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Sample records for character est sequencing

  1. EST2Prot: Mapping EST sequences to proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin David M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EST libraries are used in various biological studies, from microarray experiments to proteomic and genetic screens. These libraries usually contain many uncharacterized ESTs that are typically ignored since they cannot be mapped to known genes. Consequently, new discoveries are possibly overlooked. Results We describe a system (EST2Prot that uses multiple elements to map EST sequences to their corresponding protein products. EST2Prot uses UniGene clusters, substring analysis, information about protein coding regions in existing DNA sequences and protein database searches to detect protein products related to a query EST sequence. Gene Ontology terms, Swiss-Prot keywords, and protein similarity data are used to map the ESTs to functional descriptors. Conclusion EST2Prot extends and significantly enriches the popular UniGene mapping by utilizing multiple relations between known biological entities. It produces a mapping between ESTs and proteins in real-time through a simple web-interface. The system is part of the Biozon database and is accessible at http://biozon.org/tools/est/.

  2. Dyslexia and Configural Perception of Character Sequences

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    Joseph W Houpt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable nonword, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient - words and pseudowords were processed at supercapacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across conditions. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four conditions and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia.

  3. Linear discriminant analysis of character sequences using occurrences of words

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Subhajit

    2014-02-01

    Classification of character sequences, where the characters come from a finite set, arises in disciplines such as molecular biology and computer science. For discriminant analysis of such character sequences, the Bayes classifier based on Markov models turns out to have class boundaries defined by linear functions of occurrences of words in the sequences. It is shown that for such classifiers based on Markov models with unknown orders, if the orders are estimated from the data using cross-validation, the resulting classifier has Bayes risk consistency under suitable conditions. Even when Markov models are not valid for the data, we develop methods for constructing classifiers based on linear functions of occurrences of words, where the word length is chosen by cross-validation. Such linear classifiers are constructed using ideas of support vector machines, regression depth, and distance weighted discrimination. We show that classifiers with linear class boundaries have certain optimal properties in terms of their asymptotic misclassification probabilities. The performance of these classifiers is demonstrated in various simulated and benchmark data sets.

  4. EST-PAC a web package for EST annotation and protein sequence prediction

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    Strahm Yvan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the decreasing cost of DNA sequencing technology and the vast diversity of biological resources, researchers increasingly face the basic challenge of annotating a larger number of expressed sequences tags (EST from a variety of species. This typically consists of a series of repetitive tasks, which should be automated and easy to use. The results of these annotation tasks need to be stored and organized in a consistent way. All these operations should be self-installing, platform independent, easy to customize and amenable to using distributed bioinformatics resources available on the Internet. In order to address these issues, we present EST-PAC a web oriented multi-platform software package for expressed sequences tag (EST annotation. EST-PAC provides a solution for the administration of EST and protein sequence annotations accessible through a web interface. Three aspects of EST annotation are automated: 1 searching local or remote biological databases for sequence similarities using Blast services, 2 predicting protein coding sequence from EST data and, 3 annotating predicted protein sequences with functional domain predictions. In practice, EST-PAC integrates the BLASTALL suite, EST-Scan2 and HMMER in a relational database system accessible through a simple web interface. EST-PAC also takes advantage of the relational database to allow consistent storage, powerful queries of results and, management of the annotation process. The system allows users to customize annotation strategies and provides an open-source data-management environment for research and education in bioinformatics.

  5. AcEST(EST sequences of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) - AcEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AcEST AcEST(EST sequences of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) Data detail Data name AcEST(EST... sequences of Adiantum capillus-veneris and their annotation) Description of data contents EST sequence of Adiantum capill...db/view/archive_acest#en Data acquisition method Capillary sequencer Data analysi...atabases) Number of data entries Adiantum capillus-veneris ESTs: 30,540. Data item Description Clone id Clon...e ID of EST sequence of Adiantum capillus-veneris. Library Library name Length Nu

  6. EST sequencing of Onychophora and phylogenomic analysis of Metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeding, Falko; Hagner-Holler, Silke; Ruhberg, Hilke; Ebersberger, Ingo; von Haeseler, Arndt; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Burmester, Thorsten

    2007-12-01

    Onychophora (velvet worms) represent a small animal taxon considered to be related to Euarthropoda. We have obtained 1873 5' cDNA sequences (expressed sequence tags, ESTs) from the velvet worm Epiperipatus sp., which were assembled into 833 contigs. BLAST similarity searches revealed that 51.9% of the contigs had matches in the protein databases with expectation values lower than 10(-4). Most ESTs had the best hit with proteins from either Chordata or Arthropoda (approximately 40% respectively). The ESTs included sequences of 27 ribosomal proteins. The orthologous sequences from 28 other species of a broad range of phyla were obtained from the databases, including other EST projects. A concatenated amino acid alignment comprising 5021 positions was constructed, which covers 4259 positions when problematic regions were removed. Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods place Epiperipatus within the monophyletic Ecdysozoa (Onychophora, Arthropoda, Tardigrada and Nematoda), but its exact relation to the Euarthropoda remained unresolved. The "Articulata" concept was not supported. Tardigrada and Nematoda formed a well-supported monophylum, suggesting that Tardigrada are actually Cycloneuralia. In agreement with previous studies, we have demonstrated that random sequencing of cDNAs results in sequence information suitable for phylogenomic approaches to resolve metazoan relationships.

  7. ESTExplorer: an expressed sequence tag (EST) assembly and annotation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Shivashankar H; Deshpande, Nandan; Gasser, Robin B; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2007-07-01

    The analysis of expressed sequence tag (EST) datasets offers a rapid and cost-effective approach to elucidate the transcriptome of an organism, but requiring several computational methods for assembly and annotation. ESTExplorer is a comprehensive workflow system for EST data management and analysis. The pipeline uses a 'distributed control approach' in which the most appropriate bioinformatics tools are implemented over different dedicated processors. Species-specific repeat masking and conceptual translation are in-built. ESTExplorer accepts a set of ESTs in FASTA format which can be analysed using programs selected by the user. After pre-processing and assembly, the dataset is annotated at the nucleotide and protein levels, following conceptual translation. Users may optionally provide ESTExplorer with assembled contigs for annotation purposes. Functionally annotated contigs/ESTs can be analysed individually. The overall outputs are gene ontologies, protein functional identifications in terms of mapping to protein domains and metabolic pathways. ESTExplorer has been applied successfully to annotate large EST datasets from parasitic nematodes and to identify novel genes as potential targets for parasite intervention. ESTExplorer runs on a Linux cluster and is freely available for the academic community at http://estexplorer.biolinfo.org.

  8. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis of Acanthamoeba healyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hyun-Hee; Hwang, Mee-Yeul; Kim, Hyo-Kyung

    2001-01-01

    Randomly selected 435 clones from Acanthamoeba healyi cDNA library were sequenced and a total of 387 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) had been generated. Based on the results of BLAST search, 130 clones (34.4%) were identified as the genes enconding surface proteins, enzymes for DNA, energy production or other metabolism, kinases and phosphatases, protease, proteins for signal transduction, structural and cytoskeletal proteins, cell cycle related proteins, transcription factors, transcription and translational machineries, and transporter proteins. Most of the genes (88.5%) are newly identified in the genus Acanthamoeba. Although 15 clones matched the genes of Acanthamoeba located in the public databases, twelve clones were actin gene which was the most frequently expressed gene in this study. These ESTs of Acanthamoeba would give valuable information to study the organism as a model system for biological investigations such as cytoskeleton or cell movement, signal transduction, transcriptional and translational regulations. These results would also provide clues to elucidate factors for pathogenesis in human granulomatous amoebic encephalitis or keratitis by Acanthamoeba. PMID:11441502

  9. ConiferEST: an integrated bioinformatics system for data reprocessing and mining of conifer expressed sequence tags (ESTs

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    Carter Kikia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of low-cost, high-throughput sequencing, the amount of public domain Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequence data available for both model and non-model organism is growing exponentially. While these data are widely used for characterizing various genomes, they also present a serious challenge for data quality control and validation due to their inherent deficiencies, particularly for species without genome sequences. Description ConiferEST is an integrated system for data reprocessing, visualization and mining of conifer ESTs. In its current release, Build 1.0, it houses 172,229 loblolly pine EST sequence reads, which were obtained from reprocessing raw DNA sequencer traces using our software – WebTraceMiner. The trace files were downloaded from NCBI Trace Archive. ConiferEST provides biologists unique, easy-to-use data visualization and mining tools for a variety of putative sequence features including cloning vector segments, adapter sequences, restriction endonuclease recognition sites, polyA and polyT runs, and their corresponding Phred quality values. Based on these putative features, verified sequence features such as 3' and/or 5' termini of cDNA inserts in either sense or non-sense strand have been identified in-silico. Interestingly, only 30.03% of the designated 3' ESTs were found to have an authenticated 5' terminus in the non-sense strand (i.e., polyT tails, while fewer than 5.34% of the designated 5' ESTs had a verified 5' terminus in the sense strand. Such previously ignored features provide valuable insight for data quality control and validation of error-prone ESTs, as well as the ability to identify novel functional motifs embedded in large EST datasets. We found that "double-termini adapters" were effective indicators of potential EST chimeras. For all sequences with in-silico verified termini/terminus, we used InterProScan to assign protein domain signatures, results of which are available

  10. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa

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    Bies Dawn H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa represents one of the most valued fruit crops in the United States. Despite its economic importance, the octoploid genome presents a formidable barrier to efficient study of genome structure and molecular mechanisms that underlie agriculturally-relevant traits. Many potentially fruitful research avenues, especially large-scale gene expression surveys and development of molecular genetic markers have been limited by a lack of sequence information in public databases. As a first step to remedy this discrepancy a cDNA library has been developed from salicylate-treated, whole-plant tissues and over 1800 expressed sequence tags (EST's have been sequenced and analyzed. Results A putative unigene set of 1304 sequences – 133 contigs and 1171 singlets – has been developed, and the transcripts have been functionally annotated. Homology searches indicate that 89.5% of sequences share significant similarity to known/putative proteins or Rosaceae ESTs. The ESTs have been functionally characterized and genes relevant to specific physiological processes of economic importance have been identified. A set of tools useful for SSR development and mapping is presented. Conclusion Sequences derived from this effort may be used to speed gene discovery efforts in Fragaria and the Rosaceae in general and also open avenues of comparative mapping. This report represents a first step in expanding molecular-genetic analyses in strawberry and demonstrates how computational tools can be used to optimally mine a large body of useful information from a relatively small data set.

  11. Characterization of simple sequence repeats (SSRs from Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae expressed sequence tags (ESTs

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    Hamarsheh Omar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomus papatasi is a natural vector of Leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in many countries. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites, are common in eukaryotic genomes and are short, repeated nucleotide sequence elements arrayed in tandem and flanked by non-repetitive regions. The enrichment methods used previously for finding new microsatellite loci in sand flies remain laborious and time consuming; in silico mining, which includes retrieval and screening of microsatellites from large amounts of sequence data from sequence data bases using microsatellite search tools can yield many new candidate markers. Results Simple sequence repeats (SSRs were characterized in P. papatasi expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived from a public database, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. A total of 42,784 sequences were mined, and 1,499 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 3.5% and an average density of 15.55 kb per SSR. Dinucleotide motifs were the most common SSRs, accounting for 67% followed by tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide repeats, accounting for 31.1%, 1.5%, and 0.1%, respectively. The length of microsatellites varied from 5 to 16 repeats. Dinucleotide types; AG and CT have the highest frequency. Dinucleotide SSR-ESTs are relatively biased toward an excess of (AXn repeats and a low GC base content. Forty primer pairs were designed based on motif lengths for further experimental validation. Conclusion The first large-scale survey of SSRs derived from P. papatasi is presented; dinucleotide SSRs identified are more frequent than other types. EST data mining is an effective strategy to identify functional microsatellites in P. papatasi.

  12. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

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    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  13. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome-specific EST sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chuan-Liang Deng; Wei-Li Zhang; Ying Cao; Shao-Jing Wang; Shu-Fen Li; Wu-Jun Gao; Long-Dou Lu

    2015-12-01

    The genome of spinach single chromosome complement is about 1000 Mbp, which is the model material to study the molecular mechanisms of plant sex differentiation. The cytological study showed that the biggest spinach chromosome (chromosome 1) was taken as spinach sex chromosome. It had three alleles of sex-related , m and . Many researchers have been trying to clone the sex-determining genes and investigated the molecular mechanism of spinach sex differentiation. However, there are no successful cloned reports about these genes. A new technology combining chromosome microdissection with hybridization-specific amplification (HSA) was adopted. The spinach Y chromosome degenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR (DOP-PCR) products were hybridized with cDNA of the male spinach flowers in florescence. The female spinach genome was taken as blocker and cDNA library specifically expressed in Y chromosome was constructed. Moreover, expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences in cDNA library were cloned, sequenced and bioinformatics was analysed. There were 63 valid EST sequences obtained in this study. The fragment size was between 53 and 486 bp. BLASTn homologous alignment indicated that 12 EST sequences had homologous sequences of nucleic acids, the rest were new sequences. BLASTx homologous alignment indicated that 16 EST sequences had homologous protein-encoding nucleic acid sequence. The spinach Y chromosome-specific EST sequences laid the foundation for cloning the functional genes, specifically expressed in spinach Y chromosome. Meanwhile, the establishment of the technology system in the research provided a reference for rapid cloning of other biological sex chromosome-specific EST sequences.

  14. Expressed Sequence Tag-Simple Sequence Repeat (EST-SSR Marker Resources for Diversity Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.

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    Natalie L. Dillon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a collection of 24,840 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from five mango (Mangifera indica L. cDNA libraries was mined for EST-based simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Over 1,000 ESTs with SSR motifs were detected from more than 24,000 EST sequences with di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant. Of these, 25 EST-SSRs in genes involved in plant development, stress response, and fruit color and flavor development pathways were selected, developed into PCR markers and characterized in a population of 32 mango selections including M. indica varieties, and related Mangifera species. Twenty-four of the 25 EST-SSR markers exhibited polymorphisms, identifying a total of 86 alleles with an average of 5.38 alleles per locus, and distinguished between all Mangifera selections. Private alleles were identified for Mangifera species. These newly developed EST-SSR markers enhance the current 11 SSR mango genetic identity panel utilized by the Australian Mango Breeding Program. The current panel has been used to identify progeny and parents for selection and the application of this extended panel will further improve and help to design mango hybridization strategies for increased breeding efficiency.

  15. Sequence alignment status and amplicon size difference affecting EST-SSR primer performance and polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little attention has been given to failed, poorly-performing, and non-polymorphic expressed sequence tag (EST) simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. This is due in part to a lack of interest and value in reporting them but also because of the difficulty in addressing the causes of failure on a prime...

  16. Identification of true EST alignments and exon regions of gene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yanhong; JING Hui; LI Yanen; LIU Huailan

    2004-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs), which have piled up considerably so far, provide a valuable resource for finding new genes, disease-relevant genes, and for recognizing alternative splicing variants, SNP sites, etc. The prerequisite for carrying out these researches is to correctly ascertain the gene-sequence-related ESTs. Based on analysis of the alignment results between some known gene sequences and ESTs in public database, several measures including Identity Check, Gap Check, Inclusion Check and Length Check have been introduced to judge whether an EST alignment is related to a gene sequence or not. A computational program EDSAc1.0 has been developed to identify true EST alignments and exon regions of query gene sequences. When tested with human gene sequences in the standard dataset HMR195 and evaluated with the standard measures of gene prediction performance, EDSAc1.0 can identify protein- coding regions with specificity of 0.997 and sensitivity of 0.88 at the nucleotide level, which outperform that of the counterpart TAP. A web server of EDSAc1.0 is available at http://infosci.hust.edu.cn.

  17. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for marker development in yam (Dioscorea alata L.

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    Robert Asiedu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a major limiting factor in the production of yam (Dioscorea spp. worldwide. Availability of high quality sequence information is necessary for designing molecular markers associated with resistance. However, very limited sequence information pertaining to yam is available at public genome databases. Therefore, this collaborative project was developed for genetic improvement and germplasm characterization of yams using molecular markers. The current investigation is focused on studying gene expression, by large scale generation of ESTs, from one susceptible (TDa 95-0310 and two resistant yam genotypes (TDa 87-01091, TDa 95-0328 challenged with the fungus. Total RNA was isolated from young leaves of resistant and susceptible genotypes and cDNA libraries were sequenced using Roche 454 technology. Results A total of 44,757 EST sequences were generated from the cDNA libraries of the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Greater than 56% of ESTs were annotated using MapMan Mercator tool and Blast2GO search tools. Gene annotations were used to characterize the transcriptome in yam and also perform a differential gene expression analysis between the resistant and susceptible EST datasets. Mining for SSRs in the ESTs revealed 1702 unique sequences containing SSRs and 1705 SSR markers were designed using those sequences. Conclusion We have developed a comprehensive annotated transcriptome data set in yam to enrich the EST information in public databases. cDNA libraries were constructed from anthracnose fungus challenged leaf tissues for transcriptome characterization, and differential gene expression analysis. Thus, it helped in identifying unique transcripts in each library for disease resistance. These EST resources provide the basis for future microarray development, marker validation, genetic linkage mapping and QTL analysis in Dioscorea species.

  18. Exploring the temporal structure of heterochronous sequences using TempEst (formerly Path-O-Gen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaut, Andrew; Lam, Tommy T; Max Carvalho, Luiz; Pybus, Oliver G

    2016-01-01

    Gene sequences sampled at different points in time can be used to infer molecular phylogenies on a natural timescale of months or years, provided that the sequences in question undergo measurable amounts of evolutionary change between sampling times. Data sets with this property are termed heterochronous and have become increasingly common in several fields of biology, most notably the molecular epidemiology of rapidly evolving viruses. Here we introduce the cross-platform software tool, TempEst (formerly known as Path-O-Gen), for the visualization and analysis of temporally sampled sequence data. Given a molecular phylogeny and the dates of sampling for each sequence, TempEst uses an interactive regression approach to explore the association between genetic divergence through time and sampling dates. TempEst can be used to (1) assess whether there is sufficient temporal signal in the data to proceed with phylogenetic molecular clock analysis, and (2) identify sequences whose genetic divergence and sampling date are incongruent. Examination of the latter can help identify data quality problems, including errors in data annotation, sample contamination, sequence recombination, or alignment error. We recommend that all users of the molecular clock models implemented in BEAST first check their data using TempEst prior to analysis.

  19. Genomic Resources for Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L.: Analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo Sequencing and GBS Libraries.

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    Christopher A Saski

    Full Text Available The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp. is a major food and cash crop in many countries but research efforts have been limited to understand the genetics and generate genomic information for the crop. The availability of a large number of genomic resources including genome-wide molecular markers will accelerate the breeding efforts and application of genomic selection in yams. In the present study, several methods including expressed sequence tags (EST-sequencing, de novo sequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS profiles on two yam (Dioscorea alata L. genotypes (TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310 was performed to generate genomic resources for use in its improvement programs. This includes a comprehensive set of EST-SSRs, genomic SSRs, whole genome SNPs, and reduced representation SNPs. A total of 1,152 EST-SSRs were developed from >40,000 EST-sequences generated from the two genotypes. A set of 388 EST-SSRs were validated as polymorphic showing a polymorphism rate of 34% when tested on two diverse parents targeted for anthracnose disease. In addition, approximately 40X de novo whole genome sequence coverage was generated for each of the two genotypes, and a total of 18,584 and 15,952 genomic SSRs were identified for TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310, respectively. A custom made pipeline resulted in the selection of 573 genomic SSRs common across the two genotypes, of which only eight failed, 478 being polymorphic and 62 monomorphic indicating a polymorphic rate of 83.5%. Additionally, 288,505 high quality SNPs were also identified between these two genotypes. Genotyping by sequencing reads on these two genotypes also revealed 36,790 overlapping SNP positions that are distributed throughout the genome. Our efforts in using

  20. OrthoSelect: a web server for selecting orthologous gene alignments from EST sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Fabian; Wörheide, Gert; Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2009-07-01

    In the absence of whole genome sequences for many organisms, the use of expressed sequence tags (EST) offers an affordable approach for researchers conducting phylogenetic analyses to gain insight about the evolutionary history of organisms. Reliable alignments for phylogenomic analyses are based on orthologous gene sequences from different taxa. So far, researchers have not sufficiently tackled the problem of the completely automated construction of such datasets. Existing software tools are either semi-automated, covering only part of the necessary data processing, or implemented as a pipeline, requiring the installation and configuration of a cascade of external tools, which may be time-consuming and hard to manage. To simplify data set construction for phylogenomic studies, we set up a web server that uses our recently developed OrthoSelect approach. To the best of our knowledge, our web server is the first web-based EST analysis pipeline that allows the detection of orthologous gene sequences in EST libraries and outputs orthologous gene alignments. Additionally, OrthoSelect provides the user with an extensive results section that lists and visualizes all important results, such as annotations, data matrices for each gene/taxon and orthologous gene alignments. The web server is available at http://orthoselect.gobics.de.

  1. Large-scale Identification of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from Nicotianatabacum by Normalized cDNA Library Sequencing

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    Alvarez S Perez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An expressed sequence tags (EST resource for tobacco plants (Nicotianatabacum was established using high-throughput sequencing of randomly selected clones from one cDNA library representing a range of plant organs (leaf, stem, root and root base. Over 5000 ESTs were generated from the 3’ ends of 8000 clones, analyzed by BLAST searches and categorized functionally. All annotated ESTs were classified into 18 functional categories, unique transcripts involved in energy were the largest group accounting for 831 (32.32% of the annotated ESTs. After excluding 2450 non-significant tentative unique transcripts (TUTs, 100 unique sequences (1.67% of total TUTs were identified from the N. tabacum database. In the array result two genes strongly related to the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV were obtained, one basic form of pathogenesis-related protein 1 precursor (TBT012G08 and ubiquitin (TBT087G01. Both of them were found in the variety Hongda, some other important genes were classified into two groups, one of these implicated in plant development like those genes related to a photosynthetic process (chlorophyll a-b binding protein, photosystem I, ferredoxin I and III, ATP synthase and a further group including genes related to plant stress response (ubiquitin, ubiquitin-like protein SMT3, glycine-rich RNA binding protein, histones and methallothionein. The interesting finding in this study is that two of these genes have never been reported before in N. tabacum (ubiquitin-like protein SMT3 and methallothionein. The array results were confirmed using quantitative PCR.

  2. Gene Identification and Expression Analysis of 86,136 Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) from the Rice Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhou; Lin Ye; Li Lin; Jun Li; Xuegang Wang; Hao Xu; Yibin Pan; Wei Lin; Wei Tian; Jing Liu; Liping Wei; Jiabin Tang; Siqi Liu; Huanming Yang; Jun Yu; Jian Wang; Michael G. Walker; Xiuqing Zhang; Jun Wang; Songnian Hu; Huayong Xu; Yajun Deng; Jianhai Dong

    2003-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) analysis has pioneered genome-wide gene discovery and expression profiling. In order to establish a gene expression index in the rice cultivar indica, we sequenced and analyzed 86,136 ESTs from nine rice cDNA libraries from the super hybrid cultivar LYP9 and its parental cultivars. We assembled these ESTs into 13,232 contigs and leave 8,976 singletons. Overall, 7,497 sequences were found similar to the existing sequences in GenBank and 14,711 are novel. These sequences are classified by molecular function, biological process and pathways according to the Gene Ontology. We compared our sequenced ESTs with the publicly available 95,000 ESTs from japonica, and found little sequence variation, despite the large difference between genome sequences. We then assembled the combined 173,000 rice ESTs for further analysis. Using the pooled ESTs, we compared gene expression in metabolism pathway between rice and Avabidopsis according to KEGG. We further profiled gene expression patterns in different tis sues, developmental stages, and in a conditional sterile mutant, after checking the libraries are comparable by means of sequence coverage. We also identified some possible library specific genes and a number of enzymes and transcription factors that contribute to rice development.

  3. Phylogeny of the Labeoninae (Teleostei, Cypriniformes) based on nuclear DNA sequences and implications on character evolution and biogeography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanping ZHENG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The Labeoninae is a subfamily of the family Cyprinidae,Order Cypriniformes.Oromandibular morphology within the Labeoninae is the greatest among cyprinid fishes.Although several phylogenetic studies about labeonines have been undertaken the results have been inconsistent and a comprehensive phylogeny is needed.Further,an incongruence between morphological and molecular phylogeny requires a systematic exploration of the significance of morphological characters on the basis of the molecular phylogeny.In this study,a total of 292 nucleotide sequences from 73 individuals (representing 24 genera and 73 species) of Labeoninae were analyzed.The results of the phylogenetic analysis indicate that there are four major clades within Labeoninae and three monophyletic lineages within the fourth clade.Results of the character evolution show that all oromandibular morphological characters are homoplastically distributed on the molecular phylogenetic tree and suggests that these characters evolved several times during the history of labeonines.In particular,the labeonine,a specific disc on the lower lip,has been acquired three times and reversed twice.These morphological characters do not have systematic significance but can be useful for taxonomy.The results of biogeography suggest that the Labeoninae originated from Southeast Asia and separately dispersed to Africa,East Asia and South Asia.

  4. Super-resolution Image Created from a Sequence of Images with Application of Character Recognition

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    Leandro Luiz de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution techniques allow combine multiple images of the same scene to obtain an image with increased geometric and radiometric resolution, called super-resolution image. In this image are enhanced features allowing to recover important details and information. The objective of this work is to develop efficient algorithm, robust and automated fusion image frames to obtain a super-resolution image. Image registration is a fundamental step in combining several images that make up the scene. Our research is based on the determination and extraction of characteristics defined by the SIFT and RANSAC algorithms for automatic image registration. We use images containing characters and perform recognition of these characters to validate and show the effectiveness of our proposed method. The distinction of this work is the way to get the matching and merging of images because it occurs dynamically between elements common images that are stored in a dynamic matrix.

  5. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

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    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  6. Genomic resources for Myzus persicae: EST sequencing, SNP identification, and microarray design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malloch Gaynor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, is a world-wide insect pest capable of infesting more than 40 plant families, including many crop species. However, despite the significant damage inflicted by M. persicae in agricultural systems through direct feeding damage and by its ability to transmit plant viruses, limited genomic information is available for this species. Results Sequencing of 16 M. persicae cDNA libraries generated 26,669 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Aphids for library construction were raised on Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Brassica oleracea, B. napus, and Physalis floridana (with and without Potato leafroll virus infection. The M. persicae cDNA libraries include ones made from sexual and asexual whole aphids, guts, heads, and salivary glands. In silico comparison of cDNA libraries identified aphid genes with tissue-specific expression patterns, and gene expression that is induced by feeding on Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, 2423 genes that are novel to science and potentially aphid-specific were identified. Comparison of cDNA data from three aphid lineages identified single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers and, in some cases, may represent functional differences in the protein products. In particular, non-conservative amino acid substitutions in a highly expressed gut protease may be of adaptive significance for M. persicae feeding on different host plants. The Agilent eArray platform was used to design an M. persicae oligonucleotide microarray representing over 10,000 unique genes. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for M. persicae, an agriculturally important insect pest. These include previously unknown sequence data, a collection of expressed genes, molecular markers, and a DNA microarray that can be used to study aphid gene expression. These resources will help elucidate the adaptations that allow M. persicae to develop compatible

  7. Sequencing and analysis of full-length cDNAs, 5'-ESTs and 3'-ESTs from a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).

    KAUST Repository

    Brenner, Sydney

    2012-10-08

    Cartilaginous fishes are the most ancient group of living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and are, therefore, an important reference group for understanding the evolution of vertebrates. The elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a holocephalan cartilaginous fish, has been identified as a model cartilaginous fish genome because of its compact genome (∼910 Mb) and a genome project has been initiated to obtain its whole genome sequence. In this study, we have generated and sequenced full-length enriched cDNA libraries of the elephant shark using the \\'oligo-capping\\' method and Sanger sequencing. A total of 6,778 full-length protein-coding cDNA and 10,701 full-length noncoding cDNA were sequenced from six tissues (gills, intestine, kidney, liver, spleen, and testis) of the elephant shark. Analysis of their polyadenylation signals showed that polyadenylation usage in elephant shark is similar to that in mammals. Furthermore, both coding and noncoding transcripts of the elephant shark use the same proportion of canonical polyadenylation sites. Besides BLASTX searches, protein-coding transcripts were annotated by Gene Ontology, InterPro domain, and KEGG pathway analyses. By comparing elephant shark genes to bony vertebrate genes, we identified several ancient genes present in elephant shark but differentially lost in tetrapods or teleosts. Only ∼6% of elephant shark noncoding cDNA showed similarity to known noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The rest are either highly divergent ncRNAs or novel ncRNAs. In addition to full-length transcripts, 30,375 5\\'-ESTs and 41,317 3\\'-ESTs were sequenced and annotated. The clones and transcripts generated in this study are valuable resources for annotating transcription start sites, exon-intron boundaries, and UTRs of genes in the elephant shark genome, and for the functional characterization of protein sequences. These resources will also be useful for annotating genes in other cartilaginous fishes whose genomes have been targeted for

  8. Preparing and Analyzing Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) Library for the Mammary Tissue of Local Turkish Kivircik Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeroglu Ulu, Zehra; Ulu, Salih; Un, Cemal; Ozdem Oztabak, Kemal; Altunatmaz, Kemal

    2017-01-01

    Kivircik sheep is an important local Turkish sheep according to its meat quality and milk productivity. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression profiles of both prenatal and postnatal stages for the Kivircik sheep. Therefore, two different cDNA libraries, which were taken from the same Kivircik sheep mammary gland tissue at prenatal and postnatal stages, were constructed. Total 3072 colonies which were randomly selected from the two libraries were sequenced for developing a sheep ESTs collection. We used Phred/Phrap computer programs for analysis of the raw EST and readable EST sequences were assembled with the CAP3 software. Putative functions of all unique sequences and statistical analysis were determined by Geneious software. Total 422 ESTs have over 80% similarity to known sequences of other organisms in NCBI classified by Panther database for the Gene Ontology (GO) category. By comparing gene expression profiles, we observed some putative genes that may be relative to reproductive performance or play important roles in milk synthesis and secretion. A total of 2414 ESTs have been deposited to the NCBI GenBank database (GW996847–GW999260). EST data in this study have provided a new source of information to functional genome studies of sheep.

  9. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Hee Joung; Jerry L.Hill; Jung Oh Hyun; Ding Mu; Juchun Luo; Do Hyung Lee; Takayuki Kawahara; Jeung Keun Suh; Mark S.Roh

    2013-01-01

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population ofPinus densiflora × P.sylvestris in Jilin,China,we used needles and seeds from P.densiflora,P.sylvestris,and P.densiflora × P.sylvestris collected from natural stands or experimental stations to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSRs).Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to sequence analysis of the pine cpDNA SSR marker Pt15169.Results show that morphological characters from 4-year old seedlings did not correlate with sequence variants of this marker.Marker haplotypes from all P.sylvestris trees had a CTAT element that was absent from all sampled P.densiflora trees.However,both haplotype classes involving this insertion/deletion element were found in a P.densiflora × P.sylvestris population and its seedling progeny.It was concluded that the P.densiflora × P.sylvestris accessions sampled from Jilin,China resulted from bi-directional crosses,as evidenced by both species' cpDNA haplotypes within the hybrid swarm population.

  10. 基于坏字符序检测的快速模式匹配算法%QUICK PATTERN MATCHING ALGORITHM BASED ON BAD CHARACTER SEQUENCE CHECKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 张霖

    2012-01-01

    提出一种基于坏字符序检测的快速模式匹配算法( BCSBM).该算法利用相邻字符序列在模式串中不出现的概率较单字符高的特性,基于好字符和坏字符序表实现字符匹配过程的“跳跃”.BCSBM算法显著减少了匹配窗口内字符的匹配次数,同时增大了匹配窗口的平均移动距离.算法的实际测试效率较高,在文本或模式串相对较长的情况下该算法的效率提高明显.%The paper introduces BCSBM algorithm based on bad characters sequence checking. BCSBM algorithm takes advantages of the less probability of the presence of an adjacent character sequence than that of a single character within a pattern string, and realizes the jumping of the character matching process according to good characters and bad character sequences. BCSBM algorithm significantly reduces the times of character matching inside the matching window while increases the average movement distance of the matching window. Ab tested in reality, the algorithm* s efficiency is higher than other pattern matching algorithms, especially when there are longer texts or pattern strings.

  11. Sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Rose Lucia Braz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignins are phenolic polymers found in the secondary wall of plant conductive systems where they play an important role by reducing the permeability of the cell wall to water. Lignins are also responsible for the rigidity of the cell wall and are involved in mechanisms of resistance to pathogens. The metabolic routes and enzymes involved in synthesis of lignins have been largely characterized and representative genes that encode enzymes involved in these processes have been cloned from several plant species. The synthesis of lignins is liked to the general metabolism of the phenylpropanoids in plants, having enzymes (e.g. phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT common to other processes as well as specific enzymes such as cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. Some maize and sorghum mutants, shown to have defective in CAD and/or COMT activity, are easier to digest because they have a reduced lignin content, something which has motivated different research groups to alter the lignin content and composition of model plants by genetic engineering try to improve, for example, the efficiency of paper pulping and digestibility. In the work reported in this paper, we have made an inventory of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (EST coding for enzymes involved in lignin metabolism which are present in the sugarcane EST genome project (SUCEST database. Our analysis focused on the key enzymes ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT, hydroxycinnamate CoA ligase (4CL, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. The comparative analysis of these genes with those described in other species could be used as molecular markers for breeding as well as for the manipulation of lignin metabolism in sugarcane.

  12. On the global attractivity and the periodic character of a recursive sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Elsayed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the global convergence result, boundedness, and periodicity of solutions of the recursive sequence \\[x_{n+1} = ax_n + \\frac{bx_{n-1}+cx_{n+2}}{dx_{n-1}+ex_{n+2}}, \\quad n=0,1,\\ldots,\\] where the parameters \\(a\\, \\(b\\, \\(c\\, \\(d\\ and \\(e\\ are positive real numbers and the initial conditions \\(x_{-2}\\, \\(x_{-1}\\, and \\(x_0\\ are positive real numbers.

  13. Well log interpretation and seismic character of the cenozoic sequence in the northern Alboran Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, M. J.; Comas, M. C.

    1992-06-01

    Seismic stratigraphic and main lithological features of the sedimentary cover overlying the basement of the Alboran Sea were established via the analysis of commercial multichannel seismic surveys, geophysical well logs, and well data. Six seismic stratigraphics units (VI to I), bounded by unconformities, form the marine sediments that range in age from early Miocene to Quaternary. They are dated by extrapolation of commercial drilling results from the northern Alboran Sea. Volcanic activity is recorded within sedimentary sequences of units V to II. Undercompaction features are detected in the two basal units.

  14. Cross-Species, Amplifiable EST-SSR Markers for Amentotaxus Species Obtained by Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiuan-Yu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amentotaxus, a genus of Taxaceae, is an ancient lineage with six relic and endangered species. Four Amentotaxus species, namely A. argotaenia, A. formosana, A. yunnanensis, and A. poilanei, are considered a species complex because of their morphological similarities. Small populations of these species are allopatrically distributed in Asian forests. However, only a few codominant markers have been developed and applied to study population genetic structure of these endangered species. In this study, we developed and characterized polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs from the transcriptome of A. formosana. We identified 4955 putative EST-SSRs from 68,281 unigenes as potential molecular markers. Twenty-six EST-SSRs were selected for estimating polymorphism and transferability among Amentotaxus species, of which 23 EST-SSRs were polymorphic within Amentotaxus species. Among these, the number of alleles ranged from 1–4, the polymorphism information content ranged from 0.000–0.692, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.000–1.000 and 0.080–0.740, respectively. Population genetic structure analyses confirmed that A. argotaenia and A. formosana were separate species and A. yunnanensis and A. poilanei were the same species. These novel EST-SSRs can facilitate further population genetic structure research of Amentotaxus species.

  15. Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Muscle Full-Length cDNA Library of Wujin Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Su-mei; LIU Yong-gang; PAN Hong-bing; ZHANG Xi; GE Chang-rong; JIA Jun-jing; GAO Shi-zheng

    2014-01-01

    Porcine skeletal muscle genes play a major role in determining muscle growth and meat quality. Construction of a full-length cDNA library is an effective way to understand the expression of functional genes in muscle tissues. In addition, novel genes for further research could be identiifed in the library. In this study, we constructed a full-length cDNA library from porcine muscle tissue. The estimated average size of the cDNA inserts was 1076 bp, and the cDNA fullness ratio was 86.2%. A total of 1058 unique sequences with 342 contigs (32.3%) and 716 singleton (67.7%) expressed sequence tags (EST) were obtained by clustering and assembling. Meanwhile, 826 (78.1%) ESTs were categorized as known genes, and 232 (21.9%) ESTs were categorized as unknown genes. 65 novel porcine genes that exhibit no identity in the TIGR gene index ofSus scrofa and 124 full-length sequences with unknown functions were deposited in the dbEST division of GenBank (accession numbers: EU650784-EU650788, GE843306, GH228978-GH229100). The abundantly expressed genes in porcine muscle tissue were related to muscle ifber development, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Gene ontology analysis showed that sequences expressed in porcine muscle tissue contained a high percentage of binding activity, catalytic activity, structural molecule activity and motor activity, which involved mainly in metabolic, cellular and developmental process, distributed mainly in intracellular region. The sequence data generated in this study would provide valuable information for identifying porcine genes expressed in muscle tissue and help to advance the study on the structure and function of genes in pigs.

  16. Phylogeny and character evolution of the fern genus Tectaria (Tectariaceae) in the Old World inferred from chloroplast DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hui-Hui; Chao, Yi-Shan; Callado, John Rey; Dong, Shi-Yong

    2014-11-01

    In this study we provide a phylogeny for the pantropical fern genus Tectaria, with emphasis on the Old World species, based on sequences of five plastid regions (atpB, ndhF plus ndhF-trnL, rbcL, rps16-matK plus matK, and trnL-F). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference are used to analyze 115 individuals, representing ca. 56 species of Tectaria s.l. and 36 species of ten related genera. The results strongly support the monophyly of Tectaria in a broad sense, in which Ctenitopsis, Hemigramma, Heterogonium, Psomiocarpa, Quercifilix, Stenosemia, and Tectaridium should be submerged. Such broadly circumscribed Tectaria is supported by the arising pattern of veinlets and the base chromosome number (x=40). Four primary clades are well resolved within Tectaria, one from the Neotropic (T. trifoliata clade) and three from the Old World (T. subtriphylla clade, Ctenitopsis clade, and T. crenata clade). Tectaria crenata clade is the largest one including six subclades. Of the genera previously recognized as tectarioid ferns, Ctenitis, Lastreopsis, and Pleocnemia, are confirmed to be members in Dryopteridaceae; while Pteridrys and Triplophyllum are supported in Tectariaceae. To infer morphological evolution, 13 commonly used characters are optimized on the resulting phylogenetic trees and in result, are all homoplastic in Tectaria.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships, character evolution, and biogeography of the subfamily Lygosominae (Reptilia: Scincidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, M; Ota, H; Kobayashi, M; Nabhitabhata, J; Yong, H S; Hikida, T

    2000-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the lygosomine skinks were inferred from 1249 base positions of mitochondrial DNA sequences of 12S and 16S rRNA genes. The monophyly of this subfamily was confirmed and the presence of five distinct infrasubfamilial lineages detected. Of these, the Sphenomorphus group appears to have diverged first, followed by the Lygosoma and Egernia groups in order, leaving the Eugongylus and Mabuya groups as sister groups. Our results did not support monophyly of the Mabuya group sensu lato (i.e., an assemblage of the Lygosoma, Egernia, and Mabuya groups), for which a number of morphological and karyological studies demonstrated a considerable similarity. Our results also contradict the previous hypothesis, formulated on the basis of morphological and immunological data, which argued for the sister relationship between the Egernia and the Eugongylus groups. Morphological and karyological characters used to define the Mabuya group (sensu lato) may actually represent plesiomorphic states. The phylogenetic diversity of lygosomine skinks in the Australian region appears to have increased through multiple colonizations from Southeast Asia.

  18. De novo assembly of transcriptome sequencing in Caragana korshinskii Kom. and characterization of EST-SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Long

    Full Text Available Caragana korshinskii Kom. is widely distributed in various habitats, including gravel desert, clay desert, fixed and semi-fixed sand, and saline land in the Asian and African deserts. To date, no previous genomic information or EST-SSR marker has been reported in Caragana Fabr. genus. In this study, more than two billion bases of high-quality sequence of C. korshinskii were generated by using illumina sequencing technology and demonstrated the de novo assembly and annotation of genes without prior genome information. These reads were assembled into 86,265 unigenes (mean length = 709 bp. The similarity search indicated that 33,955 and 21,978 unigenes showed significant similarities to known proteins from NCBI non-redundant and Swissprot protein databases, respectively. Among these annotated unigenes, 26,232 a unigenes were separately assigned to Gene Ontology (GO database. When 22,756 unigenes searched against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG database, 5,598 unigenes were assigned to 5 main categories including 32 KEGG pathways. Among the main KEGG categories, metabolism was the biggest category (2,862, 43.7%, suggesting the active metabolic processes in the desert tree. In addition, a total of 19,150 EST-SSRs were identified from 15,484 unigenes, and the characterizations of EST-SSRs were further compared with other four species in Fabraceae. 126 potential marker sites were randomly selected to validate the assembly quality and develop EST-SSR markers. Among the 9 germplasms in Caranaga Fabr. genus, PCR success rate were 93.7% and the phylogenic tree was constructed based on the genotypic data. This research generated a substantial fraction of transcriptome sequences, which were very useful resources for gene annotation and discovery, molecular markers development, genome assembly and annotation. The EST-SSR markers identified and developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding.

  19. Flavonoid Biosynthesis Genes Putatively Identified in the Aromatic Plant Polygonum minus via Expressed Sequences Tag (EST Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamri Zainal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available P. minus is an aromatic plant, the leaf of which is widely used as a food additive and in the perfume industry. The leaf also accumulates secondary metabolites that act as active ingredients such as flavonoid. Due to limited genomic and transcriptomic data, the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids is currently unclear. Identification of candidate genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway will significantly contribute to understanding the biosynthesis of active compounds. We have constructed a standard cDNA library from P. minus leaves, and two normalized full-length enriched cDNA libraries were constructed from stem and root organs in order to create a gene resource for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, especially flavonoid biosynthesis. Thus, large‑scale sequencing of P. minus cDNA libraries identified 4196 expressed sequences tags (ESTs which were deposited in dbEST in the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI. From the three constructed cDNA libraries, 11 ESTs encoding seven genes were mapped to the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Finally, three flavonoid biosynthetic pathway-related ESTs chalcone synthase, CHS (JG745304, flavonol synthase, FLS (JG705819 and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, LDOX (JG745247 were selected for further examination by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR in different P. minus organs. Expression was detected in leaf, stem and root. Gene expression studies have been initiated in order to better understand the underlying physiological processes.

  20. Genomic resources for water yam (Dioscorea alata L.): analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo sequencing and GBS libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources such as SSRs, SNPs and InDels in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) i...

  1. Characterization of a transcriptome from a non-model organism, Cladonia rangiferina, the grey reindeer lichen, using high-throughput next generation sequencing and EST sequence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junttila Sini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lichens are symbiotic organisms that have a remarkable ability to survive in some of the most extreme terrestrial climates on earth. Lichens can endure frequent desiccation and wetting cycles and are able to survive in a dehydrated molecular dormant state for decades at a time. Genetic resources have been established in lichen species for the study of molecular systematics and their taxonomic classification. No lichen species have been characterised yet using genomics and the molecular mechanisms underlying the lichen symbiosis and the fundamentals of desiccation tolerance remain undescribed. We report the characterisation of a transcriptome of the grey reindeer lichen, Cladonia rangiferina, using high-throughput next-generation transcriptome sequencing and traditional Sanger EST sequencing data. Results Altogether 243,729 high quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 16,204 contigs and 49,587 singletons. The genome of origin for the sequences produced was predicted using Eclat with sequences derived from the axenically grown symbiotic partners used as training sequences for the classification model. 62.8% of the sequences were classified as being of fungal origin while the remaining 37.2% were predicted as being of algal origin. The assembled sequences were annotated by BLASTX comparison against a non-redundant protein sequence database with 34.4% of the sequences having a BLAST match. 29.3% of the sequences had a Gene Ontology term match and 27.9% of the sequences had a domain or structural match following an InterPro search. 60 KEGG pathways with more than 10 associated sequences were identified. Conclusions Our results present a first transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly for a lichen species and describe the ongoing molecular processes and the most active pathways in C. rangiferina. This brings a meaningful contribution to publicly available lichen sequence information. These data provide a first

  2. Character of Terrestrial Sequence Stratigraphy and Depositional System in Incised Valley, Outcrop Area of Karamay Oilfield, Junggar Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Yangquan; Yan Jiaxin; Li Sitian; Yang Ruiqi; Lang Fengjiang; Yang Shengke

    2004-01-01

    In the Karamay oilfield located on the northwestern margin of Junggar basin, Xinjiang, China, a large area of the Karamay Formation is exposed at outcrop in the northeast of the oilfield, a consequence of thrusting. The Middle Triassic Karamay Formation in the outcrop area is a type of terrestrial third-order sequence, bounded by two easily recognizable sequence boundaries: a regional surface of angular unconformity (SB1) at the base and a regional unconformity (SB2) at the top. Within the Karamay Formation, two lacustrine expansion events can be recognized and be used to identify both the initial and the maximum lacustrine flooding surfaces. The two lacustrine flooding surfaces serve as references for the classification of this third-order sequence-Karamay Formation into the following three sedimentary successions: a lower lowstand systems tract (LST), a middle lacustrine-expanding systems tract (EST), and an upper highstand systems tract (HST). Different systems tracts are composed of different depositional system assemblages. In this paper, each depositional system is described in detail. The lowstand systems tract in the study area is characterized by incised valleys. At the base and on the margin of the incised valleys occur alluvial fan depositional systems, and in the upper and distal parts of the alluvial fan, low-sinuosity river depositional systems. The lacustrine-expanding systems tract consists of a lacustrine depositional system and a lacustrine delta depositional system, overlying the lower incised valley fills. The highstand systems tract is filled by a widespread lacustrine braided delta depositional system. The analysis of sequence stratigraphy in this paper serves the description of the spatial distribution of the reservoir. The depositional system analysis serves the description of the reservoir types. Field investigations of oil sandstone and oil seepage show that the Karamay Formation is composed of several types of reservoirs. However, two

  3. Comparative high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and development of SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marais Gabriel AB

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Silene is widely used as a model system for addressing ecological and evolutionary questions in plants, but advances in using the genus as a model system are impeded by the lack of available resources for studying its genome. Massively parallel sequencing cDNA has recently developed into an efficient method for characterizing the transcriptomes of non-model organisms, generating massive amounts of data that enable the study of multiple species in a comparative framework. The sequences generated provide an excellent resource for identifying expressed genes, characterizing functional variation and developing molecular markers, thereby laying the foundations for future studies on gene sequence and gene expression divergence. Here, we report the results of a comparative transcriptome sequencing study of eight individuals representing four Silene and one Dianthus species as outgroup. All sequences and annotations have been deposited in a newly developed and publicly available database called SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database. Results A total of 1,041,122 EST reads were generated in two runs on a Roche GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencing platform. EST reads were analyzed separately for all eight individuals sequenced and were assembled into contigs using TGICL. These were annotated with results from BLASTX searches and Gene Ontology (GO terms, and thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were characterized. Unassembled reads were kept as singletons and together with the contigs contributed to the unigenes characterized in each individual. The high quality of unigenes is evidenced by the proportion (49% that have significant hits in similarity searches with the A. thaliana proteome. The SiESTa database is accessible at http://www.siesta.ethz.ch. Conclusion The sequence collections established in the present study provide an important genomic resource for four Silene and one Dianthus species and will help to

  4. An expressed sequence tag (EST library for Drosophila serrata, a model system for sexual selection and climatic adaptation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGraw Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The native Australian fly Drosophila serrata belongs to the highly speciose montium subgroup of the melanogaster species group. It has recently emerged as an excellent model system with which to address a number of important questions, including the evolution of traits under sexual selection and traits involved in climatic adaptation along latitudinal gradients. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of such traits has been limited by a lack of genomic resources for this species. Here, we present the first expressed sequence tag (EST collection for D. serrata that will enable the identification of genes underlying sexually-selected phenotypes and physiological responses to environmental change and may help resolve controversial phylogenetic relationships within the montium subgroup. Results A normalized cDNA library was constructed from whole fly bodies at several developmental stages, including larvae and adults. Assembly of 11,616 clones sequenced from the 3' end allowed us to identify 6,607 unique contigs, of which at least 90% encoded peptides. Partial transcripts were discovered from a variety of genes of evolutionary interest by BLASTing contigs against the 12 Drosophila genomes currently sequenced. By incorporating into the cDNA library multiple individuals from populations spanning a large portion of the geographical range of D. serrata, we were able to identify 11,057 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, with 278 different contigs having at least one "double hit" SNP that is highly likely to be a real polymorphism. At least 394 EST-associated microsatellite markers, representing 355 different contigs, were also found, providing an additional set of genetic markers. The assembled EST library is available online at http://www.chenowethlab.org/serrata/index.cgi. Conclusion We have provided the first gene collection and largest set of polymorphic genetic markers, to date, for the fly D. serrata. The EST

  5. Development of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)-based Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (CAPS) markers of tea plant and their application to cultivar identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujihara, Tomomi; Taniguchi, Fumiya; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Hayashi, Nobuyuki

    2011-03-09

    To develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers for cultivar identification of the tea leaf, 5 primer pairs designed on the basis of genes that encode proteins related to nitrogen assimilation and 26 primer pairs based on expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences of the root of tea plant were screened. From combinations of primer pair and restriction enzyme that showed polymorphism among tea plants, 16 markers were selected and applied to DNA fingerprinting of Japanese tea cultivars. Sixty-three cultivars, except for a bud sport (Kiraka) and its original cultivar (Yabukita) and a pair that was the progeny of the same crossing parent (Harumoegi and Sakimidori), were distinguished from one another. By combining the 16 markers with previously developed CAPS markers and observing the physical appearance, 67 cultivars were distinguishable. The cultivars involve approximately 95% of total tea cultivating area in Japan; therefore, about 95% of tea leaves produced in Japan can be authenticated by labeling their cultivars.

  6. A deep sequencing analysis of transcriptomes and the development of EST-SSR markers in mungbean (Vigna radiata)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHANGYOU LIU; BAOJIE FAN; ZHIMIN CAO; QIUZHU SU; YAN WANG; ZHIXIAO ZHANG; JING WU; JING TIAN

    2016-09-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is one of the most important leguminous food crops in Asia. We employed Illumina paired-end sequencing to analyse transcriptomes of three different mungbean genotypes. A total of 38.3–39.8 million paired-end reads with 73 bp lengths were generated. The pooled reads from the three libraries were assembled into 56,471 transcripts. Following a cluster analysis, 43,293 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 739 bp and N50 length of 1176 bp. Of the unigenes, 34,903 (80.6%) had significant similarity to known proteins in the NCBI nonredundant protein database (Nr), while 21,450 (58.4%) had BLAST hits in the Swiss-Prot database (E-value < 10⁻⁵). Further, 1245 differential expression genes were detected among three mungbean genotypes. In addition, we identified 3788 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) motifs that could be used as potential molecular markers. Among 320 tested loci, 310 (96.5%) yielded amplification products, and 151 (47.0%) exhibited polymorphisms among six mungbean accessions. These transcriptome data and mungbean EST-SSRs could serve as a valuable resource for novel gene discovery and the marker-assisted selective breeding of this specie

  7. EST sequencing and fosmid library construction in a non-model moth, Mamestra brassicae, for comparative mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Manabu; Tateishi, Ken; Tanaka-Okuyama, Makiko; Okabe, Takuya; Shibata, Fukashi; Sahara, Ken; Yasukochi, Yuji

    2012-11-01

    Genome data are useful for both basic and applied research; however, it is difficult to carry out large-scale genome analyses using species with limited genetic or genomic resources. Here, we describe a cost-effective method to analyze the genome of a non-model species, using the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). First, we conducted expression sequence tag (EST) analysis. In this analysis, we performed PCR-based prescreening of a non-normalized embryonic cDNA library to eliminate already sequenced cDNAs from further sequencing, which significantly increased the percentage of unique genes. Next, we constructed a fosmid library of M. brassicae and isolated 120 clones containing 119 putative single copy genes by PCR-based screening with primer sets designed from the ESTs. Finally, we showed that the isolated fosmid clones could be used as probes for multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis against an M. brassicae chromosome and confirmed conserved gene order between M. brassicae and the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Thus, we developed new genomic resources for comparative genome analysis in M. brassicae using robust and relatively low cost methods that can be applied to any non-model organism.

  8. Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Development of EST-SSR Markers for Pinus koraiensis%红松转录组SSR分析及EST-SSR标记开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振; 张含国; 莫迟; 张磊

    2015-01-01

    ) breeding programs,lack of co-dominant genetic markers constrained the development of molecular marker assisted breeding. At present,development of SSR markers based on transcriptome data is still an economic and efficient development strategy of DNA molecular markers. In this study,we used high-throughput sequencing technology to develop EST-SSR markers for Korean pine. Distribution patterns of the markers in the transcriptome sequences and their characteristics were analyzed,in order to provide a basis for analysis of SSR diversity and mutation of Korean pine. [Method]A total of 1 757 SSR sites were identified from 41 476 unigenes in Korean pine transcriptome by using SSR searching program. Statistical analyses were conducted for number,distribution and characteristics of the SSR loci. And 101 pairs of SSR primers were designed and synthesized. Agarose electrophoresis was used for initial check and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for separation and detection of the polymorphisms of primers. Then amplification products were collected and sequenced for validation. Finally,16 pairs of SSR primers and 6 pairs of fluorescence primers were identified. To study the genetic variation,53 samples of open-pollinated progeny were collected from four seed orchards respectively in Hegang,Linkou,Tieli and Weihe. [Result]The distribution frequency of EST-SSRs ( ratio of the number of SSRs to the total number of unigenes) was 4. 24%,based on the transcriptome sequences. Mononucleotide dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats were 46. 90% ,17. 12% and 34. 66% of total SSR, respectively. The SSR repeat number of SSR repeat units was between 5 and 24. Twenty-one pairs of primers showed polymorphism among 101 pairs of primer,which accounting for 20. 8% of the total number of primer pairs. By sequencing validation,16 pairs of primers amplified the target sequence. Eighteen alleles were tested from 6 pairs of fluorescence primers. Polymorphic information content ( PIC) was 0. 036 3 - 0. 667 4

  9. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from multiple tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Weng-Wah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the second largest source of edible oil which contributes to approximately 20% of the world's production of oils and fats. In order to understand the molecular biology involved in in vitro propagation, flowering, efficient utilization of nitrogen sources and root diseases, we have initiated an expressed sequence tag (EST analysis on oil palm. Results In this study, six cDNA libraries from oil palm zygotic embryos, suspension cells, shoot apical meristems, young flowers, mature flowers and roots, were constructed. We have generated a total of 14537 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from these libraries, from which 6464 tentative unique contigs (TUCs and 2129 singletons were obtained. Approximately 6008 of these tentative unique genes (TUGs have significant matches to the non-redundant protein database, from which 2361 were assigned to one or more Gene Ontology categories. Predominant transcripts and differentially expressed genes were identified in multiple oil palm tissues. Homologues of genes involved in many aspects of flower development were also identified among the EST collection, such as CONSTANS-like, AGAMOUS-like (AGL2, AGL20, LFY-like, SQUAMOSA, SQUAMOSA binding protein (SBP etc. Majority of them are the first representatives in oil palm, providing opportunities to explore the cause of epigenetic homeotic flowering abnormality in oil palm, given the importance of flowering in fruit production. The transcript levels of two flowering-related genes, EgSBP and EgSEP were analysed in the flower tissues of various developmental stages. Gene homologues for enzymes involved in oil biosynthesis, utilization of nitrogen sources, and scavenging of oxygen radicals, were also uncovered among the oil palm ESTs. Conclusion The EST sequences generated will allow comparative genomic studies between oil palm and other monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, development of gene-targeted markers for the reference genetic map

  10. An EST-based genome scan using 454 sequencing in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, J; Grahame, J W; Butlin, R K

    2010-09-01

    Genome scans have been used in the studies of ecological speciation to find genomic regions ('outlier loci') showing reduced gene flow between divergent populations/species. High-throughput sequencing ('454') offers new opportunities in this field via transcriptome sequencing. Divergent ecotypes of the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis represent a good example of incipient ecological speciation. We performed a 454-based genome scan between H and M ecotypes of L. saxatilis from the British Isles using cDNA of pooled individuals. Allele frequencies were calculated for 2454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), within 572 contigs, and 7% of loci were detected as outliers. Functional annotation of the contigs containing outlier SNPs showed that they included shell matrix and muscle proteins (lithostathine, mucin, titin), proteins involved in energetic metabolism (arginine kinase, NADH dehydrogenase) and reverse transcriptases. Follow-up investigations into these proteins and unannotated outliers will be a promising route in the study of ecological speciation in L. saxatilis.

  11. EST sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search) - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available and VS) derived from five developmental stages. Clone ID ID of cDNA clone Atlas ID ID of Atlas database ( ht...tp://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~tools/bin/ISH/index.html ) and link to Atlas database NBRP ID ID of cDNA c...ir annotations (amino acid sequence, homology search results (with target DBs: dicty EST-DB, DNA-DB and prot...ein-DB)). Links to the Atlas database ( http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/~tools/bin/ISH/index.html ), whic

  12. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs between drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes of chickpea under terminal drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju N L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important grain-legume crop that is mainly grown in rainfed areas, where terminal drought is a major constraint to its productivity. We generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH to identify differentially expressed genes in drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes in chickpea. Results EST libraries were generated by SSH from root and shoot tissues of IC4958 (drought tolerant and ICC 1882 (drought resistant exposed to terminal drought conditions by the dry down method. SSH libraries were also constructed by using 2 sets of bulks prepared from the RNA of root tissues from selected recombinant inbred lines (RILs (10 each for the extreme high and low root biomass phenotype. A total of 3062 unigenes (638 contigs and 2424 singletons, 51.4% of which were novel in chickpea, were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 5949 ESTs. Only 2185 (71% unigenes showed significant BLASTX similarity ( Conclusion Our study compares not only genes that are up- and down-regulated in a drought-tolerant genotype under terminal drought stress and a drought susceptible genotype but also between the bulks of the selected RILs exhibiting extreme phenotypes. More than 50% of the genes identified have been shown to be associated with drought stress in chickpea for the first time. This study not only serves as resource for marker discovery, but can provide a better insight into the selection of candidate genes (both up- and downregulated associated with drought tolerance. These results can be used to identify suitable targets for manipulating the drought-tolerance trait in chickpea.

  13. Veronica: Chemical characters for the support of phylogenetic relationships based on nuclear ribosomal and plastid DNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Özgökce, Fevzi;

    2005-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed many relationships in Veronica (Plantaginaceae) never anticipated before. However, phytochemical characters show good congruence with DNA-based analyses. We have analysed a combined data set of 49 species and subspecies derived from the nuclear riboso...

  14. Integration of the Rat Recombination and EST Maps in the Rat Genomic Sequence and Comparative Mapping Analysis With the Mouse Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, Steven P.; Bihoreau, Marie-Thérèse; Argoud, Karène; Watanabe, Takeshi K.; Lathrop, Mark; Gauguier, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Inbred strains of the laboratory rat are widely used for identifying genetic regions involved in the control of complex quantitative phenotypes of biomedical importance. The draft genomic sequence of the rat now provides essential information for annotating rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) maps. Following the survey of unique rat microsatellite (11,585 including 1648 new markers) and EST (10,067) markers currently available, we have incorporated a selection of 7952 rat EST sequences in an i...

  15. Gene discovery in EST sequences from the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina sexual spores, asexual spores and haustoria, compared to other rust and corn smut fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynhoven Brian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rust fungi are biotrophic basidiomycete plant pathogens that cause major diseases on plants and trees world-wide, affecting agriculture and forestry. Their biotrophic nature precludes many established molecular genetic manipulations and lines of research. The generation of genomic resources for these microbes is leading to novel insights into biology such as interactions with the hosts and guiding directions for breakthrough research in plant pathology. Results To support gene discovery and gene model verification in the genome of the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt, we have generated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs by sampling several life cycle stages. We focused on several spore stages and isolated haustorial structures from infected wheat, generating 17,684 ESTs. We produced sequences from both the sexual (pycniospores, aeciospores and teliospores and asexual (germinated urediniospores stages of the life cycle. From pycniospores and aeciospores, produced by infecting the alternate host, meadow rue (Thalictrum speciosissimum, 4,869 and 1,292 reads were generated, respectively. We generated 3,703 ESTs from teliospores produced on the senescent primary wheat host. Finally, we generated 6,817 reads from haustoria isolated from infected wheat as well as 1,003 sequences from germinated urediniospores. Along with 25,558 previously generated ESTs, we compiled a database of 13,328 non-redundant sequences (4,506 singlets and 8,822 contigs. Fungal genes were predicted using the EST version of the self-training GeneMarkS algorithm. To refine the EST database, we compared EST sequences by BLASTN to a set of 454 pyrosequencing-generated contigs and Sanger BAC-end sequences derived both from the Pt genome, and to ESTs and genome reads from wheat. A collection of 6,308 fungal genes was identified and compared to sequences of the cereal rusts, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt and stripe rust, P. striiformis f. sp

  16. 基于字序列标注的中文关键词抽取研究%Research on Chinese Keywords Extraction Based on Characters Sequence Annotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 邓三鸿; 苏新宁

    2011-01-01

    以某大学图书馆的所有馆藏书目为研究对象,在对图书关键词标引信息进行分析的基础上,总结中文关键词的基本特点及其抽取规律,构建一个基于字序列标注的中文关键词抽取模型,提出中文关键词抽取的基础思路和实现方案,并通过实验论证模型的合理性、正确性和实用性,认为字序列标注方法优于词序列标注,基本上可以解决不分词情况下的中文关键词抽取问题。%Based on the whole Chinese booklist of a certain university library as well as the analysis of its book indexing information, the paper summarizes the features and extracting laws of Chinese keywords, and establishes a Chinese key- words extraction model based on characters sequence annotation, which proposes the basic idea and implementation scheme for extracting keywords. It verifies the feasibility, rationality and practicality of the model by large - scale experiments, and basically solves the problems of Chinese keywords extraction without executing words segmentation, which shows that characters sequence annotation is better than words sequence annotation.

  17. Survey of glycine-rich proteins (GRPs in the Eucalyptus expressed sequence tag database (ForEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nora Bocca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of quasi-repetitive glycine-rich peptides has been reported in different organisms. Glycine-rich regions are proposed to be involved in protein-protein interactions in some mammalian protein families. In plants, a set of glycine-rich proteins (GRPs was characterized several years ago, and since then a wealth of new GRPs have been identified. GRPs may have very diverse sub-cellular localization and functions. The only common feature among all different GRPs is the presence of glycine-rich repeat domains. The expression of genes encoding GRPs is developmentally regulated, and also induced, in several plant genera, by physical, chemical and biological factors. In addition to the highly modulated expression, several GRPs also show tissue-specific localization. GRPs specifically expressed in xylem, phloem, epidermis, anther tapetum and roots have been described. In this paper, the structural and functional features of these proteins in Eucalyptus are summarized. Since this is the first description of GRPs in this species, particular emphasis has been given to the expression pattern of these genes by analyzing their abundance and prevalence in the different cDNA-libraries of the Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project Consortium (ForEST. The comparison of GRPs from Eucalyptus and other species is also discussed.

  18. Chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Oedogonium cardiacum (Chlorophyceae: Unique genome architecture, derived characters shared with the Chaetophorales and novel genes acquired through horizontal transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Claude

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain insight into the branching order of the five main lineages currently recognized in the green algal class Chlorophyceae and to expand our understanding of chloroplast genome evolution, we have undertaken the sequencing of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA from representative taxa. The complete cpDNA sequences previously reported for Chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonadales, Scenedesmus (Sphaeropleales, and Stigeoclonium (Chaetophorales revealed tremendous variability in their architecture, the retention of only few ancestral gene clusters, and derived clusters shared by Chlamydomonas and Scenedesmus. Unexpectedly, our recent phylogenies inferred from these cpDNAs and the partial sequences of three other chlorophycean cpDNAs disclosed two major clades, one uniting the Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales (CS clade and the other uniting the Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales (OCC clade. Although molecular signatures provided strong support for this dichotomy and for the branching of the Oedogoniales as the earliest-diverging lineage of the OCC clade, more data are required to validate these phylogenies. We describe here the complete cpDNA sequence of Oedogonium cardiacum (Oedogoniales. Results Like its three chlorophycean homologues, the 196,547-bp Oedogonium chloroplast genome displays a distinctive architecture. This genome is one of the most compact among photosynthetic chlorophytes. It has an atypical quadripartite structure, is intron-rich (17 group I and 4 group II introns, and displays 99 different conserved genes and four long open reading frames (ORFs, three of which are clustered in the spacious inverted repeat of 35,493 bp. Intriguingly, two of these ORFs (int and dpoB revealed high similarities to genes not usually found in cpDNA. At the gene content and gene order levels, the Oedogonium genome most closely resembles its Stigeoclonium counterpart. Characters shared by these chlorophyceans but missing in members

  19. Differential characters

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Providing a systematic introduction to differential characters as introduced by Cheeger and Simons, this text describes important concepts such as fiber integration, higher dimensional holonomy, transgression, and the product structure in a geometric manner. Differential characters form a model of what is nowadays called differential cohomology, which is the mathematical structure behind the higher gauge theories in physics.  

  20. Deep sequencing of ESTs from nacreous and prismatic layer producing tissues and a screen for novel shell formation-related genes in the pearl oyster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Kinoshita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its economic importance, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying shell formation in pearl oysters, wherein the calcium carbonate crystals, nacre and prism, are formed in a highly controlled manner. We constructed comprehensive expressed gene profiles in the shell-forming tissues of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and identified novel shell formation-related genes candidates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the GS FLX 454 system and constructed transcriptome data sets from pallial mantle and pearl sac, which form the nacreous layer, and from the mantle edge, which forms the prismatic layer in P. fucata. We sequenced 260477 reads and obtained 29682 unique sequences. We also screened novel nacreous and prismatic gene candidates by a combined analysis of sequence and expression data sets, and identified various genes encoding lectin, protease, protease inhibitors, lysine-rich matrix protein, and secreting calcium-binding proteins. We also examined the expression of known nacreous and prismatic genes in our EST library and identified novel isoforms with tissue-specific expressions. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed EST data sets from the nacre- and prism-producing tissues in P. fucata and found 29682 unique sequences containing novel gene candidates for nacreous and prismatic layer formation. This is the first report of deep sequencing of ESTs in the shell-forming tissues of P. fucata and our data provide a powerful tool for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of molluscan biomineralization.

  1. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Actinidia: applications of a cross species EST database for gene discovery in the areas of flavor, health, color and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp. are a relatively new, but economically important crop grown in many different parts of the world. Commercial success is driven by the development of new cultivars with novel consumer traits including flavor, appearance, healthful components and convenience. To increase our understanding of the genetic diversity and gene-based control of these key traits in Actinidia, we have produced a collection of 132,577 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results The ESTs were derived mainly from four Actinidia species (A. chinensis, A. deliciosa, A. arguta and A. eriantha and fell into 41,858 non redundant clusters (18,070 tentative consensus sequences and 23,788 EST singletons. Analysis of flavor and fragrance-related gene families (acyltransferases and carboxylesterases and pathways (terpenoid biosynthesis is presented in comparison with a chemical analysis of the compounds present in Actinidia including esters, acids, alcohols and terpenes. ESTs are identified for most genes in color pathways controlling chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid biosynthesis. In the health area, data are presented on the ESTs involved in ascorbic acid and quinic acid biosynthesis showing not only that genes for many of the steps in these pathways are represented in the database, but that genes encoding some critical steps are absent. In the convenience area, genes related to different stages of fruit softening are identified. Conclusion This large EST resource will allow researchers to undertake the tremendous challenge of understanding the molecular basis of genetic diversity in the Actinidia genus as well as provide an EST resource for comparative fruit genomics. The various bioinformatics analyses we have undertaken demonstrates the extent of coverage of ESTs for genes encoding different biochemical pathways in Actinidia.

  2. Genomic resources for a commercial flatfish, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis: EST sequencing, oligo microarray design, and development of the Soleamold bioinformatic platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planas Josep V

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, is a highly prized flatfish of growing commercial interest for aquaculture in Southern Europe. However, despite the industrial production of Senegalese sole being hampered primarily by lack of information on the physiological mechanisms involved in reproduction, growth and immunity, very limited genomic information is available on this species. Results Sequencing of a S. senegalensis multi-tissue normalized cDNA library, from adult tissues (brain, stomach, intestine, liver, ovary, and testis, larval stages (pre-metamorphosis, metamorphosis, juvenile stages (post-metamorphosis, abnormal fish, and undifferentiated gonads, generated 10,185 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Clones were sequenced from the 3'-end to identify isoform specific sequences. Assembly of the entire EST collection into contigs gave 5,208 unique sequences of which 1,769 (34% had matches in GenBank, thus showing a low level of redundancy. The sequence of the 5,208 unigenes was used to design and validate an oligonucleotide microarray representing 5,087 unique Senegalese sole transcripts. Finally, a novel interactive bioinformatic platform, Soleamold, was developed for the Senegalese sole EST collection as well as microarray and ISH data. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for S. senegalensis, an economically important fish in aquaculture, which include a collection of expressed genes, an oligonucleotide microarray, and a publicly available bioinformatic platform that can be used to study gene expression in this species. These resources will help elucidate transcriptional regulation in wild and captive Senegalese sole for optimization of its production under intensive culture conditions.

  3. Genomic resources for a commercial flatfish, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): EST sequencing, oligo microarray design, and development of the Soleamold bioinformatic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Joan; Mercadé, Jaume; Lozano, Juan José; Manchado, Manuel; Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Astola, Antonio; Infante, Carlos; Halm, Silke; Viñas, Jordi; Castellana, Barbara; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, Pedro; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Piferrer, Francesc; Planas, Josep V; Prat, Francesc; Yúfera, Manuel; Durany, Olga; Subirada, Francesc; Rosell, Elisabet; Maes, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Background The Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, is a highly prized flatfish of growing commercial interest for aquaculture in Southern Europe. However, despite the industrial production of Senegalese sole being hampered primarily by lack of information on the physiological mechanisms involved in reproduction, growth and immunity, very limited genomic information is available on this species. Results Sequencing of a S. senegalensis multi-tissue normalized cDNA library, from adult tissues (brain, stomach, intestine, liver, ovary, and testis), larval stages (pre-metamorphosis, metamorphosis), juvenile stages (post-metamorphosis, abnormal fish), and undifferentiated gonads, generated 10,185 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Clones were sequenced from the 3'-end to identify isoform specific sequences. Assembly of the entire EST collection into contigs gave 5,208 unique sequences of which 1,769 (34%) had matches in GenBank, thus showing a low level of redundancy. The sequence of the 5,208 unigenes was used to design and validate an oligonucleotide microarray representing 5,087 unique Senegalese sole transcripts. Finally, a novel interactive bioinformatic platform, Soleamold, was developed for the Senegalese sole EST collection as well as microarray and ISH data. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for S. senegalensis, an economically important fish in aquaculture, which include a collection of expressed genes, an oligonucleotide microarray, and a publicly available bioinformatic platform that can be used to study gene expression in this species. These resources will help elucidate transcriptional regulation in wild and captive Senegalese sole for optimization of its production under intensive culture conditions. PMID:18973667

  4. An expressed sequence tag (EST library from developing fruits of an Hawaiian endemic mint (Stenogyne rugosa, Lamiaceae: characterization and microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leebens-Mack James H

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic Hawaiian mints represent a major island radiation that likely originated from hybridization between two North American polyploid lineages. In contrast with the extensive morphological and ecological diversity among taxa, ribosomal DNA sequence variation has been found to be remarkably low. In the past few years, expressed sequence tag (EST projects on plant species have generated a vast amount of publicly available sequence data that can be mined for simple sequence repeats (SSRs. However, these EST projects have largely focused on crop or otherwise economically important plants, and so far only few studies have been published on the use of intragenic SSRs in natural plant populations. We constructed an EST library from developing fleshy nutlets of Stenogyne rugosa principally to identify genetic markers for the Hawaiian endemic mints. Results The Stenogyne fruit EST library consisted of 628 unique transcripts derived from 942 high quality ESTs, with 68% of unigenes matching Arabidopsis genes. Relative frequencies of Gene Ontology functional categories were broadly representative of the Arabidopsis proteome. Many unigenes were identified as putative homologs of genes that are active during plant reproductive development. A comparison between unigenes from Stenogyne and tomato (both asterid angiosperms revealed many homologs that may be relevant for fruit development. Among the 628 unigenes, a total of 44 potentially useful microsatellite loci were predicted. Several of these were successfully tested for cross-transferability to other Hawaiian mint species, and at least five of these demonstrated interesting patterns of polymorphism across a large sample of Hawaiian mints as well as close North American relatives in the genus Stachys. Conclusion Analysis of this relatively small EST library illustrated a broad GO functional representation. Many unigenes could be annotated to involvement in reproductive development

  5. Analysis of SSR characteristics in EST sequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacg.)%油棕EST序列中SSR的分布特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春太; 陈青; 刘锐; 李维国

    2012-01-01

    In order to make full use of the EST resources in the present public database to develop the EST -SSR primers, in this study, 39 227 ESTs of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacg. ) from GenBank database were downloaded and analyzed, resulting in 15 716 non - redundant sequences with total length about 7 977. 734 kb. 699 SSRs were discovered, the frequency of these EST - SSRs was 4.45% and the mean distance was 11.41 kb in non - redundant ESTs. Among them the dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats were dominant types, accounting for 38.48% and 25. 32% respectively. AG/CT was repeated most in all nucleotide repeat motifs, accounting for 27. 47% . Blast analysis showed that 44. 95% of SSR - ESTs were homologous with functional gene in non - redundant protein sequences databases ( Nr database). The homology with known functions from Vitis vinifera had the greatest proportion and reached up to 4.42%. Simultaneously, the functional classification of 54 SSR -ESTs as made by GO system, of which 46 were found in the Nr and EST database, and the other 8 showed no homology. These ESTs can be divided into 18 functional subclasses, and the functional items and SSR -ESTs relevant to binding presented higher quantity than all other functional subclasses. The function of other 580 ESTs was not researched.%为充分利用现有公共数据库中的EST资源开发EST - SSR引物,本研究从GenBank数据库获取39 227条油棕EST,通过聚类拼接和处理,得到全长为7 977.734 kb的无冗余序列15 716条.在这些序列中共检索出699个SSRs,检出率为4.45%,平均11.41 kb出现1个SSR,包括99种重复基元.其中,二核苷酸和三核苷酸重复是主要的类型,分别占总SSRs的38.48%和25.32%.在所有的核苷酸重复基序中,二核苷酸重复序列AG/CT所占比例最高,约占27.47%.Blastx分析发现44.95%的SSR - ESTs与非冗余蛋白质序列数据库(nr)中功能基因同源,功能已知的蛋白质中葡萄来源的SSR - ESTs

  6. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  7. Exploiting Illumina Sequencing for the Development of 95 Novel Polymorphic EST-SSR Markers in Common Vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa, a self-pollinating and diploid species, is one of the most important annual legumes in the world due to its short growth period, high nutritional value, and multiple usages as hay, grain, silage, and green manure. The available simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for common vetch, however, are insufficient to meet the developing demand for genetic and molecular research on this important species. Here, we aimed to develop and characterise several polymorphic EST-SSR markers from the vetch Illumina transcriptome. A total number of 1,071 potential EST-SSR markers were identified from 1025 unigenes whose lengths were greater than 1,000 bp, and 450 primer pairs were then designed and synthesized. Finally, 95 polymorphic primer pairs were developed for the 10 common vetch accessions, which included 50 individuals. Among the 95 EST-SSR markers, the number of alleles ranged from three to 13, and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.09 to 0.98. The observed heterozygosity values ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, and the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.11 to 0.98. These 95 EST-SSR markers developed from the vetch Illumina transcriptome could greatly promote the development of genetic and molecular breeding studies pertaining to in this species.

  8. 中华蜜蜂工蜂 cDNA 文库的构建及ESTs 测序分析%Construction of cDNA libraries and ESTs sequencing of Apis cerana cerana workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫星; 郗学鹏; 秦明; 王帅; 刘春蕾; 王红芳; 胥保华

    2016-01-01

    Objectives] To build a cDNA library to improve understanding of how honey bee workers respond to adverse conditions and analyze the quality of the resultant library. [Methods] A cDNA library of Apis cerana cerana was constructed using the SMART technique. [Results] The library’s capacity was 3.6×106 cfu/mL, the recombination rate was 97% and the average length of inserts was approximately 1 000 bp. 306 ESTs were generated by ESTs sequencing. Additionally, 234 non-repetitive sequences were formed, including 207 singletons and 27 contigs after initial assembly. Using Blastx to query, compare and annotate these sequences with those in GenBank, revealed that 141 sequences could be assigned putative functions because they were homologous to known genes. Other sequences had no obvious homology, which suggests there is potential for the discovery of new functional genes. [Conclusion] The construction of a cDNA library has important benefits for cloning, screening and gene function research in Apis cerana cerana.%【目的】为了解中华蜜蜂 Apis cerana cerana 工蜂的抗逆性,构建了中华蜜蜂工蜂的 cDNA 文库,并对文库质量进行分析。【方法】本研究利用 SMART 技术构建了中华蜜蜂工蜂的全长 cDNA 文库。【结果】文库库容为3.6×106 cfu/mL,文库重组率为97%,插入片段长度多数分布在1000 bp 左右。挑取 cDNA克隆进行 EST 测序,共进行了306个成功反应,软件拼接共得到234个单基因簇(Unigene),其中包括207个单拷贝(Singletons)序列及27个重叠群(Contigs)。使用 Blastx 将这些序列同 GenBank 等数据库进行查询、比对和注释,结果显示141条序列有相关同源性,其他序列没有明显的同源性,这也为我们发现新功能基因提供了可靠依据。【结论】此文库的构建在中华蜜蜂功能基因的分离、克隆、筛选以及基因功能研究等方面具有重要作用。

  9. [Screening genes related to 'black' character in wu-ding chicken by delta differential display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ge-Min; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Lou, Yi-Zhou; Shi, Qi-Shun

    2005-01-01

    The 'black' character is a cardinal character of black chicken that is very important to the medical value and economical value of black chicken. The study compared gene expression between black chicken and non-black chicken by delta differential display method, and obtained twenty-nine expressed sequence tags(ESTs) by extraction, amplification, purification, northern blotting, cloning and sequencing of gel-embedded DNA. Of twenty-nine ESTs, eight ESTs have high similarity rate with known gene in chicken-beta-trepomyosin gene, cardiac myosin alkali light chain gene, insertionally activated c-Ha-ras oncogene, fra-2 oncogene, 16S rRNA gene and mitochondrion genome sequence, respectively, with similarity rate 97%,100%, 98%, 98%, 98%, 99%, 99% and 97%. Five ESTs have high similarity rate with human TTN gene, human phosphoglucomutase 5 gene, human or mouse signal recongnition particle 54 kD gene, human or mouse ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor gene, respectively, with similarity rate 82%, 82%, 87%, 99% and 99%. Their homologous genes in chicken are still not cloned. Thirteen ESTs are novel gene fragments. Of thirteen ESTs, nine ESTs have high similarity with ESTs in database. Four ESTs have not high similarity with any EST in database. The results of gene expression analysis show that one known gene (insertionally activated c-Ha-ras oncogene) fragment and one novel gene fragment are expressed in all non-black chicken and are not expressed in all black chicken, and that one known gene (signal recongnition particle 54 kD gene) fragment is expressed in all black chicken and is not expressed in all non-black chicken. According to these results, we conclude that the expression of insertionally activated c-Ha-ras oncogene, signal recongnition particle 54 kD gene and one novel gene are related to the 'black' character in chicken.

  10. Classification, expression pattern and comparative analysis of sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding glycine-rich proteins (GRPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusaro Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the isolation of the first glycine-rich proteins (GRPs in plants a wealth of new GRPs have been identified. The highly specific but diverse expression pattern of grp genes, taken together with the distinct sub-cellular localization of some GRP groups, clearly indicate that these proteins are involved in several independent physiological processes. Notwithstanding the absence of a clear definition of the role of GRPs in plant cells, studies conducted with these proteins have provided new and interesting insights into the molecular biology and cell biology of plants. Complexly regulated promoters and distinct mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression have been demonstrated and new protein targeting pathways, as well as the exportation of GRPs from different cell types have been discovered. These data show that GRPs can be useful as markers and/or models to understand distinct aspects of plant biology. In this paper, the structural and functional features of these proteins in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. are summarized. Since this is the first description of GRPs in sugarcane, special emphasis has been given to the expression pattern of these GRP genes by studying their abundance and prevalence in the different cDNA-libraries of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project . The comparison of sugarcane GRPs with GRPs from other species is also discussed.

  11. Gene discovery from Jatropha curcas by sequencing of ESTs from normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from developing seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugantham Priyanka Annabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas L. is promoted as an important non-edible biodiesel crop worldwide. Jatropha oil, which is a triacylglycerol, can be directly blended with petro-diesel or transesterified with methanol and used as biodiesel. Genetic improvement in jatropha is needed to increase the seed yield, oil content, drought and pest resistance, and to modify oil composition so that it becomes a technically and economically preferred source for biodiesel production. However, genetic improvement efforts in jatropha could not take advantage of genetic engineering methods due to lack of cloned genes from this species. To overcome this hurdle, the current gene discovery project was initiated with an objective of isolating as many functional genes as possible from J. curcas by large scale sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas. The cDNA library contained about 1 × 106 clones and average insert size of the clones was 2.1 kb. Totally 12,084 ESTs were sequenced to average high quality read length of 576 bp. Contig analysis revealed 2258 contigs and 4751 singletons. Contig size ranged from 2-23 and there were 7333 ESTs in the contigs. This resulted in 7009 unigenes which were annotated by BLASTX. It showed 3982 unigenes with significant similarity to known genes and 2836 unigenes with significant similarity to genes of unknown, hypothetical and putative proteins. The remaining 191 unigenes which did not show similarity with any genes in the public database may encode for unique genes. Functional classification revealed unigenes related to broad range of cellular, molecular and biological functions. Among the 7009 unigenes, 6233 unigenes were identified to be potential full-length genes. Conclusions The high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas for the first time and 7009 unigenes coding

  12. An Expressed Sequence Tag (EST-enriched genetic map of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus: a useful framework for comparative genomics across model and farmed teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouza Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus is a relevant species in European aquaculture. The small turbot genome provides a source for genomics strategies to use in order to understand the genetic basis of productive traits, particularly those related to sex, growth and pathogen resistance. Genetic maps represent essential genomic screening tools allowing to localize quantitative trait loci (QTL and to identify candidate genes through comparative mapping. This information is the backbone to develop marker-assisted selection (MAS programs in aquaculture. Expressed sequenced tag (EST resources have largely increased in turbot, thus supplying numerous type I markers suitable for extending the previous linkage map, which was mostly based on anonymous loci. The aim of this study was to construct a higher-resolution turbot genetic map using EST-linked markers, which will turn out to be useful for comparative mapping studies. Results A consensus gene-enriched genetic map of the turbot was constructed using 463 SNP and microsatellite markers in nine reference families. This map contains 438 markers, 180 EST-linked, clustered at 24 linkage groups. Linkage and comparative genomics evidences suggested additional linkage group fusions toward the consolidation of turbot map according to karyotype information. The linkage map showed a total length of 1402.7 cM with low average intermarker distance (3.7 cM; ~2 Mb. A global 1.6:1 female-to-male recombination frequency (RF ratio was observed, although largely variable among linkage groups and chromosome regions. Comparative sequence analysis revealed large macrosyntenic patterns against model teleost genomes, significant hits decreasing from stickleback (54% to zebrafish (20%. Comparative mapping supported particular chromosome rearrangements within Acanthopterygii and aided to assign unallocated markers to specific turbot linkage groups. Conclusions The new gene-enriched high-resolution turbot

  13. From EST sequence to spider silk spinning: identification and molecular characterisation of Nephila senegalensis major ampullate gland peroxidase NsPox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouchkina, N N; Stanchev, B S; McQueen-Mason, S J

    2003-02-01

    Spider dragline silk is renowned as one of the toughest materials of its kind. In nature, spider silks are spun out of aqueous solutions under environmental conditions. This is in contrast to production of most synthetic fibres, where hazardous solvents, high temperatures and pressure are used. In order to identify some of the chemical processes involved in spider silk spinning, we have produced a collection of cDNA sequences from specific regions of Nephila senegalensis major ampullate gland. We examined in detail the sequence and expression of a putative Nephila senegalensis peroxidase gene (NsPox) from our EST collection. NsPox encodes a protein with similarity to Drosophila melanogaster and Aedes aegypti peroxidases. Northern analysis and in situ localisation experiments revealed that NsPox is expressed in major and minor ampullate glands of the spider where the main components of the dragline silk are produced. We suggest that NsPox plays a role in dragline silk fibre formation and/or processing.

  14. Linking yeast genetics to mammalian genomes: Identification and mapping of the human homolog of CDC27 via the expressed sequence tag (EST) data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tugendreich, S.; Hieter, P. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Boguski, M.S. (National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Seldin, M.S. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States))

    1993-11-15

    The authors describe a strategy for quickly identifying and positionally mapping human homologs of yeast genes to cross-reference the biological and genetic information known about yeast genes to mammalian chromosomal maps. Optimized computer search methods have been developed to scan the rapidly expanding expressed sequence tag (EST) data base to find human open reading frames related to yeast protein sequence queries. These methods take advantage of the newly developed BLOSUM scoring matrices and the query masking function SEG. The corresponding human cDNA is then used to obtain a high-resolution map position on human and mouse chromosomes, providing the links between yeast genetic analysis and mapped mammalian loci. By using these methods, a human homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC27 has been identified and mapped to human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11 between the Pkca and Erbb-2 genes. Human CDC27 encodes an 823-aa protein with global similarity to its fungal homologs CDC27, nuc2+, and BimA. Comprehensive cross-referencing of genes and mutant phenotypes described in humans, mice, and yeast should accelerate the study of normal eukaryotic biology and human disease states.

  15. Constructing Pairs of Compatible Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathias Kratzer

    2003-01-01

    Given a finite group X such that both the conjugacy of elements in X and the length of any conjugacy class in X can be decided/computed efficiently,the first algorithm described in this article constructs a uniquely determined sequence of representatives for all the conjugacy classes of X. In particular, based on this sequence, any two characters of different groups isomorphic to X become comparable against each other which is utilized by a second algorithm designed to construct so-called compatible characters of given finite groups G and H having isomorphic subgroups U ≤ G and V ≤ H, respectively.

  16. Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters -- Slavic and non-Slavic languages

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1995-01-01

    Cancels and replaces the first edition (1986). Establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of Slavic and non-Slavic languages. Table 3 includes in a single sequence, listed in the Cyrillic alphabetic order, the 118 single or diacritic-carrying characters that appear in one or another of the considered alphabets.

  17. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora x P. sylvestris hybrids inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris in Jilin, China and to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSR), needles and seeds from P. densiflora, P. syl...

  18. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) based identification of genes and expression analysis of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) from Epinephelus bruneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Ju-Sang; Kim, Man-Chul; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus, is an economically important intensively cultured species in Southeast Asia. Despite the insatiable demand its large-scale production has been hindered by problems associated with water quality, nutrition, and diseases especially due to increased rearing density. It is generally accepted that in fish both innate and adaptive immune system provide protection from diseases. In the present study a cDNA library of Streptococcus iniae-challenged kelp grouper was constructed to identify the genes that reveal molecular mechanism, physiological functions, and gene expression in different tissues using expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and RT-PCR strategy. Of a total of 2170 ESTs examined 279 (12.9%) were identified as contig and 860 (39.6%) as singletons. A total of 190 important immune and enzyme related genes (16.7%) were identified in both contig and singletons. The key immune molecules identified comprise complement factors, chemotaxin, chemokine, Fas ligand, ferritins, hepcidin, lysozyme c, MHC, and TLR which are involved in the innate or adaptive immune system. Among the genes a full-length cDNA of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (EbLECT2) with 540 base pair (bp) was identified; it consists of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 17 bp, a 3'-UTR of 76 bp, and a stop codon TAA in 3'-UTR. The EbLECT2 is an important molecule in the innate immunity. It is a multifunctional protein involved in cell growth, differentiation, and autoimmunity. The open reading frame (ORF) of the EbLECT2 encodes with 155 amino acid (aa) residues with a predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point (pI) of 17 kDa and 9, respectively. The close phylogenetic relationship of EbLECT2 shares the highest similarity with the already reported LECT2 from Epinephelus coioides (96%) and Epinephelus akaara (94%). EbLECT2 mRNA was expressed predominantly in liver, spleen, and kidney while the expression was moderate in gills, heart, and muscle in E. bruneus after

  19. Immunological responses of turbot (Psetta maxima) to nodavirus infection or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC) stimulation, using expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis and cDNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung C; Osborne, Jane A; Montes, Ariana; Dios, Sonia; Nerland, Audun H; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Brown, Laura L; Johnson, Stewart C

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the immunological responses of turbot to nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation, we constructed cDNA libraries from liver, kidney and gill tissues of nodavirus-infected fish and examined the differential gene expression within turbot kidney in response to nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation using a turbot cDNA microarray. Turbot were experimentally infected with nodavirus and samples of each tissue were collected at selected time points post-infection. Using equal amount of total RNA at each sampling time, we made three tissue-specific cDNA libraries. After sequencing 3230 clones we obtained 3173 (98.2%) high quality sequences from our liver, kidney and gill libraries. Of these 2568 (80.9%) were identified as known genes and 605 (19.1%) as unknown genes. A total of 768 unique genes were identified. The two largest groups resulting from the classification of ESTs according to function were the cell/organism defense genes (71 uni-genes) and apoptosis-related process (23 uni-genes). Using these clones, a 1920 element cDNA microarray was constructed and used to investigate the differential gene expression within turbot in response to experimental nodavirus infection or pIC stimulation. Kidney tissue was collected at selected times post-infection (HPI) or stimulation (HPS), and total RNA was isolated for microarray analysis. Of the 1920 genes studied on the microarray, we identified a total of 121 differentially expressed genes in the kidney: 94 genes from nodavirus-infected animals and 79 genes from those stimulated with pIC. Within the nodavirus-infected fish we observed the highest number of differentially expressed genes at 24 HPI. Our results indicate that certain genes in turbot have important roles in immune responses to nodavirus infection and dsRNA stimulation.

  20. galaxieEST: addressing EST identity through automated phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Karl-Henrik

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving expressed sequence tags (ESTs is intricately coupled to the existence of large, well-annotated sequence repositories. Comparatively complete and satisfactory annotated public sequence libraries are, however, available only for a limited range of organisms, rendering the absence of sequences and gene structure information a tangible problem for those working with taxa lacking an EST or genome sequencing project. Paralogous genes belonging to the same gene family but distinguished by derived characteristics are particularly prone to misidentification and erroneous annotation; high but incomplete levels of sequence similarity are typically difficult to interpret and have formed the basis of many unsubstantiated assumptions of orthology. In these cases, a phylogenetic study of the query sequence together with the most similar sequences in the database may be of great value to the identification process. In order to facilitate this laborious procedure, a project to employ automated phylogenetic analysis in the identification of ESTs was initiated. Results galaxieEST is an open source Perl-CGI script package designed to complement traditional similarity-based identification of EST sequences through employment of automated phylogenetic analysis. It uses a series of BLAST runs as a sieve to retrieve nucleotide and protein sequences for inclusion in neighbour joining and parsimony analyses; the output includes the BLAST output, the results of the phylogenetic analyses, and the corresponding multiple alignments. galaxieEST is available as an on-line web service for identification of fungal ESTs and for download / local installation for use with any organism group at http://galaxie.cgb.ki.se/galaxieEST.html. Conclusions By addressing sequence relatedness in addition to similarity, galaxieEST provides an integrative view on EST origin and identity, which may prove particularly useful in cases where similarity searches

  1. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  2. Inverted Senescing Sequence of Wheat Leaves and Its Biological Characters%叶片逆向衰老小麦及其生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严菊芳; 张嵩午

    2012-01-01

    The biological characteristics of inverted senescing sequence of wheat leaves were investigated. The study arranged comparative experiments of wheat materials presenting inverted and conventional leaf senescing sequences with the measurements of canopy temperature and some important biological parameters between 2006 -2011. There was a type of wheat that presents an inverted leaf senescing sequence differing from the conventional leaf senescing sequence of the majority of wheats in nature,i. e. ,its canopy temperature is lower and the temperature of 2nd leaf is lower than flag leaf's. The 1000-kernel weights of the inverted sequence wheats were higher than that of common wheat and significant difference was observed. Moreover, the variation pattern of the topmost leaf color and chlorophyll content of conventional sequence stem were similar to that of common wheat, but the inverted sequence stem's was contrary. The color rank of flag leaf was higher than the second leaf since the last stage of milk within the leaf-color inversion stem; the chlorophyll content of the second leaf was higher than that in top-three leaf along with the progress of growth, moreover, this phenomenon continued to wheat mature. The inverted senescing sequence of wheat leaves has been discovered in nature, the senescence process of the flag leaf was faster than the second leaf within the leaf-color inversion stem, and these biological parameters related to this phenomenon induced abnormal changes.%探讨叶片逆向衰老小麦的生物学特性,为高产小麦育种研究提供参考.2006-2011年连续5年进行了小麦叶片逆向衰老顺序和正常衰老顺序的比较试验,对冠层温度和一些重要生物学参数进行了测定.具有逆向衰老现象的小麦即叶片逆向衰老小麦的冠温、叶温、千粒质量的变化和正常衰老小麦明显不同,其冠层较冷且结实后期倒二叶的叶温低于旗叶,千粒质量大于正常衰老小麦,且增幅明显.其

  3. Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags-Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequences(EST-CAPS) for Wheat Leaf Rust Resistance Gene Lr45%小麦抗叶锈病基因Lr45的表达序列标签-酶切扩增多态性(EST-CAPS)分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭楠; 刘春燕; 赵盼盼; 杨文香; 闫红飞; 刘大群

    2013-01-01

    为了获得与小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)抗叶锈基因Lr45更多的分子标记,建立更丰富的遗传连锁图谱,本研究利用表达序列标签-酶切扩增多态性(EST-CAPS)标记技术,选择小麦2A染色体短臂的26对EST引物与4种限制性内切酶共104对组合,对小麦抗叶锈近等基因系(near-isogenic line,NILs)TcLr45和感病对照Thatcher进行了多态性分析.EST引物BE426158与BE442876的PCR产物在亲本间存在差异,多态性检出率为7.7%; 104个引物/酶切组合中,CD454036/Msp Ⅰ、CD454036/HaeⅢ、BE406923/Msp Ⅰ和BE425962/RsaⅠ共4组在Thatcher和TcLr45之间呈现多态性,多态性检出率为3.8%.将BE426158标记成功转化为一个更稳定的序列标签位点(sequence tagged site,STS)标记,命名为LR45-1,经在TcLr45×ThatcherF2群体、抗叶锈近等基因系及黑麦品种中验证,LR45-1与Lr45连锁,遗传距离为8.2 cM.研究结果提示,EST-CAPS技术可应用于小麦抗叶锈病基因的多态性分析及分子标记的开发.%The objective of this study is to develop more molecular markers for construction of high density genetic map of the leaf rust resistance gene Lr45 in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).Twenty-six pairs of expressed sequence tag(EST) primers located on the short arm of wheat chromosome 2A in combination with 4 kinds of restriction enzyme,resulting in a total of 104 pairs of EST-CAPS(expressed sequence tags-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences) markers were used to analyze the polymorphism between TcLr45 and Thatcher.The EST primers BE426158 and BE442876 expressed polymorphsim of the PCR products between TcLr45(resistant leaf rust parent) and Thatcher(susceptible leaf rust parent) with the polymorphism rate of 7.7%.Four of 104 primers/restriction enzyme combinations (3.8%),CD454036/Msp Ⅰ,CD454036/Hae Ⅲ,BE406923/Msp Ⅰ and BE425962 / Rsa Ⅰ,were polymorphic between Thatcher and TcLr45.In addition,a pair of primers designed based on the sequence of band

  4. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  5. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  6. Online Handwritten Character Recognition of Devanagari and Telugu Characters using Support Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Swethalakshmi, H.; Jayaraman, Anitha; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Sekhar, C. Chandra

    2006-01-01

    http://www.suvisoft.com; A system for recognition of online handwritten characters has been presented for Indian writing systems. A handwritten character is represented as a sequence of strokes whose features are extracted and classied. Support vector machines have been used for constructing the stroke recognition engine. The results have been presented after testing the system on Devanagari and Telugu scripts.

  7. 中国蛇岛蝮蛇毒腺cDNA文库ESTs序列测定及生物信息学分析%Sequence Determination and Bioinformatics Analysis of ESTs from Chinese Gloydius shedaoensis shedaoensis Venom Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春梅; 孙明忠; 郑体花; 任一鑫; 刘淑清

    2012-01-01

    前期我们构建了中国蛇岛蝮蛇(Gloydius shedaoensis shedaoensis,GSS)毒腺(GSSG)的cDNA(GSSG-cDNA)文库.本文从构建的GSSG-cDNA文库阳性重组子中随机挑选了216个单克隆进行5'端表达序列标签(EST)单向测序,获得了211条高质量的ESTs.生物信息学序列比对分析结果表明84个克隆为已知功能基因,29个克隆为未知功能基因,98个克隆为新基因,分别占总ESTs的39.8%、13.7%和46.5%.成功获得了GSSG的部分ESTs序列,为GSS蛋白活性组分基因的克隆、表达和功能研究奠定了一定基础.%Previously, we have successfully constructed a cDNA library of Chinese Gloydius shedaoensis shedaoensis (GSS) venom gland (GSSG). In current work,a total of 216 GSSG-cDNAs were randomly picked up and analyzed by single-pass sequencing from the 5' end. A total of 211 ESTs in high quality were generated and sequenced. Bioinformatics sequencing blasting results indicated that 84 ESTs could be annotated as the genes with known function,29 ESTs as similar genes with unknown function,and the rest of 98 ESTs were identified as novel genes,which account 39. 8% ,13.7% and 46. 5% of 211 obtained ESTs,respectively. Taken together,the partial ESTs of GSSG were obtained in current work, which provides certain useful information for cloning and expressing target protein genes and studying the biological functions of target proteins from GSS.

  8. Research Advance of Expressed Sequence Tag(EST) and Its Application in Crustacean%表达序列标签研究进展及其在甲壳动物中的应用概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐景斌; 赵大显

    2012-01-01

    随着生物信息学的发展,表达序列标签(EST)在分子标记开发、新基因分离鉴定、基因表达谱分析、基因组功能注释、基因电子克隆等方面具有重要作用.简要介绍了EST分析的原理及其在基因识别、基因预测、物理图谱的构建、DNA芯片制备等方面的应用概况.综述了甲壳动物EST的研究现状,并对EST的应用前景进行了展望.%With the development of bioinformatics, expressed sequence tag (EST) played an important role in molecular markers development, new genes isolation and identification, gene expression profile analysis, genome functional annotation and silico gene cloning. The principle of EST analysis and its applications in gene identification, gene prediction, physical map construction and DNA chip preparation was briefly introduced. In addition, the research status of crustacean EST and the prospect of EST application were also summarized.

  9. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from avocado seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) reveals abundant expression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide snakin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina J; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis María; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Jimenez-Moraila, Beatriz; López-Meza, Joel E; López-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2013-09-01

    Avocado is one of the most important fruits in the world. Avocado "native mexicano" (Persea americana var. drymifolia) seeds are widely used in the propagation of this plant and are the primary source of rootstocks globally for a variety of avocado cultivars, such as the Hass avocado. Here, we report the isolation of 5005 ESTs from the 5' ends of P. americana var. drymifolia seed cDNA clones representing 1584 possible unigenes. These avocado seed ESTs were compared with the avocado flower EST library, and we detected several genes that are expressed either in both tissues or only in the seed. The snakin gene, which encodes an element of the innate immune response in plants, was one of those most frequently found among the seed ESTs, and this suggests that it is abundantly expressed in the avocado seed. We expressed the snakin gene in a heterologous system, namely the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Conditioned media from transfected BVE-E6E7 cells showed antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first study of the function of the snakin gene in plant seed tissue, and our observations suggest that this gene might play a protective role in the avocado seed.

  10. 基于松科树种EST序列的落叶松SSR引物开发%Development of Larix leptolepis SSR Primers from EST Sequence of Pinaceae Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贯春雨; 张含国; 张磊; 朱航勇; 邓继峰

    2011-01-01

    登陆NCBI的dbEST数据库搜索松科树种EST序列,应用SSRIT软件在线搜索EST-SSR,用Primer3设计EST-SSR引物.选用日本落叶松(L.leptolepis)×兴安落叶松(L.gmelinii)及其145个F1为检测植株,对所开发EST-SSR引物进行扩增,并以丙烯酰胺凝胶检测扩增产物,以获得适合落叶松的SSR引物,以期用于该家系的图谱构建及QTL定位的研究.NCBI数据库搜索松科EST序列40608条,使用SSRIT检测得到SSR位点1011个,频率为2.49%.使用primer 3设计EST-SSR引物132对.SSRs以二核苷酸重复最为常见,重复基元11种,重复数量5598个,占全部重复基元比例达到83.79%;其次为三核苷酸,重复基元40种,重复数量1067,占全部重复单元的比例为15.97%;四核苷酸为3种重复基元,重复数量16,所占比例为1.95%.经扩增检测125对EST-SSR引物在日×兴亲本及F1中获得扩增产物,占94.7%.%A search for EST sequence of Pinaceae species were made hy dhEST datahase of NCBI. SSRIT software was used to search EST-SSR online and primer3 to design EST-SSR primers. Larix leptolepis , L. gmelinii and their 145 full-sib F1 individuals were amplified by the EST-SSR primers, and then the amplified products were detected by acrylamide gel. Suitable SSR primers were selected for larch to construct genetic map and QTL mapping for the family. Through the sequence analysis of 40608 ESTs in Pinaceae deposited in NCBI. a total of 1011 SSR loci were obtained using the SSRIT software.and the frequency was 2. 49% . One hundred and thirty-two pairs of EST-SSR primers were designed by primer3. The dinucleotide repeats were most c:ommon in SSRs. and the repeated primitives were 11, accounting for 83. 79% of the total repeated primitives. and the repeat number was 5 598. The trinucleotide repeats were more common, and the repeated primitives and repeat numher were 40 and 1 067. respectively, accounting for 15. 97% of the total repeated primitives.Tetranucleotide repeats included three

  11. Transcriptome analysis of colored calla lily (Zantedeschia rehmannii Engl.) by Illumina sequencing: de novo assembly, annotation and EST-SSR marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zunzheng; Sun, Zhenzhen; Cui, Binbin; Zhang, Qixiang; Xiong, Min; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Di

    2016-01-01

    Colored calla lily is the short name for the species or hybrids in section Aestivae of genus Zantedeschia. It is currently one of the most popular flower plants in the world due to its beautiful flower spathe and long postharvest life. However, little genomic information and few molecular markers are available for its genetic improvement. Here, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed to produce large transcript sequences for Z. rehmannii cv. 'Rehmannii' using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument. More than 59.9 million cDNA sequence reads were obtained and assembled into 39,298 unigenes with an average length of 1,038 bp. Among these, 21,077 unigenes showed significant similarity to protein sequences in the non-redundant protein database (Nr) and in the Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Moreover, a total of 117 unique transcripts were then defined that might regulate the flower spathe development of colored calla lily. Additionally, 9,933 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 7,162 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as putative molecular markers. High-quality primers for 200 SSR loci were designed and selected, of which 58 amplified reproducible amplicons were polymorphic among 21 accessions of colored calla lily. The sequence information and molecular markers in the present study will provide valuable resources for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization and marker-assisted selection in the genus Zantedeschia.

  12. A structural query system for Han characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... language for EIDS databases, with a freely available implementation and format translation from popular third-party IDS and XML character databases. The system is designed to suit the needs of font developers and foreign language learners. The search algorithm includes a bit vector index inspired by Bloom...

  13. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The character "力" li (strength) was originally written "(?)" The curving " (?) " indicates bulging muscles, while the "(?)" component represents skin. Despite its evolution over the centuries, "力" still symbolizes a strong arm.In combination with other characters "力" conveys the meaning "力量" liliang (strength), "力气"liqi (strength), "力求" liqiu (pursue) and "力争" lizheng (strive).

  14. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  15. CitEST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa P. Natividade Targon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a better understanding of what is citrus, 33 cDNA libraries were constructed from different citrus species and genera. Total RNA was extracted from fruits, leaves, flowers, bark, seeds and roots, and subjected or not to different biotic and abiotic stresses (pathogens and drought and at several developmental stages. To identify putative promoter sequences, as well as molecular markers that could be useful for breeding programs, one shotgun library was prepared from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var. Olimpia. In addition, EST libraries were also constructed for a citrus pathogen, the oomycete Phythophthora parasitica in either virulent or avirulent form. A total of 286,559 cDNA clones from citrus were sequenced from their 5’ end, generating 242,790 valid reads of citrus. A total of 9,504 sequences were produced in the shotgun library and the valid reads were assembled using CAP3. In this procedure, we obtained 1,131 contigs and 4,083 singletons. A total of 19,200 cDNA clones from P. parasitica were sequenced, resulting in 16,400 valid reads. The number of ESTs generated in this project is, to our knowledge, the largest citrus sequence database in the world.

  16. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, 5 BAC clone sequencing, including two encoding Cytochrome P450s and one encoding CzEst9 carboxylesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct...

  17. Isolation of Granulation-related ESTs in Newhall Navel Orange Fruit Storage and Primary Analyses of the Sequences%纽荷尔脐橙贮藏枯水相关ESTs分离与初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兰珍; 刘小丰; 何永睿; 姚利晓; 彭爱红; 雷天刚; 陈善春

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze the differentially expressed genes in the post-harvested citrus fruit, a subtracted cDNA library was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between the fruit pulp of post-storage (experimental group, the Tester) and that of pre-storage (control group, the Driver). The library included about 656 clones which were 100 - 1 000 bp in size, among which 213 clones were selected randomly and sequenced. Totally 143 useful ESTs were acquired, and 53 uniESTs were finally obtained. Sequence similarity searches via BLASTx and BLASTn on NCBI showed that the ESTs were sorted into 14 functional categories according to the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS). The ESTs involved in metabolism, energy, protein synthesis accounted for 17%, 11% and 13% of the total ESTs, respectively.%为分析柑橘果实贮藏过程中枯水相关特异基因的表达情况,以纽荷尔脐橙(Citrus Sinensis Osbeck)采摘后贮藏至略见枯水果实的果肉为测验方(Tester),以刚采摘果实的果肉为驱动方(Driver),采用抑制性差减杂交(Suppression Subtractive Hybridization,SSH)技术成功构建了贮藏果实差减cDNA 文库,共获得656个阳性克隆.随机挑取克隆进行菌液PCR分析,插入片段长度主要集中在100~1 000bp.成功对213个克隆进行测序,获得有效序列143条,经序列分析,共得到53条uniESTs序列.在NCBI基因库中对这53个uniESTs进行BLAST分析,比对结果参照MIPS的分类标准,按功能分为14类,其中参与代谢、能量及蛋白合成的ESTs最多,分别占到了全部ESTs的17%、11%和13%.

  18. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  19. Printed Arabic Character Recognition Using HMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas H.Hassin; Xiang-Long Tang; Jia-Feng Liu; Wei Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Language has a very rich vocabulary.More than 200 million people speak this language as their native speaking,and over 1 billion people use it in several religion-related activities.In this paper a new technique is presented for recognizing printed Arabic characters.After a word is segmented,each character/word is entirely transformed into a feature vector.The features of printed Arabic characters include strokes and bays in various directions,endpoints,intersection points,loops,dots and zigzags.The word skeleton is decomposed into a number of links in orthographic order,and then it is transferred into a sequence of symbols using vector quantization.Single hidden Markov model has been used for recognizing the printed Arabic characters.Experimental results show that the high recognition rate depends on the number of states in each sample.

  20. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  1. In silco mapping of ESTs from the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kent M; Knutson, Todd P; Krueth, Stacy B; Sullivan, Laura R; Chaves, Lee D

    2005-01-01

    Sequence similarity was used to predict the position of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the genome of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Turkey EST sequences were compared with the draft assembly of the chicken whole-genome sequence and the chicken EST database by BLASTN. Among the 877 ESTs examined, 788 had significant matches in the chicken genome sequence. Position of orthologous sequences in the chicken genome and the predicted position of the EST loci in the turkey genome are presented Genetic assignments suggest a high level of accuracy for the COMPASS predictions.

  2. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention...

  3. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sheep generally have a cute and docile appearance, which isrepresented by the Chinese character "羊" yang (sheep). The originalform of "羊" was "(?)" , representing a sheep’s head. Later, combinedwith other parts representing sheep’s horns, ears, legs, and tail, it evolvedinto "(?)"、"(?)"、"(?)" and "羊".

  4. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  5. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  6. Character and Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Johnnie

    1997-01-01

    Reflects on the ways in which children develop character as well as ways to foster moral development in elementary education communities. Includes a brief discussion of Robert Coles' documentation of moral intelligence in children, and lists several ways to aid the moral life of children in Montessori classrooms. (EV)

  7. Estádio de maturação dos frutos e fatores relacionados aos aspectos nutritivos e de textura da polpa de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Maturity stage of fruits and factors related to nutritive and texture characters of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neudes Sousa de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de obter informações sobre a influência do estádio de desenvolvimento do fruto (época de coleta e do tipo de congelamento sobre os componentes nutricionais e de textura da polpa de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.. Os frutos foram coletados na árvore, antes da queda natural; no chão, após a queda natural, e após a queda natural, mantidos três dias em condição ambiente. Em cada época de coleta, após a retirada da casca dos frutos, um grupo de putamens foi congelado diretamente em freezer, e outro, congelado em nitrogênio líquido, antes do congelamento em freezer. Após seis meses, foi retirada a polpa dos putamens para a análise dos teores de carotenóides totais, ß -caroteno, licopeno, vitamina A, proteínas e lipídios; teor de celulose, hemicelulose, pectinas total, cálcio ligado à parede celular e total, atividade da pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase. Os resultados indicaram que os teores de pigmentos, lipídios, proteínas e atividade da PG aumentaram com o avanço do estádio de maturação dos frutos. Por outro lado, houve diminuição no teor da celulose com avanço do estádio de maturação, enquanto os teores de hemicelulose e cálcio não foram influenciados pela idade do fruto. O tipo de congelamento interferiu nos teores de pigmentos, maiores na polpa congelada em nitrogênio líquido, e na atividade da PG, maior na polpa congelada apenas em freezer. Por último, os resultados mostraram que os frutos coletados na árvore são nutricionalmente inferiores aos coletados após a queda natural.The experiment was carried out with the purpose to obtain information about changes in the constituents responsible for nutritive and texture traits of pequi pulp related with harvest time and types of freezing. Fruits were collected in the tree before natural fall, in the ground after natural fall and in the ground three days after natural fall. In each harvest time, while one

  8. Associação de fases meióticas e estádios dos micrósporos com características morfológicas de botões florais de pimentão Association of meiotic phases and microspore stages with morphological characters of floral buds of pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Augusto de Toledo Picoli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Fases meióticas e estádios de micrósporos de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Azeth foram determinados e associados com características morfológicas adotadas para a seleção de botões florais a serem utilizados na indução de androgênese. Plantas foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação para coleta dos botões florais, que foram separados em seis classes de acordo com a relação de tamanho entre cálice e corola e presença de pigmentos nas anteras. As anteras foram fixadas em metanol: ácido acético na proporção de 3:1 e armazenadas a -20º C. Preparações citogenéticas desse material foram montadas pela técnica de dissociação e secagem ao ar e coradas com solução de Giemsa. As observações dos botões foram realizadas sob lupa e as preparações citogenéticas em microscópio ótico. Imagens dos botões florais, das anteras e das fases meióticas foram digitalizadas em computador para documentação. Variações de fases meióticas dentro de cada classe de botão floral foram observadas. Embora o critério de presença de antocianina na extremidade das anteras tenha sido aplicado para outras variedades, o mesmo não se mostrou adequado para a determinação do estádio de micrósporo neste estudo. As fases meióticas foram citogeneticamente identificadas; contudo, não foi possível estabelecer sua associação com as classes dos botões florais. Entretanto, botões com o tamanho de cálice coincidindo com o da corola apresentaram maior número de micrósporos em estádio adequado para a cultura de anteras.In the present study, morphological characters adopted for floral bud selection used for androgenesis induction were associated with pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Azeth meiotic phases and microspore stages. Floral buds were harvested from greenhouse-grown plants and separated into six classes according to size relationships between calyx and corolla, and anthocyanin pigmentation in anthers. After sorting by size, buds

  9. Development of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)using expressed sequence tags%紫贻贝EST-SNP的筛选及多态性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏俊; 梁瑜; 邢坤; 苏浩; 高祥刚; 隋立军; 赫崇波

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)has very broad prospects in the research fields of population genetics of aquacultural species, molecular marker-assisted breeding and biological evolution.The development of SNP markers is normally obtained through genome sequencing, by sequence comparison.However, for the species for which no large-scale genome sequencing has been carried out, using EST database is often an important way for the development of SNP markers.In this study, the SNP genotyping assays and development of SNP markers for blue mussel( Mytilus galloprovincialis)were conducted through expressed sequence tags (ESTs) database mining.Some 19 709 EST sequences of blue mussel from the GenBank were clustered into 2 486 contigs, of which 963 contained four or more ESTs.After manual quality filtering ,4 833 putative SNPs were identified from these SNP-containing contigs.The average putative SNP frequency was one per 129.2 bp of contig sequences.C/T and A/G with high frequency account for 28.8%and 27.4% ,respectively.31 of the putative SNPs were chosen for validation by allele specific PCR with melting temperature( Tm)-shift analysis, and 14 (47%)of them were polymorphic with the minor allele frequency ranging from 0.083 to 0.446.The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity were distributed from 0.166 7 to 0.615 4 and 0.155 4 to 0.503 2, respectively.Six primers (20%)amplified no any product and 10 (33%)were monomorphic.BLASTX showed that significant hits for all 14 genotyped SNP-contalning contigs, 12 of which were located in coding regions and all resulted in a synonymous substitution.The result of present study shows that ESTs could provide effective means for SNP identification in species with limited genome sequence resources, and Tm-shift analysis is a simple, efficient and reliable SNP genotyping method for non-model organisms.%利用EST数据库开发SNP是筛选SNP标记的重要途径.本研究利用EST数据库开发紫贻贝的SNP

  10. Character strengths and virtues

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004). This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003), a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that l...

  11. Closed surfaces and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Chesebro, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The powerful character variety techniques of Culler and Shalen can be used to find essential surfaces in knot manifolds. We show that module structures on the coordinate ring of the character variety can be used to identify detected boundary slopes as well as when closed surfaces are detected. This approach also yields new number theoretic invariants for the character varieties of knot manifolds.

  12. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  13. Large even order character sums

    CERN Document Server

    Goldmakher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    A classical theorem of Paley asserts the existence of an infinite family of quadratic characters whose character sums become exceptionally large. In this paper, we establish an analogous result for characters of any fixed even order. Previously our bounds were only known under the assumption of the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis.

  14. 黄瓜幼果cDNA文库构建与EST测序分析%Construction of a Young Fruit cDNA Library and EST Sequencing in Cucumis sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘宇; 蒲志群; 肖雅文; 赵名琛; 郑浴; 石士涛; 胡小燕; 张兴国

    2013-01-01

    将黄瓜授粉前后多个发育阶段的幼果组织等量混合后提取总RNA和mRNA,以λTriplEx2为栽体、XL1-Blue为宿主茵,构建了1个黄瓜幼果cDNA文库;其滴度为1.165×106pfu/mL,重组率在94.4%左右.测序获得116条EST,92.2%的长度在400 bp以上,19%为重叠序列.在GenBank中进行BLAST分析后确认与已知功能基因相似的EST序列有71条,有相似序列而功能未知的基因和没有相似序列的EST序列各占19.83%和18.97%.从对文库的检验结果看,构建的cDNA文库重组率较高,库容达到预期要求.%The growth and development of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit is closely related to its yield and quality.To gain the gene expression pattern of the young fruit just before and after pollination is important to exploring the molecular mechanisms of parthenocarpy and fruit growth initiation.In this study,tissues of young fruit of cucumber at different development stages before and after pollination were mixed and total RNA and mRNA were extracted.Then,a cDNA library of cucumber young fruit with a titer of 1.165 × 106 pfu/mL and a recombinant frequency of 94.4% was constructed,using λTriplEx2 as a vector and XL1-Blue as the host strain.One hundred and sixteen EST sequences were obtained,of which 92.2% were over 400 bp in size and 19% were contigs.BLAST analysis in GenBank revealed that 71 of the 116 ESTs were homologous to genes of known function,19.83% were related to genes with unknown functions and 18.97 % were novel.The cDNA library sufficed the criteria with high recombinant efficiency and wide representativeness.The results will facilitate the cloning of development-related genes from cucumber fruit.

  15. Periods of Hecke characters

    CERN Document Server

    Schappacher, Norbert

    1988-01-01

    The starting point of this Lecture Notes volume is Deligne's theorem about absolute Hodge cycles on abelian varieties. Its applications to the theory of motives with complex multiplication are systematically reviewed. In particular, algebraic relations between values of the gamma function, the so-called formula of Chowla and Selberg and its generalization and Shimura's monomial relations among periods of CM abelian varieties are all presented in a unified way, namely as the analytic reflections of arithmetic identities beetween Hecke characters, with gamma values corresponding to Jacobi sums. The last chapter contains a special case in which Deligne's theorem does not apply.

  16. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  17. 利用EST序列鉴定葡萄应答外源赤霉素的基因%Identification of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Genes from EST Sequences Responding to Exogenous Gibberellins Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官凌飞; 韩键; 房经贵; 王西成; 冷翔鹏

    2012-01-01

    To identify grape (Vitis vinifera L.) genes in response to exogenous gibberellins (GA) treatment, a large number of grape EST sequences collected at NCBI were analyzed. Forty-five non-redundant EST sequences that only expressed after GA treatment were obtained by using local Blast, Blast2go and other programs. Blastx annotation results indicated that twenty-five sequences (55.6%) were of hypothetical or unknown protein, fourteen sequences (31.1%) did not have available information, and six sequences (13.1%) had predict functions. The six sequences with annotated functions carried genes encoding integrase (EE077049), SPX domain (EE085000), serine carboxypeptidase-like 44(EE091188), CHY1 (EE092187), pseudouridine synthase/ transporter (EE106096) and K+ channel protein (EE108944). Blast2go analysis showed that only twenty-nine sequences (64.4%) had available Gene Ontology (GO) annotations, belonging to categories of molecular function, cellular component or biological process. Taken together, the GA-responsive gene products mainly had binding activities (46.34%) or catalytic activities (39.02%), distributed in the whole cell (44.68%) or in specific organelles (40.43%), participatedl in cellular processes (28.57%) or metabolic processes (25.71%) in responding to the exogenous GA treatment. This study provides basic information for further analysis of gene expression in response to exogenous GA treatment.%为了利用NCBI上大量的葡萄(Vitis vinifera L.) EST序列进行葡萄应答外源赤霉素基因的信息挖掘,通过本地化Blast、Blast2go等工具以及其他生物信息学工具和数据库,对NCBI上经过赤霉素(gibberellins,GA)诱导后的葡萄EST序列进行处理,获得了45条仅在赤霉素处理后表达的无冗余EST序列.Blastx注释结果显示,45条序列中有25条序列注释为假定蛋白或未知蛋白(约占55.6%),14条序列无注释信息(约占31.1%),6条序列(13.1%)注释有推定功能,其中包括整合酶蛋

  18. Bounds for Certain Character Sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锦; 郑志勇

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows a connection between exponential sums and character sums. In particular, we introduce a character sum that is an analog of the classical Kloosterman sums and establish the analogous Weil-Estermann's upper bound for it. The paper also analyzes a generalized Hardy-Littlewood example for character sums, which shows that the upper bounds given here are the best possible. The analysis makes use of local bounds for the exponential sums and character sums. The basic theorems have been previously established.

  19. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  20. Gesture Recognition Using Character Recognition Techniques on Two-dimensional Eigenspace

    OpenAIRE

    大野, 宏; 山本, 正信; Ohno, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for gesture recognition using character recognition techniques on two-dimensional eigenspace. An image-based approach can capture human body poses in 3D motion from multiple image sequences. The sequence of poses can be reduced into a trajectory on the two-dimensional eigenspace with preserving the main features in gesture, so that the gesture recognition equals the character recognition. Experiments for the gesture recognition using some character recognit...

  1. Characters of DNA Constitution in the Rye B Chromosome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Long; Zhong-Xia Qi; Xiao-Ming Sun; Cheng-Bin Chen; Xiu-Lan Li; Wen-Qin Song; Rui-Yang Chen

    2008-01-01

    We have used chromosome microdissection and microcloning to construct a DNA library of the entire B chromosome (B) of rye. New rye B-specific sequences have been screened from this pool, blasted with other sequences and analyzed to elucidate the characters of DNA constitution and the possible pathway of the origin of the rye B chromosome. We report the discovery of a new sequence that is specific to the rye B centromere.

  2. Character strengths and virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gancedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004. This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003, a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the superposition of implicit paradigms. It also takes notice of a causal and elementary logic -which goes against today’s scientific paradigm-, and the strong American culture zeitgeist present in the principles of Positive Psychology. Finally, some ethic problems are displayed, in particular the step taken from a descriptive attitude –characteristic of science- toward a prescriptive attitude –characteristic of moral codes-. 

  3. Character Education: Christian Education Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Gretchen M.; Firmin, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Character is defined broadly by leading authorities, including concepts such as practicing apt behavior and teaching right from wrong. Virtue and moral undertones tend to pervade most experts' use of character, although in secular settings, the notion of ethics is more prominent. Overall, developing in students a desire for the good is how most…

  4. EST Pipeline System: Detailed and Automated EST Data Processing and Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xu; Liang Zhang; Hong Yu; Yan Zhou; Ling He; Yuanzhong Zhu; Wei Huang; Lijun Fang; Lin Tao; Yuedong Zhu; Lin Cai; Huayong Xu

    2003-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are widely used in gene survey research these years. The EST Pipeline System, software developed by Hangzhou Genomics Institute (HGI), can automatically analyze different scalar EST sequences by suitable methods. All the analysis reports, including those of vector masking, sequence assembly, gene annotation, Gene Ontology classification, and some other analyses,can be browsed and searched as well as downloaded in the Excel format from the web interface, saving research efforts from routine data processing for biological rules embedded in the data.

  5. Annotation of Ehux ESTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2009-06-12

    22 percent ESTs do no align with scaffolds. EST Pipeleine assembles 17126 consensi from the noaligned ESTs. Annotation Pipeline predicts 8564 ORFS on the consensi. Domain analysis of ORFs reveals missing genes. Cluster analysis reveals missing genes. Expression analysis reveals potential strain specific genes.

  6. Bioinformatics of the sugarcane EST project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telles Guilherme P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sugarcane EST project (SUCEST produced 291,904 expressed sequence tags (ESTs in a consortium that involved 74 sequencing and data mining laboratories. We created a web site for this project that served as a ?meeting point? for receiving, processing, analyzing, and providing services to help explore the sequence data. In this paper we describe the information pathway that we implemented to support this project and a brief explanation of the clustering procedure, which resulted in 43,141 clusters.

  7. Elementary Character Education: Local Perspectives, Echoed Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Pat; Field, Sherry L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents information based on a yearlong study of character education in an elementary school that was implementing "Kids with Character." Offers an analysis of the responses by students, teachers, and parents about character, development of character, and the program. Indicates that contemporary character education programs are similar to…

  8. Mining and modeling character networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, Anthony; Elenberg, Ethan R; Gleich, David F; Hou, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate social networks of characters found in cultural works such as novels and films. These character networks exhibit many of the properties of complex networks such as skewed degree distribution and community structure, but may be of relatively small order with a high multiplicity of edges. Building on recent work of beveridge, we consider graph extraction, visualization, and network statistics for three novels: Twilight by Stephanie Meyer, Steven King's The Stand, and J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Coupling with 800 character networks from films found in the http://moviegalaxies.com/ database, we compare the data sets to simulations from various stochastic complex networks models including random graphs with given expected degrees (also known as the Chung-Lu model), the configuration model, and the preferential attachment model. Using machine learning techniques based on motif (or small subgraph) counts, we determine that the Chung-Lu model best fits character networks and we ...

  9. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  10. Transliteration in EST Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新然

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, this paper presents the definition of transliteration and its important position in EST translation. Secondly, in terms of the previous practice and experience in EST translation, four main transliteration techniques are concluded and analyzed. But meanwhile, there are still some negative issues and phenomena. As a result, it is worthy to make good use of the existing transliteration techniques and create more proper ones to remove the obstructions and promote the development of EST translation.

  11. Studying Characters in "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinhawa, Wilhelmina

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity in which high school students who are reading "Romeo and Juliet" compile information on major characters and create a collection of cards similar to sports cards, to help them understand each character and that character's motives. (SR)

  12. Recognition of Characters by Adaptive Combination of Classifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; LI Zai-ming

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the visual feature space based on the long Horizontals, the long Verticals,and the radicals are given. An adaptive combination of classifiers, whose coefficients vary with the input pattern, is also proposed. Experiments show that the approach is promising for character recognition in video sequences.

  13. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  14. Seqüência de estímulos durante o fortalecimento da resposta de bicar: efeitos sobre a aquisição de desempenhos em matching e oddity Stimuli sequencing during pecking responses build up: effects upon matching and oddity acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Damiani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o efeito da seqüência de apresentação de estímulos durante o fortalecimento da resposta (pré-treino de bicar em pombos, sobre a aquisição do matching de identidade (IMTS e oddity-from-sample (OFS com 3 cores como estímulos e 2 escolhas. O problema se remete à disparidade no desempenho inicial em OFS em relação aos níveis do acaso, reiteradamente relatado na literatura. Durante o pré-treino, apenas uma cor era apresentada em qualquer uma de 3 chaves de resposta. O sorteio da seqüência de estímulos nas tentativas foi realizado com a restrição de que a probabilidade de 2 estímulos iguais serem apresentados em tentativas consecutivas foi semelhante à probabilidade de 2 estímulos diferentes serem apresentados em tentativas consecutivas. Em seguida, os sujeitos foram submetidos ou ao treino IMTS ou ao OFS. Os resultados replicaram aqueles descritos na literatura, indicando que o controle realizado sobre a seqüência de tentativas no pré-treino não teve efeito sobre a aquisição do IMTS e OFS.This study was aimed to investigate the question why oddity-from-sample acquisition in animals always start at above chance level. A question was raised concerning the role of stimuli sequences and a possible bias introduced in responding. Thus, this study analyzed the effects of stimuli sequencing during response build up in the pigeon (pre-training upon the acquisition of identity matching (IMTS and oddity-from-sample (OFS with three color stimuli and two comparisons. During pre-training one color was presented at the time in any one of three response key. Color presentation was randomized but for the restriction that the probability of two like colors being presented consecutively was the same as the probability of two non-like colors being presented consecutively. This controlled for any sequencing bias effects upon responding. Following, subjects were submitted either to IMTS or to OFS training. Results

  15. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  16. Character Interviews Help Bring Literature to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindall, Vickie; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Character Interviews," a class activity that guides children, especially reluctant readers, to the meaning of a story through a thoughtful understanding of character as they consider a character's emotions and motives, to respond to a question as that character would. Describes the interview process. Offers sample interviews…

  17. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  18. Moral Character and Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  19. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  20. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  1. Hamlet and His Melancholy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2007-01-01

    @@ What's the theme of hamlet?His tragedies often portray some noble hero who faces the injustice of human life and is caught in a difficult situation whose fate is closely connected with the fate of the whole nation.The heroes have some weaknesses in their characters,which finally lead to their tragic thin falls.

  2. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  3. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  4. Character Analysis of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis analyses Jane Eyre' s character. No matter what Jane met, no matter where she was, she always rebelled against that unfair society, she never gave up to try her best to get free, independent, fair life and true love. By unremitting efforts she finally got dignity, freedom and true love.

  5. THE THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTER OF INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova T.M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article includes data concerning application of one of the universal method of the modern science based on fundamental thermodynamic laws to analyze the efficiency of the information processes. The comparison of the information and thermodynamic processes brought the author to the basic conclusion of the energetic character of information.

  6. CHARACTERS THAT SUFFERED DUE TO SHORTAGE IN THE CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the theories about motif and type will be used for analyzing the very types ofcharacters that suffered because of the shortages. To begin with, the analyzing of the differences andsimilarities of the shortages of each character will be counted on the inside and outside parts of theirsufferings. Then the theories of Nietzsche’s and of some myths will be used for analyzing the furtherreason of the sufferings. At last, investigating the special value those sufferings have brought forliteratures and for TV series. Multi-angle perspective is useful for investigating the unique charms ofthe shortages of characters as well as for finding out new understandings for the types of sufferings.

  7. An EST database from saffron stigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiusano Maria Luisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part – the stigmas – are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. Results We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is accessible and searchable through the Saffron Genes database http://www.saffrongenes.org. The ESTs have been grouped into 1,893 Clusters, each corresponding to a different expressed gene, and annotated. The complete set of raw EST sequences, as well as of their electopherograms, are maintained in the database, allowing users to investigate sequence qualities and EST structural features (vector contamination, repeat regions. The saffron stigma transcriptome contains a series of interesting sequences (putative sex determination genes, lipid and carotenoid metabolism enzymes, transcription factors. Conclusion The Saffron Genes database represents the first reference collection for the genomics of Iridaceae, for the molecular biology of stigma biogenesis, as well as for the metabolic pathways underlying saffron secondary metabolism.

  8. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  9. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  10. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...... is usually too large but can be reduced automatically by the use of a predictive code length or predictive error criterion...

  11. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulama, Mohannad M. [University of Jordan; Natsheh, Asem M. [University of Jordan; Abandah, Gheith A. [University of Jordan; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  12. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2011-04-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  13. EST analysis pipeline: use of distributed computing resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Francisco Javier; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes how a pipeline for the analysis of expressed sequence tag (EST) data can be -implemented, based on our previous experience generating ESTs from Trichoderma spp. We focus on key steps in the workflow, such as the processing of raw data from the sequencers, the clustering of ESTs, and the functional annotation of the sequences using BLAST, InterProScan, and BLAST2GO. Some of the steps require the use of intensive computing power. Since these resources are not available for small research groups or institutes without bioinformatics support, an alternative will be described: the use of distributed computing resources (local grids and Amazon EC2).

  14. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  15. Character Analysis: Up Close and Personal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carla J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a class activity which gives students practice in character analysis based on characters' dialog in plays. Offers a version of this activity as applied to Caryl Churchill's play "Top Girls." (SR)

  16. 日本血吸虫成虫吡喹酮用药前后差异表达序列的筛选%Screening of differential expression of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in adult Schistosoma japonicum treated with praziquantel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周水茂; 江元山; 陈智; 熊燕; 田俊华; 周敦金; 徐明星; 孙东光

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish subtracted cDNA libraries using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)technique based on the livers of New Zealand white rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum before and after praziquantel treatment, providing the basis for screening the drug-response molecular target during the therapy.Methods New Zealand white rabbits infected with S.japonicum were assigned to two groups to receive praziquantel medication or blank, respectively.The SSH technique was conducted to build the forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries using the PCR-Select cDNA Subtraction kit.The differentially expressed ESTs were screened and positive clones were isolated from the libraries for bioinformatic analysis.Results Thirty-nine positive clones were isolated from two subtracted cDNA libraries, including 22 from the forward library and 17 from the reverse library.The analysis revealed that the ESTs were mainly responsible for coding enzymes and proteins associated with protein synthesis and degradation.Conclusion The subtracted cDNA libraries before and after praziquantel treatment for S.japonicum were successfully constructed, laying a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of this medication therapy.%目的 应用抑制性消减杂交(SSH)技术构建吡喹酮治疗日本血吸虫感染新西兰大白兔前后肝脏内差减cDNA文库,为筛选吡喹酮治疗过程中日本血吸虫体内药物反应分子靶标奠定基础.方法 日本血吸虫感染新西兰大白兔,吡喹酮治疗者为实验组,未经吡喹酮治疗者为对照组,应用PCR-Select cDNA Subtraction试剂盒进行SSH分析,分别构建正向和反向消减cDNA文库,对文库进行筛选,挑取阳性克隆测序获得差异表达EST或新EST,并进行生物信息学分析.结果 从2个消减文库中共筛选到39个有效阳性克隆,其中正向文库22个,反向文库17个,分析表明这些EST编码主要是一些酶及与蛋白质合成和降

  17. A Note on Generalized Characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Bhatt; H V Dedania

    2005-11-01

    For a compactly generated LCA group , it is shown that the set $H(G)$ of all generalized characters on equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and $H(G)=\\hat{G}$ (the dual group of ) if and only if is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if is second countable, then the Gel’fand space of the commutative convolution algebra $C_c(G)$ equipped with the inductive limit topology is topologically homeomorphic to $H(G)$.

  18. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  19. EST-SSRs of Watermelon (Citrullus sp.) Useful in Assessing Genetic Diversity among Lagenaria Siceraria Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) facilitated the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (termed EST-SSRs) in different plant species. EST-SSRs represent coding regions that are known to be more conserved than genomic regions represented by SSR markers generated from genomic DNA libraries...

  20. EST analysis in Ginkgo biloba: an assessment of conserved developmental regulators and gymnosperm specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runko Suzan J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginkgo biloba L. is the only surviving member of one of the oldest living seed plant groups with medicinal, spiritual and horticultural importance worldwide. As an evolutionary relic, it displays many characters found in the early, extinct seed plants and extant cycads. To establish a molecular base to understand the evolution of seeds and pollen, we created a cDNA library and EST dataset from the reproductive structures of male (microsporangiate, female (megasporangiate, and vegetative organs (leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Results RNA from newly emerged male and female reproductive organs and immature leaves was used to create three distinct cDNA libraries from which 6,434 ESTs were generated. These 6,434 ESTs from Ginkgo biloba were clustered into 3,830 unigenes. A comparison of our Ginkgo unigene set against the fully annotated genomes of rice and Arabidopsis, and all available ESTs in Genbank revealed that 256 Ginkgo unigenes match only genes among the gymnosperms and non-seed plants – many with multiple matches to genes in non-angiosperm plants. Conversely, another group of unigenes in Gingko had highly significant homology to transcription factors in angiosperms involved in development, including MADS box genes as well as post-transcriptional regulators. Several of the conserved developmental genes found in Ginkgo had top BLAST homology to cycad genes. We also note here the presence of ESTs in G. biloba similar to genes that to date have only been found in gymnosperms and an additional 22 Ginkgo genes common only to genes from cycads. Conclusion Our analysis of an EST dataset from G. biloba revealed genes potentially unique to gymnosperms. Many of these genes showed homology to fully sequenced clones from our cycad EST dataset found in common only with gymnosperms. Other Ginkgo ESTs are similar to developmental regulators in higher plants. This work sets the stage for future studies on Ginkgo to better understand seed and

  1. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  2. Extending Characters on Fix Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A dynamical system is a triple $(A,G,\\alpha)$, consisting of a unital locally convex algebra $A$, a topological group $G$ and a group homomorphism $\\alpha:G\\rightarrow\\Aut(A)$, which induces a continuous action of $G$ on $A$. Further, a unital locally convex algebra $A$ is called continuous inverse algebra, or CIA for short, if its group of units $A^{\\times}$ is open in $A$ and the inversion $\\iota:A^{\\times}\\rightarrow A^{\\times},\\,\\,\\,a\\mapsto a^{-1}$ is continuous at $1_A$. For a compact manifold $M$, the Fr\\'echet algebra of smooth functions $C^{\\infty}(M)$ is the prototype of such a continuous inverse algebra. We show that if $A$ is a complete commutative CIA, $G$ a compact group and $(A,G,\\alpha)$ a dynamical system, then each character of $B:=A^G$ can be extended to a character of $A$. In particular, the natural map on the level of the corresponding spectra $\\Gamma_A\\rightarrow\\Gamma_B$, $\\chi\\mapsto\\chi_{\\mid B}$ is surjective.

  3. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  4. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  5. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF ESTS (EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS) FROM LIVE AND KINEY OF HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI AND CLONING OF NPY(NEUROPEPTIDE Y) RECEPTOR GENE%皱纹盘鲍肝、肾表达序列标签及神经肽Y(NPY)受体基因的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明刚; 毕元兑; 王玲; 孙修勤; 刘峰; 王波

    2011-01-01

    通过构建皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus Hannai)cDNA文库并进行大规模测序,获得了1282条高质量的ESTs序列,对这些序列进行拼接,获得了包括650条序列在内的244组片段重叠群(Contigs)和632个单一序列(Singletons).使用BlastX软件对876个Unigenes(Unigerie为Coiltig和Singleton的总和)进行同源性对比,有393个获得了功能提示,占总基因数的45%.根据EST信息,采用RACE方法.首次得到皱纹盘鲍神经肤Y(neuropeptide Y,NPY)受体基因,并对其结构进行了分析.结果表明,该受体基因cDNA由1534个核苷酸组成,编码区1050bp,可以编码350个氨基酸;该多肤的分子量为39.56kda,等电点为9.57,具有7个明显的跨膜螺旋且TM7区有NPXXY模体.%A cDNA library was constructed from liver and kidney of abalone (Haliotis discus Hannai) and 1445 clones were selected for sequencing. One thousand and two hundred eighty two high qualitative ESTs were obtained through bioinformatics analyses. Splicing of these sequences, 244 contigs (consisting of 650 sequences) and 632 singletons were obtained. Using BlastX program for the Homologous comparison, 393 unigenes shared signifi cant homology with known sequences in protein database of NCBI accounted for 45 % of the number of unigenes. Among that, 63 (16%) were immune-related. The full length of the NPY (neuropeptide Y) receptor cDNA was cloned through the 5'-RACE with the specific primers based on the sequence of the EST. The full length of NPY receptor cDNA from Haliotis discus hannai was 1534bp and encoded 350 amino acid. BLAST analysis revealed that the NPY receptor gene from Haliotis discus hannai shared high identity with the NPY receptor genes from other organisms in amino acid. This NPY receptor have a predicted molecular of 39.56 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 9.57, receptively.

  6. The Contingent Character of Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent criticisms raised against Hegel has to do with the totalizing aspect of his system, which determines what is as absolutely necessary. The Science of Logic, being the conceptual edifice upon which his whole system is built, is the appropriate place to determine the specific meaning of the Hegelian concepts. The following paper offers a detailed analysis on the chapter on Actuality (Wirklichkeit in the Science of Logic, in order to show how the concept of absolute necessity not only includes within it, but also contains as a structural element, the concept of contingency. In this manner a deflationary interpretation is generated in which the absolutely necessary character of actuality should not be understood as grounded on a pre-established end that inexorably determines actuality, but rather as an interpretive movement, in recollection, of its process.

  7. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  8. Character design for soccer commmentary

    CERN Document Server

    Binsted, K

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present early work on an animated talking head commentary system called {\\bf Byrne}\\footnote{David Byrne is the lead singer of the Talking Heads.}. The goal of this project is to develop a system which can take the output from the RoboCup soccer simulator, and generate appropriate affective speech and facial expressions, based on the character's personality, emotional state, and the state of play. Here we describe a system which takes pre-analysed simulator output as input, and which generates text marked-up for use by a speech generator and a face animation system. We make heavy use of inter-system standards, so that future versions of Byrne will be able to take advantage of advances in the technologies that it incorporates.

  9. An approach to offline handwritten Chinese character recognition based on segment evaluation of adaptive duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国宏; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for off-line handwritten Chinese character recognition based on mergence of consecutive segments of adaptive duration. The handwritten Chinese character string is partitioned into a sequence of consecutive segments, which are combined to implement dissimilarity evaluation within a sliding window whose durations are determined adaptively by the integration of shapes and context of evaluations. The average stroke width is estimated for the handwritten Chinese character string, and a set of candidate character segmentation boundaries is found by using the integration of pixel and stroke features. The final decisions on segmentation and recognition are made under minimal arithmetical mean dissimilarities. Experiments proved that the proposed approach of adaptive duration outperforms the method of fixed duration, and is very effective for the recognition of overlapped, broken, touched, loosely configured Chinese characters.

  10. An approach to offline handwritten Chinese character recognition based on segment evaluation of adaptive duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国宏; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for off-line handwritten Chinese character recognition based on mergence of consecutive segments of adaptive duration. The handwritten Chinese character string is partitioned into a sequence of consecutive segments,which are combined to implement dissimilarity evaluation within a sliding window whose durations are determined adaptively by the integration of shapes and context of evaluations. The average stroke width is estimated for the handwritten Chinese character string,and a set of candidate character segmentation boundaries is found by using the integration of pixel and stroke features. The final decisions on segmentation and recognition are made under minimal arithmetical mean dissimilarities. Experiments proved that the proposed approach of adaptive duration outperforms the method of fixed duration,and is very effective for the recognition of overlapped,broken,touched,loosely configured Chinese characters.

  11. Two-character motion analysis and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taesoo; Cho, Young-Sang; Park, Sang Il; Shin, Sung Yong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of synthesizing novel motions of standing-up martial arts such as Kickboxing, Karate, and Taekwondo performed by a pair of human-like characters while reflecting their interactions. Adopting an example-based paradigm, we address three non-trivial issues embedded in this problem: motion modeling, interaction modeling, and motion synthesis. For the first issue, we present a semi-automatic motion labeling scheme based on force-based motion segmentation and learning-based action classification. We also construct a pair of motion transition graphs each of which represents an individual motion stream. For the second issue, we propose a scheme for capturing the interactions between two players. A dynamic Bayesian network is adopted to build a motion transition model on top of the coupled motion transition graph that is constructed from an example motion stream. For the last issue, we provide a scheme for synthesizing a novel sequence of coupled motions, guided by the motion transition model. Although the focus of the present work is on martial arts, we believe that the framework of the proposed approach can be conveyed to other two-player motions as well.

  12. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  13. Towards the Ictalurid Catfish Transcriptome: Generation and Analysis of 31,215 Catfish ESTs.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham Rex; Muir William; Liu Lei; Turan Cemal; Simmons Micah; Serapion Jerry; Somridhivej Benjaporn; Nandi Samiran; Kucuktas Huseyin; Xu Peng; Baoprasertkul Puttharat; He Chongbo; Feng Jinian; Wang Shaolin; Peatman Eric

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background EST sequencing is one of the most efficient means for gene discovery and molecular marker development, and can be additionally utilized in both comparative genome analysis and evaluation of gene duplications. While much progress has been made in catfish genomics, large-scale EST resources have been lacking. The objectives of this project were to construct primary cDNA libraries, to conduct initial EST sequencing to generate catfish EST resources, and to obtain baseline inf...

  14. Identification and Expression Analysis of EST-based Genes in the Bud of Lycoris longituba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonglan Cui; Minren Huang; Xinye Zhang; Yan Zhou; Hong Yu; Lin Tao; Lu Zhang; Jian Zhou; Qiang Zhuge; Youming Cai

    2004-01-01

    To obtain a primary overview of gene diversity and expression pattern in Lycoris longituba, 4,992 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) from L. Longituba bud were sequenced and 4,687 cleaned ESTs were used for gene expression analysis. Clustered by the PHRAP program, 967 contigs and 1,343 singlets were obtained. Blast search showed that 179 contigs and 227 singlets (totally 1,066 ESTs) had homologues in GenBank and 3,621 ESTs were novel.

  15. Cohomological Hall algebras and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Davison, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between twisted and untwisted character varieties via a specific instance of the Cohomological Hall algebra for moduli of objects in 3-Calabi-Yau categories introduced by Kontsevich and Soibelman. In terms of Donaldson--Thomas theory, this relationship is completely understood via the calculations of Hausel and Villegas of the E polynomials of twisted character varieties and untwisted character stacks. We present a conjectural lift of this relationship to the cohomological Hall algebra setting.

  16. "Persona" as Character in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Suzanne

    1983-01-01

    Provides an eight-day sequence of assignments to introduce the idea of the speaker or "persona" to a high school English class beginning study of eighteenth and nineteenth century literature. Cites works by Thomas Hardy, Jonathan Swift, and William Blake. (HTH)

  17. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful combinat......In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...

  18. Discovery of immune related factors in Fenneropenaeus chinensis by annotation of ESTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yaoqing; XIANG Jianhai; WANG Bing; LI Fuhua; TONG Wei

    2004-01-01

    A total of 10446 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are obtained by a large-scale sequencing of a cDNA library from cephalothorax of adult Fenneropenaeus chinensis.An EST analysis platform was built up based on local computers and bioinformatic techniques were used to annotate these ESTs in order to promptly find possible functional genes, especially for immune related factors.About 4% of the ESTs show similarity to the coding sequences of such factors, including lectin, serine protease, serpin, lysozyme, etc.These ESTs provide a partial profile of the immune system in F.chinensis and useful information for further study on these genes.

  19. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. based on next-generation sequencing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Koji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., in the family Caryophyllaceae, can be found in a wide range of colors and is a model system for studies of flower senescence. In addition, it is one of the most important flowers in the global floriculture industry. However, few genomics resources, such as sequences and markers are available for carnation or other members of the Caryophyllaceae. To increase our understanding of the genetic control of important characters in carnation, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST database for a carnation cultivar important in horticulture by high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results We constructed a normalized cDNA library and a 3’-UTR library of carnation, obtaining a total of 1,162,126 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 300,740 unigenes consisting of 37,844 contigs and 262,896 singlets. The contigs were searched against an Arabidopsis sequence database, and 61.8% (23,380 of them had at least one BLASTX hit. These contigs were also annotated with Gene Ontology (GO and were found to cover a broad range of GO categories. Furthermore, we identified 17,362 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs in 14,291 of the unigenes. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of flower color and ethylene biosynthesis. Transcripts were identified for almost every gene involved in flower chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism and in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transcripts were also identified for every step in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions We present the first large-scale sequence data set for carnation, generated using next-generation sequencing technology. The large EST database generated from these sequences is an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in carnation and provides an EST resource for understanding the genetic diversity of this plant.

  1. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  2. Pairagon+N-SCAN_EST: a model-based gene annotation pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Wei, Chaochun; Brown, Randall H

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes Pairagon+N-SCAN_EST, a gene annotation pipeline that uses only native alignments. For each expressed sequence it chooses the best genomic alignment. Systems like ENSEMBL and ExoGean rely on trans alignments, in which expressed sequences are aligned to the genomic loci...... with de novo gene prediction by using N-SCAN_EST. N-SCAN_EST is based on a generalized HMM probability model augmented with a phylogenetic conservation model and EST alignments. It can predict complete transcripts by extending or merging EST alignments, but it can also predict genes in regions without EST...

  3. Character Education, New Media, and Political Spectacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario's new Character Development Initiative is analyzed to determine whether it can be characterized as political spectacle. Examination of official policy texts, media reports, speeches, web pages, webcasts, and events at the Character Development Symposium suggests that the Initiative contains many elements of political spectacle; however,…

  4. Character, Civility, and the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    As the educational community works together to improve academic achievement, the importance of character traits such as honesty, trustworthiness, self discipline, kindness, empathy, respect, responsibility, and courage must not be neglected. This guide has been designed to help educators and families in Massachusetts link character development and…

  5. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...

  6. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  7. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters. Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  8. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters.  Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  9. Don't "Dumb Down" Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    2006-01-01

    Most character education-advocate organizations list traits that they identify as the central principles or "pillars" in character development. They usually include words like responsibility, fairness, pride, and citizenship. As so often happens in education, these words are presented as though they represented straightforward, commonly understood…

  10. Wood anatomical classification using iterative character weighing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, P.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the pattern of wood anatomical variation in some groups of Rubiaceae (i.e. Cinchoneae, Rondeletieae and Condamineae) by using a numerical pattern detection method which involves character weighing (Hogeweg 1975). In this method character weights are obtained iteratively

  11. EST Express: PHP/MySQL based automated annotation of ESTs from expression libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardinas Jose R

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several biological techniques result in the acquisition of functional sets of cDNAs that must be sequenced and analyzed. The emergence of redundant databases such as UniGene and centralized annotation engines such as Entrez Gene has allowed the development of software that can analyze a great number of sequences in a matter of seconds. Results We have developed "EST Express", a suite of analytical tools that identify and annotate ESTs originating from specific mRNA populations. The software consists of a user-friendly GUI powered by PHP and MySQL that allows for online collaboration between researchers and continuity with UniGene, Entrez Gene and RefSeq. Two key features of the software include a novel, simplified Entrez Gene parser and tools to manage cDNA library sequencing projects. We have tested the software on a large data set (2,016 samples produced by subtractive hybridization. Conclusion EST Express is an open-source, cross-platform web server application that imports sequences from cDNA libraries, such as those generated through subtractive hybridization or yeast two-hybrid screens. It then provides several layers of annotation based on Entrez Gene and RefSeq to allow the user to highlight useful genes and manage cDNA library projects.

  12. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  13. Postprocessing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takatoshi; Okamoto, Masayosi; Horii, Hiroshi

    1993-04-01

    We propose a new method of post-processing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information. This method corrects errors in the recognition of handwritten Japanese sentences containing Kanji characters. This post-process method is characterized by having two types of character recognition. Improving the accuracy of the character recognition rate of Japanese characters is made difficult by the large number of characters, and the existence of characters with similar patterns. Therefore, it is not practical for a character recognition system to recognize all characters in detail. First, this post-processing method generates a candidate character table by recognizing the simplest features of characters. Then, it selects words corresponding to the character from the candidate character table by referring to a word and grammar dictionary before selecting suitable words. If the correct character is included in the candidate character table, this process can correct an error, however, if the character is not included, it cannot correct an error. Therefore, if this method can presume a character does not exist in a candidate character table by using linguistic information (word and grammar dictionary). It then can verify a presumed character by character recognition using complex features. When this method is applied to an online character recognition system, the accuracy of character recognition improves 93.5% to 94.7%. This proved to be the case when it was used for the editorials of a Japanese newspaper (Asahi Shinbun).

  14. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Stylophora pistillata

    KAUST Repository

    Zoccola, Didier

    2011-04-09

    Coral reefs are the most productive marine ecosystems with highest species diversity. During the last decades, reefs have been facing multiples global and anthropogenic stressors leading to bleaching and death of entire reefs.

  15. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  16. AcEST: BP920571 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein homolog OS=... 34 0.62 sp|Q9Y239|NOD1_HUMAN Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-c... 33 1.1 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended...ITAKGTAQLADALQSNTGITEICLNGNLIKPEEAKVYEDEKRII 951 >sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-A OS=Xenopu

  17. Micromorphological characters of quartz grain from Nilke loess-paleosol sequences and their implications of origin and provenance%伊犁尼勒克黄土石英颗粒微形态特征及其成因与物源意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越; 宋友桂; 赵井东

    2016-01-01

    with silt generating mechanisms reported by predecessors, we also considered the freezing weathering in high elevation area as one of the silt generating mechanisms. With comparative analysis to probable sequence of events indicating the formation of loess, it holds that the origin of Nilka loess are similar to those of loess in Hungary but different from those of loess in Chinese Loess Plateau.Conclusions With the studies of surface micromorphological characters of quartz grain and the grain size, we believe that Nilka loess also belongs to eolian sediment, and the shape of particle and morphology by mechanical effect indicate that Nilka loess materials have experienced glaciation and lfow action before transportation by wind.The lfow action played an important role in the generation of quartz silt from Nilka loess and glacial abrasion might make a certain contribution. However eolian erosion leaved no obvious traces in surface of quartz particles, indicative of the shorter transporting distance by wind between loess deposit area and provenance. Moreover it is inferred that the weather denudation was also the important silt generating mechanism. The origin of Nilka loess are similar to those of loess in Hungary, but different from those of loess in Chinese Loess Plateau, which displays mainly in the time of transportation-deposition by wind or distance of wind transport.Recommendations and perspectives This paper analyzes the geologic processes experienced by Nilka loess materials and gives a understanding of the loess silt generating mechanism with plotting the probable sequence of events indicating the formation of loess. This work will lay an important foundation for interpreting climatic signiifcance of Ili loess.%石英颗粒表面微形态分析是判断沉积物成因和来源的重要方法之一。对伊犁盆地尼勒克黄土石英颗粒表面微形态特征进行了研究,并将其与冰川、河流、沙漠样品进行比较,结果表明尼勒克黄

  18. On Hemingway’s Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Miruna Ciocoi-Pop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a brief outline of Hemingway’s characters and the way in which they correspond to the author himself. It is known for a fact that Hemingway evinced a tendency to imitate his characters when they were coming to grips with diverse situations. Thus I have tried to briefly pinpoint the fading boundaries between reality and imagination in his work. By doing so, I have focused on both male and female characters, underlining the major dissimilarities between these two categories, as well as their main features.

  19. On the JLO Character and Loop Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chung Lun Alan

    In type II noncommutative geometry, the geometry on a C*-algebra A is given by an unbounded Breuer--Fredholm module (rho, N,D ) over A. Here rho : A → N is a *-homomorphism from A to the semi-finite von Neumann algebra N⊂BH , and D is an unbounded Breuer--Fredholm operator affiliated with N that satisfies certain axioms. Each Breuer--Fredholm module assigns an index to a given element in the K-theory of A. The Breuer--Fredholm index provides a real-valued pairing between the K-homology of A and the K-theory of A. When N=BH , a construction of Jaffe-Lesniewski-Osterwalder associates to the module (rho, N,D ) a cocycle Ch•JLOD in the entire cyclic cohomology group HE·( A) for D is theta-summable. The JLO character and the K-theory character ch· : K·(A) → HE ·(A) intertwine the K-theoretical pairing with the pairing between HE·(A) and HE ·(A). If (rho, N,F ) is a finitely summable bounded Breuer--Fredholm module, Benameur-Fack defined a character formula chn(F ) generalizing the Connes character formula for bounded Fredholm modules. On the other hand, given a finitely-summable unbounded Breuer--Fredholm module (rho, N,D ), there is a canonically associated bounded Breuer--Fredholm module. The first main result of this thesis extends the JLO theory to Breuer--Fredholm modules (possibly N≠BH ) in the graded case, and proves that the JLO character formula Ch•JLOD and Connes character formula chn( F) define the same class in HE·(A). This extends a result of Connes-Moscovici[21] for ordinary Fredholm modules. An important example of an unbounded Breuer--Fredholm module is given by the noncommutative space of G-connections due to Aastrup-Grimstrup-Nest[3, 4]. In their original work, the authors limit their construction to the case that the group G is either U(1) or SU(2). Another main result of the thesis extends AGN's construction to any connected compact Lie group G; and generalizes by considering connections defined on sequences of graphs, using limits

  20. ON­LINE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ADAPTIVELY CONTROLLED BY HANDWRITING QUALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamanaka, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    On­line character recognition which can adapt to handwriting quality is proposed. In character recognition, it is difficult to recognize both clearly and roughly written characters accurately. For Japanese characters, the number of strokes is often slightly varied when characters are written roughly

  1. Unexplored Character Diversity in Onychophora (Velvet Worms): A Comparative Study of Three Peripatid Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ivo de Sena; Franke, Franziska Anni; Hering, Lars; Schaffer, Stefan; Rowell, David M.; Weck-Heimann, Andreas; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Mayer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Low character variation among onychophoran species has been an obstacle for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in the past, however we have identified a number of new and informative characters using morphological, molecular, and chromosomal techniques. Our analyses involved a detailed examination of Epiperipatus biolleyi from Costa Rica, Eoperipatus sp. from Thailand, and a new onychophoran species and genus from Costa Rica, Principapillatus hitoyensis gen. et sp. nov.. Scanning electron microscopy on embryos and specimens of varying age revealed novel morphological characters and character states, including the distribution of different receptor types along the antennae, the arrangement and form of papillae on the head, body and legs, the presence and shape of interpedal structures and fields of modified scales on the ventral body surface, the arrangement of lips around the mouth, the number, position and structure of crural tubercles and anal gland openings, and the presence and shape of embryonic foot projections. Karyotypic analyses revealed differences in the number and size of chromosomes among the species studied. The results of our phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial COI and 12S rRNA gene sequences are in line with morphological and karyotype data. However, our data show a large number of unexplored, albeit informative, characters in the Peripatidae. We suggest that analysing these characters in additional species would help unravel species diversity and phylogeny in the Onychophora, and that inconsistencies among most diagnostic features used for the peripatid genera in the literature could be addressed by identifying a suite of characters common to all peripatids. PMID:23284667

  2. AcEST: DK947755 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  3. AcEST: DK944635 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................51 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  4. AcEST: DK944611 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  5. Wisconsin Islands Wilderness Character Monitoring Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The table and the report that follow are part of a national initiative to establish a baseline wilderness character assessment for all of the National Wildlife...

  6. Seafloor character--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster data file...

  7. Seafloor character--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in "SFC_OffshorePacifica.zip," which is...

  8. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  9. Kannada Character Recognition System A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Indira, K

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research has been done on optical character recognition ocr and a large number of articles have been published on this topic during the last few decades. Many commercial OCR systems are now available in the market, but most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters. There are no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 12 major scripts in India. This paper presents a review of existing work on printed Kannada script and their results. The characteristics of Kannada script and Kannada Character Recognition System kcr are discussed in detail. Finally fusion at the classifier level is proposed to increase the recognition accuracy.

  10. Character strenghts and sex differences in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reyes Martín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the association between character strengths and happiness and global health in adolescents by gender. The participants comprised 117 high-school students (μ =16.90, σ =.81 from Málaga (Spain. All participants completed the Values in Action 120-Items Questionnaire (VIA-120, the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, and the Happiness Item. The results showed higher levels of character strengths and lower levels of temperance and religiousness in the humanity score. Moderately significant associations were found between all character strengths and general health, happiness, and especially hope. Boys had significantly higher scores on zest, prudence, self-regulation, and hope (Student t test. The study suggests that character strengths could contribute to increased life satisfaction and health among adolescents.

  11. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  12. Estás contratado!

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este Objeto de aprendizaje interactivo muestra la simulación de una entrevista de trabajo. En este objeto se deberá elegir la opción de respuesta más adecuada de acuerdo con la pregunta planteada, recibiendo de manera inmediata las respuestas correctas y equivocadas.

  13. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  14. Character strenghts and sex differences in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Reyes Martín; Marta Ferragut

    2016-01-01

    This study analysed the association between character strengths and happiness and global health in adolescents by gender. The participants comprised 117 high-school students (μ =16.90, σ =.81) from Málaga (Spain). All participants completed the Values in Action 120-Items Questionnaire (VIA-120), the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and the Happiness Item. The results showed higher levels of character strengths and lower levels of temperance and religiousness in the h...

  15. AcEST: DK960767 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0. 5' end sequence. DK960767 - Show DK960767 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0008_E20 Library TST39 Length 123 Definition...X Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition -...ast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  16. AcEST: DK946187 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6. 5' end sequence. DK946187 - Show DK946187 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0011_M06 Library YMU02 Length 150 Definition...ult : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Alig...p. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  17. Chinese character recognition :history ,status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Ruwei; LIU Chenglin; XIAO Baihua

    2007-01-01

    Chinese character recognition (CCR) is an important branch of pattern recognition.It was considered as an extremely difficult problem due to the very large number of categories,complicated structures,similarity between characters,and the variability of fonts or writing styles.Because of its unique technical challenges and great social needs,the last four decades witnessed the intensive research in this field and a rapid increase of successful applications.However,higher recognition performance is continuously needed to improve the existing applications and to exploit new applications.This paper first provides an overview of Chinese character recognition and the properties of Chinese characters.Some important methods and successful results in the history of Chinese character recognition are then summarized.As for classification methods,this article pays special attention to the syntactic-semantic approach for online Chinese character recognition,as well as the metasynthesis approach for discipline crossing.Finally,the remaining problems and the possible solutions are discussed.

  18. Recognition of Telugu characters using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhaswami, M B; Seetharamulu, P; Pujari, A K

    1995-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to recognize printed and handwritten Telugu characters using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Earlier work on recognition of Telugu characters has been done using conventional pattern recognition techniques. We make an initial attempt here of using neural networks for recognition with the aim of improving upon earlier methods which do not perform effectively in the presence of noise and distortion in the characters. The Hopfield model of neural network working as an associative memory is chosen for recognition purposes initially. Due to limitation in the capacity of the Hopfield neural network, we propose a new scheme named here as the Multiple Neural Network Associative Memory (MNNAM). The limitation in storage capacity has been overcome by combining multiple neural networks which work in parallel. It is also demonstrated that the Hopfield network is suitable for recognizing noisy printed characters as well as handwritten characters written by different "hands" in a variety of styles. Detailed experiments have been carried out using several learning strategies and results are reported. It is shown here that satisfactory recognition is possible using the proposed strategy. A detailed preprocessing scheme of the Telugu characters from digitized documents is also described.

  19. An optimized procedure greatly improves EST vector contamination removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Huan-Bin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enormous amount of sequence data available in the public domain database has been a gold mine for researchers exploring various themes in life sciences, and hence the quality of such data is of serious concern to researchers. Removal of vector contamination is one of the most significant operations to obtain accurate sequence data containing only a cDNA insert from the basecalls output by an automatic DNA sequencer. Popular bioinformatics programs to accomplish vector trimming include LUCY, cross_match and SeqClean. Results In a recent study, where the program SeqClean was used to remove vector contamination from our test set of EST data compiled through various library construction systems, however, a significant number of errors remained after preliminary trimming. These errors were later almost completely corrected by simply using a re-linearized form of the cloning vector to compare against the target ESTs. The modified trimming procedure for SeqClean was also compared with the trimming efficiency of the other two popular programs, LUCY2, and cross_match. Using SeqClean with a re-linearized form of the cloning vector significantly surpassed the other two programs in all tested conditions, while the performance of the other two programs was not influenced by the modified procedure. Vector contamination in dbEST was also investigated in this study: 2203 out of the 48212 ESTs sampled from dbEST (2007-04-18 freeze were found to match sequences in UNIVEC. Conclusion Vector contamination remains a serious concern to the data quality in the public sequence database nowadays. Based on the results presented here, we feel that our modified procedure with SeqClean should be recommended to all researchers for the task of vector removal from EST or genomic sequences.

  20. On meager function spaces, network character and meager convergence in topological spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banakh, Taras; Zdomskyy, Lyubomyr

    2010-01-01

    For a non-isolated point $x$ of a topological space $X$ the network character $nw_\\chi(x)$ is the smallest cardinality of a family of infinite subsets of $X$ such that each neighborhood $O(x)$ of $x$ contains a set from the family. We prove that (1) each paracompact space $X$ admitting a closed map onto a non-discrete Frechet-Urysohn space contains a non-isolated point $x$ with countable network character; (2) for each point $x\\in X$ with countable character there is an injective sequence in $X$ that $\\F$-converges to $x$ for some meager filter $\\F$ on $\\omega$; (3) if a functionally Hausdorff space $X$ contains an $\\F$-convergent injective sequence for some meager filter $\\F$, then for every $T_1$-space $Y$ that contains two non-empty open sets with disjoint closures, the function space $C_p(X,Y)$ is meager.

  1. ESTs and EST-linked polymorphisms for genetic mapping and phylogenetic reconstruction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Namita

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is a well-known model organism for studying inheritance and variation of male ornamental traits as well as adaptation to different river habitats. However, genomic resources for studying this important model were not previously widely available. Results With the aim of generating molecular markers for genetic mapping of the guppy, cDNA libraries were constructed from embryos and different adult organs to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs. About 18,000 ESTs were annotated according to BLASTN and BLASTX results and the sequence information from the 3' UTRs was exploited to generate PCR primers for re-sequencing of genomic DNA from different wild type strains. By comparison of EST-linked genomic sequences from at least four different ecotypes, about 1,700 polymorphisms were identified, representing about 400 distinct genes. Two interconnected MySQL databases were built to organize the ESTs and markers, respectively. A robust phylogeny of the guppy was reconstructed, based on 10 different nuclear genes. Conclusion Our EST and marker databases provide useful tools for genetic mapping and phylogenetic studies of the guppy.

  2. On Tuning the Bad-Character Rule: the Worst-Character Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Cantone, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this note we present the worst-character rule, an efficient variation of the bad-character heuristic for the exact string matching problem, firstly introduced in the well-known Boyer-Moore algorithm. Our proposed rule selects a position relative to the current shift which yields the largest average advancement, according to the characters distribution in the text. Experimental results show that the worst-character rule achieves very good results especially in the case of long patterns or small alphabets in random texts and in the case of texts in natural languages.

  3. Acquisition of Chinese characters: The effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen eKuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su & Samuels, 2010 and dual-coding processing (Sadoski & Paivio, 2013 and investigated a the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence on character acquisition and b the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014, a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that a characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and b individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  4. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  5. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo Taek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum, although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was designed and constructed to enable comprehensive analysis of chili pepper gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Results We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat. The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/. Conclusion The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.

  6. Character superimposition inpainting in surveillance video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lili; Tao, Junjie; You, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance systems play an important role in the crime scene investigation, and the digital surveillance system always requires the superimposed video data being subjected to a data compression processing. The purpose of this paper is to study the use of inpainting techniques to remove the characters and inpaint the target region. We give the efficient framework including getting Character Superimposition mask, superimposition movement and inpainting the blanks. The character region is located with the manual ROI selection and varying text extractor, such as the time. The superimposed characters usually have distinguished colors from the original background, so the edges are easily detected. We use the canny operator the get the edge image. The missing information which is effect the structure of the original image is reconstructed using a structure propagating algorithm. The experiment was done with C/C++ in the vs2010 KDE. The framework of this paper showed is powerful to recreate the character superimposition region and helpful to the crime scene investigation.

  7. CONFUCIANISM AND CHARACTER EDUCATION: A CHINESE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ju Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of Confucianism are founded on humaneness, righteousness, propriety, knowledge, integrity and filial piety. These principles have found their way to the Chinese culture since the days of Confucius. The study reviews the concept of Confucianism and its influence in Chinese context. Also, the relationship between Confucianism and character education is discussed. Character education is based on the transmission of values and within Chinese society and most of these values have been founded on the teachings of Confucius. Filial piety has strongly been conditioned within the principles of Confucianism and the respect of one’s elders. Character education has been promoted by teachers and elders who focus on the transmission of values from one generation to the next. Character education is supported by the theories and teachings set out by Confucius, mostly in relation to humaneness and integrity, as well as collectivism. The individualistic trends are discarded within character education, as the welfare of the society and the collective is prioritized.

  8. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  9. AcEST: DK946143 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. AcEST: DK947631 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. AcEST: DK945388 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0. 5' end sequence. DK945388 - Show DK945388 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0009_C10 Library YMU02 Length 128 Definition...last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit)... - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  12. AcEST: DK944629 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. AcEST: DK945631 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. AcEST: DK943742 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9. 5' end sequence. DK943742 - Show DK943742 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0003_M19 Library YMU02 Length 125 Definition...t op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - ...E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  15. AcEST: DK947324 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. AcEST: DK944230 [AcEST

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  17. AcEST: DK946589 [AcEST

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  18. AcEST: DK945745 [AcEST

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  19. AcEST: DK947106 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. AcEST: DK944886 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. AcEST: DK944111 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching..................................................don...,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  2. Artistic and Moral Imagination in "The Hundred Dresses" by Eleanor Estes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the story's two themes--a celebration of artistic creativity and a ringing denunciation of prejudice--are closely related through their reliance on the importance of imagination, both artistic and moral. Employs recent work in moral theory to analyze the way in which the resolution of Estes's story turns on the characters' growth in…

  3. Balancing plot and character believability by reasoning out-of-character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    We are designing a serious game in which players need to become aware of their social behaviour by interacting with virtual characters. These characters need to behave believably while guaranteeing that the player reaches that learning goal at a certain point during the game's story. I propose to le

  4. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  5. Detecting DNS Tunnels Using Character Frequency Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Kenton

    2010-01-01

    High-bandwidth covert channels pose significant risks to sensitive and proprietary information inside company networks. Domain Name System (DNS) tunnels provide a means to covertly infiltrate and exfiltrate large amounts of information passed network boundaries. This paper explores the possibility of detecting DNS tunnels by analyzing the unigram, bigram, and trigram character frequencies of domains in DNS queries and responses. It is empirically shown how domains follow Zipf's law in a similar pattern to natural languages, whereas tunneled traffic has more evenly distributed character frequencies. This approach allows tunnels to be detected across multiple domains, whereas previous methods typically concentrate on monitoring point to point systems. Anomalies are quickly discovered when tunneled traffic is compared to the character frequency fingerprint of legitimate domain traffic.

  6. Conceptual Design Scheme for Virtual Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Gino; Servidio, Rocco

    The aim of this paper is to describe some theoretical considerations about virtual character design. In recent years, many prototypes of cognitive and behavioral architectures have been developed to simulate human behavior in artificial agents. Analyzing recent studies, we assume that there exists a variety of computational models and methods in order to increase the cognitive abilities of the virtual characters. In our opinion, it is necessary to perform a synthesis of these approaches in order to improve the existing models and avoiding the application of new approaches. Considering these aspects, in this paper we describe a taxonomy that explores the principal cognitive and computational parameters involved in the design, development and evaluation of a virtual character.

  7. Trivalent graphs, volume conjectures and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Nawata, Satoshi; Zodinmawia,

    2014-01-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to $U_q(sl_2)$ colored quantum invariants of trivalent graphs. The SL(2,C) character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with $E$ edges in $S^3$ is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus $g=E/3+1$. The configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety. In particular, we investigate both the conjectures for the theta and tetrahedron graphs.

  8. Root Character Evolution and Systematics in Cranichidinae, Prescottiinae and Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Coyolxauhqui; Salazar, Gerardo A.; Zavaleta, H. Araceli; Engleman, E. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies have suggested that velamen characteristics are useful as taxonomic markers in Orchidaceae. Members of tribe Cranichideae have been assigned to two velamen types constructed based on combinations of characters such as the presence of secondary cell-wall thickenings and pores. However, such characters have not been analysed on an individual basis in explicit cladistic analyses. Methods The micromorphology of roots of 26 species of Cranichideae was examined through scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, scoring the variation and distribution of four characters: number of velamen cell layers, velamen cell-wall thickenings, presence and type of tilosomes, and supraendodermal spaces. The last three characters were analysed cladistically in combination with DNA sequence data of plastid trnK/matK and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and optimized on the resulting phylogenetic tree. Key Results Thickenings of velamen cell walls group Prescottiinae with Spiranthinae, whereas tilosomes, documented here for the first time in Cranichideae, provide an unambiguous synapomorphy for subtribe Spiranthinae. Supraendodermal spaces occur mostly in species dwelling in seasonally dry habitats and appear to have evolved three times. Conclusions Three of the four structural characters assessed are phylogenetically informative, marking monophyletic groups recovered in the combined molecular–morphological analysis. This study highlights the need for conducting character-based structural studies to overcome analytical shortcomings of the typological approach. PMID:18263628

  9. Reverse mathematics and properties of finite character

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhafarov, Damir D

    2011-01-01

    We study the reverse mathematics of the principle stating that, for every property of finite character, every set of natural numbers has a maximal subset satisfying the property. In the context of set theory, this variant of Tukey's lemma is equivalent to the axiom of choice. We study its behavior in the context of second-order arithmetic, and give a full characterization of the strength of the principle in terms of the quantifier structure of the formula defining the property. We then study the interaction between properties of finite character and finitary closure operators, and the interaction between these properties and a class of nondeterministic closure operators which we introduce.

  10. AcEST: DK947363 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. AcEST: DK947804 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. AcEST: DK946081 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. AcEST: DK945594 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. AcEST: DK946769 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. AcEST: DK954791 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. AcEST: DK947164 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. AcEST: DK946405 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. AcEST: DK947352 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. AcEST: DK945548 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. AcEST: DK943583 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. AcEST: BP915641 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. AcEST: DK947734 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result ...asta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  3. AcEST: DK947689 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. AcEST: DK944932 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. AcEST: DK945438 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. AcEST: DK946057 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. AcEST: DK947227 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. AcEST: DK947896 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. AcEST: BP920873 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. AcEST: DK945649 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 29 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX R...embl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  11. AcEST: DK947500 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. AcEST: DK946802 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. AcEST: DK943876 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. AcEST: DK947207 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. AcEST: DK944150 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. AcEST: BP916808 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne: YMU001_000091_H03. (159 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (relea...atabase: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  17. AcEST: DK946721 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 02A01NGRL0013_I10, 5' (138 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (releas...rs) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  18. AcEST: DK947414 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , clone: YMU02A01NGRL0015_N04, 5' (168 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765... total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** Tr...' (168 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  19. AcEST: DK946471 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5' (119 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to Bla...ot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  20. AcEST: DK952775 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clone: TST38A01NGRL0015_A07, 5' (170 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEM...(170 letters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  1. AcEST: DK962421 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (releas...l.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  2. AcEST: BP913622 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : T...1,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  3. AcEST: DK945145 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1NGRL0008_G06, 5' (136 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (release 39...Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  4. AcEST: DK946346 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU02A01NGRL0012_F04, 5' (108 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (re...etters) Database: uniprot_trembl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  5. AcEST: BP915145 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (116 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to Blast...l.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  6. AcEST: DK944424 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result ...asta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  7. AcEST: BP921273 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . (138 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.....................................................done ***** No hits found ****** TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to Blas...bl.fasta 7,341,751 sequences; 2,391,615,440 total letters Searching..................................................done ***** No hits found ****** ...

  8. AcEST: DK947893 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  9. AcEST: DK944247 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  10. AcEST: DK945686 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  11. AcEST: DK954550 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9. 5' end sequence. DK954550 - Show DK954550 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0020_L19 Library TST39 Length 109 Definition...s-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length -...e too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  12. AcEST: DK946291 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK946291 - Show DK946291 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0012_C02 Library YMU02 Length 141 Definition...ss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length ...ce too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  13. AcEST: BP917598 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7598 - Show BP917598 Clone id YMU001_000102_H07 Library YMU01 Length 98 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris... : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-val...Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  14. AcEST: DK944711 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK944711 - Show DK944711 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0006_P12 Library YMU02 Length 139 Definition...-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - ... too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  15. AcEST: DK947281 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9. 5' end sequence. DK947281 - Show DK947281 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0015_G09 Library YMU02 Length 140 Definition...s-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length -...e too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  16. AcEST: DK946983 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6. 5' end sequence. DK946983 - Show DK946983 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0014_G06 Library YMU02 Length 145 Definition... Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align len...quence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  17. AcEST: CL1407Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1407Contig1 711 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1407contig1 sequence. Link ...apillus-veneris contig: CL1407contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945957 DK94

  18. AcEST: CL2407Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2407Contig1 855 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2407contig1 sequence. Link ...apillus-veneris contig: CL2407contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917544 DK95

  19. AcEST: CL3407Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3407Contig1 615 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3407contig1 sequence. Link ...apillus-veneris contig: CL3407contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK943946 DK95

  20. AcEST: DK945690 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  1. AcEST: DK944039 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  2. AcEST: BP917285 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value...L (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  3. AcEST: BP916279 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMB...L (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  4. AcEST: BP919261 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (releas...e 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  5. AcEST: BP915968 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (releas...e 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  6. AcEST: DK946891 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  7. AcEST: DK944235 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  8. AcEST: BP921459 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (...release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  9. AcEST: DK955552 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  10. AcEST: DK943603 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available st op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  11. AcEST: DK945249 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  12. AcEST: DK945232 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  13. AcEST: BP913070 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMB...L (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  14. AcEST: BP917289 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (re...lease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  15. AcEST: BP914271 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (...release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  16. AcEST: DK946907 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  17. AcEST: DK945427 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  18. AcEST: DK947030 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  19. AcEST: BP919324 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (rele...ase 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  20. AcEST: DK943854 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  1. AcEST: DK944432 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8. 5' end sequence. DK944432 - Show DK944432 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0006_A18 Library YMU02 Length 104 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0006_A18. 5' end sequence. Accession DK944432 Tissue t

  2. AcEST: DK952058 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 09 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 63 2e-09 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended...=... 62 2e-09 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 62 3e-09 sp|Q7TNF0|DOC2A_M... OS=Mus musculus... 61 5e-09 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Ho

  3. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em reatores anaeróbios de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (uasb em dois estágios seguidos de reator operado em batelada sequencial (RBS Swine wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (uasb in two-stages followed by sequencing batch reactor (SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. de Oliveira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o desempenho de dois reatores anaeróbios de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB, em série, seguidos de um reator operado em batelada sequencial (RBS com etapa aeróbia, no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura. O sistema de tratamento anaeróbio em dois estágios foi alimentado com águas residuárias de suinocultura com concentrações médias de sólidos suspensos totais (SST, de 4.427 a 16.425 mg L-1 . As cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV aplicadas no reator UASB do primeiro estágio variaram de 14,8 a 24,4 g DQO (L d-1. Os tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH foram de 28 e 11 h e de 14 e 6 h no primeiro e segundo reatores UASB, respectivamente. O RBS foi operado com 1 e 2 ciclos diários de alimentação e com concentrações de SST do afluente, de 1.348 a 2.036 mg L-1 . As maiores eficiências de remoção de DQOtotal ocorreram com os maiores TDH, com valores médios de 78 a 88% nos reatores UASB, em dois estágios. Com o tratamento do efluente dos reatores UASB no RBS, as eficiências médias de remoção aumentaram para 93 a 97%, 92 a 98%, 57 a 78%, 71 a 88% e 68 a 85% para a DQO total, SST, P-total, nitrogênio total Kjeldahl (NTK e nitrogênio total (NT, respectivamente. Para os coliformes termotolerantes, as remoções foram de 93,80 a 99,99%.This work aimed to evaluate the performance of two aerobic-anaerobic combination system of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digestion reactor (UASB in line followed by an aerobic sequencing bath reactor (SBR, used in swine wastewater treatment. The UASB system was fed with swine wastewater containing from 4427 to 16425 mg L-1 of total suspended solids (TSS. The treatment system was evaluated using organic loading (OLR of 14,8 to 24,4 g total COD (L d-1 in the first UASB reactor. The hydraulic detention times (HDT were of 28 and 11 h, and 14 and 6 h, in the first and second UASB reactor, respectively. The SBR was operated with one and two cycles

  4. An Optical Character Recognition for Handwritten Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti R. Zalke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition is process of recognition of character from scanned document and lots of OCR now available in the market. But most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters . There are no sufficient number of work on Indian language script like Devanagari so this paper present a review on optical character recognition on handwritten Devanagari script.

  5. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes...

  6. MELOGEN: an EST database for melon functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigdomènech Pere

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo L. is one of the most important fleshy fruits for fresh consumption. Despite this, few genomic resources exist for this species. To facilitate the discovery of genes involved in essential traits, such as fruit development, fruit maturation and disease resistance, and to speed up the process of breeding new and better adapted melon varieties, we have produced a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from eight normalized cDNA libraries from different tissues in different physiological conditions. Results We determined over 30,000 ESTs that were clustered into 16,637 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, comprising 6,023 tentative consensus sequences (contigs and 10,614 unclustered sequences (singletons. Many potential molecular markers were identified in the melon dataset: 1,052 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 356 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were found. Sixty-nine percent of the melon unigenes showed a significant similarity with proteins in databases. Functional classification of the unigenes was carried out following the Gene Ontology scheme. In total, 9,402 unigenes were mapped to one or more ontology. Remarkably, the distributions of melon and Arabidopsis unigenes followed similar tendencies, suggesting that the melon dataset is representative of the whole melon transcriptome. Bioinformatic analyses primarily focused on potential precursors of melon micro RNAs (miRNAs in the melon dataset, but many other genes potentially controlling disease resistance and fruit quality traits were also identified. Patterns of transcript accumulation were characterised by Real-Time-qPCR for 20 of these genes. Conclusion The collection of ESTs characterised here represents a substantial increase on the genetic information available for melon. A database (MELOGEN which contains all EST sequences, contig images and several tools for analysis and data mining has been created. This set of

  7. Un ami qui est toujours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2012-01-01

    Un jour,pendant la récréation,je suis descendue dans le bureau du secrétariat.Quand je préparais un café,une femme professeur d'espagnol s'est exclamée:《Tiens! Tu es de bonne humeur ce matin ! 》 (E)tonnée,je lui ai demandé pourquoi.Elle a répondu:《 Parce que tu prends un ca fé.》Quelle réponse inattendue! Ce n'est qu'un café instantané,un peu fade,pas très bon,à dire vrai.Si j'en prends une petite tasse,ce n'est pas que je suis de bonne humeur.C'est plut(o)t mon habitude,ou bien c'est que le café me donne une belle humeur.

  8. NOBAI: a web server for character coding of geometrical and statistical features in RNA structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Vegeir; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The Numeration of Objects in Biology: Alignment Inferences (NOBAI) web server provides a web interface to the applications in the NOBAI software package. This software codes topological and thermodynamic information related to the secondary structure of RNA molecules as multi-state phylogenetic characters, builds character matrices directly in NEXUS format and provides sequence randomization options. The web server is an effective tool that facilitates the search for evolutionary history embedded in the structure of functional RNA molecules. The NOBAI web server is accessible at 'http://www.manet.uiuc.edu/nobai/nobai.php'. This web site is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement.

  9. Nearest Neighbor Algorithm in Handwritten Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Deshmukh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system extracts the geometric features of the character Contour. The system gives a feature vector as its output. The feature vectors so generated from a training set is then used to train a pattern recognition engine based on Neural Networks so that the system can be benchmarked. There was an attempt made to develop a system that used the methods that humans use to perceive handwritten characters. Hence a system that recognizes handwritten characters using Pattern recognition was developed. Here the data generated by comparing two images was stored in excel format and then that data was called as an individual input for generation of Simulink diagram. Pattern recognition can be used to model human perception. The mathematics that Pattern recognition requires is extremely fundamental. Any algorithm developed using Pattern recognition would require relatively simple and not so lengthy calculations. Due to simplicity of calculations, they can be implemented on any hardware or software platform without worrying about the computing power. In this paper first part is about introduction to character Recognition. The second part deals with the short introduction to neural network implementation for image processing using MATLAB

  10. Using character overlap to improve language transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, S.; Krahmer, E.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Language transformation can be defined as translating between diachronically distinct language variants. We investigate the transformation of Middle Dutch into Modern Dutch by means of machine translation. We demonstrate that by using character overlap the performance of the machine translation proce

  11. Using Storybooks as a Character Education Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Fethi; Ulutas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the views and implementations of preschool teachers in "giving character education through picture storybooks." Descriptive review method was used in the research and supported with focus group interviews. For this reason data were took from two study groups (for the descriptive study group n = 245, for the…

  12. 7 CFR 52.809 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... cherries. (b) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a good character may be given a..., tender texture. (c) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a reasonably...

  13. 7 CFR 52.781 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... cherries. (b) (A) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a good character may be given a..., tender texture. (c) (B) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a reasonably...

  14. 7 CFR 52.1009 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1...) classification. Whole or pitted dates that possess a good character may be given a score of 36 to 40 points... possess dry calyx ends. (b) (B) classification. If the whole or pitted dates or whole dry dates...

  15. The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In the last year, two prominent, famous, and revered coaches, Jim Tressel and Joe Paterno, committed disastrous lapses of ethics. Both coaches preached that sport and athletics build character. They either taught ethics or leadership courses at their institutions or were exemplars of ethical behavior in their personal and professional lives. Both…

  16. The Unavoidable Mission of Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Henry A.

    1995-01-01

    Character-education programs can be implemented without creating a political firestorm if planners carefully consider key process and content elements, including community involvement; core values; comprehensive, effective curricula; formal evaluation; prosocial behavior codes; communications; family outreach; and leadership from a knowledge base.…

  17. Study on Collision Characters for SPAR Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhi-qiang; CUI Wei-cheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the research on the external mechanism of collision characters for a SPAR platform. The collision characters of SPAR platform have not attracted so much attention as that of ships in the past, because short of this kind of collision accidents reported. But with the increasing number of SPAR platforms in the world, the possibility of such kind of accident also increases. Therefore, it is necessary to master the character of SPAR collision. Model test technique is employed to study the external mechanism. The collision scenario is a ship colliding with a SPAR platform moored in the site with 1500 meters water depth. The striking ship hits the SPAR platform on the hard tank near water surface in its longitudinal direction. The specifics of the SPAR's motions and the tension forces of the mooring lines are collected to summarize the hydrodynamic characters in the collision scenario. It is found that the maximal displacements and the maximal pitch angles of the SPAR platform, and the maximal tension forces of mooring lines are all linearly proportional to the initial velocity of the striking ship basically. Mooring lines play elastic roles in the collision course.

  18. A Brief Analysis of Sister Carrie's Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hanying

    2010-01-01

    Carrie is always dreaming while the rocking chair is rocking again and again, this is the deep impression on us after we read "Sister Carrie" which is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser. In this novel the protagonist Sister Carrie is a controversial person. This paper tries to analyze the character of Sister Carrie in order to find out…

  19. On Repairing Generated Behaviors for Graphical Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our work on the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) behaviors for graphical interactive characters by novice users. We refer to novice users as any persons who do not have any particular skills, training and experience in both programming and design. The focus...

  20. Seafloor character--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The raster data file is...

  1. Quasihomomorphisms and the residue Chern character

    CERN Document Server

    Perrot, Denis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a general procedure, based on the renormalized eta-cochain, which allows to find local representatives of the bivariant Chern character of finitely summable quasihomomorphisms. In particular, using zeta-function renormalization we obtain a bivariant generalization of the Connes-Moscovici residue formula, and explain the link with chiral and multiplicative anomalies in quantum field theory.

  2. Quasihomomorphisms and the residue Chern character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Denis

    2010-10-01

    We develop a general procedure, based on the renormalized eta-cochain, which allows to find "local" representatives of the bivariant Chern character of finitely summable quasihomomorphisms. In particular, using zeta-function renormalization we obtain a bivariant generalization of the Connes-Moscovici residue formula, and explain the link with chiral and multiplicative anomalies in quantum field theory.

  3. The Attractive Character of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车婧瑜; 郭文睿

    2008-01-01

    Jane Eyre,written by Charlotte Bront(e),is a story of the heroine's struggle for independent personality and perfect love.Viewed as a classic work of English literature,the author of Jane Eyre makes it valuable and popular by creating a kind of Hew imagination.This paper argues for Jane's attractive character through her life experience.

  4. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  5. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  6. Computer animation for articulated 3D characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK), contr

  7. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity.

  8. Theoretical reflections on Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David

    2002-01-01

    The ideas contained in Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis, while very influential, have not been thoroughly exploited in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. These ideas, aimed particularly at producing genuine change rather than mere intellectual understanding, are reexamined. Further implications of them are discussed.

  9. Temperament and Character in Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yazici Gulec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality takes an important role in etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The studies conducted with Temperament and Character Inventory which investigates the personality according to psychobiological model is considered to have a major role in understanding the relationship between personality and psychosomatic disorders. In order to emphasize the previous studies on this subject, we have done database search in Pubmed and Turk Psikiyatri Dizini (Turkish Psychiatry Directory for the time period between 1991 and 2009 to determine and evaluate the articles conducted among somatization, dermatologic illness, headache, physical medicine, angina, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma patients using Temperament and Character Inventory. The most significant consistent result of these studies was elevated harm avoid-ance scores. Harm avoidance scores still remain high even after controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. Thus this temperament dimension is possibly an important state and trait feature for development of psychosomatic illnesses. These findings also confirmed that serotonergic systems get involved in the process of psychosomatic organization. In many studies, the mean scores of self direction sub-dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory which has been considered as the fundamental dimension to achieve mature personality, was found to be lower in psychosomatic patient groups than normal healthy control. This result hence supports the notion that process of illness affects the personality among these patients. Detailed evaluation of temparement and character profiles of psychosomatic patients would contribute much into understanding the etiology of these disorders.

  10. Reflection Character of the Continental Lithosphere and Crustal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Reflection images represent the high-frequency end member of the suite of seismological tools commonly used to probe the lithosphere. The global inventory of deep reflection profiles has documented reflection characters as varied as the surface geology that provides the primary boundary condition for the interpretation of reflection images. Past reviews of reflection results have stressed similarities in reflection patterns between various geographic regions and attempted to associate these patterns with specific tectonic processes. Examples include: laminated sequences (shear fabrics formed during extension or collision), reflective Mohos (mafic underplating), bright spots (contemporary and fossil magma bodies), dipping mantle reflections rooted in the lower crust (fossil subduction zones) and subhorizontal mantle reflections (phase changes in the lower lithosphere). Here I focus on relating reflection character to the inversion and/or interpretation of results from broadband techniques such as receiver functions, body wave and surface wave tomography. Among the underappreciated aspects of reflectivity are its dependence upon density as well as velocity, and the limitations of 2D images in a 3D world. A core consideration is the need to meaningfully relate integrated physical properties (e.g. velocity inferred from refraction and surface wave measurements) with the differential physical properties (e.g. reflection coefficients) to which reflection images are primarily sensitive. Examples from Tibet and Eurasia are used to illustrate examples of successful integration of controlled (active) and natural (passive) source observations to constrain models of crustal evolution.

  11. Automatic imitation in a rich social context with virtual characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueni ePan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that people respond faster when they perform an action that is congruent with an observed action than when they respond with an incongruent action. Here we propose a new method of using interactive Virtual Characters (VCs to test if social congruency effects can be obtained in a richer social context with sequential hand-arm actions. Two separate experiments were conducted, exploring if it is feasible to measure spatial congruency (experiment 1 and anatomical congruency (experiment 2 in response to a virtual character, compared to the same action sequence indicated by three virtual balls. In experiment 1, we found a robust spatial congruency effect for both VC and virtual balls, modulated by a social facilitation effect for participants who felt the VC was human. In experiment 2 which allowed for anatomical congruency, a form by congruency interaction provided evidence that participants automatically imitate the actions of the VC but do not imitate the balls. Our method and results build a bridge between studies using minimal stimuli in automatic interaction and studies of mimicry in a rich social interaction, and open new research venue for future research in the area of automatic imitation with a more ecologically valid social interaction.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. Development and production of an oligonucleotide MuscleChip: use for validation of ambiguous ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfranchi Gerolamo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the development, validation, and use of a highly redundant 120,000 oligonucleotide microarray (MuscleChip containing 4,601 probe sets representing 1,150 known genes expressed in muscle and 2,075 EST clusters from a non-normalized subtracted muscle EST sequencing project (28,074 EST sequences. This set included 369 novel EST clusters showing no match to previously characterized proteins in any database. Each probe set was designed to contain 20–32 25 mer oligonucleotides (10–16 paired perfect match and mismatch probe pairs per gene, with each probe evaluated for hybridization kinetics (Tm and similarity to other sequences. The 120,000 oligonucleotides were synthesized by photolithography and light-activated chemistry on each microarray. Results Hybridization of human muscle cRNAs to this MuscleChip (33 samples showed a correlation of 0.6 between the number of ESTs sequenced in each cluster and hybridization intensity. Out of 369 novel EST clusters not showing any similarity to previously characterized proteins, we focused on 250 EST clusters that were represented by robust probe sets on the MuscleChip fulfilling all stringent rules. 102 (41% were found to be consistently "present" by analysis of hybridization to human muscle RNA, of which 40 ESTs (39% could be genome anchored to potential transcription units in the human genome sequence. 19 ESTs of the 40 ESTs were furthermore computer-predicted as exons by one or more than three gene identification algorithms. Conclusion Our analysis found 40 transcriptionally validated, genome-anchored novel EST clusters to be expressed in human muscle. As most of these ESTs were low copy clusters (duplex and triplex in the original 28,000 EST project, the identification of these as significantly expressed is a robust validation of the transcript units that permits subsequent focus on the novel proteins encoded by these genes.

  3. Sampling diverse characters improves phylogenies: Craniodental and postcranial characters of vertebrates often imply different trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Ross C P; Sansom, Robert; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-03-01

    Morphological cladograms of vertebrates are often inferred from greater numbers of characters describing the skull and teeth than from postcranial characters. This is either because the skull is believed to yield characters with a stronger phylogenetic signal (i.e., contain less homoplasy), because morphological variation therein is more readily atomized, or because craniodental material is more widely available (particularly in the palaeontological case). An analysis of 85 vertebrate datasets published between 2000 and 2013 confirms that craniodental characters are significantly more numerous than postcranial characters, but finds no evidence that levels of homoplasy differ in the two partitions. However, a new partition test, based on tree-to-tree distances (as measured by the Robinson Foulds metric) rather than tree length, reveals that relationships inferred from the partitions are significantly different about one time in three, much more often than expected. Such differences may reflect divergent selective pressures in different body regions, resulting in different localized patterns of homoplasy. Most systematists attempt to sample characters broadly across body regions, but this is not always possible. We conclude that trees inferred largely from either craniodental or postcranial characters in isolation may differ significantly from those that would result from a more holistic approach. We urge the latter.

  4. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information about characters'…

  5. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  6. Discours polemique, refutation et resolution des sequences conversationnelles (Argumentative Discourse, Refutation and Outcome of Conversational Sequences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeschler, Jacques

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the strategies employed in terminating conversational exchanges, with particular attention to argumentative sequences. Examines the features that distinguish these sequences from those that have a transactional character, and discusses the patterns of verbal interaction attendant to negative responses. Societe Nouvelle Didier Erudition,…

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. AcEST: BP921057 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. AcEST: BP916763 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. AcEST: BP919034 [AcEST

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  18. AcEST: BP913108 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. AcEST: DK944583 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. AcEST: BP919717 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. AcEST: DK947141 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. AcEST: BP914496 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JL2 Definition tr|A0BJL2|A0BJL2_PARTE Chromosome undetermined scaffold_110, whole genome shotgun sequence OS... Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A0BJL2|A0BJL2_PARTE Chromosome undetermine...d scaffold_110, who... 37 0.73 >tr|A0BJL2|A0BJL2_PARTE Chromosome undetermined scaffold_110, whole genome

  5. AcEST: CL1011Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1011Contig1 773 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1011contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1011...Contig1 Contig ID CL1011Contig1 Length 773 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1011contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911446 BP91

  6. AcEST: CL1984Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1984Contig1 553 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1984contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1984...Contig1 Contig ID CL1984Contig1 Length 553 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1984contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919579 DK94

  7. AcEST: DK944034 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK944034 - Show DK944034 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0004_M12 Library YMU02 Length 108 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0004_M12. 5' end sequence. Accession DK944034 Tissue t...YMU02A01NGRL0004_M12 108 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0004_M1

  8. AcEST: BP917825 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L tr_hit_id A0BZ50 Definition tr|A0BZ50|A0BZ50_PARTE Chromosome undetermined scaffold_138, whole genome shot.............done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A0BZ50|A0BZ50_PARTE Chromosome undetermined... 33 9.9 >tr|A0BZ50|A0BZ50_PARTE Chromosome undetermined scaffold_138, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Param

  9. AcEST: BP916977 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3|A0C7C3_PARTE Chromosome undetermined scaffold_155, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Paramecium tetraurelia...cing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A0C7C3|A0C7C3_PARTE Chromosome undetermined scaffold_155, who...... 34 3.2 >tr|A0C7C3|A0C7C3_PARTE Chromosome undetermined scaffold_155, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Para

  10. AcEST: BP915885 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available G6 Definition tr|Q4SCG6|Q4SCG6_TETNG Chromosome undetermined SCAF14653, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Tet...e E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q4SCG6|Q4SCG6_TETNG Chromosome undetermined ...0MFI0_ARATH Putative uncharacterized protein (Fragmen... 33 8.5 >tr|Q4SCG6|Q4SCG6_TETNG Chromosome undetermined

  11. AcEST: BP916875 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0BZ50 Definition tr|A0BZ50|A0BZ50_PARTE Chromosome undetermined scaffold_138, whole genome shotgun sequence ...e Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|A0BZ50|A0BZ50_PARTE Chromosome undetermined...ho-beta-glucosida... 33 9.3 >tr|A0BZ50|A0BZ50_PARTE Chromosome undetermined scaffold_138, whole genome shotg

  12. AcEST: CL2015Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2015Contig1 803 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2015contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2015...Contig1 Contig ID CL2015Contig1 Length 803 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2015contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945591 DK94

  13. AcEST: DK946666 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU02A01NGRL0013_F10 131 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0013_F1...0. 5' end sequence. DK946666 - Show DK946666 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0013_F10 Library YMU02 Length 131 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0013_F10. 5' end sequence. Accession DK946666 Tissue t

  14. AcEST: BP918019 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8019 - Show BP918019 Clone id YMU001_000108_F08 Library YMU01 Length 47 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...lts ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...esult : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  15. AcEST: BP915821 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5821 - Show BP915821 Clone id YMU001_000077_D11 Library YMU01 Length 85 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris... (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report -... TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Defin...ition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  16. AcEST: BP916142 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6142 - Show BP916142 Clone id YMU001_000083_F05 Library YMU01 Length 74 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (re...lease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  17. AcEST: BP915714 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5714 - Show BP915714 Clone id YMU001_000074_H09 Library YMU01 Length 82 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...o blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - Tr...EMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definiti...on - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  18. AcEST: BP915738 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5738 - Show BP915738 Clone id YMU001_000076_C06 Library YMU01 Length 35 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...ss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...BL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  19. AcEST: BP914811 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4811 - Show BP914811 Clone id YMU001_000063_B05 Library YMU01 Length 86 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...t (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report ...nition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ... ...- TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Defi

  20. AcEST: DK946274 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK946274 - Show DK946274 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0012_B02 Library YMU02 Length 119 Definition...equence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  1. AcEST: BP914478 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4478 - Show BP914478 Clone id YMU001_000059_D03 Library YMU01 Length 21 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...se 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Alig...p. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  2. AcEST: BP913029 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3029 - Show BP913029 Clone id YMU001_000025_F04 Library YMU01 Length 47 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...lts ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...esult : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  3. AcEST: BP914959 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4959 - Show BP914959 Clone id YMU001_000064_H05 Library YMU01 Length 50 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...esults ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...X Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  4. AcEST: DK946752 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4. 5' end sequence. DK946752 - Show DK946752 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0013_K04 Library YMU02 Length 117 Definition...uence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value -... Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  5. AcEST: BP920339 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0339 - Show BP920339 Clone id YMU001_000135_H11 Library YMU01 Length 86 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...t (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report ...nition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ... ...- TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Defi

  6. AcEST: BP912478 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2478 - Show BP912478 Clone id YMU001_000019_H09 Library YMU01 Length 84 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...(No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Defini...tion - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  7. AcEST: BP913042 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3042 - Show BP913042 Clone id YMU001_000025_G06 Library YMU01 Length 73 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (rel...ease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  8. AcEST: DK945217 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7. 5' end sequence. DK945217 - Show DK945217 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0008_J17 Library YMU02 Length 119 Definition...equence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value... - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  9. AcEST: BP916851 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6851 - Show BP916851 Clone id YMU001_000092_E12 Library YMU01 Length 83 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - T...rEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definit...ion - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  10. AcEST: BP917384 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7384 - Show BP917384 Clone id YMU001_000100_B07 Library YMU01 Length 73 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...p. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (rel...ease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  11. AcEST: BP914708 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4708 - Show BP914708 Clone id YMU001_000062_A06 Library YMU01 Length 87 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...ot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report...inition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ... ... - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Def

  12. AcEST: BP912333 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2333 - Show BP912333 Clone id YMU001_000017_H05 Library YMU01 Length 83 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - T...rEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definit...ion - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  13. AcEST: BP916918 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6918 - Show BP916918 Clone id YMU001_000093_E11 Library YMU01 Length 54 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...ch results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definitio...lastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  14. AcEST: BP920443 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0443 - Show BP920443 Clone id YMU001_000137_B08 Library YMU01 Length 75 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris... op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (r...elease 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  15. AcEST: BP920319 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0319 - Show BP920319 Clone id YMU001_000135_F08 Library YMU01 Length 41 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris... - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition...: TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  16. AcEST: BP914899 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4899 - Show BP914899 Clone id YMU001_000064_B07 Library YMU01 Length 79 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...last op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMB...L (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  17. AcEST: BP914799 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4799 - Show BP914799 Clone id YMU001_000063_A05 Library YMU01 Length 88 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris...rot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Repor...oo short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ... ...t - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence t

  18. AcEST: CL407Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL407Contig1 1401 6 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL407contig1 sequence. Link t...illus-veneris contig: CL407contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK949437 DK95228...o clone list Show CL407Contig1 Contig ID CL407Contig1 Length 1401 Number of clones 6 Definition Adiantum cap

  19. AcEST: CL1938Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1938Contig1 1158 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1938contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL193...8Contig1 Contig ID CL1938Contig1 Length 1158 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL1938contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK947527 DK

  20. AcEST: CL1707Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1707Contig1 774 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1707contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1707...Contig1 Contig ID CL1707Contig1 Length 774 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1707contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK950158 DK95

  1. AcEST: CL2016Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2016Contig1 715 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2016contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2016...Contig1 Contig ID CL2016Contig1 Length 715 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2016contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957912 DK95

  2. AcEST: CL1941Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1941Contig1 803 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1941contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1941...Contig1 Contig ID CL1941Contig1 Length 803 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1941contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952552 DK95

  3. AcEST: DK955788 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oryza sati... 67 6e-11 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 66 1e-10 sp|Q9ZT4...848_DICDI Probable serine/threonine-protein kinase D... 65 3e-10 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmi...p|P41823|SY65_APLCA Synaptotagmin-1 OS=Aplysia californica GN=S... 60 7e-09 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended s...ynaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 60 7e-09 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus lae...v... 60 9e-09 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-A OS=Xenopus laev... 60 9e-09 sp|P48231|TCB2_YE

  4. AcEST: DK955280 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ryza sati... 86 1e-16 sp|Q25AG5|ERG3_ORYSI Elicitor-responsive protein 3 OS=Oryza sati... 86 1e-16 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended...6e-11 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 67 8e-1...ne domain-conta... 59 2e-08 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 59 2e-08 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extend...ed synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 58 3e-08 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended...MOUSE Ras GTPase-activating protein 4 OS=Mus mus... 52 2e-06 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-3

  5. AcEST: DK959757 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hit_id Q5DTI8 Definition sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Mus musculus Align length 95 Scor... alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Mus m...usculus G... 56 2e-07 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 55 5e-07 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended... synaptotagmin-3 OS=Homo sapiens G... 53 2e-06 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended synaptota...gmin-2-A OS=Xenopus laev... 52 3e-06 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 49

  6. AcEST: DK960778 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _HUMAN Myoferlin OS=Homo sapiens GN=FER1L3 PE=1 SV=1 40 0.007 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2...-B OS=Xenopus laev... 38 0.037 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-A OS=Xenopus laev... 38 0.037 ...sp|Q9VVI3|NEDD4_DROME E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Nedd-4 OS=Dros... 37 0.063 sp|Q9BSJ8|ESYT1_HUMAN Extended ...synaptotagmin-1 OS=Homo sapiens G... 37 0.063 sp|Q3U7R1|ESYT1_MOUSE Extended syna

  7. AcEST: DK959751 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 86 1e-16 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 72 3e-12 sp|Q6PFQ7|RASL2_MOU...SE Ras GTPase-activating protein 4 OS=Mus mus... 72 4e-12 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended...ivating-like protein 1 OS=Mus mu... 65 3e-10 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropi... 1 OS=Homo s... 61 6e-09 sp|Q8L7A4|AGD11_ARATH Probable ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-ac... 61 6e-09 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended... synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 60 1e-08 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended

  8. Flashing characters with famous faces improves ERP-based brain-computer interface performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, T.; Schulz, S. M.; Grünzinger, C.; Kübler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Currently, the event-related potential (ERP)-based spelling device, often referred to as P300-Speller, is the most commonly used brain-computer interface (BCI) for enhancing communication of patients with impaired speech or motor function. Among numerous improvements, a most central feature has received little attention, namely optimizing the stimulus used for eliciting ERPs. Therefore we compared P300-Speller performance with the standard stimulus (flashing characters) against performance with stimuli known for eliciting particularly strong ERPs due to their psychological salience, i.e. flashing familiar faces transparently superimposed on characters. Our results not only indicate remarkably increased ERPs in response to familiar faces but also improved P300-Speller performance due to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences needed for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-Speller.

  9. BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot - AcEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ss-Prot (release 56.9) database. The alignment information of each blast-hit is p...tabase. Link to Uniprot is provided in TogoDB. Align Length The alignment length between the above hit seque...nce and an Adiantum capillus-veneris EST sequence Bit score Score (bit) of the alignment between the above h...it sequence and an Adiantum capillus-veneris EST sequence E-value E-value of the alignment

  10. AcEST: DK956931 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A7QJ42|A7QJ42_VITVI Chromosome chr2 scaffold_105, whole genom... 46 0.002 tr|Q9MAQ7|Q9MAQ7_ARATH Location...LLHQELNSSP 654 >tr|Q9MAQ7|Q9MAQ7_ARATH Location of EST 206I21T7, gb|N37185 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana GN=F9L11.

  11. AcEST: BP915175 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 162 1e-38 tr|A9SKI3|A9SKI3_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 155 9e-37 tr|Q9MAQ7|Q9MAQ7_ARATH Location...bjct: 122 GGDPSLFVNVSKVFSQQLWKYTGYVPKAFHTKCKDIP 158 >tr|Q9MAQ7|Q9MAQ7_ARATH Location of EST 206I21T7, gb|N37

  12. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  13. Analysis of Hamlet's Complex Character By Hamlet's Relationship with Other Major Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左欣

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reveal the complexity of the character of Hamlet in Shakespeare's tragedy-Hamlet and the importance of the role that his pretense of lunacy plays in the plot. The different sides of his personality are revealed by the analysis of some of Hamlet's behavior. The argument is also established that the hero's pretense of lunacy is a device in the plot which allows the full display of the character's complexity.

  14. Development of EST-SSR Markers in (Citrus aurantium L.)%积壳EST-SSR标记的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春霞; 温强; 叶金山; 朱培林

    2011-01-01

    The big collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Citrus aurantium L. is available in public database, and offers an opportunity to identify simple sequence repeats (SSR) in ESTs by data mining. These sequences may provide an estimate of diversity in the expressed portion of the genome and may be useful for comparative mapping, for tagging important traits of interest, and for additional map-based cloning of important genes.We analyzed fiontal 11 029 Unigene sequences fi.om C. aurantium database using online SSR identified software SSRIT. Totally, 327 ESTs with 348 SSRs were identified, and accounted for 2.96% of the total number of EST sequences. Trinucleotide repeats (a total of 161) were the most abundant repeat class, and accounted for 46.26% of all found SSRs. According to these EST sequences containing SSR, 58 primer pairs were designed using Primer 3.0. of these, 36 primer pairs amplified DNA fragments and 6 primer pairs exhibited polymorphism, account for 62.07% and 10.34% of the total designed 58 pairs. The development of new EST-SSR markers from C. aurantium has potential important implication for genetic analysis and exploitation of genetic resources of C. aurantium and would provide a more direct estimate of functional diversity.%GenBank上己公布的积壳EST序列为开发新的SSR标记提供了宝贵的数据资源.本研究利用在线SSR鉴定软件SSRIT分析来自积壳EST数据库的11029条Unigene序列.分析结果共发现327条EST序列含有348个SSR位点,占总数的2.96%.其中,三核苷酸重复的SSR类型最多,共有161个,占检索总数的46.26%. Primer 3.0设计合成58对EST-SSR引物,其中36对能扩增出产物,6对引物产生多态性分离,分别占所设计引物总数的62.07%和10.34%.本文研究成果为今后积壳遗传多样性分析、遗传图谱构建及比较基因组等研究方面奠定了基础.

  15. THE CHARACTER, ORGANIZATION CHANGE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo F. Wijaya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good users character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system.

  16. The character map in deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, Alberto S; Willwacher, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The third author recently proved that the Shoikhet-Dolgushev L-infinity-morphism from Hochschild chains of the algebra of smooth functions on manifold to differential forms extends to cyclic chains. Localization at a solution of the Maurer-Cartan equation gives an isomorphism, which we call character map, from the periodic cyclic homology of a formal associative deformation of the algebra of functions to de Rham cohomology. We prove that the character map is compatible with the Gauss-Manin connection, extending a result of Calaque and Rossi on the compatibility with the cap product. As a consequence, the image of the periodic cyclic cycle 1 is independent of the deformation parameter and we compute it to be the A-roof genus of the manifold. Our results also imply the Tamarkin-Tsygan index Theorem.

  17. Analysis of photonic crystal fiber sensor character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuan; LIU Feng; BI Wei-hong

    2007-01-01

    The special character of a PCF which is used as a gas or liquid sensor is discussed. The field distribution is analyzed when the solid core PCF is injected with different medium that has different relative dielectric constant (or refractive index). And the experiential formulas of the relation between refractive index of some kinds of liquid and their concentration are given,in order to measure the concentration of the relative liquid. At the same time, the effect of propagation constant on PCF sensor character is also discussed. Furthermore, the photonic band-gap (PBG) ofPCF (PBG-PCF) is calculated at different medium relative dielectric constant, when it is injected with different medium. That is the principle basis for this kind of PCF sensors.

  18. SPODOBASE : an EST database for the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabourault Cécile

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda is a pest which causes widespread economic damage on a variety of crop plants. It is also well known through its famous Sf9 cell line which is used for numerous heterologous protein productions. Species of the Spodoptera genus are used as model for pesticide resistance and to study virus host interactions. A genomic approach is now a critical step for further new developments in biology and pathology of these insects, and the results of ESTs sequencing efforts need to be structured into databases providing an integrated set of tools and informations. Description The ESTs from five independent cDNA libraries, prepared from three different S. frugiperda tissues (hemocytes, midgut and fat body and from the Sf9 cell line, are deposited in the database. These tissues were chosen because of their importance in biological processes such as immune response, development and plant/insect interaction. So far, the SPODOBASE contains 29,325 ESTs, which are cleaned and clustered into non-redundant sets (2294 clusters and 6103 singletons. The SPODOBASE is constructed in such a way that other ESTs from S. frugiperda or other species may be added. User can retrieve information using text searches, pre-formatted queries, query assistant or blast searches. Annotation is provided against NCBI, UNIPROT or Bombyx mori ESTs databases, and with GO-Slim vocabulary. Conclusion The SPODOBASE database provides integrated access to expressed sequence tags (EST from the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda. It is a publicly available structured database with insect pest sequences which will allow identification of a number of genes and comprehensive cloning of gene families of interest for scientific community. SPODOBASE is available from URL: http://bioweb.ensam.inra.fr/spodobase

  19. AcEST: DK963031 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3. 5' end sequence. DK963031 - Show DK963031 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0015_H03 Library TST39 Length 634 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0015_H03. 5' end sequence. Accession DK963031 Tissue t...d BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK96303...cleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK963031|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, cl...old_3, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Vitis vinifera GN=GSVIVT00024303001 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 391 Score = 9

  20. AcEST: DK945003 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK945003 CL851Contig1 Show DK945003 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0007_N22 Library YMU02 Length 5...86 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0007_N22. 5' end sequence. Accession DK94500... search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK945003|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YM...neration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK945003|Adiantum capi...|A7PBQ8_VITVI Chromosome chr16 scaffold_10, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Vitis vinifera GN=GSVIVT0001420500

  1. AcEST: DK951010 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0010_D24 678 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0010_D2...4. 5' end sequence. DK951010 CL1186Contig1 Show DK951010 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0010_D24 Library TST38 Length ...678 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0010_D24. 5' end sequence. Accession DK951010...arch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK951010|Adiantum capillus...-veneris mRNA, clone: TST38A01NGRL0010_D24, 5' (665 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences

  2. AcEST: BP916897 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000093_D01 58 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000093_D01. BP916897 - Show BP916897 Clone id YMU001_000093_D01 Library YMU01 Length 58 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000093_D01. Accession BP916897 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID - Sequence GCTGCTGATGATGGTGATGGTGCACACTCAATGATCGGTTGGTGGTTTCGACCACCAG ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  3. AcEST: BP920902 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000143_B08 46 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000143_B08. BP920902 - Show BP920902 Clone id YMU001_000143_B08 Library YMU01 Length 46 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000143_B08. Accession BP920902 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID - Sequence AATTTGAGTACTTCCATGTTTGAGGAAGCTGCCACAAAAGATGATG ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  4. AcEST: BP920401 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000136_F09 31 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000136_F09. BP920401 - Show BP920401 Clone id YMU001_000136_F09 Library YMU01 Length 31 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000136_F09. Accession BP920401 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID - Sequence ACATGTGCGTGCCCTCCTTCATGCGGAGATC ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  5. AcEST: BP920027 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000132_C01 96 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000132_C01. BP920027 - Show BP920027 Clone id YMU001_000132_C01 Library YMU01 Length 96 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000132_C01. Accession BP920027 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID - Sequence CACCCATTGTGAAATATAGGGGGTCAACTAATCATTGTGCCTCTAAAGGGTGCTTGTTCC ATATGATAATGTTCATAGTGTCCACAACTTGAATGT ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  6. AcEST: BP920966 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000143_H08 44 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000143_H08. BP920966 - Show BP920966 Clone id YMU001_000143_H08 Library YMU01 Length 44 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000143_H08. Accession BP920966 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID - Sequence CCAATCTGAGAAAATTCTTCAGCCCAGTTGTCACCACGATGAGC ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  7. AcEST: BP917362 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000099_H05 80 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000099_H05. BP917362 - Show BP917362 Clone id YMU001_000099_H05 Library YMU01 Length 80 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000099_H05. Accession BP917362 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID - Sequence CATGAGGCCATGGATGACAATGCCTGTCTTCCTCTGCTCACCTCCATCCGTCCCTCCCGT TCTCACAAACTCATGGGCAA ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot (No blast op. Sequence too short.) sp_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to BlastX Result : TrEMBL (No blast op. Sequence too short.) tr_hit_id - Definition - Align length - Score (bit) - E-value - Report - ...

  8. AcEST: DK952524 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0014_F05 591 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F0...5. 5' end sequence. DK952524 CL3931Contig1 Show DK952524 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0014_F05 Library TST38 Length ...591 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F05. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95252...ic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK952524|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F05, 5' ...(591 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total

  9. AcEST: DK952652 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0014_K20 550 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_K2...0. 5' end sequence. DK952652 CL56Contig1 Show DK952652 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0014_K20 Library TST38 Length 55...0 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_K20. 5' end sequence. Accession DK952652...s. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK952652|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_K20, 5' (550 letter...s) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Sea

  10. AcEST: DK952528 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0014_F10 645 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F1...0. 5' end sequence. DK952528 CL383Contig1 Show DK952528 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0014_F10 Library TST38 Length 6...45 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F10. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95252... and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK95252...etters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching................

  11. AcEST: DK952529 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0014_F11 604 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F1...1. 5' end sequence. DK952529 CL20Contig1 Show DK952529 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0014_F11 Library TST38 Length 60...4 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F11. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95252... new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK952529|Adiant... uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching.................................

  12. AcEST: DK952952 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0015_H19 739 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0015_H1...9. 5' end sequence. DK952952 CL2Contig2 Show DK952952 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0015_H19 Library TST38 Length 739... Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0015_H19. 5' end sequence. Accession DK952952...cids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK952952|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST38A01NGRL0015_H19, 5' (702... letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching..............

  13. AcEST: DK955252 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0022_J14 283 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0022_J1...4. 5' end sequence. DK955252 - Show DK955252 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0022_J14 Library TST39 Length 283 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0022_J14. 5' end sequence. Accession DK955252 Tissue t...earch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK955252|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST3...9A01NGRL0022_J14, 5' (263 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequence

  14. AcEST: DK952052 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0013_A20 651 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0013_A2...0. 5' end sequence. DK952052 CL174Contig1 Show DK952052 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0013_A20 Library TST38 Length 6...51 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0013_A20. 5' end sequence. Accession DK952052...-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK952052...Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching........................

  15. AcEST: DK952520 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0014_F01 570 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F0...1. 5' end sequence. DK952520 CL4Contig1 Show DK952520 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0014_F01 Library TST38 Length 570... Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F01. 5' end sequence. Accession DK952520...s Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK952520|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F01, 5' (570 le...tters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters

  16. AcEST: DK952527 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0014_F09 660 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F0...9. 5' end sequence. DK952527 CL2Contig2 Show DK952527 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0014_F09 Library TST38 Length 660... Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0014_F09. 5' end sequence. Accession DK952527...cids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK952527|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TS...T38A01NGRL0014_F09, 5' (660 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total lett

  17. AcEST: DK952852 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0015_D12 647 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0015_D1...2. 5' end sequence. DK952852 - Show DK952852 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0015_D12 Library TST38 Length 647 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0015_D12. 5' end sequence. Accession DK952852 Tissue t...d PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK952852...ers) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters Searching...................

  18. AcEST: DK960460 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0007_H18 660 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0007_H1...8. 5' end sequence. DK960460 CL16Contig1 Show DK960460 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0007_H18 Library TST39 Length 660... Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0007_H18. 5' end sequence. Accession DK960460...rograms, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK960460|Adiantum capillus-vener...is mRNA, clone: TST39A01NGRL0007_H18, 5' (660 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,

  19. AcEST: DK951004 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8. 5' end sequence. DK951004 CL3629Contig1 Show DK951004 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0010_D18 Library TST38 Length ...697 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0010_D18. 5' end sequence. Accession DK95100... database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK951004|Adian...ds Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK951004|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST38A01NGRL0010_D18, 5' (697 l...hromosome chr14 scaffold_9, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Vitis vinifera GN=GSVIVT00037971001 PE=3 SV=1 L

  20. AcEST: DK951414 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST38A01NGRL0011_F14 590 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0011_F14.... 5' end sequence. DK951414 CL893Contig1 Show DK951414 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0011_F14 Library TST38 Length 5...90 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0011_F14. 5' end sequence. Accession DK951414...c Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK951414|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST38A01NGRL0011_F14, 5' (...590 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total l

  1. AcEST: DK961414 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0010_A19 672 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0010_A1...9. 5' end sequence. DK961414 - Show DK961414 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0010_A19 Library TST39 Length 672 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0010_A19. 5' end sequence. Accession DK961414 Tissue t... Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK961414|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST39A...01NGRL0010_A19, 5' (672 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total letters

  2. AcEST: DK962400 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8. 5' end sequence. DK962400 - Show DK962400 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0013_M08 Library TST39 Length 556 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0013_M08. 5' end sequence. Accession DK962400 Tissue t...ams, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK962400|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST39A01NGRL001...PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK962400...undetermined scaffold_53, whole genome shotgun sequence OS=Vitis vinifera GN=GSVIVT00030884001 PE=4 SV=1 Len

  3. Australian National Character and Australian English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝米娜

    2015-01-01

    <正>Language and culture have very intimate relationship.From the perspective of sociolinguistics,language is the verbal expression of culture,for a culture’s language contains everything its speakers can think about and every way they have of thinking about things.In other words,there are always cultural elements behind the language phenomenon.National character,the concept

  4. Rank-frequency relation for Chinese characters

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, W B; Li, B; Wang, Q A

    2013-01-01

    The Zipf's law states that the ordered frequencies $f_1>f_2> ...$ of different words in a text hold $f_r\\propto r^{-\\gamma}$ with $\\gamma\\approx 1$ and rank $r$. The law applies to many languages with alphabetical writing systems, but was so far found to be absent for the rank-frequency relation of the Chinese characters, the main (and oldest) example of the logographic writing system. Here we show that the Zipf's law for Chinese characters perfectly holds for sufficiently short texts (few thousand different characters). The scenario of its validity is similar to the Zipf's law for words in short English texts. We focus on short texts, since for the sake of the rank-frequency analysis, long texts are just mixtures of shorter, thematically homogenous pieces. For long texts (or for mixtures of short texts), the Zipf's law holds for a relatively small range of ranks, but it is still important, since for all Chinese texts (we studied) it carries out $simeq 40%$ of the overall frequency. The previous results on th...

  5. The Binary Perfect Phylogeny with Persistent characters

    CERN Document Server

    Braghin, Chiara; Trucco, Gabriella; Bonizzoni, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The near-perfect phylogeny over binary set of characters has been proposed as an extension of the too restrictive model of the perfect phylogeny in order to model biological events such as homoplasy. However the model appears to be too general to model some situations and is computationally inefficient on some instances. In this paper we consider the problem of reconstructing a near-perfect phylogeny where only a type of homoplasy is allowed in the tree: we consider back mutations according to notion of {\\em persistency}, that is characters can be gained and lost at most once. The notion of persistency leads to the problem of the Persistent Perfect Phylogeny (referred as P-PPH). By exploring combinatorial properties of the problem we develop an exact algorithm for solving the P-PPH problem that in the worst case runs in time that is exponential in the number of characters, but is polynomial in the number of species. Indeed, we show that the P-PPH problem can be restated as a special case of the Incomplete Per...

  6. AcEST: DK963303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0. 5' end sequence. DK963303 - Show DK963303 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0016_C20 Library TST39 Length 589 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0016_C20. 5' end sequence. Accession DK963303 Tissue t... of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK963303|Adiantum capillus-ven... Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK963303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST39A01NGRL0016_C20, 5' (5

  7. AcEST: DK951303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9. 5' end sequence. DK951303 CL245Contig1 Show DK951303 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0011_A19 Library TST38 Length 7...10 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0011_A19. 5' end sequence. Accession DK951303...Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK951303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: T... database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK951303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA,

  8. AcEST: DK960303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK960303 CL302Contig1 Show DK960303 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0007_A22 Library TST39 Length 5...27 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0007_A22. 5' end sequence. Accession DK960303...PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK960303...ds Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK960303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST39A01NGRL0007_A22, 5' (502 l

  9. AcEST: DK952303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7. 5' end sequence. DK952303 CL359Contig1 Show DK952303 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0013_L17 Library TST38 Length 6...26 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0013_L17. 5' end sequence. Accession DK952303...LAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK952303...ids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK952303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST

  10. AcEST: DK948303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0. 5' end sequence. DK948303 CL785Contig1 Show DK948303 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0002_P10 Library TST38 Length 6...82 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0002_P10. 5' end sequence. Accession DK948303... 25:3389-3402. Query= DK948303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST38A01NGR...e search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK948303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: T

  11. AcEST: DK945303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3. 5' end sequence. DK945303 - Show DK945303 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0008_O03 Library YMU02 Length 219 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0008_O03. 5' end sequence. Accession DK945303 Tissue t...rotein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK945303|Adiantum capillus-veneris ... Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK945303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU02A01NGRL0008_O0

  12. AcEST: DK950303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0. 5' end sequence. DK950303 CL1216Contig1 Show DK950303 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0008_E20 Library TST38 Length ...739 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0008_E20. 5' end sequence. Accession DK950303...ic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK950303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST38A01NGRL0008_E20, 5' ...tion of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK950303|Adiantum capillus

  13. AcEST: DK963033 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5. 5' end sequence. DK963033 - Show DK963033 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0015_H05 Library TST39 Length 682 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0015_H05. 5' end sequence. Accession DK963033 Tissue t...earch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK963033|Adiantum capillu... new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK96303...TST39A01NGRL0015_H05 682 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0015_H0

  14. AcEST: DK955303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0. 5' end sequence. DK955303 CL62Contig1 Show DK955303 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0022_L20 Library TST39 Length 55...2 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0022_L20. 5' end sequence. Accession DK955303...ds Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK955303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: TST39A01NGRL0022_L20, 5' (552 l...ion of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK955303|Adiantum capillus-

  15. AcEST: DK954303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0. 5' end sequence. DK954303 - Show DK954303 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0020_B10 Library TST39 Length 589 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0020_B10. 5' end sequence. Accession DK954303 Tissue t...se search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK954303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: ... database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK954303|Adian

  16. AcEST: DK949303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK949303 CL43Contig1 Show DK949303 Clone id TST38A01NGRL0005_K02 Library TST38 Length 70...2 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST38A01NGRL0005_K02. 5' end sequence. Accession DK949303...c Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK949303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone:...us genotype 2c (isolate BEBE1) PE=3 SV=3 Length = 3037 Score = 33.5 bits (75), Ex...in database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK949303|Adi

  17. AcEST: DK953303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7. 5' end sequence. DK953303 - Show DK953303 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0017_G17 Library TST39 Length 555 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0017_G17. 5' end sequence. Accession DK953303 Tissue t..., Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK953303... Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK953303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone:

  18. AcEST: DK946303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4. 5' end sequence. DK946303 CL440Contig1 Show DK946303 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0012_C14 Library YMU02 Length 5...65 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0012_C14. 5' end sequence. Accession DK946303...ein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK946303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRN... 25:3389-3402. Query= DK946303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU02A01NGR

  19. AcEST: DK958303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0. 5' end sequence. DK958303 - Show DK958303 Clone id TST39A01NGRL0030_K10 Library TST39 Length 634 Definiti...on Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0030_K10. 5' end sequence. Accession DK958303 Tissue t... new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK958303|Adiant...d PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK958303

  20. AcEST: DK944303 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2. 5' end sequence. DK944303 CL2Contig4 Show DK944303 Clone id YMU02A01NGRL0005_J22 Library YMU02 Length 570... Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU02A01NGRL0005_J22. 5' end sequence. Accession DK944303...rograms, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK944303|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU02A01NGR...tion of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= DK944303