial animation in games has increased significantly in the past ten years. This is why the thesis introduces the basic technology in facial animation. The thesis only covers the basic tools and techniques used to create facial animation of game characters. The software used during this thesis were Autodesk’s 3Ds Max and Mudbox, and Substance Painter by Allegoritmic. The basic tools for creating game assets were explored. First the thesis goes through the basics of modeling 3D objects fo...

  18. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  19. CHARACTER EDUCATION THROUGH ENGLISH MODALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Subur Wardoyo

    2010-01-01

    The spread of English in Indonesia carries an inherent philosophy with it. This essay will focus on how the view that ‘there is no absolute truth’ is ingrained in the linguistic modality of English. Furthermore it will show how this philosophy of modality may inevitably shape a student’s character since it allows people to create the shared truths they need or to downgrade the truths of others, with all the potential positive or negative consequences. Finally this essay will...

  20. Seqüência de estímulos durante o fortalecimento da resposta de bicar: efeitos sobre a aquisição de desempenhos em matching e oddity Stimuli sequencing during pecking responses build up: effects upon matching and oddity acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Damiani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o efeito da seqüência de apresentação de estímulos durante o fortalecimento da resposta (pré-treino de bicar em pombos, sobre a aquisição do matching de identidade (IMTS e oddity-from-sample (OFS com 3 cores como estímulos e 2 escolhas. O problema se remete à disparidade no desempenho inicial em OFS em relação aos níveis do acaso, reiteradamente relatado na literatura. Durante o pré-treino, apenas uma cor era apresentada em qualquer uma de 3 chaves de resposta. O sorteio da seqüência de estímulos nas tentativas foi realizado com a restrição de que a probabilidade de 2 estímulos iguais serem apresentados em tentativas consecutivas foi semelhante à probabilidade de 2 estímulos diferentes serem apresentados em tentativas consecutivas. Em seguida, os sujeitos foram submetidos ou ao treino IMTS ou ao OFS. Os resultados replicaram aqueles descritos na literatura, indicando que o controle realizado sobre a seqüência de tentativas no pré-treino não teve efeito sobre a aquisição do IMTS e OFS.This study was aimed to investigate the question why oddity-from-sample acquisition in animals always start at above chance level. A question was raised concerning the role of stimuli sequences and a possible bias introduced in responding. Thus, this study analyzed the effects of stimuli sequencing during response build up in the pigeon (pre-training upon the acquisition of identity matching (IMTS and oddity-from-sample (OFS with three color stimuli and two comparisons. During pre-training one color was presented at the time in any one of three response key. Color presentation was randomized but for the restriction that the probability of two like colors being presented consecutively was the same as the probability of two non-like colors being presented consecutively. This controlled for any sequencing bias effects upon responding. Following, subjects were submitted either to IMTS or to OFS training. Results

  1. Automated preparation of DNA sequences for publication.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, M B; Senapathy, P

    1986-01-01

    A computer program which draws DNA sequences is described. A simple method is used which enables the user to highlight or annotate specific parts of a sequence. The sizes of the characters in the sequence to be drawn are specified by the user. In addition, vertical spacing between lines and horizontal spacing between characters can be specified. Sequences can be prepared and high quality output produced on a plotter in a short period of time, making the program advantageous to use over typing...

  2. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulama, Mohannad M. [University of Jordan; Natsheh, Asem M. [University of Jordan; Abandah, Gheith A. [University of Jordan; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  3. Developing an assessment scale for character. An exploratory factorial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu, D.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available eveloping a character assessment scale is the more distal goal of the author. In this paper I aim to present a sequence of this psychometric process, namely exploring the factorial structure of a character assessment scale. In order to achieve this aim, we first explored the psychological factors relevant for a moral character. We also explored the moral standards that are valued in the main life contexts of an individual: family, workplace, close relationships and public context. These theoretical endeavors were important for the item writing process, as they provided the content of the scale. Furthermore, the item development phase was empirically supported through some piloting studies, which highlighted the direction of the scale to assess instances of moral character failure, generically recognized as proofs of a bad character. The present paper focuses on the results obtained after performing an exploratory factor analysis on a sample of 300 participants. The results suggest that the 21-item scale best fits a four-factor structures that cumulatively explain 42.45% of the variance. The factors are: evilness, ill-tempered behavior, dishonesty, upstartness. The scale reveals the moral profile of an individual in all four life contexts.

  4. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  5. New identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Anne

    1994-10-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels m=3, 4, 5 are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and the tricritical Ising models since the m=3 Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of m=4 Virasoro characters. The second identity given the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m=5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of N=4 superconformal characters intoSwidehat{U(2)} × Swidehat{U(2)} characters is discussed.

  6. New Identities between Unitary Minimal Virasoro Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Taormina, A

    1994-01-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels $m=3,4,5$ are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and tricritical Ising models since the $m=3$ Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of $m=4$ Virasoro characters. The second identity gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of $m=5$ Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of $N=4$ superconformal characters into $\\widehat{SU(2)} \\times \\widehat{SU(2)}$ characters is discussed.

  7. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  8. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mehta; Marilia Santos Silva; Simone Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine Carrer; Marco Aurélio Takita; Natália F. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis) was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under differe...

  9. Computational Emotion Model for Virtual Characters

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Emotion is related to stimulus and cognitive appraisal. Emotion is very important for modern computer game. Emotion model of virtual characters is a challenging branch of computer science. A believable character should be provided with emotion and perception. In general, a virtual character is regarded as an autonomous agent with sense, perception, emotion behavior and action. A computational emotion model of virtual characters is presented in this chapter. The method is to construct virtual ...

  10. Radical-Enhanced Chinese Character Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yaming; Lin, Lei; Tang, Duyu; Yang, Nan; Ji, Zhenzhou; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to leverage radical for learning Chinese character embedding. Radical is a semantic and phonetic component of Chinese character. It plays an important role as characters with the same radical usually have similar semantic meaning and grammatical usage. However, existing Chinese processing algorithms typically regard word or character as the basic unit but ignore the crucial radical information. In this paper, we fill this gap by leveraging radical for learning continuous r...

  11. Public domain optical character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, Michael D.; Blue, James L.; Candela, Gerald T.; Dimmick, Darrin L.; Geist, Jon C.; Grother, Patrick J.; Janet, Stanley A.; Wilson, Charles L.

    1995-03-01

    A public domain document processing system has been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The system is a standard reference form-based handprint recognition system for evaluating optical character recognition (OCR), and it is intended to provide a baseline of performance on an open application. The system's source code, training data, performance assessment tools, and type of forms processed are all publicly available. The system recognizes the handprint entered on handwriting sample forms like the ones distributed with NIST Special Database 1. From these forms, the system reads hand-printed numeric fields, upper and lowercase alphabetic fields, and unconstrained text paragraphs comprised of words from a limited-size dictionary. The modular design of the system makes it useful for component evaluation and comparison, training and testing set validation, and multiple system voting schemes. The system contains a number of significant contributions to OCR technology, including an optimized probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifier that operates a factor of 20 times faster than traditional software implementations of the algorithm. The source code for the recognition system is written in C and is organized into 11 libraries. In all, there are approximately 19,000 lines of code supporting more than 550 subroutines. Source code is provided for form registration, form removal, field isolation, field segmentation, character normalization, feature extraction, character classification, and dictionary-based postprocessing. The recognition system has been successfully compiled and tested on a host of UNIX workstations. This paper gives an overview of the recognition system's software architecture, including descriptions of the various system components along with timing and accuracy statistics.

  12. THE CHARACTER OF CIRCE IN THE ODYSSEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. McClymont

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the character of Circe in the Odyssey, emphasizing that she has not only an evil but a positive side to her character. The implications of her being a witch, swearing an oath to Odysseus and being a god are explored. She is also briefly compared with other characters in the Odyssey.

  13. Character Balance in MOBA Games

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor, Norén; Emanuel, Palm

    2015-01-01

    As live streaming of video games has become easier, electronic sports have grown quickly and they are still increasing as tournaments grow in viewers and prizes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory Metagame Bounds by applying it to League of Legends and Dota 2, to see if it is a valid way of looking at character balance in the Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game genre. The main mode of both games consist of matches played on a map where a team of five players is up against ano...

  14. A Note on Generalized Characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Bhatt; H V Dedania

    2005-11-01

    For a compactly generated LCA group , it is shown that the set $H(G)$ of all generalized characters on equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and $H(G)=\\hat{G}$ (the dual group of ) if and only if is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if is second countable, then the Gel’fand space of the commutative convolution algebra $C_c(G)$ equipped with the inductive limit topology is topologically homeomorphic to $H(G)$.

  15. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  16. An EST database from saffron stigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiusano Maria Luisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part – the stigmas – are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. Results We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is accessible and searchable through the Saffron Genes database http://www.saffrongenes.org. The ESTs have been grouped into 1,893 Clusters, each corresponding to a different expressed gene, and annotated. The complete set of raw EST sequences, as well as of their electopherograms, are maintained in the database, allowing users to investigate sequence qualities and EST structural features (vector contamination, repeat regions. The saffron stigma transcriptome contains a series of interesting sequences (putative sex determination genes, lipid and carotenoid metabolism enzymes, transcription factors. Conclusion The Saffron Genes database represents the first reference collection for the genomics of Iridaceae, for the molecular biology of stigma biogenesis, as well as for the metabolic pathways underlying saffron secondary metabolism.

  17. CHARACTER EDUCATION THROUGH ENGLISH MODALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subur Wardoyo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The spread of English in Indonesia carries an inherent philosophy with it. This essay will focus on how the view that ‘there is no absolute truth’ is ingrained in the linguistic modality of English. Furthermore it will show how this philosophy of modality may inevitably shape a student’s character since it allows people to create the shared truths they need or to downgrade the truths of others, with all the potential positive or negative consequences. Finally this essay will also show how a visual picture, descriptive text, and dialogue could serve as teaching aids to shape a student’s character through classroom drills in such modality signifiers as modal auxiliaries, frequency adverbs, reporting frames, tenses etc. On the whole this essay relies heavily on Halliday’s Functional Grammar, von Wright’s Deontic Logic, and Hodge and Kress’s Semiotics while the topic of the picture, text and dialogue heavily centers on the mysterious Alhambra Citadel of Granada.   Keywords    :    Modality, degrees of modality, subjective and objective modality, kinds of truth, deontic logic.

  18. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  19. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character. PMID:26217753

  20. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  1. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  2. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  3. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  4. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runko Suzan J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate, female (megasporangiate, and vegetative organs (leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and

  5. VEHICLE LICENSE PLATE CHARACTER SEGMENTATION – A VEHICLE LICENSE PLATE CHARACTER SEGMENTATION – A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karthi Keyan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available License plate recognition (LPR plays a major role in this busy world, as the number of vehicles increases day by day, theft of vehicles, breaking traffic rules, entering restricted area are also increases linearly, so to block this act license plate recognition system is designed. License Plate Recognition (LPR systems basically consist of 3 main processing steps such as: Detection of number plate, Segmentation of plate characters and Recognition of each character. Among this, character segmentation is a most challenging task, as the accuracy of the character recognition relies on the accuracy of the character segmentation. Problems of different lighting condition, adhesion, fracture, rivet, rotation degrades the accuracy of the character segmentation. So in order to overcome these problems and uplift the accuracy of character segmentation various algorithms are developed for this work. Purpose of this paper is to categorize the vehicle plate character and recognize the segmented characters.

  6. EST data: 3336 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EC0269 C19333 AU172698 DPlate 035 H09 5' TCG CAC TGC AAA CAC GTG GG 3' 5' AGG TGA GGC AGT TCG GC ... sequence comes from Fig. 1. Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation.. ...

  7. EST data: 1335 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CG0974 C27097 AU108766 DPlate 014 G11 5' GAT GGG GCA GAA GAA GGA TC 3' 5' CCC ATT ACT CAC CGC AG ... sequence comes from Fig. 4. Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; mismatches(46[R- ...

  8. EST data: 3723 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ED0022 C73633 C99436 E20022 2 D DPlate 039 C10 5' AGA ACG CCC CTG ACA CTT TG 3' 5' GTA ATG TTC C ... sequence comes from Fig. 2. Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; mismatches(518-52 ...

  9. EST data: 8900 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ST5674 AU161807 AU174368 DPlate 092 D09 5' CGT TGG AGT AAA GGT CAT TC 3' 5' TGG AGC GAT AAG TTG ... sequence comes from Fig. 2. Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; mismatches(82[G- ...

  10. EST data: 3455 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EC0708 C19633 DPlate 036 G12 5' CCA GGG CGG GGA GGT CGT AG 3' 5' ACA GGA ACG GCA GCG GTT GG 3' > ... sequence comes from Fig. 3. Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; mismatch(99[A- &T ...

  11. The spatial character of sensor technology

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Stuart; Pridmore, Tony; Crabtree, Andy; Green, Jonathan; Benford, Steve; O'Malley, Claire

    2006-01-01

    By considering the spatial character of sensor-based interactive systems, this paper investigates how discussions of seams and seamlessness in ubiquitous computing neglect the complex spatial character that is constructed as a side-effect of deploying sensor technology within a space. Through a study of a torch (`flashlight') based interface, we develop a framework for analysing this spatial character generated by sensor technology. This framework is then used to analyse and compare a range o...

  12. Cohomological Hall algebras and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Davison, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between twisted and untwisted character varieties via a specific instance of the Cohomological Hall algebra for moduli of objects in 3-Calabi-Yau categories introduced by Kontsevich and Soibelman. In terms of Donaldson--Thomas theory, this relationship is completely understood via the calculations of Hausel and Villegas of the E polynomials of twisted character varieties and untwisted character stacks. We present a conjectural lift of this relationship to the cohomological Hall algebra setting.

  13. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful combinat......In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...

  14. Complex root networks of Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Po-Han; Chen, Jia-Ling; Wang, Po-Cheng; Chi, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Zhi-Ren; Jhang, Zih-Jian; Yeh, Yeong-Nan; Chen, Yih-Yuh; Hu, Chin-Kun

    There are several sets of Chinese characters still available today, including Oracle Bone Inscriptions (OBI) in Shang Dynasty, Chu characters (CC) used in Chu of Warring State Period, Small Seal Script in dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (SJ) in Eastern Han Dynasty, and Kangxi Dictionary (KD) in Qing Dynasty. Such as Chinese characters were all constructed via combinations of meaningful patterns, called roots. Our studies for the complex networks of all roots indicate that the roots of the characters in OBI, CC, SJ and KD have characteristics of small world networks and scale-free networks.

  15. EST data: 1182 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CG0194 C26839 C96955 C50194 2 D DPlate 013 F04 5' GAA GGA GGA TCC CAA GAA AG 3' 5' ATT CAA AGA T ... 778, T76313, H76773, T76734 are in 3' untranslated region ; EST T42894 covers intron in 5' untranslated regio ...

  16. EST data: 2498 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EB0676 C71953 AU172434 no DPlate 027 B01 5' ACA AAG TAG GAT ACG AGG AG 3' 5' GCG AAG CCC ACC GAC ... weak similarity to hypothetical protein PFB0835c - malaria , PID:g3845289; contains EST gb:T42321, R65259, Aa7 ...

  17. EST data: 2257 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH3511 C97816 C63511 1 G DPlate 024 A07 5' TGA TTT CTG TCG CAG CAA GG 3' 5' CAG CGC ATA CTC CAA ... nscription initiation factor IID beta chain, fruit fly , Pir2:B49453; contains EST gb:T46756. ...

  18. EST data: 2838 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EB2435 C72898 AU101192 E02435 5 D DPlate 030 F07 5' TCT TCA GCT CAG CAC ATC AC 3' 5' TTG TGA CCA ... project); similarity to chS-Rex-b - Gallus gallus (chicken ), gb:L10333; contains EST gb:W43040, N65866, Aa597 ...

  19. EST data: 4399 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EE1520 C91775 AU094763 DPlate 046 G10 GCAGCTGCATACTGTCGTAG CAAGGGGCCCCCTTAAAAAC >ATF9D16_10(AL03 ... project); similarity to chS-Rex-b - Gallus gallus (chicken ), gb:L10333; contains EST gb:W43040, N65866, Aa597 ...

  20. EST data: 1966 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH1819 AU063456 AU172312 DPlate 021 F06 5' AGA AGG CCA TGA TCG AAC TG 3' 5' ACA TCG CAA CTA CTA ... project); similarity to chS-Rex-b - Gallus gallus (chicken ), gb:L10333; contains EST gb:W43040, N65866, Aa597 ...

  1. EST data: 8439 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ST1133 AU174200 AU174201 DPlate 087 G11 5' TGC TGT CAC CTA TTG CCT TG 3' 5' CCA AAA TGC AGC AAT ... project); similarity to chS-Rex-b - Gallus gallus (chicken ), gb:L10333; contains EST gb:W43040, N65866, Aa597 ...

  2. EST data: 2872 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EB2463 AU165546 AU165547 E02463 2 G no DPlate 030 H11 5' TCG ATA TGA TGT GGT TGG TG 3' 5' ACT GA ... project); similarity to chS-Rex-b - Gallus gallus (chicken ), gb:L10333; contains EST gb:W43040, N65866, Aa597 ...

  3. EST data: 5984 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RA0688 D23970 AU031708 R00688 6 D no DPlate 062 H04 5' GTC CTA CTG ACG GTA GCA GC 3' 5' CAC GGA ... project); similarity to chS-Rex-b - Gallus gallus (chicken ), gb:L10333; contains EST gb:W43040, N65866, Aa597 ...

  4. Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Skeletal Muscle specific cDNA Library of Chinese Native Xiang Pig%中国地方品种香猪的肌肉特异组织表达序列标签(ESTs)的

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀利; 吴克亮; 李宁; 李长绿; 仇雪梅; 王爱华; 吴常信

    2006-01-01

    通过构建香猪肌肉组织cDNA文库,并在文库中随机挑选克隆进行测序的方法,获得了131个香猪肌肉EST序列.在这131个EST序列所代表的109个单一克隆中,有99个为人类及其他物种的同源序列,3个为已知的猪的ESTs,7个为未知ESTs.对这10个已知、未知ESTs进行开放阅读框预测并进行B1ast分析,没有找到高度同源的氨基酸序列.对上述EST所对应的基因功能分析结果表明,除去27.27%的EST未能分类外,克隆到的EST大多来自与基因/蛋白的表达调控相关的基因(占45.46%).来自具有其他功能的基因的EST依次是细胞代谢占10.10%、细胞结构/迁移占10.10%、细胞/机体防御占5.05%和细胞信号/传导占2.02%.没有发现和细胞分裂相关的已知功能基因.本研究结果为中国地方品种香猪提供了第一个骨骼肌的基因表达谱,为今后寻找猪肌肉生长和肉用品质的候选基因奠定了基础.%A Longissimus Dorsi muscle cDNA library of Xiang Pig was constructed, and 131 randomly isolated clones were sequenced in this study. The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that 131 ESTs represented 109 unique clones sequences, of which 99 showed homology to previously identified genes in humans or other mammals, 3 matched other uncharacterized expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and 7 showed no significant matches to sequences already present in DNA databases. No protein matches were found for 10 ESTs. Functional analysis of the ESTs showed that a considerable proportion of them encoded proteins involved in gene/protein expression (45.46%). Other classes included genes involved in metabolism (10.10%), cell structure/motility (10.10%), cell/organism defense (5.05%), cell signaling/communication (2.02%), and cell division (0.0%).Unclassified genes constituted the remaining 27.27%. This study reported the results of the first gene expression profile analysis of Chinese native Xiang Pig skeletal muscle cells, thereby greatly

  5. On the Character of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annila, Arto

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together, or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature's hierarchy. PMID:27065819

  6. On the Character of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annila, Arto

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together, or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature's hierarchy. PMID:27065819

  7. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  8. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea).

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Voigt; Eilika Wülfing; Gert Wörheide

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU) rDNA and the alm...

  9. EST data: 6351 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RA2152 D24551 AU173319 DPlate 066 G02 AACACGTATGCATTGCGCGG TCAACTGGTTCGCCGTGGAG >A39659_1(A39659 ... |pid:g2295932) Sequence 1 from Patent ... EP0612848; unnamed protein product. &NTHSR203_1(X7 ...

  10. EST data: 5708 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FE0476 AU174863 AU174862 DPlate 059 D06 CCGTCGCCAAAGAATACAGC ACAGATAGCGCACAAAAGTC >AF003534_64(A ... F003534|pid:g2738449) Chilo iridescent virus ... partial genomic sequence; protein 096R. ...

  11. Factors Influencing the Learning of Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ko-Yin; Wu, Hsiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This survey study, which involved 108 language learners enrolled in first-year Chinese as a foreign language classrooms in the United States, intended to address the research questions, "What types of Chinese-character learning strategies do US learners use?" and "Do US learners' Chinese-character learning strategy use differ based on the…

  12. Character Education, K-12, in Uniondale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis-Seinik, Cynthia; McCarthy, Margaret; Nadal, Kathleen; Pfeiffer, Deborah; Tella, Adeola; Wagner, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    The Uniondale, New York School District and community believe that their character education program creates a safe and positive environment for their students. Through character education, they are increasing students' social competence and reducing students' aggressive behaviors. Their school district's goal is to build a district and school…

  13. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...

  14. Character Education. What Works Clearinghouse Topic Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Character education is a fairly new and rapidly evolving topic for curriculum interventions. Character can encompass such moral and ethical values as respect, fairness, and caring -- as well as responsibility, trustworthiness, and citizenship. It can refer to the demonstration of these values in behavior, reasoning, and emotions. The What Works…

  15. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  16. Towards the ictalurid catfish transcriptome: generation and analysis of 31,215 catfish ESTs

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham Rex; Muir William; Liu Lei; Turan Cemal; Simmons Micah; Serapion Jerry; Somridhivej Benjaporn; Nandi Samiran; Kucuktas Huseyin; Xu Peng; Baoprasertkul Puttharat; He Chongbo; Feng Jinian; Wang Shaolin; Peatman Eric

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background EST sequencing is one of the most efficient means for gene discovery and molecular marker development, and can be additionally utilized in both comparative genome analysis and evaluation of gene duplications. While much progress has been made in catfish genomics, large-scale EST resources have been lacking. The objectives of this project were to construct primary cDNA libraries, to conduct initial EST sequencing to generate catfish EST resources, and to obtain baseline inf...

  17. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  18. Keys to Chinese Character Writing. Step-by-Step Directions to Writing Characters Quickly and Easily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing Heng Sheng

    The most interesting and challenging aspect of studying Chinese is writing Chinese characters. Unfortunately, the learning of Chinese characters receives only marginal attention in a typical classroom. Given that vocabularies in textbooks are based on spoken language rather than the principles of character formation, and also given the pressures…

  19. Transcriptome analysis of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. based on next-generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Koji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., in the family Caryophyllaceae, can be found in a wide range of colors and is a model system for studies of flower senescence. In addition, it is one of the most important flowers in the global floriculture industry. However, few genomics resources, such as sequences and markers are available for carnation or other members of the Caryophyllaceae. To increase our understanding of the genetic control of important characters in carnation, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST database for a carnation cultivar important in horticulture by high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results We constructed a normalized cDNA library and a 3’-UTR library of carnation, obtaining a total of 1,162,126 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 300,740 unigenes consisting of 37,844 contigs and 262,896 singlets. The contigs were searched against an Arabidopsis sequence database, and 61.8% (23,380 of them had at least one BLASTX hit. These contigs were also annotated with Gene Ontology (GO and were found to cover a broad range of GO categories. Furthermore, we identified 17,362 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs in 14,291 of the unigenes. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of flower color and ethylene biosynthesis. Transcripts were identified for almost every gene involved in flower chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism and in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transcripts were also identified for every step in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions We present the first large-scale sequence data set for carnation, generated using next-generation sequencing technology. The large EST database generated from these sequences is an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in carnation and provides an EST resource for understanding the genetic diversity of this plant.

  20. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  1. Isolation and Characterization of 46 Novel Polymorphic EST-Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR Markers in Two Sinipercine Fishes (Siniperca and Cross-Species Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of next generation sequencing technologies, transcriptome level sequence collections are emerging as prominent resources for the discovery of gene-based molecular markers. In this study, we described the isolation and characterization of 46 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for Siniperca chuatsi and Siniperca scherzeri from the transcriptome of their F1 interspecies hybrids. Forty-three of these loci were polymorphic in S. chuatsi, and 20 were polymorphic in S. scherzeri. In S. chuatsi, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.13 to 1.00 and from 0.33 to 0.85, respectively. In S. scherzeri, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 9, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.19 to 1.00 and from 0.28 to 0.88, respectively. We also evaluated the cross-amplification of 46 polymorphic loci in four species of sinipercine fishes: Siniperca kneri, Siniperca undulata, Siniperca obscura, and Coreoperca whiteheadi. The interspecies cross-amplification rate was very high, totaling 94% of the 184 locus/taxon combinations tested. These markers will be a valuable resource for population genetic studies in sinipercine fishes.

  2. An EST database from saffron stigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Chiusano Maria Luisa; Pizzichini Daniele; D'Agostino Nunzio; Giuliano Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part – the stigmas – are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. Results We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is access...

  3. Wheat EST resources for functional genomics of abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Links Matthew G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an excellent species to study freezing tolerance and other abiotic stresses. However, the sequence of the wheat genome has not been completely characterized due to its complexity and large size. To circumvent this obstacle and identify genes involved in cold acclimation and associated stresses, a large scale EST sequencing approach was undertaken by the Functional Genomics of Abiotic Stress (FGAS project. Results We generated 73,521 quality-filtered ESTs from eleven cDNA libraries constructed from wheat plants exposed to various abiotic stresses and at different developmental stages. In addition, 196,041 ESTs for which tracefiles were available from the National Science Foundation wheat EST sequencing program and DuPont were also quality-filtered and used in the analysis. Clustering of the combined ESTs with d2_cluster and TGICL yielded a few large clusters containing several thousand ESTs that were refractory to routine clustering techniques. To resolve this problem, the sequence proximity and "bridges" were identified by an e-value distance graph to manually break clusters into smaller groups. Assembly of the resolved ESTs generated a 75,488 unique sequence set (31,580 contigs and 43,908 singletons/singlets. Digital expression analyses indicated that the FGAS dataset is enriched in stress-regulated genes compared to the other public datasets. Over 43% of the unique sequence set was annotated and classified into functional categories according to Gene Ontology. Conclusion We have annotated 29,556 different sequences, an almost 5-fold increase in annotated sequences compared to the available wheat public databases. Digital expression analysis combined with gene annotation helped in the identification of several pathways associated with abiotic stress. The genomic resources and knowledge developed by this project will contribute to a better understanding of the different mechanisms that govern stress tolerance in

  4. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  5. EST data: 618 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CB2410 AU062597 AU166443 no DPlate 007 B06 5' AAG CGT GCC TGG ATG TTT GG 3' 5' TTA CCA ATC CGG A ... stoid cell line immortalized with human EBV from a mononucleosis ... patient; BWRF1 reading frame 8; Protein sequence i ...

  6. EST data: 6794 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RA3815 AU162529 AU032253 R03815 5 D no DPlate 070 B10 5' GCT CTG AAA GGA TTA GTG CC 3' 5' CTC AA ... 3' >A48514_1(A48514|pid:g2302292) Sequence 2 from Patent ... WO9603505; unnamed protein product. &TATHIORDH_1(X ...

  7. EST data: 1413 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CG1312 AU062891 AU108816 DPlate 015 E09 5' GCG CCG TGG TGC TCG TAG AC 3' 5' ACG AGT CCT GCT GGA ... 3' >A47101_1(A47101|pid:g2301167) Sequence 7 from Patent ... WO9527790; unnamed protein product. &A62308_1(A623 ...

  8. EST data: 7563 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SA0911 AU091470 AU056827 S20911 5 G DPlate 077 C10 5' GAC GTG GAG ATC AGA GAA GC 3' 5' GCG TAC C ... 3' >A39659_1(A39659|pid:g2295932) Sequence 1 from Patent ... EP0612848; unnamed protein product. &NTHSR203_1(X7 ...

  9. EST data: 2027 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH2015 AU069474 AU075603 C62015 2 G DPlate 022 C02 5' AGT ACC CCG TCA CTT CAA AG 3' 5' CGT AGT A ... 3' >A47103_1(A47103|pid:g2301169) Sequence 9 from Patent ... WO9527790; unnamed protein product. &A62310_1(A623 ...

  10. EST data: 7825 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS0792 D46247 AU032582 S10792 12 D DPlate 081 A07 5' AAT TAG CGA CCT CCA TGT GC 3' 5' AAG TTG AT ... 3' >A58545_1(A58545|pid:g3714146) Sequence 1 from Patent ... WO9638566; unnamed protein product. &NPZEAXANT_1(X ...

  11. EST data: 6842 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RB0003 AU070645 AU163452 DPlate 071 B04 CCCTCAAGATCAAGCAGGTG TCAGAGCATCAACCATGTCG >A47101_1(A471 ... 01|pid:g2301167) Sequence 7 from Patent ... WO9527790; unnamed protein product. &A62308_1(A623 ...

  12. EST data: 906 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CE0170 AU176409 DPlate 010 B06 5' GCT GGG GAC TCC GAG AGT AG 3' 5' CTT TTA GTG GAG GGC ATA CC 3' ... >A57130_1(A57130|pid:g4530022) Sequence 1 from Patent ... WO9531564; unnamed protein product. &U42444_1(U424 ...

  13. EST data: 7741 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SA1843 AU057851 AU162784 DPlate 080 E08 5' GGT GCT TGT CAA GGC ACT CC 3' 5' CCA TTC CCA TAA CAT ... 3' >A38800_1(A38800|pid:g2295233) Sequence 16 from Patent ... WO9413790; unnamed protein product. ...

  14. EST data: 1094 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CE0661 AU166716 AU068664 DPlate 012 F05 5' TCG GAC ACT TGG TAA ATT GG 3' 5' AGG TGA TGA GCT CGA ... 3' >A40116_1(A40116|pid:g2296279) Sequence 6 from Patent ... WO9423043; unnamed protein product. &S42651(S42651 ...

  15. EST data: 7146 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SA0160 AU055932 AU055933 S20160 11 D DPlate 074 B06 5' TGA GGG CCT AAT CTT TCC TG 3' 5' GGT CTT ... 3' >A38840_1(A38840|pid:g2295264) Sequence 1 from Patent ... WO9413814; unnamed protein product. &S52645(S52645 ...

  16. EST data: 2228 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH3223 AU161456 C63223 2 D DPlate 024 D03 5' GAT GGG AAA CAG AGA GCA AC 3' 5' GCC CAG AAT ACA AA ... 3' >A47097_1(A47097|pid:g2301163) Sequence 3 from Patent ... WO9527790; unnamed protein product. &A62304_1(A623 ...

  17. EST data: 8516 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ST1957 D40173 AU174236 DPlate 088 D09 5' CAC CTG CCA TTT CTT CGT TG 3' 5' ATC CAC CTC TTC CCA AA ... 3' >A52566_1(A52566|pid:g2851884) Sequence 2 from Patent ... EP0727487; unnamed protein product. &HSLPP11_1(U49 ...

  18. EST data: 2700 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EB1514 C93647 AU172474 DPlate 029 D02 5' ATA TAA TTT TGG ATG GAT GC 3' 5' ATT TTC GGT TTT GTT GA ... 3' >A57130_1(A57130|pid:g4530022) Sequence 1 from Patent ... WO9531564; unnamed protein product. &U42444_1(U424 ...

  19. EST data: 7266 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SA0380 AU056209 AU056210 S20380 2 D DPlate 075 B09 5' CGT GAG AGG CGC TGT GGA AG 3' 5' GGG GAA A ... 3' >A58393_1(A58393|pid:g3714050) Sequence 1 from Patent ... WO9635805; unnamed protein product. &RNU50194_1(U5 ...

  20. EST data: 5712 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FE0493 AU174875 AU174874 no DPlate 059 H06 5' ATG CCA CCC AGG TGC TCA AG 3' 5' CCC AAA ACA AAG C ... TG CAT AC 3' >ASRBCS_1(X84730|pid:g671740) Artificial ... rbcS gene sequence. ...

  1. EST data: 3210 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EB4210 C73483 AU101284 E04210 1 D DPlate 034 B06 5' GAC TCT CAA TTC ATG CCA AG 3' 5' AAG ATC AAC ... F003534_64(AF003534|pid:g2738449) Chilo iridescent virus ... partial genomic sequence; protein 096R. ...

  2. EST data: 7463 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SA0655 AU162697 AU056522 S20655 1 G DPlate 076 G09 TAATTCCACGCTTTTTCCTC TTTCCTGTTTCTGTTTCTTC >AT ... 506) A.thaliana ATAF1 mRNA; Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation.. &S37101(S37101) ...

  3. EST data: 5598 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FE0164 AU174642 no DPlate 058 F04 CCTTCCTCGGCCCCCTCTGC AAGTGCTCGCGCTGTTCCTG >LEEXTEN5_1(X55685|p ... xtensin mRNA (clone uG-18); Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; ORF. &S14974(S149 ...

  4. EST data: 1951 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH1611 C97694 DPlate 021 G04 5' GTG GCC ATC AAC GAG ATG TC 3' 5' TCC TCG ACG GTG TAG ACC TG 3' > ... SA I contig fragment No. 6; Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; similarity to a h ...

  5. EST data: 7241 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SA0327 AU056143 AU056144 S20327 1 D DPlate 075 A06 5' GTT GGG CAT GTA GTC ATT CG 3' 5' AAT GCC A ... Human mRNA for pM5 protein; Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation.. &S21977(S21977) ...

  6. EST data: 3883 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ED0945 C91611 AU172758 DPlate 041 C06 5' GCT GGA GAG GCA TAA ATG TG 3' 5' ATC CCG GCA CAA CAG CA ... equence comes from Fig. 3A. Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; mismatch(177[R- & ...

  7. EST data: 5253 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EH0928 AU065261 AU095249 no DPlate 054 E09 5' GAA GGT GGG GAT GCT GTT CG 3' 5' ACA CCT ACC AAA A ... one F18F4 (ESSAII project); Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; 5-substituted hyd ...

  8. EST data: 8862 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ST5254 AU058127 S05254 1 D no DPlate 092 F04 5' GAA GCC TGG AAT TCT GAG AG 3' 5' TTG TTG ATG ACA ... rity to dynein light chain; Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation. &B71425(B71425) ...

  9. EST data: 5888 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RA0369 AU173086 AU173087 DPlate 061 H04 ACAGCATCCCCACCTTCGTC GATGCGACGACAGATTGGTC >ATF18F4_17(AL ... one F18F4 (ESSAII project); Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; 5-substituted hyd ...

  10. EST data: 402 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CB1732 AU166370 AU068062 C11732 11 D M DPlate 005 B03 5' ACA CCT TGC AGT TAT CCG AC 3' 5' CCT TC ... AM1 gene for TNP1 and TNP2; Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; no ATG start codo ...

  11. EST data: 7089 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SA0035 AU055750 AU055751 S20035 3 D DPlate 073 A11 5' GCA CCA TTT GGA TGG ACA AG 3' 5' CGC ACA T ... rom Fig. 2. Map location 4. Protein sequence is in conflict ... with the conceptual translation; mismatch(46[R- &V ...

  12. On the JLO Character and Loop Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung Lun Alan

    In type II noncommutative geometry, the geometry on a C*-algebra A is given by an unbounded Breuer--Fredholm module (rho, N,D ) over A. Here rho : A → N is a *-homomorphism from A to the semi-finite von Neumann algebra N⊂BH , and D is an unbounded Breuer--Fredholm operator affiliated with N that satisfies certain axioms. Each Breuer--Fredholm module assigns an index to a given element in the K-theory of A. The Breuer--Fredholm index provides a real-valued pairing between the K-homology of A and the K-theory of A. When N=BH , a construction of Jaffe-Lesniewski-Osterwalder associates to the module (rho, N,D ) a cocycle Ch•JLOD in the entire cyclic cohomology group HE·( A) for D is theta-summable. The JLO character and the K-theory character ch· : K·(A) → HE ·(A) intertwine the K-theoretical pairing with the pairing between HE·(A) and HE ·(A). If (rho, N,F ) is a finitely summable bounded Breuer--Fredholm module, Benameur-Fack defined a character formula chn(F ) generalizing the Connes character formula for bounded Fredholm modules. On the other hand, given a finitely-summable unbounded Breuer--Fredholm module (rho, N,D ), there is a canonically associated bounded Breuer--Fredholm module. The first main result of this thesis extends the JLO theory to Breuer--Fredholm modules (possibly N≠BH ) in the graded case, and proves that the JLO character formula Ch•JLOD and Connes character formula chn( F) define the same class in HE·(A). This extends a result of Connes-Moscovici[21] for ordinary Fredholm modules. An important example of an unbounded Breuer--Fredholm module is given by the noncommutative space of G-connections due to Aastrup-Grimstrup-Nest[3, 4]. In their original work, the authors limit their construction to the case that the group G is either U(1) or SU(2). Another main result of the thesis extends AGN's construction to any connected compact Lie group G; and generalizes by considering connections defined on sequences of graphs, using limits

  13. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  14. Variability in seed characters of Tinospora cordifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali K Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as Guduchi is a glabrous, deciduous climber which belongs to family Menispermaceae. Fruit is drupe,   ovoid, glossy and red. Investigation was carried out to know the extent of variability in  seed characters of 22 female accessions of T. cordifolia. Based on two years observations it was found wide  variability   of seed shape, seed surface pattern, seed size and condyle size existed among the accessions and these characters were found stable. Hence it is concluded that seed characters can be used for the characterization of accessions in T. cordifolia germplasm and these characters can be used in   DUS descriptors of the species.

  15. Character Development: Renewing an Old Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Growing public concern with student discipline, increases in student suicide rates, homicides, and high pregnancy rates of teenage girls are causing educators to give renewed attention to the concept of "character development" in public education. (MD)

  16. Kannada Character Recognition System A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Indira, K

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research has been done on optical character recognition ocr and a large number of articles have been published on this topic during the last few decades. Many commercial OCR systems are now available in the market, but most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters. There are no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 12 major scripts in India. This paper presents a review of existing work on printed Kannada script and their results. The characteristics of Kannada script and Kannada Character Recognition System kcr are discussed in detail. Finally fusion at the classifier level is proposed to increase the recognition accuracy.

  17. Seafloor character--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in "SFC_OffshorePacifica.zip," which is...

  18. Seafloor character--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster data file...

  19. All 5' EST - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...ST name SEQUENCE 5' EST sequence Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History

  20. All 3' EST - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...ST name SEQUENCE 3' EST sequence Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History

  1. CHARACTER RECOGNITION APPROACH BASED ON ONTOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Hacene Belhadef; Aicha Eutamene; Mohamed Khireddine Kholadi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general description of a new character recognition process based on ontology, semantically annotated by a domain expert. Such process is based essentially on a matching step between two ontologies, the first represents a domain ontology, containing the typographical description of different characters represent an alphabet of a well definite language (Latin for example), the second ontology, describes the document in question in the form of concepts where each conc...

  2. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    OpenAIRE

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characteriz...

  3. Visual Character Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Araokar, Shashank

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of optical characters is known to be one of the earliest applications of Artificial Neural Networks, which partially emulate human thinking in the domain of artificial intelligence. In this paper, a simplified neural approach to recognition of optical or visual characters is portrayed and discussed. The document is expected to serve as a resource for learners and amateur investigators in pattern recognition, neural networking and related disciplines.

  4. Component-Enhanced Chinese Character Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanran; Li, Wenjie; Sun, Fei; Li, Sujian

    2015-01-01

    Distributed word representations are very useful for capturing semantic information and have been successfully applied in a variety of NLP tasks, especially on English. In this work, we innovatively develop two component-enhanced Chinese character embedding models and their bigram extensions. Distinguished from English word embeddings, our models explore the compositions of Chinese characters, which often serve as semantic indictors inherently. The evaluations on both word similarity and text...

  5. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  6. Rocade est, Bourges

    OpenAIRE

    Guiot, Thibaud

    2014-01-01

    Code INSEE commune : 18033 Lien Atlas (MCC) : http://atlas.patrimoines.culture.fr/atlas/trunk/index.php?ap_theme=DOM_2.01.02&ap_bbox=2.324;47.026;2.473;47.130 Le tracé de la rocade Est de Bourges a fait l’objet d’une évaluation complémentaire afin de traiter tous les terrains qui étaient inaccessibles lors de la première phase. Deux sites ont été étudiés au cours de cette intervention. Deux structures excavées, découvertes aux abords de la route de Nevers (RD 976), ont livré un lot de mobilie...

  7. PipeOnline 2.0: automated EST processing and functional data sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoubi, Patricia; Jin, Xiaojing; Leite, Saul; Liu, Xianghui; Martajaja, Jeson; Abduraham, Abdurashid; Wan, Qiaolan; Yan, Wei; Misawa, Eduardo; Prade, Rolf A

    2002-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are generated and deposited in the public domain, as redundant, un-annotated, single-pass reactions, with virtually no biological content. PipeOnline automatically analyses and transforms large collections of raw DNA-sequence data from chromatograms or FASTA files by calling the quality of bases, screening and removing vector sequences, assembling and rewriting consensus sequences of redundant input files into a unigene EST data set and finally through translati...

  8. EST Express: PHP/MySQL based automated annotation of ESTs from expression libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardinas Jose R

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several biological techniques result in the acquisition of functional sets of cDNAs that must be sequenced and analyzed. The emergence of redundant databases such as UniGene and centralized annotation engines such as Entrez Gene has allowed the development of software that can analyze a great number of sequences in a matter of seconds. Results We have developed "EST Express", a suite of analytical tools that identify and annotate ESTs originating from specific mRNA populations. The software consists of a user-friendly GUI powered by PHP and MySQL that allows for online collaboration between researchers and continuity with UniGene, Entrez Gene and RefSeq. Two key features of the software include a novel, simplified Entrez Gene parser and tools to manage cDNA library sequencing projects. We have tested the software on a large data set (2,016 samples produced by subtractive hybridization. Conclusion EST Express is an open-source, cross-platform web server application that imports sequences from cDNA libraries, such as those generated through subtractive hybridization or yeast two-hybrid screens. It then provides several layers of annotation based on Entrez Gene and RefSeq to allow the user to highlight useful genes and manage cDNA library projects.

  9. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:26379562

  10. Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Anne

    Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at low levels (m = 3, 4, 5) are presented as well as a sketch of some proofs. The first identity gives the Ising model characters (m = 3) as bilinears in tricritical Ising model characters (m = 4), while the second one gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model.

  11. Hybrid Skeletal-Surface Motion Graphs for Character Animation from 4D Performance Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Collomosse, JP; Huang, P.; Hilton, A.; Tejera, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel hybrid representation for character animation from 4D Performance Capture (4DPC) data which combines skeletal control with surface motion graphs. 4DPC data are temporally aligned 3D mesh sequence reconstructions of the dynamic surface shape and associated appearance from multiple view video. The hybrid representation supports the production of novel surface sequences which satisfy constraints from user specified key-frames or a target skeletal motion. Motion graph path opti...

  12. A Study of Representations for Pen based Handwriting Recognition of Tamil Characters

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaresan, CS; Keerthi, SS

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we study the important issue of choosing representations that are suitable for recognizing pen based handwriting of characters in Tamil, a language of India. Four different choices, based on the following set of features are considered: (1) a sequence of directions and curvature; (2) a sequence of angles; (3) Fourier transform coefficients; and (4) wavelet features. We provide arguments in support of the representation using wavelet features. A neural network designed using thes...

  13. An Intelligent E-Learning Software for Learning to Write Correct Chinese Characters on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Learning Chinese is unquestionably very important and popular worldwide with the fast economic growth of China. To most foreigners and also local students, one of the major challenges in learning Chinese is to write Chinese characters in correct stroke sequences that are considered as significant in the Chinese culture. However, due to…

  14. EST Table - KAIKOcDNA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KAIKOcDNA EST Table Data detail Data name EST Table Description of data contents List of silkworm ESTs (cDNAs) consisting of public...ly available data in addition to sequences registered to public database as of Septem

  15. CONFUCIANISM AND CHARACTER EDUCATION: A CHINESE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ju Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of Confucianism are founded on humaneness, righteousness, propriety, knowledge, integrity and filial piety. These principles have found their way to the Chinese culture since the days of Confucius. The study reviews the concept of Confucianism and its influence in Chinese context. Also, the relationship between Confucianism and character education is discussed. Character education is based on the transmission of values and within Chinese society and most of these values have been founded on the teachings of Confucius. Filial piety has strongly been conditioned within the principles of Confucianism and the respect of one’s elders. Character education has been promoted by teachers and elders who focus on the transmission of values from one generation to the next. Character education is supported by the theories and teachings set out by Confucius, mostly in relation to humaneness and integrity, as well as collectivism. The individualistic trends are discarded within character education, as the welfare of the society and the collective is prioritized.

  16. Trivalent Graphs, Volume Conjectures and Character Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Pichai, Ramadevi; Zodinmawia

    2014-10-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to colored quantum invariants of the theta and tetrahedron graph. The character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with E edges in S 3 is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus g = E/3 + 1. For the theta and tetrahedron graph, we conjecture that the configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety.

  17. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  18. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  19. Development of EST-derived markers in Dendrobium from EST of related taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narisa Juejun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Public databases are useful for molecular marker development. The major aim of this study was to develop expressedsequence tag (EST-derived markers in Dendrobium from available ESTs of Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium. A total of 6063sequences were screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and introns. Primers flanking these regions were generated andtested on genomic DNAs of Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium. Twenty-three percent of amplifiable Phalaenopsis EST-derivedmarkers were cross-genera transferable to Dendrobium. Forty-one markers from both Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium thatamplified in Dendrobium were assessed on six commercial cultivars and six wild accessions. All of them were transferableamong Dendrobium species. High polymorphism and heterozygosity were observed within wild accessions. Sixteen polymorphic markers were evaluated for linkage analysis on an F1 segregating population. Seven markers were mapped into threelinkage groups, two of which showed syntenic relationship between dendrobium and rice. This relationship will facilitatefurther quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping and comparative genomic studies of Dendrobium. Our results indicate thatPhalaenopsis EST-derived markers are valuable tools for genetic research and breeding applications in Dendrobium.

  20. Character Education in Print: Content Analysis of Character Education in Introduction to Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Babette Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Albert Einstein is credited with saying that the most important component of education is the development of students' character. While debate exists as to the delivery of character education in the public schools, it must be recognized that not all students have a support system outside of the schoolhouse. Consequently, when character…

  1. Improved Characters and Student Learning Outcomes through Development of Character Education Based General Physics Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlina; Sabani; Mihardi, Satria

    2015-01-01

    Education Research in Indonesia has begun to lead to the development of character education and is no longer fixated on the outcomes of cognitive learning. This study purposed to produce character education based general physics learning model (CEBGP Learning Model) and with valid, effective and practical peripheral devices to improve character…

  2. Character-Aware Neural Language Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoon; Jernite, Yacine; Sontag, David; Rush, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple neural language model that relies only on character-level inputs. Predictions are still made at the word-level. Our model employs a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a highway network over characters, whose output is given to a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network language model (RNN-LM). On the English Penn Treebank the model is on par with the existing state-of-the-art despite having 60% fewer parameters. On languages with rich morphology (Arabic,...

  3. Variability in seed characters of Tinospora cordifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Anjali K.; Geetha K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as Guduchi is a glabrous, deciduous climber which belongs to family Menispermaceae. Fruit is drupe,   ovoid, glossy and red. Investigation was carried out to know the extent of variability in  seed characters of 22 female accessions of T. cordifolia. Based on two years observations it was found wide  variability   of seed shape, seed surface pattern, seed size and condyle size existed among the accessions and these characters were found stable. Hence it is...

  4. Mining, characterization and validation of EST derived microsatellites from the transcriptome database of Allium sativum L

    OpenAIRE

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with comprehensive transcript information are valuable resources for development of molecular markers as they are derived from conserved genic regions. The present study highlights the mining of EST database to deduce the class I hyper variable SSRs in A. sativum. From 21694 garlic EST sequences, 642 non-redundant SSRs were identified with an average frequency of 1 per 14.9 kb of garlic transcriptome. The most abundant SSR motifs were the mononucleotides (32.86%...

  5. Database Description - ClEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ClEST Database... Description General information of database Database name ClEST Alternative name Cimex lectul...6812 (ext.222-36812) Fax: +81-29-861-6812 E-mail: Database classification Nucleotide Sequence Database...s Organism Taxonomy Name: Cimex lectularius Taxonomy ID: 79782 Database description Exp...ressed sequence tags (EST) database of unique organs and whole bodies of the bedbug, Cimex lectularius Featu

  6. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo Taek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum, although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was designed and constructed to enable comprehensive analysis of chili pepper gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Results We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat. The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/. Conclusion The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.

  7. Avaliação da função cardíaca por ressonância magnética com seqüências em equilíbrio estável: segmentadas × tempo real Assessment of cardiac function by magnetic resonance imaging: segmented x real-time steady-state free precession sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bernardo Bezerra

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os índices de função sistólica ventricular obtidos entre as seqüências de cine-ressonância magnética em equilíbrio estável, em tempo real e acoplada ao eletrocardiograma, em pacientes com ritmo regular ou não. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram comparados a fração de ejeção e os volumes diastólico e sistólico finais, em 31 pacientes, 11 com ritmo cardíaco irregular e 20 com ritmo cardíaco sinusal regular, utilizando-se seqüências segmentadas acopladas ao eletrocardiograma e em tempo real. O tratamento estatístico foi feito através da correlação de Pearson e a concordância de Bland-Altman, com p OBJECTIVE: To compare ventricular systolic parameters on segmented and real-time steady-state free precession cine-MRI sequences and ECG-gated MRI in patients presenting or not with cardiac arrhythmias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ejection fraction and end-diastolic/end-systolic volumes have been compared in 31 patients, 11 presenting with cardiac arrhythmias, and 20 with regular sinus rhythm, using ECG-gated segmented and real-time sequences. The statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman agreement plot, with p < 0.01. RESULTS: Real-time acquisitions demonstrated endocardial borders blurring effects, but both sequences presented a clear, positive correlation: ejection fraction r = 0.94; end-diastolic volume r = 0.93 and end-systolic volume r = 0.98. The assessment of 11 patients with arrhythmias has not demonstrated a statistically significant difference, despite the lower blood pool-myocardial contrast ratio. CONCLUSION: Real-time sequences may be utilized for cardiac function assessment, regardless the patient's cardiac rhythm.

  8. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Stylophora pistillata

    KAUST Repository

    Zoccola, Didier

    2011-04-09

    Coral reefs are the most productive marine ecosystems with highest species diversity. During the last decades, reefs have been facing multiples global and anthropogenic stressors leading to bleaching and death of entire reefs.

  9. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes...

  10. Use of Partial Information in Learning To Read Chinese Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Ku, Yu-Min; Shu, Hua; Wu, Ningning

    2003-01-01

    Investigates whether children can use partial information to learn the pronunciations of Chinese characters. Children learned to pronounce more regular characters, which contain full information about pronunciation, and more tone-different and onset-different characters, which contain partial information about pronunciation, than characters with…

  11. An Optical Character Recognition for Handwritten Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti R. Zalke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition is process of recognition of character from scanned document and lots of OCR now available in the market. But most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters . There are no sufficient number of work on Indian language script like Devanagari so this paper present a review on optical character recognition on handwritten Devanagari script.

  12. Using Storybooks as a Character Education Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Fethi; Ulutas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the views and implementations of preschool teachers in "giving character education through picture storybooks." Descriptive review method was used in the research and supported with focus group interviews. For this reason data were took from two study groups (for the descriptive study group n = 245, for the…

  13. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842. ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotype s * Five-Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.011, year: 2013

  14. Cyberethics: Envisioning Character Education in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents theory and research forming the framework of a graduate course in cyberethics education. The course content includes theory and research on the psychology of the Internet, moral development, and character education. Discussion includes application of these constructs to issues such as empathy, privacy, and other issues as…

  15. Twisted Spectral Triples and Connes' Character Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Fathizadeh, Farzad; Khalkhali, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    We give a proof of an analogue of Connes' Hochschild character theorem for twisted spectral triples obtained from twisting a spectral triple by scaling automorphisms, under some suitable conditions. We also survey some of the properties of twisted spectral triples that are known so far.

  16. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  17. 7 CFR 52.3762 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... texture characteristics for the variety and type. (b) Grade A. Canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced, and chopped styles that have a good character may be given a score of 27 to 30 points. “Good character” means that, for the type, the olives have a fleshy texture characteristic for...

  18. Partners in Character: Building a Moral Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeck, Maria; Dinovi, Raymond; Gehringer, Christine; Tonia, Rachael; Wuillermin, Monica

    This paper describes the professional partnership between Rowan University, New Jersey, and Radix Elementary School, emphasizing the building of a moral culture in the learning community. The partnership is a driving force behind the movement to promote character education within the school community. This is being accomplished by facilitating…

  19. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  20. N=4 superconformal characters and partition functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Character formulae for positive energy unitary representations of the N=4 superconformal group are obtained through use of reduced Verma modules and Weyl group symmetry. Expansions of these are given which determine the particular representations present and results such as dimensions of superconformal multiplets. By restriction of variables various 'blind' characters are also obtained. Limits, corresponding to reduction to particular subgroups, in the characters isolate contributions from particular subsets of multiplets and in many cases simplify the results considerably. As a special case, the index counting short and semi-short multiplets which do not form long multiplets found recently is shown to be related to particular cases of reduced characters. Partition functions of N=4 super-Yang-Mills are investigated. Through analysis of these, exact formulae are obtained for counting 12- and some 14-BPS operators in the free case. Similarly, partial results for the counting of semi-short operators are given. It is also shown in particular examples how certain short operators which one might combine to form long multiplets due to group theoretic considerations may be protected dynamically

  1. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity. PMID:26057159

  2. Nearest Neighbor Algorithm in Handwritten Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Deshmukh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system extracts the geometric features of the character Contour. The system gives a feature vector as its output. The feature vectors so generated from a training set is then used to train a pattern recognition engine based on Neural Networks so that the system can be benchmarked. There was an attempt made to develop a system that used the methods that humans use to perceive handwritten characters. Hence a system that recognizes handwritten characters using Pattern recognition was developed. Here the data generated by comparing two images was stored in excel format and then that data was called as an individual input for generation of Simulink diagram. Pattern recognition can be used to model human perception. The mathematics that Pattern recognition requires is extremely fundamental. Any algorithm developed using Pattern recognition would require relatively simple and not so lengthy calculations. Due to simplicity of calculations, they can be implemented on any hardware or software platform without worrying about the computing power. In this paper first part is about introduction to character Recognition. The second part deals with the short introduction to neural network implementation for image processing using MATLAB

  3. Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team

    2014-03-01

    A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.

  4. Delineating the Character of the Entrepreneurial University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Burton R.

    2004-01-01

    We gain insight into the emerging character of the entrepreneurial university by pursuing empirical answers to two questions: How are such universities initially formed? And how do they sustain themselves? My 1998 book, "Creating Entrepreneurial Universities," used European cases to conceptualize five "pathways of transformation." My 2004 book,…

  5. Character Education: Better Students, Better People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Maurice, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The application of social-emotional and character development (SECD) in classrooms is about teaching, practicing, and modeling essential personal and civic life habits and skills that are almost universally understood as making people good human beings. Among these habits are respect, responsibility, integrity, caring, fairness, and constructive…

  6. Seafloor character--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The raster data file is...

  7. Honesty, Cheating, and Character in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Most college faculty care about the characters of their students, especially when it comes to questions of honesty. But can students today be trusted not to cheat when completing papers and exams, and not to do so for the right reasons? In section one of this article, the author reviews some of the leading research on cheating behavior, and in…

  8. Acerca de este sitio web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Página de guía que permite al lector entender la forma en que está organizado el sitio web del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), las categorías de información disponibles y las políticas que rigen este sitio web.

  9. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Gary L

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST and bacterial artificial chromosome (BACsequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum of 216 (366 informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum of 55 (191 informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other

  10. Efficient Learning Strategy of Chinese Characters Based on Network Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Based on network analysis of hierarchical structural relations among Chinese characters, we develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters. We regard a more efficient learning method if one learns the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed ...

  11. AcEST: BP917598 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value...Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  12. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  13. Transcript Mapping and Genome Annotation of Ascidian mtDNA Using EST Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gissi, Carmela; Pesole, Graziano

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcripts of two ascidian species were reconstructed through sequence assembly of publicly available ESTs resembling mitochondrial DNA sequences (mt-ESTs). This strategy allowed us to analyze processing and mapping of the mitochondrial transcripts and to investigate the gene organization of a previously uncharacterized mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). This new strategy would greatly facilitate the sequencing and annotation of mtDNAs. In Ciona intestinalis, the assembled mt-...

  14. Identification of human chromosome 22 transcribed sequences with ORF expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza, S J; Camargo, A A; Briones, M R;

    2000-01-01

    by EST or full length cDNA sequences available in GenBank but not utilized in the initial annotation of the first human chromosome sequence. Thus despite representing less than 15% of all expressed human sequences in the public databases at the time of the present analysis, ORESTES sequences defined 48...

  15. AcEST: BP920334 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |Q6R6L8|FSHR_MESAU Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor OS=Mesocricetus auratus ... SCAF14743, whole genome shotgun sequence. (Fragment) OS=Tetraodon nigroviridis Align length 63 Score (bit) ...TNG Chromosome undetermined SCAF14743, whole genome shotgun sequence. (Fragment) OS=Tetraodon nigroviri........................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bi...g..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments:

  16. AcEST: DK946187 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6. 5' end sequence. DK946187 - Show DK946187 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0011_M06 Library YMU02 Length 150 Definition...ult : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Alig...p. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  17. AcEST: DK960767 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0. 5' end sequence. DK960767 - Show DK960767 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0008_E20 Library TST39 Length 123 Definition...X Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition -...ast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  18. Contribution to automatic handwritten characters recognition. Application to optical moving characters recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a research work on computer aided vision relating to the design of a vision system which can recognize isolated handwritten characters written on a mobile support. We use a technique which consists in analyzing information contained in the contours of the polygon circumscribed to the character's shape. These contours are segmented and labelled to give a new set of features constituted by: - right and left 'profiles', - topological and algebraic unvarying properties. A new method of character's recognition induced from this representation based on a multilevel hierarchical technique is then described. In the primary level, we use a fuzzy classification with dynamic programming technique using 'profiles'. The other levels adjust the recognition by using topological and algebraic unvarying properties. Several results are presented and an accuracy of 99 pc was reached for handwritten numeral characters, thereby attesting the robustness of our algorithm. (author)

  19. Analysis of Hamlet's Complex Character By Hamlet's Relationship with Other Major Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左欣

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reveal the complexity of the character of Hamlet in Shakespeare's tragedy-Hamlet and the importance of the role that his pretense of lunacy plays in the plot. The different sides of his personality are revealed by the analysis of some of Hamlet's behavior. The argument is also established that the hero's pretense of lunacy is a device in the plot which allows the full display of the character's complexity.

  20. Flashing characters with famous faces improves ERP-based brain-computer interface performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, T.; Schulz, S. M.; Grünzinger, C.; Kübler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Currently, the event-related potential (ERP)-based spelling device, often referred to as P300-Speller, is the most commonly used brain-computer interface (BCI) for enhancing communication of patients with impaired speech or motor function. Among numerous improvements, a most central feature has received little attention, namely optimizing the stimulus used for eliciting ERPs. Therefore we compared P300-Speller performance with the standard stimulus (flashing characters) against performance with stimuli known for eliciting particularly strong ERPs due to their psychological salience, i.e. flashing familiar faces transparently superimposed on characters. Our results not only indicate remarkably increased ERPs in response to familiar faces but also improved P300-Speller performance due to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences needed for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-Speller.

  1. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Woo Taek; Cho Hye-Sun; Lee Bong-Woo; Kim JungEun; Lee Seung-Won; Baek Kwang-Hyun; Kim Hyun-Jin; Choi Doil; Hur Cheol-Goo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum), although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was desi...

  2. On the total character of finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Prajapati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For a finite group $G$, we study the total character $tau_G$ afforded by the direct sum of all the non-isomorphic irreducible complex representations of $G$. We resolve for several classes of groups (the Camina $p$-groups, the generalized Camina $p$-groups, the groups which admit $(G,Z(G$ as a generalized Camina pair, the problem of existence of a polynomial $f(x in mathbb{Q}[x]$ such that $f(chi = tau_G$ for some irreducible character $chi$ of $G$. As a consequence, we completely determine the $p$-groups of order at most $p^5$ (with $p$ odd which admit such a polynomial. We deduce the characterization that these are the groups $G$ for which $Z(G$ is cyclic and $(G,Z(G$ is a generalized Camina pair and, we conjecture that this holds good for $p$-groups of any order.

  3. Coset character identities in superstring compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the coset character identities (generalization of Jacobi's abstruse identity) to compact and noncompact Gepner models. In the both cases, we prove that the partition function actually vanishes due to the spacetime supersymmetry. In the case of the compact models and discrete parts of the noncompact models, the partition function includes the expected vanishing factor. But the character identities used to the continuous part of the noncompact models suggest that these models have twice as many supersymmetry as expected. This fact is an evidence for the conjecture that the holographically dual of the string theory on an actually singular Calabi-Yau manifold is a super CONFORMAL field theory. The extra SUSY charges are interpreted as the superconformal S generators. (author)

  4. The character of the supersymmetric Casimir energy

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, Dario

    2015-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric Casimir energy $E_\\mathrm{susy}$ of $\\mathcal{N}=1$ field theories with an R-symmetry, defined on rigid supersymmetric backgrounds $S^1\\times M_3$, using a Hamiltonian formalism. These backgrounds admit an ambi-Hermitian geometry, and we show that the net contributions to $E_\\mathrm{susy}$ arise from certain twisted holomorphic modes on $\\mathbb{R}\\times M_3$, with respect to both complex structures. The supersymmetric Casimir energy may then be identified as a limit of an index-character that counts these modes. In particular this explains a recent observation relating $E_\\mathrm{susy}$ on $S^1\\times S^3$ to the anomaly polynomial. As further applications we compute $E_\\mathrm{susy}$ for certain secondary Hopf surfaces, and discuss how the index-character may also be used to compute generalized supersymmetric indices.

  5. THE CHARACTER, ORGANIZATION CHANGE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo F. Wijaya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good users character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system.

  6. Australian National Character and Australian English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝米娜

    2015-01-01

    <正>Language and culture have very intimate relationship.From the perspective of sociolinguistics,language is the verbal expression of culture,for a culture’s language contains everything its speakers can think about and every way they have of thinking about things.In other words,there are always cultural elements behind the language phenomenon.National character,the concept

  7. Microstructure and Slip Character in Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, D.; Williams, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Influence of microstructures in titanium alloys on the basic parameters of deformation behaviour such as slip character, slip length and slip intensity have been explored. Commercial titanium alloys contain the hexagonal close packed (alpha) and body centred cubic (bita) phases. Slip in these individual phases is shown to be dependent on the nature of alloying elements through their effect on phase stability as related to decomposition into ordered or w structures. When alpha and bita coexist...

  8. Out of character: debating Dutchness, narrating citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Reekum, van, R.

    2014-01-01

    This is an inquiry into the public and political debates over Dutchness and citizenship in the Netherlands (1972-2008). It demonstrates how disagreements over nationhood and citizenship were deliberately transformed from disputes about character into debates about identity and its particular problems. As debates about Dutchness and belonging grew in intensity and political significance, national identity debates came to involve narratives and performative repertoires that were markedly differ...

  9. The pedagogical character of Janez Kuhar

    OpenAIRE

    Mohar, Jožica

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis attempts to provide theoretical and empirical evidence that the pedagogical character of a teacher and his/her attitude towards music education represents, in addition to motivation, an important factor in comprehensive development of the pupil/student. The theoretical part of the thesis includes a detailed description of the teacher and his/her personality and education structure. This involves in particular the teacher’s pedagogical instinct and systematic planning of mus...

  10. On the Necessarily Public Character of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper asks whether and how modern law may be understood as necessarily public in character. It begins by looking at the two main ways - doctrinal and disciplinary - in which law is understood as only selectively and contingently public. In both these cases law's public quality is counterposed to its private quality. However, publicness can also be conceived of as the juridical master category embracing the public and the private in the disciplinary and doctrinal senses. This conception o...

  11. Optical Character Recognition of Amharic Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Meshesha, Million; Jawahar, C. V.

    2007-01-01

    In Africa around 2,500 languages are spoken. Some of these languages have their own indigenous scripts. Accordingly, there is a bulk of printed documents available in libraries, information centers, museums and offices. Digitization of these documents enables to harness already available information technologies to local information needs and developments. This paper presents an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system for converting digitized documents in local languages. An extensive lite...

  12. Development and production of an oligonucleotide MuscleChip: use for validation of ambiguous ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfranchi Gerolamo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the development, validation, and use of a highly redundant 120,000 oligonucleotide microarray (MuscleChip containing 4,601 probe sets representing 1,150 known genes expressed in muscle and 2,075 EST clusters from a non-normalized subtracted muscle EST sequencing project (28,074 EST sequences. This set included 369 novel EST clusters showing no match to previously characterized proteins in any database. Each probe set was designed to contain 20–32 25 mer oligonucleotides (10–16 paired perfect match and mismatch probe pairs per gene, with each probe evaluated for hybridization kinetics (Tm and similarity to other sequences. The 120,000 oligonucleotides were synthesized by photolithography and light-activated chemistry on each microarray. Results Hybridization of human muscle cRNAs to this MuscleChip (33 samples showed a correlation of 0.6 between the number of ESTs sequenced in each cluster and hybridization intensity. Out of 369 novel EST clusters not showing any similarity to previously characterized proteins, we focused on 250 EST clusters that were represented by robust probe sets on the MuscleChip fulfilling all stringent rules. 102 (41% were found to be consistently "present" by analysis of hybridization to human muscle RNA, of which 40 ESTs (39% could be genome anchored to potential transcription units in the human genome sequence. 19 ESTs of the 40 ESTs were furthermore computer-predicted as exons by one or more than three gene identification algorithms. Conclusion Our analysis found 40 transcriptionally validated, genome-anchored novel EST clusters to be expressed in human muscle. As most of these ESTs were low copy clusters (duplex and triplex in the original 28,000 EST project, the identification of these as significantly expressed is a robust validation of the transcript units that permits subsequent focus on the novel proteins encoded by these genes.

  13. The Binary Perfect Phylogeny with Persistent characters

    CERN Document Server

    Braghin, Chiara; Trucco, Gabriella; Bonizzoni, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The near-perfect phylogeny over binary set of characters has been proposed as an extension of the too restrictive model of the perfect phylogeny in order to model biological events such as homoplasy. However the model appears to be too general to model some situations and is computationally inefficient on some instances. In this paper we consider the problem of reconstructing a near-perfect phylogeny where only a type of homoplasy is allowed in the tree: we consider back mutations according to notion of {\\em persistency}, that is characters can be gained and lost at most once. The notion of persistency leads to the problem of the Persistent Perfect Phylogeny (referred as P-PPH). By exploring combinatorial properties of the problem we develop an exact algorithm for solving the P-PPH problem that in the worst case runs in time that is exponential in the number of characters, but is polynomial in the number of species. Indeed, we show that the P-PPH problem can be restated as a special case of the Incomplete Per...

  14. Font generation of personal handwritten Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Chih-Yin; Ting, Chao-Lung; Chang, Ray-I.

    2014-01-01

    Today, digital multimedia messages have drawn more and more attention due to the great achievement of computer and network techniques. Nevertheless, text is still the most popular media for people to communicate with others. Many fonts have been developed so that product designers can choose unique fonts to demonstrate their idea gracefully. It is commonly believed that handwritings can reflect one's personality, emotion, feeling, education level, and so on. This is especially true in Chinese calligraphy. However, it is not easy for ordinary users to customize a font of their personal handwritings. In this study, we performed a process reengineering in font generation. We present a new method to create font in a batch mode. Rather than to create glyphs of characters one by one according to their codepoints, people create glyphs incrementally in an on-demand manner. A Java Implementation is developed to read a document image of user handwritten Chinese characters, and make a vector font of these handwritten Chinese characters. Preliminary experiment result shows that the proposed method can help ordinary users create their personal handwritten fonts easily and quickly.

  15. Rank-frequency relation for Chinese characters

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, W B; Li, B; Wang, Q A

    2013-01-01

    The Zipf's law states that the ordered frequencies $f_1>f_2> ...$ of different words in a text hold $f_r\\propto r^{-\\gamma}$ with $\\gamma\\approx 1$ and rank $r$. The law applies to many languages with alphabetical writing systems, but was so far found to be absent for the rank-frequency relation of the Chinese characters, the main (and oldest) example of the logographic writing system. Here we show that the Zipf's law for Chinese characters perfectly holds for sufficiently short texts (few thousand different characters). The scenario of its validity is similar to the Zipf's law for words in short English texts. We focus on short texts, since for the sake of the rank-frequency analysis, long texts are just mixtures of shorter, thematically homogenous pieces. For long texts (or for mixtures of short texts), the Zipf's law holds for a relatively small range of ranks, but it is still important, since for all Chinese texts (we studied) it carries out $simeq 40%$ of the overall frequency. The previous results on th...

  16. Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taormina, A. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at low levels (m = 3, 4, 5) are presented as well as a sketch of some proofs. The first identity gives the Ising model characters (m = 3) as bilinears in tricritical Ising model characters (m = 4), while the second one gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. (orig.)

  17. MELOGEN: an EST database for melon functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomènech Pere

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo L. is one of the most important fleshy fruits for fresh consumption. Despite this, few genomic resources exist for this species. To facilitate the discovery of genes involved in essential traits, such as fruit development, fruit maturation and disease resistance, and to speed up the process of breeding new and better adapted melon varieties, we have produced a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from eight normalized cDNA libraries from different tissues in different physiological conditions. Results We determined over 30,000 ESTs that were clustered into 16,637 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, comprising 6,023 tentative consensus sequences (contigs and 10,614 unclustered sequences (singletons. Many potential molecular markers were identified in the melon dataset: 1,052 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 356 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were found. Sixty-nine percent of the melon unigenes showed a significant similarity with proteins in databases. Functional classification of the unigenes was carried out following the Gene Ontology scheme. In total, 9,402 unigenes were mapped to one or more ontology. Remarkably, the distributions of melon and Arabidopsis unigenes followed similar tendencies, suggesting that the melon dataset is representative of the whole melon transcriptome. Bioinformatic analyses primarily focused on potential precursors of melon micro RNAs (miRNAs in the melon dataset, but many other genes potentially controlling disease resistance and fruit quality traits were also identified. Patterns of transcript accumulation were characterised by Real-Time-qPCR for 20 of these genes. Conclusion The collection of ESTs characterised here represents a substantial increase on the genetic information available for melon. A database (MELOGEN which contains all EST sequences, contig images and several tools for analysis and data mining has been created. This set of

  18. POSITIONAL CANDIDATE GENE SELECTION FROM LIVESTOCK EST DATABASES USING GENE ONTOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in GenBank has now surpassed 200,000 for cattle and 100,000 for swine. The Institute of Genome Research (TIGR) has organized these sequences into approximately 60,000 non-redundant consensus sequences for cattle and 40,000 for swine in the TIGR Gene Indi...

  19. AcEST: DK947804 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1. 5' end sequence. DK947804 - Show DK947804 Clone id YMU02A01NGRM0001_B11 Library YMU02 Length 120 Definition...Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-valu...e - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  20. AcEST: DK945594 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8. 5' end sequence. DK945594 - Show DK945594 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0009_N08 Library YMU02 Length 120 Definition...Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-valu...e - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  1. AcEST: DK946589 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7. 5' end sequence. DK946589 - Show DK946589 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0013_B17 Library YMU02 Length 164 Definition... to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...BL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  2. AcEST: DK947324 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3. 5' end sequence. DK947324 - Show DK947324 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0015_I13 Library YMU02 Length 127 Definition...ast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) ...- E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  3. AcEST: DK946143 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK946143 - Show DK946143 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0011_J22 Library YMU02 Length 166 Definition...nk to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...EMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  4. AcEST: DK943742 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9. 5' end sequence. DK943742 - Show DK943742 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0003_M19 Library YMU02 Length 125 Definition...t op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - ...E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  5. AcEST: DK945388 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0. 5' end sequence. DK945388 - Show DK945388 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0009_C10 Library YMU02 Length 128 Definition...last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit)... - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  6. AcEST: BP914111 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e - Contig ID CL2773Contig1 Sequence TGAATATGTCTATGATGTTTATGCACTCGGAGACAAATCATATGGAGGTGATATGGACAC ATCAGA...CTATCCAATGATCCAGGTGATAGATGATGATGATTTTATGTGGGGTGTTCCCCT GAGTCACAATATGACAGTGAGGACTCGAACGATGAAAATAATCCACTGAATGAT...TATCCG GAGGAAGAAGATGATTCAGAAGAGGAGACAGACAGCACCTTGTCACAGTCTGACGTAGCT GAAGGGAAGCAGGATGTGGTGTCGAATGCATCAGACGAATA...TGGCTGCGATACTGCAGAG GAATGGGAAGAGAATTGGGGTAGTGCTTGTTATTACTCTGGCGAGGAGTTGGGATA...AAGG ACGATTTTGATAATGATTCATCTTGAGTCAGCTATTATCTGTGCCATACATCTGCATTGA ACACTAGAACTGAGCACACTTTA

  7. AcEST: BP914820 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AAAACTCACCC TTTCATCCAAAAGGATGTTCTCAACCGGGTGTAATTACAAGAGGCTTATAACCAGGAAAA TTTACAAACATAAGCTGGCAATTAACTCCCTGCAAAT...G TGTTGCCACAACACACAATGGCTGCATCAATCTTTCTCCTTTTGAGCTTTCCATGCAGTA CCTCTTCTGATAACACAAATAGGTACACTTTCAAGAAGGGACCAT...e - Contig ID CL3856Contig1 Sequence TTTTTAGCCAAATGGTACTTGAAAGCGCTTTGGAAAGCTGCCATGCGCAAATGTGAAGCA CCACATA...CAATCATACAAATCTGGGCATTAGCCTGCCTGTGACAAGCTTTATTTTACAGT GTGTGCCCGGCAGGCGGGCTAAGCAAAGAACTAACATATGAAACCATTA...TTCCATAACCCTTGGTGTGAGAG AACCTGCTGAATCTCTCAAATCCAAGACGTAACCGTAAATCTGAACTTTCCAGTAGTGA

  8. AcEST: BP917825 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTTCACATCAATTTCTAAGAGGTCCATGATATATTACCTTAAAACGTTCTTTCTTGATTC CAAAAGCCTCTTTGAAGGAAGGTTTCTATGTGGCAAATGAAAAGCTTTTGAAT...TTCTTGATCCTCAGTTTAGGGGG GGGTATTCAGAAGACTGTTTGTTATACAGCTCTGACTTGTTTACTTACATATGTATTGGA... TTGACTTATGGTCTACCATGAACGCCATCATAGTTGGCCAGTTGATGACCAAAATTTCCT TGGAAAACAGCTTTTCCTGTACTGTGGAAGCCTTTGTCGTAGAATA...e - Contig ID CL2046Contig1 Sequence ACACCTACCTGTATGAATCCAGGAAATTCGCAAATTAGAACTGAGCTTTTACATATGAAT...CACTTAC CTTCAATCATCACAAAAATGGCCAACTATTAAATCCTTCCCCATCTCAGCCCTTGATCGT AAATTTCGAGCATGTGTTCGGTCCTCTTTTAGATCAT

  9. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em reatores anaeróbios de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (uasb em dois estágios seguidos de reator operado em batelada sequencial (RBS Swine wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (uasb in two-stages followed by sequencing batch reactor (SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. de Oliveira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o desempenho de dois reatores anaeróbios de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB, em série, seguidos de um reator operado em batelada sequencial (RBS com etapa aeróbia, no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura. O sistema de tratamento anaeróbio em dois estágios foi alimentado com águas residuárias de suinocultura com concentrações médias de sólidos suspensos totais (SST, de 4.427 a 16.425 mg L-1 . As cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV aplicadas no reator UASB do primeiro estágio variaram de 14,8 a 24,4 g DQO (L d-1. Os tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH foram de 28 e 11 h e de 14 e 6 h no primeiro e segundo reatores UASB, respectivamente. O RBS foi operado com 1 e 2 ciclos diários de alimentação e com concentrações de SST do afluente, de 1.348 a 2.036 mg L-1 . As maiores eficiências de remoção de DQOtotal ocorreram com os maiores TDH, com valores médios de 78 a 88% nos reatores UASB, em dois estágios. Com o tratamento do efluente dos reatores UASB no RBS, as eficiências médias de remoção aumentaram para 93 a 97%, 92 a 98%, 57 a 78%, 71 a 88% e 68 a 85% para a DQO total, SST, P-total, nitrogênio total Kjeldahl (NTK e nitrogênio total (NT, respectivamente. Para os coliformes termotolerantes, as remoções foram de 93,80 a 99,99%.This work aimed to evaluate the performance of two aerobic-anaerobic combination system of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digestion reactor (UASB in line followed by an aerobic sequencing bath reactor (SBR, used in swine wastewater treatment. The UASB system was fed with swine wastewater containing from 4427 to 16425 mg L-1 of total suspended solids (TSS. The treatment system was evaluated using organic loading (OLR of 14,8 to 24,4 g total COD (L d-1 in the first UASB reactor. The hydraulic detention times (HDT were of 28 and 11 h, and 14 and 6 h, in the first and second UASB reactor, respectively. The SBR was operated with one and two cycles

  10. Hierarchical Approximate Matching for Retrieval of Chinese Historical Calligraphy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-Fen Zhang; Yue-Ting Zhuang; Jiang-Qin Wu; Fei Wu

    2007-01-01

    As historical Chinese calligraphy works are being digitized, the problem of retrieval becomes a new challenge. But, currently no OCR technique can convert calligraphy character images into text, nor can the existing Handwriting Character Recognition approach does not work for it. This paper proposes a novel approach to efficiently retrieving Chinese calligraphy characters on the basis of similarity: calligraphy character image is represented by a collection of discriminative features, and high retrieval speed with reasonable effectiveness is achieved. First, calligraphy characters that have no possibility similar to the query are filtered out step by step by comparing the character complexity, stroke density and stroke protrusion. Then, similar calligraphy characters are retrieved and ranked according to their matching cost produced by approximate shape match. In order to speed up the retrieval, we employed high dimensional data structure-PK-tree. Finally, the efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated by a preliminary experiment with 3012 calligraphy character images.

  11. Brief Analysis on Jean Eyre’s Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiu-nan

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bronte creates a new woman image-Jean Eyre in Jean Eyre. Analyzing briefly Jean’s characters makes us know why the characer has eternal vitality. The character of Jean Eyre is still of great practical significance.

  12. Higher Dirac cohomology of modules with generalized infinitesimal character

    OpenAIRE

    Pandžić, Pavle; Somberg, Petr

    2013-01-01

    We modify the definition of Dirac cohomology in such a way that the standard properties of the usual Dirac cohomology, valid for modules with infinitesimal character, become valid also for modules with only generalized infinitesimal character.

  13. Seafloor character--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Fort Ross, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreFortRoss.zip,"...

  14. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bodega Head, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_BodegaHead.zip,"...

  15. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  16. Reproducibility analysis to validate language processes involving Kanji and Chinese characters under different MRI scanner environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading Japanese kanji is similar to reading Chinese characters in that orthography-to-phonology conversion is required. However, a notable difference between kanji and Chinese characters or alphabets is that the majority of kanji are heterophonic-homographic characters, id est (i.e.), one character is mapped to more than one pronunciation. With the goal of developing a standardized functional MRI language task for Japanese and Chinese, we conducted a series of homophone judgment tasks in both populations. Since the Japanese and Chinese data were acquired using MRI scanners with different magnetic field strengths (1.5 T and 3 T, respectively), direct comparison of the activation maps from the two populations using conventional statistical methods was not appropriate. Informal evaluation of the group activations for the homophonic-heterographic condition showed that this homophone judgment task with similar content and standardized design elicited common areas of activation for language in general for the two populations. Further, it is interesting to note that strong activations in the left posterior superior and middle temporal regions were found to be unique to the Taiwanese population. To further investigate this, we applied reproducibility analysis to verify the likelihood that this finding is unique to the Chinese population. The results are presented and the possibility of using reproducibility analysis to evaluate and compare data from different populations and with different scanner strengths is discussed. (author)

  17. A Two Stage Classification Approach for Handwritten Devanagari Characters

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Sandhya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita; malik, Latesh

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a two stage classification approach for handwritten devanagari characters The first stage is using structural properties like shirorekha, spine in character and second stage exploits some intersection features of characters which are fed to a feedforward neural network. Simple histogram based method does not work for finding shirorekha, vertical bar (Spine) in handwritten devnagari characters. So we designed a differential distance based technique to find a near straight li...

  18. Investigation of Shapes and Colours as Elements of Character Design

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelström, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Character design is applied widely both in the game and movie industry. For character designers, it is essential to design intuitively and to avoid repeated and unfulfilling designs. To understand certain methodologies used in design, this degree project investigates if there are further limitations or considerations that need more attention when designing purposeful characters. To get an overview if culture, age and gender affect the choice of shapes and colour schemes of characters, as a me...

  19. Handwritten Farsi Character Recognition using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Gharoie Ahangar; Mohammad Farajpoor Ahangar

    2009-01-01

    Neural Networks are being used for character recognition from last many years but most of the work was confined to English character recognition. Till date, a very little work has been reported for Handwritten Farsi Character recognition. In this paper, we have made an attempt to recognize handwritten Farsi characters by using a multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer. The error backpropagation algorithm has been used to train the MLP network. In addition, an analysis has been carried out...

  20. A Framework for On-Line Devanagari Handwritten Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Kopparapu, Sunil Kumar; L, Lajish V.

    2014-01-01

    The main challenge in on-line handwritten character recognition in Indian lan- guage is the large size of the character set, larger similarity between different characters in the script and the huge variation in writing style. In this paper we propose a framework for on-line handwitten script recognition taking cues from speech signal processing literature. The framework is based on identify- ing strokes, which in turn lead to recognition of handwritten on-line characters rather that the conv...

  1. SEGMENTATION OF CHARACTERS WITHOUT MODIFIERS FROM A PRINTED BANGLA TEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Fakruddin Ali Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is one of the fundamental research areas of image processing and pattern recognition field. The performance accuracy of an OCR system depends on the proper segmentation of the characters. This paper is concerned with the segmentation of printed bangla characters without modifiers for optical character recognition (OCR) system. The basic steps needed for developing an OCR system also have been discussed.

  2. SEGMENTATION OF CHARACTERS WITHOUT MODIFIERS FROM A PRINTED BANGLA TEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakruddin Ali Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition (OCR is one of the fundamental research areas of image processing and pattern recognition field. The performance accuracy of an OCR system depends on the proper segmentation of the characters. This paper is concerned with the segmentation of printed bangla characters without modifiers for optical character recognition (OCR system. The basic steps needed for developing an OCR system also have been discussed.

  3. AcEST: BP916279 [AcEST

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. AcEST: DK947893 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. AcEST: DK945631 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. AcEST: BP916142 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. AcEST: DK947631 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. AcEST: DK945690 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. AcEST: DK943854 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. AcEST: DK943603 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. AcEST: DK945249 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. AcEST: BP919261 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. AcEST: DK947876 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. AcEST: DK959527 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. AcEST: DK945083 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. AcEST: CL4178Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4178Contig1 663 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4178contig1 sequence. Link to clone list ... ne ID BP919660 DK963003 Sequence GGATCATCTTGCAAAGGCTCC ATTTCTTCGGCAGGCTGTTTCTTTGCCATGAGACCTTTG CTGCCTTTCAA ... TTTCC GTGTTACTACTTCATCTACAGCATGCAGCGCAGACAAGCACTTT CC ATCA ... CCCTCTGCTTCTAAAGGAAGTCC AAATGCTAAAGTAAAAAGATCCTCCTCC TCA TTGGAAAGGACAGTAGAAA ... TAGCTGTCC GAATCATACTACAAACTGCTCGAACAGTTCTA CAATAAGAATATAACAAA ...

  7. AcEST: CL498Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL498Contig1 664 5 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL498contig1 sequence. Link to clone list S ... 955909 DK953831 Sequence GACCAGCAAAAGCACTCAAGACACCGTCC TTCGTATGAAAGATTGATACAAATGACCACT TAGGAATCAAAATAGTCAA ... AAACCTAATATCC TGTCTAAGGAATTCAACATTGAAATCC C CGGTTAAAACTTCAGGCTGACT ... TGG TACATCACAAATGTTTTCTGCTCTCAATAAAAAAACCCAAGGACTTTTCC ACCCACATTC TTCC TTCGTGCTTCATCATGATCC ATGATTCC AGCTGATG ... TTGTCAACACAATATGGCCA AACTGTCTTGAAGGAAGAAGGCGTGCTGTCC AAGCCTCTAGCTCACCAACTGCTACATCA TAACGAGGACTAATCACTCC A ...

  8. AcEST: DK945775 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK945775 - Show DK945775 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0010_G12 Library YMU02 Length 110 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0010_G12. 5' end sequence. Accession DK945775 Tissue t

  9. AcEST: DK946102 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. AcEST: DK946983 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6. 5' end sequence. DK946983 - Show DK946983 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0014_G06 Library YMU02 Length 145 Definition... Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align len...quence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  15. Un ami qui est toujours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2012-01-01

    Un jour,pendant la récréation,je suis descendue dans le bureau du secrétariat.Quand je préparais un café,une femme professeur d'espagnol s'est exclamée:《Tiens! Tu es de bonne humeur ce matin ! 》 (E)tonnée,je lui ai demandé pourquoi.Elle a répondu:《 Parce que tu prends un ca fé.》Quelle réponse inattendue! Ce n'est qu'un café instantané,un peu fade,pas très bon,à dire vrai.Si j'en prends une petite tasse,ce n'est pas que je suis de bonne humeur.C'est plut(o)t mon habitude,ou bien c'est que le café me donne une belle humeur.

  16. Puppetry-inspired Animation: A Midair Hand Gestures Manipulation for 3D Character Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Mokhtar, Ezwan

    2013-01-01

    Bringing together keyframe and motion-timing can be very difficult to control especially when manipulating body parts of a character animation. Both seem are ‘detach’ in their event as keyframe is physically visible, while timing is imperceptible and merely appears as substance of a sequence of keyframes. This paper presents an overview of my doctoral research, which focuses on an approach to create a puppetry-like animation technique in computer animation that provides an embodied interactio...

  17. Culture or Disability? Examining Deaf Characters in Children's Book Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive those from backgrounds and cultures different from their own. Studies have been conducted examining how the text of children's literature portrays multicultural characters or characters with disabilities. However, few have looked specifically at the portrayal of characters through illustrations,…

  18. Picture This: Visual Literacy as a Pathway to Character Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Lori Ann; Willson, Angeli; Martinez, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    The literary element of character is critical to literary meaning-making, and in picturebooks images provide information important to understanding characters. This manuscript shares results of an investigation that explored the kinds of pictorial information young children use to gain insights into the characters and provide practical ways…

  19. Temperament and Character Dimensions: Correlates of Impulsivity in Morphine Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Abassi; Abolghasemi

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the role of temperament and character dimensions on impulsivity in addicts, the purpose of this study was to temperament and character dimensions: correlates of impulsivity in morphine addicts. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine and verify the association of temperament and character dimensions with impulsivity in morphine addicts. Patients and Methods ...

  20. Promoting Character Development through Teaching Wrestling in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destani, Fitni; Hannon, James C.; Podlog, Leslie; Brusseau, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Character development has become an important component of physical education that contributes directly to the affective learning domain. However, teaching character development can be challenging. The purpose of this article is to suggest that character development be promoted through the teaching of wrestling, due to the unique moral development…

  1. How Character Complexity Modulates Eye Movement Control in Chinese Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study examined whether the visual complexities of the first and second characters in two-character words play similar roles in modulating the fixation time and saccade target selection during un-spaced Chinese reading. Consistent with prior research, words with low-complexity characters were fixated for shorter times than words with…

  2. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Hartman; Greg Touchton; Jessica Wynn; Tuoyu Geng; Chong, Nelson W.; Ed Smith

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences d...

  3. Characters of the W3 algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traces of powers of the zero mode in the W3 Algebra have recently been found to be of interest, for example in relation to Black Hole thermodynamics, and arise as the terms in an expansion of the full characters of the algebra. We calculate the first few such powers in two cases. Firstly, we find the traces in the 3-state Potts model by using null vectors to derive modular differential equations for the traces. Secondly, we calculate the exact results for Verma module representations. We compare our two methods with each other and the result of brute-force diagonalisation for low levels and find complete agreement

  4. Character Migration: the Case of Sherlock Holmes

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s famous character Sherlock Holmes continues to re-appear in novels right up to our own day. Some of these authors in the course of their stories also try to explain Holmes’s eccentric psychology at the same time. Others concentrate on introducing those modern social sensibilities felt to be lacking in some of the original stories. A third group speculates what might have happened to Holmes in old age while a fourth takes the opportunity to criticise both Holmes and his...

  5. HERITABILITY OF STING CHARACTERS IN AFRICANIZED HONEYBEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MELO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to estimate the heritability of seven morphological characters that compose the sting apparatus of the Africanized honeybee workers. An experimental design to estimate genetic parameters was based on the method developed by Oldroyd and Moran(9. This method was modified to eliminate within-colony environmental effects associated with the additive genetic variance. The estimated h values ranged from 0.17 ± 0.11 (maximum width of bulb of sting stylet and height of the valve of right lancet to 0.74 ± 0.30 (length of the lancet.

  6. ZBrush Character Creation Advanced Digital Sculpting

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A stunning, content-rich update to this top-selling ZBrush guide! This second edition of ZBrush Character Creation has been fully updated for ZBrush 4, the newest version of this fascinating and popular 3D sculpting software. ZBrush enables users to create detailed organic models using a brush-based toolset and tablet. The startling results look as though they've been painted with real brushes and oils, and ZBrush is increasingly popular for use in film, game, and broadcast pipelines. Author Scott Spencer is embedded in the ZBrush community and his movie credits include Harry Potter and The Or

  7. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  8. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012. The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years. The students completed the VIA-Youth, a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1, teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2, we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of most of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  9. AcEST: DK954188 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0019_M13 564 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0019_M13. 5' end seq ... A2R961|A2R961_ASPNC Similarity to many A. thaliana patent ... EST... 47 2e-08 tr|A4R228|A4R228_MAGGR Putative un ...

  10. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  11. Text detection and recognition in images and video sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Datong

    2003-01-01

    Text characters embedded in images and video sequences represents a rich source of information for content-based indexing and retrieval applications. However, these text characters are difficult to be detected and recognized due to their various sizes, grayscale values and complex backgrounds. This thesis investigates methods for building an efficient application system for detecting and recognizing text of any grayscale values embedded in images and video sequences. Both empirical image proc...

  12. Text detection and recognition in images and video sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Datong; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Text characters embedded in images and video sequences represents a rich source of information for content-based indexing and retrieval applications. However, these text characters are difficult to be detected and recognized due to their various sizes, grayscale values and complex backgrounds. This thesis investigates methods for building an efficient application system for detecting and recognizing text of any grayscale values embedded in images and video sequences. Both empirical image proc...

  13. Extraction of inclined Character Strings from Unformed Document Images Using the Confidence Value of a Character Recognizer

    OpenAIRE

    Takizawa, Kei; Arita, Daisaku; Minoh, Michihiko; Ikeda, Katsuo

    1994-01-01

    A method for extracting and recognizing character strings from unformed document images, which have inclined character strings and have no structure at all, is described. To process such kinds of unformed documents, previous schemes, which are intended only to deal with documents containing nothing but horizontal or vertical strings of characters, do not work well. Our method is based on the idea that the processes of recognition and extraction of character patterns should operate together, a...

  14. Development of EST-SSR Markers in (Citrus aurantium L.)%积壳EST-SSR标记的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春霞; 温强; 叶金山; 朱培林

    2011-01-01

    The big collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Citrus aurantium L. is available in public database, and offers an opportunity to identify simple sequence repeats (SSR) in ESTs by data mining. These sequences may provide an estimate of diversity in the expressed portion of the genome and may be useful for comparative mapping, for tagging important traits of interest, and for additional map-based cloning of important genes.We analyzed fiontal 11 029 Unigene sequences fi.om C. aurantium database using online SSR identified software SSRIT. Totally, 327 ESTs with 348 SSRs were identified, and accounted for 2.96% of the total number of EST sequences. Trinucleotide repeats (a total of 161) were the most abundant repeat class, and accounted for 46.26% of all found SSRs. According to these EST sequences containing SSR, 58 primer pairs were designed using Primer 3.0. of these, 36 primer pairs amplified DNA fragments and 6 primer pairs exhibited polymorphism, account for 62.07% and 10.34% of the total designed 58 pairs. The development of new EST-SSR markers from C. aurantium has potential important implication for genetic analysis and exploitation of genetic resources of C. aurantium and would provide a more direct estimate of functional diversity.%GenBank上己公布的积壳EST序列为开发新的SSR标记提供了宝贵的数据资源.本研究利用在线SSR鉴定软件SSRIT分析来自积壳EST数据库的11029条Unigene序列.分析结果共发现327条EST序列含有348个SSR位点,占总数的2.96%.其中,三核苷酸重复的SSR类型最多,共有161个,占检索总数的46.26%. Primer 3.0设计合成58对EST-SSR引物,其中36对能扩增出产物,6对引物产生多态性分离,分别占所设计引物总数的62.07%和10.34%.本文研究成果为今后积壳遗传多样性分析、遗传图谱构建及比较基因组等研究方面奠定了基础.

  15. BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot - AcEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search ... Image Search ... Home About Archive Update History Contact us AcEST BlastX ... Description of data contents Results of the blastx search ... of Adiantum capillus-veneris EST (AcEST) sequences ... t/LATEST/blasthits_sp.zip File size: 7.77MB Simple search ... URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/arc ...

  16. BlastX Result : TrEMBL - AcEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search ... Image Search ... Home About Archive Update History Contact us AcEST BlastX ... Description of data contents Results of the blastx search ... of Adiantum capillus-veneris EST (AcEST) sequences ... t/LATEST/blasthits_tr.zip File size: 7.03MB Simple search ... URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/arc ...

  17. Polytope expansion of Lie characters and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Mark A., E-mail: walton@uleth.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    The weight systems of finite-dimensional representations of complex, simple Lie algebras exhibit patterns beyond Weyl-group symmetry. These patterns occur because weight systems can be decomposed into lattice polytopes in a natural way. Since lattice polytopes are relatively simple, this decomposition is useful, in addition to being more economical than the decomposition into single weights. An expansion of characters into polytope sums follows from the polytope decomposition of weight systems. We study this polytope expansion here. A new, general formula is given for the polytope sums involved. The combinatorics of the polytope expansion are analyzed; we point out that they are reduced from those of the Weyl character formula (described by the Kostant partition function) in an optimal way. We also show that the weight multiplicities can be found easily from the polytope multiplicities, indicating explicitly the equivalence of the two descriptions. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the polytope expansion by showing how polytope multiplicities can be used in the calculation of tensor product decompositions, and subalgebra branching rules.

  18. SPODOBASE : an EST database for the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabourault Cécile

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda is a pest which causes widespread economic damage on a variety of crop plants. It is also well known through its famous Sf9 cell line which is used for numerous heterologous protein productions. Species of the Spodoptera genus are used as model for pesticide resistance and to study virus host interactions. A genomic approach is now a critical step for further new developments in biology and pathology of these insects, and the results of ESTs sequencing efforts need to be structured into databases providing an integrated set of tools and informations. Description The ESTs from five independent cDNA libraries, prepared from three different S. frugiperda tissues (hemocytes, midgut and fat body and from the Sf9 cell line, are deposited in the database. These tissues were chosen because of their importance in biological processes such as immune response, development and plant/insect interaction. So far, the SPODOBASE contains 29,325 ESTs, which are cleaned and clustered into non-redundant sets (2294 clusters and 6103 singletons. The SPODOBASE is constructed in such a way that other ESTs from S. frugiperda or other species may be added. User can retrieve information using text searches, pre-formatted queries, query assistant or blast searches. Annotation is provided against NCBI, UNIPROT or Bombyx mori ESTs databases, and with GO-Slim vocabulary. Conclusion The SPODOBASE database provides integrated access to expressed sequence tags (EST from the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda. It is a publicly available structured database with insect pest sequences which will allow identification of a number of genes and comprehensive cloning of gene families of interest for scientific community. SPODOBASE is available from URL: http://bioweb.ensam.inra.fr/spodobase

  19. AcEST: DK956392 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bacterium adolescentis (strain ATCC 15703 / DSM 20083) GN=moxR PE=4 SV=1 Length = 449 Score = 37.4 bits...D Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32 GN=BIFADO_01800 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 455 Score = 35.0 bits............................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q6PFY1|FCSD1_MOUSE FCH and double.........................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...some undetermined SCAF16113, whole genome shotgun sequence. (Fragment) OS=Tetraodon nigroviridis GN=GSTENG00037797001 PE=4 SV=1 Len

  20. AcEST: DK955758 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0023_P08 559 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0023_P08. 5' end sequence...antum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0023_P08. 5' end sequence. Accession DK955...809,765 total letters Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences producin...'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesteras... 32 2.8 sp|P30589|CHS2_NEUCR Chitin synthase 2 OS=Neurospora crass...TX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Alejandro A. Schaffer, Jinghui Zhang, Zhen

  1. AcEST: DK944187 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1. 5' end sequence. DK944187 - Show DK944187 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0005_E01 Library YMU02 Length 105 Definition...EMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ... ...arch results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definit...ion - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - Tr

  2. AcEST: DK943988 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK943988 - Show DK943988 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0004_J22 Library YMU02 Length 131 Definition...o blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (b...it) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definiti...on - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  3. AcEST: DK944755 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5. 5' end sequence. DK944755 - Show DK944755 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0007_B15 Library YMU02 Length 131 Definition...o blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (b...it) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definiti...on - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  4. AcEST: DK946967 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1. 5' end sequence. DK946967 - Show DK946967 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0014_F11 Library YMU02 Length 100 Definition...results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...(release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  5. AcEST: DK944374 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7. 5' end sequence. DK944374 - Show DK944374 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0005_N17 Library YMU02 Length 103 Definition...ch results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definitio...BL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  6. Machine Recognition of Hand Written Characters using Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Perwej, Yusuf; 10.5120/1819-2380

    2012-01-01

    Even today in Twenty First Century Handwritten communication has its own stand and most of the times, in daily life it is globally using as means of communication and recording the information like to be shared with others. Challenges in handwritten characters recognition wholly lie in the variation and distortion of handwritten characters, since different people may use different style of handwriting, and direction to draw the same shape of the characters of their known script. This paper demonstrates the nature of handwritten characters, conversion of handwritten data into electronic data, and the neural network approach to make machine capable of recognizing hand written characters.

  7. Plausibility Effects when Reading One- and Two-Character Words in Chinese: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinmian; Staub, Adrian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were monitored as they read sentences containing a critical character that was either a 1-character word or the initial character of a 2-character word. Due to manipulation of the verb prior to the target word, the 1-character target word (or the first character of the 2-character target word) was either plausible…

  8. How familiar characters influence children's judgments about information and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Judith H; Mills, Candice M

    2014-12-01

    Children are exposed to advertisements and products that incorporate familiar characters, such as Dora the Explorer and Bob the Builder, virtually from birth. How does the presence of these characters influence children's judgments about information and products? Three experiments (N=125) explored how 4-year-olds evaluate messages from familiar characters and how their trust in a familiar character's testimony relates to their product preferences. Children endorsed objective and subjective claims made by a familiar character more often than those made by a perceptually similar but unfamiliar character even in situations where they had evidence that the familiar character was unreliable. Children also preferred low-quality products bearing a familiar character's image over high-quality products without a character image up to 74% of the time (whereas control groups preferred the low-quality products less than 6% of the time when they did not include a character image). These findings suggest that young children are powerfully influenced by familiar characters encountered in the media, leaving them vulnerable to advertising messages and clouding their judgments about products. PMID:25038449

  9. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments. PMID:2717365

  10. The Incarnated Narrator as a Character in Middlemarch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李航

    2014-01-01

    Sympathy is one of the essential themes that George Eliot discusses in her novels. She uses various effective narrative strategies for the emergence of that theme. This paper, based on a close reading on the passage from Middlemarch, explores one of them-the incarnation of the narrator as a character. In Middlemarch, the narrator, as a character, both shows sympathy to the characters and asks for sympathy from the readers. To show his sympathy to the characters, he provides his comprehensive analysis of the characters and authorizes his characters to present their opinions. To ask for the sympathy, he directly addresses to the read-ers, uses free indirect speech in the narration, and expresses his own emotions. By the strategy of incarnation of the narrator as a character, Eliot clearly presents the readers her purpose of writing.

  11. Feature Point Method of Chinese Character Recognition and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张Xin中; 闫昌德; 等

    1990-01-01

    A new method for recognizing Chinese characters is proposed.It is based on the so-called feature points of Chinese characters.The feature points we use include those on the stroke of a character.i.e.,end points.turning points,fork points and cross points.and the key points on the background of character.This method differs from the previous ones for it combines the feature points on stroke with those on background and it uses feature points to recognize Chinese characters directly.A Chinese character recognition system based to top-down dynamical matching of feature point is developed.The system can recognize not only 6763 printed sample Song font Chinese characters of size 5.6×5.6mm2 with high recognition rate,but also the general printed books,magazines and documents with a satisfactory recognition rate and speed.

  12. AcEST: BP914688 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available REQRD 235 >tr|A1A3E7|A1A3E7_BIFAA Probable solute binding protein of ABC transporter system OS=Bifidobacterium adolescent...ne Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A7R110|A7R110_VITVI Chromosome chr4 sc...s Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...t : TrEMBL tr_hit_id A7R110 Definition tr|A7R110|A7R110_VITVI Chromosome chr4 scaffold_333, whole genome shotgun sequence (Fragment...ase II... 33 9.3 >tr|A7R110|A7R110_VITVI Chromosome chr4 scaffold_333, whole genome shotgun sequence (Fragment

  13. AcEST: BP919247 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e - Contig ID CL2068Contig1 Sequence TTTTTATTTTGAAAACTACAGAAGCATATCACTCTCCTCATATTTCCGATGTACTATAGC CAT...TCTCGCCCACATTATTGTCATTTATACAGCTTTTGTGCCTCTCAAGTAATATTTCTA CATGTATGAATTTACCCATTGAGCACAGACTCATCCTGATATTAAGTGAT...CGCAATATCA ACTTTTGAGAGGTTTTACACATTTTGCTCTTGAATTTTTACCCCTGACGTATAATCAATC CAAAAATGCTGCTCTAGGTTTACCATCATTCAATGCAT...GGCTCTTTACATTGGTATCACT AACAGATTCTTCCATTTGAGTGGAACTTGACACTGGACTGCTGAGCCAGA...AGTCCACTCT ATGAGAGTCTCGATCTAAACTATTTGGCACAGAAGGGCTGGATTGAGTATTCGTTTGCCT TC ■■Homology search r

  14. AcEST: BP919393 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e - Contig ID CL1373Contig1 Sequence TCCATCTAGGTTGTGAATCTACTATCTTCTTTGATTGTTCCTCCTTTGTGATGTCGCCTT CGTA...AAGAGCGACATACTGCTCCTCCTCTATTCTCTTTTTCGTCTATTAGACACTTCAAA CTTTCAGTCAAGAGGGAAAGGCAGGCTGGGTTGCATCCACTGCTCATGGA...GCACTTTTGT GTCTAGTCCCTGAAGTCTAATGGAGATTAGGAGTCTCCTCTCCCATTCCATTTCTGCCTT GGCACTCTCCTCTGCTGACTTTTCTATTTGGTCATGGA...TGTGGTTGCCTC TCCAGTTTCTGGTAGCTCTATGGCTGCTCCACCTGATTCCATCTTGGGTCTCTCTCTTGT AGGCCTGCAGCTCCT ■■Homo...GCCTTTGTTCTTCTTCTTCAGA GATTCTTGAAGTCGAGGCCACCTCTTGAGCTGGGGCTGGATCTTCAAT

  15. AcEST: DK944711 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  16. AcEST: BP914799 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Repor...oo short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  17. AcEST: BP912478 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...hort.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  18. AcEST: BP919034 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEM....) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  19. AcEST: BP919848 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...hort.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  20. AcEST: BP916975 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Repor...oo short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  1. AcEST: DK954550 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value...e too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  2. AcEST: BP919488 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - ...nce too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  3. AcEST: BP915201 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrE...t.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  4. AcEST: BP916763 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...hort.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  5. AcEST: BP912333 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - T...ort.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  6. AcEST: BP912619 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report -...short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  7. AcEST: DK956073 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-valu...uence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  8. AcEST: BP915503 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEM....) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  9. AcEST: BP918763 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report -...short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  10. AcEST: BP915714 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available o blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - Tr...rt.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  11. AcEST: DK943690 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value...e too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  12. AcEST: BP914708 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report...o short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  13. AcEST: DK956089 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0024_N07 528 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0024_N07. 5' end sequence...eris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0024_N07. 5' end sequence. Accession DK956089 Tissue t...ort BLASTX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Alejandro A. Schaffer, Jinghui Zhang, Zhen...................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q9LQU4|Y1487_ARATH Unc...e: TST39A01NGRL0024_N07, 5' (513 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searchin

  14. AcEST: DK952578 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OS=Oryza sativa subsp. indica GN=OsI_05554 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 478 Score = 104 bits (259), Expect = 5e-21 Identities...TST38A01NGRL0014_H14 626 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_H14. 5' end sequence...antum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_H14. 5' end sequence. Accession DK952.....................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q9Y566|SHAN1_HUMAN SH3 and...: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching................................

  15. AcEST: DK957946 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0029_L08 657 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0029_L08. 5' end sequence...antum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0029_L08. 5' end sequence. Accession DK957...Q06180|PTN2_MOUSE Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor t... 32 3.5 sp|Q313W7|CNPD_DESDG 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodies...clone: TST39A01NGRL0029_L08, 5' (628 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searchin...g..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignmen

  16. AcEST: DK952384 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available I cAMP-specific 3',5'-cAMP phosphodiesterase ... 32 2.8 sp|Q59S66|IPL1_CANAL Spindle assembly checkpoint kinase OS=Candi...TST38A01NGRL0013_P02 644 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0013_P02. 5' end sequence...eris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0013_P02. 5' end sequence. Accession DK952384 Tissue t...niprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|O24133|CHLD_TOBAC Magnes

  17. AcEST: DK944745 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value...too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  18. AcEST: BP917838 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available wiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value -...ence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  19. AcEST: DK946822 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value...ort.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  20. AcEST: BP915540 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrE...t.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  1. AcEST: BP911939 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Rep... too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  2. AcEST: DK945715 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-valu...uence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  3. AcEST: BP914606 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bacterium adolescentis (strain ATCC 15703 / DSM 20083) Align len...A4C9_BIFAD Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32... OS=An... 33 9.1 >tr|A1A0H2|A1A0H2_BIFAA LacI-family transcriptional regulator OS=Bifidobacterium adolesce................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits)....................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits

  4. AcEST: CL2016Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2016Contig1 715 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2016contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2016...Contig1 Contig ID CL2016Contig1 Length 715 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2016contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957912 DK95

  5. AcEST: DK956709 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0026_H05 555 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0026_H05. 5' end seq ... one Score E Sequences producing significant alignments : (bits) Value sp|Q0V9A3|SPT2_XENTR Protein SPT2 ho ... one Score E Sequences producing significant alignments : (bits) Value tr|A9NMZ4|A9NMZ4_PICSI Putative unch ...

  6. AcEST: BP914487 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000059_D12 521 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000059_D12. BP914487 - Show ... one Score E Sequences producing significant alignments : (bits) Value sp|Q8BXJ9|TMM62_MOUSE Transmembrane ... one Score E Sequences producing significant alignments : (bits) Value tr|A7P4G0|A7P4G0_VITVI Chromosome ch ...

  7. AcEST: CL3000Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3000Contig1 615 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3000contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL3000...Contig1 Contig ID CL3000Contig1 Length 615 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3000contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945747 DK94

  8. AcEST: DK947750 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4. 5' end sequence. DK947750 - Show DK947750 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0016_O04 Library YMU02 Length 101 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0016_O04. 5' end sequence. Accession DK947750 Tissue t...YMU02A01NGRL0016_O04 101 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0016_O0

  9. AcEST: DK943672 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7. 5' end sequence. DK943672 - Show DK943672 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0003_J07 Library YMU02 Length 108 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0003_J07. 5' end sequence. Accession DK943672 Tissue t...YMU02A01NGRL0003_J07 108 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0003_J0

  10. AcEST: CL2333Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2333Contig1 424 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2333contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2333...Contig1 Contig ID CL2333Contig1 Length 424 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2333contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914560 BP91

  11. AcEST: DK959047 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1. 5' end sequence. DK959047 CL1126Contig1 Show DK959047 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0003_K01 Library TST39 Length ...047 Tissue type prothallia with plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sporophytes Contig ID CL11...EKGVPIKALKGTGRGGQITKEDVEKYKPSVSAATAPTYEDI 253 Query: 39 TTTALRQCCLTIL 1 T++R+ T L Sbjct: 254 PLTSMRKTIATRL 2...26Contig1 Sequence CAAAATGGTGAGGCAGCATTGTCTGAGTGCAGTGGTGGTGCTGGCGTTTCTGGTACCGCT CGTAGCAGCGCGTGCAGTAGGCCGCC...TCTGCGACACCTCCTCCTTCTTTCCAGACCCCAA CAATGATCGCACTGTGACGTTCCTTGGCGCTAATGCAGGCTCCGCAGGTTTCAAGCTCTT CTCTTTTGCC

  12. AcEST: BP918019 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8019 - Show BP918019 Clone id YMU001_000108_F08 Library YMU01 Length 47 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...lts ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...esult : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  13. AcEST: BP913029 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3029 - Show BP913029 Clone id YMU001_000025_F04 Library YMU01 Length 47 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...lts ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...esult : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  14. AcEST: BP916918 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6918 - Show BP916918 Clone id YMU001_000093_E11 Library YMU01 Length 54 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...ch results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definitio...lastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  15. AcEST: BP911570 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1570 - Show BP911570 Clone id YMU001_000006_E05 Library YMU01 Length 21 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...se 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Alig...p. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  16. AcEST: BP915821 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5821 - Show BP915821 Clone id YMU001_000077_D11 Library YMU01 Length 85 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris... (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report -... TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Defin...ition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  17. AcEST: BP914811 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4811 - Show BP914811 Clone id YMU001_000063_B05 Library YMU01 Length 86 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...t (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report ...nition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ... ...- TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Defi

  18. AcEST: BP916851 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6851 - Show BP916851 Clone id YMU001_000092_E12 Library YMU01 Length 83 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - T...rEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definit...ion - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  19. AcEST: BP920482 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0482 - Show BP920482 Clone id YMU001_000137_F02 Library YMU01 Length 45 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...s ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...ult : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  20. AcEST: BP914899 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4899 - Show BP914899 Clone id YMU001_000064_B07 Library YMU01 Length 79 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMB...L (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  1. AcEST: BP920339 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0339 - Show BP920339 Clone id YMU001_000135_H11 Library YMU01 Length 86 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...t (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report ...nition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ... ...- TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Defi

  2. AcEST: DK946752 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4. 5' end sequence. DK946752 - Show DK946752 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0013_K04 Library YMU02 Length 117 Definition...uence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value -... Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  3. AcEST: BP920319 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0319 - Show BP920319 Clone id YMU001_000135_F08 Library YMU01 Length 41 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris... - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...: TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  4. AcEST: BP920443 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0443 - Show BP920443 Clone id YMU001_000137_B08 Library YMU01 Length 75 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris... op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (r...elease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  5. AcEST: BP917384 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7384 - Show BP917384 Clone id YMU001_000100_B07 Library YMU01 Length 73 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (rel...ease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  6. Development of novel markers, using computationally extracted classi type EST-SSRs, in wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahi Hülya; Yumurtaci Ayşen; Mert Zafer

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the development of EST-simple sequence repeats markers and the detection of their transferability and their utility for evaluating wheat leaf rust pathogen diversity. A total of 44,407 publicly available EST sequences derived from Puccinia triticina were computationally mined. Di-nucleotide repeat density covered the vast majority of assembled ESTs (45%). The tri-repeat motif (TCT) and penta-repeat motif (TTCTT) were the most repeated ...

  7. An EST-SSR Linkage Map of Raphanus sativus and Comparative Genomics of the Brassicaceae †

    OpenAIRE

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Oyama, Maki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Fujioka, Takashi; Kimizuka-Takagi, Chiaki; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Kato, Midori; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Takahashi, Chika; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Wada, Tsuyuko

    2011-01-01

    Raphanus sativus (2n = 2x = 18) is a widely cultivated member of the family Brassicaceae, for which genomic resources are available only to a limited extent in comparison to many other members of the family. To promote more genetic and genomic studies and to enhance breeding programmes of R. sativus, we have prepared genetic resources such as complementary DNA libraries, expressed sequences tags (ESTs), simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and a genetic linkage map. A total of 26 606 ESTs hav...

  8. Cloning,sequence characters and tissue expression pattern of INSIG-1 in Saanen Dairy Goat%西农萨能奶山羊INSIG-1编码区的克隆、序列特征分析和组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 罗军; 胡仕良; 席利萌; 张犁苹; 李芳; 孙雨婷

    2013-01-01

    [目的]克隆西农萨能奶山羊胰岛素诱导基因1(INSIG-1)编码区,并对其进行序列特征分析和组织表达规律研究.[方法]提取西农萨能奶山羊总RNA,反转录cDNA后进行PCR反应,对克隆得到的INSIG-1序列进行生物信息学分析.用实时荧光定量PCR (RT-qPCR)检测INSIG-1在皮下脂肪、胸部肌肉、乳腺、肝脏、肾脏、心脏、肺、脾脏、瘤胃、小肠10个组织中的表达情况.[结果]获得西农萨能奶山羊INSIG-1基因1 014 bp序列(GenBank登录号JQ665439),其中编码区序列长度为831 bp,编码276个氨基酸.西农萨能奶山羊INSIG-1编码区与牛(GenBank登录号NM_001077909)的亲缘关系最近,相似性达97%,编码氨基酸序列的相似性达90%,而与小鼠(GenBank登录号NM_025836)的亲缘关系较远.预测INSIG-1蛋白质分子量为29.70 ku,理论等电点为8.99;INSIG-1蛋白质具有5个跨膜螺旋结构,且有较强的疏水性,不含信号肽.RT-qPCR检测结果表明,在西农萨能奶山羊10个组织中INSIG-1均有表达,其中在肝脏中的相对表达量最高,皮下脂肪、胸部肌肉、肺次之,在心脏中的相对表达量最低.[结论]克隆得到了西农萨能奶山羊的INSIG-1基因,并探明了其组织表达规律.%[Objective] The objectives of this experiment were to clone insulin-induced gene 1(INSIG-1) sequence of Saanen Dairy Goat from Northwest A&F University,and to analyze the sequence characterization and quantitative tissues expression.[Method] The coding sequence region was cloned from goats mammary gland total RNA by PCR reaction with primers designed based on bovine INSIG-1,and sequence characterization was performed by biology information analyzing software.INSIG-1 gene expression patterns in ten tissues (subcutaneous fat,muscles,mammary gland,liver,kidney,heart,lung,spleen,rumen and small intestine) were conducted using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).[Result]The experiment obtained a 1 014 bp sequence (Gen

  9. Character localization and recognition application for Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Charjan, R. V. Mante, P. N. Chatur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart Phones have Internet access anywhere. The automatic text localization and recognition of text within a natural image is very useful for many problems. Once identified, the text can be used for many purposes. User can get current information about the product, place or boards. More exciting applications can be developed over the text extraction method with a high performance while also being computationally inexpensive. There are various methods proposed for Text Localization, text area segmentation, sign recognition and translation, Optical Character Recognition. In this paper we have described these methods. We have also compared all methods on the basis of performance and accuracy. Finally we concluded some good methods for Smartphone OCR application.

  10. A new model for discrete character evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, A; Ridley, M

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides an explicit justification for the principle that a uniform taxon should contribute only one datapoint in comparative analyses with discrete variables. The justification is that phylogenetic patterns in variables unincluded in the proposed test vitiate the assumption of independence, both at the level of species and at the level of branch segments. The consequence is that a uniform taxon cannot safely be counted as more than one datapoint. The arguments use a branching discrete Markov process in continuous time, with the new feature that the tested variables are only a subset of the evolving characters. This model is proposed as a useful criterion for measuring the merit of proposed tests, and illustrates the necessity for models in evaluating comparative methods. PMID:9039396

  11. A Modified Back propagation Algorithm for Optical Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Shrivastav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Character Recognition (CR has been an active area of research and due to its diverse applicable environment; it continues to be a challenging research topic. There is a clear need for optical character recognition in order to provide a fast and accurate method to search both existing images as well as large archives of existing paper documents. However, existing optical character recognition programs suffer from a flawed tradeoff between speed and accuracy, making it less attractive for large quantities of documents. In this thesis, we present a new neural network based method for optical character recognition as well as handwritten character recognition. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves highest percent accuracy in optical character recognition. We present an overview of existing handwritten character recognition techniques. All these algorithms are described more or less on their own. Handwritten character recognition is a very popular and computationally expensive task. We also explain the fundamentals of handwritten character recognition. We describe today’s approaches for handwritten character recognition. From the broad variety of efficient techniques that have been developed we will compare the most important ones. We will systematize the techniques and analyze their performance based on both their run time performance and theoretical considerations. Their strengths and weaknesses are also investigated. It turns out that the behavior of the algorithms is much more similar as to be expected.

  12. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image. PMID:25832319

  13. Biases of tree-independent-character-subsampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mark P; Gatesy, John

    2016-07-01

    Observed Variability (OV) and Tree Independent Generation of Evolutionary Rates (TIGER) are quick and easy-to-apply tree-independent methods that have been proposed to provide unbiased estimates of each character's rate of evolution and serve as the basis for excluding rapidly evolving characters. Both methods have been applied to multiple phylogenomic datasets, and in many cases the authors considered their trees inferred from the OV- and TIGER-delimited sub-matrices to be better estimates of the phylogeny than their trees based on all characters. In this study we use four sets of simulations and an empirical phylogenomic example to demonstrate that both methods share a systematic bias against characters with more symmetric distributions of character states, against characters with greater observed character-state space, and against large clades in the context of character conflict. As a result these methods can favor convergences and reversals over synapomorphy, exacerbate long-branch attraction, and produce mutually exclusive phylogenetic inferences that are dependent upon differential taxon sampling. We assert that neither OV nor TIGER should be relied upon to increase the ratio of phylogenetic to non-phylogenetic signal in a data matrix. We also assert that skepticism is warranted for empirical phylogenetic results that are based on OV- and/or TIGER-based character deletion wherein a small clade is supported after deletion of characters, yet is contradicted by a larger clade when the entire data matrix was analyzed. PMID:27103257

  14. Segmentation of Handwritten Chinese Character Strings Based on improved Algorithm Liu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Cai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Algorithm Liu attracts high attention because of its high accuracy in segmentation of Japanese postal address. But the disadvantages, such as complexity and difficult implementation of algorithm, etc. have an adverse effect on its popularization and application. In this paper, the author applies the principles of algorithm Liu to handwritten Chinese character segmentation according to the characteristics of the handwritten Chinese characters, based on deeply study on algorithm Liu.In the same time, the author put forward the judgment criterion of Segmentation block classification and adhering mode of the handwritten Chinese characters.In the process of segmentation, text images are seen as the sequence made up of Connected Components (CCs, while the connected components are made up of several horizontal itinerary set of black pixels in image. The author determines whether these parts will be merged into segmentation through analyzing connected components. And then the author does image segmentation through adhering mode based on the analysis of outline edges. Finally cut the text images into character segmentation. Experimental results show that the improved Algorithm Liu obtains high segmentation accuracy and produces a satisfactory segmentation result.

  15. Discovery of EST-SSRs in lung cancer: tagged ESTs with SSRs lead to differential amino acid and protein expression patterns in cancerous tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh

    Full Text Available Tandem repeats are found in both coding and non-coding sequences of higher organisms. These sequences can be used in cancer genetics and diagnosis to unravel the genetic basis of tumor formation and progression. In this study, a possible relationship between SSR distributions and lung cancer was studied by comparative analysis of EST-SSRs in normal and lung cancerous tissues. While the EST-SSR distribution was similar between tumorous tissues, this distribution was different between normal and tumorous tissues. Trinucleotides tandem repeats were highly different; the number of trinucleotides in ESTs of lung cancer was 3 times higher than normal tissue. Significant negative correlation between normal and cancerous tissue showed that cancerous tissue generates different types of trinucleotides. GGC and CGC were the more frequent expressed trinucleotides in cancerous tissue, but these SSRs were not expressed in normal tissue. Similar to the EST level, the expression pattern of EST-SSRs-derived amino acids was significantly different between normal and cancerous tissues. Arg, Pro, Ser, Gly, and Lys were the most abundant amino acids in cancerous tissues, and Leu, Cys, Phe, and His were significantly more abundant in normal tissues than in cancerous tissues. Next, the putative functions of triplet SSR-containing genes were analyzed. In cancerous tissue, EST-SSRs produce different types of proteins. Chromodomain helicase DNA binding proteins were one of the major protein products of EST-SSRs in the cancerous library, while these proteins were not produced from EST-SSRs in normal tissue. For the first time, the findings of this study confirmed that EST-SSRs in normal lung tissues are different than in unhealthy tissues, and tagged ESTs with SSRs cause remarkable differences in amino acid and protein expression patterns in cancerous tissue. We suggest that EST-SSRs and EST-SSRs differentially expressed in cancerous tissue may be suitable candidate

  16. AcEST: DK944166 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SPF 27 >tr|A7A485|A7A485_BIFAD Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32 GN=BIFADO_00637 PE=4 SV=1 Len...rs Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...ne Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q9CJR2|Y1932_PASMU Uncharac...CRRFKSCHPYL 29 >tr|A7QDC0|A7QDC0_VITVI Chromosome undetermined scaffold_80, whole genome shotgun sequence OS...ein PM1932 OS=Pasteurella multocida Align length 25 Score (bit) 30.0 E-value 3.8 Report BLASTX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altsc

  17. AcEST: BP913230 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 40 0.009 sp|P08283|H1_PEA Histone H1 OS=Pisum sativum PE=2 SV=1 38 0.026 sp|Q9US25|HRP1_SCHPO Chromodomain helicase...P913230|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000027_H10. (527 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 seq...KLRRLI 164 >tr|A7PE46|A7PE46_VITVI Chromosome chr11 scaffold_13, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Vitis vini...L 176 >tr|A7QL84|A7QL84_VITVI Chromosome chr3 scaffold_117, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Vitis...: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching..................

  18. AcEST: DK956439 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ignificant alignments: (bits) Value sp|P13240|DR206_PEA Disease resistance response protein 206 OS=P... 32 1...TST39A01NGRL0025_L22 552 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0025_L22. 5' end seq...552 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0025_L22. 5' end sequence. Accession DK956439 Tis...VI Chromosome undetermined scaffold_923, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Vitis vinifera Align length 143 Sc... 33 10.0 >tr|A7R5A6|A7R5A6_VITVI Chromosome undetermined scaffold_923, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Vitis

  19. AcEST: BP912412 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DDF4|PRP5_PICGU Pre-mRNA-processing ATP-dependent RNA helic... 33 1.2 sp|Q54MB1|Y4579_DICDI Unc...NA, clone: YMU001_000018_G03. (551 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searchin...g..................................................done Score E Sequences producin...EERLDLANIGVESYKEAM 115 +E+L LAN +E ++A+ Sbjct: 61 QEQLSLANTKLEEKEKAL 78 >sp|A5DDF4|PRP5_PICGU Pre-mRNA-processing ATP-dependen..................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q7R8U0|Q7R8U0_PLAYO Putative unc

  20. AcEST: DK959583 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9.8 sp|Q9BYH8|IKBZ_HUMAN NF-kappa-B inhibitor zeta OS=Homo sapiens G... 29 9.8 >sp|Q54F40|Y1133_DICDI Probable...RNA, clone: TST39A01NGRL0005_B14, 5' (438 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total let...83 Tissue type prothallia with plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sp...-veneris mRNA, clone: TST39A01NGRL0005_B14, 5' (438 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total let.........done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q54F40|Y1133_DICDI Probable s

  1. AcEST: BP912013 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in DDB0215282 OS=Dictyostelium discoideum Align length 98 Score (bit) 37.0 E-value 0.045 Report BLASTX 2.2...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000012_A07. Accession BP912013 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID - Sequence....19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Alejandro A. Schaffer, Jinghui Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Webb Mille...eris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000012_A07. (478 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequence...rized G-patch domain protein DDB... 37 0.045 sp|P27476|NSR1_YEAST Nuclear localization sequence-binding prote

  2. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  3. AcEST: BP918310 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in engA OS=Nitratiruptor s... 30 4.8 sp|Q38419|TEV3_BPR03 Intron-associated endonuclease 3 OS=Ente...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000112_A07. Accession BP918310 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID - Sequenc.........................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value ...YEAST Something about silencing protein 10 OS=Saccharomyces cerevisiae GN=SAS10 PE=1 SV=1 Length = 610 Score...BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918310|Adiant

  4. AcEST: DK948456 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase OS=Neocallimastix frontalis PE=3 SV=1 124 6e-28 sp|A1A143|ENO_BIFAA Enolase OS=Bifidobacterium adolescent.................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A9P745|A9P745_HELAN Enol...ces producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q9U615|ENO_MASBA Enolase OS=Mas...STX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Aleja...eris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0003_F21. 5' end sequence. Accession DK948456 Tissue t

  5. AcEST: DK959258 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SI 156 >tr|A1A371|A1A371_BIFAA Transposase subunit B OS=Bifidobacterium adolescentis (strain ATCC 15703 / DS...................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|A7I...ype prothallia with plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sporophytes Contig ID - Sequence...ort BLASTX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Ale... B OS=Methanoregula boonei (strain 6A8) GN=gatB PE=3 SV=1 Length = 482 Score = 31.6 bits (70), Expect = 1.3 Identities

  6. AcEST: DK945412 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available +RK A Sbjct: 613 TSHSFGRSLSPVHLQRKGA 631 >tr|A7A2J0|A7A2J0_BIFAD Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Bifidobacterium adolescent...rching..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...ne Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q80WV7|SRR2L_... 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Alejandr...E-value 2.0e-20 Report BLASTX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Alejan

  7. AcEST: BP920336 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32 GN=BIFADO_00752 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 311 Score = 32.7 bits...ute binding protein of ABC transporter system OS=Bifidobacterium adolescentis (strain ATCC 15703 / DSM 200...ne Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q0VGE8|Z816A_HUMAN...ne Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits....0 E-value 1.2 Report BLASTX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Alejand

  8. AcEST: DK946883 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available REKSLSRGRHATASYLEQLEPTSEVH 730 >tr|A7A964|A7A964_BIFAD Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Bifidobacterium adolescent...ng..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...2.7 E-value 0.93 Report BLASTX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Aleja...g factor MCM3 OS=Saccharomyces cerevisiae GN=MCM3 PE=1 SV=1 Length = 971 Score = 31.2 bits (69), Expect = 2.7 Identities

  9. AcEST: DK956958 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DTTTSTSATTSDTDTGTTTTSTGPVNPGTEP 1815 >tr|A7A7G0|A7A7G0_BIFAD Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Bifidobacterium adolescent...ge protein with C-terminal fibronectin type III domain OS=Bifidobacterium adolescentis (strain ATCC 15703 / ............................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q09309|YQS........................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value t...reductase chain 5 OS=Percina macrolepida GN=ND5 PE=3 SV=1 Length = 612 Score = 33.9 bits (76), Expect = 7.6 Ident

  10. AcEST: DK961475 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IF2_BIFAA Translation initiation factor IF-2 OS=Bifidobacterium adolescentis (strain ATCC 15703 / DSM 20083) GN=infB PE=3 SV=1 Len...tters Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments.......................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr...475 Tissue type prothallia with plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sporophytes Cont...tease inhibitor cystatin (Fragment) OS=Malus domestica Align length 70 Score (bit) 87.4 E-value 3.0e-16 Repo

  11. AcEST: DK946413 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A Sbjct: 614 SHSFGRSLSPVHLQRKGA 631 >tr|A7A2J0|A7A2J0_BIFAD Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Bifidobacterium adolescent...ng..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...ne Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q80WV7|SRR2L_MOUS....19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Alejandro A....lue 7.0e-21 Report BLASTX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Alejandro

  12. AcEST: DK950266 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tative uncharacterized protein OS=Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32 GN=BIFADO_00637 PE=4 SV=1 Len..............................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q8RY17|W.............................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...herichia coli (strain K12) GN=fdoH PE=1 SV=1 Length = 300 Score = 30.4 bits (67), Expect = 8.1 Identities...LASTX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Ale

  13. AcEST: BP916882 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bacterium adolescentis (strain ATCC 15703 / DSM 20083) GN=ddl PE=3 SV=1 Length = 378 Score = 30.0 bits...tters Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits..........................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...it) 32.3 E-value 1.3 Report BLASTX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Ale...eris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000093_B09. Accession BP916882 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID CL3085Cont

  14. AcEST: DK951087 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lt : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id A0ZZG5 Definition sp|A0ZZG5|PURA_BIFAA Adenylosuccinate synthetase OS=Bifidobacterium adolescent... >sp|A0ZZG5|PURA_BIFAA Adenylosuccinate synthetase OS=Bifidobacterium adolescenti...arching..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...ne Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|A0ZZG5|PURA_BIFAA Aden...2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Alejandro

  15. AcEST: DK963323 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sporophytes C...us-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0016_D17. 5' end sequence. Accession DK963323 Tissue type prothallia with..........done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A6RBD8|A6RBD8_AJECN Predicted protein OS=Ajellomyces...ult : TrEMBL tr_hit_id A6RBD8 Definition tr|A6RBD8|A6RBD8_AJECN Predicted protein OS=Ajellomyces c... capsulat... 33 7.2 >tr|A6RBD8|A6RBD8_AJECN Predicted protein OS=Ajellomyces capsula

  16. AcEST: DK945467 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ----VPAGWQPEWSALEPVASLAE 157 >sp|Q8IZJ3|CPMD8_HUMAN C3 and PZP-like alpha-2-macroglobulin domain-containing protein 8 OS=Homo sapien...ype young leaves Developmental stage sporophyte Contig ID - Sequence TCGCACCTTTCC...YGB_COXBR Glycyl-tRNA synthetase beta subunit OS=Coxiella burnetii (strain RSA 331 / Henzerling II) GN=glyS PE=3 SV=1 Len...Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK945467|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU02A01NGRL0009_G14, 5' (436 letters) Data..................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignment

  17. AcEST: DK948436 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q9PHT9 Definition sp|Q9PHT9|QUEA_CAMJE S-adenosylmethionine:tRNA ribosyltransferase-isome.......................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q9PHT9|QUEA_CAMJE S-adenosylmethionin...e:tRNA ribosyltransferas... 31 4.8 >sp|Q9PHT9|QUEA_CAMJE S-adenosylmethionin...e:tRNA ribosyltransferase-isomerase OS=Campylobacter jejuni GN=queA PE=1 SV=1 Length = 342 ...se: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching..............................

  18. AcEST: BP916909 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ition sp|A0Q7A0|QUEA_FRATN S-adenosylmethionine:tRNA ribosyltransferase-isome...A0Q7A0|QUEA_FRATN S-adenosylmethionine:tRNA ribosyltransferas... 29 8.4 >sp|A0Q7A0|QUEA_FRATN S-adenosylmethionin...e:tRNA ribosyltransferase-isomerase OS=Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida (strain U112) GN=queA PE=3 SV=1 Length...sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.............................................sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  19. AcEST: DK950357 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0008_H02 658 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0008_H02. 5' end seq ... .....................done Score E Sequences producing s ignificant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q9BYK8|PR28 ... .....................done Score E Sequences producing s ignificant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A9SXU2|A9SX ... +2 Query: 512 IEWWAKKVEQMKKPVVKELIKRLSYSNLLGLDENLKNGS CRDGSLNGEL 658 IEWW KVE KPV +EL+K+L YSNLLGLDENL+NG+ ... +2 Query: 512 IEWWAKKVEQMKKPVVKELIKRLSYSNLLGLDENLKNGS CRDGSLNGEL 658 I WW + VE KKP +L+KRL +SNLLGLD NLKNGS ...

  20. AcEST: BP914978 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000065_B02 414 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000065_B02. BP914978 CL648Co ... .....................done Score E Sequences producing s ignificant alignments: (bits) Value sp|O94258|XPOT ... .....................done Score E Sequences producing s ignificant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A9SRJ5|A9SR ... PQ 952 Query: 232 NMADQYCFHIQRSDMKDFKSFYKSFVEKLKPQHNGS VV 119 ++A++YC +Q SD+K KSFY+S +E L+ Q NGS +V Sbjct: ... 953 DLAEEYCQKLQGSDIKALKSFYQSLIESLRHQQNGS LV 990 >tr|A5CBF7|A5CBF7_VITVI Putative uncharacter ...