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Sample records for character displacement driven

  1. Is competition needed for ecological character displacement? Does displacement decrease competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Peter A; Cortez, Michael H

    2015-12-01

    Interspecific competition for resources is generally considered to be the selective force driving ecological character displacement, and displacement is assumed to reduce competition. Skeptics of the prevalence of character displacement often cite lack of evidence of competition. The present article uses a simple model to examine whether competition is needed for character displacement and whether displacement reduces competition. It treats systems with competing resources, and considers cases when only one consumer evolves. It quantifies competition using several different measures. The analysis shows that selection for divergence of consumers occurs regardless of the level of between-resource competition or whether the indirect interaction between the consumers is competition (-,-), mutualism (+,+), or contramensalism (+,-). Also, divergent evolution always decreases the equilibrium population size of the evolving consumer. Whether divergence of one consumer reduces or increases the impact of a subsequent perturbation of the other consumer depends on the parameters and the method chosen for measuring competition. Divergence in mutualistic interactions may reduce beneficial effects of subsequent increases in the other consumer's population. The evolutionary response is driven by an increase in the relative abundance of the resource the consumer catches more rapidly. Such an increase can occur under several types of interaction.

  2. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement: metabolic plasticity matters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; Reydon, Th.A.C.; Hemerik, L.

    2005-01-01

    An important question in evolutionary biology, especially with respect to herbivorous arthropods, is the evolution of specialization. In a previous paper, the combined evolutionary dynamics of specialization and ecological character displacement was studied, focusing on the role of herbivore foragin

  3. Self-Organized Collective Displacements of Self-Driven Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Ezequiel V.

    1996-09-01

    An archetype model for the collective displacements of self-driven individuals, aimed to describe the dynamic of flocking behavior among living things, is presented and studied. Processes such as growth, death, survival, self-propagation, and competition are considered. It is shown that systems ruled by the model self-organize into a critical state exhibiting power-law behavior in both the distribution of population avalanches and the spatial correlation between individuals.

  4. A maternal effect mediates rapid population divergence and character displacement in spadefoot toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, David W; Martin, Ryan A

    2009-04-01

    Despite long-standing interest in character displacement, little is known of its underlying proximate causes. Here, we explore the role of maternal effects in character displacement. We specifically investigated whether differences in maternal body condition mediate divergence in the expression of resource-use traits between populations of spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata) that occur in sympatry with a heterospecific competitor and those that occur in allopatry. In sympatry, S. multiplicata is forced by its competitor onto a less profitable resource. As a result, sympatric females mature in poorer condition and invest less into offspring. Consequently, their offspring produce a resource-use phenotype that minimizes competition with the other species and that also differs from the phenotype produced in allopatry. These differences in trait expression between allopatry and sympatry disappear once mothers are equilibrated in body condition in the laboratory. Thus, a condition-dependent maternal effect mediates population divergence and character displacement. Such effects potentially buffer populations from extinction (via competitive exclusion) while genetic changes accumulate, which produce divergent traits in the absence of the maternal effect. Maternal effects may therefore often be important in determining the initial direction and rate of evolution during the early stages of character displacement.

  5. Three-dimensional gravity-driven deterministic lateral displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Siqi

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple solution to enhance the separation ability of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) systems by expanding the two-dimensional nature of these devices and driving the particles into size-dependent, fully three-dimensional trajectories. Specifically, we drive the particles through an array of long cylindrical posts, such that they not only move in the plane perpendicular to the posts as in traditional two-dimensional DLD systems (in-plane motion), but also along the axial direction of the solid posts (out-of-plane motion). We show that the (projected) in-plane motion of the particles is completely analogous to that observed in 2D-DLD systems. In fact, a theoretical model originally developed for force-driven, two-dimensional DLD systems accurately describes the experimental results. More importantly, we analyze the particles out-of-plane motion and observe that, for certain orientations of the driving force, significant differences in the out-of-plane displacement depending on particle siz...

  6. A phylogenetic analysis of body size evolution in the Anolis roquet group (Sauria: Iguanidae): character displacement or size assortment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannasi, N; Thorpe, R S; Malhotra, A

    2000-02-01

    The important role that competition plays in structuring communities is well documented; however, the role of competition in an evolutionary context remains unclear. Evolutionary investigations into the role of competition have often focused on the process of character displacement, and a good example of this is the evolution of body size in the Anolis lizards of the Caribbean islands. Previous work on the A. roquet species group has taken a phylogenetic approach and concluded that patterns of body size differences are not caused by character displacement but are a result of size assortment. Using a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the sequence of the cytochrome b gene (cyt-b) and ancestral character-state reconstruction methods, we investigated the roles of character displacement and size assortment. Our results indicated that size assortment alone was insufficient to explain the observed patterns of body size differences. Furthermore, we found that change in body size was associated with a change in allopatry/sympatry, thus supporting the character-displacement hypothesis. We conclude that patterns of body size differences in the A. roquet species group appear to be the result of a combination of character displacement and size assortment because character displacement was only found to be possible on three occasions.

  7. Character displacement and the evolution of niche complementarity in a model biofilm community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Crystal N; Traverse, Charles C; Mayo-Smith, Leslie; Buskirk, Sean W; Cooper, Vaughn S

    2015-02-01

    Colonization of vacant environments may catalyze adaptive diversification and be followed by competition within the nascent community. How these interactions ultimately stabilize and affect productivity are central problems in evolutionary ecology. Diversity can emerge by character displacement, in which selection favors phenotypes that exploit an alternative resource and reduce competition, or by facilitation, in which organisms change the environment and enable different genotypes or species to become established. We previously developed a model of long-term experimental evolution in which bacteria attach to a plastic bead, form a biofilm, and disperse to a new bead. Here, we focus on the evolution of coexisting mutants within a population of Burkholderia cenocepacia and how their interactions affected productivity. Adaptive mutants initially competed for space, but later competition declined, consistent with character displacement and the predicted effects of the evolved mutations. The community reached a stable equilibrium as each ecotype evolved to inhabit distinct, complementary regions of the biofilm. Interactions among ecotypes ultimately became facilitative and enhanced mixed productivity. Observing the succession of genotypes within niches illuminated changing selective forces within the community, including a fundamental role for genotypes producing small colony variants that underpin chronic infections caused by B. cenocepacia.

  8. Health outcomes of crisis driven urban displacement: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deola, Claudio; Patel, Ronak B

    2014-01-01

    With urbanisation, cities are increasingly home to greater proportions of the world's population. As this transition has significant implications on human health, the epidemiology of diseases among relatively stable urban populations is growing. As humanitarian crises increasingly drive people to urban centers rather than traditional refugee camps, however, rapid and massive urban displacements will increase in frequency. This paper explores the idea that such urban displacements combine epidemiological features of forced migration, slum conditions and humanitarian disaster contexts. This paper highlights the lack of primary data and the consequent paucity of solid epidemiological literature in the aftermath of rapid massive urban displacements. A framework of health outcomes in urban displacement drawing from the above 3 phenomenon is presented and avenues for improved epidemiologic work described.

  9. Health outcomes of crisis driven urban displacement: A conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deola, Claudio; Patel, Ronak B

    2014-01-01

    With urbanisation, cities are increasingly home to greater proportions of the world's population. As this transition has significant implications on human health, the epidemiology of diseases among relatively stable urban populations is growing. As humanitarian crises increasingly drive people to urban centers rather than traditional refugee camps, however, rapid and massive urban displacements will increase in frequency. This paper explores the idea that such urban displacements combine epidemiological features of forced migration, slum conditions and humanitarian disaster contexts. This paper highlights the lack of primary data and the consequent paucity of solid epidemiological literature in the aftermath of rapid massive urban displacements. A framework of health outcomes in urban displacement drawing from the above 3 phenomenon is presented and avenues for improved epidemiologic work described. PMID:28229003

  10. Flash signal evolution in Photinus fireflies: character displacement and signal exploitation in a visual communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F; Lloyd, James E

    2015-03-01

    Animal communication is an intriguing topic in evolutionary biology. In this comprehensive study of visual signal evolution, we used a phylogenetic approach to study the evolution of the flash communication system of North American fireflies. The North American firefly genus Photinus contains 35 described species with simple ON-OFF visual signals, and information on habitat types, sympatric congeners, and predators. This makes them an ideal study system to test hypotheses on the evolution of male and female visual signal traits. Our analysis of 34 Photinus species suggests two temporal pattern generators: one for flash duration and one for flash intervals. Reproductive character displacement was a main factor for signal divergence in male flash duration among sympatric Photinus species. Male flash pattern intervals (i.e., the duration of the dark periods between signals) were positively correlated with the number of sympatric Photuris fireflies, which include predators of Photinus. Females of different Photinus species differ in their response preferences to male traits. As in other communication systems, firefly male sexual signals seem to be a compromise between optimizing mating success (sexual selection) and minimizing predation risk (natural selection). An integrative model for Photinus signal evolution is proposed.

  11. Colloidal metal oxide nanocrystal catalysis by sustained chemically driven ligand displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roo, Jonathan; van Driessche, Isabel; Martins, José C.; Hens, Zeger

    2016-05-01

    Surface chemistry is a key enabler for colloidal nanocrystal applications. In this respect, metal oxide nanocrystals (NCs) stand out from other NCs as carboxylic acid ligands adsorb on their surface by dissociation to carboxylates and protons, the latter proving essential in electron transfer reactions. Here, we show that this binding motif sets the stage for chemically driven ligand displacement where the binding of amines or alcohols to HfO2 NCs is promoted by the conversion of a bound carboxylic acid into a non-coordinating amide or ester. Furthermore, the sustained ligand displacement, following the addition of excess carboxylic acid, provides a catalytic pathway for ester formation, whereas the addition of esters leads to NC-catalysed transesterification. Because sustained, chemically driven ligand displacement leaves the NCs--including their surface composition--unchanged and preserves colloidal stability, metal oxide nanocrystals are thus turned into effective nanocatalysts that bypass the tradeoff between colloidal stability and catalytic activity.

  12. Adaptive dynamics of competition for nutritionally complementary resources: character convergence, displacement, and parallelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, David A; Fox, Jeremy W

    2011-10-01

    Consumers acquire essential nutrients by ingesting the tissues of resource species. When these tissues contain essential nutrients in a suboptimal ratio, consumers may benefit from ingesting a mixture of nutritionally complementary resource species. We investigate the joint ecological and evolutionary consequences of competition for complementary resources, using an adaptive dynamics model of two consumers and two resources that differ in their relative content of two essential nutrients. In the absence of competition, a nutritionally balanced diet rarely maximizes fitness because of the dynamic feedbacks between uptake rate and resource density, whereas in sympatry, nutritionally balanced diets maximize fitness because competing consumers with different nutritional requirements tend to equalize the relative abundances of the two resources. Adaptation from allopatric to sympatric fitness optima can generate character convergence, divergence, and parallel shifts, depending not on the degree of diet overlap but on the match between resource nutrient content and consumer nutrient requirements. Contrary to previous verbal arguments that suggest that character convergence leads to neutral stability, coadaptation of competing consumers always leads to stable coexistence. Furthermore, we show that incorporating costs of consuming or excreting excess nonlimiting nutrients selects for nutritionally balanced diets and so promotes character convergence. This article demonstrates that resource-use overlap has little bearing on coexistence when resources are nutritionally complementary, and it highlights the importance of using mathematical models to infer the stability of ecoevolutionary dynamics.

  13. Automated Gesturing for Virtual Characters: Speech-driven and Text-driven Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goranka Zoric

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We present two methods for automatic facial gesturing of graphically embodied animated agents. In one case, conversational agent is driven by speech in automatic Lip Sync process. By analyzing speech input, lip movements are determined from the speech signal. Another method provides virtual speaker capable of reading plain English text and rendering it in a form of speech accompanied by the appropriate facial gestures. Proposed statistical model for generating virtual speaker’s facial gestures can be also applied as addition to lip synchronization process in order to obtain speech driven facial gesturing. In this case statistical model will be triggered with the input speech prosody instead of lexical analysis of the input text.

  14. Electrokinetically-driven deterministic lateral displacement for particle separation in microfluidic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Srinivas; Diez, Javier F; Drazer, German

    2014-01-01

    An electrokinetically-driven deterministic lateral displacement (e-DLD) device is proposed for the continuous, two-dimensional fractionation of suspensions in microfluidic platforms. The suspended species are driven through an array of regularly spaced cylindrical posts by applying an electric field across the device. We explore the entire range of orientations of the driving field with respect to the array of obstacles and show that, at specific forcing-angles, particles of different size migrate in different directions, thus enabling continuous, two-dimensional separation. We discuss a number of features observed in the kinetics of the particles, including directional locking and sharp transitions between migration angles upon variations in the direction of the force, that are advantageous for high-resolution two-dimensional separation. A simple model based on individual particle-obstacle interactions accurately describes the migration angle of the particles depending on the orientation of the driving field...

  15. Stepping Control Method of Linear Displacement Mechanism Driven by TRUM Based on PSoC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junping; Liu Weidong; Zhu Hua; Li Yijun; Li Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    A method based on programmable system-on-chip (PSoC) is proposed to realize high resolution stepping motion control of liner displacement mechanism driven by traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motors (TRUM ) .Intel-ligent controller of stepping ultrasonic motor consists of PSoC microprocessor .Continuous square wave signal is sent out by the pulse width modulator (PWM) module inside PSoC ,and converted into sinusoidal signal which is essential to the motor′s normal working by power amplifier circuit .Subsequently ,signal impulse transmission is realized by the counter control break ,and the stepping motion of linear displacement mechanism based on TRUM is achieved .Running status of the ultrasonic motor is controlled by an upper computer .Control command is sent to PSoC through serial communication circuit of RS-232 .Relative program and control interface are written in Lab-View .Finally the mechanism is tested by XL-80 laser interferometer .Test results show that the mechanism can provide a stable motion and a fixed step pitch with the displacement resolution of 6 nm .

  16. Buoyancy-driven instability of a miscible horizontal displacement in a Hele-Shaw cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudin, F.; Riolfo, L. A.; Knaepen, B.; de Wit, A.

    2012-11-01

    In Hele-Shaw cells, viscous fingers are forming when a fluid is injected into a more viscous one. If the two fluids are reversed, with the less mobile fluid injected into the low viscosity one, the situation is expected to be stable from a viscous point of view. Nevertheless, a destabilization of the interface can be observed due to a buoyancy-driven effect if a density difference exists between the two miscible fluids. As a result, the Poiseuille profile established in the gap of the cell locally destabilizes and convection rolls are forming. In a view from above, a striped pattern is observed at the miscible interface between the two fluids. To characterize the development of this instability, we have performed an experimental study of viscously stable miscible displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell with radial injection. The displacing fluids are aqueous solutions of glycerol and the displaced ones are either dyed water or dyed glycerol solutions. The way the relative properties of the two fluids is influencing the onset time of the instability and the characteristic size of the pattern is studied. The influence of the gap width and of the flow rate on the buoyantly unstable dynamics is also characterized.

  17. Reproductive character displacement of epicuticular compounds and their contribution to mate choice in Drosophila subquinaria and Drosophila recens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kelly A; White, Brooke E; Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; Bewick, Emily R; Rundle, Howard D

    2014-04-01

    Interactions between species can alter selection on sexual displays used in mate choice within species. Here we study the epicuticular pheromones of two Drosophila species that overlap partially in geographic range and are incompletely reproductively isolated. Drosophila subquinaria shows a pattern of reproductive character displacement against Drosophila recens, and partial behavioral isolation between conspecific sympatric versus allopatric populations, whereas D. recens shows no such variation in mate choice. First, using manipulative perfuming experiments, we show that females use pheromones as signals for mate discrimination both between species and among populations of D. subquinaria. Second, we show that patterns of variation in epicuticular compounds, both across populations and between species, are consistent with those previously shown for mating probabilities: pheromone compositions differ between populations of D. subquinaria that are allopatric versus sympatric with D. recens, but are similar across populations of D. recens regardless of overlap with D. subquinaria. We also identify differences in pheromone composition among allopatric regions of D. subquinaria. In sum, our results suggest that epicuticular compounds are key signals used by females during mate recognition, and that these traits have diverged among D. subquinaria populations in response to reinforcing selection generated by the presence of D. recens.

  18. Gravity driven instabilities in miscible non-Newtonian fluid displacements in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytes, V. M.; D'Onofrio, A.; Rosen, M.; Allain, C.; Hulin, J. P.

    2001-02-01

    Gravity driven instabilities in model porous packings of 1 mm diameter spheres are studied by comparing the broadening of the displacement front between fluids of slightly different densities in stable and unstable configurations. Water, water-glycerol and water-polymer solutions are used to vary independently viscosity and molecular diffusion and study the influence of shear-thinning properties. Both injected and displaced solutions are identical but for a different concentration of NaNO 3 salt used as an ionic tracer and to introduce the density contrast. Dispersivity in stable configuration increases with polymer concentration - as already reported for double porosity packings of porous grains. Gravity-induced instabilities are shown to develop below a same threshold Péclet number Pe for water and water-glycerol solutions of different viscosities and result in considerable increases of the dispersivity. Measured threshold Pe values decrease markedly on the contrary with polymer concentration. The quantitative analysis demonstrates that the development of the instabilities is controlled by viscosity through a characteristic gravity number G (ratio between hydrostatic and viscous pressure gradients). A single threshold value of G accounts for results obtained on Newtonian and non-Newtonian solutions.

  19. Pre-distorted sinewave-driven parallel-plate electrostatic actuator for harmonic displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, G.; Mol, L.; Rocha, L. A.; Cretu, E.; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.

    2005-07-01

    Harmonic displacement of a parallel-plate electrostatic actuator up to 50% of the static pull-in displacement has been achieved despite the non-linear voltage-to-displacement function using a driving voltage with a pre-distorted waveform. The microstructure is fabricated in an epi-poly process and the circuit is implemented in a CMOS process and designed for operation of the MEMS in a frequency range up to 1 kHz. The pre-distorted waveform is synthesized using 16 samples per period with 16 non-uniformly spaced quantization levels, using a ladder with accurately scaled resistors. Harmonic actuation has been demonstrated with 34 dB reduction of second-order distortion compared to systems with sinusoidal actuation. The residual second harmonic content in the harmonic displacement is typically -42 dB.

  20. Magnetic relaxation dynamics driven by the first-order character of magnetocaloric La(Fe,Mn,Si)13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Edmund; Bratko, Milan; Caplin, A David; Barcza, Alexander; Katter, Matthias; Ghivelder, Luis; Cohen, Lesley F

    2016-08-13

    Here, we study the temporal evolution of the magnetic field-driven paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in the La(Fe,Mn,Si)13 material family. Three compositions are chosen that show varying strengths of the first-order character of the transition, as determined by the relative magnitude of their magnetic hysteresis and temperature separation between the zero-field transition temperature Tc and the temperature Tcrit, where the transition becomes continuous. Systematic variations in the fixed field, isothermal rate of relaxation are observed as a function of temperature and as a function of the degree of first-order character. The relaxation rate is reduced in more weakly first-order compositions and is also reduced as the temperature is increased towards Tcrit At temperatures above Tcrit, the metastability of the transition vanishes along with its associated temporal dynamics.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  1. Miscible porous media displacements driven by non-vertical injection wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, E.; Meiburg, E.

    High-resolution simulations are employed to identify and analyse the mechanisms dominating miscible porous media displacements generated by inclined injection wells. Compared to vertical injection wells, significant differences are observed that strongly influence breakthrough times and recovery rates. Constant density and viscosity displacements, for which the velocity field is potential in nature, demonstrate the existence of pronounced flow non-uniformities, due to the interaction of the inclined well with the reservoir boundaries. These non-uniformities deform the fronts during the initial displacement stages.In the presence of a viscosity difference, the non-uniformities of the potential flow field result in a focusing of the fingering instability. If the fluids also have different densities, a gravity tongue will reinforce the dominant finger along one front, while a gravitational instability leads to the disintegration of the dominant finger along the other front. Hence, the two fronts emerging from the inclined injection well usually evolve very differently from each other for variable density and viscosity displacements.For inclined injection wells and sufficiently large mobility ratios, gravity tongues are seen to evolve dendritically for an intermediate range of density contrasts. While mild gravitational forces are necessary to create the gravity tongue in the first place, large density differences will suppress the growth of the dendritic side branches. Since the dendritic branches appear along the side of the gravity tongue that should be stable according to traditional stability criteria, it can be concluded that the tip region plays a crucial role in their formation.

  2. Displacement and resonance behaviors of a piezoelectric diaphragm driven by a double-sided spiral electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Zhiyuan

    2012-04-03

    This paper presents the design of a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm actuated by double-sided patterned electrodes. Au/Cr electrodes were deposited on bulk PZT wafers by sputtering while patterned by a lift-off process. SU-8 thick film was used to form the structural layer. Double-spiral electrode induced in-plane poling and piezoelectric elongation are converted to an out-of-plane displacement due to the confined boundary condition. The influence of different drive configurations and electrode parameters on deflection has been calculated by finite element methods (FEM) using a uniform field model. Impedance and quasi-static displacement spectra of the diaphragm were measured after poling. Adouble-sided patterned electrode diaphragm can be actuated by more drive configurations than a single-sided one. Compared with a single-sided electrode drive, a double-sided out-of-phase drive configuration increases the coupling coefficient of the fundamental resonance from 7.6% to 11.8%. The displacement response of the diaphragm increases from 2.6 to 8.6nmV 1. Configurations including the electric field component perpendicular to the poling direction can stimulate shear modes of the diaphragm. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Future climate change driven sea-level rise: secondary consequences from human displacement for island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Florian T; Kissling, W Daniel; Beissmann, Helmut; Penn, Dustin J

    2012-09-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) due to global warming will result in the loss of many coastal areas. The direct or primary effects due to inundation and erosion from SLR are currently being assessed; however, the indirect or secondary ecological effects, such as changes caused by the displacement of human populations, have not been previously evaluated. We examined the potential ecological consequences of future SLR on >1,200 islands in the Southeast Asian and the Pacific region. Using three SLR scenarios (1, 3, and 6 m elevation, where 1 m approximates most predictions by the end of this century), we assessed the consequences of primary and secondary SLR effects from human displacement on habitat availability and distributions of selected mammal species. We estimate that between 3-32% of the coastal zone of these islands could be lost from primary effects, and consequently 8-52 million people would become SLR refugees. Assuming that inundated urban and intensive agricultural areas will be relocated with an equal area of habitat loss in the hinterland, we project that secondary SLR effects can lead to an equal or even higher percent range loss than primary effects for at least 10-18% of the sample mammals in a moderate range loss scenario and for 22-46% in a maximum range loss scenario. In addition, we found some species to be more vulnerable to secondary than primary effects. Finally, we found high spatial variation in vulnerability: species on islands in Oceania are more vulnerable to primary SLR effects, whereas species on islands in Indo-Malaysia, with potentially 7-48 million SLR refugees, are more vulnerable to secondary effects. Our findings show that primary and secondary SLR effects can have enormous consequences for human inhabitants and island biodiversity, and that both need to be incorporated into ecological risk assessment, conservation, and regional planning.

  4. Influence of rheology on buoyancy driven instabilities of miscible displacements in 2D micromodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, M. V.; Auradou, H.; Rosen, M.; Hulin, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    The stability of miscible displacements of Newtonian and shear-thinning fluids of slightly different densities (Δρ/ρ approx 3× 10-4) with a mean flow velocity U is investigated in a 2D transparent network of channels (average width = 0.33 mm). Concentration maps providing information at both the global and local scale are obtained through optical absorption measurements and compared in gravitationally stable and unstable vertical flow configurations; the influence of buoyant flows of typical velocity Ug is characterized by the gravity number Ng = Ug/|U|. For Ng glycerol solution, ld is only the same in the stable and unstable configurations for |Ng| 0.2, front spreading is not diffusive any more. In the stable configuration, in contrast, the front is flattened by buoyancy for Ng solution, both the concentration maps and the value of ld are the same in the stable and unstable configurations over the full range of U values investigated: this stabilization is explained by their high effective viscosity at low shear rates keeping Ng below the instability threshold even at the lowest velocities.

  5. Picosecond dynamics of a shock-driven displacive phase transformation in Zr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburne, T. D.; Glavicic, M. G.; Rahman, K. M.; Jones, N. G.; Coakley, J.; Eakins, D. E.; White, T. G.; Tong, V.; Milathianaki, D.; Williams, G. J.; Rugg, D.; Sutton, A. P.; Dye, D.

    2016-04-01

    High-pressure solid-state transformations at high strain rates are usually observed after the fact, either during static holding or after unloading, or inferred from interferometry measurements of the sample surface. The emergence of femtosecond x-ray diffraction techniques provides insight into the dynamics of short-time-scale events such as shocks. We report laser pump-probe experiments of the response of Zr to laser-driven shocks over the first few nanoseconds of the shock event, enabling the α →ω transition and orientation relationship to be observed in real time with picosecond resolution. A clear orientation relationship of (101 ¯0 ) α|| (101 ¯1 ) ω is found, in conflict with ω →α annealing experiments in zirconium and the two α →ω pathways proposed for titanium.

  6. Morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla chaetica with character displacement in the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Ilango

    2000-06-01

    Using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, the external morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla are described in the sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato, a well known vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India. A revised terminology is given for the antennal segments to bring phlebotomine more in line with other subfamilies and families while a description of antennal sensilla is provided for the first time in phlebotomine sandflies. Each flagellum consists of scape, pedicel, flagellomeres I to XIII and apiculus. The antennal segments contain scales and sensilla and the latter consist of sensilla trichodea, s. basiconica, s. auricillica, s. coeloconica and s. chaetica and their putative functions are discussed. The sensilla chaeticum hitherto known as antennal ascoid in the phlebotomine sandflies was used to differentiate within and between species. Differences in its relative size to the flagellomere between the populations of P. argentipes collected from the endemic and non-endemic areas in Tamil Nadu state, southern India were established. These differences are considered to be a character displacement as means of premating reproductive isolating mechanism among the populations/members of species complex.

  7. Vertical and horizontal surface displacements near Jakobshavn Isbræ driven by melt-induced and dynamic ice loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Spada, G.;

    2013-01-01

    We analyze Global Positioning System (GPS) time series of relative vertical and horizontal surface displacements from 2006 to 2012 at four GPS sites located between ∼5 and ∼150 km from the front of Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI) in west Greenland. Horizontal displacements during 2006–2010 at KAGA, ILUL, a...... to 2006–2010. The sudden change in vertical and horizontal displacements is due to enhanced melt-induced ice loss in 2010 and 2012....... of surface elevations from 2006, 2009, and 2010. However, horizontal displacements during 2010–2012 at KAGA and ILUL are directed more towards the west suggesting a change in the spatial distribution of the ice mass loss. In addition, we observe an increase in the uplift rate during 2010–2012 as compared...

  8. Averaged cov-driven subspace identification for modal analysis of a modified troposkien blade with displacement measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najafi, Nadia; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    . In the SSI-cov method, a block Toeplitz matrix is formed which contains output correlation functions. 10 displacement time series have been recorded with 187 Hz sampling rate, and about 3 time series were chosen to be analyzed. The block Toeplitz matrix of 3 time series are averaged out and the procedure how...

  9. Robust model reference adaptive control for a two-dimensional piezo-driven micro-displacement scanning platform based on the asymmetrical Bouc-Wen model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hysteresis characteristics resulted from piezoelectric actuators (PAs and the residual vibration in the rapid positioning of a two-dimensional piezo-driven micro-displacement scanning platform (2D-PDMDSP will greatly affect the positioning accuracy and speed. In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy and speed of the positioning and restrain the residual vibration of 2D-PDMDSP, firstly, Utilizing an online hysteresis observer based on the asymmetrical Bouc-Wen model, the PA with the hysteresis characteristics is feedforward linearized and can be used as a linear actuator; secondly, zero vibration and derivative shaping (ZVDS technique is used to eliminate the residual vibration of the 2D-PDMDSP; lastly, the robust model reference adaptive (RMRA control for the 2D-PDMDSP is proposed and explored. The rapid control prototype of the RMRA controller combining the proposed feedforward linearization and ZVDS control for the 2D-PDMDSP with rapid control prototyping technique based on the real-time simulation system is established and experimentally tested, and the corresponding controlled results are compared with those by the PID control method. The experimental results show that the proposed RMRA control method can significantly improve the accuracy and speed of the positioning and restrain the residual vibration of 2D-PDMDSP.

  10. Differential characters

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Providing a systematic introduction to differential characters as introduced by Cheeger and Simons, this text describes important concepts such as fiber integration, higher dimensional holonomy, transgression, and the product structure in a geometric manner. Differential characters form a model of what is nowadays called differential cohomology, which is the mathematical structure behind the higher gauge theories in physics.  

  11. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  12. OIL DISPLACEMENT IN MISCIBLE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Juttner

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available After primary oil recovery in reservoirs remains about 70% of unexploited oil. To improve the recovery of the remaining reserves, injection of a fluid provide the extra energy in a mchunical form. Oil displacement can he achieved by gas injection of lean natural gas, mainly methane, carbon dioxide etc. Oil displacement can be in immiscible or miscible conditions. This paper deals with mechanism of miscible gas drive. On the basis of simulation of the oil displacement process by gas injection into oil field Žutica the character of process, i. c. a degree of miscibility or immiscibility between the injected fluid and reservoir oil was determined.

  13. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...

  14. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  15. La Displacement Driven Double-Exchange Like Mediation in Titanium dxy Ferromagnetism at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odkhuu, Dorj; Rhim, Sonny H.; Shin, Dongbin; Park, Noejung

    2016-04-01

    The epitaxial atomistic interfaces of two insulating oxides, LaAlO3 (LAO)/SrTiO3 (STO), have attracted great interest owing to rich emergent phenomena such as interface metallicity, thickness dependent insulator-metal transition, superconductivity, ferromagnetism, and even their coexistence. However, the physics origin of ferromagnetic ordering in the n-type LAO/STO interface is in debate. Here, we propose that the polar distortion of La atom can ignite the ferromagnetism at the interface even without oxygen vacancy. The induced hybridization between La dz2 and O px,y states can mediate double-exchange like interaction between Ti dxy electrons. We further suggest that the structural and electrical modification of the outermost surface of LAO or switching the polarization direction of ferroelectric overlayers on LAO/STO can promote such La displacement.

  16. Water-column cooling and sea surface salinity increase in the upwelling region off central-south Chile driven by a poleward displacement of the South Pacific High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Wolfgang; Donoso, David; Garcés-Vargas, José; Escribano, Rubén

    2017-02-01

    Here we present results of direct observations of seawater temperature and salinity over the continental shelf off central-south Chile that shows an unprecedented cooling of the entire water column and an increase in upper layer salinity during 2002 to 2013. We provide evidence that this phenomenon is related to the intensification but mostly to a recent southward displacement of the South Pacific High over the same period, from 2007 on. This in turn has accelerated alongshore, equatorward, subtropical coastal upwelling favorable winds, particularly during winter, injecting colder water from below into the upper water column. Consequently, the environmental conditions on the shelf off central-south Chile shifted from a warmer (fresher) to a cooler (saltier) phase; water column temperature dropped from 11.7 °C (2003-2006) to 11.3 °C (2007-2012) and upper layer salinity rose by 0.25; water column stratification gradually decreased. The biological impacts of such abrupt cooling are apparently already happening in this coastal ecosystem, as recent evidence shows substantial changes in the plankton community and negative trends in zooplankton biomass over the same period.

  17. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    -centred design process. We identified alternative design-relevant relationships between people and devices that are not specifically tied to the functions/uses of the devices, e.g. relationships between the healthcare professional and the device, between doctors and patients, and between patients and their own......This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...

  18. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  19. Agonistic character displacement in social cognition of advertisement signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Bret; Sanford, Rachel; Phelps, Steven M

    2017-03-01

    Interspecific aggression between sibling species may enhance discrimination of competitors when recognition errors are costly, but proximate mechanisms mediating increased discriminative ability are unclear. We studied behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying responses to conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in Alston's singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina), a species in which males sing to repel rivals. We performed playback experiments using males in allopatry and sympatry with a dominant heterospecific (Scotinomys xerampelinus) and examined song-evoked induction of egr-1 in the auditory system to examine how neural tuning modulates species-specific responses. Heterospecific songs elicited stronger neural responses in sympatry than in allopatry, despite eliciting less singing in sympatry. Our results refute the traditional neuroethological concept of a matched filter and instead suggest expansion of sensory sensitivity to mediate competitor recognition in sympatry.

  20. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    individuals, i.e. high-tenure workers with strong attachment to their firm, who lose employment during a mass-layoff event. Pre-displacement data suggests no evidence of endogenous selection of workers for displacement during mass-layoffs: displaced workers’ propensity to commit crime exhibits...... theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  1. Statelessness and environmental displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Connell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stateless people and migrants are at greater risk of displacement and are less likely to receive assistance; in turn, environmental displacement (especially multiple migrations heightens the risk of becoming stateless.

  2. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  3. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  4. Displacement data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven; Venkataramani, Shankar; Mariano, Arthur J.; Restrepo, Juan M.

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  5. XY displacement device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerens, W.C.; Laham, C.D.; Holman, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    An XY-displacement device (1) with a four-fold symmetry comprises a reference frame (10); an object mount (20) for holding an object (22) to be displaced; an X-manipulator (100) coupled between the reference frame (10) and the object mount (20), which provides a rigid coupling between the object mou

  6. The Costs of Displacement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Naercio Menezes-Filho

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses new data that combines information on workers’ education and earnings trajectories with information about their firms to estimate the costs of job displacement in Brazil. We find that high-tenure workers displaced from their firms during mass lay-offs suffer a long-term loss in monthly wages of about 20% per year. We show that this result is robust to different treatment of workers that leave the formal sector of the economy and is driven by the losses suffered by more educa...

  7. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The character "力" li (strength) was originally written "(?)" The curving " (?) " indicates bulging muscles, while the "(?)" component represents skin. Despite its evolution over the centuries, "力" still symbolizes a strong arm.In combination with other characters "力" conveys the meaning "力量" liliang (strength), "力气"liqi (strength), "力求" liqiu (pursue) and "力争" lizheng (strive).

  8. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  9. A label-free ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of viable Salmonella enteritidis using enzyme-induced cascade two-stage toehold strand-displacement-driven assembly of G-quadruplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hui; Ma, Suzhen; Men, Shuai; Li, Qingzhou; Yang, Xin; Wang, Hongning; Zhang, Anyun

    2016-06-15

    The harm of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis ) to public health mainly by contaminating fresh food and water emphasizes the urgent need for rapid detection techniques to help control the spread of the pathogen. In this assay, an newly designed capture probe complex that contained specific S. enteritidis-aptamer and hybridized signal target sequence was used for viable S. enteritidis recognition directly. In the presence of the target S. enteritidis, single-stranded target sequences were liberated and initiated the replication-cleavage reaction, producing numerous G-quadruplex structures with a linker on the 3'-end. And then, the sensing system took innovative advantage of quadratic linker-induced strand-displacement for the first time to release target sequence in succession, leading to the cyclic reuse of the target sequences and cascade signal amplification, thereby achieving the successive production of G-quadruplex structures. The fluorescent dye, N-Methyl mesoporphyrin IX, binded to these G-quadruplex structures and generated significantly enhanced fluorescent signals to achieve highly sensitive detection of S. enteritidis down to 60 CFU/mL with a linear range from 10(2) to 10(7)CFU/mL. By coupling the cascade two-stage target sequences-recyclable toehold strand-displacement with aptamer-based target recognition successfully, it is the first report on a novel non-label, modification-free and DNA extraction-free ultrasensitive fluorescence biosensor for detecting viable S. enteritidis directly, which can discriminate from dead S. enteritidis.

  10. Displacement Data Assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, W Steven; Mariano, Arthur J; Restrepo, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information important. While the displacement transformation is not tied to any particular assimilation scheme, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  11. Advanced Triangulation Displacement Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteet, Wade M.; Cauthen, Harold K.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced optoelectronic triangulation displacement sensors undergoing development. Highly miniaturized, more stable, more accurate, and relatively easy to use. Incorporate wideband electronic circuits suitable for real-time monitoring and control of displacements. Measurements expected to be accurate to within nanometers. In principle, sensors mass-produced at relatively low unit cost. Potential applications numerous. Possible industrial application in measuring runout of rotating shaft or other moving part during fabrication in "zero-defect" manufacturing system, in which measured runout automatically corrected.

  12. Internal displacement in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced.

  13. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  14. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  15. Character Education and the Disappearance of the Political

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Judith

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore some contemporary versions of character education with specific reference to the extent to which they are viewed as constituting a form of citizenship education. I argue that such approaches often end up displacing the idea of political education and, through their language and stated aims, avoid any genuine engagement…

  16. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...

  17. Study on Collision Characters for SPAR Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhi-qiang; CUI Wei-cheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the research on the external mechanism of collision characters for a SPAR platform. The collision characters of SPAR platform have not attracted so much attention as that of ships in the past, because short of this kind of collision accidents reported. But with the increasing number of SPAR platforms in the world, the possibility of such kind of accident also increases. Therefore, it is necessary to master the character of SPAR collision. Model test technique is employed to study the external mechanism. The collision scenario is a ship colliding with a SPAR platform moored in the site with 1500 meters water depth. The striking ship hits the SPAR platform on the hard tank near water surface in its longitudinal direction. The specifics of the SPAR's motions and the tension forces of the mooring lines are collected to summarize the hydrodynamic characters in the collision scenario. It is found that the maximal displacements and the maximal pitch angles of the SPAR platform, and the maximal tension forces of mooring lines are all linearly proportional to the initial velocity of the striking ship basically. Mooring lines play elastic roles in the collision course.

  18. 基于螺杆钻具的旋冲钻井装置设计及试验研究%Designed and Testing of the Positive Displacement Motor Driven Rotary Percussion Drilling Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马广军; 张海平; 王甲昌

    2016-01-01

    The stability and service life of common rotary percussion drilling downhole tool is influenced by poor working conditions and is far from the field requirement. In view of this, a PDM driven drill string reciprocating percussion concept has been proposed, and a downhole rotary percussion drilling device has been developed. The de-vice is driven by PDM, enabling high-speed cutting and high frequency percussion at the same time. Prototype test results indicate that the tool can convert the PDM rotational power to reciprocating impact of the percussion mecha-nism. Comparing to using the single PDM, 1.5 MPa additional pump pressure is required while the rotary percus-sion drilling device is used with the additional WOB of 20 kN, and torque and RPM are basically the same. The device has a little friction torque and a slight wear between upper and lower cam, indicating the structure and func-tion meet the design requirements. The designed rotary percussion drilling device has a simple structure, reliable performance and great drilling speed promotion potential, presenting a good application prospect.%常见的旋转冲击钻井工具受到井下恶劣工作环境影响,其稳定性和寿命与现场要求还有较大差距.鉴于此,提出了一种利用螺杆钻具旋转运动激发钻柱往复冲击振动的新理念,研发了一种井下旋转冲击钻井装置.该装置由螺杆钻具驱动,能够同时实现高速切削和高频冲击.样机试验测试结果表明,该工具能够将螺杆的旋转动力转化为冲击发生机构的往复冲击,附加20 kN钻压情况下,泵压比单用螺杆高出1.5 MPa,扭矩、 转数与单用螺杆基本一致,摩擦消耗扭矩较小,上、 下凸轮存在轻微磨损,其他保持完好,装置结构和功能达到了设计要求.设计的旋冲钻井装置结构简单,性能可靠,提速潜力大,具有良好应用前景.

  19. A Behavior Animation Developing Tool for Emotion Driven 3D Virtual Character%一个情感驱动的3D虚拟角色行为动画创作工具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱剑

    2011-01-01

    Emotion is an important aspect of human intelligence and has been playing a significant role in creating virtual agent.Taken into account the influence of cognition to the emotion, an improved computing emotional model and a new form of behavior model are proposed. The paper designs the idiographic environment of emotion, and manages the behaviors through the form of behavior-tree to create the material and realistic virtual character emotion behavior, and brings forward the three-level structure of emotion formed as “personality-emotion-mood", then at last achieves an experimental system which proves the emotion model and behavior organizing model to be effective in creating intelligent emotion behavior in the virtual environment.%情感作为人类具有智能的一个重要体现,是创建丰富细腻的虚拟智能体的不可或缺的环节.本文结合认知对情感的影响,提出一个改进的情感建模方法和一种新的行为建模方法,设计具体的情感情境,并通过行为树的行为组织形式时虚拟环境中的行为进行管理,以产生具体、真实的虚拟角色情感行为.提出"个性-情感-情绪"的三层情感层次结构,并最后完成了一个实验系统.实验结果证明,该情感模型和行为组织模型能有效地反映虚拟角色在虚拟环境中的智能情感行为.

  20. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention...

  1. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sheep generally have a cute and docile appearance, which isrepresented by the Chinese character "羊" yang (sheep). The originalform of "羊" was "(?)" , representing a sheep’s head. Later, combinedwith other parts representing sheep’s horns, ears, legs, and tail, it evolvedinto "(?)"、"(?)"、"(?)" and "羊".

  2. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  3. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  4. Character and Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Johnnie

    1997-01-01

    Reflects on the ways in which children develop character as well as ways to foster moral development in elementary education communities. Includes a brief discussion of Robert Coles' documentation of moral intelligence in children, and lists several ways to aid the moral life of children in Montessori classrooms. (EV)

  5. The photoelectric displacement converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoner, Valeriu V.

    2005-02-01

    In the article are examined questions of constructing photoelectric displacement converter satisfying demands that are stated above. Converter has channels of approximate and precise readings. The approximate reading may be accomplished either by the method of reading from a code mask or by the method of the consecutive calculation of optical scale gaps number. Phase interpolator of mouar strips" gaps is determined as a precise measuring. It is shown mathematical model of converter that allow evaluating errors and operating speed of conversion.

  6. HIGH TEMPERATURE DISPLACEMENT SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Longxiang; Zhang Jinyu; Schweitzer Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature displacement sensor based on the principle of eddy-current is investigated. A new temperature compensation technique by using eddy-current effect is presented to satisfy the special requirement at high temperature up to 550℃. The experiment shows that the temperature compensation technique leads to good temperature stability for the sensors. The variation of the sensitivity as well as the temperature drift of the sensor with temperature compensation technique is only about 7.4% and 90~350 mV at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature, and that of the sensor without temperature compensation technique is about 31.2% and 2~3 V at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature. A new dynamic calibration method for the eddy-current displacement sensor is presented, which is very easy to be realized especially in high frequency and at high temperatures. The high temperature displacement sensors developed are successfully used at temperature up to 550℃ in a magnetic bearing system for more than 100 h.

  7. Character strengths and virtues

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004). This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003), a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that l...

  8. Second Order Darboux Displacements

    CERN Document Server

    Samsonov, B F; Negro, J; Nieto, L M

    2003-01-01

    The potentials for a one dimensional Schroedinger equation that are displaced along the x axis under second order Darboux transformations, called 2-SUSY invariant, are characterized in terms of a differential-difference equation. The solutions of the Schroedinger equation with such potentials are given analytically for any value of the energy. The method is illustrated by a two-soliton potential. It is proven that a particular case of the periodic Lame-Ince potential is 2-SUSY invariant. Both Bloch solutions of the corresponding Schroedinger equation equation are found for any value of the energy. A simple analytic expression for a family of two-gap potentials is derived.

  9. Uncovering deformation processes from surface displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramondo, Salvatore; Trasatti, Elisa; Albano, Matteo; Moro, Marco; Chini, Marco; Bignami, Christian; Polcari, Marco; Saroli, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Today, satellite remote sensing has reached a key role in Earth Sciences. In particular, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors and SAR Interferometry (InSAR) techniques are widely used for the study of dynamic processes occurring inside our living planet. Over the past 3 decades, InSAR has been applied for mapping topography and deformation at the Earth's surface. These maps are widely used in tectonics, seismology, geomorphology, and volcanology, in order to investigate the kinematics and dynamics of crustal faulting, the causes of postseismic and interseismic displacements, the dynamics of gravity driven slope failures, and the deformation associated with subsurface movement of water, hydrocarbons or magmatic fluids.

  10. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2012-01-01

    The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke ...... and market as mutually exclusive (Mol 2008), care and market appear to be intertwined in political patient figures through which the organization is trying to manage and transform itself from the inside......The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...... 2005) the analysis examines how the hospital’s patient communication is not just about disease treatment, but rather about information treatment of the patient in order to attain a high level of patient satisfaction. The goal of patient satisfaction addresses care-oriented understandings of the patient...

  11. Closed surfaces and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Chesebro, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The powerful character variety techniques of Culler and Shalen can be used to find essential surfaces in knot manifolds. We show that module structures on the coordinate ring of the character variety can be used to identify detected boundary slopes as well as when closed surfaces are detected. This approach also yields new number theoretic invariants for the character varieties of knot manifolds.

  12. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  13. Large even order character sums

    CERN Document Server

    Goldmakher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    A classical theorem of Paley asserts the existence of an infinite family of quadratic characters whose character sums become exceptionally large. In this paper, we establish an analogous result for characters of any fixed even order. Previously our bounds were only known under the assumption of the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis.

  14. Periods of Hecke characters

    CERN Document Server

    Schappacher, Norbert

    1988-01-01

    The starting point of this Lecture Notes volume is Deligne's theorem about absolute Hodge cycles on abelian varieties. Its applications to the theory of motives with complex multiplication are systematically reviewed. In particular, algebraic relations between values of the gamma function, the so-called formula of Chowla and Selberg and its generalization and Shimura's monomial relations among periods of CM abelian varieties are all presented in a unified way, namely as the analytic reflections of arithmetic identities beetween Hecke characters, with gamma values corresponding to Jacobi sums. The last chapter contains a special case in which Deligne's theorem does not apply.

  15. Variable displacement blower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, Charles C.; Stotts, Robert E.; Waring, Douglass R.; Folsom, Lawrence R.

    1986-01-01

    A blower having a stationary casing for rotatably supporting a rotor assembly having a series of open ended chambers arranged to close against the surrounding walls of the casing. Pistons are slidably mounted within each chamber with the center of rotation of the pistons being offset in regard to the center of rotation of the rotor assembly whereby the pistons reciprocate in the chambers as the rotor assembly turns. As inlet port communicates with the rotor assembly to deliver a working substance into the chamber as the pistons approach a top dead center position in the chamber while an outlet port also communicates with the rotor to exhaust the working substance as the pistons approach a bottom dead center position. The displacement of the blower is varied by adjusting the amount of eccentricity between the center of rotation of the pistons and the center of rotation of the rotor assembly.

  16. Time between plastic displacements of elasto-plastic oscillators subject to Gaussian white noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2001-01-01

    A one degree of freedom elasto-plastic oscillator subject to stationary Gaussian white noise has a plastic displacement response process of intermittent character. During shorter or longer time intervals the oscillator vibrates within the elastic domain without undergoing any plastic displacements....... These pieces of elastic response cannot be distinguished from conditional Gaussian response samples given that they are within the elasticity limits. Therefore, suitable Gaussian process theory can be applied to these pieces. Typically the plastic displacements occur in clumps of random plastic displacements...

  17. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  18. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  19. Displacement of Building Cluster Using Field Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al Tinghua

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a field based method to deal with the displacement of building cluster,which is driven by the street widening. The compress of street boundary results in the force to push the building moving inside and the force propagation is a decay process. To describe the phenomenon above, the field theory is introduced with the representation model of isoline. On the basis of the skeleton of Delaunay triangulation,the displacement field is built in which the propagation force is related to the adjacency degree with respect to the street boundary. The study offers the computation of displacement direction and offset distance for the building displacement. The vector operation is performed on the basis of grade and other field concepts.

  20. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  1. Urban IDPs and Poverty: Analysis of the Effect of Mass Forced Displacement on Urban Poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Nermin Oruc

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of mass forced displacement on urban poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The process of displacement in Bosnia and Herzegovina involved “forced evictions”, implying no choice in displacement decision, meaning that this type of rural-urban migration was not a rational decision driven by economic motives. Consequently, this can possibly lead to a larger incidence of poverty among displaced people. The paper starts with a discussion of the specific features of the p...

  2. The Development of the Relationship Of the Characters in the Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何保兴

    2009-01-01

    Death of a Salesman depicts an unsuccessful salesman who is driven from craze to death by all social and family circumstances.It isla new perspective to analyze the relationship of the characters,from which we can map out Willy's desperate path to ruin and find out the root cause of the salesman's death-his flawed character.

  3. Bounds for Certain Character Sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锦; 郑志勇

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows a connection between exponential sums and character sums. In particular, we introduce a character sum that is an analog of the classical Kloosterman sums and establish the analogous Weil-Estermann's upper bound for it. The paper also analyzes a generalized Hardy-Littlewood example for character sums, which shows that the upper bounds given here are the best possible. The analysis makes use of local bounds for the exponential sums and character sums. The basic theorems have been previously established.

  4. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  5. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  6. Character strengths and virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gancedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004. This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003, a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the superposition of implicit paradigms. It also takes notice of a causal and elementary logic -which goes against today’s scientific paradigm-, and the strong American culture zeitgeist present in the principles of Positive Psychology. Finally, some ethic problems are displayed, in particular the step taken from a descriptive attitude –characteristic of science- toward a prescriptive attitude –characteristic of moral codes-. 

  7. Buoyancy effects on upward brine displacement caused by CO2 injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Rinaldi, A.

    2010-01-15

    Upward displacement of brine from deep reservoirs driven by pressure increases resulting from CO{sub 2} injection for geologic carbon sequestration may occur through improperly sealed abandoned wells, through permeable faults, or through permeable channels between pinch-outs of shale formations. The concern about upward brine flow is that, upon intrusion into aquifers containing groundwater resources, the brine may degrade groundwater. Because both salinity and temperature increase with depth in sedimentary basins, upward displacement of brine involves lifting fluid that is saline but also warm into shallower regions that contain fresher, cooler water. We have carried out dynamic simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7 of upward displacement of warm, salty water into cooler, fresher aquifers in a highly idealized two-dimensional model consisting of a vertical conduit (representing a well or permeable fault) connecting a deep and a shallow reservoir. Our simulations show that for small pressure increases and/or high-salinity-gradient cases, brine is pushed up the conduit to a new static steady-state equilibrium. On the other hand, if the pressure rise is large enough that brine is pushed up the conduit and into the overlying upper aquifer, flow may be sustained if the dense brine is allowed to spread laterally. In this scenario, dense brine only contacts the lower-most region of the upper aquifer. In a hypothetical case in which strong cooling of the dense brine occurs in the upper reservoir, the brine becomes sufficiently dense that it flows back down into the deeper reservoir from where it came. The brine then heats again in the lower aquifer and moves back up the conduit to repeat the cycle. Parameter studies delineate steady-state (static) and oscillatory solutions and reveal the character and period of oscillatory solutions. Such oscillatory solutions are mostly a curiosity rather than an expected natural phenomenon because in nature the geothermal gradient prevents the

  8. Character Education: Christian Education Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Gretchen M.; Firmin, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Character is defined broadly by leading authorities, including concepts such as practicing apt behavior and teaching right from wrong. Virtue and moral undertones tend to pervade most experts' use of character, although in secular settings, the notion of ethics is more prominent. Overall, developing in students a desire for the good is how most…

  9. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM. The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  10. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  11. Dynamics of liquid-liquid displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Renate; Ramiasa, Melanie; Ralston, John

    2009-07-21

    Capillary driven liquid-liquid displacement in a system with two immiscible liquids of comparable viscosity was investigated by means of optical high speed video microscopy. For the first time, the impact of substrate wettability on contact line dynamics in liquid-liquid systems was studied. On all substrates, qualitatively different dynamics, in two distinct velocity regimes, were found. Hydrodynamic models apply to the fast stage of initial spreading, while nonhydrodynamic dissipation dominates contact line motion in a final stage at low speed, where the molecular kinetic theory (MKT) successfully captured the dynamics. The MKT model parameter values showed no systematic dependence on substrate wettability. This unexpected result is interpreted in terms of local contact line pinning.

  12. To prevent or pursue displacement?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The repertoire of survival actions of at-risk civilians includes bothavoiding and attempting displacement. But there are also overlaps,combinations and tacking back and forth between the two, whiletrying to mitigate the risks that any choice entails.

  13. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Rae

    2007-01-01

    The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  14. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Rae

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  15. Character recognition of Japanese newspaper headlines with graphical designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Minako; Hagita, Norihiro

    1996-03-01

    Graphical designs are often used in Japanese newspaper headlines to indicate hot articles. However, conventional OCR software seldom recognizes characters in such headlines because of the difficulty of removing the designs. This paper proposes a method that recognizes these characters without needing removal of the graphical designs. First, the number of text-line regions and the averaged character heights are roughly extracted from the local distribution of the black and white runs observed in a rectangular window while the window is shifted pixel- by-pixel along the direction of the text-line. Next, normalized text-line regions are yielded by normalizing their heights to the height of binary reference patterns in a dictionary. Next, displacement matching is applied to the normalized text-line region for character recognition. A square window at each position is matched against binary reference patterns while being shifted pixel-by-pixel along the direction of the text-line. The complementary similarity measure, which is robust against graphical designs, is used as a discriminant function. When the maximum similarity value at each position exceeds the threshold, which is automatically determined from the degree of degradation in the square window, the character category of this similarity value is specified as a recognized category. Experimental results for fifty Japanese newspaper headlines show that the method achieves recognition rates of over 90%, much higher than a conventional method (17%).

  16. Elementary Character Education: Local Perspectives, Echoed Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Pat; Field, Sherry L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents information based on a yearlong study of character education in an elementary school that was implementing "Kids with Character." Offers an analysis of the responses by students, teachers, and parents about character, development of character, and the program. Indicates that contemporary character education programs are similar to…

  17. Mining and modeling character networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, Anthony; Elenberg, Ethan R; Gleich, David F; Hou, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate social networks of characters found in cultural works such as novels and films. These character networks exhibit many of the properties of complex networks such as skewed degree distribution and community structure, but may be of relatively small order with a high multiplicity of edges. Building on recent work of beveridge, we consider graph extraction, visualization, and network statistics for three novels: Twilight by Stephanie Meyer, Steven King's The Stand, and J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Coupling with 800 character networks from films found in the http://moviegalaxies.com/ database, we compare the data sets to simulations from various stochastic complex networks models including random graphs with given expected degrees (also known as the Chung-Lu model), the configuration model, and the preferential attachment model. Using machine learning techniques based on motif (or small subgraph) counts, we determine that the Chung-Lu model best fits character networks and we ...

  18. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  19. Studying Characters in "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinhawa, Wilhelmina

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity in which high school students who are reading "Romeo and Juliet" compile information on major characters and create a collection of cards similar to sports cards, to help them understand each character and that character's motives. (SR)

  20. Displacement currents in geoelectromagnetic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilatov, Vladimir; Goldman, Mark; Persova, Marina; Soloveichik, Yury

    2014-06-01

    The influence of displacement currents in conventional geoelectromagnetic (GEM) methods using unimodal transversal electric (TE) or multimodal TE and TM (transversal magnetic) fields is only significant at very high frequencies in the frequency domain or at extremely early times in the time domain. The transient process in the latter includes three stages: the propagation through air, the propagation through earth and the diffusion within the earth. The influence of displacement currents is significant mainly during the former two stages, normally up to several tens to a few hundreds of nanoseconds. The behavior is essentially different in novel GEM methods using a vertical electric dipole (VED) or circular electric dipole (CED) sources of unimodal TM-fields. Under certain geoelectric conditions, the influence of displacement currents in these methods might be crucial at late times as well. This happens, if the model consists of insulating layers. In the absence of displacement currents, such layers would totally mask underlying structures. However, TM-fields including displacement currents depend on geoelectric parameters below insulating layers at late times.

  1. Formation around planetary displaced orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Sheng-ping; LI Jun-feng; BAOYIN He-xi

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates the relative motion around the planetary displaced orbit. Several kinds of displaced orbits for geocentric and martian cases were discussed. First, the relative motion was linearized around the displaced orbits. Then, two seminatural control laws were investigated for each kind of orbit and the stable regions were obtained for each case. One of the two control laws is the passive control law that is very attractive for engineering practice. However, the two control laws are not very suitable for the Martian mission. Another special semi-natural control law is designed based on the requirement of the Martian mission. The results show that large stable regions exist for the control law.

  2. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  3. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš eŠimkovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  4. Displacement ventilation in lecture halls

    OpenAIRE

    Egorov, Artem

    2013-01-01

    This thesis considers several important goals. The main purpose is to see how displacement ventilation sys-tem works in the lecture hall of M-building and compare obtained results with D2 and Indoor Climate Classi-fication. The second one is to analyze the function of the ventilation system. The last one is to realize when displacement ventilation is preferable to mixing ventilation. Analysis of the system was carried out with instruments from MUAS HVAC laboratory. In lecture hall were me...

  5. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

    2003-07-15

    A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

  6. Displacement and difference in Lubumbashi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Wa Kabwe-Segatti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Signs on the outskirts of the second largest city in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC welcome visitors to ‘the city of peace’. Lubumbashi has a reputation as a haven of tolerance in a violent nation but how are displaced people treated?

  7. To prevent or pursue displacement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Barrs

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The repertoire of survival actions of at-risk civilians includes bothavoiding and attempting displacement. But there are also overlaps,combinations and tacking back and forth between the two, whiletrying to mitigate the risks that any choice entails.

  8. Constructing Pairs of Compatible Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathias Kratzer

    2003-01-01

    Given a finite group X such that both the conjugacy of elements in X and the length of any conjugacy class in X can be decided/computed efficiently,the first algorithm described in this article constructs a uniquely determined sequence of representatives for all the conjugacy classes of X. In particular, based on this sequence, any two characters of different groups isomorphic to X become comparable against each other which is utilized by a second algorithm designed to construct so-called compatible characters of given finite groups G and H having isomorphic subgroups U ≤ G and V ≤ H, respectively.

  9. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  10. Character Interviews Help Bring Literature to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindall, Vickie; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Character Interviews," a class activity that guides children, especially reluctant readers, to the meaning of a story through a thoughtful understanding of character as they consider a character's emotions and motives, to respond to a question as that character would. Describes the interview process. Offers sample interviews…

  11. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  12. Interplay between interstitial displacement and displacive lattice transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xie; Hickel, Tilmann; Rogal, Jutta; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Diffusionless displacive lattice rearrangements, which include martensitic transformations, are in real materials often accompanied by a displacive drag of interstitials. The interplay of both processes leads to a particular atomistic arrangement of the interstitials in the product phase, which is decisive for its performance. An archetype example is the martensitic transformation in Fe-C alloys. One of the puzzles for this system is that the deviation from the cubic symmetry (i.e., the tetragonality) in the martensite resulting from this interplay is lower than what thermodynamics dictates. In our ab initio approach, the relative motion of C in the transforming lattice is studied with the nudged elastic band method. We prove that an atomic shearlike shuffle mechanism of adjacent (11 2 ¯) Fe layers along the ±[111] bcc directions is essential to achieve a redistribution of C atoms during the fcc → bcc transition, which fully explains the abnormal behavior. Furthermore, the good agreement with experiment validates our method to treat a diffusionless redistribution of interstitials and a displacive rearrangement of the host lattice simultaneously.

  13. Moral Character and Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  14. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  15. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  16. Hamlet and His Melancholy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2007-01-01

    @@ What's the theme of hamlet?His tragedies often portray some noble hero who faces the injustice of human life and is caught in a difficult situation whose fate is closely connected with the fate of the whole nation.The heroes have some weaknesses in their characters,which finally lead to their tragic thin falls.

  17. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  18. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  19. Character Analysis of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis analyses Jane Eyre' s character. No matter what Jane met, no matter where she was, she always rebelled against that unfair society, she never gave up to try her best to get free, independent, fair life and true love. By unremitting efforts she finally got dignity, freedom and true love.

  20. THE THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTER OF INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova T.M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article includes data concerning application of one of the universal method of the modern science based on fundamental thermodynamic laws to analyze the efficiency of the information processes. The comparison of the information and thermodynamic processes brought the author to the basic conclusion of the energetic character of information.

  1. CHARACTERS THAT SUFFERED DUE TO SHORTAGE IN THE CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the theories about motif and type will be used for analyzing the very types ofcharacters that suffered because of the shortages. To begin with, the analyzing of the differences andsimilarities of the shortages of each character will be counted on the inside and outside parts of theirsufferings. Then the theories of Nietzsche’s and of some myths will be used for analyzing the furtherreason of the sufferings. At last, investigating the special value those sufferings have brought forliteratures and for TV series. Multi-angle perspective is useful for investigating the unique charms ofthe shortages of characters as well as for finding out new understandings for the types of sufferings.

  2. Single-mode displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duivenvoorden, Kasper; Terhal, Barbara M.; Weigand, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We show that one can determine both parameters of a displacement acting on an oscillator with an accuracy which scales inversely with the square root of the number of photons in the oscillator. Our results are obtained by using a grid state as a sensor state for detecting small translations in phase space (displacements). Grid states were first proposed [D. Gottesman et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevA.64.012310] for encoding a qubit into an oscillator: an efficient preparation protocol of such states, using a coupling to a qubit, was later developed [B. M. Terhal and D. Weigand, Phys. Rev. A 93, 012315 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.012315]. We compare the performance of the grid state with the quantum compass or cat code state and place our results in the context of the two-parameter quantum Cramér-Rao lower bound on the variances of the displacement parameters. We show that the accessible information about the displacement for a grid state increases with the number of photons in the state when we measure and prepare the state using a phase estimation protocol. This is in contrast with the accessible information in the quantum compass state which we show is always upper bounded by a constant, independent of the number of photons. We present numerical simulations of a phase estimation based preparation protocol of a grid state in the presence of photon loss, nonlinearities, and qubit measurement, using no post-selection, showing how the two effective squeezing parameters which characterize the grid state change during the preparation. The idea behind the phase estimation protocol is a simple maximal-information gain strategy.

  3. Continuous monitoring of snowpack displacement at high spatial and temporal resolution with terrestrial radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caduff, Rafael; Wiesmann, Andreas; Bühler, Yves; Pielmeier, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Terrestrial radar interferometry is used in geotechnical applications for monitoring hazardous Earth or rock movements. In this study, we use it to continuously monitor snowpack displacements. As test site, the Dorfberg slope at Davos, Switzerland, was measured continuously during March 2014. The line of sight displacement was retrieved at a spatial resolution of millimeter to centimeter and a temporal resolution of up to 1 min independent of visibility. The results reveal several temperature-driven diurnal acceleration and deceleration cycles. The initiation of a small full-depth glide avalanche was observed after 50 cm total differential displacement. The maximum measured displacement of another differential glide area reached 43 cm/h without resulting in a full-depth avalanche even after a total measured differential displacement of 4.5 m. In regard of the difficulty to predict full-depth glide avalanches on the regional scale, the presented method has big potential for operational snow glide monitoring on critical slopes.

  4. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  5. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  6. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...... is usually too large but can be reduced automatically by the use of a predictive code length or predictive error criterion...

  7. Theoretical and experimental analysis of an optical driven servo system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, F.; Wang, X. J.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, Y. F.

    2016-09-01

    An optical driven servo system model based on single-type PLZT ceramic is proposed in this paper. The control equation of the proposed servo system is derived based on the mathematical model of PLZT with coupled multi-physics fields. The parameters of photodeformation of the PLZT actuator during both the illumination phase and light off phase are identified through the static experiment. Then displacement response of optical driven servo system is numerically simulated based on the control equation presented in this paper. After that, the closed-loop control experiment of optical driven servo system based on PLZT single-type ceramic with a simple on-off method is carried out. The experimental results show that the optical driven servo system with simple on-off method can achieve the target displacement by applying UV light to the PLZT actuator. Furthermore, an improved on-off control strategy is proposed to decrease the undesirable fluctuation around the target displacement.

  8. 25 CFR 700.59 - Displaced person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displaced person. 700.59 Section 700.59 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.59 Displaced person. Displaced person means a member of...

  9. A Review of Research on Devnagari Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Dongre, V J

    2011-01-01

    English Character Recognition (CR) has been extensively studied in the last half century and progressed to a level, sufficient to produce technology driven applications. But same is not the case for Indian languages which are complicated in terms of structure and computations. Rapidly growing computational power may enable the implementation of Indic CR methodologies. Digital document processing is gaining popularity for application to office and library automation, bank and postal services, publishing houses and communication technology. Devnagari being the national language of India, spoken by more than 500 million people, should be given special attention so that document retrieval and analysis of rich ancient and modern Indian literature can be effectively done. This article is intended to serve as a guide and update for the readers, working in the Devnagari Optical Character Recognition (DOCR) area. An overview of DOCR systems is presented and the available DOCR techniques are reviewed. The current statu...

  10. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  11. Character Analysis: Up Close and Personal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carla J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a class activity which gives students practice in character analysis based on characters' dialog in plays. Offers a version of this activity as applied to Caryl Churchill's play "Top Girls." (SR)

  12. Urban IDPs and Poverty: Analysis of the Effect of Mass Forced Displacement on Urban Poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Oruc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of mass forced displacement on urban poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The process of displacement in Bosnia and Herzegovina involved “forced evictions”, implying no choice in displacement decision, meaning that this type of rural-urban migration was not a rational decision driven by economic motives. Consequently, this can possibly lead to a larger incidence of poverty among displaced people. The paper starts with a discussion of the specific features of the process of forced displacement and their possibly different effect on urban poverty compared to voluntary migration, based on qualitative evidence collected through interviews with people who experienced forced displacement during the conflict in the 1990s. Then, the probit model of determinants of poverty, based on the Living Standards Measurement Survey data, was estimated in order to provide empirical evidence of the effect of mass forced displacement on urban poverty, as well as the difference in the poverty incidence among displaced people compared to voluntary migrants. The results suggest that consumption is significantly lower among displaced households, while incidence of poverty is not affected by displacement status. The evidence also contributes to the migration literature by providing specific results about the relationship between mass forced displacement and urban poverty.

  13. A Note on Generalized Characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Bhatt; H V Dedania

    2005-11-01

    For a compactly generated LCA group , it is shown that the set $H(G)$ of all generalized characters on equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and $H(G)=\\hat{G}$ (the dual group of ) if and only if is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if is second countable, then the Gel’fand space of the commutative convolution algebra $C_c(G)$ equipped with the inductive limit topology is topologically homeomorphic to $H(G)$.

  14. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  15. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  16. Extending Characters on Fix Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A dynamical system is a triple $(A,G,\\alpha)$, consisting of a unital locally convex algebra $A$, a topological group $G$ and a group homomorphism $\\alpha:G\\rightarrow\\Aut(A)$, which induces a continuous action of $G$ on $A$. Further, a unital locally convex algebra $A$ is called continuous inverse algebra, or CIA for short, if its group of units $A^{\\times}$ is open in $A$ and the inversion $\\iota:A^{\\times}\\rightarrow A^{\\times},\\,\\,\\,a\\mapsto a^{-1}$ is continuous at $1_A$. For a compact manifold $M$, the Fr\\'echet algebra of smooth functions $C^{\\infty}(M)$ is the prototype of such a continuous inverse algebra. We show that if $A$ is a complete commutative CIA, $G$ a compact group and $(A,G,\\alpha)$ a dynamical system, then each character of $B:=A^G$ can be extended to a character of $A$. In particular, the natural map on the level of the corresponding spectra $\\Gamma_A\\rightarrow\\Gamma_B$, $\\chi\\mapsto\\chi_{\\mid B}$ is surjective.

  17. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOFMAYER,C.H.

    1999-03-29

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

  18. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-03-29

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

  19. Displaceable Gear Torque Controlled Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  20. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  1. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  2. A displacement spindle in a micro/nano level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Lai, Zi-Fa; Wu, Peitsung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chen, Yejin; Jäger, Gerd

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents two micro/nano level displacement sensors, which consist of a mini LDGI (linear diffraction grating interferometer) and a focus probe. These two sensors are integrated into the spindle system of a micro/nano-CMM. This micro/nano spindle system is fixed on a rectangular granite bridge to achieve the z-axis function. The motion of the spindle is driven by an ultrasonic motor on a precision cross-roller slide. Its displacement is fed back by the LDGI. A DVD pick-up head is modified with its S-curve principle as the non-contact focus probe. Mounting the probe onto the spindle head, it is possible to achieve a large displacement and nanoresolution measuring spindle system with a feedback nanomotion control scheme. After accuracy calibration and error compensation, the spindle motion to 10 mm can perform 10 nm positioning accuracy and 30 nm measurement accuracy. Experiments on some ultraprecision profiles have shown the capability of this spindle system.

  3. Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J.L. Peers; Thornton, Daniel H.; Dennis L Murray

    2013-01-01

    Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we eval...

  4. Character and Effective Leadership of the Knowledge Worker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Anne E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2005-04-20

    Ulrich in the forward to the Zenger and Folkman (2002) book, ''The Extraordinary Leader'', wrote about the importance of character in leadership stating, ''Everything about great leaders radiates from character. Character improves the probability of exhibiting strong interpersonal skill. Some of this perceived character is innate . . . but more is driven by the leader's self-awareness and interactions with others'' (p. ix). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership effectiveness and character using leader-managers of knowledge workers as the subject sample. Findings indicated that character, particularly those factors associated with honesty, setting the example, and valuing and strengthening others, were what set the most effective leader-managers apart from their peers. Technical competence and self-efficacy were found to be common characteristics of the study sample as was a drive for results. Who a leader-manager is, his/her substance, was found in this study to differentiate the ''best'' leader-managers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By their character, leader-managers establish the environment in which knowledge workers contribute and grow. As found by Pfeiffer (2000), Leaders of companies that experience smaller gaps between what they know and what they do (to turn knowledge into action), understand that their most important task is not necessarily to make strategic decisions, or, for that matter any decisions at all. Their task is to help build systems of practice that produce a more reliable transformation of knowledge into action. Leaders create environments, reinforce norms, and help set expectations through what they do. (p. 261) In other words, as confirmed by this research study, their task is to model the way. Study results also confirmed Ulrich's (1996) supposition that to create the ''air'' in which employees

  5. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Šulc, Petr; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds.

  6. Preventing re-displacement through genuine reintegration in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Hovil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is often part of a cyclical process of conflict anddisplacement. Preventing displacement, therefore, is not only aboutpreventing new displacement but about ensuring that people do notget re-displaced.

  7. Elastic-wave generation in the evolution of displacement peaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, V.P.; Boldin, A.A.

    1988-06-01

    This paper investigated the character of elastic shock wave generation and damping in irradiated materials along with the possibility of their long-range influence on the structure of the irradiated materials. Dispersion at the elastoplastic stage of atomic displacement peak development was taken into account. The three-dimensional nonlinear wave was described by an equation in the approximation of weak nonlinearity and weak spatial dispersion. Numerical modeling of the propagation of a plane shock wave in a crystal lattice was conducted. The distribution of the density and mass velocity of the material at the instant of complete damping of the plastic shock-wave component was determined. The appearance of solitary waves (solitons) at large amplitudes, localized in space, which propagate without distortion to arbitrary distances and retain their amplitude and form in interacting with one another, was investigated. Some physical consequences of the influence of solitary waves on the irradiated materials were considered.

  8. The Contingent Character of Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent criticisms raised against Hegel has to do with the totalizing aspect of his system, which determines what is as absolutely necessary. The Science of Logic, being the conceptual edifice upon which his whole system is built, is the appropriate place to determine the specific meaning of the Hegelian concepts. The following paper offers a detailed analysis on the chapter on Actuality (Wirklichkeit in the Science of Logic, in order to show how the concept of absolute necessity not only includes within it, but also contains as a structural element, the concept of contingency. In this manner a deflationary interpretation is generated in which the absolutely necessary character of actuality should not be understood as grounded on a pre-established end that inexorably determines actuality, but rather as an interpretive movement, in recollection, of its process.

  9. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  10. Character design for soccer commmentary

    CERN Document Server

    Binsted, K

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present early work on an animated talking head commentary system called {\\bf Byrne}\\footnote{David Byrne is the lead singer of the Talking Heads.}. The goal of this project is to develop a system which can take the output from the RoboCup soccer simulator, and generate appropriate affective speech and facial expressions, based on the character's personality, emotional state, and the state of play. Here we describe a system which takes pre-analysed simulator output as input, and which generates text marked-up for use by a speech generator and a face animation system. We make heavy use of inter-system standards, so that future versions of Byrne will be able to take advantage of advances in the technologies that it incorporates.

  11. Displacement based multilevel structural optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striz, Alfred G.

    1995-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is expected to play a major role in the competitive transportation industries of tomorrow, i.e., in the design of aircraft and spacecraft, of high speed trains, boats, and automobiles. All of these vehicles require maximum performance at minimum weight to keep fuel consumption low and conserve resources. Here, MDO can deliver mathematically based design tools to create systems with optimum performance subject to the constraints of disciplines such as structures, aerodynamics, controls, etc. Although some applications of MDO are beginning to surface, the key to a widespread use of this technology lies in the improvement of its efficiency. This aspect is investigated here for the MDO subset of structural optimization, i.e., for the weight minimization of a given structure under size, strength, and displacement constraints. Specifically, finite element based multilevel optimization of structures (here, statically indeterminate trusses and beams for proof of concept) is performed. In the system level optimization, the design variables are the coefficients of assumed displacement functions, and the load unbalance resulting from the solution of the stiffness equations is minimized. Constraints are placed on the deflection amplitudes and the weight of the structure. In the subsystems level optimizations, the weight of each element is minimized under the action of stress constraints, with the cross sectional dimensions as design variables. This approach is expected to prove very efficient, especially for complex structures, since the design task is broken down into a large number of small and efficiently handled subtasks, each with only a small number of variables. This partitioning will also allow for the use of parallel computing, first, by sending the system and subsystems level computations to two different processors, ultimately, by performing all subsystems level optimizations in a massively parallel manner on separate

  12. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  13. Displacement of Propagating Squeezed Microwave States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, L.; Pogorzalek, S.; Eder, P.; Fischer, M.; Goetz, J.; Xie, E.; Wulschner, F.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Di Candia, R.; Las Heras, U.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.

    2016-07-01

    Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments, we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states remains constant over a wide range of the displacement power.

  14. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  15. "They may be pixels, but they're MY pixels:" developing a metric of character attachment in role-playing video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa L; Weber, René; Bowman, Nicholas David

    2008-08-01

    This paper proposes a new and reliable metric for measuring character attachment (CA), the connection felt by a video game player toward a video game character. Results of construct validity analyses indicate that the proposed CA scale has a significant relationship with self-esteem, addiction, game enjoyment, and time spent playing games; all of these relationships are predicted by theory. Additionally, CA levels for role-playing games differ significantly from CA levels of other character-driven games.

  16. Cohomological Hall algebras and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Davison, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between twisted and untwisted character varieties via a specific instance of the Cohomological Hall algebra for moduli of objects in 3-Calabi-Yau categories introduced by Kontsevich and Soibelman. In terms of Donaldson--Thomas theory, this relationship is completely understood via the calculations of Hausel and Villegas of the E polynomials of twisted character varieties and untwisted character stacks. We present a conjectural lift of this relationship to the cohomological Hall algebra setting.

  17. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful combinat......In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...

  18. Maxwell stress analysis of displacement induced electric force and its application to natural self-oscillation of a free electron

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Zhixian

    2013-01-01

    The Maxwell stress analysis is used for the calculation of displacement induced temporary electric force of a single charge. This force comes from the variation of the charge's electric intensities that follow Coulomb's inverse square law, and is a kind of displacement dependent temporary restore force. The possibility of natural self-oscillation of a free electron which is driven by this self-force is also suggested.

  19. Arizona: In Search of the Displaced Homemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Doris

    The model described offers information about displaced homemakers that, while specific to Arizona, can provide a guide to persons in any state responsible for program planning. The report presents results of an Arizona Department of Education study which was conducted to: (1) identify the "displaced homemaker;" (2) define the need for services;…

  20. Flow cell system for miscible displacement experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.H.; Kirkham, D.

    1971-02-01

    The use of a continuous graphic recording system for flow-component measurement in miscible displacement experiments is described. This system measures and continuously records radioactive tracer concentrations of effluents of miscible displacement columns. The recordings are needed breakthrough curves. The use of the system obviates fraction collectors.

  1. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  2. On Displacement Height, from Classical to Practical Formulation: Stress, Turbulent Transport and Vorticity Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Displacement height ( d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently predict flow properties above a forest. Turbulent transport can affect the displacement height, and is an integral part of what is called the roughness sublayer. We develop a more general approach for estimation of d, through production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport, and show how previous stress-based formulations for displacement height can be seen as simplified cases of a more general definition including turbulent transport. Further, we also give a simplified and practical form for d that is in agreement with the general approach, exploiting the concept of vortex thickness scale from mixing-layer theory. We assess the new and previous displacement height formulations by using flow statistics derived from the atmospheric boundary-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model SCADIS as well as from wind-tunnel observations, for different vegetation types and flow regimes in neutral conditions. The new formulations tend to produce smaller d than stress-based forms, falling closer to the classic logarithmically-defined displacement height. The new, more generally defined, displacement height appears to be more compatible with profiles of components of the turbulent kinetic energy budget, accounting for the combined effects of turbulent transport and shear production. The Coriolis force also plays a role, introducing wind-speed dependence into the behaviour of the roughness sublayer; this affects the turbulent transport, shear production, stress, and wind speed, as well as the displacement height, depending on the character of the forest. We further show how our practical (`mixing-layer') form for d matches the new turbulence-based relation, as well as

  3. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  4. Nonsurgical gingival displacement in restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Manuel S; Joseph, Robin Mathai; Parolia, Abhishek

    2011-06-01

    Gingival displacement is critical for obtaining accurate impressions for the fabrication of fixed restorations, especially when the finish line is at or just within the gingival sulcus. Displacement of the gingival tissue is also important when dealing with the restoration of cervical lesions due to their proximity to the periodontal tissue. The methods of gingival tissue displacement can be broadly classified as nonsurgical and surgical techniques, with nonsurgical being the more commonly practiced method. Dentists must alter their armamentarium and gingival displacement techniques to meet specific demands and obtain predictable results. Hence, the purpose of this article is to describe the different means by which nonsurgical gingival displacement can be achieved effectively under a variety of clinical situations.

  5. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  6. Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigekazu eKusumoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many rock fractures are entirely driven open by fluids such as ground water, geothermal water, gas, oil, and magma. These are a subset of extension fractures (mode I cracks; e.g., dikes, mineral veins and joints referred to as hydrofractures. Field measurements show that many hydrofractures have great variations in aperture. However, most analytical solutions for fracture displacement and stress fields assume the loading to be either constant or with a linear variation. While these solutions have been widely used, it is clear that a fracture hosted by heterogeneous and anisotropic rock is normally subject to loading that is neither constant nor with a linear variation. Here we present new general solutions for the displacement and stress fields around hydrofractures, modelled as two-dimensional elastic cracks, opened by irregular overpressure variations given by the Fourier cosine series. Each solution has two terms. The first term gives the displacement and stress fields due to the average overpressure acting inside the crack; it is given by the initial term of the Fourier coefficients expressing the overpressure variation. The second term gives the displacement and stress fields caused by the overpressure variation; it is given by general terms of the Fourier coefficients and solved through numerical integration. Our numerical examples show that the crack aperture variation closely reflects the overpressure variation. Also, that the general displacement and stress fields close to the crack follow the overpressure variation but tend to be more uniform far from the crack. The present solutions can be used to estimate the displacement and stress fields around any fluid-driven crack, that is, any hydrofracture, as well as its aperture, provided the variation in overpressure can be described by Fourier series. The solutions add to our understanding of local stresses, displacements, and fluid transport associated with hydrofractures in the crust.

  7. Character Education, New Media, and Political Spectacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario's new Character Development Initiative is analyzed to determine whether it can be characterized as political spectacle. Examination of official policy texts, media reports, speeches, web pages, webcasts, and events at the Character Development Symposium suggests that the Initiative contains many elements of political spectacle; however,…

  8. Character, Civility, and the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    As the educational community works together to improve academic achievement, the importance of character traits such as honesty, trustworthiness, self discipline, kindness, empathy, respect, responsibility, and courage must not be neglected. This guide has been designed to help educators and families in Massachusetts link character development and…

  9. 47 CFR 10.430 - Character limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Character limit. 10.430 Section 10.430 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.430 Character limit. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider must...

  10. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  11. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters. Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  12. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters.  Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  13. Don't "Dumb Down" Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    2006-01-01

    Most character education-advocate organizations list traits that they identify as the central principles or "pillars" in character development. They usually include words like responsibility, fairness, pride, and citizenship. As so often happens in education, these words are presented as though they represented straightforward, commonly understood…

  14. Wood anatomical classification using iterative character weighing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, P.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the pattern of wood anatomical variation in some groups of Rubiaceae (i.e. Cinchoneae, Rondeletieae and Condamineae) by using a numerical pattern detection method which involves character weighing (Hogeweg 1975). In this method character weights are obtained iteratively

  15. Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters -- Slavic and non-Slavic languages

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1995-01-01

    Cancels and replaces the first edition (1986). Establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of Slavic and non-Slavic languages. Table 3 includes in a single sequence, listed in the Cyrillic alphabetic order, the 118 single or diacritic-carrying characters that appear in one or another of the considered alphabets.

  16. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  17. Postprocessing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takatoshi; Okamoto, Masayosi; Horii, Hiroshi

    1993-04-01

    We propose a new method of post-processing for character recognition using pattern features and linguistic information. This method corrects errors in the recognition of handwritten Japanese sentences containing Kanji characters. This post-process method is characterized by having two types of character recognition. Improving the accuracy of the character recognition rate of Japanese characters is made difficult by the large number of characters, and the existence of characters with similar patterns. Therefore, it is not practical for a character recognition system to recognize all characters in detail. First, this post-processing method generates a candidate character table by recognizing the simplest features of characters. Then, it selects words corresponding to the character from the candidate character table by referring to a word and grammar dictionary before selecting suitable words. If the correct character is included in the candidate character table, this process can correct an error, however, if the character is not included, it cannot correct an error. Therefore, if this method can presume a character does not exist in a candidate character table by using linguistic information (word and grammar dictionary). It then can verify a presumed character by character recognition using complex features. When this method is applied to an online character recognition system, the accuracy of character recognition improves 93.5% to 94.7%. This proved to be the case when it was used for the editorials of a Japanese newspaper (Asahi Shinbun).

  18. L’écrivain déplacé dans Lolita et Pnin de Vladimir Nabokov Displaced Writers in Nabokov’s Fiction: Lolita and Pnin

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the figure of displaced writers in Vladimir Nabokov’s fiction, and more specifically in Lolita and Pnin. Living the life of exiles affected by permanent instability, the two heroes, Humbert and Pnin, find personal outlets in the writing process. The eccentric language used by both characters displays a form of inventiveness which derives from linguistic disjunction. This article aims at showing in which ways displacement is what sustains the linguistic creativity of th...

  19. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  20. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Šamanc Horea; Damnjanović Z.; Janković Dušan; Vujanac I.; Radaković Radomir; Mandić L.

    2003-01-01

    Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %). Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%). There is significant seasonal v...

  1. Three-dimensional miscible displacement simulations in homogeneous porous media with gravity override

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, A.; Meiburg, E.

    2003-11-01

    High-accuracy three-dimensional numerical simulations of miscible displacements with gravity override in homogeneous porous media are carried out for the quarter five-spot configuration. Special emphasis is placed on describing the influence of viscous and gravitational effects on the overall displacement dynamics in terms of the vorticity variable. Even for neutrally buoyant displacements, three-dimensional effects are seen to change the character of the flow significantly, in contrast to earlier findings for rectilinear displacements. At least in part this can be attributed to the time dependence of the most dangerous vertical instability mode. Density differences influence the flow primarily by establishing a narrow gravity layer, in which the effective Péclet number is enhanced owing to the higher flow rate. However, buoyancy forces of a certain magnitude can lead to a pinch-off of the gravity layer, thereby slowing it down. Overall, an increase of the gravitational parameter is found to enhance mostly the vertical perturbations, while larger Pe values act towards amplifying horizontal disturbances. The asymptotic rate of growth of the mixing length varies only with Péclet number. For large Péclet numbers, an asymptotic value of 0.7 is observed. A scaling law for the thickness of the gravity layer is obtained as well. In contrast to immiscible flow displacements, it is found to increase with the gravity parameter.

  2. Process for increasing oil recovery by miscible displacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, O.M.; Malinowsky, C.F.

    1966-08-02

    This is a miscible displacement method which involves a linear, gas-driven gravity-controlled flow mechanism. The formation is fractured and a condensible gas is injected into the fracture which has a substantial degree of miscibility with the reservoir oil. Thereafter a relatively non-condensible gas is injected through the fracture and into the reservoir. The volume of the non-condensible gas is sufficient to raise the reservoir pressure at least 50 psi above the vapor pressure of the condensible gas. Injection of the non-condensible gas is then stopped and oil is produced through the fracture with a controlled back pressure to offset the tendency of the miscible liquid to finger through the reservoir oil. (7 claims)

  3. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  4. Displacement and deformation analysis for uplift piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the assumptions that the shear resistance increases linearly with increasing shear displacement between the uplift pile and surrounding soil,that the axis force is distributed as parabola along the pile length,that elastic distortion occurs when the pile is loaded,that the displacement of pile is in accord with that of the soil,and that the uplift pile failure is regarded as the soil failure,arational calculation method was proposed for calculating the deformation,ultimate displacement and shear resistance of piles.The distributions of frictional resistance and the shear displacement along the pile length were obtained with the method.The comparisons were made between the measurement results and the present results.The present theoretical results agree well with the measurement results,with the average difference being less than 12% before failure.The comparisons show that the proposed method is reasonable for uplift design and engineering construction of piles.

  5. Assisting the return of displaced Dinka Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Murphy

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues involved in supporting the return of internally displaced Dinka Bor communities highlight the complex, and often ignored, challenges of addressing the consequencesof South-South conflict.

  6. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  7. Uncovering deformation processes from surface displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramondo, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this talk is to provide an overview about the most recent outcomes in Earth Sciences, describe the role of satellite remote sensing, together with GPS, ground measurement and further data, for geophysical parameter retrieval in well known case studies where the combined approach dealing with the use of two or more techniques/datasets have demonstrated their effectiveness. The Earth Sciences have today a wide availability of instruments and sensors able to provide scientists with an unprecedented capability to study the physical processes driving earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and other dynamic Earth systems. Indeed measurements from satellites allow systematic observation of the Earth surface covering large areas, over a long time period and characterized by growing sample intervals. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique has demonstrated its effectiveness to investigate processes responsible for crustal faulting stemming from the detection of surface deformation patterns. Indeed using satellite data along ascending and descending orbits, as well as different incident angles, it is possible in principle to retrieve the full 3D character of the ground motion. To such aim the use of GPS stations providing 3D displacement components is a reliable complementary instrument. Finally, offset tracking techniques and Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI) may provide a contribution to the analysis of horizontal and NS deformation vectors. The estimation of geophysical parameters using InSAR has been widely discussed in seismology and volcanology, and also applied to deformation associated with groundwater and other subsurface fluids. These applications often involve the solution of an inverse problem, which means the retrieval of optimal source parameters at depth for volcanoes and earthquakes, from the knowledge of surface deformation from InSAR. In recent years, InSAR measurements combined with traditional seismological and

  8. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  9. Monolithically integrated interferometer for optical displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, Hans P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the fabrication of a monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors using III-V semiconductor technology. The device is configured as a Michelson interferometer and consists of a distributed Bragg reflector laser, a photodetector and waveguides forming a directional coupler. Using this interferometer, displacements in the 100 nm range could be measured at distances of up to 45 cm. We present fabrication, device results and characterization of the completed interferometer, problems, limitations and future applications will also be discussed.

  10. A structural query system for Han characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... language for EIDS databases, with a freely available implementation and format translation from popular third-party IDS and XML character databases. The system is designed to suit the needs of font developers and foreign language learners. The search algorithm includes a bit vector index inspired by Bloom...

  11. On Hemingway’s Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Miruna Ciocoi-Pop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a brief outline of Hemingway’s characters and the way in which they correspond to the author himself. It is known for a fact that Hemingway evinced a tendency to imitate his characters when they were coming to grips with diverse situations. Thus I have tried to briefly pinpoint the fading boundaries between reality and imagination in his work. By doing so, I have focused on both male and female characters, underlining the major dissimilarities between these two categories, as well as their main features.

  12. ON­LINE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ADAPTIVELY CONTROLLED BY HANDWRITING QUALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamanaka, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    On­line character recognition which can adapt to handwriting quality is proposed. In character recognition, it is difficult to recognize both clearly and roughly written characters accurately. For Japanese characters, the number of strokes is often slightly varied when characters are written roughly

  13. The Dynamic test of Novel Punch Driven by Linear Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The key character of punch is its impulsion. For the novel punch driven by linear motor, the computer-aided test system is used. Its frequency performance is calculated by the identification method according to the dynamic demarcation. This dynamic test system presented here can be applied in the sample machines under development and performance test of finished products.

  14. Attempts to prevent displacement in the occupied Palestinian territories

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Khalil

    2012-01-01

    Prevention has become a strategy increasingly adopted by the humanitarian community in addressing forced displacement in the occupied Palestinian territories, as well as responding to immediate emergency needs for families displaced or at risk of displacement.

  15. Wisconsin Islands Wilderness Character Monitoring Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The table and the report that follow are part of a national initiative to establish a baseline wilderness character assessment for all of the National Wildlife...

  16. Printed Arabic Character Recognition Using HMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas H.Hassin; Xiang-Long Tang; Jia-Feng Liu; Wei Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Language has a very rich vocabulary.More than 200 million people speak this language as their native speaking,and over 1 billion people use it in several religion-related activities.In this paper a new technique is presented for recognizing printed Arabic characters.After a word is segmented,each character/word is entirely transformed into a feature vector.The features of printed Arabic characters include strokes and bays in various directions,endpoints,intersection points,loops,dots and zigzags.The word skeleton is decomposed into a number of links in orthographic order,and then it is transferred into a sequence of symbols using vector quantization.Single hidden Markov model has been used for recognizing the printed Arabic characters.Experimental results show that the high recognition rate depends on the number of states in each sample.

  17. Seafloor character--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster data file...

  18. Seafloor character--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in "SFC_OffshorePacifica.zip," which is...

  19. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  20. Kannada Character Recognition System A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Indira, K

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research has been done on optical character recognition ocr and a large number of articles have been published on this topic during the last few decades. Many commercial OCR systems are now available in the market, but most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters. There are no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 12 major scripts in India. This paper presents a review of existing work on printed Kannada script and their results. The characteristics of Kannada script and Kannada Character Recognition System kcr are discussed in detail. Finally fusion at the classifier level is proposed to increase the recognition accuracy.

  1. Character strenghts and sex differences in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reyes Martín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the association between character strengths and happiness and global health in adolescents by gender. The participants comprised 117 high-school students (μ =16.90, σ =.81 from Málaga (Spain. All participants completed the Values in Action 120-Items Questionnaire (VIA-120, the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, and the Happiness Item. The results showed higher levels of character strengths and lower levels of temperance and religiousness in the humanity score. Moderately significant associations were found between all character strengths and general health, happiness, and especially hope. Boys had significantly higher scores on zest, prudence, self-regulation, and hope (Student t test. The study suggests that character strengths could contribute to increased life satisfaction and health among adolescents.

  2. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  3. The Energetics of Gravity Driven Faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, L.

    2007-12-01

    Faulting can result from either of two different mechanisms. These involve fundamentally different energetics. In displacement-bounded faulting, locked-in elastic strain energy is transformed into seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone. Elastic rebound is an example of displacement-bounded faulting. In force-driven faulting, the forces that create the stress on the fault supply work or energy to the faulting process. Half of this energy is transformed into seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone and half goes into an increase in locked-in elastic strain. In displacement-bounded faulting the locked-in elastic strain drives slip on the fault. In force-driven faulting it stops slip on the fault. Tectonic stress is reasonably attributed to gravity acting on topography and the Earth's lateral density variations. This includes the thermal convection that ultimately drives plate tectonics. The gravity collapse seismic mechanism assumes the fault fails and slips in direct response to the gravitational tectonic stress. Gravity collapse is an example of force-driven faulting. In the simplest case, energy that is released from the gravitational potential of the topography and internal stress-causing density variations is equally split between the seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone and the increase in locked-in elastic strain. The release of gravitational potential energy requires a change in the Earth's density distribution. Gravitational body forces are solely dependent on density so a change in the density distribution requires a change in the body forces. This implies the existence of volumetric body-force displacements. The volumetric body-force displacements are in addition to displacements generated by slip on the fault. They must exist if gravity participates in the energetics of the faulting process. From the perspective of gravitational tectonics, the gravity collapse mechanism is direct and simple. The related mechanics are a little more

  4. Platyhelminth systematics and the emergence of new characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littlewood D.T.J.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the inclusion of molecular data in modern phylogenetic analyses, significant progress in resolving the origins and radiation of flatworms has been made, although some key problems remain. Here I review developments in the supply and use of systematic characters that provide the basis for diagnosis and phylogeny reconstruction, that in turn have driven systematic revisions and the interpretation of broader evolutionary patterns and processes; focus is placed on the parasitic taxa. Although useful tools have been refined to the point of becoming established systematic markers of broad utility, attention to the need for denser gene and taxon sampling is addressed in the light of unresolved questions and current trends in molecular systematics, from nucleotide to genome. Tradition and the nature of available comparative information tends to dictate the choice of systematic markers, but faced with incongruent phylogenies, the emergence of new technologies and the need for rapid species diagnosis, there is a pressing need to assess and standardize our choice of tools so they are fit for purpose, available to all and used widely. I present a brief review of existing and potential sources of phylogenetic characters and discuss their likely value in the context of the systematics and diagnostics of parasitic flatworms.

  5. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  6. Character strenghts and sex differences in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Reyes Martín; Marta Ferragut

    2016-01-01

    This study analysed the association between character strengths and happiness and global health in adolescents by gender. The participants comprised 117 high-school students (μ =16.90, σ =.81) from Málaga (Spain). All participants completed the Values in Action 120-Items Questionnaire (VIA-120), the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and the Happiness Item. The results showed higher levels of character strengths and lower levels of temperance and religiousness in the h...

  7. Chinese character recognition :history ,status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Ruwei; LIU Chenglin; XIAO Baihua

    2007-01-01

    Chinese character recognition (CCR) is an important branch of pattern recognition.It was considered as an extremely difficult problem due to the very large number of categories,complicated structures,similarity between characters,and the variability of fonts or writing styles.Because of its unique technical challenges and great social needs,the last four decades witnessed the intensive research in this field and a rapid increase of successful applications.However,higher recognition performance is continuously needed to improve the existing applications and to exploit new applications.This paper first provides an overview of Chinese character recognition and the properties of Chinese characters.Some important methods and successful results in the history of Chinese character recognition are then summarized.As for classification methods,this article pays special attention to the syntactic-semantic approach for online Chinese character recognition,as well as the metasynthesis approach for discipline crossing.Finally,the remaining problems and the possible solutions are discussed.

  8. Recognition of Telugu characters using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhaswami, M B; Seetharamulu, P; Pujari, A K

    1995-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to recognize printed and handwritten Telugu characters using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Earlier work on recognition of Telugu characters has been done using conventional pattern recognition techniques. We make an initial attempt here of using neural networks for recognition with the aim of improving upon earlier methods which do not perform effectively in the presence of noise and distortion in the characters. The Hopfield model of neural network working as an associative memory is chosen for recognition purposes initially. Due to limitation in the capacity of the Hopfield neural network, we propose a new scheme named here as the Multiple Neural Network Associative Memory (MNNAM). The limitation in storage capacity has been overcome by combining multiple neural networks which work in parallel. It is also demonstrated that the Hopfield network is suitable for recognizing noisy printed characters as well as handwritten characters written by different "hands" in a variety of styles. Detailed experiments have been carried out using several learning strategies and results are reported. It is shown here that satisfactory recognition is possible using the proposed strategy. A detailed preprocessing scheme of the Telugu characters from digitized documents is also described.

  9. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hitesh Sharma; S Prakash

    2007-04-01

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and Harrison interatomic potential is used to calculate the atomic force constants, the dynamical matrix and the impurity-induced forces. We have thoroughly investigated the atomic displacements using impurities from 3d, 4d and 5d series in the same host metal and the same impurity in different hosts. We have observed a systematic pattern in the atomic displacements for Cr-, Fe-, Nb-, Mo-, Ta- and W-based dilute alloys. The atomic displacements are found to increase with increase in the number of d electrons for all alloys considered except for V dilute alloys. The 3d impurities are found to be more easily dissolved in the 3d host metals than 4d or 5d TMs whereas 4d and 5d impurities show more solubility in 4d and 5d TMs. In general, the relaxation energy calculation suggests that impurities may be easily solvable in 5d TM hosts when compared to 3d or 4d TMs.

  10. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  11. Fingering phenomena during grain-grain displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Nathália M. P.; Paiva, Humberto A.; Combe, G.; Atman, A. P. F.

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous formation of fingered patterns during the displacement of dense granular assemblies was experimentally reported few years ago, in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Here, by means of discrete element simulations, we have recovered the experimental findings and extended the original study to explore the control parameters space. In particular, using assemblies of grains with different geometries (monodisperse, bidisperse, or polydisperse), we measured the macroscopic stress tensor in the samples in order to confirm some conjectures proposed in analogy with Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering phenomena for immiscible fluids. Considering an axial setup which allows to control the discharge of grains and to follow the trajectory and the pressure gradient along the displacing interface, we have applied the Darcy law for laminar flow in fluids in order to measure an "effective viscosity" for each assembly combination, in an attempt to mimic variation of the viscosity ratio between the injected/displaced fluids in the Saffman-Taylor experiment. The results corroborate the analogy with the viscous fluids displacement, with the bidisperse assembly corresponding to the less viscous geometry. But, differently to fluid case, granular fingers only develop for a specific combination of displaced/injected geometries, and we have demonstrated that it is always related with the formation of a force chain network along the finger direction.

  12. On Tuning the Bad-Character Rule: the Worst-Character Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Cantone, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this note we present the worst-character rule, an efficient variation of the bad-character heuristic for the exact string matching problem, firstly introduced in the well-known Boyer-Moore algorithm. Our proposed rule selects a position relative to the current shift which yields the largest average advancement, according to the characters distribution in the text. Experimental results show that the worst-character rule achieves very good results especially in the case of long patterns or small alphabets in random texts and in the case of texts in natural languages.

  13. Acquisition of Chinese characters: The effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen eKuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su & Samuels, 2010 and dual-coding processing (Sadoski & Paivio, 2013 and investigated a the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence on character acquisition and b the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014, a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that a characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and b individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  14. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  15. Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Donny

    2010-04-01

    In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes.

  16. Miscible, porous media displacements with density stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Amir; Meiburg, Eckart

    2004-11-01

    High accuracy, three-dimensional numerical simulations of miscible displacements with gravity override, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, are discussed for the quarter five-spot configuration. The influence of viscous and gravitational effects on the overall displacement dynamics is described in terms of the vorticity variable. Density differences influence the flow primarily by establishing a narrow gravity layer, in which the effective Peclet number is enhanced due to the higher flow rate. Although this effect plays a dominant role in homogeneous flows, it is suppressed to some extent in heterogeneous displacements. This is a result of coupling between the viscous and permeability vorticity fields. When the viscous wavelength is much larger than the permeability wavelength, gravity override becomes more effective because coupling between the viscous and permeability vorticity fields is less pronounced. Buoyancy forces of a certain magnitude can lead to a pinch-off of the gravity layer, thereby slowing it down.

  17. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...... the diffusers by rearranging the furniture. Half of the surveyed occupants were not satisfied with the indoor air quality. The main conclusion is that displacement ventilation needs careful design and room furnishing in order to ensure a comfortable environment. Occupants must understand the underlying...

  18. Developer Driven and User Driven Usability Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Usability evaluation provide software development teams with insights on the degree to which a software application enables a user to achieve his/her goals, how fast these goals can be achieved, how easy it is to learn and how satisfactory it is in use Although usability evaluations are crucial....... The four primary findings from my studies are: 1) The developer driven approach reveals a high level of thoroughness and downstream utility. 2) The user driven approach has higher performance regarding validity 3) The level of reliability is comparable between the two approaches. 4) The user driven...

  19. DISPLACEMENT CONTROL AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel variable displacement compressor (VDC) for automotive air conditioner (AAC) is introduced, which inherits the advantages of common wobble plate type VDC. It has fewer parts and makes less noise, and inst ead of pneumatic valve the displacement is controlled by electronic control valv e. In order to know the control mechanism well and get a good control effect, a mathematical model for the variable displacement mechanism is developed accordin g to the geometrical and kinematical information of the compressor. Using the mo del, the effect of relevant parameters on variable displace control is estimated . It is helpful to make the optimum decision in the flow control of AAC. As the novel displacement control device, the structure and control rule of electronic control valve is introduced. It can get better effect than the conventional pneu matic valves. And by using this new electronic control device, the optimum syste mic control of AAC is available.

  20. The source vector and static displacement field by elastic dislocation on the two-phase saturated medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Biot's theory about two-phase saturated medium, according to the character of d function, the Green function on two-phase saturated medium by the point source under concentrated force can be derived. By the Betti's theorem for the two-phase saturated medium field, the source vector and static displacement field by elastic dislocation on the two-phase saturated medium were comprehensively discussed.

  1. Seismic displacement of gently-sloping coastal and marine sediment under multidirectional earthquake loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Gentle sediment-laden slopes are typical of the onshore coastal zone and offshore continental shelf and slope. Coastal sediment are commonly young weakly consolidated materials that are well stratified, have low strength, and can mobilize shear displacements at low levels of stress. Seismically-driven plastic displacements of these sediment pose a hazard to coastal cities, buried onshore utilities, and offshore infrastructure like harbor protection and outfalls. One-dimensional rigid downslope-directed Newmark sliding block analyses have been used to predict earthquake deformations generally on steeper slopes that are modeled as frictional materials. This study probes the effect of multidirectional earthquake motions on inertial displacements of gently sloping ground of the coastal and offshore condition where soft-compliant soil is expected. Toward that objective, this investigation seeks to understand the effect on Newmark-type displacements of [1] multidirectional earthquake shaking and [2] soil compliance. In order to model multidirectional effects, the earthquake motions are rotated into the local slope strike- and dip-components. On gently sloping ground, including the strike component of motion always results in a larger and more accurate shear stress vector. Strike motions are found to contribute to downslope deformations on any declivity. Compliant response of the soil mass also influences the plastic displacements. The magnitude of seismic displacements can be estimated with a simplified model using only the estimated soil yield-acceleration (ky) and the peak ground velocity (Vmax) of the earthquake motions. Compliance effects can be effectively mapped using the concept of Plastic Displacement Response Spectra (PDRS).

  2. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel...

  3. Maxillary tooth displacement in the infratemporal fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korosh Roshanghias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wisdom tooth operations are sometimes accompanied by complications. This case report shows complications during upper jaw third molar removal. Expectable problems during oral surgery should be planned to be solved in advance. Displacement of the third molar during oral surgeries as a considerable complication is rarely discussed scientifically. A good design of flap, adequate power for extraction, and clear view on the surgical field are crucial. Three-dimensional radiographic diagnostics in terms of cone beam computed tomography is helpful after tooth displacement into the infratemporal fossa.

  4. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  5. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  6. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1996-01-01

    Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation...

  7. Character superimposition inpainting in surveillance video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lili; Tao, Junjie; You, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Video surveillance systems play an important role in the crime scene investigation, and the digital surveillance system always requires the superimposed video data being subjected to a data compression processing. The purpose of this paper is to study the use of inpainting techniques to remove the characters and inpaint the target region. We give the efficient framework including getting Character Superimposition mask, superimposition movement and inpainting the blanks. The character region is located with the manual ROI selection and varying text extractor, such as the time. The superimposed characters usually have distinguished colors from the original background, so the edges are easily detected. We use the canny operator the get the edge image. The missing information which is effect the structure of the original image is reconstructed using a structure propagating algorithm. The experiment was done with C/C++ in the vs2010 KDE. The framework of this paper showed is powerful to recreate the character superimposition region and helpful to the crime scene investigation.

  8. CONFUCIANISM AND CHARACTER EDUCATION: A CHINESE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ju Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of Confucianism are founded on humaneness, righteousness, propriety, knowledge, integrity and filial piety. These principles have found their way to the Chinese culture since the days of Confucius. The study reviews the concept of Confucianism and its influence in Chinese context. Also, the relationship between Confucianism and character education is discussed. Character education is based on the transmission of values and within Chinese society and most of these values have been founded on the teachings of Confucius. Filial piety has strongly been conditioned within the principles of Confucianism and the respect of one’s elders. Character education has been promoted by teachers and elders who focus on the transmission of values from one generation to the next. Character education is supported by the theories and teachings set out by Confucius, mostly in relation to humaneness and integrity, as well as collectivism. The individualistic trends are discarded within character education, as the welfare of the society and the collective is prioritized.

  9. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  10. 24 CFR 42.350 - Relocation assistance for displaced persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... described in 49 CFR part 24. A displaced person must be advised of his or her rights under the Fair Housing... of 1974 § 42.350 Relocation assistance for displaced persons. A displaced person may choose to... safety of the person or the public; or (2) The person is displaced from a “lower-income dwelling...

  11. 24 CFR 92.353 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... U.S.C. 4201-4655) and 49 CFR part 24. A “displaced person” must be advised of his or her rights... assistance for displaced persons—(1) General. A displaced person (defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section..., safe, and sanitary replacement dwellings not located in such areas. (2) Displaced Person. (i)...

  12. 24 CFR 882.810 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 24.2(g)(2); or (iv) HUD determines that the person was not displaced as a direct result of... section. (c) Relocation assistance for displaced persons. A “displaced person” (defined in paragraph (g... displaced person must be advised of his or her rights under the Fair Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 3601-19) and,...

  13. Balancing plot and character believability by reasoning out-of-character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    We are designing a serious game in which players need to become aware of their social behaviour by interacting with virtual characters. These characters need to behave believably while guaranteeing that the player reaches that learning goal at a certain point during the game's story. I propose to le

  14. Online Handwritten Character Recognition of Devanagari and Telugu Characters using Support Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Swethalakshmi, H.; Jayaraman, Anitha; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Sekhar, C. Chandra

    2006-01-01

    http://www.suvisoft.com; A system for recognition of online handwritten characters has been presented for Indian writing systems. A handwritten character is represented as a sequence of strokes whose features are extracted and classied. Support vector machines have been used for constructing the stroke recognition engine. The results have been presented after testing the system on Devanagari and Telugu scripts.

  15. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  16. Detecting DNS Tunnels Using Character Frequency Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Kenton

    2010-01-01

    High-bandwidth covert channels pose significant risks to sensitive and proprietary information inside company networks. Domain Name System (DNS) tunnels provide a means to covertly infiltrate and exfiltrate large amounts of information passed network boundaries. This paper explores the possibility of detecting DNS tunnels by analyzing the unigram, bigram, and trigram character frequencies of domains in DNS queries and responses. It is empirically shown how domains follow Zipf's law in a similar pattern to natural languages, whereas tunneled traffic has more evenly distributed character frequencies. This approach allows tunnels to be detected across multiple domains, whereas previous methods typically concentrate on monitoring point to point systems. Anomalies are quickly discovered when tunneled traffic is compared to the character frequency fingerprint of legitimate domain traffic.

  17. Conceptual Design Scheme for Virtual Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Gino; Servidio, Rocco

    The aim of this paper is to describe some theoretical considerations about virtual character design. In recent years, many prototypes of cognitive and behavioral architectures have been developed to simulate human behavior in artificial agents. Analyzing recent studies, we assume that there exists a variety of computational models and methods in order to increase the cognitive abilities of the virtual characters. In our opinion, it is necessary to perform a synthesis of these approaches in order to improve the existing models and avoiding the application of new approaches. Considering these aspects, in this paper we describe a taxonomy that explores the principal cognitive and computational parameters involved in the design, development and evaluation of a virtual character.

  18. Trivalent graphs, volume conjectures and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Nawata, Satoshi; Zodinmawia,

    2014-01-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to $U_q(sl_2)$ colored quantum invariants of trivalent graphs. The SL(2,C) character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with $E$ edges in $S^3$ is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus $g=E/3+1$. The configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety. In particular, we investigate both the conjectures for the theta and tetrahedron graphs.

  19. Femtosecond Heterodyne Transient Grating Spectroscopic Studies of Intramolecular Charge Transfer Character of Peridinin and Peridinin Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michael; Khosravi, Soroush; Obaid, Razib; Whitelock, Hope; Carroll, Ann Marie; Lafountain, Amy; Frank, Harry; Beck, Warren; Gibson, George; Berrah, Nora

    2016-05-01

    The peridinin chlorophyll-a protein is a light harvesting complex found in several species of dinoflagellates. Peridinin absorbs strongly in the mid-visible spectral region and, despite the lack of a strong permanent dipole moment in its lowest energy excited state, is able to transfer excitation energy quickly and efficiently to chlorophyll-a. It is believed that the high efficiency arises from the development of intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) character upon photoexcitation. Recently, heterodyne transient grating spectroscopy has been used to study the ultrafast (<50 fs) dynamics of β carotene and peridinin. The studies show evidence for a structurally displaced intermediate in both cases and strong ICT character in the case of peridinin, but up to now the work has not provided appropriate control experiments. The present experiments examine peridinin and two peridinin analogs, S1-peridinin and S2-peridinin. S1-peridinin is reported to have greatly diminished ICT character, and S2-peridinin is reported to have little-or-no ICT character. Heterodyne transient grating data will be presented and provide a more unambiguous characterization spectral and kinetic properties associated with the peridinin ICT state. Funded by the DoE-BES, Grant No. DE-SC0012376.

  20. Plasma-driven ultrashort bunch diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornmair, I.; Schroeder, C. B.; Floettmann, K.; Marchetti, B.; Maier, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    Ultrashort electron bunches are crucial for an increasing number of applications, however, diagnosing their longitudinal phase space remains a challenge. We propose a new method that harnesses the strong electric fields present in a laser driven plasma wakefield. By transversely displacing driver laser and witness bunch, a streaking field is applied to the bunch. This field maps the time information to a transverse momentum change and, consequently, to a change of transverse position. We illustrate our method with simulations where we achieve a time resolution in the attosecond range.

  1. Plasma-driven ultrashort bunch diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Dornmair, I; Floettmann, K; Marchetti, B; Maier, A R

    2016-01-01

    Ultrashort electron bunches are crucial for an increasing number of applications, however, diagnosing their longitudinal phase space remains a challenge. We propose a new method that harnesses the strong electric fields present in a laser driven plasma wakefield. By transversely displacing driver laser and witness bunch, a streaking field is applied to the bunch. This field maps the time information to a transverse momentum change and, consequently, to a change of transverse position. We illustrate our method with simulations where we achieve a time resolution in the attosecond range.

  2. Britain's Redundancy Payments for Displaced Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Lawrence S.

    1987-01-01

    The Redundancy Payments Act of 1965 established the idea that an employee has property rights to a job based on years of company service. It instituted an entitlement program for displaced workers sponsored by firms and the government. The British layoff situtation differs from that of the United States. (Author/CH)

  3. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean du Plessis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  4. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Groeneveld, A.W.; Elwenspoek, M.

    1996-01-01

    The design, fabrication and experimental results of lateral-comb-drive actuators for large displacements at low driving voltages is presented. A comparison of several suspension designs is given, and the lateral large deflection behaviour of clamped - clamped beams and a folded flexure design is mod

  5. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  6. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a small-scal

  7. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  8. A new method for angular displacement measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caini Zhang(张彩妮); Xiangzhao Wang(王向朝)

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new method for angular displacement measurements that is based on a Fabry-Perot inter-ferometer. A measurement accuracy of 10-s rad is obtained by use of the sinusoidal phase modulatinginterferometry. Another Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to obtain the key initial angle of incidence.

  9. A Personal Appearance Program for Displaced Homemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Ann Marie; De Long, Marilyn Revell

    1990-01-01

    A career counseling program evaluated the self-esteem of 28 displaced homemakers, then presented 3 sessions on the importance of personal appearance in hiring practices, wardrobe management, nonverbal communication, professional image, and self-concept. Analysis of participant evaluations indicated improved levels of control and confidence and…

  10. Displacement Ventilation by Different Types of Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Hoff, Lars; Pedersen, Lars Germann

    The paper describes measuring results of the air movement from three different types of diffusers for displacement ventilation. Two of the diffusers are lowlevel wall mounted diffusers, one with a low and one with a high initial entrainment. The third diffuser is of the floor mounted type....

  11. Reverse mathematics and properties of finite character

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhafarov, Damir D

    2011-01-01

    We study the reverse mathematics of the principle stating that, for every property of finite character, every set of natural numbers has a maximal subset satisfying the property. In the context of set theory, this variant of Tukey's lemma is equivalent to the axiom of choice. We study its behavior in the context of second-order arithmetic, and give a full characterization of the strength of the principle in terms of the quantifier structure of the formula defining the property. We then study the interaction between properties of finite character and finitary closure operators, and the interaction between these properties and a class of nondeterministic closure operators which we introduce.

  12. An Optical Character Recognition for Handwritten Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti R. Zalke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition is process of recognition of character from scanned document and lots of OCR now available in the market. But most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters . There are no sufficient number of work on Indian language script like Devanagari so this paper present a review on optical character recognition on handwritten Devanagari script.

  13. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes...

  14. Drinking and displacement: a systematic review of the influence of forced displacement on harmful alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Heather; Roberts, Bayard

    2010-11-01

    This paper systematically reviews evidence about factors associated with harmful alcohol use amongst forcibly displaced persons, including refugees and internally displaced persons. Bibliographic and humanitarian-related databases were searched. The number of quantitative and qualitative studies that were screened and reviewed was 1108. Only 10 studies met inclusion criteria. Risk factors identified included gender, age, exposure to traumatic events and resulting posttraumatic stress disorder, prior alcohol consumption-related problems, year of immigration, location of residence, social relations, and postmigration trauma and stress. The evidence base was extremely weak, and there is a need to improve the quantity and quality of research about harmful alcohol use by forcibly displaced persons.

  15. Utilization of an ultrasound beam steering angle for measurements of tissue displacement vector and lateral displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikayoshi Sumi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chikayoshi SumiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A number of ultrasonic displacement/velocity measurement methods have been extensively developed for measurements of blood flow, tissue motion, and strain. Lateral modulation (LM methods have also been reported using steered, crossed beams, and these methods permit measurements of displacement vectors. In this report, a new beam steering method for the transmission and reception of ultrasound is proposed, which can enable measurements of lateral displacements and of arbitrary displacement vectors with a very high degree of accuracy. Because this beam steering method uses only a steering angle, this method is referred to as ASTA. With ASTA, the number of available methods to obtain a displacement vector measurement is limited to previously developed block-matching methods, such as the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method, and the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM using a block-matching method (the methods using block matching are referred to as MAMb and MDMb, respectively. Being dependent on the measurement method, only a lateral displacement measurement can be made even if the methods are multidimensional, ie, previously developed MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting of the obtained steered beams, and one-dimensional (1D, such as an autocorrelation method. Considerations of beamforming schemes using LM and ASTA show that the simple ASTA beamforming method increases capabilities for real-time measurements and requires a small physical aperture when compared with LM. For lateral displacement measurements (eg, blood flow in a carotid artery, a lateral coordinate must correspond to the direction of the target’s lateral motion, and the steering angle used is as large as possible to increase the measurement accuracy

  16. Nearest Neighbor Algorithm in Handwritten Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Deshmukh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system extracts the geometric features of the character Contour. The system gives a feature vector as its output. The feature vectors so generated from a training set is then used to train a pattern recognition engine based on Neural Networks so that the system can be benchmarked. There was an attempt made to develop a system that used the methods that humans use to perceive handwritten characters. Hence a system that recognizes handwritten characters using Pattern recognition was developed. Here the data generated by comparing two images was stored in excel format and then that data was called as an individual input for generation of Simulink diagram. Pattern recognition can be used to model human perception. The mathematics that Pattern recognition requires is extremely fundamental. Any algorithm developed using Pattern recognition would require relatively simple and not so lengthy calculations. Due to simplicity of calculations, they can be implemented on any hardware or software platform without worrying about the computing power. In this paper first part is about introduction to character Recognition. The second part deals with the short introduction to neural network implementation for image processing using MATLAB

  17. Using character overlap to improve language transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, S.; Krahmer, E.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Language transformation can be defined as translating between diachronically distinct language variants. We investigate the transformation of Middle Dutch into Modern Dutch by means of machine translation. We demonstrate that by using character overlap the performance of the machine translation proce

  18. Using Storybooks as a Character Education Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Fethi; Ulutas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the views and implementations of preschool teachers in "giving character education through picture storybooks." Descriptive review method was used in the research and supported with focus group interviews. For this reason data were took from two study groups (for the descriptive study group n = 245, for the…

  19. 7 CFR 52.809 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... cherries. (b) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a good character may be given a..., tender texture. (c) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that have a reasonably...

  20. 7 CFR 52.781 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... cherries. (b) (A) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a good character may be given a..., tender texture. (c) (B) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a reasonably...

  1. 7 CFR 52.1009 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1...) classification. Whole or pitted dates that possess a good character may be given a score of 36 to 40 points... possess dry calyx ends. (b) (B) classification. If the whole or pitted dates or whole dry dates...

  2. The Problem of Loyalty in Teaching Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In the last year, two prominent, famous, and revered coaches, Jim Tressel and Joe Paterno, committed disastrous lapses of ethics. Both coaches preached that sport and athletics build character. They either taught ethics or leadership courses at their institutions or were exemplars of ethical behavior in their personal and professional lives. Both…

  3. The Unavoidable Mission of Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Henry A.

    1995-01-01

    Character-education programs can be implemented without creating a political firestorm if planners carefully consider key process and content elements, including community involvement; core values; comprehensive, effective curricula; formal evaluation; prosocial behavior codes; communications; family outreach; and leadership from a knowledge base.…

  4. A Brief Analysis of Sister Carrie's Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hanying

    2010-01-01

    Carrie is always dreaming while the rocking chair is rocking again and again, this is the deep impression on us after we read "Sister Carrie" which is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser. In this novel the protagonist Sister Carrie is a controversial person. This paper tries to analyze the character of Sister Carrie in order to find out…

  5. On Repairing Generated Behaviors for Graphical Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our work on the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) behaviors for graphical interactive characters by novice users. We refer to novice users as any persons who do not have any particular skills, training and experience in both programming and design. The focus...

  6. Seafloor character--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The raster data file is...

  7. Quasihomomorphisms and the residue Chern character

    CERN Document Server

    Perrot, Denis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a general procedure, based on the renormalized eta-cochain, which allows to find local representatives of the bivariant Chern character of finitely summable quasihomomorphisms. In particular, using zeta-function renormalization we obtain a bivariant generalization of the Connes-Moscovici residue formula, and explain the link with chiral and multiplicative anomalies in quantum field theory.

  8. Quasihomomorphisms and the residue Chern character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Denis

    2010-10-01

    We develop a general procedure, based on the renormalized eta-cochain, which allows to find "local" representatives of the bivariant Chern character of finitely summable quasihomomorphisms. In particular, using zeta-function renormalization we obtain a bivariant generalization of the Connes-Moscovici residue formula, and explain the link with chiral and multiplicative anomalies in quantum field theory.

  9. The Attractive Character of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车婧瑜; 郭文睿

    2008-01-01

    Jane Eyre,written by Charlotte Bront(e),is a story of the heroine's struggle for independent personality and perfect love.Viewed as a classic work of English literature,the author of Jane Eyre makes it valuable and popular by creating a kind of Hew imagination.This paper argues for Jane's attractive character through her life experience.

  10. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  11. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  12. Computer animation for articulated 3D characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK), contr

  13. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity.

  14. Theoretical reflections on Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David

    2002-01-01

    The ideas contained in Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis, while very influential, have not been thoroughly exploited in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. These ideas, aimed particularly at producing genuine change rather than mere intellectual understanding, are reexamined. Further implications of them are discussed.

  15. Temperament and Character in Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yazici Gulec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality takes an important role in etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The studies conducted with Temperament and Character Inventory which investigates the personality according to psychobiological model is considered to have a major role in understanding the relationship between personality and psychosomatic disorders. In order to emphasize the previous studies on this subject, we have done database search in Pubmed and Turk Psikiyatri Dizini (Turkish Psychiatry Directory for the time period between 1991 and 2009 to determine and evaluate the articles conducted among somatization, dermatologic illness, headache, physical medicine, angina, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma patients using Temperament and Character Inventory. The most significant consistent result of these studies was elevated harm avoid-ance scores. Harm avoidance scores still remain high even after controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. Thus this temperament dimension is possibly an important state and trait feature for development of psychosomatic illnesses. These findings also confirmed that serotonergic systems get involved in the process of psychosomatic organization. In many studies, the mean scores of self direction sub-dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory which has been considered as the fundamental dimension to achieve mature personality, was found to be lower in psychosomatic patient groups than normal healthy control. This result hence supports the notion that process of illness affects the personality among these patients. Detailed evaluation of temparement and character profiles of psychosomatic patients would contribute much into understanding the etiology of these disorders.

  16. Sampling diverse characters improves phylogenies: Craniodental and postcranial characters of vertebrates often imply different trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Ross C P; Sansom, Robert; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-03-01

    Morphological cladograms of vertebrates are often inferred from greater numbers of characters describing the skull and teeth than from postcranial characters. This is either because the skull is believed to yield characters with a stronger phylogenetic signal (i.e., contain less homoplasy), because morphological variation therein is more readily atomized, or because craniodental material is more widely available (particularly in the palaeontological case). An analysis of 85 vertebrate datasets published between 2000 and 2013 confirms that craniodental characters are significantly more numerous than postcranial characters, but finds no evidence that levels of homoplasy differ in the two partitions. However, a new partition test, based on tree-to-tree distances (as measured by the Robinson Foulds metric) rather than tree length, reveals that relationships inferred from the partitions are significantly different about one time in three, much more often than expected. Such differences may reflect divergent selective pressures in different body regions, resulting in different localized patterns of homoplasy. Most systematists attempt to sample characters broadly across body regions, but this is not always possible. We conclude that trees inferred largely from either craniodental or postcranial characters in isolation may differ significantly from those that would result from a more holistic approach. We urge the latter.

  17. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information about characters'…

  18. Precision optical displacement measurements using biphotons

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, Kevin; Kwiat, Paul G; Jordan, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    We propose and examine the use of biphoton pairs, such as those created in parametric down conversion or four-wave mixing, to enhance the precision and the resolution of measuring optical displacements by position-sensitive detection. We show that the precision of measuring a small optical beam displacement with this method can be significantly enhanced by the correlation between the two photons, given the same optical mode. The improvement is largest if the correlations between the photons are strong, and falls off as the biphoton correlation weakens. More surprisingly, we find that the smallest resolvable parameter of a simple split detector scales as the inverse of the number of biphotons for small biphoton number ("Heisenberg scaling"), because the Fisher information diverges as the parameter to be estimated decreases in value. One usually sees this scaling only for systems with many entangled degrees of freedom. We discuss the transition for the split-detection scheme to the standard quantum limit scalin...

  19. Comparing anisotropic displacement parameters in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E A

    1999-12-01

    The increasingly widespread use of synchrotron-radiation sources and cryo-preparation of samples in macromolecular crystallography has led to a dramatic increase in the number of macromolecular structures determined at atomic or near-atomic resolution. This permits expansion of the structural model to include anisotropic displacement parameters U(ij) for individual atoms. In order to explore the physical significance of these parameters in protein structures, it is useful to be able to compare quantitatively the electron-density distribution described by the refined U(ij) values associated with corresponding crystallographically independent atoms. This paper presents the derivation of an easily calculated correlation coefficient in real space between two atoms modeled with anisotropic displacement parameters. This measure is used to investigate the degree of similarity between chemically equivalent but crystallographically independent atoms in the set of protein structural models currently available from the Protein Data Bank.

  20. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  1. Intrinsic Mean Square Displacements in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    VURAL, Derya; Glyde, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal mean square displacement (MSD) of hydrogen in proteins and its associated hydration water is measured by neutron scattering experiments and used an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD as currently determined depends on the energy resolution width of the neutron scattering instrument employed. We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic MSD of H in the proteins, one that is independent of the instrument resolution width. The intrinsic MSD is defined as the infinite ...

  2. Experiments on chemically enhanced immiscible fluid displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, Tejaswi; Ward, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    This talk focuses on experiments conducted by displacing a vegetable oil within a capillary tube (diameter forms a stable micro-emulsion. We estimate the shear viscosity of the emulsion as a function of alkali and aqueous/oil concentrations. Separately we attempt to measure the average bulk diffusion coefficient of the emulsion in both phases which is necessary to estimate the Péclet number (Pé) and subsequent mass transport phenomena. American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund.

  3. Cooling airflow design tool for displacement ventilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2009-01-01

    These user notes describe how to use a spreadsheet-based (Excel 2007) version of the ASHRAE method (Chen and Glicksman 2003) for calculating the amount of design cooling airflow required for a displacement ventilation (DV) system that is providing all sensible cooling for a conditioned space. The design tool has been developed by CBE and is available on the CBE Partner website: http://www.cbe.berkeley.edu/partners/downloads.php

  4. A reference material for dynamic displacement calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davighi, A.; Hack, E.; Patterson, E.; Whelan, M.

    2010-06-01

    Calibration of displacement and strain measurement systems is an essential step in providing traceability and confidence in stress and strain distributions obtained from experiment and used to validate simulations employed in engineering design. Reference materials provide a simple, well-defined distribution of the measured quantity that can be traced to an international standard and can be used to assess the uncertainty associated with the measurement system. Previous work has established a reference material and procedure for calibrating optical systems for measuring static, in-plane strain distributions and also demonstrated its use. A new effort is in progress to extend this work to the measurement of three-dimensional displacement distributions induced by cyclic and dynamic loading, including transients and large-scale deformation. The first step in this effort has been to define both the essential and desirable attributes of a reference material for calibrating systems capable of measurements of dynamic displacement and strain. An international consortium of research laboratories, system designers, manufacturers and end-users has identified a list of attributes and members of the experimental mechanics community have been asked to weight the importance of these attributes. The attributes are being utilised to evaluate candidate designs for the reference material which have been generated through a series of brain-storming sessions within the consortium.

  5. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  6. Digital image correlation: displacement accuracy estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wattrisse B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this collaborative work is to study the uncertainties associated with Digital Image Correlation techniques (DIC. More specifically, the link between displacement uncertainties and several correlation parameters chosen by the user and relative to the image analysis software and several image characteristics like speckle size and image noise is emphasized. A previous work [1] has been done for situations with spatially fluctuating displacement fields which dealt with mismatch error linked to the discrepancy between the adopted shape function and the real displacement field in the subset. This present work is focused on the ultimate error regime. To ensure that there is no mismatch error, synthetic images of plane rigid body translation have been analysed. DIC softwares developed by or used in the French community were used to study a large number of settings. The first observations are: (a bias amplitude is almost always insensitive to the subset size, (b DIC formulations can be split up into two families. For the first one, the bias amplitude increases with the noise while it remains constant for the second one. For both families, the mean value of the random error increases with the noise level and with the inverse of the subset size. Furthermore, the random error decreases with the radius of the speckle for the first family, while it increases for the second one. These two different behaviours of the tested DIC package are probably due to their underlying DIC formulation (interpolation, correlation criteria, optimisation process.

  7. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows.

  8. A Study on Precision Stage with Displacement Magnification Mechanism Using Flexure-Based Levers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Hyun Bae

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a precision stage driven by a piezoelectric actuator and equipped with a displacement magnification mechanism for the purpose of easy displacement measurement. The displacement magnification mechanism consists of flexible hinges and lever mechanisms. The developed stage is able to provide accurate measurement by virtue of the displacement magnification mechanism, but it is exposed to severe residual vibration. In order to overcome the drawback, this study develops a method for reducing residual vibration by using a simulation model for the stage system that takes into account the dynamics of the system and the hysteretic characteristics of the piezoelectric actuator. The Bouc-Wen model is employed to represent the hysteretic characteristics of the actuator. A comparison between simulation and experiment is made to find the best simulation model for the developed system. Input shaping is applied to eliminate the residual vibration from the stage. An improved input shaper is designed to overcome the ineffectiveness of input shaping due to the hysteresis by using the proposed simulation model. Simulations and experiments prove that the proposed simulation model is very useful to investigate the system and that the proposed stage can provide accurate positioning with small residual vibration.

  9. Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.

  10. Analysis of Hamlet's Complex Character By Hamlet's Relationship with Other Major Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左欣

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reveal the complexity of the character of Hamlet in Shakespeare's tragedy-Hamlet and the importance of the role that his pretense of lunacy plays in the plot. The different sides of his personality are revealed by the analysis of some of Hamlet's behavior. The argument is also established that the hero's pretense of lunacy is a device in the plot which allows the full display of the character's complexity.

  11. Ultrasonography for non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-dong; CHEN Hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of ultrasonography in non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures in children.Methods: Nine children aged 2-9 years with non-displaced or mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures were examined by high-resolution ultrasonography.The fracture line through the joint surface was visualized by ultrasonography in 6 case,in which closed reduction and percutaneous pinning was performed on 3 patients and other 3 patients did not receive the treatment because of patients' or their parents'refusal.In the remaining 3 children,ultrasonography did not reveal the cartilaginous trochle involvement at the joint surface and conservative treatment was adopted.Results: The average follow-up period was 8 months.The sonographic findings were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging in one child who received conservative treatment and another child who received percutaneous pinning.The elbow function and fractttre healing were good in cases received closed reduction and percutaneous pinning.Among the three cases who refused to receive closed reduction and internal f'txation,re-displacement occurred in 1 case and delayed union in 1 case.All three cases receiving conservative treatment had good results both in elbow function and fracture healing.Conclusion: High-resolution ultrasonography enable to reveal non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures as well as to ascertain whether the cartilaginous trochlea humeri was involved.For these cases,arthrography or magnetic resonance imaging is unnecessary.

  12. Query Driven Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Buddelmeijer, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The request driven way of deriving data in Astro-WISE is extended to a query driven way of visualization. This allows scientists to focus on the science they want to perform, because all administration of their data is automated. This can be done over an abstraction layer that enhances control and flexibility for the scientist.

  13. Fractionation by shape in deterministic lateral displacement microfluidic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Mingliang; Drazer, German

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the migration of particles of different geometrical shapes and sizes in a scaled-up model of a gravity-driven deterministic lateral displacement (g-DLD) device. Specifically, particles move through a square array of cylindrical posts as they settle under the action of gravity. We performed experiments that cover a broad range of orientations of the driving force (gravity) with respect to the columns (or rows) in the square array of posts. We observe that as the forcing angle increases particles initially locked to move parallel to the columns in the array begin to move across the columns of obstacles and migrate at angles different from zero. We measure the probability that a particle would move across a column of obstacles, and define the critical angle {\\theta}c as the forcing angle at which this probability is 1/2. We show that critical angle depends both on particle size and shape, thus enabling both size- and shape-based separations. Finally, we show that using the diameter of the inscribe...

  14. THE CHARACTER, ORGANIZATION CHANGE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo F. Wijaya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good users character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system.

  15. The character map in deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, Alberto S; Willwacher, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The third author recently proved that the Shoikhet-Dolgushev L-infinity-morphism from Hochschild chains of the algebra of smooth functions on manifold to differential forms extends to cyclic chains. Localization at a solution of the Maurer-Cartan equation gives an isomorphism, which we call character map, from the periodic cyclic homology of a formal associative deformation of the algebra of functions to de Rham cohomology. We prove that the character map is compatible with the Gauss-Manin connection, extending a result of Calaque and Rossi on the compatibility with the cap product. As a consequence, the image of the periodic cyclic cycle 1 is independent of the deformation parameter and we compute it to be the A-roof genus of the manifold. Our results also imply the Tamarkin-Tsygan index Theorem.

  16. Analysis of photonic crystal fiber sensor character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuan; LIU Feng; BI Wei-hong

    2007-01-01

    The special character of a PCF which is used as a gas or liquid sensor is discussed. The field distribution is analyzed when the solid core PCF is injected with different medium that has different relative dielectric constant (or refractive index). And the experiential formulas of the relation between refractive index of some kinds of liquid and their concentration are given,in order to measure the concentration of the relative liquid. At the same time, the effect of propagation constant on PCF sensor character is also discussed. Furthermore, the photonic band-gap (PBG) ofPCF (PBG-PCF) is calculated at different medium relative dielectric constant, when it is injected with different medium. That is the principle basis for this kind of PCF sensors.

  17. Bedrock displacements in Greenland manifest ice mass variations, climate cycles and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevis, Michael; Wahr, John; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas;

    2012-01-01

    The Greenland GPS Network (GNET) uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to measure the displacement of bedrock exposed near the margins of the Greenland ice sheet. The entire network is uplifting in response to past and present-day changes in ice mass. Crustal displacement is largely accounted...... for by an annual oscillation superimposed on a sustained trend. The oscillation is driven by earth’s elastic response to seasonal variations in ice mass and air mass (i.e., atmospheric pressure). Observed vertical velocities are higher and often much higher than predicted rates of postglacial rebound (PGR......), implying that uplift is usually dominated by the solid earth’s instantaneous elastic response to contemporary losses in ice mass rather than PGR. Superimposed on longer-term trends, an anomalous ‘pulse’ of uplift accumulated at many GNET stations during an approximate six-month period in 2010...

  18. Australian National Character and Australian English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝米娜

    2015-01-01

    <正>Language and culture have very intimate relationship.From the perspective of sociolinguistics,language is the verbal expression of culture,for a culture’s language contains everything its speakers can think about and every way they have of thinking about things.In other words,there are always cultural elements behind the language phenomenon.National character,the concept

  19. Dyslexia and Configural Perception of Character Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Houpt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable nonword, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient - words and pseudowords were processed at supercapacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across conditions. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four conditions and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia.

  20. Rank-frequency relation for Chinese characters

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, W B; Li, B; Wang, Q A

    2013-01-01

    The Zipf's law states that the ordered frequencies $f_1>f_2> ...$ of different words in a text hold $f_r\\propto r^{-\\gamma}$ with $\\gamma\\approx 1$ and rank $r$. The law applies to many languages with alphabetical writing systems, but was so far found to be absent for the rank-frequency relation of the Chinese characters, the main (and oldest) example of the logographic writing system. Here we show that the Zipf's law for Chinese characters perfectly holds for sufficiently short texts (few thousand different characters). The scenario of its validity is similar to the Zipf's law for words in short English texts. We focus on short texts, since for the sake of the rank-frequency analysis, long texts are just mixtures of shorter, thematically homogenous pieces. For long texts (or for mixtures of short texts), the Zipf's law holds for a relatively small range of ranks, but it is still important, since for all Chinese texts (we studied) it carries out $simeq 40%$ of the overall frequency. The previous results on th...

  1. The Binary Perfect Phylogeny with Persistent characters

    CERN Document Server

    Braghin, Chiara; Trucco, Gabriella; Bonizzoni, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The near-perfect phylogeny over binary set of characters has been proposed as an extension of the too restrictive model of the perfect phylogeny in order to model biological events such as homoplasy. However the model appears to be too general to model some situations and is computationally inefficient on some instances. In this paper we consider the problem of reconstructing a near-perfect phylogeny where only a type of homoplasy is allowed in the tree: we consider back mutations according to notion of {\\em persistency}, that is characters can be gained and lost at most once. The notion of persistency leads to the problem of the Persistent Perfect Phylogeny (referred as P-PPH). By exploring combinatorial properties of the problem we develop an exact algorithm for solving the P-PPH problem that in the worst case runs in time that is exponential in the number of characters, but is polynomial in the number of species. Indeed, we show that the P-PPH problem can be restated as a special case of the Incomplete Per...

  2. 7 CFR 1944.667 - Relocation and displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... permanent or temporary relocation of displaced persons for units repaired or rehabilitated or for individual... displaced persons. The applicant shall include in its statement of activities, a statement concerning...

  3. HIV and the internally displaced: Burundi in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Wexler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available "Special attention should also be given to the prevention of contagious and infectious diseases, including AIDS, among internally displaced persons." (Guiding Principles on InternalDisplacement, 19.3

  4. Displacement Mechanism of Polymer Flooding by Molecular Tribology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Er-Long; SONG Kao-Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Whether polymer flooding can enhance displacement efficiency or not is still a problem under debate. Laboratory experiment, numerical simulation and core data analysis are the commonly used means to study polymer flooding displacement efficiency.

  5. Temporal Dynamics of the Modulation of Character Structure and Phonetic Radical in Chinese Character Processing—an ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Hsiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese orthography, with semantic and phonetic radicals configured in different character structures, provides a unique opportunity to examine visual word processing. Previous ERP research showed that when participants silently named centrally presented characters, there was greater left hemisphere lateralization in N170 amplitude for sP characters (right-heavy, with a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right than Ps characters (the opposite configuration, suggesting that characters with different structures are processed differently in the brain. Here we utilize four additional character types, sS (right-heavy, no phonetic radical; Ss (the opposite configuration; Syp and Sys characters (symmetric structure, with and without phonetic radical respectively to further examine how phonetic radical and character structure influence Chinese character processing. A significant interaction was found between character structure and hemisphere in P120 latency, suggesting that the modulation of character structure happens as early as 120 ms after the stimulus onset. Furthermore, the hemispheric asymmetry effects in N170 and P200 were found to be influenced by both phonetic radical and character structure, while N350 appeared to be modulated by phonetic radical only. These findings demonstrate that the modulation of character structure and phonetic radical have different time courses in Chinese character processing.

  6. Prediction of Nonlinear Evolution Character of Energetic-Particle-Driven Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Vinicius; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Heidbrink, William; Kramer, Gerrit; Nazikian, Raffi; Pace, David; Podesta, Mario; Tobias, Benjamin; Van Zeeland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A general criterion is proposed and found to successfully predict the emergence of chirping oscillations of unstable Alfv\\'enic eigenmodes in tokamak plasma experiments. The model includes realistic eigenfunction structure, detailed phase-space dependences of the instability drive, stochastic scattering and the Coulomb drag. The stochastic scattering combines the effects of collisional pitch angle scattering and micro-turbulence spatial diffusion. The latter mechanism is essential to accurately identify the transition between the fixed-frequency mode behavior and rapid chirping in tokamaks and to resolve the disparity with respect to chirping observation in spherical and conventional tokamaks.

  7. Experimental Study on Current-Driven Domain Wall Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Tanigawa, H.; Yano, K.; Kasai, S.

    2006-06-01

    Current-driven domain wall (DW) motion for a well-defined single DW in a micro-fabricated magnetic wire with submicron width was investigated by real-space observation with magnetic force microscopy. Magnetic force microscopy visualizes that a single DW introduced in a wire is displaced back and forth by positive and negative pulsed-current, respectively. Effect of the Joule heating, reduction of the threshold current density by shape control, and magnetic ratchet effect are also presented.

  8. Vibration driven random walk in a Chladni experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabec, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Drifting of sand particles bouncing on a vibrating membrane of a Chladni experiment is characterized statistically. Records of trajectories reveal that bounces are circularly distributed and random. The mean length of their horizontal displacement is approximately proportional to the vibration amplitude above the critical level and amounts about one fourth of the corresponding bounce height. For the description of horizontal drifting of particles a model of vibration driven random walk is proposed that yields a good agreement between experimental and numerically simulated data.

  9. 24 CFR 583.310 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... persons. A displaced person (defined in paragraph (f) of this section) must be provided relocation... “displaced person,” or the amount of relocation assistance for which the person is eligible, may file a... to the HUD field office. (f) Definition of displaced person. (1) For purposes of this section,...

  10. 24 CFR 941.207 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 24. A “displaced person” shall be advised of his/her rights under the Fair Housing Act (42 U... paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (c) Relocation assistance for displaced persons. A “displaced person... and the standards for tenancy established in accordance with 24 CFR 960.204) who will not be...

  11. 24 CFR 886.138 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations at 49 CFR part 24. A “displaced person” shall be advised of his or her rights under the Fair... person is ineligible under 49 CFR 24.2(g)(2); or (iv) HUD determines that the person was not displaced as... persons. A “displaced person” (as defined in paragraph (g) of this section) must be provided...

  12. From Word to Image: Displacement and Meaning in "Greed."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindon, Leger

    1989-01-01

    Describes levels of displacement in Stroheim's film "Greed," including (1) the displacement of reason, pleasure, and life by the desire for gold; and (2) the displacement that points to a double movement in Stroheim's cinematic style. Argues that the film's sense of doom arises from the psychic nightmare operating through the mechanics…

  13. Rhetorics of Displacement: Constructing Identities in Forced Relocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Katrina M.

    2012-01-01

    Forced displacement has often involved the use of rhetoric, both by government institutions and by people who struggle not only to survive displacement, but also to resist it. In this article, the author offers first a theoretical framework that informs her thinking about displacement narratives. She briefly examines two published displacement…

  14. Year of displaced people’s rights in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Romero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Campaign for the Rights of Displaced People in Colombia, launched in 2007 by UNHCR, Colombian NGO CODHES and the Catholic Church, has tried to raise awareness in Colombia and the international community about the severity of the country’s displacement crisis and its failure to guarantee the rights of displaced people.

  15. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics Driven by Large-Amplitude Whistlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

    2013-01-01

    Acceleration of radiation belt electrons driven by oblique large-amplitude whistler waves is studied. We show analytically and numerically that this is a stochastic process; the intensity of which depends on the wave power modified by Bessel functions. The type of this dependence is determined by the character of the nonlinear interaction due to coupling between action and phase. The results show that physically significant quantities have a relatively weak dependence on the wave power.

  16. Two-Domain DNA Strand Displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Cardelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the computing power of a restricted class of DNA strand displacement structures: those that are made of double strands with nicks (interruptions) in the top strand. To preserve this structural invariant, we impose restrictions on the single strands they interact with: we consider only two-domain single strands consisting of one toehold domain and one recognition domain. We study fork and join signal-processing gates based on these structures, and we show that these systems are amenable to formalization and to mechanical verification.

  17. Atomic displacement energy in amorphous compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanditov, D. S.; Mashanov, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Atomic displacement energy Δɛe in multicomponent sheet and lead-silicate glasses is calculated from the free activation energy of a viscous flow. The value of Δɛe is shown to remain constant in a rather wide range of temperatures in the glass transition region. Satisfactory agreement with calculations of Δɛe using the current formula incorporating the glass transition temperature and the fluctuation volume fraction frozen at this temperature is obtained. The validity of the above formula not only at the glass transition temperature but also in the temperature region adjacent to it is confirmed.

  18. Galvanic displacement of metals on semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Melanie; Kelly, Joel A.; Henderson, Eric J.; Veinot, Jonathan G. C.

    2009-11-01

    We report the galvanic displacement (GD) of germanium from germanium nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) with silver. The Ge-NCs are synthesized by reductive thermal processing of germanium suboxide sol-gel prepolymers. Thermal processing yields size-controlled oxide-embedded Ge-NCs, which are liberated by dissolution of the germanium oxide matrix in water. Subsequent exposure of the freestanding Ge-NCs to aqueous solutions of AgNO3 leads to deposition of silver nanostructures by GD. The resulting metal structures were analyzed by XRD, XPS, TEM and EDX, confirming deposition of elemental silver in a variety of shapes and sizes.

  19. Galvanic displacement of metals on semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Melanie; Kelly, Joel A; Henderson, Eric J; Veinot, Jonathan G C, E-mail: jveinot@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Chemistry, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    We report the galvanic displacement (GD) of germanium from germanium nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) with silver. The Ge-NCs are synthesized by reductive thermal processing of germanium suboxide sol-gel prepolymers. Thermal processing yields size-controlled oxide-embedded Ge-NCs, which are liberated by dissolution of the germanium oxide matrix in water. Subsequent exposure of the freestanding Ge-NCs to aqueous solutions of AgNO{sub 3} leads to deposition of silver nanostructures by GD. The resulting metal structures were analyzed by XRD, XPS, TEM and EDX, confirming deposition of elemental silver in a variety of shapes and sizes.

  20. Simulating People Moving in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, M.; Bjørn, Erik; Sandberg, M.

    A displacement ventilation system works better the more uni-directional the air flow through the ventilated room is: from floor to ceiling. Thus, from an air quality point of view, there should be as little vertical mixing of the room air as possible. It is therefore comprehensible that physical...... activity in the room -like peoples movements -in previous studies has been shown to influence the effectiveness of the ventilation. In this study we have compared results from previous tests, where a cylindrical person simulator was used, to results obtained when using a person simulator of more human...

  1. Critical Capillary Number of Interfacial Film Displacement in a Capillary Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Changfei

    2016-01-01

    The role of surface tension and wettability in the dynamics of air-liquid interfaces during immiscible fluid displacement flows in capillary tube driven by pressure has been investigated. The contact angle and capillary number drive the force wetting processes which is controlled by the balance between the capillary and the viscous lubrication forces. The dynamic wetting condition with the critical capillary number is studied analytically and validated experimentally, which demonstrates that the critical capillary number is associated with the contact angle, slip length and capillary radius.

  2. Research on micro-displacement driving technology based on piezoelectric ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Tang, Xiaoping; Hu, Song; Yan, Wei; Hu, Zhicheng

    2012-10-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic driving power is one critical technology of achieving the piezoelectric ceramic nano-precision positioning, which has been widely used in precision manufacturing, optical instruments, aerospace and other fields. In this paper, piezoelectric ceramic driving power will be summarized on micro-displacement driving technical development and research. The domestic and overseas piezoelectric-driven ways will be compared and control model algorithms will be discussed. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric ceramic driving power in a different driving and control model, and then show the scope of application of driving power.

  3. Hierarchical Approximate Matching for Retrieval of Chinese Historical Calligraphy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-Fen Zhang; Yue-Ting Zhuang; Jiang-Qin Wu; Fei Wu

    2007-01-01

    As historical Chinese calligraphy works are being digitized, the problem of retrieval becomes a new challenge. But, currently no OCR technique can convert calligraphy character images into text, nor can the existing Handwriting Character Recognition approach does not work for it. This paper proposes a novel approach to efficiently retrieving Chinese calligraphy characters on the basis of similarity: calligraphy character image is represented by a collection of discriminative features, and high retrieval speed with reasonable effectiveness is achieved. First, calligraphy characters that have no possibility similar to the query are filtered out step by step by comparing the character complexity, stroke density and stroke protrusion. Then, similar calligraphy characters are retrieved and ranked according to their matching cost produced by approximate shape match. In order to speed up the retrieval, we employed high dimensional data structure-PK-tree. Finally, the efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated by a preliminary experiment with 3012 calligraphy character images.

  4. Brief Analysis on Jean Eyre’s Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiu-nan

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bronte creates a new woman image-Jean Eyre in Jean Eyre. Analyzing briefly Jean’s characters makes us know why the characer has eternal vitality. The character of Jean Eyre is still of great practical significance.

  5. Arithmetic harmonic analysis on character and quiver varieties II

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We study connections between the topology of generic character varieties of fundamental groups of punctured Riemann surfaces, Macdonald polynomials, quiver representations, Hilbert schemes on surfaces, modular forms and multiplicities in tensor products of irreducible characters of finite general linear groups.

  6. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bodega Head, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_BodegaHead.zip,"...

  7. Seafloor character--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Fort Ross, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreFortRoss.zip,"...

  8. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  9. Current-driven plasma acceleration versus current-driven energy dissipation. I - Wave stability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.; Choueiri, E. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The dominant unstable electrostatic wave modes of an electromagnetically accelerated plasma are investigated. The study is the first part of a three-phase program aimed at characterizing the current-driven turbulent dissipation degrading the efficiency of Lorentz force plasma accelerators such as the MPD thruster. The analysis uses a kinetic theory that includes magnetic and thermal effects as well as those of an electron current transverse to the magnetic field and collisions, thus combining all the features of previous models. Analytical and numerical solutions allow a detailed description of threshold criteria, finite growth behavior, destabilization mechanisms and maximized-growth characteristics of the dominant unstable modes. The lower hybrid current-driven instability is implicated as dominant and was found to preserve its character in the collisional plasma regime.

  10. A novel approach for handwritten Devnagari character recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a method for recognition of handwritten devanagari characters is described. Here, feature vector is constituted by accumulated directional gradient changes in different segments, number of intersections points for the character, type of spine present and type of shirorekha present in the character. One Multi-layer Perceptron with conjugate-gradient training is used to classify these feature vectors. This method is applied to a database with 1000 sample characters and the recognition rate obtained is 88.12%

  11. Dispersion enhancement and damping by buoyancy driven flows in 2D networks of capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    D'Angelo, Maria Veronica; Allain, Catherine; Rosen, Marta; Hulin, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a small relative density difference on the displacement of two miscible liquids is studied experimentally in transparent 2D networks of micro channels. Both stable displacements in which the denser fluid enters at the bottom of the cell and displaces the lighter one and unstable displacements in which the lighter fluid is injected at the bottom and displaces the denser one are realized. Except at the lowest mean flow velocity U, the average $C(x,t)$ of the relative concentration satisfies a convection-dispersion equation. The dispersion coefficient is studied as function of the relative magnitude of fluid velocity and of the velocity of buoyancy driven fluid motion. A model is suggested and its applicability to previous results obtained in 3D media is discussed.

  12. Precision optical displacement measurements using biphotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kevin; Pang, Shengshi; Kwiat, Paul G.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and examine the use of biphoton pairs, such as those created in parametric down-conversion or four-wave mixing, to enhance the precision and the resolution of measuring optical displacements by position-sensitive detection. We show that the precision of measuring a small optical beam displacement with this method can be significantly enhanced by the correlation between the two photons, given the same optical mode. The improvement is largest if the correlations between the photons are strong, and falls off as the biphoton correlation weakens. More surprisingly, we find that the smallest resolvable parameter of a simple split detector scales as the inverse of the number of biphotons for small biphoton number ("Heisenberg scaling"), because the Fisher information diverges as the parameter to be estimated decreases in value. One usually sees this scaling only for systems with many entangled degrees of freedom. We discuss the transition for the split-detection scheme to the standard quantum limit scaling for imperfect correlations as the biphoton number is increased. An analysis of an N -pixel detector is also given to investigate the benefit of using a higher resolution detector. The physical limit of these metrology schemes is determined by the uncertainty in the birth zone of the biphoton in the nonlinear crystal.

  13. Grating Loaded Cantilevers for Displacement Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Ertugrul; Olcum, Selim; Atalar, Abdullah; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    A cantilever with a grating coupler engraved on its tip is used for measuring displacement. The coupled light in the cantilever is guided to a single mode optical waveguide defined at the base of the cantilever. The grating period is 550 nm and is fabricated on a SOI wafer using nanoimprint lithography. The waveguide and the cantilever are defined by an RIE and cantilevers released by KOH and HF solutions. Light with 1550 nm wavelength, is directed onto the grating coupler and detected at the cleaved end of the SOI waveguide. The angle of incidence is controlled by a motorized rotary stage. Light couples into the waveguide at a characteristic angle with a full width at half maximum of approximately 6.9 mrads translating into a Q factor of 87.5. The displacement sensitivity is measured by driving the cantilever with a frequency controlled piezoelectric element. The modulation of the light at the waveguide output is lock-in detected by a biased infrared detector. The resulting 43%mrad-1 sensitivity can be increased with further optimization.

  14. Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning…

  15. Culture or Disability? Examining Deaf Characters in Children's Book Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive those from backgrounds and cultures different from their own. Studies have been conducted examining how the text of children's literature portrays multicultural characters or characters with disabilities. However, few have looked specifically at the portrayal of characters through illustrations,…

  16. Educating Moral People: A Caring Alternative to Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    An alternative to character education is care ethics. The ethics of care can be seen as fundamentally relational, not individual-agent-based in the way of virtue ethics, and the ethics of care is more indirect than character education. After an introductory chapter that outlines the similarities and differences between character education and care…

  17. Children's Wishful Identification and Parasocial Interaction with Favorite Television Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Cynthia

    1996-01-01

    Interviewed about favorite TV characters, 91% of boys and 53% of girls ages 7-12 chose same-sex favorites. For male characters, wishful identification was predicted by intelligence and (for girls only) humor; parasocial interaction was predicted by intelligence, attractiveness, and (for boys only) strength. For female characters (chosen only by…

  18. 12 CFR 925.12 - Character of management requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Character of management requirement. 925.12... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Eligibility Requirements § 925.12 Character of management requirement. An applicant shall be deemed to be in compliance with the character of management requirement of section...

  19. Estimating Hydrologic Processes from Subsurface Soil Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C. E.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; MIller, S.

    2012-12-01

    Soil moisture and the processes that control it are important components of the hydrologic cycle, but measuring these processes remains challenging. We have developed a new measurement method that offers flexibility compared to existing technology. The approach is to measure small vertical displacements in the soil which responds proportionally to distributed surface load changes such as variation in the near-surface water content. The instrument may be installed at a depth of several meters to hundreds of meters below the surface. Because the measurement averaging region scales with the depth of the displacement measurements, this approach provides the means for estimating the soil moisture time series over tens of square meters to tens of thousands of square meters. The instrument developed for this application is called a Sand-X, which is short for Sand Extensometer. It is designed for applications in unconsolidated material, ranging from clay to sand. The instrument is simple and relatively inexpensive, and it can be installed in a boring made with a hand auger or with a small drill rig. Studies at the field scale are ongoing at a field site near Clemson, SC. The site is underlain by saprolite weathered primarily from biotite gneiss. Several Sand-X devices are installed at a field site that is instrumented for validating soil moisture, precipitation, and evapotranspiration estimates. These instruments are emplaced at a depth of 6 m and respond to the weight of a vehicle out to 18 m from the well. Calibration is performed by comparing precipitation measurements to the soil displacement response. For example, the coefficient for one installation is roughly 185 nm soil displacement/mm water content change. The resolution of the instrument is approximately 10 nm, so the Sand-X is capable of detecting changes of soil moisture on the order of tenths of one mm in compliant soils like saprolite. A typical soil displacement time series shows alternating periods of

  20. L’écrivain déplacé dans Lolita et Pnin de Vladimir Nabokov Displaced Writers in Nabokov’s Fiction: Lolita and Pnin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannicke Chupin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the figure of displaced writers in Vladimir Nabokov’s fiction, and more specifically in Lolita and Pnin. Living the life of exiles affected by permanent instability, the two heroes, Humbert and Pnin, find personal outlets in the writing process. The eccentric language used by both characters displays a form of inventiveness which derives from linguistic disjunction. This article aims at showing in which ways displacement is what sustains the linguistic creativity of these two intellectual exiles.

  1. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  2. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  3. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  4. Attenuation of Scalar Fluxes Measured with Spatially-displaced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, T. W.; Lenschow, D. H.

    2009-02-01

    Observations from the Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (HATS) field program are used to examine the attenuation of measured scalar fluxes caused by spatial separation between the vertical velocity and scalar sensors. The HATS data show that flux attenuation for streamwise, crosswind, and vertical sensor displacements are each a function of a dimensionless, stability-dependent parameter n m multiplied by the ratio of sensor displacement to measurement height. The scalar flux decays more rapidly with crosswind displacements than for streamwise displacements and decays more rapidly for stable stratification than for unstable stratification. The cospectral flux attenuation model of Kristensen et al. agrees well with the HATS data for streamwise sensor displacements, although it is necessary to include a neglected quadrature spectrum term to explain the observation that flux attenuation is often less with the scalar sensor downwind of the anemometer than for the opposite configuration. A simpler exponential decay model provides good estimates for crosswind sensor displacements, as well as for streamwise sensor displacements with stable stratification. A model similar to that of Lee and Black correctly predicts flux attenuation for a combination of streamwise and crosswind displacements, i.e. as a function of wind direction relative to the sensor displacement. The HATS data for vertical sensor displacements extend the near-neutral results of Kristensen et al. to diabatic stratification and confirm their finding that flux attenuation is less with the scalar sensor located below the anemometer than if the scalar sensor is displaced an equal distance either horizontally or above the anemometer.

  5. ZBrush Character Creation Advanced Digital Sculpting

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A stunning, content-rich update to this top-selling ZBrush guide! This second edition of ZBrush Character Creation has been fully updated for ZBrush 4, the newest version of this fascinating and popular 3D sculpting software. ZBrush enables users to create detailed organic models using a brush-based toolset and tablet. The startling results look as though they've been painted with real brushes and oils, and ZBrush is increasingly popular for use in film, game, and broadcast pipelines. Author Scott Spencer is embedded in the ZBrush community and his movie credits include Harry Potter and The Or

  6. Affine Invariant Character Recognition by Progressive Removing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Masakazu; Horimatsu, Akira; Niwa, Ryo; Kise, Koichi; Uchida, Seiichi; Omachi, Shinichiro

    Recognizing characters in scene images suffering from perspective distortion is a challenge. Although there are some methods to overcome this difficulty, they are time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a set of affine invariant features and a new recognition scheme called “progressive removing” that can help reduce the processing time. Progressive removing gradually removes less feasible categories and skew angles by using multiple classifiers. We observed that progressive removing and the use of the affine invariant features reduced the processing time by about 60% in comparison to a trivial one without decreasing the recognition rate.

  7. Using Character Recognition for Plate Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lama Hamandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the “character recognition” approach to recognizing a vehicle license plate is used for localizing Saudi license plates. The proposed algorithm filters out all possible objects from the license plate image and focuses on the resulting objects. The coordinates of the center point of the bounding box for these objects is calculated and then possible alignments between these objects are checked. After finding the aligned objects, the recognition algorithms are applied to differentiate the numbers from the letters in the plate.

  8. Discovery Driven Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august......Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august...

  9. The effect of base pair mismatch on DNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Broadwater, Bo

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration, and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term, the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage t...

  10. Plausibility Effects when Reading One- and Two-Character Words in Chinese: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinmian; Staub, Adrian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were monitored as they read sentences containing a critical character that was either a 1-character word or the initial character of a 2-character word. Due to manipulation of the verb prior to the target word, the 1-character target word (or the first character of the 2-character target word) was either plausible…

  11. Machine Recognition of Hand Written Characters using Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Perwej, Yusuf; 10.5120/1819-2380

    2012-01-01

    Even today in Twenty First Century Handwritten communication has its own stand and most of the times, in daily life it is globally using as means of communication and recording the information like to be shared with others. Challenges in handwritten characters recognition wholly lie in the variation and distortion of handwritten characters, since different people may use different style of handwriting, and direction to draw the same shape of the characters of their known script. This paper demonstrates the nature of handwritten characters, conversion of handwritten data into electronic data, and the neural network approach to make machine capable of recognizing hand written characters.

  12. A word level segmentation for off-line Arabic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Segmentation of cursive text has been one of the major problems in Arabic writing. The problem is the shape of the letter which is context sensitive, depending on it' s location within a word. Many text recognition systems recognize text imagery at the character level and assemble words from the recognized characters.Unfortunately this approach does not work with Arabic text. In this paper we describe a new approach to segment Arabic text imagery at a word level, without analyzing individual characters. This approach avoids the problem of individual characters segmentation, and can overcome local errors in character recognition.

  13. The mechanics of gravity-driven faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, L.; Barrows, V.

    2010-04-01

    Faulting can result from either of two different mechanisms. These involve fundamentally different energetics. In elastic rebound, locked-in elastic strain energy is transformed into the earthquake (seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone). In force-driven faulting, the forces that create the stress on the fault supply work or energy to the faulting process. Half of this energy is transformed into the earthquake and half goes into an increase in locked-in elastic strain. In elastic rebound the locked-in elastic strain drives slip on the fault. In force-driven faulting it stops slip on the fault. Tectonic stress is reasonably attributed to gravity acting on topography and the Earth's lateral density variations. This includes the thermal convection that ultimately drives plate tectonics. Mechanical analysis has shown the intensity of the gravitational tectonic stress that is associated with the regional topography and lateral density variations that actually exist is comparable with the stress drops that are commonly associated with tectonic earthquakes; both are in the range of tens of bar to several hundred bar. The gravity collapse seismic mechanism assumes the fault fails and slips in direct response to the gravitational tectonic stress. Gravity collapse is an example of force-driven faulting. In the simplest case, energy that is released from the gravitational potential of the stress-causing topography and lateral density variations is equally split between the earthquake and the increase in locked-in elastic strain. The release of gravitational potential energy requires a change in the Earth's density distribution. Gravitational body forces are solely dependent on density so a change in the density distribution requires a change in the body forces. This implies the existence of volumetric body-force displacements. The volumetric body-force displacements are in addition to displacements generated by slip on the fault. They must exist if gravity

  14. The mechanics of gravity-driven faulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Barrows

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Faulting can result from either of two different mechanisms. These involve fundamentally different energetics. In elastic rebound, locked-in elastic strain energy is transformed into the earthquake (seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone. In force-driven faulting, the forces that create the stress on the fault supply work or energy to the faulting process. Half of this energy is transformed into the earthquake and half goes into an increase in locked-in elastic strain. In elastic rebound the locked-in elastic strain drives slip on the fault. In force-driven faulting it stops slip on the fault.

    Tectonic stress is reasonably attributed to gravity acting on topography and the Earth's lateral density variations. This includes the thermal convection that ultimately drives plate tectonics. Mechanical analysis has shown the intensity of the gravitational tectonic stress that is associated with the regional topography and lateral density variations that actually exist is comparable with the stress drops that are commonly associated with tectonic earthquakes; both are in the range of tens of bar to several hundred bar.

    The gravity collapse seismic mechanism assumes the fault fails and slips in direct response to the gravitational tectonic stress. Gravity collapse is an example of force-driven faulting. In the simplest case, energy that is released from the gravitational potential of the stress-causing topography and lateral density variations is equally split between the earthquake and the increase in locked-in elastic strain.

    The release of gravitational potential energy requires a change in the Earth's density distribution. Gravitational body forces are solely dependent on density so a change in the density distribution requires a change in the body forces. This implies the existence of volumetric body-force displacements. The volumetric body-force displacements are in addition to displacements generated by slip on

  15. Polytope expansion of Lie characters and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Mark A., E-mail: walton@uleth.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    The weight systems of finite-dimensional representations of complex, simple Lie algebras exhibit patterns beyond Weyl-group symmetry. These patterns occur because weight systems can be decomposed into lattice polytopes in a natural way. Since lattice polytopes are relatively simple, this decomposition is useful, in addition to being more economical than the decomposition into single weights. An expansion of characters into polytope sums follows from the polytope decomposition of weight systems. We study this polytope expansion here. A new, general formula is given for the polytope sums involved. The combinatorics of the polytope expansion are analyzed; we point out that they are reduced from those of the Weyl character formula (described by the Kostant partition function) in an optimal way. We also show that the weight multiplicities can be found easily from the polytope multiplicities, indicating explicitly the equivalence of the two descriptions. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the polytope expansion by showing how polytope multiplicities can be used in the calculation of tensor product decompositions, and subalgebra branching rules.

  16. Temperament and character in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Hilaire, Zara; Straub, Judith; Pelissolo, Antoine

    2005-03-01

    Recent studies by Cloninger suggest that the temperament dimension of harm avoidance might be related to serotonergic activity. Since serotonergic mechanisms equally play a major role in sleep regulation, we decided to use Cloninger's psychobiological model of temperament and character to assess whether there is a link between psychophysiologic insomnia and specific personality traits. Chronic insomnia is a common complaint in modern society, and it is still controversial whether insomniacs share specific personality traits. Thirty-two chronic insomniacs (Anxiety and Depression scale. (1) Harm avoidance for all subscores was significantly higher in insomniac patients when compared with controls; (2) self-directedness scores were lower in insomniacs; (3) sleep latency was positively correlated to harm avoidance; (4) HA1 (anticipatory worry) was negatively correlated to REM latency. Temperament and Character Inventory is a useful tool in the investigation of chronic insomnia. Serotonergic mechanisms might explain the high incidence of harm avoidance as personality trait in psychophysiologic insomniac patients. Further studies are needed to see whether harm avoidance could be a psychological vulnerability marker for primary insomnia and be used as predictor of SSRI treatment responders.

  17. Building corporate character. Interview by Nan Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, A

    1992-01-01

    Stride Rite is a good company by any definition: Keds, Sperry Top-Siders, and Stride Rite children's shoes are consumer favorites for their fit, quality, and comfort. Wall Street analysts praise the company's outstanding financial performance. Innovative programs such as the first corporate child-care center and public service scholarships support Stride Rite's reputation as one of the most responsible employers and corporate citizens in the United States. Behind Stride Rite's good performance are the building blocks of corporate character: a legacy of quality and service and a leader committed to keeping that legacy lively. When Stride Rite shipped its first children's shoes in 1919, they came with the company's commitment "to produce an honest quality product in an honest way and deliver it as promised." For Arnold Hiatt, that commitment has been the driving force behind the company's evolution from manufacturing into marketing and product development as well as the guiding principle in its relations with consumers, dealers, suppliers, and employees. But Stride Rite's corporate character is also a reflection of Hiatt himself. In his early 20s, Hiatt fled a management training program "designed to make carnivores" out of its new employees and bought Blue Star Shoes, a small manufacturing company that had gone into Chapter 11. Through experience and "stumbling around," he built Blue Star's sales to $5 million-and got a practical education in management, markets, and human nature that has proved equally useful in running Stride Rite.

  18. Analog Computation by DNA Strand Displacement Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2016-08-19

    DNA circuits have been widely used to develop biological computing devices because of their high programmability and versatility. Here, we propose an architecture for the systematic construction of DNA circuits for analog computation based on DNA strand displacement. The elementary gates in our architecture include addition, subtraction, and multiplication gates. The input and output of these gates are analog, which means that they are directly represented by the concentrations of the input and output DNA strands, respectively, without requiring a threshold for converting to Boolean signals. We provide detailed domain designs and kinetic simulations of the gates to demonstrate their expected performance. On the basis of these gates, we describe how DNA circuits to compute polynomial functions of inputs can be built. Using Taylor Series and Newton Iteration methods, functions beyond the scope of polynomials can also be computed by DNA circuits built upon our architecture.

  19. An Alternative to Maxwell's Displacement Current

    CERN Document Server

    Wolsky, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    Though sufficient for local conservation of charge, we show that Maxwells displacement current is not necessary. An alternative to the Ampere Maxwell equation is exhibited and the alternative s electric and magnetic fields and scalar and vector potentials are expressed in terms of the charge and current densities. The alternative describes a theory in which action is instantaneous and so may provide a good approximation to Maxwells equations where and when the finite speed of light can be neglected. The result is reminiscent of the Darwin approximation which arose from the study classical charged point particles to order (v/c)2 in the Lagrangian. Unlike Darwin, this approach does not depend on the constitution of the electric current. Instead, this approach grows from a straightforward revision of the Ampere Equation which revision enforces the local conservation of charge.

  20. Axial flow positive displacement worm compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An axial flow positive displacement compressor has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first and second sections of a compressor assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first and second twist slopes in the first and second sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. An engine including the compressor has in downstream serial flow relationship from the compressor a combustor and a high pressure turbine drivingly connected to the compressor by a high pressure shaft.

  1. Axial flow positive displacement worm gas generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An axial flow positive displacement engine has an inlet axially spaced apart and upstream from an outlet. Inner and outer bodies have offset inner and outer axes extend from the inlet to the outlet through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly in serial downstream flow relationship. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes respectively. The inner and outer helical blades extend radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. The first twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes and the third twist slopes are less than the second twist slopes. A combustor section extends axially downstream through at least a portion of the second section.

  2. Relativistic Lagrangian displacement field and tensor perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Rampf, Cornelius

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the purely spatial Lagrangian coordinate transformation from the Lagrangian to the fundamental Eulerian frame. We demonstrate three techniques for extracting the relativistic displacement field from a given solution in the Lagrangian frame. These techniques are (a) from defining a local set of Eulerian coordinates embedded into the Lagrangian frame; (b) from performing a specific gauge transformation; and (c) from a fully non-perturbative approach based on the ADM split. The latter approach shows that this decomposition is not tied to a specific perturbative formulation for the solution of the Einstein equations. Rather, it can be defined at the level of the non-perturbative coordinate change from the Lagrangian to the Eulerian description. Studying such different techniques is useful because it allows us to compare and develop further the various approximation techniques available in the Lagrangian formulation. We find that one has to solve for gravitational waves in the relativistic analysis,...

  3. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  4. Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinante, A., E-mail: anvinante@fbk.eu [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR - Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100 μT, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at 4.2 K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

  5. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  6. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  7. Modeling the Semiotic Structure of Player-Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    When game studies has tackled the player-character, it has tended to do so by means of an opposition to the notion of the avatar, with the result that the ontological and semiotic nature of the character in itself has not been given due attention. This paper draws on understandings of character...... from the fields of narratology and literary theory to highlight the double-layered ontology of character as both a possible individual and as a semiotic construction. Uri Margolin’s narratological model of character signification is used as the basis for developing a semiotic-structural model...... of the player-character that addresses its specific medialities and formal nature – a task which is performed through illustrative close examinations of the player-characters in The Last of Us (Naughty Dog 2013) and Gone Home (The Fullbright Company 2013)....

  8. The Incarnated Narrator as a Character in Middlemarch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李航

    2014-01-01

    Sympathy is one of the essential themes that George Eliot discusses in her novels. She uses various effective narrative strategies for the emergence of that theme. This paper, based on a close reading on the passage from Middlemarch, explores one of them-the incarnation of the narrator as a character. In Middlemarch, the narrator, as a character, both shows sympathy to the characters and asks for sympathy from the readers. To show his sympathy to the characters, he provides his comprehensive analysis of the characters and authorizes his characters to present their opinions. To ask for the sympathy, he directly addresses to the read-ers, uses free indirect speech in the narration, and expresses his own emotions. By the strategy of incarnation of the narrator as a character, Eliot clearly presents the readers her purpose of writing.

  9. CHARACTER DETECTION AND RECOGNITION SYSTEM OF BEER BOTTLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Bangxing; Wu Wenjun; Zhang Yepeng; Shen Gang; Yang Liangen

    2005-01-01

    An optical imaging system and a configuration characteristic algorithm are presented to reduce the difficulties in extracting intact characters image with weak contrast, in recognizing characters on fast moving beer bottles. The system consists of a hardware subsystem, including a rotating device, CCD, 16 mm focus lens, a frame grabber card, a penetrating lighting and a computer, and a software subsystem. The software subsystem performs pretreatment, character segmentation and character recognition. In the pretreatment, the original image is filtered with preset threshold to remove isolated spots. Then the horizontal projection and the vertical projection are used respectively to retrieve the character segmentation. Subsequently, the configuration characteristic algorithm is applied to recognize the characters. The experimental results demonstrate that this system can recognize the characters on beer bottles accurately and effectively; the algorithm is proven fast, stable and robust, making it suitable in the industrial environment.

  10. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments.

  11. Has multivessel angioplasty displaced surgical revascularization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S B; Ivanhoe, R J

    1990-01-01

    Over the years, PTCA has been proved a safe and effective therapy for single-vessel CAD. Given the record of favorable results for single-vessel angioplasty, the extension of angioplasty to multivessel CAD soon followed. The successful application of PTCA to multivessel disease has been facilitated by developments in balloon, guidewire, and guide catheter technology. Success rates have been satisfactory, and complications have remained acceptable. Furthermore, as an outgrowth of an understanding of the mechanism and effect of PTCA, guidelines have been developed to aid case selection. As emphasized earlier, these guidelines should weigh heavily in deciding whether to select PTCA as a treatment modality. Presently, in our opinion, PTCA has not yet completely displaced surgery for multivessel CAD. Surgical standby is required for safe PTCA, because emergency surgery can be lifesaving and limit myocardial infarction after failed angioplasty. It is doubtful that surgery will ever relinquish its position as the treatment of choice for left main coronary artery disease. Nor will elective surgery find wide application in single-vessel disease. Whether one mode of revascularization will emerge as the most efficacious for multivessel disease related to long-term survival, limitation of cardiac events, and cost will be addressed in the analysis of the ongoing randomized trials of surgery versus angioplasty. Andreas Gruentzig established that it was possible to work within the coronary artery in an alert and comfortable patient. Interventional cardiology has experienced rapid technologic growth. Many patients formerly treated with bypass surgery can be managed effectively with angioplasty. If effective bail-out methods for acute closure are proven effective and restenosis is limited to a small percentage of patients, angioplasty in some form will further displace CABG. Until those ultimate goals are achieved, the value of angioplasty compared with bypass surgery must rest

  12. Fluid trapping during capillary displacement in fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibing; Neuweiler, Insa; Méheust, Yves; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Niemi, Auli

    2016-09-01

    The spatial distribution of fluid phases and the geometry of fluid-fluid interfaces resulting from immiscible displacement in fractures cast decisive influence on a range of macroscopic flow parameters. Most importantly, these are the relative permeabilities of the fluids as well as the macroscopic irreducible saturations. They also influence parameters for component (solute) transport, as it usually occurs through one of the fluid phase only. Here, we present a numerical investigation on the critical role of aperture variation and spatial correlation on fluid trapping and the morphology of fluid phase distributions in a geological fracture. We consider drainage in the capillary dominated regime. The correlation scale, that is, the scale over which the two facing fracture walls are matched, varies among the investigated geometries between L/256 and L (self-affine fields), L being the domain/fracture length. The aperture variability is quantified by the coefficient of variation (δ), ranging among the various geometries from 0.05 to 0.25. We use an invasion percolation based model which has been shown to properly reproduce displacement patterns observed in previous experiments. We present a quantitative analysis of the size distribution of trapped fluid clusters. We show that when the in-plane curvature is considered, the amount of trapped fluid mass first increases with increasing correlation scale Lc and then decreases as Lc further increases from some intermediate scale towards the domain length scale L. The in-plane curvature contributes to smoothening the invasion front and to dampening the entrapment of fluid clusters of a certain size range that depends on the combination of random aperture standard deviation and spatial correlation.

  13. Systematic review of mini-implant displacement under orthodontic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel Nienkemper; Jörg Handschel; Dieter Drescher

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies have reported that mini-implants do not remain in exactly the same position during treatment, although they remain stable. The aim of this review was to collect data regarding primary displacement immediately straight after loading and secondary displacement over time. A systematic review was performed to investigate primary and secondary displacement. The amount and type of displacement were recorded. A total of 27 studies were included. Sixteen in vitro studies or studies using finite element analysis addressed primary displacement, and nine clinical studies and two animal studies addressed secondary displacement. Significant primary displacement was detected (6.4-24.4 mm) for relevant orthodontic forces (0.5-2.5 N). The mean secondary displacement ranged from 0 to 2.7 mm for entire mini-implants. The maximum values for each clinical study ranged from 1.0 to 4.1 mm for the head, 1.0 to 1.5 for the body and 1.0 to 1.92 mm for the tail part. The most frequent type of movement was controlled tipping or bodily movement. Primary displacement did not reach a clinically significant level. However, clinicians can expect relevant secondary displacement in the direction of force. Consequently, decentralized insertion within the inter-radicular space, away from force direction, might be favourable. More evidence is needed to provide quantitative recommendations.

  14. The Case for Studying Character(s) in the Literature Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian; Haberling, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    In response to increased violence, bullying, and anti-social behavior among young people in our schools and on our streets (Akiba, M., LeTendre, G., Baker, D., & Goesling, B., 2002; Leming, 1996; Males, 2001; Pellegrini & Bartini, 2000; Smagorinsky, 2002; Tendero, 2000), advocates of character education have proposed and instituted a…

  15. Optimal Load and Stiffness for Displacement-Constrained Vibration Energy Harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Halvorsen, Einar

    2016-01-01

    The power electronic interface to a vibration energy harvester not only provides ac-dc conversion, but can also set the electrical damping to maximize output power under displacement-constrained operation. This is commonly exploited for linear two-port harvesters by synchronous switching to realize a Coulomb-damped resonant generator, but has not been fully explored when the harvester is asynchronously switched to emulate a resistive load. In order to understand the potential of such an approach, the optimal values of load resistance and other control parameters need to be known. In this paper we determine analytically the optimal load and stiffness of a harmonically driven two-port harvester with displacement constraints. For weak-coupling devices, we do not find any benefit of load and stiffness adjustment beyond maintaining a saturated power level. For strong coupling we find that the power can be optimized to agree with the velocity damped generator beyond the first critical force for displacement-constra...

  16. Solutions of the Maxwell viscoelastic equations for displacement and stress distributions within the arterial wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, S; Zamir, M

    2008-08-01

    Mechanical events within the thickness of the vessel wall caused by pulsatile blood flow are considered, with focus on axial dynamics of the wall, driven by the oscillatory drag force exerted by the fluid on the endothelial layer of the wall. It is shown that the focus on the axial direction makes it possible to derive simplified equations of motion which, combined with a viscoelastic model of the wall material, makes it possible in turn to obtain solutions in closed form for the displacement and stress of material elements within the wall. The viscoelastic model allows a study of the dynamics of the wall with different ratios of viscosity to elasticity of the wall material, to mimic changes in the properties of the arterial wall caused by disease or aging. It is found that when the wall is highly viscous the displacements and stresses caused by the flow are confined to a thin layer close to the inner boundary of the wall, while as the wall material becomes less viscous and more rigid the displacements and stresses spread deeper into the thickness of the wall to affect most of its elements.

  17. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FREE PISTON FREE DISPLACER MINIATURE CRYOCOOLER WITH REAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADHEY SHAM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic performance of a Stirling cryocooler is closely linked to the movements of the two reciprocating components i.e. the compressor piston and displacer. In mechanically constrained units, such as crank-driven models or those with a rhombic drive, performance prediction is simplified by the fact that strokes of the piston and the displacer are fully determined by the geometry of the machines, and so is the phase difference between them. Hence, these are unaffected by the machine speed and gas pressure in the spaces andare thus constant in the analysis. However free piston free displacer units, since the reciprocating parts are constrained only by mechanical springs, the analysis is much more complicated. A number of dynamic and Thermodynamic variables exist which are mutually dependent i.e. strokes, pressures, temperatures and phase shift. Some researchers have coupled the thermodynamics and dynamics giving real picture of the processes. The thermodynamic processes have been assumed to be isothermal in their models. In the present paper theperformance parameters have been evaluated by assuming the real processes.

  18. Validations of the Character Mosaic Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Character framework utilizes “The ARDA Model” as the primary mechanism for explaining how to actually develop habits of honorable thoughts and actions...decide to  buy  snacks  at a convenience store.  While picking up the  snacks , your classmate purchases some beer.   Your classmate is 21 years old, but...past  habits  are very strong predictors of how we will act in the future.  Ongoing research at USAFA  has preliminarily found that those cadets who

  19. Hybrid Motion Graphs for Character Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalouache Saida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works in the literature have improved the performance of motion graphs for synthesis the humanlike results in limited domains that necessity few constraints like dance, navigation in small game like environments or in games by the gesture of feedback on a snowboard tutorial. The humanlike cannot exist in an environment without interacting with the world surrounding them; the naturalness of the entire motion extremely depends on the animation of the walking character, the chosen path and the interaction motions. Addressing exact position of end-effectors is the main disadvantage of motion graphs which cause less importance expended to the search for motions with no collision in complex environments or manipulating motions. This fact motivates this approach which is the proposition of an hybrid motion graphs taking advantages of motion graphs to synthesis a natural locomotion and overcoming their limitations in synthesis manipulation motions by combined it with an inverse kinematic method for synthesis the upper-body motions.

  20. Character sums for primitive root densities

    CERN Document Server

    Lenstra, H W; Stevenhagen, P

    2011-01-01

    It follows from the work of Artin and Hooley that, under assumption of the generalized Riemann hypothesis, the density of the set of primes $q$ for which a given non-zero rational number $r$ is a primitive root modulo $q$ can be written as an infinite product $\\prod_p \\delta_p$ of local factors $\\delta_p$ reflecting the degree of the splitting field of $X^p-r$ at the primes $p$, multiplied by a somewhat complicated factor that corrects for the `entanglement' of these splitting fields. We show how the correction factors arising in Artin's original primitive root problem and some of its generalizations can be interpreted as character sums describing the nature of the entanglement. The resulting description in terms of local contributions is so transparent that it greatly facilitates explicit computations, and naturally leads to non-vanishing criteria for the correction factors.

  1. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  2. Microstructure and Slip Character in Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Banerjee

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of microstructures in titanium alloys on the basic parameters of deformation behaviour such as slip character, slip length and slip intensity have been explored. Commercial titanium alloys contain the hexagonal close packed (alpha and body centred cubic (bita phases. Slip in these individual phases is shown to be dependent on the nature of alloying elements through their effect on phase stability as related to decomposition into ordered or w structures. When alpha and bita coexist, their relative crystallographic orientations, size, shape and volume fraction, control the nature of slip. For a given composition, structure may be manipulated through appropriate thermomechanical treatment to obtain the desired deformation behaviour and therefore fracture mode.

  3. DENSE: Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes in Cardiac Functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletras, Anthony H.; Ding, Shujun; Balaban, Robert S.; Wen, Han

    1999-03-01

    Displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) was developed for high-resolution myocardial displacement mapping. Pixel phase is modulated by myocardial displacement and data spatial resolution is limited only by pixel size. 2D displacement vector maps were generated for the systolic action in canines with 0.94 × 1.9 mm nominal in-plane resolution and 2.3 mm/π displacement encoding. A radial strain of 0.208 was measured across the free left ventricular wall over 105 ms during systole. DENSE displacement maps require small first-order gradient moments for encoding. DENSE magnitude images exhibit black-blood contrast which allows for better myocardial definition and reduced motion-related artifacts.

  4. The influence of media characters on children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Jennifer A; Schiffman, Jennifer M; Hanson, Katherine G

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the role of media characters in influencing children's food choices; the first focused on children's self-reported preference, whereas the second focused on actual choice. The results of the experiments suggest that popular characters can make a difference in encouraging children to select one food over another. In the first experiment, children were more likely to indicate a preference for one food over another when one was associated with characters that they liked and with whom they were familiar. This effect was particularly strong when a sugary or salty snack branded by a favored character was competing with a healthier option branded by an unknown character or no character. Alternatively, when children were asked to choose between a healthy food and a sugary or salty snack, branding of the healthy food with a favored character did not significantly change appeal of that healthy snack. However, when foods within the same category (i.e., 2 vegetables, 2 fruits, or 2 grains) were asked to compete against each other, character branding strongly influenced children's food choice. Findings from the second experiment suggest that children are more willing to try more pieces of a healthy food if a favored character, in comparison with an unknown character, is promoting that food.

  5. A Modified Back propagation Algorithm for Optical Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Shrivastav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Character Recognition (CR has been an active area of research and due to its diverse applicable environment; it continues to be a challenging research topic. There is a clear need for optical character recognition in order to provide a fast and accurate method to search both existing images as well as large archives of existing paper documents. However, existing optical character recognition programs suffer from a flawed tradeoff between speed and accuracy, making it less attractive for large quantities of documents. In this thesis, we present a new neural network based method for optical character recognition as well as handwritten character recognition. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves highest percent accuracy in optical character recognition. We present an overview of existing handwritten character recognition techniques. All these algorithms are described more or less on their own. Handwritten character recognition is a very popular and computationally expensive task. We also explain the fundamentals of handwritten character recognition. We describe today’s approaches for handwritten character recognition. From the broad variety of efficient techniques that have been developed we will compare the most important ones. We will systematize the techniques and analyze their performance based on both their run time performance and theoretical considerations. Their strengths and weaknesses are also investigated. It turns out that the behavior of the algorithms is much more similar as to be expected.

  6. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image.

  7. A Study of Displacement in Jean Rhys’ Novel Wide Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Malissa bte Che Jamal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wide Sargasso Sea, by Jean Rhys, is a novel filled with tragedy; two characters in conflict meet in circumstances not in their best interests but rather for other people. This novel is an illustration of the mad woman in the novel Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte, as the story of her life before madness is told in the novel Wide Sargasso Sea. This study attempts to elucidate reasons for the feelings of displacement that the Western husband faces during his stay in the Caribbean, and also to discover to what extent the situation contribute to the oppression faced by Antoinette and imposed on her by her Western husband. There are many concepts amongst the theory of post-colonialism, e.g. otherness, hybridity, and (double alienation. This research’s approach differs slightly from some previous research that has been done on this novel, as it focuses on the husband of Antoinette as the victim.

  8. The Making of the Imaginary Value: Issues in the displacement of image of the Disney production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celbi Vagner Melo Pegoraro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the problem of displacement of image in the process of creating Disney comics and animation. The research seeks answers to issues of cultural production, especially the representation of the characters and their impact in the minds of those who consume them. First, we seek the meanings to the concepts of enjoyment (within the imagi-nary and value having as source research conducted by Eugênio Bucci, professor in the School of Communications and Arts at the University of São Paulo. Then, we intend to analyze the complex issue of identity of Mickey Mouse and finally the globalized spectacle of the cultural industry.

  9. Displacement desorption test of coalbed methane and its mechanism exploring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suian; HUO Yongzhong; YE Jianping; TANG Shuheng; MA Dongmin

    2005-01-01

    Through the test of CH4 displaced by CO2 using the coal sample as the adsorbent, this paper has found the coalbed methane (CBM) displacement desorption phenomenon under the natural conditions and CBM mining conditions. With the help of the adsorption theory of the modern physical chemistry and interfacial chemistry, the CBM competitive adsorption and displacement desorption mechanism are intensively discussed, and a new path for studying the CBM desorption mechanism in the CBM exploitation process is explored.

  10. Test Rig Design For Compact Variable Displacement Vane Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, Pratik; Jenkins, Ryan; Ivantysynova, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Variable displacement vane pumps (VDVP) are one type of positive displacement pumps used in automatic transmission vehicles for lubricating the gears, cooling the transmission and actuating the clutches. Though fixed displacement pumps are widely used, they output a constant effective flow at a given speed. Depending on pump sizing considerations, the pump can be oversized at high speeds because flow demand of the transmission is independent of engine speed. The excess flow returns to the tan...

  11. Gingival displacement methods used by dental professionals: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    S V Giridhar Reddy; M.Bharathi; B. Vinod; K Rajeev Kumar Reddy; N Simhachalam Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify the methods used by dental professionals for gingival displacement before making impressions for fixed prostheses. Materials and Methods: A printed questionnaire was distributed to over 600 dentists at a National Dental Conference held in Hyderabad. The questionnaire was designed to know the preferred method of gingival displacement, medicament used, frequency of performing gingival displacement, etc. The results were analyzed and represented ...

  12. Displacement spectra and displacement modification factors, based on records from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Athanassiadou, C. J.; Karakostas, C. Z.; Margaris, B. N.; Kappos, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic displacement spectra (for periods up to 4.0 s) are derived, using a representative sample of acceleration records from Greece, carefully selected based on magnitude, distance and peak ground acceleration criteria, and grouped into three ground type categories according to the Eurocode 8 (EC8) provisions. The modification factor for the elastic design spectrum adopted in EC8 for accounting for damping is verified herein and is found to be satisfactory in the short to medi...

  13. Evolution of the platycodonoid group with particular references to biogeography and character evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang; Xiao-Quan Wang; Hang Sun; Yan Yu; Xing-Jin He; De-Yuan Hong

    2014-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is an important center of origin and diversification for many northern temperate plants. The hypothesis“out-of-QTP”suggests that the majority of northern temperate plants have originated and dispersed from the QTP and adjacent regions. An interesting question is whether the biogeographic history of the platycodonoids (Campanulaceae), a group mainly distributed in the QTP and adjacent regions, coincides with the hypothesis“out-of-QTP”? Furthermore, how have the diagnostic charac-ters of the platycodonoids evolved? In the present study, al 10 genera of the platycodonoids were sampled for molecular phylogeny and dating analyses, and ancestral states of distribution and characters were reconstructed. The results do not support the platycodonoids as an“out-of-QTP”group, but instead they might have descended from Tethyan ancestors. The dispersal and diversification of the platycodo-noids in Asia might have been driven by the uplift of the QTP. The present study highlights the importance of the Tethyan Tertiary flora for the origin of the Sino-Himalayan flora and the influence of the uplift of QTP on diversification of northern temperate plants. In addition, character state reconstruction reveals that the inferior ovary, capsule, long-colpate pol en, and chromosome number 2n ¼ 14 are probably ancestral states.

  14. Studying Landslide Displacements in Megamendung (Indonesia Using GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that frequently affects Indonesia, especially in the rainy season. It destroys not only environment and property, but usually also causes deaths. Landslide monitoring is therefore very crucial and should be continuously done. One of the methods that can have a contribution in studying landslide phenomena is repeated GPS survey method. This paper presents and discusses the operational performances, constraints and results of GPS surveys conducted in a well known landslide prone area in West Java (Indonesia, namely Megamendung, the hilly region close to Bogor. Three GPS surveys involving 8 GPS points have been conducted, namely on April 2002, May 2003 and May 2004, respectively. The estimated landslide displacements in the area are relatively quite large in the level of a few dm to a few m. Displacements up to about 2-3 m were detected in the April 2002 to May 2003 period, and up to about 3-4 dm in the May 2003 to May 2004 period. In both periods, landslides in general show the northwest direction of displacements. Displacements vary both spatially and temporally. This study also suggested that in order to conclude the existence of real and significant displacements of GPS points, the GPS estimated displacements should be subjected to three types of testing namely: the congruency test on spatial displacements, testing on the agreement between the horizontal distance changes with the predicted direction of landslide displacement, and testing on the consistency of displacement directions on two consecutive periods.

  15. The Three Gorges: the unexamined toll of development-induced displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Stein

    1998-01-01

    In China, the context of forced displacement in its broadest sense centres on four issues: (1) coercive displacement for development; (2) political persecution resulting in controlled displacement; (3) massive labour dislocations; and (4) disaster-induced displacement. This article looks at the role of the state in displacement, focusing on the first of these issues: development-induced displacement.

  16. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Based on network analysis of hierarchical structural relations among Chinese characters, we develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters. We regard a more efficient learning method if one learns the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that takes into account both the weight of the nodes and the hierarchical structure of the network. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as...

  17. Displacement of the ventricular fold following cordectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, H; Tsuji, D H; Kawasaki, Y; Kawaida, M; Sakou, T

    1990-01-01

    In order to avoid radiation and its undesirable side effects, we have employed surgical techniques for treatment of early glottic cancer when the lesion is confined to one membranous cord (Fukuda, Saito, Sato, and Kitahara: J. Jpn. Bronchoesophagol. Soc. 30: 7-14, 1979; Fukuda and Saito: Otologica 26: 434-436, 1980; Fukuda, Kawaida, Ohki, Kawasaki, Kita, and Tatehara: J. Jpn. Bronchoesophagaol. Soc. 39: 139-144, 1988). Laser is one of the most popular techniques and it has been accepted as the first choice by many authors (Annyas, Overbeek, Escajadillo, and Hoeksema: Laryngoscope 94: 836-838, 1984; Mcguirt and Koufman: Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 113: 501-505, 1987; Tsuji, Fukuda, Kawaskai, Kawaida, and Kanzaki: Keio J. Med. 38: 413-418, 1989). However, some cases are difficult to approach by direct laryngoscopy, requiring an external way to expose the lesion. In these cases, cordectomy by laryngofissure is the method of choice, but the function of the glottis could be improved by replacing the excised cord displacing the ventricular fold. This technique, designed by the authors, was carried out in 22 patients and the results from the viewpoint of phonodynamics, voice quality, and cure rate are discussed in this study. The results are encouraging and we believe that this method is a very reasonable alternative to the laser when such equipment is not available. We also believe that late side effects and oncogenic problems associated with radiation are important points to be considered, especially in patients of relatively younger age.

  18. Motional displacements in proteins incorporating dynamical diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Derya; Smith, Jeremy; Glyde, Henry

    The average mean square displacement (MSD), , of hydrogen H in proteins is measured using incoherent neutron scattering methods. The observed MSD shows a marked increase in magnitude at a temperature TD ~= 240 K. This is widely interpreted as a dynamical transition to large MSDs which make function possible in proteins. However, when the data is interpreted in terms of a single averaged MSD, the extracted depends on the neutron momentum transfer, ℏQ , used in the measurement. We have shown recently that this apparent dependence on Q arises because the dynamical diversity of the H in the protein is neglected[2]. We present models of the dynamical diversity of H in Lysosyme that when used in the analysis of simulated neutron data lead to consistent, Q independent values for the average MSD and for the diversity model.2. D. Vural and L. Hong, J. C. Smith and H. R. Glyde. Phys. Rev. E 91, 052705 (2015). Supported in part by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, USDOE, ER46680.

  19. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates in pol...... in-depth research of the privatization of border control through the cases of G4S, Finmeccanica and the EU’s EUROSUR system. The chapter links externalization of border control with European state-driven export markets and shows how states’ export credit agencies, the arms industry...... and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts...

  20. The Driven Spinning Top

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, Ioan; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    This driven top is quite a novelty and can, with some trials, be made using the principles outlined here. This new top has many applications in developing both understanding and skills and these are detailed in the article. Depending on reader's available time and motivation they may feel an urge to make one themselves, or simply invest a few…

  1. Sherlock Holmes: From literary character to pop culture symbol

    OpenAIRE

    HULCOVÁ, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis Sherlock Holmes: From literary character to pop culture symbol deals with the collection of sixty detective stories by Arthur Conan Doyle, the canon. The aim of the thesis is to highlight the aspects that contributed to the popularity of Sherlock Holmes and the series as such. The character of Sherlock Holmes became one of the most adapted literary characters, which is reflected in many areas of popular culture. Special attention is paid to the recent adaptations presentin...

  2. Handwritten Character Recognition of South Indian Scripts: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Jomy, John; Kannan, Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Handwritten character recognition is always a frontier area of research in the field of pattern recognition and image processing and there is a large demand for OCR on hand written documents. Even though, sufficient studies have performed in foreign scripts like Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters, only a very few work can be traced for handwritten character recognition of Indian scripts especially for the South Indian scripts. This paper provides an overview of offline handwritten character recognition in South Indian Scripts, namely Malayalam, Tamil, Kannada and Telungu.

  3. The Study of the Character of Shaghaad in Shahnaameh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    قبول قبول

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ferdowsi, has beautifully described the important characters of Shahnameh. With the help of psychological analysis, one can reach the hidden layers of their personality. This shows Ferdowsi’s intelligence and his awareness in characterization. One of the negative and unaccepted characters of Shahnameh is called Shaghaad, who is Rostam’s stepbrother. In his exact description of this character, Ferdowsi presents him as a character that has inferiority complex. The writers of this article study different reasons that have resulted to such a characterization and his inferiority complex. Key Words: Shahname, Ferdowsi, Shaghaad, Rostam, inferiority complex.

  4. A Two Stage Classification Approach for Handwritten Devanagari Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Malik, Latesh

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a two stage classification approach for handwritten devanagari characters The first stage is using structural properties like shirorekha, spine in character and second stage exploits some intersection features of characters which are fed to a feedforward neural network. Simple histogram based method does not work for finding shirorekha, vertical bar (Spine) in handwritten devnagari characters. So we designed a differential distance based technique to find a near straight line for shirorekha and spine. This approach has been tested for 50000 samples and we got 89.12% success

  5. The Character Construction of Simba in The Lion King

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷婷

    2015-01-01

    The Lion King(1994)told the story of little lion Simba who experienced growth,death,love and responsibility,and finally overcame himself and the enemy and got the throne of the king of the forest,and became the hero of lion herd.As the soul character of the movie,Simba plays a very important role to the whole story.This paper examines Simba's personality features,through analyzing thefunction of character design and plot in construction of character,and attempts to explore how the heroic character Simba is constructed step by step.

  6. The Character Construction of Simba in The Lion King

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷婷

    2015-01-01

    The Lion King(1994)told the story of little lion Simba who experienced growth,death,love and responsibility,and finally overcame himself and the enemy and got the throne of the king of the forest,and became the hero of lion herd.As the soul character of the movie,Simba plays a very important role to the whole story.This paper examines Simba’s personality features,through analyzing the function of character design and plot in construction of character,and attempts to explore how the heroic character Simba is constructed step by step.

  7. Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Michael J L; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L

    2013-12-22

    Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species' ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics.

  8. Single Parent or Displaced Homemaker Program Management Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide is designed to provide vocational education, single parent/displaced homemaker program directors, and other interested persons with information to help them support, establish, and conduct programs for single parents or displaced homemakers in the nine vocational education planning regions of Utah. It includes definitions and staff…

  9. 24 CFR 886.338 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations at 49 CFR part 24. A “displaced person” shall be advised of his or her rights under the Fair... persons. A “displaced person” (defined in paragraph (g) of this section) must be provided relocation... the requirements described in 49 CFR part 24, subpart B. (e) Appeals. A person who disagrees with...

  10. The effect of bone displacement operations on facial soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ali; Hisham, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    A novel biomechanical model for face soft tissue (skin, mucosa, and muscles) is introduced to investigate the effect of mandible and chin bone displacement on the overall appearance of the patient's face. Nonlinear FE analysis is applied to the model and the results obtained are used to help surgeons to decide the amount of displacement required.

  11. Scaling of interface displacement in a microfluidic comparator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, S.A.; Ende, van den D.; Duits, M.H.G.; Mugele, F.

    2007-01-01

    The authors quantify both experimentally and theoretically the scaling behavior between interface displacement and excess pressure drop in a microfluidic comparator. Unlike previous studies, the authors measure the interface displacement in the outlet channel of the comparator that yields a unique p

  12. Isothermal Gas assisted displacement of a polystyrene melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal gas displacements of a polystyrene melt (shaped as circular cylinder with a radius of 2.5mm) placed inside a circular steel annulus were performed. A flow valve ensures a constant flow rate and rotational symmetric flow during the displacement. The experiments show an increase in the s...

  13. 24 CFR 236.1001 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reasonable steps to minimize the displacement of persons (households, businesses, nonprofit organizations... temporarily to permit rehabilitation or other work for the assisted project. Such tenants must be provided: (1... shall maintain data on the race, ethnic, gender, and disability status of displaced persons....

  14. Displacement and Force Measurements with Quadrant Photodetector in Optical Tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红莲; 刘春香; 李兆霖; 段建发; 韩学海; 程丙英; 张道中

    2003-01-01

    A technique of displacement and force measurements with a photodiode quadrant detector in an optical tweezers system is presented. The stiffness of optical trap is calibrated and the leukemia cell membrane tension is measured.The results show that the optical tweezers combined with the quadrant detector is a very useful tool for detecting the displacement and force with a millisecond-order response.

  15. Forced displacement: a development issue with humanitarian elements

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Harild

    2016-01-01

    Work on conflict-induced forced displacement is at a crucial moment, at a tipping point. Now is the time to consolidate the shift towards full global recognition that the challenge of forced displacement is an integral part of the development agenda too.

  16. Employment protection and the consequences for displaced workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; van Audenrode, Marc; Browning, Martin

    We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement...

  17. The use of crosshead displacement in determining fracture parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.; Voormeeren, L.O.; Janssen, M.

    2013-01-01

    In determining the fracture toughness of a test specimen, standards currently require either locally-measured load-line displacements or clip gage displacements. In order to measure these parameters, secondary sensors generally need to be installed and calibrated, which often comes at a higher cost.

  18. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  19. A Reference Optical System of Laser Doppler Longitudinal Displacement Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存满; 赵洋; 李达成

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new reference optical system is put forward to achieve longitudinal displacement measurement. An optical grating is used for frequency mixing and getting high SNR signals in the measurement. Conditions and methods for getting Doppler beat signals are presented.The experiments indicate that this optical syetem can be used to measure the longitudinal displacement with high accuracy.

  20. Uniform stability of displacement coupled second-order equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Soufyane

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove that the uniform stability of semigroups associated to displacement coupled dissipator systems is equivalent to the uniform stability of velocity coupled dissipator systems. Using this equivalence, we give sufficient conditions for obtaining uniform stability and exact controllability of displacement coupled dissipator systems.

  1. Simple and economical capacitive displacement system for UHV operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, R; Tiller, W A

    1979-12-01

    A parallel plate capacitor was assembled as a displacement transducer for operation in an UHV environment. The capacitive displacement system was linear over a 2.5 mum range with a resolution of 0.051 mum. Components in the electric circuit were common laboratory instruments.

  2. Study on the applicability of the desk displacement ventilation concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, Marcel G.L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes an experimental and numerical study into a ventilation concept that combines displacement ventilation with task conditioning, the so-called desk displacement ventilation (DDV) concept. The study uses steady-state and transient results to discuss the applicability of the DDV con

  3. Displacement Ventilation in a Room with Low-Level Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices....

  4. Displacement, Outplacement, or Inplacement? Options for Business and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzius, Thomas J.

    This report considers the differences among displacement, outplacement, and inplacement and looks at the risks, benefits, and costs of each. Displacement is defined as the termination of employment with little attention given to corporate or individual needs. Outplacement is defined as the pre-planned management of employee termination, addressing…

  5. Topology synthesis of large-displacement compliant mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf; Buhl, Thomas; Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of topology optimization as a synthesis tool for the design of large-displacement compliant mechanisms. An objective function for the synthesis of large-displacement mechanisms is proposed together with a formulation for synthesis of path-generating compliant mechanisms...

  6. Fiber-coupled displacement interferometry without periodic nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.D.; Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Displacement interferometry is widely used for accurately characterizing nanometer and subnanometer displacements in many applications. In many modern systems, fiber delivery is desired to limit optical alignment and remove heat sources from the system, but fiber delivery can exacerbate common inter

  7. Forced displacement: a development issue with humanitarian elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Harild

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Work on conflict-induced forced displacement is at a crucial moment, at a tipping point. Now is the time to consolidate the shift towards full global recognition that the challenge of forced displacement is an integral part of the development agenda too.

  8. 电动伺服变量柱塞泵的变量特性研究%Variable displacement characteristics of electrical servo varia-ble displacement piston pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐海涛; 付永领; 郎燕

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the variable displacement characteristics of electrical servo variable displacement piston pump,whose the swash plate was driven by a DC servo motor through a transmission mechanism,the variable displacement designs of constant pressure,constant flow rate and constant power were achieved in this pump by control ing the DC servo motor.Based on AMESim,the simulation analysis of the above-mentioned variable displacement control designs were carried out.It has shown that by using the corresponding pressure and flow sensor signals and only through the DC servo motor control,the different variable displacement aims could be a-chieved in this electrical servo variable displacement piston pump and the actual demands for this pump could be met.%以采用直流伺服电动机的通过传动装置驱动泵变量斜盘的电动伺服变量柱塞泵为研究对象,对其电动伺服变量特性进行研究,给出了其通过对直流伺服电动机的控制实现变量泵的恒压变量、恒流量变量和恒功率变量的设计方案,并基于AMESim软件对上述变量控制方案进行了仿真分析。结果表明:结合相应的压力和流量传感信号,只需要通过对直流伺服电动机的控制,便可以非常方便地实现电动伺服变量柱塞泵的各种不同变量目的,满足实际需求。

  9. Displacement ventilation and passive cooling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, P.; Bekker, B. [PJCarew Consulting, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-07-01

    Displacement ventilation (DV) is widely used a passive cooling strategy because it requires less air supply for cooling compared to conventional mixing ventilation (MV). DV introduces air at low level and low velocity, and at high supply air temperature, usually around 18 degrees C. The slightly cooler air runs along the floor of a room until it reaches a heat load. The heat load induces a plume of warmer air that rises due to lower density. This induces stratification in room temperature with the occupied area of the room. The air near the ceiling is continually exhausted to prevent a build up of warm air into the occupied zone. This paper demonstrated the impacts of using DV in comparison to MV on the peak capacity, size and humidity levels associated with various passive cooling strategies, informed by the ASHRAE DV guidelines. A generic office building in Johannesburg, South Africa, was used as a model. The paper illustrated the extent to which DV can be used as a passive cooling strategy in spaces that were previously considered as having too high a heat load when calculated using MV system guidelines. A comparison of DV and MV also highlighted the risk of over-design when conventional MV guidelines are used to design cooling sources for DV applications. The DV was shown to significantly lower the amount of supply air needed to serve a room's heat load when compared to MV at the same temperatures. This reduction in air supply impacts the feasibility of using passive cooling strategies in evaporative cooling, 2-stage evaporative cooling, thermal storage and air to ground heat exchangers. However, passive cooling strategies are unlikely to be widely implemented until design guidelines are created by organizations such as ASHRAE. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  10. Surgical treatment of displaced acetabular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Saša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acetabular fractures are severe injuries, generally caused by high-energy trauma, most frequently from traffic accidents or falls from heights. Fractures of the extremities, head injuries, chest, abdomen and pelvic ring injuries are most commonly associated injuries. Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures. The open anatomical reduction of the articular surface combined with a rigid internal fixation and early mobilisation have become the standard treatment of these injuries. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 22 patients of average age 43.13 years. The patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation at the Orthopaedic Clinic of Niš from 2005-2009. The follow-up was 12 to 60 months, with the average of 21.18 months after surgery. Results. All injured patients were operated on between 4 and 11 days (5.7 days on the average. According to the classification by Judet and Letournel, 15 (68.18% patients had an elementary acetabular fracture, whereas 7 (31.82% patients had associated fracture. A satisfactory postoperative reduction implying less than 2 mm of displacement was achieved in 19 (86.36% patients. The radiological status of the hip joint, determined according to Matta score, was excellent in 15 (68.18% patients, good in 4 (18.18% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. According to Merle d’Aubigné Scale, the final functional results of the treatment of all operated patients were excellent in 12 (54.54% patients, good in 7 (31.81% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. Conclusion. Surgical treatment of dislocated acetabular fractures requires an open reduction and a stable internal fixation. Excellent and good results can be expected only if anatomical reduction and stable internal fixation are achieved.

  11. [Vestibularly displaced flap with bone augmentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalian, V L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve esthetic gingival contours with the help of less traumatic mucogingival surgeries. 9 Patients were operated with horizontal deficiencies in 9 edentulous sites, planned to be restored with fixed partial dentures. In all cases there was lack of keratinized tissues. Temporary bridges were fabricated to all patients. Before surgery the bridges were removed and the abutment teeth were additionally cleaned with ultrasonic device. A horizontal incision was made from lingual (palatal) side between the abutment teeth, which was connected with two vertical releasing incisions to the mucogingival junction from the vestibular side. The horizontal incision was made on a distance 6-10 mm from the crest of the alveolar ridge. A partial thickness flap in the beginning 3-5 mm, then a full thickness flap up to the mucogingival junction, then a partial thickness flap was made. The flap was mobilized and displaced vestibularly. In the apical part the cortical bone was perforated, graft material was put and the flap was sutured. In all 9 cases the horizontal defect was partially or fully eliminated. The width of the keratinized tissues was also augmented in all cases. The postoperative healing was without complications, discomfort and painless. The donor sites also healed without complications. The application of Solcoseryl Dental Adhesive Paste 3 times a day for 7-10 days helped for painless healing of the donor site. The offered method of soft tissue and bone augmentation is effective in the treatment of horizontal defects of edentulous alveolar ridges of not big sizes. It makes possible to achieve esthetic results without traumatizing an additional donor-site.

  12. Displacement of soil pore water by trichloroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.; Aiken, G.R.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Goldberg, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) are important pollutants because of their widespread use as chemical and industrial solvents. An example of the pollution caused by the discharge of DNAPLs is found at the Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, where trichloroethylene (TCE) has been discharged directly into the unsaturated zone. This discharge has resulted in the formation of a plume of TCE-contaminated water in the aquifer downgradient of the discharge. A zone of dark-colored groundwater containing a high dissolved organic C content has been found near the point of discharge of the TCE. The colored-water plume extends from the point of discharge at least 30 m (100 feet) downgradient. Fulvic acids isolated from the colored-waters plume, from water from a background well that has not been affected by the discharge of chlorinated solvents, and from soil pore water collected in a lysimeter installed at an uncontaminated site upgradient of the study area have been compared. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the fulvic acids from the colored waters and from the lysimeter are very similar, but are markedly different from the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the fulvic acid from the background well. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum and the DOC fractionation profile of the colored groundwater and the soil pore water are very similar to each other, but quite different from those of the background water. It is proposed from these observations that this colored water is soil pore water that has been displaced by a separate DNAPL liquid phase downward to the saturated zone.

  13. 三字经 Quotes from the Three Character Classic%三字经 Quotes from the Three Character Classic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Three Character Classic is one of the Chinese classic texts, probably written in the 13th century during the Song Dynasty and attributed to Wang Yinglin (王应麟1223-1296).It's the embodiment of Confucian thought suit- able for teaching young children. With the short and simple text arranged in three-character verses, children learned many common characters, grammar structures, elements of Chinese history and the basis of Confucian morality.

  14. ECOLOGICAL CULTURE IN THE UKRAINIAN NATIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKLADANOVSKAYA M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ecological security of our country, the possibility of a balanced sustainable development depends on the level of formation of ecological culture of society. Purpose of the article is to analyze the ethnic origins of ecological culture of modern Ukrainian. Nature of Ukraine is the most important point of the historical development of the national character. The installation, stereotypes, archetypes influence on its formation. The aesthetic human needs are met first in the perception of the beauty of unspoiled nature, its comprehension, reflection on the eternal themes: man's place in the natural world, awareness of human relationships and nature, its impact on the individual, man's relation to the world; an effort to recreate the beauty of the surrounding environment. Development of individual aesthetic needs, a sense of harmony and disharmony is the first step of the creativity development, the creative personality possibilities, creativity abilities, which is urgently needed as a modern social development and personal improvement. This is a necessary component of ecological consciousness, ecological culture of modern man.

  15. Two-character motion analysis and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taesoo; Cho, Young-Sang; Park, Sang Il; Shin, Sung Yong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of synthesizing novel motions of standing-up martial arts such as Kickboxing, Karate, and Taekwondo performed by a pair of human-like characters while reflecting their interactions. Adopting an example-based paradigm, we address three non-trivial issues embedded in this problem: motion modeling, interaction modeling, and motion synthesis. For the first issue, we present a semi-automatic motion labeling scheme based on force-based motion segmentation and learning-based action classification. We also construct a pair of motion transition graphs each of which represents an individual motion stream. For the second issue, we propose a scheme for capturing the interactions between two players. A dynamic Bayesian network is adopted to build a motion transition model on top of the coupled motion transition graph that is constructed from an example motion stream. For the last issue, we provide a scheme for synthesizing a novel sequence of coupled motions, guided by the motion transition model. Although the focus of the present work is on martial arts, we believe that the framework of the proposed approach can be conveyed to other two-player motions as well.

  16. Fractal Character of China Bedrock Coastline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓华

    2004-01-01

    Fractal theory was applied to a preliminary discussion of the fractal character and formation mechanism of the coastline of the bedrock coast of China on the basis of GIS (Geographical Information System). Some significant conclusions were drawn:(1) The fractal dimensions of the coastline and linear structures of Liaodong Peninsula are 1.0093 and 1.0246 respectively, those of Shandong Peninsula are 1.019 and 1.021 respectively, etc.(2) The fractal dimensions of coastlines of Liaodong Peninsula, Shandong Peninsula, Zhejiang and Fujian-Guangdong tend to increase with the spatial change from north to south.(3)The regional linear structures(including faults)control the basic trends and fractal dimensions of coastlines as a whole in the regions of the bedrock coast of China:the more the controlling effect of linear structures, the smaller the fractal dimensions of coastlines.(4)The substantial constituents of coast and biologic function both play an important role in affecting the fractal dimensions of coastlines of Liaodong Peninsula, Shandong Peninsula, Zhejiang, Fujian-Guangdong and Taiwan Island.

  17. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gómez-Isa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights. The underlying reasons for the displacement often lie in the dynamics associated with territorial control and land seizures undertaken for strategic, military or purely economic purposes. Domestic and international legal provisions have established the victims’ right to the restitution of their homes and property as the “preferred remedy” in cases of displacement. However, policies dealing with displacement, both those of the Colombian government and of several international institutions, fail to take this sufficiently into account. A comprehensive reparation policy for victims must necessarily entail the reversion of lands, territories and goods seized in Colombia under the pretext of the internal armed conflict.

  18. Displacement of maxillary third molar into the lateral pharyngeal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doksa; Ishii, Syoichiro; Yakushiji, Noboru

    2013-10-01

    Iatrogenic tooth displacement is a rare complication during extraction of impacted molars, but displacement of a maxillary third molar into the maxillary sinus, infratemporal fossa, buccal space, pterygomandibular space, and lateral pharyngeal space has been reported. Currently, 6 published reports describe third molar displacement into the lateral pharyngeal space, only 1 of which involved the loss of a maxillary third molar into this area, which occurred after an attempted self-extraction by the patient. There have been no reported cases of iatrogenic displacement of the maxillary third molar during an extraction procedure. This article describes the recovery, under general anesthesia, of a maxillary third molar from the lateral pharyngeal space after an iatrogenic displacement.

  19. Performance of ductless personalized ventilation in conjunction with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Vesely, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation was studied and compared with displacement ventilation alone and mixing ventilation. Thirty subjects were exposed in a climate chamber to environmental conditions representing three levels...... perception of the environment. The subjects could control the position of the DPV supply diffuser and the personalized air flow (air velocity). The use of DPV improved perceived air quality and thermal comfort compared to displacement ventilation alone. At 26 °C and 29 °C the percentage dissatisfied with air...... movement decreased with DPV compared to corresponding conditions with displacement ventilation alone and reached the same level as mixing or displacement ventilation at 23 °C. Subjects were able to control the volume and speed of the personalized air flow in order to avoid eye irritation. However...

  20. Human response to ductless personalized ventilation coupled with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Veselý, Michal; Melikov, Arsen K.

    2012-01-01

    A human subject experiment was carried out to investigate the extent to which ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation can improve perceived air quality (PAQ) and thermal comfort at elevated room air temperature in comparison with displacement ventilation...... alone. The experimental conditions comprised displacement ventilation alone (room air temperature of 23 °C, 26 °C, 29 °C) and DPV with displacement ventilation (26 °C, 29 °C), both operating at supply air temperatures 3, 5 or 6K lower than room air temperature, as well as mixing ventilation (23 °C, 3 K......). During one hour exposure participants answered questionnaires regarding PAQ and thermal comfort. PAQ was significantly better with DPV than without DPV at the same background conditions. Thermal comfort improved when DPV was used. Combining DPV with displacement ventilation showed the potential...

  1. Prediction of ground surface displacement caused by grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭风琪; 刘晓潭; 童无期; 单智

    2015-01-01

    Ground surface displacement caused by grouting was calculated with stochastic medium theory. Ground surface displacement was assumed to be caused by the cavity expansion of grouting, slurry seepage, and slurry contraction. A prediction method of ground surface displacement was developed. The reliability of the presented method was validated through a comparison between theoretical results and results from engineering practice. Results show that the present method is effective. The effect of parameters on uplift displacement was illustrated under different grouting conditions. Through analysis, it can be known that the ground surface uplift is mainly caused by osmosis of slurry and the primary influence angle of stratum βdetermines the influence range of surface uplift. Besides, the results show that ground surface uplift displacement decreases notably with increasing depth of the grouting cavity but it increases with increasing diffusion radius of grout and increasing grouting pressure.

  2. CVN 68 Class Displacement Concerns; Dealing with the Differences between the Modeled and Actual Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    It is the second case that is most important for a ship in the water. It has been referred to as a special case of Archimedes ’ Principle , or the...from the bottom of the block to the waterline. Figure 6. Wooden block in water As described above using Archimedes ’ Principle , the weight of the...carrier. Archimedes ’ Law was discussed, as well as how this principle is applied to the displacement of an object in a body of water. The application

  3. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariedeh Khajehpour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.  Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.   Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:   The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:   a Direct characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.   b Indirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations

  4. Test-driven programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, are presented some possibilities concerning the implementation of a test-driven development as a programming method. Here is offered a different point of view for creation of advanced programming techniques (build tests before programming source with all necessary software tools and modules respectively). Therefore, this nontraditional approach for easier programmer's work through building tests at first is preferable way of software development. This approach allows comparatively simple programming (applied with different object-oriented programming languages as for example JAVA, XML, PYTHON etc.). It is predictable way to develop software tools and to provide help about creating better software that is also easier to maintain. Test-driven programming is able to replace more complicated casual paradigms, used by many programmers.

  5. Electrically driven optical antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Johannes; Kullock, René; Prangsma, Jord; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, so far optical nanoantennas cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or indirectly via excited discrete states in active materials in their vicinity. Here we demonstrate the direct electrical driving of an in-plane optical antenna by the broadband quantum-shot noise of electrons tunnelling across its feed gap. The spectrum of the emitted photons is determined by the antenna geometry and can be tuned via the applied voltage. Moreover, the direction and polarization of the light emission are controlled by the antenna resonance, which also improves the external quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. The one-material planar design offers facile integration of electrical and optical circuits and thus represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometre scale, for example for on-chip wireless communication and highly configurable electrically driven subwavelength photon sources.

  6. Characters of the Plateau of Methanol Increment in Frontal Analysis in Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG,Xin-Du(耿信笃); REGNIER,Fred E(弗莱德 依 瑞格涅尔)

    2002-01-01

    With insulin methanol-water, and the ion-pairing agent, hydrochloric acid and trifiuroacetic acid (TFA), the character of the first plateau (FP) on the elution curve of frontal analysis in reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) was investigated by on-line UV-spectrometry and identified with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and mass spectrometry.The proffie of the FP is the same as that of a usual elution curve of methanol in frontal analysis (FA). When the insulin concentration was limited to a certain range, the height of the FP was found to be proportional to the insulin concentration in mobile phase and its length companying to shorten. The FP profile on the intersection of two tangents reflects the components of the microstructure in the depth direction of the bonded stationary phase layer and the desorption dynamics of the displaced components. The displaced methanol was quantitatively determined by NMR and on-line UV spectrometries. TFA with high UV absorbance can not be used as on ionpairing agent for the investigation of the FP in RPLC, but it can be used as a good marker to investigate the complicated transfer process of components in the stationary pdase in RPLC. A stoichiometric displacement process between solute and solvent was proved to be valid in both usual and FA in RPLC. From the point of view of dynamics of mass transfer,the solutes can only contact to the surface of stationary phase in usual RPLC, while solute can penetrate into it in FA of RPLC.The solvation of insulin in methanol and water solution as an example indicating the usage of the FP in the FA was also investigated in this paper.

  7. Affinity driven social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyú, B.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2007-04-01

    In this work we present a model for evolving networks, where the driven force is related to the social affinity between individuals of a population. In the model, a set of individuals initially arranged on a regular ordered network and thus linked with their closest neighbors are allowed to rearrange their connections according to a dynamics closely related to that of the stable marriage problem. We show that the behavior of some topological properties of the resulting networks follows a non trivial pattern.

  8. Character Analysis of Jeremiah Donovan in Guests of the Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱松超

    2016-01-01

    Jeremiah Donovan is a complex and complicated character in the short story,"Guests of the Nation", of Frank O'Connor. By analyzing the character figure of Jeremiah Donovan, this article will dissect the inner world and behavior motivation of Jeremiah Donovan, and reveal the effect of war on people.

  9. Dirichlet Expression for (1, ) with General Dirichlet Character

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Rane

    2010-02-01

    In the famous work of Dirichlet on class number formula, (, ) at =1 has been expressed as a finite sum, where (, ) is the Dirichlet -series of a real Dirichlet character. We show that this expression with obvious modification is valid for the general primitive Dirichlet character .

  10. An Examination of Fourth Graders' Aesthetic Engagement with Literary Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Linda T.

    2013-01-01

    Reader response, simulation, and assimilation theories offer insights to our emotional connections with characters. Findings from a study conducted with avid fourth-grade readers show that when the children feel they are next to the character, they acentrally imagine the narrative and experience sympathy. The children also participate and…

  11. Faculty Virtues and Character Strengths: Reflective Exercises for Sustained Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    "Faculty Virtues and Character Strengths: Reflective Exercises for Sustained Renewal" is a transdisciplinary faculty handbook to enhance the quality of learning and teaching. The author applies six multicultural virtues and 24 character strengths from Positive Psychology research to the tasks of course design, managing critical incidents, and…

  12. Scanners, optical character readers, Cyrillic alphabet and Russian translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1995-01-01

    The writing of code for capture, in a uniform format, of bit maps of words and characters from scanner PICT files is presented. The coding of Dynamic Pattern Matched for the identification of the characters, words and sentences in preparation for translation is discussed.

  13. The Forgotten American: A Story for Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tony

    2007-01-01

    As character education continues to be an objective of the social studies, the more effective educators have taken up the challenge by first understanding the principles of their discipline and the opportunities for examining the values of character to be encountered. Social studies is rediscovering the focus on the actual men and women of history…

  14. From Aristotle to Angelou: Best Practices in Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovre, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The modern character education movement emerged in the 1980s as a consequence of growing parental and public concern for moral drift, or what sociologist James Davison Hunter referred to as "the death of character." This public anomie was captured in these words from Sanford McDonnell, chairman emeritus of McDonnell Douglas and chair of the…

  15. Computer-Generated, Three-Dimensional Character Animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baerle, Susan Lynn

    This master's thesis begins by discussing the differences between 3-D computer animation of solid three-dimensional, or monolithic, objects, and the animation of characters, i.e., collections of movable parts with soft pliable surfaces. Principles from two-dimensional character animation that can be transferred to three-dimensional character…

  16. On the Tragic Character-Miss Havisham in Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-lan

    2015-01-01

    Charles Dickens, as one of the greatest critical realistic writers in the 19th century, is renowned all around the world. Miss Havisham in Great Expectations is certainly one of the most strange and memorable characters. This paper tries to analyze dif⁃ferent aspects of Miss Havisham’s character to explore her tragic life.

  17. Analysis of Female Characters of Charles Dickens' Novel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜

    2011-01-01

    By tagging different characters,Charles Dickens invented many distinct characters in his novels.Female charaters are a central of Charls Dickens literary works.They represent the unimportant and the weak in the British society in the 19th century.This ess

  18. The Meaning of Role Modelling in Moral and Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderse, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Character education considers teachers to be role models, but it is unclear what this means in practice. Do teachers model admirable character traits? And do they do so effectively? In this article the relevant pedagogical and psychological literature is reviewed in order to shed light on these questions. First, the use of role modelling as a…

  19. Sherlock Holmes Meets Othello: A MDS Analysis of Literary Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G. W.; Lambert, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in college freshmen's perceptual organization of characters from "Othello" after three weeks of study and lecture were assessed using multidimensional scaling procedures. Sherlock Holmes experts also provided dissimilarity ratings of Conan Doyle's characters. Discussion centers on the extent to which the lectures on "Othello" effected…

  20. Teachers and Coaches as Leaders Demonstrating Character and Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In a time of scandalous actions and me-first behaviors, teachers and coaches as leaders of character and competence are needed. Leaders have integrity and demonstrate their character by adhering to moral principles and displaying moral values. The competence of leaders is based on knowledge, skills, and abilities and enhanced by exploring varying…

  1. Forgiveness as Character Education for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei Neng; Enright, Robert; Klatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Forgiveness education has demonstrated psychological, social and academic benefits; however, it has not been discussed as a means of promoting character development for children and adolescents. In this paper, we discuss forgiveness as a moral concept and explain how forgiveness can contribute to current discussions of character education. After…

  2. Learning from Fantasy and Real Characters in Preschool and Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Rebekah A.; Shawber, Alison B.; Hoffman, Ruth E.; Taylor, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, 3 1/2- to 6-year-old children were presented with analogical problems in which the protagonists were either real people or fantasy characters. Children were more likely to transfer solutions from the stories about real people rather than the stories about fantasy characters. These results suggest that the use of a fantasy…

  3. Christianity and Character Education: Faith in Core Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Character education is important within the Christian tradition but tends to be viewed with suspicion by educators who privilege autonomy as the aim of a liberal education. Equally, Christians may have concerns that character education places too great an emphasis upon good works rather than God's grace. This article reasons that character…

  4. Character Development: Putting It into Practice in Admissions and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The most important knowledge and skills a college education should develop in young people are those underlying good character, such as integrity, responsibility, work ethic, intellectual curiosity, mental flexibility, and wisdom. When leaders fail, most frequently it is because of issues of character, not lack of knowledge or intellectual…

  5. Seafloor character, 5 m resolution--Offshore of Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Aptos, California. The raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_5m_OffshoreAptos.zip,"...

  6. The Relationship Between Personalities and Faces of Manga Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Mangaka' ('manga' artists are limited to portraying the personalities of characters through static images and limited changes in facial expression. It is imperative that the personality and appearance of a character complement each other.  In this study, we found that participants rely heavily on facial features to identify the personalities of characters. However, we also found that their first impressions are inclined towards two out of a total of sixteen specific personality types. This preference for specific personality types may be a unique feature of manga. Perhaps because readers are entirely reliant on the visual presentation of manga, facial features provide a relatively rich source of information when determining the personality of a character. The physical appearance of characters is somewhat limited by the stylization typical of manga. Possibly the facial features of characters have become restricted to a few select types, enforcing stereotypical images in the minds of readers.  This encapsulation of personalities is important to the development of manga. Simplifying personality types helps readers to identify with characters and understand the plot. However, over-simplification can make characters dull or indistinguishable from each other

  7. Character Education and Media Literacy--Finding Common Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Scott D.; Emmans, Cindy C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses curriculum development in the areas of character education and media literacy. Topics include what character education is and what it attempts to promote within a school setting; moral judgments; moral and ethical values; behavior; decision making; the role of mass media, including media violence; and adding media education to the…

  8. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  9. Seafloor character, 2 m resolution--Offshore of Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Aptos, California. The raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_2m_OffshoreAptos.zip,"...

  10. Sherlock Holmes Meets Othello: A MDS Analysis of Literary Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G. W.; Lambert, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in college freshmen's perceptual organization of characters from "Othello" after three weeks of study and lecture were assessed using multidimensional scaling procedures. Sherlock Holmes experts also provided dissimilarity ratings of Conan Doyle's characters. Discussion centers on the extent to which the lectures on…

  11. Features fusion based approach for handwritten Gujarati character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is a challenging area of research. Lots of research activities in the area of character recognition are already done for Indian languages such as Hindi, Bangla, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu. Literature review on handwritten character recognition indicates that in comparison with other Indian scripts research activities on Gujarati handwritten character recognition are very less.  This paper aims to bring Gujarati character recognition in attention. Recognition of isolated Gujarati handwritten characters is proposed using three different kinds of features and their fusion. Chain code based, zone based and projection profiles based features are utilized as individual features. One of the significant contribution of proposed work is towards the generation of large and representative dataset of 88,000 handwritten Gujarati characters. Experiments are carried out on this developed dataset. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Naive Bayes (NB classifier based methods are implemented for handwritten Gujarati character recognition. Experimental results show substantial enhancement over state-of-the-art and authenticate our proposals.

  12. An Efficient Data-driven Tissue Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an efficient data-driven tissue deformation model. The work originates in process automation within the pig meat processing industry. In the development of tools for automating accurate cuts, knowledge on tissue deformation is of great value. The model is built from...... empirical data; 10 pig carcasses are subjected to deformation from a controlled source imitating the cutting tool. The tissue deformation is quantified by means of steel markers inserted into the carcass as a three-dimensional lattice. For each subject marker displacements are monitored through two...... consecutive computed tomography images - before and after deformation; tracing corresponding markers provides accurate information on the tissue deformation. To enable modelling of the observed deformations, the displacements are parameterised applying methods from point-based registration...

  13. Determining Fault Geometries From Surface Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, D.; Voisin, C.; Ionescu, I. R.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for determining the geometry of active parts of faults. This algorithm uses surface measurements of displacement fields and local modeling of the Earth's crust as a half-space elastic medium. The numerical method relies on iterations alternating non-linear steps for recovering the geometry and linear steps for reconstructing slip fields. Our algorithm greatly improves upon past attempts at reconstructing fault profiles. We argue that these past attempts suffered from either the restrictive assumption that the geometry of faults can be derived using only uniformly constant slips or that they relied on arbitrary assumptions on the statistics of the reconstruction error. We test this algorithm on the 2006 Guerrero, Mexico, slow slip event (SSE) and on the 2009 SSE for the same region. These events occurred on a relatively well-known subduction zone, whose geometry was derived from seismicity and gravimetric techniques, see Kostoglodov et al. (Geophys Res Lett 23(23):3385-3388, 1996), Pardo and Suarez (J Geophys Res 100(B7):357-373, 1995), Singh and Pardo (Geophys Res Lett 20(14):1483-1486, 1993), so our results can be compared to known benchmarks. Our derived geometry is found to be consistent with these benchmarks regarding dip and strike angles and the positioning of the North American Trench. In addition, our derived slip distribution is also consistent with previous studies (all done with an assumed fixed geometry), see Larson et al. (Geophys Res Lett 34(13), 2007), Bekaert et al. (J Geophys Res: Solid Earth 120(2):1357-1375, 2015), Radiguet et al. (Geophys J Int 184(2):816-828, 2011, J Geophys Res 2012), Rivet et al. (Geophys Res Lett 38(8), 2011), Vergnolle et al. (J Geophys Res: Solid Earth 115(B8), 2010), Walpersdorf et al. Geophys Res Lett 38(15), 2011), to name a few. We believe that the new computational inverse method introduced in this paper holds great promise for applications to blind inversion cases, where both geometry and

  14. Lagrangian Displacement Ensembles for Aerosol Data Assimilation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A.; Colarco, P. R.; Govindaraju, R. C.

    2010-12-01

    A challenge common to many constituent data assimilation applications is the fact that one observes a much smaller fraction of the phase space that one wishes to estimate. For example, remotely-sensed estimates of the column average concentrations are available, while one is faced with the problem of estimating 3D concentractions for initializing a prognostic model. This problem is exarcebated in the the case of aerosols because the observable Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is not only a column integrated quantity, but it also sums over a large number of species (dust, sea-salt, carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols). An aerosol transport model when driven by high-resolution, state-of-the-art analysis of meterorological fields and realistc emissions can produce skillful forecasts even when no aerosol data is assimilated. The main task of aerosol data assimilation is to address the bias arising from innacurate emissions, and the Lagrangian misplacement of plumes induced by errors in the driving meterorological fields. As long as one decouples the meteorological and aerosol assimilation as we do here, the classic baroclinic growth of errors is no longer the main order of business. We will describe and aerosol data assimilation scheme in which the anaysis update step is conducted in observation space, using an adaptive maximum-likelihood scheme for estimating background errors in AOD space. This scheme includes explicit sequential bias estimation as in Dee and da Silva (1998). Unlikely existing aerosol data assimiltion schemes we do not obtain analysis increments of the 3D concentrations by scalling the background profiles. Instead, we explore the Langrangian characteristics of the problem for generating local displacement ensembles. These high-resolution, state-dependent ensembles are then used to parameterize the background errors and generate 3D aerosol increments. The algorithm has computational complexity comparable to the forecasting step by the aerosol transport model

  15. Representations of deaf characters in children's picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B; Moses, Annie M

    2011-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters, despite increased inclusion of deaf characters in children's literature over the past two decades. The present study analyzed the portrayal of deaf characters in picture books for children ages 4-8 years. A content analysis of 20 children's picture books was conducted in which the books were analyzed for messages linked to pathological and cultural categories. Results indicated that these books did not portray Deaf characters from a cultural perspective but, rather, highlighted aspects of deafness as a medical condition, one that requires fixing and that perpetuates stereotypes of deafness as a disability.

  16. Handwritten Farsi Character Recognition using Artificial Neural Network

    CERN Document Server

    Ahangar, Reza Gharoie

    2009-01-01

    Neural Networks are being used for character recognition from last many years but most of the work was confined to English character recognition. Till date, a very little work has been reported for Handwritten Farsi Character recognition. In this paper, we have made an attempt to recognize handwritten Farsi characters by using a multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer. The error backpropagation algorithm has been used to train the MLP network. In addition, an analysis has been carried out to determine the number of hidden nodes to achieve high performance of backpropagation network in the recognition of handwritten Farsi characters. The system has been trained using several different forms of handwriting provided by both male and female participants of different age groups. Finally, this rigorous training results an automatic HCR system using MLP network. In this work, the experiments were carried out on two hundred fifty samples of five writers. The results showed that the MLP networks trained by the err...

  17. The positioning algorithm based on feature variance of billet character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiansong; Hong, Hanyu; Shi, Yu; Chen, Hongyang

    2015-12-01

    In the process of steel billets recognition on the production line, the key problem is how to determine the position of the billet from complex scenes. To solve this problem, this paper presents a positioning algorithm based on the feature variance of billet character. Using the largest intra-cluster variance recursive method based on multilevel filtering, the billet characters are segmented completely from the complex scenes. There are three rows of characters on each steel billet, we are able to determine whether the connected regions, which satisfy the condition of the feature variance, are on a straight line. Then we can accurately locate the steel billet. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method in this paper is competitive to other methods in positioning the characters and it also reduce the running time. The algorithm can provide a better basis for the character recognition.

  18. Wide-range displacement expressions for standard fracture mechanics specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, J. A.; Gross, B.; Leger, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Wide-range algebraic expressions for the displacement of cracked fracture mechanics specimens are developed. For each specimen two equations are given: one for the displacement as a function of crack length, the other for crack length as a function of displacement. All the specimens that appear in ASTM Test for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials (E 399) are represented in addition to the crack mouth displacement for a pure bending specimen. For the compact tension sample and the disk-shaped compact tension sample, the displacement at the crack mouth and at the load line are both considered. Only the crack mouth displacements for the arc-shaped tension samples are presented. The agreement between the displacements or crack lengths predicted by the various equations and the corresponding numerical data from which they were developed are nominally about 3 percent or better. These expressions should be useful in all types of fracture testing including fracture toughness, K-resistance, and fatigue crack growth.

  19. Development of a Wireless Displacement Measurement System Using Acceleration Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billie F. Spencer Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM, earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  20. Two conceptual models of displacement transfer and examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; Shuwei; WANG; Xin; YANG; Shufeng; HE; Dengfa; ZHAO; W

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents two conceptual models of displacement transfer, reverse symmetry model and infinitely equal division model, based on the fault-bend folding theory. If the fault shape is held constant in the trend, then the distribution of slip magnitude, geometry of imbricate structures and its axial surface map all display reverse symmetry on the process of displacement transfer, as called reverse symmetry model in this paper. However, if the ramp height of thrust fault decreases gradually along its strike, the displacement is postulated to be equally and infinitely divided to every thrust that is formed subsequently, this kinematic process is described using infinitely equal division model. In both models, displacement transfer is characterized by the regular changes of imbricate thrusting in the trend. Geometric analysis indicates that the displacement transfer grads can be estimated using the tangent of deflective angle of hinterland structures. Displacement transfer is often responsible for the distortion and branching of the surface anticlines, especially in the region where the multi-level detachment structures is developed. We also present some examples from the frontal structures of the Southern Tianshan fold-and-thrust belt, Xinjiang, China. Displacement transfer between deep imbricate thrusts in the middle segment of Qiulitag anticline zone causes the Kuqatawu and Southern Qiulitag deep anticlines left-lateral echelon. The region, where these two deep anticlines overlap, is characterized by duplex structures, and extends about 18 km. The shallow anticline is migrated southward displaying obvious "S" form in this area.

  1. A method to calculate displacement factors using SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peixian; Tan Zhixiang; Yan Lili; Deng Kazhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the precision of mining subsidence prediction,a mathematical model using Support Vector Machine (SVM) was established to calculate the displacement factor.The study is based on a comprehensive analysis of factors affecting the displacement factor,such as mechanical properties of the cover rock,the ratio of mining depth to seam thickness,dip angle of the coal seam and the thickness of loose layer.Data of 63 typical observation stations were used as a training and testing sample set.A SVM regression model of the displacement factor and the factors affecting it was established with a kernel function,an insensitive loss factor and a properly selected penalty factor.Given an accurate calculation algorithm for testing and analysis,the results show that an SVM regression model can calculate displacement factor precisely and reliable precision can be obtained which meets engineering requirements.The experimental results show that the method to calculation of the displacement factor,based on the SVM method,is feasible.The many factors affecting the displacement factor can be considered with this method.The research provides an efficient and accurate approach for the calculation of displacement in mining subsidence prediction.

  2. Children's Contemporary Realistic Fiction Portraying Dyslexic Characters: An Examination of the Issues Confronted and the Gender of the Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-seven contemporary realistic fiction children's books portraying a dyslexic character were published in the United States between 1993 and 2003. This study examined the texts to determine what types of issues the reading difficulty posed for the character. Texts were analyzed to determine if there was a relationship between the gender of…

  3. Inhomogeneous phase shifting: an algorithm for nonconstant phase displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez-Quinones, Alejandro; Malacara-Doblado, Daniel

    2010-11-10

    In this work, we have developed a different algorithm than the classical one on phase-shifting interferometry. These algorithms typically use constant or homogeneous phase displacements and they can be quite accurate and insensitive to detuning, taking appropriate weight factors in the formula to recover the wrapped phase. However, these algorithms have not been considered with variable or inhomogeneous displacements. We have generalized these formulas and obtained some expressions for an implementation with variable displacements and ways to get partially insensitive algorithms with respect to these arbitrary error shifts.

  4. Displacement fields denoising and strains extraction by finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Optical full-field measurement methods are now widely applied in various domains. In general,the displacement fields can be directly obtained from the measurement,however in mechanical analysis strain fields are preferred.To extract strain fields from noisy displacement fields is always a challenging topic.In this study,a finite element method for smoothing displacement fields and calculating strain fields is proposed.An experimental test case on a holed aluminum specimen under tension is applied to vali...

  5. Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Wallace, Rodrick

    2011-06-01

    Serial forced displacement has been defined as the repetitive, coercive upheaval of groups. In this essay, we examine the history of serial forced displacement in American cities due to federal, state, and local government policies. We propose that serial forced displacement sets up a dynamic process that includes an increase in interpersonal and structural violence, an inability to react in a timely fashion to patterns of threat or opportunity, and a cycle of fragmentation as a result of the first two. We present the history of the policies as they affected one urban neighborhood, Pittsburgh's Hill District. We conclude by examining ways in which this problematic process might be addressed.

  6. Helium vs. Proton Induced Displacement Damage in Electronic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringo, Sawnese; Barghouty, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the specific effects of displacement damage due to the passage of protons and helium nuclei on some typical electronic materials will be evaluated and contrasted. As the electronic material absorbs the energetic proton and helium momentum, degradation of performance occurs, eventually leading to overall failure. Helium nuclei traveling at the same speed as protons are expected to impart more to the material displacement damage; due to the larger mass, and thus momentum, of helium nuclei compared to protons. Damage due to displacement of atoms in their crystalline structure can change the physical properties and hence performance of the electronic materials.

  7. Perceived Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In a displacement ventilated room the non-uniform contaminant distribution causes an improved indoor air quality in the occupied zone compared with conventional mixing ventilation. This has been demonstrated in numerous studies by chemical measurements. In this study the air quality...... in a displacement ventilated room was determined directly by asking humans about how they perceived the air quality. A trained sensory panel comprising 12 subjects assessed the perceived air quality immediately after entering a climate chamber. The experiments showed that the perceived air quality...... in the displacement ventilated chamber was substantially better than in the case of mixing ventilation....

  8. Performance driven expression mapping based on segmented examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Shuang; ZHANG Qiang; ZHO U Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    We present a method that combines performance-driven method with segmented 3D blendshape models to animate a face. First we prepare key sample examples and corresponding key target examples. Next we segment the whole face into two regions, for each region we reduce dimensionality of source examples using PAC into abstract space which is defined by truncated PCA eigen- vectors. Then for each example we fix the cardinal base function, which can determine the weight of the target example. Finally, in the animation stage we compute the weight of each example for each frame and add the weighted displacement vectors of each re- gion on the general face model.

  9. Spectral Identification of Lighting Type and Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Elvidge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the optimal spectral bands for the identification of lighting types and the estimation of four major indices used to measure the efficiency or character of lighting. To accomplish these objectives we collected high-resolution emission spectra (350 to 2,500 nm for forty-three different lamps, encompassing nine of the major types of lamps used worldwide. The narrow band emission spectra were used to simulate radiances in eight spectral bands including the human eye photoreceptor bands (photopic, scotopic, and “meltopic” plus five spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared modeled on bands flown on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM. The high-resolution continuous spectra are superior to the broad band combinations for the identification of lighting type and are the standard for calculation of Luminous Efficacy of Radiation (LER, Correlated Color Temperature (CCT and Color Rendering Index (CRI. Given the high cost that would be associated with building and flying a hyperspectral sensor with detection limits low enough to observe nighttime lights we conclude that it would be more feasible to fly an instrument with a limited number of broad spectral bands in the visible to near infrared. The best set of broad spectral bands among those tested is blue, green, red and NIR bands modeled on the band set flown on the Landsat Thematic Mapper. This set provides low errors on the identification of lighting types and reasonable estimates of LER and CCT when compared to the other broad band set tested. None of the broad band sets tested could make reasonable estimates of Luminous Efficacy (LE or CRI. The photopic band proved useful for the estimation of LER. However, the three photoreceptor bands performed poorly in the identification of lighting types when compared to the bands modeled on the Landsat Thematic Mapper. Our conclusion is that it is feasible to identify lighting type and make reasonable estimates of LER and CCT using four or

  10. Virtual Character Personality Influences Participant Attitudes and Behavior - An Interview with a Virtual Human Character about Her Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueni ePan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel technique for the study of human-virtual character interaction in immersive virtual reality. The human participants verbally administered a standard questionnaire about social anxiety to a virtual female character, that responded to each question through speech and body movements. The purpose was to study the extent to which participants responded differently to characters that exhibited different personalities, even though the verbal content of their answers was always the same. A separate online study provided evidence that our intention to create two different personality types had been successful. In the main between-groups experiment that utilized a Cave system there were 24 male participants, where 12 interacted with a female virtual character portrayed to exhibit shyness and the remaining 12 with an identical but more confident virtual character. Our results indicate that although the content of the verbal responses of both virtual characters was the same, participants showed different subjective and behavioral responses to the two different personalities. In particular participants evaluated the shy character more positively, for example, expressing willingness to spend more time with her. Participants evaluated the confident character more negatively and waited for a significantly longer time to call her back after she had left the scene in order to answer a telephone call. The method whereby participants interviewed the virtual character allowed naturalistic conversation while avoiding the necessity of speech processing and generation, and natural language understanding. It is therefore a useful method for the study of the impact of virtual character personality on participant responses.

  11. CFD modelling of buoyancy-driven natural ventilation opposed by wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, M.; Ji, Y. [De Montfort Univ., Leceister (United Kingdom). Inst. of Energy and Sustainable Development; Hunt, G. [Imperial College of London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This study formed the basis for generating guidelines on how to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model natural ventilation in low-energy building designs. Previous studies have investigated steady natural displacement ventilation in a single space driven by buoyancy alone. The simulations used an external flow domain which allowed airflow through inlets and outlets to be modelled without the need for boundary conditions at these locations. CFD methods were used successfully to model buoyancy-driven displacement ventilation in which wind forces oppose the flow. Simulations were then conducted for a wind assisted buoyancy-driven displacement ventilation flow. The use of boundary conditions was the basic differences in the way these simulations were modelled. It was emphasized that the simulations are for natural displacement ventilation in which wind forces oppose buoyancy. Results of analytical predictions and experimental measurements were found to be in good agreement. The small discrepancies in the interface height separating the warm stratified air from the cooler ambient layer below can be attributed to differences in the plume behaviour and performance of the gauze used for inhibiting horizontal momentum. The under-prediction in the reduced gravity of the upper layer may also be due to the small differences in plume structure. 12 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  12. Constellations-driven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a science and technology studies and actor-network-theory inspired approach to understanding the development and ongoing re-didactication and re-design of a Danish developed presentation tool called the Theme Board (Tematavlen.dk). It is argued that this approach provides a par...... a particularly useful point of departure for engaging in researching innovation and didactic design of digital teaching and learning instruments such as the Theme Board that are programmed and serviced 'in the sky'. I call this approach: constellation-driven innovations....

  13. The dependence of irradiation creep in austenitic alloys on displacement rate and helium to dpa ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Toloczko, M.B. [Washington State Univ., WA (United States); Grossbeck, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Before the parametric dependencies of irradiation creep can be confidently determined, analysis of creep data requires that the various creep and non-creep strains be separated, as well as separating the transient, steady-state, and swelling-driven components of creep. When such separation is attained, it appears that the steady-state creep compliance, B{sub o}, is not a function of displacement rate, as has been previously assumed. It also appears that the formation and growth of helium bubbles under high helium generation conditions can lead to a significant enhancement of the irradiation creep coefficient. This is a transient influence that disappears as void swelling begins to dominate the total strain, but this transient can increase the apparent creep compliance by 100--200% at relatively low ({le}20) dpa levels.

  14. Handwritten Tamil Character Recognition and Conversion using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Sureshkumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hand written Tamil Character recognition refers to the process of conversion of handwritten Tamil character into Unicode Tamil character. The scanned image is segmented into paragraphs using spatial space detection technique, paragraphs into lines using vertical histogram, lines into words using horizontal histogram, and words into character image glyphs using horizontal histogram. The extracted features considered for recognition are given to Support Vector Machine, Self Organizing Map, RCS, Fuzzy Neural Network and Radial Basis Network. Where the characters are classified using supervised learning algorithm. These classes are mapped onto Unicode for recognition. Then the text is reconstructed using Unicode fonts.This character recognition finds applications in document analysis where the handwritten document can be converted to editable printed document. This approach can be extended to recognition and reproduction of hand written documents in South Indian languages. In the training set, a recognition rate of 100% was achieved and in the test set the recognized speed for each character is 0.1sec and accuracy is 97%. Understandably, the training set produced much higher recognition rate than the test set. Structure analysis suggested that the proposed system of RCS with back propagation network is given higher recognition rate.

  15. A Proposed Hybrid Technique for Recognizing Arabic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S F Bahgat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical character recognition systems improve human-machine interaction and are urgently required for many governmental and commercial departments. A considerable progress in the recognition techniques of Latin and Chinese characters has been achieved. By contrast, Arabic Optical Character Recognition (AOCR is still lagging although the interest and research in this area is becoming more intensive than before. This is because the Arabic is a cursive language, written from right to left, each character has two to four different forms according to its position in the word, and most characters are associated with complementary parts above, below, or inside the character. The process of Arabic character recognition passes through several stages; the most serious and error-prone of which are segmentation, and feature extraction & classification. This research focuses on the feature extraction and classification stage, being as important as the segmentation stage. Features can be classified into two categories; Local features, which are usually geometric, and Global features, which are either topological or statistical. Four approaches related to the statistical category are to be investigated, namely: Moment Invariants, Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix, Run Length Matrix, and Statistical Properties of Intensity Histogram. The paper aims at fusing the features of these methods to get the most representative feature vector that maximizes the recognition rate.

  16. Moral character predominates in person perception and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Piazza, Jared; Rozin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    What sorts of trait information do people most care about when forming impressions of others? Recent research in social cognition suggests that "warmth," broadly construed, should be of prime importance in impression formation. Yet, some prior research suggests that information about others' specifically moral traits--their moral "character"--may be a primary dimension. Although warmth and character have sometimes been conceived of as interchangeable, we argue that they are separable, and that across a wide variety of contexts, character is usually more important than warmth in impression formation. We first showed that moral character and social warmth traits are indeed separable (Studies 1 and 2). Further studies that used correlational and experimental methods showed that, as predicted, in most contexts, moral character information is more important in impression formation than is warmth information (Studies 2-6). Character information was also more important than warmth information with respect to judgments of traits' perceived fundamentalness to identity, their uniquely human quality, their context-independence, and their controllability (Study 2). Finally, Study 7 used an archival method to show that moral character information appears more prominently than warmth information in obituaries, and more strongly determines the impressions people form of the individuals described in those obituaries. We discuss implications for current theories of person perception and social cognition.

  17. The displaced claiming their rights in fragile states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Mulvey

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To date, displaced persons in fragile and conflict-affected stateshave had little success in claiming their rights for housing, land andproperty violations. Creative legal thinking and strategic litigation has the potential to change this.

  18. Measurement of local relative displacements in large structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesauro, Angelo; Eder, Martin Alexander; Nielsen, Magda

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel measurement technique to measure local relative displacements between parts of large-scale structures. The measured deformations can be of significant importance for fracture analyses in many different types of structures in general, and for adhesive connections...... in particular. The measurement of small local relative displacements in structures subjected to large global deformations is complex and hardly feasible with conventional measurement methods. Therefore, a Small Displacement Measurement System (SDMS) has been devised. The SDMS is based on stereo photogrammetry...... and capable of measuring 3D local displacements with a high degree of accuracy. In this article, the technique is used to measure local deformations in the vicinity of the adhesive trailing edge joint of a wind turbine rotor blade. The SDMS results correspond well with another independent measurement method....

  19. Zooplankton Displacement Volume in Glacier Bay, Alaska, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes zooplankton displacement volume sampled in Glacier Bay National Park during summer of 2004. Zooplankton were sampled with a multinet with a 0.5...

  20. General mechanism for helium blistering involving displaced atom transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    A mechanism developed to account for formation of vertically elongated blisters in high displacement environments produced by /sup 252/Cf alpha particles and fission fragments has been extended to formation of done-shaped blisters in the low displacement environments produced by simple helium ion beams. In this mechanism, transport of displaced atoms to relieve compressive stresses in the helium-implanted layer allows interconnections of small, subsurface bubbles to form the blister cavity. The same transport may cause thickening of the blister caps at low implantation energies. The transition from dome-shaped to vertically elongated blistering occurs between the 300 and 3000 displacements per helium atom produced by simple helium ions and /sup 252/Cf radiations respectively.