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Sample records for chapter xviii operative

  1. The Classic: Chapter XVIII. Operative Treatment in Chronic Articular Ostitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gibney, Virgil P.

    2009-01-01

    This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by Virgil P. Gibney, Chapter XVIII. Operative Treatment in Chronic Articular Ostitis. An accompanying biographical sketch of Virgil P. Gibney, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1166-2. The Classic Article is ©1884 and is abridged from Gibney VP. Operative treatment in chronic articular ostitis. In: The Hip and Its Diseases. New York, NY, London, UK: Bermingham & Co; 1884:388–402.

  2. The classic: Chapter XVIII. Operative treatment in chronic articular ostitis. 1884.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, Virgil P

    2010-02-01

    This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by Virgil P. Gibney, Chapter XVIII. Operative Treatment in Chronic Articular Ostitis. An accompanying biographical sketch of Virgil P. Gibney, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1166-2 . The Classic Article is (c)1884 and is abridged from Gibney VP. Operative treatment in chronic articular ostitis. In: The Hip and Its Diseases. New York, NY, London, UK: Bermingham & Co; 1884:388-402. PMID:19936860

  3. Chapter 11. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter the international co-operation of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) in 1999 is reviewed. The Director General of the IAEA, Mr. Mohamed ElBaradei by his deputy for nuclear safety, Mr. Zikmund Domaratsky, upon the invitation of Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic Mr. Eduard Kukan, on 29 and 30 April 1999. Since 1999 Slovakia is represented in the Board of Governors of the IAEA. The Chairman of UJD was delegated by the Government of Slovakia to take the function of the governor. Co-operation between Slovakia and the IAEA in the field of technical projects is very successful. In the past year Slovakia was involved in 6 national and 23 regional projects. Significant part of regional projects related to the nuclear safety. Overall UJD organized 6 seminars and training courses with a broad international participation. These focused on radiation protection, fuel cycle, emergency regulations and utilization of radiation methods in oncology. There were 15 active research contracts in the field of agriculture, nuclear energy, safety of nuclear installations, physics, chemistry and RAW in 1999. A medium-term goal of UJD in the field of technical co-operation is a gradual transition to active international assistance in providing assistance to less developed countries. Within the technical projects of the IAEA assistance has been provided mainly to the countries of former of former Soviet Union. Other international activities and co-operation of UJD in 1999 are presented

  4. Chapter No.10. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management came into the effect on June 18, 2001. In next part of this chapter the bilateral co-operation of the UJD with partner organisations from Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine, Poland, U.S.A., Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland, Japan, Romania and Armenia in 2001 is reviewed

  5. Chapter 5. Measuring operational marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to raise the issue of marketing accountability. A central problem in business today is that marketing lacks the kind of accountability and metrics common to the rest of the corporation. For a very long time, this imprecision has been tolerated and has been excused because marketing was supposed to be inherently “creative”. Yet, as marketing consumes a larger and larger portion of the firm budget, the imperative grows to quantify marketing’s direct contribution...

  6. Chapter 4. The operation culture of the Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fourth chapter of this CD ROM the operation culture of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), is presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) Environment; (2) Personnel and social policy; (3) Public relations; (4) Consultancy

  7. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter XI: concept evolution, chapter XII: design concept, and chapter XIII: operation and test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report corresponds to Chapters XI, XII, and XIII of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workship, Phase Two A, Part 2. In the phase Two A, Part 2 workshop, we have studied critical technical issues and have also assessed scientific and technical data bases. Based on those results, the INTOR design have been modified to upgrade the design concept. The major modification items are related to plasma beta value, plasma operation scenario, reactor size reduction, neutron fluence, tritium producing blanket, and implementation of active control coils. In those chapters, the concept evolution for the design modification and main results are described. (author)

  8. Chapter 3: MHD stability, operational limits and disruptions [Progress in the ITER Physics Basis (PIPB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ameliorate the consequences of MHD instabilities, there has been significant progress in improving physics understanding and modelling. This progress has been in areas including the mechanisms governing NTM growth and seeding, in understanding the damping controlling RWM stability and in modelling RWM feedback schemes. For disruptions there has been continued progress on the instability mechanisms that underlie various classes of disruption, on the detailed modelling of halo currents and forces and in refining predictions of quench rates and disruption power loads. Overall the studies reviewed in this chapter demonstrate that MHD instabilities can be controlled, avoided or ameliorated to the extent that they should not compromise ITER operation, though they will necessarily impose a range of constraints

  9. Data Mining in Atherosclerosis Risk Factor Data. Chapter XVIII

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berka, Petr; Rauch, Jan; Tomečková, Marie

    Hershey: Information Science Reference, 2009 - (Berka, P.; Rauch, J.; Zighed, D.), s. 376-397 ISBN 978-1-60566-218-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : atherosclerosis * association rules * decision rules Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  10. Monitoring. Chapter 5. [Monitoring in both disposal concepts, before, during and after their operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    development of the disposal site. These objectives include providing information to ensure that operations are conducted in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. The monitoring programme aims to enhance public acceptance and assist in the decision making process by providing data. In addition, information from the monitoring programme can be used in safety assessment calculations. CO2 disposal projects provide an analogy to radioactive waste disposal, which is the removal of material from the surface of earth and the disposal in the subsurface with isolation and containment of the waste surrounded by the host rock. Monitoring the evolution of CO2 injected into the subsurface provides an analogue to the monitoring of radionuclides, gas and the introduced materials following the emplacement of radioactive waste in the underground repository

  11. Chapter 2

    OpenAIRE

    Cissé, Salmana; Keith M. Moore; Brewster, C.

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record In chapter 2, Cissé et al. introduce the social and historical context shaping the lifescape of the Inland Delta of the Niger, the core of Mali's 5th Region. Various ethnic groups have coexisted in this area for centuries, generating livelihoods with complementary systems of production. The chapter discusses how recent changes in agricultural and pastoral production systems have unbalanced this symbiosis and increased competition for scarce resources, thereby leading t...

  12. Keila XVIII muinsuskaitsepäev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    15. V Keila sotsiaalkeskuse saalis Keila XVIII muinsuskaitsepäeva puhul arhitektuurile pühendatud Harjumaa muuseumi konverents. Esinevad Kaspar Kuuse, Silja Konsa, Heli Kirikal, Silvi Lindmaa-Pihlak, Mart Kalm. Avatud Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumi näitus "Eesti puitarhitektuur"

  13. Chapter 9: Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algora, Carlos; Espinet-Gonzalez, Pilar; Vazquez, Manuel; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David; Kurtz, Sarah; Rubio, Francisca; McConnell,Robert

    2016-04-15

    This chapter describes the accumulated knowledge on CPV reliability with its fundamentals and qualification. It explains the reliability of solar cells, modules (including optics) and plants. The chapter discusses the statistical distributions, namely exponential, normal and Weibull. The reliability of solar cells includes: namely the issues in accelerated aging tests in CPV solar cells, types of failure and failures in real time operation. The chapter explores the accelerated life tests, namely qualitative life tests (mainly HALT) and quantitative accelerated life tests (QALT). It examines other well proven and experienced PV cells and/or semiconductor devices, which share similar semiconductor materials, manufacturing techniques or operating conditions, namely, III-V space solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). It addresses each of the identified reliability issues and presents the current state of the art knowledge for their testing and evaluation. Finally, the chapter summarizes the CPV qualification and reliability standards.

  14. Chapter 4

    OpenAIRE

    Westley, F.; Carpenter, S.R.; Brock, W.A.; C. S. Holling; Gunderson, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record This chapter attempts to compare ecological systems (as perceived by ecologists), against social systems (as perceived by social scientists). The differences between the systems lie in the dimensions used to study each system. Ecological systems key dimensions are space and time. While social systems include those dimensions, a third one, symbolic construction and meaning, is also added to fully understand the system. Essentially, this third dimension significantly con...

  15. La comedia de magia del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Barrientos, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    La tesis es un estudio de conjunto del teatro de magia en el siglo XVIII. En primer lugar se ven sus relaciones con la tradición teatral, sus vinculaciones con el teatro de magia y religioso de épocas anteriores, para hacer luego un análisis del género dramático desde el punto de vista del espectáculo, no solo desde su consideración como texto literario. Así, se estudian aspectos como la lengua dramática, la espectacularidad, los recursos cómicos, los asuntos que se tratan (la mujer, la noble...

  16. Russian-Swedish Maritime Rivalry in XVIII cen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kolotov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the military-technical aspect of Russian-Swedish confrontation of the XVIII cen. Given short chronology of hostilities and influence the characteristics of the ships on the results of campaigns.

  17. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Main report (Chapters 1--6). Volume 2, Part 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document presents Chapters 1--6 of the report

  18. Opinion publique e nozione di affaire nella Francia del XVIII secolo: Voltaire difensore di Calas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pontieri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the famous case of Jean Calas’s trial and on the defense made by Voltaire after Calas’ death. Voltaire’s complex operation succeed in mobilizing public opinion and was resumed in the well known Traité sur la tolérance, an early example of the typical scheme of the affaire. Through the analysis of the public opinion in France during the XVIII century, we will demonstrate the ambivalence of Voltaire’s thoughts in relation to this concept: one one side reign of the irrationality, when linked to the local reality, on the other, source of truth when enlightened and universal.

  19. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF Fe XVIII IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teriaca, Luca; Curdt, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions (ARs) represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broadband soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here, we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 A emission line in an on-disk AR taken with the SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 94 A channel on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The AIA 94 A channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperatures. We find that it is possible to remove the contaminating blends and form relatively pure Fe XVIII images that are consistent with the spectroscopic observations from SUMER. The observed spectra also contain the Ca XIV 943.63 A line that, although a factor 2-6 weaker than the Fe XVIII 974.86 A line, allows us to probe the plasma around 3.5 MK. The observed ratio between the two lines indicates (isothermal approximation) that most of the plasma in the brighter Fe XVIII AR loops is at temperatures between 3.5 and 4 MK.

  20. Spectroscopic Observations of Fe XVIII in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teriaca, Luca; Warren, Harry P.; Curdt, Werner

    2012-08-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions (ARs) represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broadband soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here, we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å emission line in an on-disk AR taken with the SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 94 Å channel on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The AIA 94 Å channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperatures. We find that it is possible to remove the contaminating blends and form relatively pure Fe XVIII images that are consistent with the spectroscopic observations from SUMER. The observed spectra also contain the Ca XIV 943.63 Å line that, although a factor 2-6 weaker than the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å line, allows us to probe the plasma around 3.5 MK. The observed ratio between the two lines indicates (isothermal approximation) that most of the plasma in the brighter Fe XVIII AR loops is at temperatures between 3.5 and 4 MK.

  1. La Meteorologia a Ferrara dal XVIII al XX secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Caracciolo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The meteorology is the science studying the physical phenomena responsible of the weather. The history of meteorology has endured in the centuries a long and laborious process; this discipline is considered a Science only in the XIX century. This study focuses on the researchers who made the history of meteorology in the University of Ferrara (Italy. The teaching, the researches, the effort for the development are reconstructed for the first time from archive documents, with references to the general history of meteorology. The article focuses the attention on the period between XVIII and XX century. This work is a continuation of a more extended research started a few years ago, and still in action, on the history of experimental physics in the University of Ferrara. [The Meteorology in Ferrara from XVIII to XX century

  2. Spectroscopic Observations of Fe XVIII in Solar Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Teriaca, Luca; Curdt, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broad band soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 AA emission line in an on-disk active region taken with then SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the XRT on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the AIA 94 AA channel on SDO. The AIA 94 AA channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperature...

  3. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  4. El oficio de los neveros en Gran Canaria en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Miranda Calderin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A finales del s. XVII el Cabildo Catedral de Canarias, con sede en la capital de Gran Canaria, construyó en la cumbre de la Isla dos pozos de nieve. Allí la recogían y conservaban hasta que era transportada en verano a la ciudad. Las libras de nieve se vendieron en la «nevería» ubicada en la trasera de la Catedral desde 1694 hasta 1866. En este artículo estudiamos el oficio de nevero en Gran Canaria, que había sido olvidado por completo, sus salarios, alimentación y especialidades en el s. XVIII.At the end of XVIIIth century the Canary Cathedral Chapter, settled in Gran Canaria Island capital, built, up in the mountains, two snow wells. Workers collected the snow and filled the wells until it was transported, in summer time, from the top of the island (1.949 meters to the city. Snow pounds were sold in the back of the Cathedral from 1694 to 1866. In this article we study the «neveros» job (snow workers in Gran Canaria, that it had been completely forgotten nowdays, their salaries, food and specialities in XVIIIth century.

  5. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  6. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  7. Hong Kong chapter report

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, M; Cheung, YM

    2008-01-01

    Yiu-ming Cheung from Hong Kong Baptist University, China, and Michael Chau from The University of Hong Kong, China, has discussed significant facts of the IEEE (Hong Kong) Computational Intelligence Chapter report. The Hong Kong Chapter, founded in 2003, is aimed at coordinating and supporting work and stimulating the public's interests in the field of Computational Intelligence in the city. They have organized many activities that can be classified in four categories, such as conference co-o...

  8. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay-out to f...

  9. Considerations about Compiling the Chapter Operation Management in Code for Metro Design%对编制《地铁设计规范》运营组织部分的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛励良

    2011-01-01

    阐明运营管理部分在规范中的意义及其编制内容的确定,从如何理解运营概念、确定运营和建设规模以及运营模式的规定、运行交路的设定、辅助配线的设定等方面,阐述对编制重点内容的思考和解读.最后得出结论:结合国内外的工程设计实践和目前各城市运营管理经验,改变原有的设计模式和思路,加强相关科技和理论研究,改善和优化专业结构和技术手段,推行基于运营管理模式的轨道交通工程设计,对于提升规范理念的执行,强化运营管理在设计工作中的引领地位,是完全可行和必要的.%Significance of the chapter Operation Management in the Code for Metro Design and contents for compiling the chapter are described. Considerations and explanations about how to understand the concept of operation, to define the scale of operation and construction, to fix the traffic round-try and auxiliary lines, etc. Are put forward. It has been concluded that, considering the engineering design practice both in China and abroad and the current experience of operation management of many cities, it is necessary and feasible to alter the original design modes and ideas, to strengthen related technical and theoretical researches, to improve and optimize specialty structures and technical means, to carry out rail transit project design based on operation management modes, so as to enhance the implementation of Code ideas and strengthen the leading position of operation management in design work.

  10. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility

  11. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  12. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  13. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  14. Introduction to Chapter two

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the first forms of occupation of the territory east of the Jordan River, from prehistoric times to the taking of Phoenicia by Alexander the Great in 333 BC. At that time, the climate was wetter and hunter-gatherers of the Palaeolithic period were widely scattered along wadis and temporary ponds. During the Neolithic period they developed new hunting techniques and built kites throughout the badiya; these were long funnel-shaped stone walls used to capture gaz...

  15. Quality Management. Chapter 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter introduces the principles and definitions of quality management systems (QMSs) for radiology facilities, to give a framework to assist in the setting up of such systems and to emphasize the role of the medical physicist in this context. While there is a diversity of terms currently in use to describe quality processes both generally and specifically within radiology, there is broad agreement that the effective management of radiation medicine services demands a quality culture that includes a systematic approach to the elements that govern the delivery of that service. Therefore, the concept of quality assurance (QA) within the radiological facility covers, in its widest sense, all those factors that affect the intended outcome, that is, a clinical diagnosis. The medical physicist has an important role in the overall QMS, especially, but not exclusively, with respect to the equipment performance. A worked example of a quality control (QC) programme is included at the end of the chapter, to demonstrate the depth of detail and involvement of the medical physicist

  16. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations

  17. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Main report (Chapters 7--12). Volume 2, Part 1B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specific shutdown accidents would be useful

  18. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  19. Chapter 7: Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca; Coleman, Andre; Wigmosta, Mark; Schoenung, Susan; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Langholtz, Matthew; Davis, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    This chapter of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report provides an estimate of biomass potential at given minimum selling prices. This is not a projection of actual measured biomass or a simulation of commercial projects. Biomass potential is estimated based on 30 years of hourly local climate and strain-specific biophysical characteristics using the Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT), assuming sufficient available nutrients (including CO2). As is the case for terrestrial feedstocks, important resource analysis questions for algae include not only how much of the crop may be available but also what price might be needed to procure that supply. Identifying resource co-location opportunities for algal biofuel facilities has the potential to reduce costs, utilize waste resources, and focus attention on appropriate technologies and locations for commercialization.

  20. Generation of biologically active endostatin fragments from human collagen XVIII by distinct matrix metalloproteases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endostatin, a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and tumor growth, is proteolytically cleaved from the C-terminal noncollagenous NC1 domain of type XVIII collagen. We investigated the endostatin formation from human collagen XVIII by several MMPs in vitro. The generation of endostatin fragments differing in molecular size (24-30 kDa) and in N-terminal sequences was identified in the cases of MMP-3, -7, -9, -13 and -20. The cleavage sites were located in the protease-sensitive hinge region between the trimerization and endostatin domains of NC1. MMP-1, -2, -8 and -12 did not show any significant activity against the C-terminus of collagen XVIII. The anti-proliferative effect of the 20-kDa endostatin, three longer endostatin-containing fragments generated in vitro by distinct MMPs and the entire NC1 domain, on bFGF-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells was established. The anti-migratory potential of some of these fragments was also studied. In addition, production of endostatin fragments between 24-30 kDa by human hepatoblastoma cells was shown to be due to MMP action on type XVIII collagen. Our results indicate that certain, especially cancer-related, MMP family members can generate biologically active endostatin-containing polypeptides from collagen XVIII and thus, by releasing endostatin fragments, may participate in the inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis

  1. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95... Friends Fund XVIII for Project No. 14261-000, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC for Project No. 14268-000,...

  2. 77 FR 13317 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95...+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII: Project No. 14261-000. 2. Riverbank Hydro No. 25, LLC: Project No....

  3. 76 FR 73612 - Lock Hydro Friends Fund XVIII; Upper Hydroelectric LLC; FFP Project 95 LLC; Riverbank Hydro No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock Hydro Friends Fund XVIII; Upper Hydroelectric LLC; FFP Project 95 LLC... Friends Fund XVIII (Lock Hydro), Upper Hydroelectric LLC (Upper Hydro), Riverbank Hydro No. 25...

  4. Applicable technology. Chapter 3. Status report on the safety of operating US nuclear power plants (why experts believe that today's operating nuclear power reactors are much safer than they were 20 years ago)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main emphasis of this presentation and paper is to address why experts believe that today's operating nuclear power reactors are much safer than they were 10 or 20 years ago. There is strong evidence to support this belief for the power reactors now operating in all of the advanced countries, and in many of the less developed countries too, although in a few of these latter countries there are continuing safety concerns. The paper will present recent and historical data from the U.S., a discussion of what the data mean and why, and a perspective about what events and trends have been the causes for the major safety improvements that have occurred. The extension of the conclusion to other countries will also be discussed. Finally, the reasons why safety-improvement programs must continue in some of the less-developed countries are described

  5. Instrumentos topográficos del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Lázaro, Teresa

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available An accurate evaluation of an engineering desing of the past requires a knowledge of the technical conditions under which it was drawn. For example, what were the resources available for the study of the topography on which the construction was going to be placed? Such a study must preceed the drawing of the plans of any preliminary sketch. On the following pages we will analyze the topographical equipment of an engineer of the end of the XVIIIth century.

    Para valorar un proyecto antiguo es preciso saber en qué condiciones técnicas se tiizo. Cuáles eran, por ejemplo, los medios disponibles para el estudio de la topografía en que la obra se iba a asentar, operación previa al levantamiento de los planos. Vamos a analizar, en las páginas siguientes, el equipo y los métodos topográficos de un ingeniero del siglo XVIII.

  6. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process

  7. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  8. Relativistic allowed and forbidden transition probabilities for fluorine-like Fe-XVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy levels and the corresponding transition probabilities for allowed and forbidden transitions among the levels of the ground configuration and first 23 excited configurations of fluorine-like Fe-XVIII have been calculated using the multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock GRASP code. A total of 379 lowest bound levels of Fe-XVIII is presented, and the energy levels are identified in spectroscopic notations. Transition probabilities, oscillator strengths and line strengths for electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic dipole (M1) transitions among these 379 levels are also presented. The calculated energy levels and transition probabilities are compared with experimental data. (authors)

  9. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems (chapter 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  10. Conclusion. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj

  11. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  12. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 5, Number Theory, Chapter 6, The Integers. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The third student text in this SMSG series of 14 covers the following topics from number theory: the division algorithm, divisibility, prime numbers, prime factorization, common divisors and common multiples, and properties of the whole number system. A second chapter discusses properties and operations with integers. For a special edition of this…

  13. Cossacks on the Danube Territories (the End of XVIII - the 20s of the XIX c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lebedenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the emergence of Ukrainian Cossacks on the banks of the Danube in the XVIII-XIX centuries, their influence on the economic and cultural development of the region, the role of the Cossacks in rosiyskogo-Turkish wars of the period.

  14. Llengua i societat en la medicina tradicional i popular dels segles XVIII i XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Martí Mestre

    2014-01-01

    This text constitutes a study and critical edition of a Valencian prescription manuscript, from the beginning of the XIX century, which has remained practically unknown up to the present day. It juxtaposes early instances of the language in this genre with the presence of the traditional forms of the names of diseases or medicines in Valencian popular literature of the XVIII and XIX centuries.

  15. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  16. Chapter 28. Chemistry and light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author deals with the light and photochemical reactions as photosynthesis, visions, ozone layer depletion, photodynamic therapy, laser and its applications and photochromism. Principle of solar cells and solar energy conversion are presented.

  17. Nuclear metallurgy lectures, Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-05-18

    This chapter covers process tubes; it is divided into: philosophy of safety factors, mechanical properties of available materials (C steel, mo steel, Cr-Mo steel, ss-304, ss-347), and costs (zircaloy-2).

  18. Chapter 5. Safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000 the safety analyses of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) were focused on verification of the safety analyses report and probabilistic safety assessment study for NPP V-1 Bohunice after the reconstruction, reviewing of the suggested changes of the Limits and Conditions for NPP V-2 Bohunice and on the assessment of operational events. An important part of work was performed also in solving of scientific and technical tasks appointed within bilateral projects of co-operation between UJD and its international partnerships' organisations, i.e. within international PHARE programme as well as the 5th framework of the European Commission. Verification of safety analyses part of the safety report for NPP V-1 Bohunice after the gradual reconstruction was focused on checking and passing judgement on the completeness of the considered initiating events, safety criteria, input data, adequacy of the used calculation models and also on the overall quality of the submitted documentation. Suitability of the used methodology and the calculation programmes, achieved level of their verification, correctness and interpretation of the results were assessed. The performed review has shown that the checked safety analyses were performed in compliance with the internationally accepted practice, recommendations of UJD and the IAEA. The required level of safety of NPP V-1 Bohunice has been approved. The document with the results and all the findings of the performed review has been prepared. It includes the details of the performed independent calculations, their results and comparison with the results given in the safety report. A special attention was paid to a review of probabilistic safety assessment study of level 1 for NPP Bohunice V-1 after its gradual reconstruction. The probabilistic safety analysis of NPP in full power operation was elaborated in the study and the impact of the gradual reconstruction to the risk decreasing was quantified. The

  19. Absence of collagen XVIII in mice causes age-related insufficiency in retinal pigment epithelium proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivinen, Niko; Felszeghy, Szabolcs; Kinnunen, Aino I; Setälä, Niko; Aikio, Mari; Kinnunen, Kati; Sironen, Reijo; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Collagen XVIII has the structural properties of both collagen and proteoglycan. It has been found at the basement membrane/stromal interface where it is thought to mediate their attachment. Endostatin, a proteolytic fragment from collagen XVIII C-terminal end has been reported to possess anti-angiogenic properties. Age-related vision loss in collagen XVIII mutant mice has been accompanied with a pathological accumulation of deposits under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We have recently demonstrated that impaired proteasomal and autophagy clearance are associated with the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. This study examined the staining levels of proteasomal and autophagy markers in the RPE of different ages of the Col18a1 (-/-) mice. Eyes from 3, 6-7, 10-13 and 18 months old mice were enucleated and embedded in paraffin according to the routine protocol. Sequential 5 μm-thick parasagittal samples were immunostained for proteasome and autophagy markers ubiquitin (ub), SQSTM1/p62 and beclin-1. The levels of immunopositivity in the RPE cells were evaluated by confocal microscopy. Collagen XVIII knock-out mice had undergone age-related RPE degeneration accompanied by an accumulation of drusen-like deposits. Ub protein conjugate staining was prominent in both RPE cytoplasm and extracellular space whereas SQSTM1/p62 and beclin-1 stainings were clearly present in the basal part of RPE cell cytoplasm in the Col18a1 (-/-) mice. SQSTM1/p62 displayed mild extracellular space staining. Disturbed proteostasis regulated by collagen XVIII might be responsible for the RPE degeneration, increased protein aggregation, ultimately leading to choroidal neovascularization. PMID:27125427

  20. Tolerancia, verdad y libertad de conciencia en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello, Eduardo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century defense of tolerance rests upon two lines of argument; lines that we can observe in thinkers such as Montesquieu and Rousseau, Diderot, Romilly and Voltaire. The first deconstructs the concept of absolute truth as it applies not only to the (orthodox doctrine itself, as revealed by God, but also to the Catholic Church insofar as it is taken to be the only institution where truth resides uniquely. The second line of argument would run as follows: Once we acknowledge the rights of consciousness to every single religion, how can we possibly avoid a circular justification of intolerance? Romilly and Voltaire defend, without renouncing to the rights of consciousness (which are the base of individual liberties, the Lockean thesis of the separation Church-State. However, they assign to the State the ius circa sacra. It is only upon this foundation that the idea and the practice of tolerance, both religiously as well as universally and multiculturally speaking, can be constructed.

    La defensa de la tolerancia, en el siglo XVIII, se apoya en dos líneas de argumentación, que observamos en pensadores como Montesquieu y Rousseau, Diderot, Romilly y Voltaire. Una es la que deconstruye el concepto de verdad absoluta aplicado tanto a la doctrina (ortodoxa, por ello revelada por Dios como a la institución considerada única depositaria de tal verdad, la Iglesia católica, única «verdadera». Otra sigue este argumento: si se reconocen los derechos de la conciencia a toda confesión religiosa, ¿acaso podría evitarse una justificación circular de la intolerancia? Sin renunciar a los derechos de la conciencia, base de las libertades individuales, Romilly y Voltaire sostienen la separación Iglesia-Estado, como lo hiciera Locke, asignando a éste el ius circa sacra. Sólo sobre esta base se logra fundamentar la idea y la práctica de la tolerancia no sólo religiosa, sino también universal o multicultural.

  1. Ultrasound Imaging. Chapter 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conventional method of ultrasonography, images are acquired in reflection, or pulse echo, mode. An array of small piezoelectric elements transmits a focused pulse along a specified line of sight known as a scan line. Echoes returning from the tissue are received by the same array, focused via the delay-and-sum beam forming process reviewed in Section 13.2, and demodulated to obtain the magnitude, or envelope, of the echo signal. The scanner measures the arrival time of the echoes relative to the time the pulse was transmitted and maps the arrival time to the distance from the array, using an assumed speed of sound. The earliest ultrasound systems would display the result of a single pulse acquisition in 1-D A-mode (amplitude mode) format by plotting echo magnitude as a function of distance. A 2-D or 3-D B-mode (brightness mode) image is acquired by performing a large number of pulse echo acquisitions, incrementally increasing the scan line direction between each pulse echo operation, to sweep out a 2-D or 3-D field of view (FOV). The term B-mode imaging reflects the fact that the echo magnitude from each point in the FOV is mapped to the grey level, or brightness, of the corresponding pixel in the image

  2. Chapter 12. Public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999 there were 83 contributions on both national and foreign activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) send to the Press agencies of Slovakia, dailies and electronic media. UJD, together with State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, is a publisher of a professional journal 'Safety of Nuclear Energy', which publishes principal articles about main activities of UJD. The double issue 3/4 (1999) was dedicated to the process of start up of Unit 1 of Mochovce. In 'Public administration' there were 2 principal articles published in 1999 on legislative activities of UJD. Contributions about the regulatory activities and the international co-operation of UJD are regularly published in the 'SE Newsletter', and in company journals of 'Mochovce' and 'Bohunice'. National and foreign activities of UJD were published in 3 issues of 'Bulletin of the Slovak Nuclear Society (SNUS)'. This year also the report on safety of nuclear installations of SR was published in the journal of 'European Nuclear Society - Nuclear Europe Worldscan'. For the world information agency, NucNet, there were 4 contributions prepared focusing on both national and foreign activity of UJD. Information material on INES was was prepared and published for the public. In 1999 there were 4 press conferences held at UJD with a follow up presentation of the management of UJD on television and in the radio broadcasting. Officials of UJD had 7 presentations on television and gave 6 interviews for Slovak Radio Broadcasting and for magazines and daily 5 significant interviews. In 1999 a vide-clip was produced for public purposes on the SWISSSLOVAK project. In Bern, Switzerland a very successful press conference was held with the participation of the UJD chairman. The UJD 3 Bulletins prepared and published on national and foreign activities of UJD

  3. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... State Legislation State Advocacy Resources Chapter Advocacy Lobby Day Grant Program State Legislation Tracked by the College ... Your Lung Operation Preparing for Your Operation The Day of Your Lung Operation After Your Operation Your ...

  4. Entropy Man, Chapter 10 Renewable Resources

    OpenAIRE

    John Bryant

    2015-01-01

    Chapter from a book entitled Entropy Man, which deals with the relationships between the disciplines of thermodynamics and economics. Chapter 1 illusrates how entropy impacts on the world in which we live. Chapter 2 is a short history of human development. Chapter 3 covers such concepts as the distribution of income, elasticity, the first and second laws of thermodynamics and utility. Chapter 4 explores production and consumption. Chapter 5 explores the relationship between economic entropy a...

  5. Chapter 12. Public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) is around to serve the public. This is a regulatory institution that furnishes truthful and independent information on nuclear safety of nuclear installations, including information on management of radioactive wastes, spent fuel, nuclear materials, control and record-keeping thereof, as well as information on other fuel cycle phases. UJD seeks to provide information in an orderly, accurate and comprehensible manner in such a way that it cannot be disclaimed, as the public has the right to know the truth. In formulating information, regularity, consistency and openness are of high importance, because information presented cannot serve a controversy. UJD furnishes information independently and separately from that issued by nuclear power plant operators. As a central administration authority, UJD provides on request, within the field of its responsibility, in particular the information on safety of nuclear energy installations independently from nuclear programme implementers, allowing the public and the media to check up the data and information thereon. A significant element of the information is the demonstration that the area of nuclear energy uses in the Slovak Republic has its binding rules and the compliance therewith is controlled by the state through an independent institution - UJD. As early as in 1995 the foundations laid were at UJD for the concept for broad public information on UJD activity and on safety of nuclear installations by opening UJD Information Centre. This Centre provides communication with the public and the media, thereby contributing to fashioning among the public a favourable image of the independent state supervision over nuclear safety. The Information Centre was extended in 2000. In 2000, 76 contributions on domestic and foreign UJD activities were sent in to Slovak press agencies, dailies and electronic media. UJD is together with the SUJB the publisher of the journal

  6. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Daryl R.

    2016-04-15

    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  7. Chapter 3. Emotions and Selves

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Miri

    2012-01-01

    Following the footsteps of Natalie Zemon Davis, and very much in her honor, the previous two chapters traced the possibilities of a global history and the creation of terrains of polemic and encounter within the vast and important culture field that developed around Mary in medieval Europe. In this chapter we will continue the enterprise of identifying Tasks and Themes in the Study of Europe-an Culture, by studying the emergence of a European style of emotive devotion. For in the centuries th...

  8. Chapter IV: Primary landscape structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inanimate and live nature, which represent the basis of the landscape as yet not affected by man and his activities is represented in detail in this chapter. It is characterised by the series of components of the physical sphere as the permanent material basis of the remaining landscape structures. The output is the types of the primary landscape structure represented by the abiotic complexes. This chapter consists of next subchapters: (1) Geological base; (2) Surface; (3) Air; (4) Waters; (5) Soils; (6) Vegetation; (7) Fauna; (8) Types of primary landscape structure

  9. XVIII CENTURY CLASSICAL TURKISH LITERATURE: MESNEVİ XVIII. YÜZYIL KLASİK TÜRK EDEBİYATI: MESNEVİLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet KARTAL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Masnavi is one of the most widely used forms of classical Turkish poetry verse. Both the rhyming couplets formed themselves and to be free in the number of couplets, especially in off-balance as long mesnevi issues are discussed. In this study, we will give knowledge from Kutadgu Bilig which was written by Yusuf Has Hacip than XVIII. century mesnevi literature in the period up to be informed about the short. Bu çalışmada önce Balasagunlu Yûsuf’un 1070 tarihinde kaleme aldığı Kutadgu Bilig’den XVIII. asra kadar olan dönem içindeki mesnevi edebiyatı hakkında kısa bilgi verilerek, her dönemin öne çıkan özelliği vurgulanmıştır. Akabinde XVIII. asır mesnevi edebiyatı kısaca değerlendirilip hüviyeti ortaya konulmaya çalışılmış, özellikle mesnevînin konusunda oluşan değişikliğe dikkat çekilmiştir. Daha sonra mesneviler konularına göre tasnif edilmiş, mesnevîler hakkında bilgi verilmiş, özelliği belirtilmiş ve değeri ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca taşıdığı yenilikler dikkatlere sunulmuş ve üzerinde yapılan çalışmalar belirtilmiştir.

  10. Comparison of Fe XVIII and Fe XIX Line Emissions with Spectral Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, P.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Drake, J. J.; Edgar, R. J.; Hoogerwerf, R.; Kashyap, V.; Wargelin, B. J.; Smith, R. K.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Liedahl, D. A.

    2005-06-01

    We discuss here the observations of Fe XVIII and XIX emission lines and compare the X-ray, EUV and FUV lines with the spectral codes widely used today (e.g. FAC and APEC). We assess the relative accuracy of these spectral models and try to identify the critical atomic data and processes. Capella with a narrow enhancement in its emission measure distribution at 6 MK provides a unique opportunity to test the Fe XVIII and Fe XIX model emissivities which peak from 6 to 8 MK. We use the summed spectra from Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and LETG/HRC-S, as well as contemporaneous EUVE and FUSE observations, to measure line ratios for comparison with predictions.

  11. Documentos para la historio social de Popayán en el Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marzalh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  Documentos para la Historia Social de Papayán en el siglo XVIII. Varios/ Archivo Central del Central del Cauca. Fondo: Protocolos Notariales. Años 1616, 1620, 1621, 1629, 1634. Transcripción de Peter Marzahl// En: Anuario No. 5 (1970; p. 143-188. Serie de documentos, testamentos, contratos, etc., en donde se dan datos importantes para reconstruir aspectos de la economía y sociedad del Cauca del siglo XVIII, tales como: número de vecinos, encomenderos, mano de obra indígena y esclava; importancia de la minería como motor económico de la región; relaciones entre encomienda y control de mano de obra; el desarrollo de una economía mercantil con surgimiento de compañías para tal actividad.  

  12. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images

  13. La difusión social de los manuales epistolares : Girona, siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Antón Pelayo, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Esta investigación analiza la difusión social de la literatura epistolar en la ciudad de Girona durante el siglo XVIII escrutando la presencia de manuales y modelos epistolares en la producción de los impresores gerundenses, en los fondos de los libreros, en las bibliotecas particulares y en las subastas públicas. Asimismo, se examina la tipología y las pretensiones de los títulos más frecuentes.

  14. Un conflicto matrimonial en el siglo XVIII: Henri de Vaucocour y Marie Boutinaud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Minvielle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El matrimonio en 1741 de dos miembros de la baja nobleza del suroeste de Francia, Henri de Vaucocour y Marie Boutinaud, desembocó, a partir de 1751, en un proceso judicial de separación. Los fondos documentales conservados sirven para analizar un conflicto matrimonial, las relaciones entre esposos, y las múltiples facetas de la violencia doméstica en la Francia del siglo XVIII

  15. Collagen XVIII/endostatin expression in experimental endotoxemic acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Cichy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a frequent complication of Gram-negative sepsis, with a high risk of mortality. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ARF is associated with hemodynamic changes that are strongly influenced by the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO through the cytokine-mediated up-regulation of inducible NO synthase. LPS-induced reductions in systemic vascular resistance paradoxically culminate in renal vasoconstriction. Collagen XVIII is an important component of the extracellular matrix expressed in basement membranes. Its degradation by matrix metalloproteases, cathepsins and elastases results in the formation of endostatin, claimed to have antiangiogenic activity and to be a prominent vasorelaxing agent. We evaluated the expression of endostatin/collagen XVIII in an endotoxemic ARF model. ARF was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 mg/kg followed by sacrifice 4 and 12 h later. Kidney tissue was the source of RNA and protein and the subject of histological analysis. As early as 4 h after LPS administration, blood urea, creatinine and NO levels were significantly increased compared to control. Endostatin/collagen XVIII mRNA levels were 0.71 times lower than sham-inoculated mice 4 h after LPS inoculation, returning to normal levels 12 h after LPS inoculation. Immunohistological examination revealed that acute injury caused by LPS leads to an increase of endostatin basement membrane staining in association with the decrease of CD31 endothelial basement membrane staining. These results indicate that in the early phase of endotoxemic ARF the endostatin levels were not regulated by gene expression, but by the metabolism of collagen XVIII.

  16. Functional characterization of neostatins, the MMP-derived, enzymatic cleavage products of type XVIII collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin-Hong; Javier, Joel A D; Chang, Gene-Yuan; Oliveira, Hailton B; Azar, Dimitri T

    2005-07-01

    Several anti-angiogenic factors are derived from proteolytic processing of large molecules including endostatin from type XVIII collagen and angiostatin from plasminogen. In previous studies we showed that neostatin-7, the C-terminal 28kDa endostatin-spanning proteolytic fragment, is generated from the proteolytic action of matrix metalloproteinase matrilysin (MMP)-7 on type XVIII collagen. Now, we report a second member of the neostatin family of proteins, neostatin-14. Given the small quantities of neostatin-7 and -14 generated by the breakdown of naturally occurring collagen XVIII (using MMP-7 and -14, respectively), we used two other approaches to characterize the anti-angiogenic properties of these molecules: murine recombinant neostatin in vitro, and gene therapy. We demonstrate that murine recombinant neostatin-7 inhibits calf pulmonary artery endothelial cell proliferation and that microinjection of neostatin-7 and neostatin-14 naked DNA into the corneal stroma of mice results in significant reduction of basic fibroblast growth factor-induced corneal neovascularization. These results provide supportive evidence of the possible anti-angiogenic effect of neostatins. PMID:15978592

  17. Steel catenary riser for the Marlim field FPS P-XVIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serta, O.B.; Mourelle, M.M. [Petrobras S/A, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Grealish, F.W.; Harbert, S.J.; Souza, L.F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Steel catenary risers (SCRs) have been successfully deployed on the Shell Auger TLP in the Gulf of Mexico and will also be deployed on the Shell Mars TLP. There is considerable interest in using SCRs for other applications, in particular for semi-sub based FPS systems. Petrobras is developing an SCR for installation on the P-XVIII platform, located in the Marlim Field, Campos Basin, in a water depth of 910 meters. The riser will be a dead-ended prototype which will be monitored for a period of up to one year. Subsequently, it will be connected via flexible piping to the P-XXVI platform, located approximately 5 kilometers from P-XVIII. This paper describes the design, materials, components, specification and installation of the Petrobras P-XVIII SCR. The static/dynamic design, VIV analysis and fatigue analysis methodologies are discussed in detail and results are presented. Important aspects of the flex joint design and specification are discussed. This project represents the first application of SCRs to semi-sub based FPS systems. In addition, it is the first use of SCRs outside of the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. La Librería de Juan Polo en Murcia a mediados del siglo XVIII Juan Polo's library in Murcia in the middle of the XVIII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo García Cuadrado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A través del análisis del inventario de los bienes dejados a su muerte por el librero Juan Polo, junto a la utilización de otras fuentes archivísticas, se retrata el perfil vital y las actividades desarrolladas por este profesional del libro en la Murcia de mediados del siglo XVIII. La trascripción e identificación de los libros y otros impresos menores reseñados en el inventario y, sobre todo, la cuantía de ejemplares por título ha permitido abordar el tipo de clientela de la librería y la aceptación o el éxito de determinados productos editoriales, siempre en consonancia con unas necesidades prácticas, formativas o recreativas y con unos hábitos lectores fácilmente reconocibles.The profile and activities carried out by the bookseller Juan Polo during the XVIII century are analyzed through the inventory of assets and other archival sources which remained after his death. The identification and transcription of books and other minor works recorded in the inventory, and above all the quantity of existing copies of each title, allow us to also depict the profile of regular clients, and to assess the degree of success attained by certain publishing products. Practical, recreational or educational needs were also kept in mind in order to acknowledge easily recognizable reader's habits.

  19. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  20. Chapter V: Secondary landscape structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with the secondary landscape structure of the Slovak Republic. It consists of next subchapters: (1) Land use pattern; (2) Special landscape structures; (3) Real vegetation. The secondary landscape structure consists of the elements influenced by man, created or recreated. They represent material elements with a particular spatial delimitation in the landscape. Vegetation, above all forest vegetation, is the indispensable part of the secondary landscape structure. Special space was given to the historical landscape structure

  1. Chapter 17 - Economics of adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Chambwera, M.; Heal, G.; Dubeux, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Leclerc, L.; Markandya, A.; McCarl, B.A.; Mechler, R; Neumann, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter assesses the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation, building on the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) and the increasing role that economic considerations are playing in adaptation decisionmaking and policy. AR4 provided a limited assessment of the costs and benefits of adaptation, based on narrow and fragmented sectoral and regional literature (Adger et al, 2007). Substantial advances have been made in the economics of climate change adaptation after AR4.

  2. Instrumentation for Dosimetry. Chapter 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of absorbed dose (or air kerma) are required in varying situations in diagnostic radiology. The radiation fields vary from plain, slit and even point projection geometry, and may be stationary or moving, including rotational. Owing to the use of low photon energies for these fields, it is important that dosimeters have a satisfactory energy response. In general, the requirements for dosimeter accuracy are less stringent than those in radiation therapy; however, the dose and dose rate measurements cover a large range. Patient dosimetry (see Chapter 22) is a primary responsibility of the medical physicist specializing in diagnostic radiology and is required by legislation in many countries. Dose data are also required in the optimization of examinations for image quality and dose. Radiation measurement is also critical for occupational and public exposure control (see Chapter 24). Dose measurements are essential in acceptance testing and quality control (see Chapter 19). Several types of dosimeter can be used, provided that they have a suitable energy response, but typically, ionization chambers of a few cubic centimetres in volume, or solid state detectors specifically designed for such measurements, are used. If dosimeters are used to make measurements during an examination, they must not interfere with the examination. These devices are also used for determination of the half value layer (HVL). Special types of ionization chamber are employed for computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional radiology dosimetry

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Xviii to Part 86 - Statistical Outlier Identification Procedure for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Subpart R XVIII Appendix XVIII to Part 86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty Trucks Certifying to the Provisions of Part 86, Subpart R... calculate the residual at the deleted point, denoted as (yi − yi′). Obtain a statistic by dividing (yi −...

  4. Universal Sensor and Actuator Requirements. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Taylor; Webster, John; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The previous chapters have focused on the requirements for sensors and actuators for "More Intelligent Gas Turbine Engines" from the perspective of performance and operating environment. Even if a technology is available, which meets these performance requirements, there are still various hurdles to be overcome for the technology to transition into a real engine. Such requirements relate to TRL (Technology Readiness Level), durability, reliability, volume, weight, cost, etc. This chapter provides an overview of such universal requirements which any sensor or actuator technology will have to meet before it can be implemented on a product. The objective here is to help educate the researchers or technology developers on the extensive process that the technology has to go through beyond just meeting performance requirements. The hope is that such knowledge will help the technology developers as well as decision makers to prevent wasteful investment in developing solutions to performance requirements, which have no potential to meet the "universal" requirements. These "universal" requirements can be divided into 2 broad areas: 1) Technology value proposition; and 2) Technology maturation. These requirements are briefly discussed in the following.

  5. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4

  6. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station

  7. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Note Appendixes to Chapter V Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Ch. V, Nt. Appendixes to Chapter V—Note Notes: The alphabetical lists.... References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: : Western Balkans Stabilization...

  8. Un mapa topográfico del término de Ólvega del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Pérez, Eugenio; Sáenz Sanz, Clemente; Alcolea Martínez, José

    2009-01-01

    Se describe un mapa del siglo XVIII del término municipal de de la localidad de Ólvega (Soria). El mapa que aquí se presenta, es un croquis topográfico del término de Ólvega y su entorno, perteneciente al estilo de la cartografía popular, típica del siglo XVIII. Aparece en color, con orientación y escala gráfica en leguas castellanas. De este mapa se pueden extraer algunas observaciones de interés respecto a la geografía histórica de la comarca.

  9. La "nación de Vizcaya" en la Universidades de Castilla ss. XVI-XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Enrique RODRÍGUEZ-SAN PEDRO BEZARES

    2002-01-01

    Panorámica sobre la presencia de estudiantes del País Vasco, Navarra y Rioja en las universidades de la Corona de Castilla durante la Edad Moderna, siglos XVI-XVIII. A través de los estudios de Derecho, estos universitarios se promocionaban hacia los altos cargos burocráticos del Estado y de la Iglesia, constituyendo un grupo muy destacado y significativo en el sistema administrativo de la Monarquía Hispánica. Se tratan aspectos diversos de dichos estudiantes: vida cotidi...

  10. GOSPODARSKI ELEMENTI RAZVITKA GRADA KOPRIVNICE OD SREDINE XVIII. STOLJEĆA DO 1872. GODINE

    OpenAIRE

    Petrić, Hrvoje

    2004-01-01

    U članku se obraduje razvitak poljoprivrede, cehova, prometa, trgovine, ugostiteljstva, industrije, manufaktura, rudarstva i bankarstva u Koprivnici između sredine XVIII. stoljeća i 1872. godine. Osobito je značajno da u poljoprivrednoj proizvodnji dolazi do hitnijih inovacija, uglavnom uvođenjem krumpira i kukuruza te jačanjem stočarstva, poglavito konjogojstva. Međutim, slaba agrotehnika i organizacija rada te tržišta, autarkične navike, financijske nemogućnosti koprivničkih poljoporvred...

  11. Arte, legislación y política en Lima: Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Barriga Tello

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto establecer las relaciones entre política,legislación y producción artística durante el siglo XVIII en el Virreynatodel Perú. Se establecen, así, tres momentos diferenciados en los que elEstado mostró su preocupación por el patrimonio artístico y la actividadvinculada al arte. El estudio se centra en la legislación local y en la peninsularque normaron esta actividad y en el papel que los agentes relacionadoscon el arte desempeñaron durante ese siglo.

  12. AVISOS, ANUNCIOS, RECLAMOS Y PUBLICIDAD EN ESPAÑA. SIGLOS XVIII Y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Dolores Fernández Poyatos; Emilio Feliu García

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo analiza diversas manifestaciones publicitarias aparecidas en la prensa española de los siglos XVIII y XIX. Considerando que la publicidad moderna nace en los países primero industrializados en torno a esas fechas, esta investigación se ha planteado la hipótesis de que en España, aun con retraso, se inició un proceso similar. Para la recopilación y selección de hechos, hemos utilizado las colecciones digitalizadas de portales que recientemente ofrecen el acceso libre a sus fondos...

  13. Herencia de la inmigración francesa desde el siglo XVIII en Alicante

    OpenAIRE

    Planelles Iváñez, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    La onomástica alicantina está plagada de apellidos de origen francés, como Maisonnave, Gaubert, Dupuy, Fourcade, Fresneau, Lamaignere o Bardin, por solo citar unos ejemplos. Resulta interesante, por ello, en el contexto de una publicación sobre la actualidad del siglo XVIII, preguntarse por la procedencia de dichas familias, indagar en las causas que les condujeron a asentarse en Alicante, que varían en relación al momento en que llegaron los fundadores de dichos linajes y concluir con el leg...

  14. Miguel Francia : arquitecto del siglo XVIII en la gobernación de Orihuela

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora Gómez, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    El siglo XVIII fue especialmente relevante para Orihuela, puesto que, y a pesar de los efectos negativos que la Guerra de Sucesión generó en la zona, supuso un renovado despertar político-económico y socio-cultural; ya que se afianzó la estabilidad estamental, se regeneró la actividad agrícola y se desarrollaron las ideas ilustradas gracias a la ingente labor del estamento eclesiástico, a través de importantes prelados e instituciones como la Universidad y el Seminario. Por lo tanto, con la i...

  15. Política y práctica del ocio a fines del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Montero, María Jesús

    1997-01-01

    Este articulo analiza el ocio a finales del siglo XVIII atendiendo en primer lugar a su consideración social y moral. Después estudia su práctica distinguiendo entre lo que era diversión en sentido amplia en el lugar de residencia y aquella otra que precisaba un desplazamiento y aquí se ha denominado veraneo. Finalmente se traza la geografía del ocio valenciano, tomando como base las Observaciones sobre la Historia Natural, Geografía, Agricultura, Población y Frutos del Reyno de Valencia, que...

  16. Armas en las casas burgalesas del siglo XVIII. Entre la funcionalidad y el exhibicionismo

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2012-01-01

    En los interiores domésticos del Burgos del siglo XVIII, los inventarios post mortem permiten un análisis intenso de un aspecto bastante desconocido e inquietante de la cultura material, la posesión y usufructo de armas entre la población urbana del Antiguo Régimen. No todas las categorías socioprofesionales y socioeconómicas tenían acceso de la misma manera a las armas de fuego o a las armas «blancas» y su disponibilidad cambia a lo largo de la centuria. ¿Quiénes eran propietarios de armas? ...

  17. Artes y oficios artísticos en Granada a mediados del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    López Muñoz, Miguel Luis; López Muñoz, Juan Jesús

    1996-01-01

    El Catastro de Ensenada, realizado a instancias del rey Fernando VI a partir de 1749, es sin duda alguna la fuente económica de conjunto más amplia en la España del siglo xviii. Su amplitud y riqueza de datos la hace imprescindible para conocer la realidad de ciudades y pueblos, de la Iglesia y de las diferentes capas sociales. Su minuciosidad responde a ese afán ilustrado por conocer la realidad como paso previo para reformarla. En el caso concreto del Catastro, el móvil...

  18. La actividad agraria en el Aguilar del s. XVIII. Los cultivos y aprovechamientos

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo-Ramírez, J.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizando la información (vaciada en su totalidad) contenida en los Libros de Haciendas del Catastro de Ensenada, se presenta una radiografía de la actividad agraria en el Aguilar del s. XVIII. Son objeto de estudio y análisis desde la superficie inculta, las distintas modalidades de sembradura de secano, el olivar, los espacios ocupados por vegetación natural y monte, el viñedo y las tierras regadas. Se dedica igualmente un espacio a la consideración de la actividad ganadera.

  19. Cultura material y religiosidad popular en el seno familiar castellano del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Máximo

    2004-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se ponen de relieve dos aspectos fundamentales y concatenados durante el siglo XVIII: el arraigo de numerosas prácticas religiosas colectivas en el seno familiar y la relación entre las vivencias domésticas y las formas externas de la existencia cotidiana popular.Se analizan la reiteración de los rituales funerarios sacralizados y el consumo de ropa, y la incidencia de ambos temas en las prácticas culturales populares. El mantenimiento de los signos externos de la religiosidad y los ...

  20. La lucha por el individualismo agrario en el Mezzogiorno italiano a finales del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Corona, Gabriella

    1995-01-01

    En el Mezzogiorno italiano de finales del siglo XVIII, la tierra era el recurso en torno al cual tenía lugar un proceso de reestructuración general de la economía y de la sociedad, que hallará su pleno desarrollo en las décadas sucesivas con la caída del sistema feudal y el advenimiento del Estado administrativo. Este ensayo analiza algunos aspectos de este proceso: el debate político e institucional, la "demanda" de reglas proveniente de una amplia articulación de grupos sociales, la lucha p...

  1. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computer and Programs. Teacher's Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The teacher's guide for the eleventh unit in this SMSG series covers the chapter on rigid motions and vectors and the chapter on computers and programs. The overall purpose for each of the chapters is described, the prerequisite knowledge needed by students is specified, the mathematical development of each chapter is detailed, behavioral…

  2. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Chapter Leader RAS-ACS Leader YFA Leader Leadership & Advocacy Summit Operation Giving Back Operation Giving Back ... Programs Quality Programs Overview About Quality Programs ACS Leadership in Quality ACS Leadership in Quality Inspiring Quality ...

  3. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  4. El comercio leonés de hilos e hilazas en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel BARTOLOMÉ BARTOLOMÉ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La ciudad de León en la Edad Moderna , siglo XVIII, se convirtió en uno de los centros más importantes de España en la comercialización, a través de sus ferias anuales, del hilo e hilaza que se elaboraba del lino. Esta materia prima textil tenía como núcleos principales de producción y abastecimiento las vegas del norte de la ciudad de León: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga y Luna. Desde la ciudad de León este hilo e hilaza comercializado, que llegaba a suponer los 26.568 kilos de media anual en los años sesenta, se dirigía a los mercados manchegos, sobre todo al toledano, y al vallisoletano, apoyándose en precios muy competitivos.ABSTRACT: In the XVIII century, León was famous for the production de linen thread. In this city there annual markets where people could rind this material. The linen thread was produced in land along the main valleys: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga, and it was distributed to a number of different markets: Toledo, Valladolid, Villalón... The clue to this success was its competitive price.

  5. Reformismo cristiano y tolerancia en España a finales del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez Fernández, Juan Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the ideal of religious tolerance in 18th century Europe was not the exclusive work of deists or atheists. Many Christians then argued that intolerance was contrary to the Gospel and the spirit of the early centuries of the Church. The censorship of the Inquisition and the absence of religious minorities prevented the discussions on tolerance taking place in countries such as France or Austria from occurring south of the Pyrenees. Even so, Christian arguments in favour of religious freedom appeared, albeit stealthily, in 18th century Spain and were reflected in the texts of some Spanish reformers.La expansión del ideal de tolerancia religiosa en la Europa del siglo XVIII no fue obra exclusiva de deístas o ateos. Muchos cristianos defendieron por entonces que la intolerancia era contraria al Evangelio y al espíritu de los primeros siglos de la Iglesia. La labor censoria de la Inquisición y la ausencia de minorías religiosas impidieron que los debates sobre la tolerancia desarrollados en países como Francia o Austria se reprodujeran al sur de los Pirineos. Aun así, los argumentos cristianos en favor de la libertad religiosa entraron, aunque fuese a hurtadillas, en la España del siglo XVIII y se reflejaron en los textos de algunos reformistas españoles.

  6. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy

  7. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or

  8. Chapter 12: Human microbiome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xochitl C Morgan

    Full Text Available Humans are essentially sterile during gestation, but during and after birth, every body surface, including the skin, mouth, and gut, becomes host to an enormous variety of microbes, bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and viral. Under normal circumstances, these microbes help us to digest our food and to maintain our immune systems, but dysfunction of the human microbiota has been linked to conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to antibiotic-resistant infections. Modern high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic tools provide a powerful means of understanding the contribution of the human microbiome to health and its potential as a target for therapeutic interventions. This chapter will first discuss the historical origins of microbiome studies and methods for determining the ecological diversity of a microbial community. Next, it will introduce shotgun sequencing technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the computational challenges and methods associated with these data, and how they enable microbiome analysis. Finally, it will conclude with examples of the functional genomics of the human microbiome and its influences upon health and disease.

  9. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of 400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6

  10. EDXRF portable system used in the analysis of altars, sculptures and paintings from XVII and XVIII centuries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The preservation of cultural heritage has acquired increasing interest in the last decades and many scientific techniques have been employed to analyze paintings, manuscripts, ceramics, glasses, statues, coins and metal artifacts in order to solve problems related to restoration, conservation, dating and attribution of artworks. There is also an increasing trend for non-destructive investigations since most of the samples are unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) is the most widely used investigative technique in the field of archaeometry, due to a number of favorable analytical characteristics, such as multielemental and non-destructive analysis, high sensitivity and applicability to a wide range of samples. In this work, XRF was used to analyze altars, sculptures and paintings in the Saint Anthony Convent (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The cornerstone of this convent was launched in 1608, by the Franciscan friars, and the construction of the church was finished in 1620. The Saint Anthony sculpture in the main altar is one of the few remaining pieces from the XVII century in Rio de Janeiro. The splendid Baroque carvings of the chapel, covered with integral gilding, in the national Portuguese style, dates from 1716 to 1719. The results obtained during the analyses have been used in the meticulous process of restoration, developed in the last two years, in order to recover the original splendour of this important piece of our cultural heritage. The analyses were carried out with an EDXRF portable system developed in the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. In each sample were obtained several spectra, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 1.5 and 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL from IAEA. The analysis of the golden carvings of the altars, in

  11. Chapter IX: Stress phenomena in landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter consist of next sub-chapters: (1) Sources of stress phenomena and their reflection in landscape; (2) Impact of stress phenomena on natural resources and human hea; (3) Impact of stress phenomena on landscape. The different types of human activities and natural phenomena affect the environment. They are referred to by the general term of stress phenomena. There are the stress phenomena of natural character (the radon risk, landslides, avalanches, etc.) and anthropogenic phenomena determined or directly provoked by man (air and water pollution, emissions, etc.). They cause different environmental problems: they threaten the ecological and cultural priorities, but above all they threaten human health. National legislation and international conventions concerning the air protection lay down the regular inventory of emission of pollutants to atmosphere. Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) is responsible for such inventory. It is carried out in co-operation with several specialised institutions under the methodological guidance of the SHMU. The Register of Emissions and Pollution Sources (REZZO) was in operation at SHMU since 1985. It contains the data on emissions of the basic pollutants from stationary sources. This system was replaced by the National Emission Inventory System (NEIS) harmonised with the internationally accepted methodology (CORINAIR, EMEP, IPCC/FCCC). Sources of pollutants emitted to atmosphere are above all energetic and industrial productions, transport, fuel mining and transport, waste disposal and agriculture. Emissions in Slovakia reached their highest level by the end of the 1980's. Their consistent decrease is recorded since the 1990's. The cause of such developments is the overall recession connected with the decline of industrial production and consequently lower demand of the amount of produced energy. Simultaneously, the effects of legal instruments (Act No. 309/1991 of Coll. on protection of air against pollutants (The

  12. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  13. Chapter 6: CPV Tracking and Trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Magalhaes, Pedro; Muller, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This chapter explains the functional requirements of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) sun tracker. It derives the design specifications of a CPV tracker. The chapter presents taxonomy of trackers describing the most common tracking architectures, based on the number of axes, their relative position, and the foundation and placing of tracking drives. It deals with the structural issues related to tracker design, mainly related to structural flexure and its impact on the system's acceptance angle. The chapter analyzes the auto-calibrated sun tracking control, by describing the state of the art and its development background. It explores the sun tracking accuracy measurement with a practical example. The chapter discusses tracker manufacturing and tracker field works. It reviews survey of different types of tracker designs obtained from different manufacturers. Finally, the chapter deals with IEC62817, the technical standard developed for CPV sun trackers.

  14. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  15. Non-Imaging Detectors and Counters. Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, nuclear medicine has been largely an imaging based specialty, employing such diverse and increasingly sophisticated modalities as rectilinear scanning, (planar) gamma camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Non-imaging radiation detection, however, remains an essential component of nuclear medicine. This chapter reviews the operating principles, performance, applications and quality control (QC) of the various non-imaging radiation detection and measurement devices used in nuclear medicine, including survey meters, dose calibrators, well counters, intra-operative probes and organ uptake probes. Related topics, including the basics of radiation detection, statistics of nuclear counting, electronics, generic instrumentation performance parameters and nuclear medicine imaging devices, are reviewed in depth in other chapters of this book

  16. Function of site. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Semipalatinsk test site's history there are two stages for nuclear tests. In first stage (1949-1962) when the nuclear tests have being conducted in atmosphere, and second one (1963-1989) when underground nuclear explosions have being carried out. There were 456 nuclear tests, from which 117 were both the surface and the atmospheric explosions and other underground ones. In the chapter general characteristics of atmospheric nuclear tests, conducted on Semipalatinsk test site in 1949-1962 (chronology of conducting, release energy and kinds of nuclear explosions) are presented in tabular form. Most powerful of explosion was test of hydro- nuclear (hydrogen) bomb - prototype of thermonuclear charge in 1955 with capacity 1.6 Mt. In 1990-1992 the target-oriented radioecological investigation of territory around Semipalatinsk test site was carried out. Specialists dividing all atmospheric explosions by rate local traces, forming out of test site into 4 groups: with very strong contamination, with strong contamination, with weak contamination, and with very weak contamination. To nuclear explosions with very strong contamination were attributed the four explosions carrying out in 29.08.1949, 24.09.1951, 12.08.1953, 24.08.1956. Estimations of radiological situation including external doses of radiation and environment contamination and content of radioactive substances in human body was given by 10 European experts in collaboration with Kazakstan scientists. Results of investigation show that during past period surface contamination, called by nuclear weapons' fissile products was subjected to considerable decay. External doses completely coincidence with natural background. Remains of long living radionuclides are insignificant as well, and in 1995 its approximately were equal to annual exposition doses. One of most damaged settlements is Chagan. On it territory 530 radioactive sources with doses capacity from 100 up to 400 μR/h. Scientists of Semipalatinsk defined

  17. Dating of Artefacts. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    categories of such alterations are known: changes in chemical composition, radioactive decay and fission, migration of elements, deformation, depolymerization, ionization, leaching and hydrolysis. Thus, in principle, the modern materials used in recent times to imitate past or ancient objects are not naturally 'aged'. Among the laboratory processes used for art authenticity detection, the science based techniques of absolute dating play a predominant role, as they are considered highly reputable. Indeed, they are efficient in many, but not all, instances, for reasons explained below. This chapter briefly deals with luminescence and radiocarbon techniques, which exploit the above mentioned natural procedures of ionization and decay, respectively, as comprising the most frequently employed approaches in authenticity detection. Both techniques are regarded here as a means of investigating counterfeits.

  18. Chapter 5. Origin of Mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author deals with the origin of uranium mineralization in Slovakia. There are discussed (1) Stratiform mineralization, particularly: (A) Uranium in Ti-rare earth elements (REE)-Zr placers in sandstone, (B) uranium mineralization in sandstone with abundant organic matter, (C) Uranium mineralization in phosphatic sandstone,(D) Cu±U mineralization (copper sandstone), (E) U-Mo mineralized horizons in volcanoclastic and volcanic rocks; (2) Vein mineralization, particularly: (F) Uranium mineralization in pegmatite, (G) Mo-W-(U-Ti-REE) mineralization in granite, (H) U-REE±Au mineralization in proximity of granite, (I) U±Mo and Cu mineralization cutting the permian sequences, (J) Uranium mineralization in the Neogene volcanics; and (3) Evolution of uranium mineralization. Uraninite occurrence in pegmatite of Dubrava deposit in Nizke Tatry Mts is the oldest manifestation of the uranium mineralization in the Western Carpathians. Its origin is related to the Hercynian magmatic activity. The most important uranium mineralization occurs in the Permian sequences. The stratiform mineralization is related to sandstones with abundant organic matter of Hronicum in the Kozie Chrbty Mts. or to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks of Gemericum and Tatricum. The low-grade Permian ores display age ranging from (270 to 240±30) Ma. The Permian low-grade mineralization wa re-mobilized during the Alpine orogeny forming ore bodies of high-grade uranium mineralization especially on northern Gemericum and Tatricum of the Povazsky Inovec Mts. Big tectonic structures in ore deposits were favourable for remobilization. The younger re-mobilized mineralization overlaps the older low grade mineralization. U-Pb isotopic dating gave 130±20 Ma in high-grade ores of Gemericum in Novoveska Huta and 100±20 in high-grade ores of Tatricum in Kalnica. The Alpine granite with dissemination U-Ti-REE mineralization displays age 101±5 Ma according to Rb-Sr dating. As reliable U-Pb dating of U

  19. La visión ilustrada de los desastres naturales en Lima durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcelén Reluz Carlos Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XVIII, Perú fue afectado por una serie de desastres naturales y epidemias que mermaron tanto la población como la producción agrícola. El artículo analiza tres casos: el período recurrente de frío extremo en los meses de invierno desde 1714 hasta 1720, que posibilitó una gran epidemia que asoló el sur de los Andes; el terremoto de 1746 en Lima, que marcó un hito en la sociedad, debido a la magnitud de su destrucción, y el fenómeno de ‘el niño’ (o ENSO de 1791 a 1794, uno de los que más daños generó, sobretodo en la costa norte del país.

  20. Study of a XVIII century hand-painted Chinese wallpaper by multianalytical non-destructive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, hand-painted wallpaper belonging to a private Portuguese collection was analyzed in order to identify the pigments used. The analyzed artwork was an extraordinary XVIII century Chinese wallpaper that depicts exotic birds and flowers, which was painted with considerable accuracy and expertise. Thorough, in situ, X-ray fluorescence analyses were performed on nearly all the wallpaper. Since the elemental content of several colors was consistent for the four papered walls, strategic micro-samples were taken and analyzed by confocal Raman spectroscopy to further identify the pigments used. Pigments such as yellow ochre, lead white and barium white, vermilion, carmine, azurite and malachite were identified. Optical microscopy was used to analyze the fibers in the paper support, and fibers such as kozo, ramie and hemp or linen were identified.

  1. Dos comerciantes británicos en Cartagena a principios del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Fajardo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La llegada a Cartagena de Indias en 1713 de los factores, o representantes comerciales de la Compañía Británica del Mar del Sur, con el fin de operar el llamado asiento de negros, constituye el primer acercamiento formal del naciente imperio mercantil británico a la Nueva Granada. Si bien a lo largo de los siglos XVI y XVII unos cuantos aventureros ingleses, empezando por Drake, habían arribado a estas costas en busca de riqueza personal, la instalación de la factoría de la South Sea Company en Cartagena representó un intento más elaborado de integrar el Nuevo Reino al sistema comercial global que en el siglo XVIII comenzaba a girar en torno a Londres.

  2. Review of human osseal remains from XVI-XVIII centuries cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad (Tver, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Zinoviev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human osseal remains from the cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad at the historical Russian city of Tver revealed the data on its population in XVI-XVIII centuries. Obtained data generally agreed with the material from other contemporaneous necropoles of the city. Domination of male burials and underrepresentation of younger individuals are accompanied by the signs of poor oral hygiene. Caries has not only often destroyed majority of molars in males and females by the age of 45-50 years, but affected teeth of teenagers and even younger individuals. The heavily developed dental calculus is one of the signs of insufficient oral hygiene in adults. Possible kinship between buried is manifested by similar genetically determined cranial anomalies.

  3. Chicha, guarapo y presión fiscal en la sociedad colonial del Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Lucía Mora de Tovar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo reúne dos ensayos sobre el aguardiente y la bebidas embriagantes. Se inscribe en el contexto de la aplicación de medidas administrativas y fiscales impulsadas por la Corona Española, en la Península y en América, durante el siglo XVIII. La necesidad de recursos que le permitieran atender tanto las obligaciones propias de la administración de gobierno como las que se derivaban de las acciones bélicas, estimuló la ejecución de una política de libre comercio en el campo económico y, en el campo político, un mayor control estatal.

  4. Hg diffusion in books of XVIII and XIX centuries by synchrotron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pigment vermilion (HgS) was used to color the fore edge, tail and head of books. Dissemination and quantification of Hg present in the ink used to color books from XVIII and XIX centuries are reported. Mercury is a very toxic element for the human body, therefore it is extremely important to know whether Hg tends to disseminate throughout the paper or stays confined to the borders of the books with less danger for readers. Synchrotron X-ray microprobe was used to evaluate Hg dissemination from the border to the centre of the paper sheet. The diffusion pattern of Hg was compared with the results obtained by a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and mean quantitative calculations were obtained by a stationary X-ray fluorescence system with triaxial geometry. The results showed high concentrations of Hg in the external regions, but no diffusion was observed for the inner parts of the paper.

  5. Mujeres agregadas en el Buenos Aires del siglo XVIII: caridad y solidaridad

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Ma Selina Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    En la sociedad colonial del Buenos Aires del siglo XVIII, existió una figura con más valor del que se le atribuye tradicionalmente en los estudios sociodemográficos: las mujeres agregadas. En el presente estudio se analiza a estas féminas, así como las redes de “solidaridad de género” que a partir de éstas se tejieron. Para ello, se toma como fuente el padrón que se levantó en la ciudad de Buenos Aires en 1744, pues arroja gran cantidad de información para entender este fenómeno tan complejo....

  6. Conflictos en torno a la venta de esclavos en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pita Pico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se centra en el análisis de los conflictos que giraron en torno a las operaciones de compra de esclavos en el nororiente neogranadino durante el siglo XVIII. Legalizaciones aplazadas, ventas desautorizadas, pagos pendientes, esclavos hipotecados y confusiones sobre el estado real del esclavo comercializado fueron situaciones que desataron enconadas disputas y pleitos judiciales que terminaron algunas veces con la declaratoria de redhibitoria, es decir, la anulación del contrato de venta y la devolución del esclavo. En vista de estos antecedentes, y con un ánimo preventivo, los negociantes se aseguraron de fijar en las escrituras de compraventa ciertas garantías o aclaraciones para no verse involucrados en tales litigios.

  7. Petrus Van Musschenbroek y la física experimental del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijarro Mora, Víctor

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the meaning and scope of Eigtheenth-century experimental physics. In particular, it is focused on anlysing the price role played by the different type of experiments considered among the strict experimental physicists. On the other hand, the paper is intended to account for one of the basic principles of these natural philosophers: the rejection of mathematics, especially the geometrical approach to nature.

    El artículo se centra en el estudio del significado y alcance de la física experimental en el siglo XVIII. En particular, se analiza el papel preciso que desempeñaron los diferentes tipos de experimentos planteados dentro de esta concepción de los fenómenos naturales así como la importancia que el rechazo de las matemáticas (en especial la geometría tuvo entre los físicos experimentales en sentido estricto.

  8. Chapter 13. Exploring Use of the Reserved Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Humphrey, Alan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Berzins, Martin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing

    2015-07-29

    In this chapter, we illustrate benefits of thinking in terms of thread management techniques when using a centralized scheduler model along with interoperability of MPI and PThread. This is facilitated through an exploration of thread placement strategies for an algorithm modeling radiative heat transfer with special attention to the 61st core. This algorithm plays a key role within the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) and current efforts taking place at the University of Utah to model next-generation, large-scale clean coal boilers. In such simulations, this algorithm models the dominant form of heat transfer and consumes a large portion of compute time. Exemplified by a real-world example, this chapter presents our early efforts in porting a key portion of a scalability-centric codebase to the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Specifically, this chapter presents results from our experiments profiling the native execution of a reverse Monte-Carlo ray tracing-based radiation model on a single coprocessor. These results demonstrate that our fastest run configurations utilized the 61st core and that performance was not profoundly impacted when explicitly oversubscribing the coprocessor operating system thread. Additionally, this chapter presents a portion of radiation model source code, a MIC-centric UCF cross-compilation example, and less conventional thread management technique for developers utilizing the PThreads threading model.

  9. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  10. El cuento en el siglo XVIII: una propuesta para el rescate y estudio de un género olvidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta CANTOS CASENAVE

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este trabajo pretendo mostrar de qué manera el cuento del siglo XVIII se puede encontrar al rastrear en los periódicos, colecciones narrativas, misceláneas y libros de entretenimiento, y de qué manera este cuento tuvo que servir necesariamente de puente al nacimiento del cuento como género literario moderno en el siglo XVIII.ABSTRACT: In this article I try to show how the eighteenth-century short story can be found when we exam the eighteenth-century newspapers, miscellany and pleasant literature, and how this short story was in the origin of the modern literary genre.

  11. Chapter 16: Retrocommissioning Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Retrocommissioning (RCx) is a systematic process for optimizing energy performance in existing buildings. It specifically focuses on improving the control of energy-using equipment (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment and lighting) and typically does not involve equipment replacement. Field results have shown proper RCx can achieve energy savings ranging from 5% to 20%, with a typical payback of 2 years or less. A study conducted on behalf of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory analyzed data from 11 utilities operating RCx programs across the United States. The dataset included 122 RCx projects and more than 950 RCx measures.

  12. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  13. THE STATE-POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE FEUDAL STRUCTURES OF DAGESTAN IN THE MIDDLE XVIII - EARLY XIX CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Albina Umalatovna RABADANOVA

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the public-political system of feudal structures in Dagestan in the middle XVIII-early XIX century, analyzes the political structures, reveals specific features of their administration. All political structures of Dagestan differed from each other in their territory, location in a certain part of the region, power structure, number of villages, internal and external borders, ethnic composition of the population, different spheres of economy, position in the system of po...

  14. The girl from the Church of the Sacrament: a case of congenital syphilis in XVIII century Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mendonça de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a sexually or congenitally transmitted infectious disease with an impact on the health of human populations that has undergone important cycles in different countries and periods of history. Its presence was first diagnosed in Europe in the late XIV century. In Portugal, although there are various written records of the infection in the last centuries, there are rare references to it in archeological findings (mummified bodies are also rare in Portugal. The current study describes a probable case of congenital syphilis in an 18-month-old girl buried in the Church of the Sacrament in Lisbon. Her body, dating to the XVIII century, was found mummified together with dozens of others, still not studied. Symmetrical periostitis of the long bones, osteitis, metaphyseal lesions, left knee articular, and epiphyseal destruction, and a rarefied lesion with a radiological appearance compatible with Wimberger's sign all point to a diagnosis of congenital syphilis. The diagnosis of this severe form of the infection, possibly related to the cause of death in this upper-class girl, calls attention to the disease's presence in XVIII century Lisbon and is consistent with the intense mobilization at the time in relation to the risks posed by so-called heredosyphilis. It is the first case of congenital syphilis in a child reported in archeological findings in Portugal, and can be correlated with other cases in skeletons of adults buried in cemeteries in Lisbon (in the XVI to XVIII centuries and Coimbra (XIX century. Finally, this finding highlights the need to study the entire series of mummified bodies in the Church of the Sacrament in order to compare the paleopathological findings and existing historical documents on syphilis, so as to expand the paleoepidemiological knowledge of this infection in XVIII century Lisbon.

  15. How to write a medical book chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-09-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  16. Chapter 2 Levees in flood risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, M; Simm, J.; Tourment, R.; Bramley, M; Schelfhout, H.; WILLIAMSON, T.

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 2 introduces the concepts and principles of flood risk management, flood risk management systems, and their components. It also introduces life cycle management frameworks, failure modes, risk analysis and the potential effects of climate change.

  17. Student Loan Bankruptcies: A Chapter 13 Revival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Unless legislative or judicial action is taken, the current high volume of student loans will likely encourage frequent utilization of Chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 for unintended purposes. (Author/IRT)

  18. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  19. Chapter No.4. Safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001 the activity in the field of safety analyses was focused on verification of the safety analyses reports for NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce concerning the new profiled fuel and probabilistic safety assessment study for NPP Mochovce. The calculation safety analyses were performed and expert reviews for the internal UJD needs were elaborated. An important part of work was performed also in solving of scientific and technical tasks appointed within bilateral projects of co-operation between UJD and its international partnership organisations as well as within international projects ordered and financed by the European Commission. All these activities served as an independent support for UJD in its deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear installations. A special attention was paid to a review of probabilistic safety assessment study of level 1 for NPP Mochovce. The probabilistic safety analysis of NPP related to the full power operation was elaborated in the study and a contribution of the technical and operational improvements to the risk decreasing was quantified. A core damage frequency of the reactor was calculated and the dominant initiating events and accident sequences with the major contribution to the risk were determined. The target of the review was to determine the acceptance of the sources of input information, assumptions, models, data, analyses and obtained results, so that the probabilistic model could give a real picture of the NPP. The review of the study was performed in co-operation of UJD with the IAEA (IPSART mission) as well as with other external organisations, which were not involved in the elaboration of the reviewed document and probabilistic model of NPP. The review was made in accordance with the IAEA guidelines and methodical documents of UJD and US NRC. In the field of calculation safety analyses the UJD activity was focused on the analysis of an operational event, analyses of the selected accident scenarios

  20. Chapter 5: Summary of model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter provides a brief summary of the model applications described in Volume III of the Final Report. This chapter dealt with the selected water management regimes; ground water flow regimes; agriculture; ground water quality; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Danube; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the river branch system; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Hrusov reservoir and with ecology in this Danube area

  1. Volume 3 Chapter 6: Transformation paths

    OpenAIRE

    Mechler, R.; Rezai, A; Mehdi, B.

    2014-01-01

    There is little doubt that the currently observed patterns of climate change are predominantly caused by human activity (Volume 1, Chapter 1). This chapter addresses the challenge of stabilizing climate change at 2 degrees C and particularly focuses on the questions which mitigation and adaptation measures in Austria can contribute to achieve this goal. Additionally, a number of desirable co-benefits pertaining to socio-ecological transformation leading towards limiting climate change are ana...

  2. Where Social and Professional Networking Meet: The Virtual Association Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noxon, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Online Capella University wanted to sponsor an International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) chapter. Using social networking platforms, a new type of chapter was designed. The virtual chapter breaks new ground on more than the chapter's platform; it is also the first university-sponsored chapter and has a unique approach to…

  3. Censura y prensa periódica a finales del siglo XVIII: El caso del Semanario erudito (1787-1791

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland, Madeline

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How did censorship operate in Spain in the last decades of the eighteenth century? This article considers one periodical—the Semanario Erudito—as a case study. Extant correspondence between the editor (Antonio Valladares de Sotomayor, the Consejo de Castilla, and the censors (primarily Ignacio López de Ayala and Santos Díez González allow us to view the censorship process and the attitudes of the participants in the process. After introducing Valladares and reviewing the laws that regulated the printing of periodicals, we examine requests for printing licenses made by the editor and the justifications of the censors and the Consejo for their decisions. While the censors and the Consejo sought to maintain ideological and legal control over what was published, the correspondence shows that they were also interested in making important, useful documents available to the reading public and in insuring that what was printed was correct and accurate.¿Cómo operaba la censura periodística en España en las últimas décadas del siglo XVIII? Este trabajo considera el caso de un periódico en particular, el Semanario Erudito. La correspondencia existente entre el editor (Antonio Valladares de Sotomayor, el Consejo de Castilla, y los censores (principalmente Ignacio López de Ayala y Santos Díez González nos permite ver el proceso censorio y las actitudes de los participantes en el proceso. Tras describir las actividades editoras de Valladares y repasar las leyes que regulaban la imprenta de periódicos, se examinan las peticiones del editor y las justificaciones de los censores y el Consejo con respecto a sus decisiones. La correspondencia nos permite concluir que mientras los censores y el Consejo se interesaban en ejercer un control ideológico y jurídico sobre lo que se publicaba, les importaba también hacer posible la publicación de documentos importantes o útiles y asegurar la calidad de ellos haciendo correcciones y exigiendo precisi

  4. Un patronazgo en conflicto. La Virgen de Peña Sacra y su cofradía de Madrid (siglos XVII-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Suárez, Roberto

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The autor analyzes the aims of a 18th-century brotherhood in Madrid in promoting the cult to an image of Mary of Manzanares el Real, Madrid. This brotherhood, which incorporated and formed part of a specific and plural religious geography, operated in association with two convents of Madrid —Trinidad Calzada and San Felipe el Real— to legitimize the cult. By means of a self-serving campaign of control, the brotherhood destroyed, over decades, any element which could overshadow the cult in every aspect and type of ritual related to celebrations in the honor of Mary: a process that led to the complete manipulation of these celebrations.Se analizan las pretensiones de una cofradía madrileña del siglo XVIII de rendir culto a una imagen mañana venerada en Manzanares el Real (Madrid. Insertada en una geografía religiosa variada y plural, esta cofradía mantuvo contactos con dos conventos madrileños, la Trinidad Calzada y san Felipe el Real, para legitimar su culto. Bajo una interesada campaña de control, consiguió, durante muchos años, eliminar cualquier elemento que pudiera hacerle sombra en todos los modos rituales de la festividad de la Virgen, hasta llegar a su manipulación completa.

  5. Chapter No.11. Public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) being the central state body of the Slovak Republic provides in the framework of its competence the information on safety of nuclear facilities independently of their operators. UJD enables the public and mass media to review data and information on nuclear facilities. The important point of being informed is to prove, that the area of nuclear energy use has its obligatory rules in the Slovak Republic and their observing is controlled by state through the independent institution - UJD. An establishment of UJD Information Centre as early as in 1995, the basis of conception of informing the public on UJD activities and on nuclear facilities safety was created. The Centre secures the communication with the public and mass media that helps create a positive picture on the independent regulatory authority supervising nuclear safety. Over the last year, the important attention was given to implementation of Act No 211/2000 of Coll. on Free Access to Information that entered into force on 1 January 2001. The Act established the right of the public to access to information at the disposal of state bodies, i.e. inter al ia UJD, territorial self-governing bodies and other bodies managing the public resources. The Act obliges the state bodies to make basic and standard information on their activities automatically public, in order to make the information generally available and to make public administration easier and more transparent. On 4 January 2001 UJD has issued the Regulation on Implementation of Act No 211/2000 of Coll. on Free Access to Information as amended regulating the implementation of the Act in the conditions of UJD. The information boards with the basic data on making information available pursuant to the Act were established in UJD premises in Bratislava and in Trnava. On 4 January 2002, UJD Regulation with emphasised place, time, way and new e-mail contact for making the information available

  6. Entropy Man, Chapter 9 Non-renewable Resources

    OpenAIRE

    John Bryant

    2015-01-01

    Chapter from a book entitled Entropy Man, which deals with the relationships between the disciplines of thermodynamics and economics. Chapter 1 illusrates how entropy impacts on the world in which we live. Chapter 2 is a short history of human development. Chapter 3 covers such concepts as the distribution of income, elasticity, the first and second laws of thermodynamics and utility. Chapter 4 explores production and consumption. Chapter 5 explores the relationship between economic entropy a...

  7. Notas sobre la ebanistería madrileña en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiló Alonso, María Paz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available By pointing out the increasing importance of English furniture in Madrid in the first half of the 18th century, the author questions the widespread belief that Spanish furniture was under French influence at the time because of the advent of the Bourbons. In addition, the author calls attention to the most salient aspects of the union activity of cabinetmakers and joiners, such as membership of these artisans in a joint labor organization, their strategies to promote their craft as well as the union, the methods of examination used (with pieces selected beforehand and the important role played by cabinetmakers in value assessments of property, both for deeds of dowry and for postmortem inventories. The author's sources are documents found in the Archivo de Protocolos de Madrid which date to the years between 1740 through 1760. These documents significantly add new Information to the evidence already known about the activities of Madrid's woodwork craftsmen in the 18th century.

    Ante la idea generalizada de la influencia francesa en el mobiliario español con el advenimiento de los Borbones, se intenta apuntar la importancia creciente del mobiliario inglés en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII, al mismo tiempo que dar a conocer el mecanismo de las diversas actuaciones corporativas, desde la reunión en un solo gremio de ebanistas y ensambladores de nogal, su actividad para ejercer con mayor fortaleza su presencia en los foros ciudadanos, el sistema de exámenes con sus piezas determinadas de antemano hasta la importancia de los ebanistas en las labores de tasación, tanto en cartas de dote como en inventarios post mortem. Esta serie de documentos hallados en el Archivo Histórico de Protocolos de Madrid, relativos a las décadas de 1740-1760, sumándose a los ya publicados, irán completando el conocimiento sobre los ebanistas y ensambladores madrileños del siglo XVIII.

  8. Los alcaldes mayores del Corregimiento de Lérida en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael CERRO NARGÁNEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Articulado por Felipe V en el Decreto de Nueva Planta de 1716, el corregimiento de Lérida se convirtió en uno de los más extensos de Cataluña durante toda la centuria, integrándose en él las antiguas veguerías, no sólo de Lérida, sino también de Balaguer y Tárrega, ambas capitales de alcaldía. En consecuencia, nuestro objetivo en este artículo ha sido estudiar el perfil sociológico y profesional de estos alcaldes mayores o tenientes de corregidor para el período comprendido entre 1720 —fecha de su entrada en servicio— y 1808; año éste en que con la invasión napoleónica se puso fin, cronológicamente, al Antiguo Régimen. Con ello hemos pretendido saldar una deuda historiográfica que había relegado los estudios monográficos sobre estos letrados al olvido, ensombrecidos por los corregidores-gobernadores militares; superiores suyos, a los que asesoraban en materia de justicia ordinaria civil y criminal y presidían los cabildos durante sus ausencias. En definitiva, conocer mejor estos oficiales reales a través de los individuos que sirvieron estas varas, ya que jugaron un papel importante en la dministración catalana de justicia del siglo XVIII, algunos de cuyos fundamentos siguen estando vigentes hoy en día.ABSTRACT: Articulate by Philip V in the Decree of the Nueva Planta, the corregimiento of Lérida is converted in one of the more extensive of Catalonia during the century, integrating with it the juridical district —veguerías antiques— not only of Lérida but too Balaguer and Tárrega, both capitals of alcaldía. In consequent our objective in this article was study the sociological profile and professional of the alcaldes mayores or lieutemants of corregidor, between 1720 —date of the begun service— and 1808, year of the napoleonic invasion in that finished the Antique Regime. With it we seek settle an historiografhic debt that forgot monografhicals studies from this lawyer, grow dark by the

  9. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  10. Biographical Sketch: Virgil Pendelton Gibney, MD, 1847–1927

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    This biographical sketch on Virgil Pendelton Gibney corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: Chapter XVIII. Operative Treatment in Chronic Articular Ostitis, available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1165-3.

  11. Biographical sketch: Virgil Pendleton [corrected] Gibney, MD, 1847-1927.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Richard A

    2010-02-01

    This biographical sketch on Virgil Pendelton Gibney corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: Chapter XVIII. Operative Treatment in Chronic Articular Ostitis, available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1165-3 . PMID:19921344

  12. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Chapter Leader RAS-ACS Leader YFA Leader Leadership & Advocacy Summit Operation Giving Back Operation Giving Back Operation Giving Back About OGB Opportunities Resources and Toolkits ... Quality Programs Quality Programs Overview About Quality Programs ACS Leadership in Quality ACS Leadership in Quality Inspiring Quality ...

  13. Chapter 10: CPV Multijunction Solar Cell Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, Carl R.; Siefer, Gerald

    2016-04-15

    Characterization of solar cells can be divided into two types: the first is measurement of electrooptical semiconductor device parameters, and the second is determination of electrical conversion efficiency. This chapter reviews the multijunction concepts that are necessary for understanding Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cell characterization techniques, and describes how CPV efficiency is defined and used. For any I-V measurement of a multijunction cell, the sun simulator spectrum has to be adjusted in a way that all junctions generate the same photocurrent ratios with respect to each other as under reference conditions. The chapter discusses several procedures for spectral irradiance adjustments of solar simulators, essential for multijunction measurements. It overviews the light sources and optics commonly used in simulators for CPV cells under concentration. Finally, the chapter talks about the cell area, quantum efficiency (QE), and current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements that are needed to characterize cells as a function of irradiance.

  14. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 21, Rigid Motions and Vectors, Chapter 22, Computers and Programs. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    Transformation geometry topics are covered in one chapter of Unit 11 of this SMSG series. Work with translations, reflections, rotations, and composition of motions is included; vectors are briefly discussed. The chapter on computers and programming deals with recent history and uses of of the computer, organization of a digital computer, an…

  15. Excavaciones en el Tíber durante los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Sánchez, Jorge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Renaissance, the Tiber River has been the object of the most unusual archaeological quests, driven mainly by fantastic medieval lore. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the excavations on the river intensified and were epitomized by the scientific atmosphere of the Enlightenment, even tough they resulted in little archaeological worth. In 1819, even the Spanish monarch Fernando VII almost became a Shareholder in one of these archaeological companies. After the Italian unification, many finds were discovered in the works done along the Tiber's urban region, of wich many are now in the Museo Nazionale Romano.Desde el Renacimiento el Tiber ha sido objeto de las más peregrinas búsquedas arqueológicas, emprendidas habitualmente sobre la base de fantásticos relatos medievales. En los siglos XVIII y XIX las excavaciones en el río se intensificaron y se dotaron del cientificismo propio de la Ilustración, siendo no obstante el fruto de estos trabajos muy escaso; en 1819, incluso el propio monarca español Fernando VII estuvo a punto de convertirse en accionista de una de estas empresas arqueológicas. Tras la Unificación italiana, las obras de estructuración del curso urbano del Tiber propiciaron finalmente numerosos hallazgos, muchos de los cuales se conservan en el Museo Nazionale Romano.

  16. "La ciencia de los ingenieros..." en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Díaz, Jorge

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In Paris was published, in 1729, sign ed by some different authors, a book known as the first great modern engineering treatise. "La Science des Ingénieurs...", signed by Bernard Forest de Belidor, a french man of catalan origin, mathematics teacher in La Fére Artillery School, member as well of the Scientific Societies of London and Prussia and a correspondent of the Paris Royal Academy of Sciences. In this book we will appreciate a firm direction change in two fundamental aspects of the technical culture of actual engineers: the way to dimension structures, starting from the numerical procedures and the organization of the processes in construction works In the following pages I want to introduce you into the contents of this treatise in its original version and in its castiílan particular translation. But, before this, I have also to explain the teatrise role in the disociation of two professions that, till this time. have share attitudes and competitivines: architecture and engineering, such as they were understood in the Renaissance distant years where the durability, stability and solidity of a building, watever it was, was preceded by a perfect execution, by the use of appropriated materials, and where the different parts were measured following a general plan of whole proportions and the search of balance elements. We will see how -based on the science of these XVIII century engineers- all those principies have to be explained through the nature of the algebraical reasons, the mechanical knowledge and the abstract understanding of the structural elements. It is worthwhile to point out that this work is a part of a much more important investigation concerning the transformations of the technical knowledge concerning engineering and architecture between XVI and XVIII centuries, as well in Europe as in America, insisting on the role played by the academies and schools, in one or the other ocean side.En 1729 aparece publicado en París el

  17. Alianzas y traiciones en la pampa rioplatense durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Taruselli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como escenario la región pampeana del Río de la Plata durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. En 1770 fue arrestado allí un indio llamado Flamenco. Remitido a la cárcel de Buenos Aires, el gobernador Vértiz dispuso inmediatamente una serie de diligencias para saber qué hacer con él. El expediente que entonces se formó contiene la opinión de los principales personajes de la campaña bonaerense y la declaración del propio Flamenco. Su análisis nos permite describir el mundo rural colonial rioplatense y las estrategias desplegadas por los españoles para controlar un territorio donde grupos indígenas mantuvieron su autonomía hasta mediados del siglo XIX. Para ampliar la información se relevaron fuentes documentales éditas e inéditas, conservadas en el Archivo General de la Nación, Argentina.

  18. EL LIDERAZGO ÉTNICO EN ATACAMA, ALTOS DE ARICA, TACNA Y TARATA (SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hidalgo Lehuedé

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo realizamos un análisis comparado de las dinámicas y transformaciones que experimentó el liderazgo étnico de los cacicazgos de Atacama, Codpa, Altos de Arica, Tacna y Tarata, durante el siglo XVIII. Sostenemos, además, que las dinámicas del liderazgo étnico se ajustaron, más que a proyectos comunitarios, a estrategias familiares. Estas últimas debieron enfrentarse a condiciones sociales de posibilidad en las que se entremezclaron las limitaciones, las demandas y las oportunidades que les ofrecía el campo social colonialIn this article we will realice a comparative analysis of the dynamic and transformations that experienced the ethnic leadership of the Atacama, Codpa, Tacna and Tarata chiefdom, during 18th century. We support, beside, that the ethnic leadership dynamics adjusted more to a family strategy than a communitary project. This family strategy should face a social conditions of possibilities, just a mixture of limitation, demands and opportunities that the colonial society offer them

  19. SOME ASPECTS OF AVAR KHANS POLICY BY RUSSIA (XVIII - BEG. XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara A. OMAROVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of our study is the policy of the Avar Khans towards Russia in XVIII XIX centuries. Most researchers believe that the Avar Khans State was always interested in close relations with the powerful nation, pursued a policy of deepening relations and, almost always, been loyal to Russia. This can be seen in the period of open confrontation Highlanders during the Caucasian War. Of course, such a policy could not lead to conflicts between the Avar Khan State and its nearest neighbors, causing the latter to exercise intolerance such loyalty to Russia. All of these issues are covered with the involvement of the literary and archival materials. Thus, based on the analysis of sources, the author establishes that the manifestation of the desire of the Avar Khan State, which occupies an isolated position in relation to other feudal lords, the establishment of a strong alliance with Russia is always determined by the desire Khans have Russia as a strong and reliable ally than to amass it in as an enemy. On the basis of archival sources, we can state the fact that Russia, in turn, highly valued the loyalty of Khan's house and noted it all sorts of honors. 

  20. Prácticas de sociabilidad. Salones y espacio público en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger CHARTIER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo estudia el papel desempeñado por las mujeres en la sociabilidad cultural del siglo XVIII francés, situándose en el marco del debate abierto en la historiografía, en particular norteamericana, en torno a la exclusión de las mujeres de la ciudadanía durante la Revolución y a las funciones que ejercieron en la vida política del Antiguo Régimen. A partir del análisis de los salones del siglo xvm, propone construir otra cronología, menos lineal, de la exclusión de las mujeres del espacio público de la crítica y de la política.ABSTRACT: This essay studies the role of women in eighteenth-century cultural sociability, in the framework of the debate on the issues of their exclusion from citizenship during the French Revolution and their functions in Ancien régime political life. On the base of analysis of the nature and roles of eighteenth- century salons, it proposes a less simplistic account of women's exclusion from the public sphere of intellectual debate and politics.

  1. Armas en las casas burgalesas del siglo XVIII. Entre la funcionalidad y el exhibicionismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En los interiores domésticos del Burgos del siglo XVIII, los inventarios post mortem permiten un análisis intenso de un aspecto bastante desconocido e inquietante de la cultura material, la posesión y usufructo de armas entre la población urbana del Antiguo Régimen. No todas las categorías socioprofesionales y socioeconómicas tenían acceso de la misma manera a las armas de fuego o a las armas «blancas» y su disponibilidad cambia a lo largo de la centuria. ¿Quiénes eran propietarios de armas? ¿Cuál era su peso relativo sobre el volumen de sus fortunas? ¿A qué responde su aparición en las viviendas? ¿Protección personal y doméstica, exigencias profesionales, exhibicionismo en la jerarquía social y boato, necesidad cinegética? ¿Qué grado de permeabilidad y penetración conocieron las armas a lo largo del Setecientos?

  2. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Cu XVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 (Configuration Interaction Version 3) calculations of excitation energies from ground states for 141 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the levels of the (1s22s22p6) 3l2, 3l3l' and 3l4l configurations of Cu XVIII. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions obtained using the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation. In order to keep our calculated energy splittings as close as possible to the experimental values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Since mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong, it becomes difficult to identify these uniquely. Our excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement (better than 1.0%) with the available experimental results. From our calculated radiative decay rates, we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Our calculated oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates are found to be in good agreement with other theoretical results, while the lifetimes agree very well with the experimental values (wherever available). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and experimental results are available.

  3. Chapter 12: spatial or area repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial repellents a three-dimensional zone of protection around a host from attacks by biting arthropods. This chapter reviews current knowledge and outlines future directions for utilization of spatial repellents. Current knowledge includes the kinds of products, both active and passive devices,...

  4. Why a European chapter of IALE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Antrop, Marc; de Blust, Geert; Correia, Teresa Pinto; Ramos, Isabel Loupa; Kozová, Mária; Papadimitriou, Fivos; Van Eetvelde, Veerle

    Association (IALE) and its national chapters. The reasons have to do with the development of the scientific discipline of landscape ecology, with the concept landscape with its multiple interpretations, with the landscape characteristics of Europe and with the changing demands for research, planning and...

  5. Introduction to Mathematical Fuzzy Logic. Chapter 1

    OpenAIRE

    Běhounek, L. (Libor); Cintula, P. (Petr); P. Hájek

    2011-01-01

    The chapter provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of mathematical fuzzy logic. Starting from the syntax and semantics of t-norm fuzzy logics, it systematically surveys the systems of propositional fuzzy logics known from the literature, their general and particular metamathematical properties, predicate variants of fuzzy logics, and axiomatic fuzzy mathematics.

  6. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  7. Chapter VIII: Protected areas and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the Atlas presents Slovak's ecological and cultural priorities, which must be conserved and protected. All precious assets of the natural and cultural heritage as important sources of landscape regeneration are presented. They secure preservation of gene pool, ecological stability and landscape diversity. Their value for man as user of landscape is immeasurable. (author)

  8. Wavelengths and oscillator strengths of transitions 4s-4p, 4p-4d, 4d-4f in ions for Mo XIV- Pd XVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have calculated the energy levels of configurations 3d104l (l = s, p, d, f) in Copper-like ions from Mo XIV - Pd XVIII by HXR method. By analyzing variation of the difference ΔE between theoretical and experimental level values, the authors have made a systematic fitting calculation for the levels mentioned above. All energy levels of ions Tc XV are predicted. The wavelengths and oscillator strengths of transitions 3d104s - 3d104p, 3d104p - 3d104d, 3d104d - 3d104f in ions from Mo XIV - Pd XVIII are given here too

  9. Molecular Analysis of Collagen XVIII Reveals Novel Mutations, Presence of a Third Isoform, and Possible Genetic Heterogeneity in Knobloch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, O. T.; Sertié, A. L.; Der Kaloustian, V. M.; Kok, F.; Carpenter, M.; Murray, J.; Czeizel, A. E.; Kliemann, S. E.; Rosemberg, S.; Monteiro, M.; Olsen, B. R.; Passos-Bueno, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    Knobloch syndrome (KS) is a rare disease characterized by severe ocular alterations, including vitreoretinal degeneration associated with retinal detachment and occipital scalp defect. The responsible gene, COL18A1, has been mapped to 21q22.3, and, on the basis of the analysis of one family, we have demonstrated that a mutation affecting only one of the three COL18A1 isoforms causes this phenotype. We report here the results of the screening of both the entire coding region and the exon-intron boundaries of the COL18A1 gene (which includes 43 exons), in eight unrelated patients with KS. Besides 20 polymorphic changes, we identified 6 different pathogenic changes in both alleles of five unrelated patients with KS (three compound heterozygotes and two homozygotes). All are truncating mutations leading to deficiency of one or all collagen XVIII isoforms and endostatin. We have verified that, in exon 41, the deletion c3514-3515delCT, found in three unrelated alleles, is embedded in different haplotypes, suggesting that this mutation has occurred more than once. In addition, our results provide evidence of nonallelic genetic heterogeneity in KS. We also show that the longest human isoform (NC11-728) is expressed in several tissues (including the human eye) and that lack of either the short variant or all of the collagen XVIII isoforms causes similar phenotypes but that those patients who lack all forms present more-severe ocular alterations. Despite the small sample size, we found low endostatin plasma levels in those patients with mutations leading to deficiency of all isoforms; in addition, it seems that absence of all collagen XVIII isoforms causes predisposition to epilepsy. PMID:12415512

  10. Usos y acepciones de chino, china en el norte del Perú, siglos XVIII-XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Andrade Ciudad; Fred Rohner

    2014-01-01

    ResumenSe estudian los usos de la palabra chino, china en el norte peruano, entre los siglos XVIII y XIX, a partir de documentos históricos y coplas de la lírica popular. En contra de propuestas anteriores, se confirma el uso efectivo del término, sobre todo en su forma femenina, y se postulan dos acepciones: la primera, vinculada a la terminología de castas, alude a un tipo de mestizaje que une los troncos indio y africano, con un componente menor, variable, de “sangre blanca”, mientras que ...

  11. La estructura socio-económica de un concejo de mies abierta: en Cantabria en el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Perojo Díez, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN. Este trabajo define la institución de concejo de mies abierta, (que prevaleció en Europa hasta principios del siglo XIX), a partir del estudio de centenares de ordenanzas de concejos en Alemania, Francia, España e Inglaterra, vigentes entre el siglo XII y el XVIII, mediante la identificación de sus características más sobresalientes y definitorias de un concejo paneuropeo que O. Ostrom llama “significant features” y C. Dahlman “stylized facts”. Y compara el “Memorial d...

  12. La espiritualidad mundana en Cuenca a inicios del siglo XVIII. El caso de Martina Catalina de Barzallo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Catalina León Galarza

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo examina el proceso judicial de una monja en Cuenca, a inicios del siglo XVIII, que buscaba regresar a la "vida mundana" y anular su profesión y hábito. Este caso permite mostrar la mentalidad barroca, acercarse a la construcción cultural del cuerpo y a la situación de las mujeres. A partir de los fragmentos disponibles del juicio, el artículo sugiere que Martina Catalina de Barzallo reivindicó el retomo a la vida mundana y el rechazo a las prácticas coercitivas propias de la vida monástica.

  13. Doctrina contable del siglo XVIII y su influencia en los proyectos de reforma contable de la época

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Anes, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Durante el siglo XVIII la contabilidad parece despertar del silencio en el que estaba inmersa. Este resurgir se da en dos frentes: por un lado, se haya vinculado al comercio y por otro lado, unido a una nueva experiencia que se llevaría a cabo en las Cajas Reales de las Indias, para llevar las cuentas mediante la aplicación del método de la partida doble. Este último suscitó un discurso en el seno del funcionariado -entre partidarios y detractores del nuevo método-, tanto en Indias como en Es...

  14. CUANDO LAS AFRENTAS SE LAVABAN CON SANGRE: HONOR, MASCULINIDAD Y DUELOS DE ESPADAS EN EL SIGLO XVIII CHILENO

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Undurraga Schüler

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo aborda la relación entre honor y prácticas sociales en el siglo XVIII chileno, analizando la figura de los duelos o expresiones de violencia masculina formalizada. Junto con indagar en los mecanismos restitutorios del honor y su vinculación a los fundamentos de una masculinidad tradicional, reflexiona sobre las gamas de manejo social de dicho valor en el período señalado. Teóricamente se rescatan los aportes de la antropología y se hace un balance del tratamiento historiográfico ...

  15. Mercado de hábitos e serviços em Portugal (séculos XVII-XVIII)

    OpenAIRE

    Olival, Fernanda

    2003-01-01

    Questiona-se a ideia estabelecida da diminuta prática da venalidade em Portugal. Salienta-se que existiu, desde o século XVI e sobretudo nos séculos XVII e XVIII, não só venda de ofícios, tenças e serviços, como também venda de honras, como era o caso dos hábitos das Ordens Militares. Analisam-se algumas características desse mercado.

  16. Pharmacopea de la Armada (1760), un libro singular para uso de los sanitarios navales del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila Olivares, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    La Pharmacopea de la Armada, obra de Leandro de Vega, publicada en 1760 para uso de médicos y cirujanos de los buques y hospitales de la marina española a lo largo del siglo XVIII, está considerada como la primera farmacopea naval española. Su autor la define con un «catálogo de medicamentos pertenecientes a las enfermedades médicas», en definitiva un nomenclátor de fórmulas para la preparación de los medicamentos de mayor utilidad para los navegantes de la época, tanto de uso interno como ex...

  17. Los "otros" militares : desertores en la América meridional española del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Chauca García, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    La deserción en la América española fue una constante favorecida por un conjunto de causas y gracias a factores como la distancia. El fenómeno de los desertores constituyó un problema que los monarcas intentaron vía legislativa frenar con la persuasión y la reintegración al servicio, bajo determinadas circunstancias, evitando sus nefastas consecuencias para la defensa de las Indias en un siglo, el XVIII, en el que las relaciones internacionales proyectadas en América oscilab...

  18. La población de Villamayor de Calatrava a mediados del XVIII según el Catastro de Ensenada

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Domenech, Mª Angeles; Rodríguez Espinosa, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de esta comunicación es el estudio de los efectivos de población del municipio de Villamayor de Calatrava a mediados del XVIII, utilizando como fuente el Catastro del Marqués de la Ensenada 708y, dentro de él, las Respuestas Generales y los Memoriales. No abordamos, sin embargo, en esta comunicación la estructura demográfica ni la profesional o económica que, sin duda, es posible analizar con mucha exactitud utilizando esta misma fuente. No obstante, hay una publicación d...

  19. Familia, hogar y vivienda en Burgos a mediados del siglo XVIII: Entre cuatro paredes, compartiendo armarios, camas, mesas y manteles

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2002-01-01

    Los memoriales del Catastro de Ensenada y los inventarios post-mortem, recopilados para esos mismos vecinos concretos, han sido las fuentes documentales esenciales. Ambos yacimientos de información se yuxtaponen, imbrican y retroalimentan mutuamente. Este trabajo, sobre Burgos a mediados del siglo XVIII, ha reconstruido las dimensiones del hogar, tanto en lo que se refiere a la estructura y tamaño de los grupos domésticos como a la superficie sobre la que desarrollaban sus particulares existe...

  20. Cultura escrita, oralidade e gênero em conventos portugueses (séculos XVII e XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Bellini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda formatos e usos da escrita em mosteiros femininos e masculinos, no Portugal dos séculos XVII e XVIII, buscando explorar significados particulares do domínio de técnicas escriturais. Neste sentido, procura adaptar, à especificidade do contexto analisado, sugestões metodológicas dos estudos sobre as implicações do letramento e seus vínculos com a esfera da oralidade, noutros universos histórico-sociais.

  1. DE ESPIRITUALES A HISTÉRICAS: LAS BEATAS DEL SIGLO XVIII EN LA NUEVA ESPAÑA

    OpenAIRE

    ALEJANDRA ARAYA ESPINOZA

    2004-01-01

    Los procesos inquisitoriales a beatas por ilusas y alumbradas en la Nueva España, durante el siglo XVIII, muestran cómo la "anormalidad" del modelo de espiritualidad místico y ascético, al que las mujeres fueron tan proclives en dicha centuria, pasó al campo del discurso médico. La mirada masculina se desconcierta con la continuidad de los signos exteriores de la espiritualidad femenina, son sus cuerpos el medio por el cual dan cuenta de que algo fuera de lo normal las identifica: arrobamient...

  2. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chapter Leader Chapter Meetings Schedule Chapter Partner Program Webinars Chapter Advocacy How to Form a Chapter Chapter ... and Project Work Top 10 Reasons to Participate Webinars Membership I Want to Be a RAS-ACS ...

  3. Montes de Piedad eclesiásticos y particulares (S. XVIII-XIX: Usos monetarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Serrulla, María Teresa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Montes de Piedad (Mounts of Mercy, beneficial-credit institutions, arise in Italy (S. XV to initiative of Franciscans preachers, with the objective to provide loans on pignoratious guarantees to an interest lower than the demanded by the moneylenders. This type of institution propagates immediately by all Italian geography, and going beyond its borders will arrive at other European zones, among them to the Iberian Peninsula. Within the Hispanic monarchy in the beginnings of century XVIII the foundation of Monte de Piedad of Madrid takes place, by Piquer Father who will be inheriting of the spirit and objectives of primitive Italian predecessors and will include some new features as a result of the devotion of their founder and the particularities of that time. This Monte will serve as a model for other similar institutions as much in the peninsula as in the American virreinatos. With time, a series of new foundations will take place, bearing the same denomination (all will take by name Monte de Piedad, but with important differences in their constitutions and aims. These foundations arise as much in ecclesiastical as secular scope. The analysis of some of these institutions is the objective of the present study, differentiating ecclesiastical and secular foundations (in these last ones a further difference is made for the ones founded by members of the nobility. Starting off from original texts, the particular or general objectives and their beneficial aims are analyzed and different aspects related to their start up, lawsuits, use for aims different from the indicated ones in their foundation, etc.Los Montes de Piedad, instituciones benéfico-crediticias, surgen en Italia (S. XV a iniciativa de predicadores franciscanos, con el objetivo de proporcionar préstamos sobre garantías prendarias a un interés más bajo que el exigido por los prestamistas. Este tipo de institución se propaga enseguida por toda la geografía italiana, traspasando sus

  4. BAJA DE LA FECUNDIDAD Y FAMILIA URBANA EN REIMS EN EL SIGLO XVIII (1760-1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTOINETTE FAUVE-CHAMOUX

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Bajo el Antiguo Régimen, existió un sistema de reproducción familiar específico de las ciudades. Esta es la conclusión que se puede sacar de las investigaciones realizadas hasta ahora sobre la transición demográfica en el medio urbano. Comparando Ginebra con Rouen, Alfred Perrenoud logró demostrar que la alta burguesía, tanto suiza como normanda, practicaba el control de la natalidad en 1650 (Perrenoud, 1990, y esto antes incluso que empezara a bajar seriamente la tasa de mortalidad (Bardet, 1990. Tanto en Rouen como en Ginebra, el control de la descendencia se extendió luego rápidamente al conjunto de la población, como lo demuestra la caída regular de la fecundidad. A estos dos principales modelos testigos del comportamiento innovador de algunas familias urbanas de Europa occidental en los siglos XVII y XVIII, cabe agregar el de Reims, ciudad de los Reyes de Francia ubicada en Champagne con 30.000 habitantes, famosa desde luego por sus vinos espumantes después de 1700, pero también por sus tejidos de lana. Bajo el Antiguo Régimen, existió un sistema de reproducción familiar específico de las ciudades. Esta es la

  5. INSTALACIONES Y EQUIPAMIENTO VITIVINÍCOLA EN EL REINO DE CHILE. VASIJAS, PIPAS, LAGARES (SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo examina las instalaciones y el equipamiento de los establecimientos vitivinícolas del Reino de Chile en el siglo XVIII. El tema es relevante porque en ese momento, Chile era el principal polo vitivinícola de América y ejercía un liderazgo en la región. Se estudian las distintas formas de lagares, tanto los de cuero como los de adobe, cal y ladrillo; también se indaga en la evolución de la vasija vinaria, de la greda la madera. Los hornos botijeros ocuparon un lugar importante por su aporte a la fabricación de tinajas y botijas. Estos recipientes fueron como un icono característico de la viticultura del sur de América (en México la vasija no era de greda sino de madera, aún al comienzo de la industria vitivinícola. Posteriormente, a partir de la mitad de la centuria, comenzó la incorporación de vasija de madera (pipas y barriles en Chile. Durante cincuenta años éstas convivieron con los recipientes de greda, hasta comenzar a sustituirlos progresivamente en el siglo XIX. Este equipamiento hizo posible el desarrollo de una de las principales industrias que hubo en América española durante la época colonial y que, actualmente, sigue siendo la principal industria de Chile.

  6. Fragile Frontiers: Testamentary Stories of Women in XVIII-Century Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva, Eduardo França

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During the colonial period, in Minas Gerais, freedwomen, followed by the free ones (white and mestiza, bequeathed to the future a quantity not despicable of wills. In these documents, are registered reports done orally by them and transcribed by some notary, as well as impressions, preferences, declarations of all kinds of nature and, still, precious information, intentional or not, about family, miscegenation, ascension and social distinctions, sociabilities, physical, social and cultural mobility. The speeches of these women on living in that colonial universe, including what, for times, it was possible to read in the inbetween lines of the wills, constitute the central object of this text and are the starting point of the dialog established with these XVIIIth characters.

    Durante o período colonial, nas Minas Gerais, as mulheres forras, seguidas pelas livres (brancas e mestiças legaram ao futuro uma quantidade nada desprezível de testamentos. Nesses documentos, aparecem registrados relatos feitos oralmente por elas e transcritos por algum escrivão, bem como impressões, gostos, declarações de toda natureza e, ainda, informações preciosas, intencionais ou não, sobre família, mestiçagens, ascensão e distinções sociais, sociabilidades, mobilidade física, social e cultural. Os discursos dessas mulheres sobre o viver naquele universo colonial, incluindo o que, por vezes, se pôde captar nas entrelinhas dos testamentos, constituem o objeto central do texto e são o ponto de partida do diálogo estabelecido com esses personagens setecentistas.

  7. Poblaciones, vecinos y fronteras rioplatenses. Santa Fe a fines del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez, Teresa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the territorial growth of a small Hispanic-Creole town: Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz, as well as the modifications of its estates, Indian towns, parishes, chapels, and forts along during the three last decades of the eighteenth century. Changes took place not only due to strategic migrations of people looking for settlements but also by institutional reform (the Bourbon Reforms, facilitated by the vicinity of viceroyalty officials that allowed elites to protect their interests. It is thus possible to recognize a frontier policy generated by negociations of subordinate sectors with elite families at a time of cattle raising expansion, and consequently, of a growing demand for land. In addition, city authorities struggled to settle population within us district and thus set their limits in front of neighboring town councils.

    El trabajo versa sobre el crecimiento espacial de una pequeña aldea hispanocriolla —Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz— y los reacomodamientos que sus pagos, pueblos de indios, curatos, capillas y fuertes tuvieron en las tres últimas décadas del siglo XVIII. Tales adecuaciones se produjeron tanto por estrategias de la población flotante en búsqueda de asentamiento, como por cambios institucionales —en el marco de reformas borbónicas y debido a la cercanía de las autoridades virreinales— con que los vecinos “hidalgos” protegieron sus intereses. Así se reconoce una política de fronteras que resulta de las negociaciones de los sectores subalternos con las familias de elite en un momento de expansión ganadera y consecuente aumento de la demanda por tierras. Asimismo, las autoridades de la ciudad lucharon por fijar población en su jurisdicción a los fines de marcar su espacio frente a los avances de cabildos vecinos.

  8. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes in Cu XVIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Vikas [Department of Physics, Dronacharya College of Engineering (Affiliated to Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow), Greater Noida (UP), 201 308 (India); Gupta, G P [Department of Physics, S D (Postgraduate) College (Affiliated with Choudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut), Muzaffarnagar - UP, 251 001 (India)], E-mail: tayalvikas11@rediffmail.com

    2009-11-15

    We have performed large-scale CIV3 (Configuration Interaction Version 3) calculations of excitation energies from ground states for 141 fine-structure levels as well as of oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for all electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions among the levels of the (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}) 3l{sup 2}, 3l3l' and 3l4l configurations of Cu XVIII. These states are represented by very extensive configuration-interaction (CI) wavefunctions obtained using the CIV3 computer code of Hibbert. The important relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation. In order to keep our calculated energy splittings as close as possible to the experimental values, we have made small adjustments to the diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrices. Since mixing among several fine-structure levels is found to be very strong, it becomes difficult to identify these uniquely. Our excitation energies, including their ordering, are in excellent agreement (better than 1.0%) with the available experimental results. From our calculated radiative decay rates, we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of the fine-structure levels. Our calculated oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates are found to be in good agreement with other theoretical results, while the lifetimes agree very well with the experimental values (wherever available). In this calculation, we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and experimental results are available.

  9. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters

  10. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  11. Dust and human health: Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that exposure to fine particulate matter may increase risk for human morbidity and mortality. Until recently, population health related studies examining the effects of particulate matter on human health generally examined anthropogenic (industry and combustion by-products) sources with few studies considering contributions from natural sources. This chapter provides an overview of naturally occurring inorganic mineral dust research and associated human health ailments and some of the challenges in elucidating the etiological mechanisms responsible.

  12. Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with the physics of events that occur when photons and electrons interact with matter. These are the radiations that are important for diagnostic radiology, and only those interactions that result in their attenuation, absorption and scattering are dealt with. Other interactions, such as those with nuclei, are not considered here because they only occur for radiation that is higher in energy than that used for diagnostic radiology

  13. Chapter X: Landscape as the human environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last chapter of the Atlas contains the outline of future developments in dependence on the environmental limits and potential. The limits of development for the single industries are elaborated in detail and the most important developmental trends of the territory of the Slovak Republic are assessed. These characteristics are complemented by spatial expression of the environmental quality as one of the most important prerequisites of spatial planning. (author)

  14. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories are...... over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... both their most positive and most negative chapter. As predicted, the beginning age of positive but not negative chapters produced a bump and specific memories tended to cluster at chapter beginnings. The results support the idea that chapters guide the search for specific memories and that the...

  15. Management of Therapy Patients. Chapter 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of radiation protection and their implementation as they apply to nuclear medicine are covered in general in Chapter 3. This chapter will look at the specific case of nuclear medicine used for therapy. In addition to the standards discussed in Chapter 3, specific guidance on the release of patients after radionuclide therapy can be found in the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 63 [20.1]. When the patient is kept in hospital following radionuclide therapy, the people at risk of exposure include hospital staff whose duties may or may not directly involve the use of radiation. This can be a significant problem. However, it is generally felt that it can be effectively managed with well trained staff and appropriate facilities. On the other hand, once the patient has been released, the groups at risk include members of the patient’s family, including children, and carers; they may also include neighbours, visitors to the household, co-workers, those encountered in public places, on public transport or at public events, and finally, the general public. It is generally felt that these risks can be effectively mitigated by the radiation protection officer (RPO) with patient-specific radiation safety precaution instructions

  16. A Survey of Geologic Resources. Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Jennifer; Rickman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the resources available from the Moon itself: regolith, geologically concentrated materials, and lunar physical features that will enable habitation and generation of power on the surface. This chapter briefly covers the formation of the Moon and thus the formation of the crust of the Moon, as well as the evolution of the regolith. The characteristics of the regolith are provided in some detail, including its mineralogy and lithology. The location of high concentrations of specific minerals or rocks is noted. Other ideal locations for in situ resource utilization technology and lunar habitation are presented. This chapter is intended to be a brief review of current knowledge, and to serve as a foundational source for further study. Each concept presented here has a wealth of literature associated with it; the reader is therefore directed to that literature with each discussion. With great interest in possible manned lunar landings and continued study of the Moon by multiple satellites, the available information changes regularly.

  17. Contribuciones al estudiode los anfibios y reptiles de Méxicodurante el siglo XVIII y la Ilustración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Casas Andreu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las bases de la herpetología moderna en general se establecieron en el siglo XVIII,particularmente durante la Ilustración y quienes hicieron la mayor contribución fueronfundamentalmente los naturalistas franceses. No obstante, en México se hicieron varias publicacionesde cierto relieve, en especial por los misioneros jesuitas y otros estudiosos de la Nueva España. Esinteresante mencionar que aun con la trascendencia de Linneo para la biología moderna, algunoshistoriadores de los anfibios y los reptiles señalan que por lo menos para la herpetofauna de Méxicoexistió una importante regresión, ya que era mucho mayor el conocimiento que había dejadoFrancisco Hernández en el siglo XVI. Las contribuciones de los autores de la escuela francesa comoBuffon y quienes lo sucedieron como Lacepéde y Daudin, fueron los grandes pilares de laherpetología o estudios de los anfibios y los reptiles de la manera en que la conocemos en laactualidad. Las bases establecidas en el siglo XVIII sirvieron para que con la apertura de México almundo a partir de su independencia, se entrara en una de las etapas de mayor relevancia para laherpetología del país.

  18. San Francisco Javier en la memoria colectiva de Navarra. Fiesta, religiosidad e iconografía en los siglos XVII-XVIII. [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Labarga-García, F. (Fermín)

    2006-01-01

    Reseña de: Ricardo FERNÁNDEZ GRACIA, San Francisco Javier en la memoria colectiva de Navarra. Fiesta, religiosidad e iconografía en los siglos XVII-XVIII, Fundación Diario de Navarra («Biblioteca Javeriana», 4), Pamplona 2004, 288 pp.

  19. Población, sociedad y economía en la campaña rioplatense el pago de la costa en el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Olivero Guidobono, Sandra Fabiana

    2004-01-01

    Estudio de historia de la población de un pago rural, lindero con la ciudad de Buenos Aires, productor cerealero en el temprano Siglo XVIII. A través del análisis de padrones de población, listas nominativas, libros parroquiales, testamentos, dotes y proc

  20. Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge : Hunting Chapter of Visitor Service Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Hunting Chapter precedes the overall Visitor Services Plan for Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge Agassiz NWR. This chapter includes specific guidelines for...

  1. Nuclear metallurgy lectures. Chapter 6, Reduction of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattner, W.T.

    1955-05-26

    This report consists of Chapter Six of the Nuclear Metallurgy Lectures. Chapter six discusses the reduction of uranium, chemical composition of uranium ores, extraction process for uranium ores, bomb reduction, green salt, and dingots.

  2. Gurruminos, petimetres, abates y currutacos en el teatro breve del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Valldaura, Josep Maria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study of certain negative models of sainetes [afterpieces] from the 18th century reveals not only a continuity of comic stereotypes, but also their relationship to the ideals of behaviour of the era: the authority of the husband, the submissiveness of the wife, thriftiness in managing household finances, etc. Afterpieces join other literary genres (journalism, satirical poetry and the moral essay in ridiculing those who are involved in the practice of cortejo and who readily adopt new forms of social behavior, fashions, foreign dances, etc., in contrast to traditional ways and tastes. Examples taken from Antonio de Zamora, Agramont, Ramón de la Cruz, Vázquez and González del Castillo are used to illustrate this reticence towards changes in mentality of a new culture of leisure, as well as to observe it a contrario: its “feminization”, its frivolity, and its uselessness.El estudio de ciertos modelos negativos del teatro breve del siglo XVIII revela no sólo la continuidad cómica de los tipos, sino también su relación con los ideales de conducta coetáneos: la autoridad del marido, la discreción de la mujer, el cuidado de la economía familiar... Los sainetes se unen a otros géneros literarios (el periodismo, la poesía satírica y el ensayo de carácter moral en la ridiculización de quienes practican el cortejo y aplauden nuevas formas de sociabilidad, las modas y los bailes extranjeros, etc. frente a la conducta y los gustos tradicionales. Ejemplos tomados de Antonio de Zamora, Agramont, Ramón de la Cruz, Vázquez y González del Castillo sirven para argumentar tales reticencias ante el cambio de mentalidades de una nueva cultura del ocio, así como para observarlo a contrario: su “afeminación”, su frivolidad y su inutilidad.

  3. PREFACE: XVIII International Youth Scientific School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakhov, M. Kh; Samartsev, V. V.; Gainutdinov, R. Kh

    2015-05-01

    Kazan Federal University has held the annual International Youth School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy" since 1997. The choice of the topic is not accidental. Kazan is the home of photon echo which was predicted at Kazan Physical-Technical Institute in 1963 by Prof. U.G. Kopvil'em and V.R. Nagibarov and observed in Columbia University by N.A. Kurnit, I.D. Abella, and S.R. Hartmann in 1964. Since then, photon echo has become a powerful tool of coherent optical spectroscopy and optical information processing, which have been developed here in Kazan in close collaboration between Kazan Physical-Technical Institute and Kazan Federal University. The main subjects of the XVIII International Youth School are: Nonlinear and coherent optics; Atomic and molecular spectroscopy; Coherent laser spectroscopy; Problems of quantum optics; Quantum theory of radiation; and Nanophotonics and Scanning Probe Microscopy. The unchallenged organizers of that school are Kazan Federal University and Kazan E.K. Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute. The rector of the School is Professor Myakzyum Salakhov, and the vice-rector is Professor Vitaly Samartsev. The International Youth Scientific School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy" follows the global pattern of comprehensive studies of matter properties and their interaction with electromagnetic fields. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from the USA, Germany, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia have given plenary lecture presentations. Here over 1000 young scientists had an opportunity to participate in lively discussions about the latest scientific news. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non-linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the fullsize papers prepared from the most interesting lectures and reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. The

  4. Cultura material y religiosidad popular en el seno familiar castellano del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo GARCÍA FERNÁNDEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se ponen de relieve dos aspectos fundamentales y concatenados durante el siglo XVIII: el arraigo de numerosas prácticas religiosas colectivas en el seno familiar y la relación entre las vivencias domésticas y las formas externas de la existencia cotidiana popular.Se analizan la reiteración de los rituales funerarios sacralizados y el consumo de ropa, y la incidencia de ambos temas en las prácticas culturales populares. El mantenimiento de los signos externos de la religiosidad y los cambios en la civilización material tenían igual cabida en la cotidianidad de aquella Castilla semiilustrada.La gran cuestión giraba en torno a la necesaria mezcla de los cuidados espirituales y mundanos para lograr una cómoda felicidad terrena junto a la ansiada salvación. «Nada de lo divino era extraño; todo era religión»; pero también era una realidad en la época el ideal: «viva la industria de la persona».ABSTRACT: This paper highlights two fundamental closely connected developments of the Eighteenth century in Castile, namely: that many collective religious practices became deeply rooted in the family household; also, that a relationship took shape between domestic experiences and the outer forms of the people’s daily existence.Thus the reiteration of sacralized burial rites and the consumption of clothing are analysed, as well as the effect of both on popular culture practices. In the everyday life of semi-Enlightened Castile, the preservation of external signs of religiousness was on an equal footing with the evolution of material culture. It was a matter of attaining the necessary mixing of spiritual and worldly cares so as to attain comfortable, earthly happiness along with the much longed-for salvation. «Nada de lo divino era extraño; todo era religión», but no less true was the motto: «viva la industria de la persona».

  5. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  6. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  7. Investment in electricity for development. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services

  8. Fundamental Concepts in Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short overview of the basic concepts and principles of radionuclide therapy is presented in this chapter. After introducing the most important radionuclides currently employed in therapeutic applications and new promising radioisotopes such as α emitters, this review covers the various types of vector molecules and biological approaches for targeting specific cancer cells. These applications include the use of receptor specific pharmacophores such as antibodies and peptides, and DNA targeting agents. The potential advantages of combining methods developed for radionuclide therapy with gene therapy and nanotechnology are also discussed. (author)

  9. The notion of cyber operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ducheine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to elaborate on the notion of ‘cyber operations’ against the generic manner in which they are used by popular media as well as by academics. This chapter differentiates between actors and motives, covering operations conducted by both state and non-state entities. Special

  10. Chapter 6. Radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of plants and factors influencing its value. Chapter consistsof next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of plants; (2) Radioactive contamination of plants; (3) Factors influencing radioactivity of biological chain soil - plant; (4) Possibilities of decreasing of radioactive contamination of agricultural and food products

  11. Chapter 14. Radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Influence of radiation on foods; (2) Radiation sterilisation in health service

  12. Chapter 3. Radioactivity of atmosphere and factors influencing its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of atmosphere and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of atmosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of atmosphere (Radioactive fallout and global radioactive fallout)

  13. System analysis using multitracer approaches. Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present chapter offers a qualitative or semi-quantitative step towards a synthesis of the information that the different tracers provide. It also offers some criteria that can be used to help assess the reliability of selected tracer data in evaluating tracer model ages from measurements of concentrations of multiple environmental tracers in the system. In most of the literature on isotope hydrology, the term ‘apparent age’ is used instead of ‘tracer model age’, and within this chapter the two terms are considered synonymous. This approach testing reliability of tracer data is only a first step and performs a black and white selection of the tracer data. Some consistency tests are performed, and for data passing these tests there is at least no obvious reason known that the tracer model age is not a valid description. For data that fail these tests, it is obvious that a straightforward calculation of tracer model ages will not give the intended result.

  14. Measures of Image Quality. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A medical image is a pictorial representation of a measurement of an object or function of the body. This information can be acquired in one to three spatial dimensions. It can be static or dynamic, meaning that it can also be measured as a function of time. Certain fundamental properties can be associated with all of these data. Firstly, no image can exactly represent the object or function; at best, one has a measurement with an associated error equal to the difference between the true object and the measured image. Secondly, no two images will be identical, even if acquired with the same imaging system of the same anatomic region; this variability is generally referred to as noise. There are many different ways to acquire medical image data; the various mechanisms of acquisition are described in detail in the subsequent chapters. However, regardless of the method of image formation, one must be able to judge the fidelity of the image in an attempt to answer the question “How accurately does the image portray the body or the bodily function?” This judgement falls under the rubric of ‘image quality’. In this chapter, methods of quantifying image quality are described

  15. Image Perception and Assessment. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of a medical image is to provide information to a human reader, such as a radiologist, so that a diagnosis can be reached — rather than to display the beauty of the human internal workings. It is important to understand how the human visual system affects the perception of contrast and spatial resolution of structures that are present in the image. If the image is not properly displayed, or the environment is not appropriate, subtle clinical signs may go unnoticed, which can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. This chapter provides an introduction to human visual perception and task based objective assessment of an imaging system. A model for the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system is presented. This model is used to derive the greyscale standard display function for medical displays. Task based assessment measures the quality of an imaging system as the ability of an observer to perform a well defined task, based on a set of images. Metrics for observer performance are introduced, as well as experimental methodologies for the measurement of human performance. The last section of the chapter describes the estimation of task performance based on mathematical observer models

  16. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  17. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter VIII: physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report corresponds to Chapter VIII of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Data base assessments are made for stability limits, confinement, neutral beam heating and current drive, operation scenario, and burning plasmas. R and D programme and impacts on INTOR design are specified. (author)

  18. Global Operations Coevolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Gubi, Ebbe

    2013-01-01

    systemic approach to control and coordination, which emphasizes not only short-term operational efficiency, but also increasingly long-term strategic effectiveness. The findings advance coevolutionary perspectives on the integration of globally dispersed business systems spanning multiple levels of...... analysis and involving temporal adaptations. In terms of managerial implications, the study provides managers with lessons for designing a robust system of globally dispersed operations.......Companies are actively seeking competitive advantage through their choice of location and ownership of operations. The purpose of this chapter is to uncover hidden effects of this development and propose how companies can respond to them. The chapter draws on a case study of a Danish industrial...

  19. LOS POTREROS DE ANTOFAGASTA. TRABAJO INDÍGENA Y PROPIEDAD (FINALES DEL SIGLO XVIII Y COMIENZOS DEL XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos N. Quesada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos la forma en que el trabajo de los campesinos indígenas de la puna meridional organizó, de acuerdo a una lógica local, la producción agrícola que le permitió su reproducción y articulación con la economía regional a finales del siglo XVIII y comienzos del XIX. El uso co de metodologías y técnicas históricas y arqueológicas nos permite proponer una visión alternativa de las formas locales de producción agrícola, poniendo en evidencia procesos de trabajo y mecanismos de apropiación que de otra forma permanecían invisibilizados.

  20. Las consultas médicas en la España del siglo XVIII: razones de su existencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Sanz, Pilar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe the reasons eighteenth century Spanish physicians offered to justify the consultations they held, as well as the circumstances where such procedures were recommended. The professional qualifications of the consulting physician, his responsibilities towards the attending doctor, etiquette, and the pecuniary aspects of consultations are also discussed. Finally we review the frequent criticisms and judgments against consultations raised by other doctors

    Estudiamos cómo justifican los médicos españoles del siglo XVIII las consultas o juntas de facultativos, así como los casos en los que se recomendaba este procedimiento. En un segundo momento analizamos los requisitos del consultor y su responsabilidad profesional, y los aspectos económicos. Concluimos con una revisión de los perjuicios y críticas que ocasionaba la realización de las consultas.

  1. EL DISCURSO CONFESIONAL EN EL EPISTOLARIO DE SOR JOSEFA DE LOS DOLORES PEÑA Y LILLO (SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCÍA INVERNIZZI SANTA CRUZ

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to make known the Epistolary, up to now inedited, of Sister Josefa de los Dolores Peña y Lillo, chilean dominican nun from the XVIII th century. Her text constituted by sixty five letters, addressed to her father confessor, the jesuit Manuel Alvarez. These letters are kept in the Archive of the Dominican Monastery of Santa Rosa de Lima in Santiago, Chile. The letters seem a manifestation of confessional discourse which the nuns had to write by order of their father confessors or ecclesiastical autorities. However, the Epistolary analysis reveals the transformations of that discoursive pattern, which Sor Josefa's writing constitutes itself in the support of a selfknowing process and in a construction of woman identity, which is not recognized only in her religious vocation and virtues, but also in her knowing capacity, wisdom and words management.

  2. Pattern of dental development in Hominid XVIII from the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos site (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez De Castro, J M; Rosas, A

    2001-04-01

    . We describe the pattern of dental development of Hominid XVIII from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos (SH) site of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). As expected, this pattern is similar to that of modern humans. A delay of development of the lower and upper canines was observed. In contrast, the relative advanced development of the lower second molars and, especially, the upper and lower third molars is noteworthy. This latter feature seems to be common in Pleistocene hominids, and suggests that the pattern of dental development evolved in the genus Homo during the Pleistocene. In European Middle Pleistocene hominids, this pattern probably was facilitated by the extra space available in the mandible and maxilla for developing teeth. PMID:11275961

  3. El tropero y el origen de la burguesía en el Cono Sur (Mendoza, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aprofunda a análise sobre a carreta e o tropeiro, para definir em que medida contribuíram para o processo de construção de uma cultura empresarial na América Colonial, levando ao surgimento de uma burguesia. Atenta-se, em especial, para temas como mobilidade social, riscos empresariais, fomento do crédito em confiança ou por hipoteca de carretas, circulação de idéias e configuração de um ethos capitalista. Este trabalho constitui a continuação e a conclusão de um anterior intitulado "Carretas y transporte terrestre bioceánico: la ruta Buenos Aires-Mendoza en el siglo XVIII" (Estudos Ibero-Americanos, vol. XXXI, nº 1, 2005

  4. Estudio técnico y del estado de conservación de un grabado del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    SAFONT CRUZ, ELVIRA

    2015-01-01

    El present Treball de Final de Grau consisteix en l’estudi tècnic i anàlisi de l’estat de conservació d’un gravat de principis del segle XVIII amb la finalitat de plantejar una proposta de conservació. L’obra objecte d’estudi presenta una intervenció anterior que consisteix en l’entelat total del revers de l’obra, essent aquest fet poc recurrent en obres de la seua tipologia. A més a més, el gravat es troba emmarcat, amb la qual cosa es pot concloure que la finalitat d´ambdós factors és ap...

  5. Resistencia india, conciliación y estrategia militar en Quixos durante la primera mitad del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Gómez González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El noroccidente amazónico, en especial la gobernación de Quixos, fue una de las más ignotas regiones de América del Sur durante el siglo XVIII. Sus jurisdicciones, dependientes en parte de la Real Audiencia de Quito, no gozaron de suficiente atención por parte de la administración monárquica; por tanto, la dominación del territorio y sus habitantes originarios no pudo concretarse en términos absolutos debido a las dificultades supuestas por la resistencia indígena frente a unas estrategias de sometimiento poco consecuentes y evidentemente desarticuladas de las políticas hispánicas para los territorios fronterizos.

  6. THE STATE-POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE FEUDAL STRUCTURES OF DAGESTAN IN THE MIDDLE XVIII - EARLY XIX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Umalatovna RABADANOVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the public-political system of feudal structures in Dagestan in the middle XVIII-early XIX century, analyzes the political structures, reveals specific features of their administration. All political structures of Dagestan differed from each other in their territory, location in a certain part of the region, power structure, number of villages, internal and external borders, ethnic composition of the population, different spheres of economy, position in the system of political structures of Dagestan and relationships with them and other states, their role in the life of the region as a whole. All the fiefdoms in Dagestan (except for the Syurginsk Khanate were multi-ethnic formations, where lived different nations and ethnic groups, although one of them (Dargins, Avars, Kumyks, Lezgins, Laks, Tabasarans, Tsakhurs was a dominant part of the population in this or that area of the region. 

  7. Topografías religiosas. La dimensión territorial de la religiosidad popular en el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Chinchilla, María José

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se pretende abordar la dimensión territorial de la religiosidad popular en el siglo XVIII a partir del análisis de una serie de representaciones espaciales. El estudio de tales imágenes –croquis remitidos al geógrafo Tomás López y planos insertos en la documentación del Catastro de Ensenada– nos permitirá aproximarnos al complejo universo de la percepción espacial y la apreciación paisajística, así como a reflexionar sobre las construcciones simbólicas y la apropiación ideoló...

  8. A escrita em guarani dos mayordomos e o exemplo de Valentín Ybariguá (Paraguai, XVIII)

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Eduardo S.

    2014-01-01

    En las reducciones del Paraguay, la enseñanza de las “artes y oficios” alcanzó un nivel sorprendente. La conquista del alfabeto por los guaraníes fue un aspecto de ese desarrollo, que amplió las posibilidades de comunicación de los indígenas con los poderes coloniales. A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII fue frecuente la práctica de la escritura entre los indígenas de las misiones. El conocimiento de los protocolos letrados permitió a la élite indígena una vía de comunicación direc...

  9. XVIII. YÜZYILIN İKİNCİ YARISINDA ÇILDIR EYÂLETİ VE İDARECİLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    İnbaşı, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    Osmanlı-İran harpleri sırasında 1 Temmuz 1579’da kurulan Çıldır Eyâleti, Atabeylerin idaresine verilmişti. XVII. yüzyılda sancak sayısı 14 ile 20 arasında değişmiş, XVIII. yüzyılda ise 21 sancağa kadar yükselmiştir. 1750–1800 yılları arasında sancak sayısı 21’dir. Bu dönemde 9 vali görev yapmıştır. Bunlar içerisinde en uzun görev yapan vali 19 yıl ile Süleyman Paşa’dır. Valiler içerisinde ismi geçen İ...

  10. La literatura de viajes y el transporte en Galicia desde el último tercio del siglo XVIII hasta mediados del XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindoso-Tato, Elvira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain, in general, and Galicia, in particular, stayed away from the Grand Tour, major exponent of the modern tourism born in Great Britain. The ignorance of the land and the poor ground transportation contributed to this distance, among other things. In this way, the paper focuses in the analysis of both obstacles in the first tourism development in Galicia, between the late eighteenth century and the mid-nineteenth century, before the railway construction. On the one hand, it analyses the image that some foreign travelers offered about their travels in Galicia, and, on the other hand, it studies the state of the ground transportation during the period. The foreign testimonies about the Galician region were short compared with other parts of the peninsula. Although they relieved in certain degree the ignorance about Galicia with the marking of some points of future tourist interest. At last, several and partial improvements in the ground transportation were made in the last third of the eighteenth century.España, en general, y Galicia, en particular, permanecieron alejadas de las rutas del Grand Tour, exponente principal del turismo moderno iniciado en Gran Bretaña. El desconocimiento del territorio y el deficiente estado de los transportes terrestres contribuyeron a este alejamiento, entre otros factores. Así, el trabajo se centra en el análisis de ambos obstáculos al primer desarrollo del turismo en Galicia entre finales del siglo XVIII y mediados del siglo XIX, antes de la construcción del ferrocarril. Por un lado, se analiza la imagen que ofrecieron algunos viajeros extranjeros en sus crónicas de viaje por tierras galaicas y, por otro lado, se estudia el estado del transporte terrestre de la época. Se observa que los testimonios forasteros sobre la región gallega resultaron escasos en comparación con otros puntos peninsulares aunque aliviaron en cierto grado el desconocimiento que pesaba sobre la comunidad, marcando una serie de

  11. Chapter I: Landscape and its representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter contains and defines the basic concepts, represents the landscape in schematic way, demonstrates the concepts in form of pictures (landscape as a whole, its individual components and structures), graphic forms, including the historical and the present representation of landscape in artistic works. Definition of landscape and schemes of the basic concepts are included. It consists of next subchapters: (1) Landscape - material reality - fragment of geographical sphere; (2) Landscape, its elements, and relationships; (3) Landscape structure; (4) Definition of the landscape; (5) Landscape characteristics; Methodology used for compilation of the Landscape Atlas of the SR; (6) Conception of the Landscape Atlas of the Slovak Republic; Historical representation of landscape; (7) Development of representation of the selected landscape types; Slovak landscape in fine arts

  12. Environment-effect reporting. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment-effect reporting is a tool in the resolution of one or more government bodies about activities which may have important disadvantageous impacts upon the environment. This chapter gives a treatment of environment-effect reporting as a process consisting of the preparation, draw-up, judgement and use of an environment-effect report (MER), followed by an evaluation. The contentsof an environment-effect report are indicated. The role of environment-effect reporting in relation with other procedures is discussed. Some experience with the application of environment-effect reporting is presented and a number of experiences in the application are discussed. (H.W.). 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Chapter 40: history of neurology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, François; Boller, François

    2010-01-01

    The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where "everything seems to happen in Paris," and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world. The chapter shows, however, that the work of Charcot was preceded by a long evolution in medical thinking, which culminated with the introduction of experimental medicine developed by Claude Bernard and François Magendie, and by the study of aphasia by Paul Broca and its localization of language in a specific area of the brain. Many of the great neurologists of France like Duchenne de Boulogne, Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski and Pierre Marie gravitated around Charcot while others like Charles-Edward Brown-Sequard and Jules Dejerine developed their talents independently. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital further illustrates this independence. It also shows the relation between neurology and psychiatry with Henri Ey, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, who collaborated with Henri Laborit in the clinical development of chlorpromazine. Sainte Anne also saw the birth of modern neuropsychology with Henry Hécaen. Jean Talairach and his group developed human stereotaxic neurosurgery and a 3-dimensional brain atlas that is used around the world. The chapter also mentions institutions (the CNRS and INSERM) that have contributed to developments partially independently from medical schools. It concludes with a presentation of schools located outside of Paris that have played a significant role in the development of neurology. Six of the most important ones are described: Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Lyon, and

  14. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  15. Basic operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gohberg, Israel

    2001-01-01

    rii application of linear operators on a Hilbert space. We begin with a chapter on the geometry of Hilbert space and then proceed to the spectral theory of compact self adjoint operators; operational calculus is next presented as a nat­ ural outgrowth of the spectral theory. The second part of the text concentrates on Banach spaces and linear operators acting on these spaces. It includes, for example, the three 'basic principles of linear analysis and the Riesz­ Fredholm theory of compact operators. Both parts contain plenty of applications. All chapters deal exclusively with linear problems, except for the last chapter which is an introduction to the theory of nonlinear operators. In addition to the standard topics in functional anal­ ysis, we have presented relatively recent results which appear, for example, in Chapter VII. In general, in writ­ ing this book, the authors were strongly influenced by re­ cent developments in operator theory which affected the choice of topics, proofs and exercises. One ...

  16. Tele-operation and tele-robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is devoted to the description of the technology of tele-operation and tele-robots. The main characteristics of a robot are its versatility or capacity to perform movements and various tasks, and its aptitude to present an autonomous behaviour. However, this autonomy is far to be complete and the man presence in the control room is necessary to carry out the remotely controlled operations. The first chapter recalls the evolution of the tele-operation systems (TS) and goes on with the description of the methods and technologies used to build the main sub-parts of a TS: mechanical parts (chapter 2), actuators (chapter 3), haptic feedbacks (chapter 4), direct control (chapter 5), servo-controls (chapter 6), stress feedback assistance (chapter 7). The last three chapters deals with the application of robots and remote handling systems: interventions in nuclear and hazardous environments, remote handling in field works, and medical applications. (J.S.)

  17. Operating manual for the Tower Shielding Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual provides information necessary to operate and perform maintenance on the reactor systems and all equipment or systems which can affect their operation or the safety of personnel at the Tower Shielding Facility. The first four chapters consist of introductory and descriptive material of benefit to personnel in training, the qualifications required for training, the responsibilities of the personnel in the organization, and the procedures for reviewing proposed experiments. Chapter 8, Emergency Procedures, is also a necessary part of the indoctrination of personnel. The procedures for operation of the Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR-II), its water cooling system, and the main tower hoists are outlined in Chapters 5, 6, and 7. The Technical Specification surveillance requirements for the TSR-II are summarized in Chapter 9. The maintenance and calibration schedule is spelled out in Chapter 10. The procedures for assembly and disassembly of the TSR-II are outlined in Chapter 11

  18. Tensor norms and operator ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Defant, A

    1992-01-01

    The three chapters of this book are entitled Basic Concepts, Tensor Norms, and Special Topics. The first may serve as part of an introductory course in Functional Analysis since it shows the powerful use of the projective and injective tensor norms, as well as the basics of the theory of operator ideals. The second chapter is the main part of the book: it presents the theory of tensor norms as designed by Grothendieck in the Resumé and deals with the relation between tensor norms and operator ideals. The last chapter deals with special questions. Each section is accompanied by a series of exercises.

  19. Chapter 24: Programmatic Interfaces - IDL VOlib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    In this chapter, we describe a library for working with the VO using IDL (the Interactive Data Language). IDL is a software environment for data analysis, visualization, and cross-platform application development. It has wide-usage in astronomy, including NASA (e.g. http://seadas.gsfc.nasa.gov/), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (http://www.sdss.org), and the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Instrument (http://ssc.spitzer.caltech.edu/archanaly/contributed/smart/). David Stern, the founder of Research Systems, Inc. (RSI), began the development of IDL while working with NASA's Mars Mariner 7 and 9 data at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado. In 1981, IDL was rewritten in assembly language and FORTRAN for VAX/VMS. IDL's usage has expanded over the last decade into the fields of medical imaging and engineering, among many others. IDL's programming style carries over much of this FORTRAN-legacy, and has a familiar feel to many astronomers who learned their trade using FORTRAN. The spread of IDL-usage amongst astronomers can in part be attributed to the wealth of publicly astronomical libraries. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) maintains a list of astronomy-related IDL libraries, including the well known Astronomy User's Library (hereafter ASTROLIB2). We will use some of these GSFC IDL libraries. We note that while IDL is a licensed-software product, the source code of user-written procedures are typically freely available to the community. To make the most out of this section as a reader, it is important that many of the data discovery, access, and analysis protocols are understood before reading this chapter. In the next section, we provide an overview of some of the NVO terminology with which the reader should be familiar. The IDL library discussed here is specifically for use with the Virtual Observatory and is named VOlib. IDL's VOlib is available at http://nvo.noao.edu and is included with the software distrubution for this

  20. Caminhos e invenções da santidade feminina em Portugal nos séculos XVII e XVIII : Alguns, dados, problemas e sugestões

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Pedro Vilas Boas

    1996-01-01

    This work draws on available data and factual examples (particularly from the feminine social sphere) to establish the relationship between, on the one hand, a growing search for sanctity during the XVII century and the first half of the XVIII, and, on the other hand, the proclamation of silent prayer and contemplation which should be practiced by the secular world. Due to these circumstances and concurrent fear of degradation of spiritual life, we try to describe in this research work the ne...

  1. Análisis metrológico de la planimetria empleada en el antiguo Reino de Valencia durante los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Rioja Castellano, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ENGLISH ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS TITLE: METROLOGICAL ANALYSIS ABOUT THE PERFORMED PLANIMETRY ON THE OLD KINGDOM OF VALENCIA OVER THE XVII, XVIII AND XIX CENTURIES. In this thesis, the author make a study about the used units on the Old Kingdom of Valencia, since the XVII century until mid XIX century. In order to do this, two paragraphs have been reorganized. On the first one, the author analyse metrics systems as a whole, its origin, the units, its geographical location, the mea...

  2. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  3. Moving forward with imperfect information: chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Brekke, Levi D.; Kaatz, Laurna; Welling, Leigh; Hartge, Eric H.; Iseman, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarized the scope of what is known and not known about climate in the Southwestern United States. There is now more evidence and more agreement among climate scientists about the physical climate and related impacts in the Southwest compared with that represented in the 2009 National Climate Assessment (Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009). However, there remain uncertainties about the climate system, the complexities within climate models, the related impacts to the biophysical environment, and the use of climate information on decision making. Uncertainty is introduced in each step of the climate planning-an-response process--in the scenarios used to drive the climate models, the information used to construct the models, and the interpretation and use of the model' data for planning and decision making (Figure 19.1). There are server key challenge, drawn from recommendations of the authors of this report, that contribute to these uncertainties in the Southwest: - There is a dearth of climate observations at high elevations and on the lands of Native nations.

  4. Territorialidad y reproducción social: Los tinogasta en Belén, Catamarca, durante el siglo XVIII Territoriality and social reproduction: The tinogasta in Belen, Catamarca. 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Ignacio Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las prácticas de territorialización desplegadas por los Tinogasta en Belén durante el siglo XVIII. Se analizaran los mecanismos jurídicos coloniales a partir de los cuales los Tinogasta buscaron "reterritorializar" su espacio, para recomponer sus condiciones de reproducción social. En este sentido, se observará cómo, frente a diversas prácticas de dominación, algunas poblaciones indígenas implementaron estrategias de resistencia, negociación y/o alianza para reinterpretar la realidad colonial y operar sobre ella. Así, lejos de ser meros espectadores pasivos de su dominio se transformaron en agentes de su reproducción social en un contexto de asimetría.This paper analyzes the practices of territorialization deployed by the Tinogasta in Belen through the 18th century. It will analyze how, through colonial legal mechanisms, the Tinogasta looked for "re-territorialize" their space in order to rebuild their conditions of social reproduction. We intend to observe how some Indian populations implemented multiple resistance, negotiation and/or alliance strategies against diverse domination practices in order to reinterpret -and operate on- the colonial reality. Then, far from being mere passive spectators of their dominance they became agents of their own social reproduction in an asymmetrical context.

  5. Los boticarios del hospital Real de Santiago de Compostela en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmartín Miguez, J. Santiago

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The present work tries to illustrate the life and work of the professionals of a Pharmacy at an outstanding Spanish hospital in the 18th century. This centre, founded by the Catholic King and Queen (Fernando of Aragón and Isabel of Castilla in the late 15th century, will provide the professionals of Pharmacy with an original constitution that shall rule their lives beyond their pharmaceutical activity. The author aims to recreate the figure of the Institution´s Pharmacists, both on their professional aspects and on their projection on the urban society of their time. To do so, different sections focus on the obligations of the Pharmacists as drugs technicians and as Major Ministers of the Institution; Their interaction among the centre sanitary personnel and the conflicts that arise among the different professionals; their formation; their salary which is compared to those of similar professionals and even with those of other similar Spanish hospitals, the criteria for their promotion as well as their social origin and consideration their job gives them.



    El presente trabajo trata de dar a conocer la vida y la actividad de los profesionales de la Botica de un emblemático hospital español durante el siglo XVIII. Este Centro sanitario, fundado por los Reyes CatReport on the Payroll System. MORE: Management Operations Review & Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Robert J.; And Others

    Designed to improve the long-term operational efficiency of the Montgomery County, Maryland, Public Schools (MCPS) payroll system, this study begins with an executive summary, including a set of recommendations and a chapter-by-chapter synopsis. Following an introduction to the study and a general description of the payroll system in chapters 1…

  6. Site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter is a discussion of the management and operations practices used at the Barnwell Waste Management Facility in Barnwell, SC. The following topics are discussed: (1) Waste receiving and inspection, including manifest and certificates of compliance, radiological surveys, disposition of nonconforming items, and decontamination and disposition of secondary waste streams; (2) Waste disposal, including Title 10 CFR 61 requirements, disposal area evaluations, shipment offloading, container emplacement, and radiation protection; (3) Trench closure, including trench backfilling, trench capping, and permanent markers; (4) Site maintenance and stabilization, including trench maintenance, surface water management, and site closure activities; (5) Site monitoring programs, including operational monitoring, and environmental monitoring program; (6) Personnel training and qualifications, including basic training program, safety training program, special skills training, and physical qualifications; (7) Records management, including waste records, personnel training records, personnel dosimetry records, site monitoring records, trench qualification and construction records, and site drawings and stabilization records; (8) Site security; (9) Emergency response plans; and (10) Quality assurance

  7. Chapter 1 Support for Instructional Development, 1986-87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaemper, Jack; Morse, Kathy

    Six of the 39 Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools' Chapter 1 participating schools, as part of the school-based budgeting process, allocated a portion of their Chapter 1 resource allocation for on-site intensive staff development activities. Three schools--Alamosa, Chaparral, and Duranes--agreed to utilize the time of a Support for…

  8. Nueva axiología de la España del siglo XVIII en el contexto europeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro DIZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La revisión de las creencias básicas que realiza Europa en el siglo XVIII tiene su correlato en España donde, al mismo tiempo que se cuestionan y reinterpretan los conceptos tradicionales, van perfilándose el sentido de las principales nociones dieciochescas. Se analizan en esta axiología el «nuevo arquetipo humano» en relación con la mentalidad burguesa y las cualidades que corresponden al hombre de bien y el hombre social (sinceridad, autenticidad, sensibilidad y buen gusto. Asimismo el cambio en el concepto de pasiones, la idea de progreso y el sentido otorgado a la noción de felicidad. El artículo abunda en la interpretación del humor, la ironía y la risa, del lujo para enmarcar estos conceptos en la nueva idea de sociabilidad y el principio de utilidad, y también en el cambio de usos y costumbres y en el sentido de la fe que conlleva el siglo XVIII.ABSTRACT: The revision of basic beliefs carried out in Europe in the eighteenth century has its correlation in Spain, where, at the same time that the traditional concepts were questioned and reinterpreted, the sense of the main eighteenth century notions were developing. In this axiology an analysis is made of the «new human archetype» in relation to bourgeois mentality and the qualities corresponding to «the good man» and «the social man» (sincerity, genuineness, sensibility and good taste. The change in the concept of passions, the idea of progress and the sense given to the notion of happiness are also analysed. The article deals with the interpretation of humour, irony and laughter, the luxury to frame these concepts in the new idea of sociability and the principie of utility, and also in the change of uses and customs and in the sense of faith in the eighteenth century.

  9. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D., (Edited By); Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  10. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  11. Chapter 15 Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Paul; Devon, Rebecca S; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R

    2007-01-01

    Several forms of genetically defined juvenile amy-otrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have now been charac-terized and discussion of these conditions will form the basis for this chapter. ALS2 is an autosomal recessive form of ALS with a juvenile onset and very slow progression that mapped to chromosome 2q33. Nine different mutations have been identified in the ALS2 gene that result in premature stop codons, suggesting a loss of function in the gene product, alsin. The alsin protein is thought to function as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for GTPases and may play a role in vesicle transport or membrane trafficking processes. ALS4 is an autosomal dominant form of juvenile onset ALS associated with slow progression, severe muscle weakness and pyramidal signs, in the absence of bulbar and sensory abnormalities. Mutations in the SETX gene cause ALS4, and the SETX gene product senataxin may have DNA and RNA helicase activity and play a role in the regulation of RNA and/or DNA in the cell. A third form of juvenile-onset ALS (ALS5) is associated with slowly progressing lower motor neuron signs (weak-ness and atrophy) initially of the hands and feet, with eventual bulbar involvement. Progressive upper motor neuron disease becomes more obvious with time. ALS5 has been linked to a 6 cM region of chromosome 15q15.1-q21.1, but the causative gene mutation for ALS5 has yet to be identified. The high degree of clin-ical and genetic heterogeneity in the various forms of juvenile ALS can make differential diagnosis difficult, other genetic disorders that must be considered include: spinal muscular atrophy, hereditary spastic paraplegia, SBMA, GM2 gangliosidosis and the hereditary motor neuronopathies/motor forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Acquired disorders that must also be consid-ered include heavy metal intoxications (especially lead), multifocal motor neuropathy, paraneoplastic syndromes, vitamin deficiencies (B12) and infections (HTLV-II, HIV and poliomyelitis). PMID

  12. Contribution of the Federal Republic of Germany to chapter C.3/C.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper refers to chapters C.3 and C.4 of the WG 5C report. Different modes of international FBR activities are examined according to the aspects such as ownership, operation, electricity supply, and safeguards. Examples of realization of international FBR development are given. Three aspects are examined as the main potential incentives for internationalization i.e. environment, economics, non-proliferation; some problems are revealed. Aspects of collocation and internationalization in connection with FBRs are investigated based on 3 concepts

  13. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  14. Chapter 17: Flow Interruption in Trickle Beds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haure, P.; Hanika, Jiří; Silvestone, P.L.

    Oxford : Butterworth-Heinemann, 2013, s. 463-493 ISBN 978-0-12-391854-3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : trickle bed * fluid phase * channels Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www. amazon .com/Periodic-Operation-Reactors-P-Silveston/dp/0123918545

  15. Applied Space Systems Engineering. Chapter 17; Manage Technical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Effective space systems engineering (SSE) is conducted in a fully electronic manner. Competitive hardware, software, and system designs are created in a totally digital environment that enables rapid product design and manufacturing cycles, as well as a multitude of techniques such as modeling, simulation, and lean manufacturing that significantly reduce the lifecycle cost of systems. Because the SSE lifecycle depends on the digital environment, managing the enormous volumes of technical data needed to describe, build, deploy, and operate systems is a critical factor in the success of a project. This chapter presents the key aspects of Technical Data Management (TDM) within the SSE process. It is written from the perspective of the System Engineer tasked with establishing the TDM process and infrastructure for a major project. Additional perspectives are reflected from the point of view of the engineers on the project who work within the digital engineering environment established by the TDM toolset and infrastructure, and from the point of view of the contactors who interface via the TDM infrastructure. Table 17.1 lists the TDM process as it relates to SSE.

  16. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  17. Chapter No.6. Radioactive waste (RAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UJD SR supervises all phases of radioactive waste management at nuclear installations and final phases of institutional radioactive waste management. Total concentrates generation and minimisation trends during recent period (for NPP V1, NPP V2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce) as well as increasing of their conditioning are presented. So nearly 8000 m3 of concentrates were stored at the end of year 2001, representing 75.5% of storage capacity at Bohunice site. Total amount of solid waste stored at VVER NPPs reached 3500 m3 at December 2001. The solid waste storage capacity of NPP V1 Bohunice is spent. NPP A1 Bohunice with a heterogeneous reactor using natural uranium, moderated by heavy water and cooled by CO2 had been in operation for 4 years. It was finally shut down in February 1977 after an accident (INES level 4). Main activities in 2001 were focused on an increasing of radwaste management safety by the waste solidification or storage improvement, especially in the case of inorganic spent fuel coolant. The total solid radwaste inventory in 2001 (including filters) represents cca 700 m3 of soft and pre-pressed not sorted waste, 700 m3 of sorted waste, more then 1 000 t of scrap and next 260 m3 of scrap in drums. The total volume of contaminated soils and concrete is more than 7200 m3. The volume of solid radwaste depends on the extent of dismantling works and following treatment, conditioning and disposal. The total volume is also increased by products of bituminization and cementation facilities in drums stored before conditioning at NPP A1 Bohunice site. The facilities focused only on treatment of radwaste from NPP A1 decommissioning are operated by the same operator as a part of this decommissioned nuclear installation. Experimental and research treatment plants are operated by VUJE. A facility for the treatment and conditioning of operational liquid radwaste from NPP Mochovce is under preparation and a start of construction is foreseen in 2004. The nuclear

  18. Relaciones peligrosas: viajes, intercambio y viruela entre las sociedades nativas de las pampas (frontera de Buenos Aires, Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Jim\\u00E9nez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las sociedades nativas de las pampas reconocieron la existencia de tres tipos de comerciantes: nampulcan , pulperú y huincá huitrán . El primero viajaba por los territorios de distintas parcialidades indígenas; el segundo ofrecía en los campamentos indios las mercancías traídas de la frontera; y el restante se adentraba en espacios controlados por los hispano-criollos, visitando sus poblaciones. La diferenciación entre quienes recorrían la tierra y los que llegaban hasta pueblos y ciudades ( warria refleja una experiencia histórica que vinculaba el contacto interétnico con situaciones de mayor riesgo. Los huincá huitrán eran figuras ambiguas, capaces de mediar exitosamente entre mundos diferentes y obtener bienes necesarios o deseados, pero simultáneamente constituirse en una fuente de grave peligro para las propias comunidades. Con frecuencia, su actividad solía ponerlos en contacto con enfermedades europeas y transformarlos en vectores involuntarios de las mismas. El artículo se centra en esta última cuestión y examina las vinculaciones existentes entre comercio fronterizo y recurrentes epidemias de la devastadora viruela durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. Para ello, se utilizarán fuentes documentales interpretadas al amparo de abundante información contenida en estudios antropológicos, demográficos y lingüísticos.

  19. Asentistas y fabricantes: el abastecimiento de armas y municiones al Estado en los siglos XVII y XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín GONZÁLEZ ENCISO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia cómo resolvía el Estado español el abastecimiento de armas en los siglos XVII y XVIII según la fórmula empresarial utilizada: qué tipo de empresario y qué tipo de organización empresarial. Ello lleva, en primer lugar, a una somera, pero necesaria descripción del sector, en concreto, la fabricación de cañones, de municiones y de fusiles. Esta parte incluye consideraciones sobre la organización empresarial y sobre los aspectos técnicos. El cuerpo del trabajo estudia la figura de los asentistas en cada sector: quiénes eran, qué otros negocios tenían, cuáles eran las características de los asientos, cuál era su relación con la Administración, si desarrollaban vínculos familiares, etc. Hasta 1760 dominó el abastecimiento por asiento, pero tras esa fecha el Estado cambió, en unos cuantos casos, hacia otras fórmulas, para pasar a ser un Estado fabricante. La última parte del artículo estudia esta época, sus circunstancias y las consecuencias que trajo en la producción, en el abastecimiento y en los empresarios.

  1. El color y su significado en los documentos cartográficos del Cuerpo de Ingenieros Militares del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita San Andrés Moya

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Los Documentos Cartográficos del Cuerpo de Ingenieros Militares del s. XVIII y las fuentes documentales asociadas a su ejecución tienen un gran interés histórico, artístico y cultural. En este artículo se analizan las fuentes relacionadas con las técnicas, los materiales y sus formas de aplicación. Se describen los pigmentos y colorantes recogidos en los distintos tratados relacionados con este arte, especialmente los referidos a la técnica del lavado, en los que, además, se hace referencia a los códigos de color según el elemento representado, el orden o secuencia de trabajo y las mezclas de colores. Puesto que se trata de documentos que en aquella época tuvieron una función eminentemente práctica, en su ejecución se seguían unas pautas determinadas, que permitían normalizar su lectura e interpretación. Desde la perspectiva de la Conservación-Restauración, la documentación estudiada aporta una información significativa relacionada con los materiales sobre los que se intervienen, la detección de procesos de degradación y la autentificación de documentos.

  2. Conflictos en torno a la compra y venta de esclavos en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pita Pico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se centra en el análisis de los conflictos que giraron en torno a las operaciones de compra de esclavos en el nororiente neogranadino durante el siglo XVIII. Legalizaciones aplazadas, ventas desautorizadas, pagos pendientes, esclavos hipotecados y confusiones sobre el estado real del esclavo comercializado fueron situaciones que desataron enconadas disputas y pleitos judiciales que terminaron algunas veces con la declaratoria de redhibitoria, es decir, la anulación del contrato de venta y la devolución del esclavo. En vista de estos antecedentes, y con un ánimo preventivo, los negociantes se aseguraron de fijar en las escrituras de compraventa ciertas garantías o aclaraciones para no verse involucrados en tales litigios. This paper focuses on the analysis of the conflicts that revolved around the buying of slaves in northeast New Granada during the 18th century. Deferred legalization, unauthorized sales, pending payments, mortgaged slaves, confu-sion about the real state of the slave traded, were situations that triggered bitter disputes and lawsuits ended sometimes with the declaration of rescission, that is, the cancellation of the contract of sale and the return of the slave. Given this background, traders were careful to place certain warranties or clarifications into the deed of sale to avoid being involved in such litigation.

  3. Energy levels, oscillator strengths, and radiative rates for Si-like Zn XVII, Ga XVIII, Ge XIX, and As XX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy levels, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and transition probabilities for transitions among the terms belonging to the 3s23p2, 3s3p3, 3s23p3d, 3s23p4s, 3s23p4p and 3s23p4d configurations of silicon-like ions (Zn XVII, Ga XVIII, Ge XIX, and As XX) have been calculated using the configuration-interaction code CIV3. The calculations have been carried out in the intermediate coupling scheme using the Breit–Pauli Hamiltonian. The present calculations have been compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Most of our calculations of energy levels and oscillator strengths (in length form) show good agreement with both experimental and theoretical data. Lifetimes of the excited levels have also been calculated. -- Highlights: •We have calculated the fine-structure energy levels of Si-like Zn, Ga, Ge and As. •The calculations are performed using the configuration interaction method (CIV3). •We have calculated the oscillator strengths, line strengths and transition rates. •The wavelengths of the transitions are listed in this article. •We also have made comparisons between our data and other calculations

  4. Deletion of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan type XVIII collagen causes hypertriglyceridemia in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Bishop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetically altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate had no effect on Lpl localization or lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix proteoglycans affect Lpl distribution and triglyceride metabolism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined mutant mice defective in collagen XVIII (Col18, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan present in vascular basement membranes. Loss of Col18 reduces plasma levels of Lpl enzyme and activity, which results in mild fasting hypertriglyceridemia and diet-induced hyperchylomicronemia. Humans with Knobloch Syndrome caused by a null mutation in the vascular form of Col18 also present lower than normal plasma Lpl mass and activity and exhibit fasting hypertriglyceridemia. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report demonstrating that Lpl presentation on the lumenal side of the endothelium depends on a basement membrane proteoglycan and demonstrates a previously unrecognized phenotype in patients lacking Col18.

  5. La naturaleza como percepción cultural. Montes y selvas en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Pérez Morales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo es una aproximación al mundo de las percepciones culturales sobre los principales entornos selváticos del Nuevo Reino de Granada durante el siglo XVIII, basada fundamentalmente en la consulta sistemática de fuentes primarias manuscritas y publicadas y apoyada en algunos aportes fundamentales de la perspectiva cultural de la historia ambiental y de la historia cultural del período de la Ilustración. En lo fundamental, se presentan las ideas, valoraciones, tensiones conflictivas y usos técnicos que se generaron desde los ámbitos perceptivos de los pobladores urbanos, las autoridades virreinales, algunos grupos indígenas y los hombres ilustrados. La noción de desierto, la sensibilidad del miedo o la categoría de “barbarie” se destacan entre los componentes principales de la percepción cultural de la época, estrechamente ligada a herencias europeas judeocristianas.

  6. Más allá del telar: el mundo del trabajo femenino en la Asturias del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Suárez Álvarez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Siglo de la Razón proliferaron los tratados dónde, por primera vez en la historia, se ponía de relieve la necesidad de educar de forma conveniente a las mujeres. Sin embargo, a pesar del reconocimiento que los Ilustrados otorgaron al sexo femenino, siguieron relegando a éstas a las paredes del hogar, exhortándoles a quedarse fuera del mundo del trabajo extra-doméstico, reservado sólo para los hombres de la familia. No obstante, la necesidad obligaba, y cuando los recursos u hombres de una casa escaseaban, la mujer tenía que salir a buscarse el sustento. Este es el caso de cientos de mujeres del Principado de Asturias, dónde, a mediados del siglo XVIII, la realidad femenina difería de lo que lo que se consideraba ideal. Este trabajo arrojará pues luz, en un campo hasta ahora desconocido: el del mundo profesional de las mujeres asturianas del Setecientos, dónde comprobaremos cómo en ocasiones llegaban a adquirir, gracias a su status profesional, papeles relevantes dentro de la sociedad.

  7. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  8. Classifiers Based on Inverted Distances. Chapter 19

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    Rijeka: InTech, 2011 - (Funatsu, K.; Hasegawa, K.), s. 369-386 ISBN 978-953-307-547-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : classification * neighbor distances * correlation dimension * Zipfian distribution Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.intechopen.com/books/new-fundamental-technologies-in-data-mining/classifiers-based-on-inverted-distances

  9. Data, Information and Knowledge. Chapter I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana; Veselý, Arnošt; Vajda, Igor

    Hershey : Information Science Reference, 2009 - (Berka, P.; Rauch, J.; Zighed, D.), s. 1-36 ISBN 978-1-60566-218-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data * information * knowledge Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  10. New Chapter in Exchange Rate Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of new trading model has multiple significance China's central bank invited public bidding among 10 major domestic commercial banks to carry out one-year-long currency swap transactions last November. This move, according to Zuo Xiaolei, Chief Economist of China Galaxy Securities Co. Ltd., not only enables financial derivatives to become an operational instrument for implementing monetary policy, but also represents another action of the marketization of the exchange rate regime after an ear...

  11. Chapter 14: Wind Turbine Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by gravity, stochastic wind disturbances, and gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines is nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated three-dimensional turbulent wind inflow field that drives fatigue loading. Wind turbine modeling is also complex and challenging. Accurate models must contain many degrees of freedom (DOF) to capture the most important dynamic effects. The rotation of the rotor adds complexity to the dynamics modeling. Designs of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for these complexities. Algorithms must capture the most important turbine dynamics without being too complex and unwieldy. Off-the-shelf commercial soft ware is seldom adequate for wind turbine dynamics modeling. Instead, specialized dynamic simulation codes are usually required to model all the important nonlinear effects. As illustrated in Figure 14-1, a wind turbine control system consists of sensors, actuators and a system that ties these elements together. A hardware or software system processes input signals from the sensors and generates output signals for actuators. The main goal of the controller is to modify the operating states of the turbine to maintain safe turbine operation, maximize power, mitigate damaging fatigue loads, and detect fault conditions. A supervisory control system starts and stops the machine, yaws the turbine when there is a significant yaw misalignment, detects fault conditions, and performs emergency shut-downs. Other parts of the controller are intended to maximize power and reduce loads during normal turbine operation.

  12. Nuclear material operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  13. Nuclear material operations manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is intended to provide a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  14. Nuclear material operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  15. Chapter 9. Personnel qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on the overall training system and on developing programmes for individual categories for NPP V-1 Bohunice, NPP V-2 Bohunice, NPP Mochovce and SE-VYZ. The fundamental theoretical and periodical training for both Bohunice and Mochovce NPPs personnel, simulator training for NPP Bohunice, and periodical simulator training for Bohunice personnel is carried out by the VUJE Training center in Trnava, whereas the simulator training and periodical training for NPP Mochovce is carried at Mochovce plant. Based on a successful passing of examination before the examining committee, UJD issues, a certificate on special professional skills of selected staff of nuclear installations for specific activity for the given type of nuclear installation and for the following positions: (a)Shift manager for scientific start up with the right of manipulation; (b) Shift supervisor; (c) Unit supervisor; (d) Primary circuit operator; (e) Secondary circuit operator; (f) Reactor physicist; (g) Shift manager for scientific start up without the right of manipulation. Examination of selected personnel is described. Last year the examining committee held twelve session for oral theoretical examination. The number of licenses issued in 1999 and the total number of valid licenses is given.Conclusions from inspections carried out by UJD and inspections and tests carried out by the NPP operators in 1999, as well as results from operation and start up of nuclear units confirm that the standard of professional skills of the staff at nuclear installations a high standard of operational safety is being achieved on a permanent basis. Increasing the qualification of UJD staff was done in a form of training and courses scheduled in the plan of training for the staff for 1999. These training, composed of specialized qualification study, functional study, as well as study aimed at maintaining qualification. Training courses organized

  16. Operating system Google Android

    OpenAIRE

    Haris, Marek

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis deals with the Operating system Google Android. In the introductory part the author describes the very history and a progressive development of the company Google and Android. The thesis focuses on the Operating system Google Android and contains some basic information about the system. The architecture is analysed in detail. Then the Bachelor thesis deals with the development of individual version of the system Android. Next chapters explain and deal with the topics And...

  17. Chapter 9. Personnel qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall training system and the development of projects for training of all categories of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice, SE-VYZ and NPP Mochovce staff were the subject of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) attention. During 2000, the following inspections were carried out on nuclear personnel training: (a) NPP Bohunice: an inspection focused on compliance with requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of Bohunice plant staff ; (b) NPP Mochovce: an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of NPP Mochovce staff; an inspection focused on verifying the simulator aided training; an inspection focused on checking the preparedness of NPP Mochovce operation and technical personnel for NPP Mochovce Unit 2 operation; (c) Technology for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste Bohunice (BSC): an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of SE-VYZ staff; VUJE Trnava: verification of technical equipment and professional skills of VUJE Trnava staff and tasks arising out of the 'Authorisation on nuclear installation staff training'. Examinations of selected personnel were scheduled according to the plan of examining committee meetings. For each examined person written tests are generated by the computer from the database of test questions at the Training Centre of VUJE Trnava for individual positions - categories of selected staff of NPP V-1 and NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce so that the examination questions both in written and oral part equally cover individual facilities and regimes of operation of NPP. The database is continuously updated, thereby containing new questions resulting from the recent changes carried out at NPPs. A part of the examination in case of promotion to a higher position is the practical part, which is conducted under

  18. Los Pacientes del ‘Hospital de paisanos’ de Zamora en el Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Álvarez, María José

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerous hospitals in existence in the city of Zamora in the Middle Ages were considerably streamlined in the Early Modern Era. The foundation of the Sotelo hospital in the 16th century and the La Encarnación hospital in the 17th century endowed the city with two main centres offering medical and health care. This study focused on an analysis of the patients who received care at the La Encarnación hospital, which was governed by the City Council and the Cathedral Chapter. A patient profile was constructed from admission and mortality records, depending on the case. However, the main focus was an analysis of the hospital’s area of influence, which was found to amply exceed its immediate geographical context.El gran número de hospitales que tuvo la ciudad de Zamora durante la Edad Media quedó notablemente simplificado en la época Moderna. La fundación en el siglo XVI del hospital de Sotelo y en el XVII de La Encarnación, supuso dotar a la ciudad con dos importantes centros que ofrecía atención médico-sanitaria. Este trabajo está centrado en el de La Encarnación, entre cuyos administradores se hallaban el Ayuntamiento y el Cabildo de la Catedral, y el objeto de análisis han sido los asistidos. A partir de los registros de ingreso y defunciones, dependiendo del momento, hemos trazado el perfil de los mismos, pero, sobre todo, nos hemos centrado en el radio de influencia del establecimiento, que, como hemos podido comprobar, superaba ampliamente el marco geográfico de emplazamiento.

  19. Operation and development 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Technical Report on the Accelerators describes the operations for physics experiments and beam tests, various technical improvements and ongoing projects during the year 1999. As usual, the first chapter reports on the standard operation of GANIL with stable ions, with analysis of the beam time distribution and statistics, including failures. A major project was the production and subsequent acceleration, over a long period of time, of an intense 58Ni11+ beam produced using the MIVOC method, which contributed strongly to the discovery of the doubly-magic 48Ni element. The renovation and development program (Chapter 2), including methods for producing metallic ion beams, gathered speed thanks to the completion of SPIRAL. A large share of these projects were high-intensity oriented. This trend also obviously applies to projects directly linked to the THI operation. In a special test, a 1.3 x 1013 pps 13C beam (later raised to 2 x 1013 pps for several hours) was accelerated and extracted from SSC2 at an energy of 75 MeV/n. Simultaneously, comparisons were made between simulations and beam test results for a clearer understanding of space charge effects on accelerator transmission efficiency. Chapter 3 covers the THI related projects. The final chapter deals with IRRSUD. This project, which is funded and on the way to completion, uses low energy beams delivered by the two injector cyclotrons for industrial applications and research, such as nano-technologies and simulation of defects in solids. (author)

  20. Fabricator opens next chapter in style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of two offshore fabrication yards over twenty five years at Nigg and Ardersier on the Cromarty and Moray Firths in Scotland is traced. For most of the period since opening in 1972, the two yards operated as separate competing entities under the ownership of the construction companies Brown and Root and McDermott. In the early 1990s, market demand was shifting from the yard's traditional base of fixed platforms to floating and subsea technology while competition in the fabrication industry was growing in Europe. In response to this market challenge, in 1995 the two companies entered into a joint venture to operate the two yards as one entity, Barmac. Within three months of the formation of Barmac, the decision was taken to focus participation in the traditional offshore market at Ardersier and redevelop Nigg to take advantage of the rapidly expanding marine business. The key to this has been the transformation of Nigg's dormant graving dock into a dry dock capable of handling new market applications such as floating production systems, production jackups and semi-submersibles as newbuild, conversions or refurbishment. Two major construction contracts using the dock have already been secured by Barmac and other opportunities are opening up. Meanwhile, performance improvements have also been made in the traditional business at Ardersier. (UK)

  1. Chapter No.8. Personnel qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall training system and the development projects of training the staff of all categories from NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice, SE-VYZ and NPP Mochovce were the subject of UJD's attention. During 2001 following inspections were carried out on nuclear personnel training: - PP's Bohunice: an inspection focused on compliance with requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of Bohunice plant staff; - Mochovce NPP: an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of NPP Mochovce staff; - SE-VYZ: an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of SE-VYZ staff. Training the staff of the NPP's Bohunice: - The fundamental and periodical theoretical training as sure as the fundamental and periodical simulator training is carried out by the VUJE Training centre in Trnava. - The fundamental practical training in the workplace and training for the change work- rank is carried at Bohunice plant. Training of the staff of the NPP Mochovce: - The fundamental and periodical theoretical training is carried out by the VUJE Training centre in Trnava. The fundamental practical training in the workplace and training for the change work- rank as well as the fundamental and periodical simulator training is carried at Mochovce plant. Based on a successful passing of examination before the examining committee, UJD issues a certificate on special professional skills of selected staff members of nuclear installations for specific activity for the given type of nuclear installation and for the following positions: 1. Scientific shift manager for start up with the right of manipulation; 2. Shift supervisor; 3. Unit supervisor; 4. Primary circuit operator; 5. Secondary circuit operator; 6. Reactor physicist; 7. Scientific shift manager for start up without the right of manipulation. Examinations of

  2. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  3. Part I. Chapter IV. Coldness is coming from Wienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author reviewed a political pressure of Austrian government and Austrian legislative assembly on Slovakia before fuel assembly insertion and commissioning of the Unit-1 of the Mochovce NPP. Mission of Walkdown II is described.

  4. Volume 3 Chapter 1: Mitigation and adaptation to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Mechler, R.; Nakicenovic, N.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the needs and opportunities as well as the constraints and barriers with respect to mitigation and adaptation to climate change. While the chapter concentrates mainly on Austria, information is provided on the global and EU level to the extent they are relevant for Austria. Section 1.1 discusses the targets already specified for mitigation at the global level, as well as technologies that are already available or are emerging with the potential to meet the challenges a...

  5. Should We Abolish Chapter 11? Evidence from Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Timothy C G; Martel, Jocelyn

    1999-01-01

    Chapter 11 has been severely criticized over the last decade. Some American jurists arguing in favor of revising Chapter 11 have raised the possibility that the Canadian reorganization system might be a good alternative. This article examines data on firms undergoing reorganization under the Canadian bankruptcy system and argues that there are fruitful lessons to be learned from the Canadian experience with court-supervised reorganization. Canadian reorganization plans have very high rates of...

  6. Aportes de los "intermediarios culturales" en la conformación de los paisajes fronterizos del norte de la patagonia a fines del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Aylén Enrique

    2012-01-01

    A fines del siglo XVIII la Corona española envió expedicionarios a reconocer el norte de la Patagonia, un territorio dominado por grupos indígenas pero de importancia estratégica para los hispanocriollos. Los funcionarios del Virreinato del Río de la Plata que llevaron a cabo dichas exploraciones registraron sus impresiones en diarios de viaje que analizamos con el objetivo de examinar los modos en que el paisaje norpatagónico fue construido simbólicamente. Consideramos que dicho paisaje se c...

  7. Distribución de la propiedad de la tierra, propiedades comunales y usos del suelo en la provincia de Salamanca a mediados del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Heras Santos, José Luis de las

    2012-01-01

    [ES]Se estudia la distribución de la propiedad de la tierra y sus aprovechamientos en la provincia de Salamanca en el siglo XVIII. Se constata la existencia de un marco homogéneo de relaciones socio-económicas en las distintas comarcas, así como la especialización ganadera y cerealista de la provincia. El porcentaje de propiedad amortizada era muy alto (58%), como también era elevada la proporción de terrazgo en manos del estamento eclesiástico (40%). No se advierte que el modelo socio-económ...

  8. Dispensas y libros secretos de matrimonios en la segunda mitad del siglo xviii y la primera del xix en actuales territorios argentinos

    OpenAIRE

    Siegrist, Nora

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analizan fuentes en archivos y obras de la bibliografía europea e Hispanoamericana vinculados al Derecho Canónico en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX. Los Libros Secretos de Matrimonios, escasamente conocidos, revelan la existencia de una realidad justamente secreta, de allí que pocos tuvieron acceso a un material guardado a través del tiempo por la Iglesia Católica. Motivaciones disímiles como consanguinidad directa, primer grado de afinidad en ...

  9. Dispensas y libros secretos de matrimonios en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX en actuales territorios argentinos

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Siegrist

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analizan fuentes en archivos y obras de la bibliografía europea e Hispanoamericana vinculados al Derecho Canónico en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX. Los Libros Secretos de Matrimonios, escasamente conocidos, revelan la existencia de una realidad justamente secreta, de allí que pocos tuvieron acceso a un material guardado a través del tiempo por la Iglesia Católica. Motivaciones disímiles como consanguinidad directa, primer grado de afinidad en ...

  10. Notas para una historia de la infancia en Buenos Aires : Fines del siglo XVIII-primeras décadas del siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Cowen, Miguel Pablo

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo analizaremos principios a nuestro entender indispensables, a tener en cuenta como coadyuvantes para el conocimiento de la situación de la infancia porteña a fines del período Tardo Colonial y primeros años del siglo XVIII. Nos concentraremos en el análisis de: conceptos tenidos como universalmente válidos, pero de dudosa vigencia en sociedades distintas a las de Europa Occidental y América del Norte. En la problemática planteada por la búsqueda y selección de fuentes primarias...

  11. De la cristiandad colonial a la Iglesia argentina. Perspectivas de investigación en historia religiosa de los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Di Stefano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda en su primera parte algunos conceptos significativos para el estudio de la Iglesia rioplatense colonial y de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. En la segunda y tercera secciones se presenta un esquema general de las etapas del proceso de disolución del régimen de cristiandad indiano entre fines del siglo XVIII y la segunda mitad de la siguiente centuria, y se proponen algunas líneas de investigación que el autor considera importante desarrollar a partir del estado actual de los estudios.

  12. De la cristiandad colonial a la Iglesia argentina. Perspectivas de investigación en historia religiosa de los siglos XVIII y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Di Stefano

    2000-01-01

    Este artículo aborda en su primera parte algunos conceptos significativos para el estudio de la Iglesia rioplatense colonial y de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. En la segunda y tercera secciones se presenta un esquema general de las etapas del proceso de disolución del régimen de cristiandad indiano entre fines del siglo XVIII y la segunda mitad de la siguiente centuria, y se proponen algunas líneas de investigación que el autor considera importante desarrollar a partir del estado actual de ...

  13. Familia local y política imperial: la élite de Santiago de Chile en la monarquía española (siglo XVIII)

    OpenAIRE

    Enríquez Agrazar, Lucrecia

    2008-01-01

    Este estudio se centra en las relaciones entre el soberano, una de las legitimidades del Antiguo Régimen, y las familias de la élite santiaguina del reino de Chile durante el siglo XVIII. Busca desentrañar cómo se entabló esa relación con la Monarquía a través de las carreras políticas y eclesiásticas de sus miembros. Para ello, se consideran los miembros de las familias que obtuvieron en lo civil los cargos de virrey, gobernador, intendente, oidor. Y en lo eclesiástico los de ...

  14. La educación pública en la España del siglo XVIII. Pervivencias en la actualidad

    OpenAIRE

    Aragoneses Alonso, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Este es un Trabajo de Fin de Grado de Educación Primaria, en el que se recogen las principales ideas ilustradas sobre la educación pública en el siglo XVIII en España y, además, se lleva a cabo una iniciación en investigación sobre las pervivencias de dichos principios en la actualidad. Se utiliza un método mixto, es decir, cualitativo y cuantitativo, ya que se realizan entrevistas y cuestionarios a profesionales de la educación actual, para terminar concluyendo que hay un alto...

  15. Claves para alcanzar la gracia: instrumentos de organización utilizados en la biblioteca del convento grande de San Francisco de México, siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Endean Gamboa

    2010-01-01

    En la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, la biblioteca del Convento Grande de San Francisco de la ciudad de México fue escenario de la experimentación realizada por un fraile, a quien se habían asignado las tareas de bibliotecario. Fray Francisco Antonio de la Rosa Figueroa, llevado por su celo religioso, emprendió el control de la biblioteca para evitar la herejía, aunque muy pronto sus afanes lo llevaron por los caminos de la organización bibliotecaria. Como resultado de sus esfuerzos, dejó con...

  16. Historia de la alimentación de la región de Murcia durante los siglos XVIII Y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Béjar, María Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Hemos querido analizar desde un punto de vista nutricional como estaban alimentados los habitantes de esta región durante los siglos XVIII Y XIX. No solo desde los conocimientos actuales sobre nutrición sino también en relación al pensamiento científico de la época. Las informaciones publicadas hasta el momento sobre este tema no son escasas, pero si con perspectivas diferentes y en otras regiones de España, esto constituía una perdida cultural irreparable además de una gran dificultad, p...

  17. Tercianas y calenturas en tierras meridionales valencianas: una aproximación a la realidad médica y social del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Alberola Romá, Armando; Bernabé Gil, David

    1999-01-01

    Durante el siglo XVIII el paludismo, enfermedad endémica de la cuenca mediterránea, adquirió una incuestionable dimensión social como consecuencia, entre otras cosas, de la desaparición del terrible azote de la peste. Vinculadas a la expansión del cultivo del arroz y a la proliferación de áreas encharcadas, las fiebres tercianas aparecían con regularidad tan pronto llegaban los calores estivales. El presente trabajo analiza sus efectos sobre los habitantes de las tierras meridionales valen...

  18. Nuevas poblaciones en el sur alicantino: la intervención de la iglesia en la consolidación de núcleos vecinales, siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Canales Martínez, Gregorio; Muñoz Hernández, Remedios

    2012-01-01

    La historiografía valenciana reconoce para el siglo XVIII, una vez superada la Guerra de Sucesión, un periodo de estabilidad política y social que tuvo una repercusión directa en el crecimiento económico y, vinculado a él, un auge demográfico ante la ausencia de la mortalidad catastrófica que caracterizó la centuria anterior. Al amparo de esta coyuntura van a surgir nuevas poblaciones cuyo emplazamiento se centró en tres ámbitos geográficos de condiciones topográficas y climáticas diferentes....

  19. Paludismo en España en los siglos XVIII-XIX: Distribución espacial y erradicación

    OpenAIRE

    Castejón Porcel, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    A partir de la información recabada y mediante procesos de geolocalización y análisis de datos, en este trabajo se han definido cuáles fueron las principales zonas afectadas por el paludismo en España en los siglos XVIII y XIX, así como el origen de esta enfermedad y las medidas tomadas para erradicarla. En este sentido, de la observación de los resultados, se desprende que las principales áreas perjudicadas fueron: toda la costa levantina, desde Murcia a los Pirineos, y el centro peninsular,...

  20. La prefijación en gramáticas y diccionarios del español (siglos XVIII-XX)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Martínez, Marta

    2013-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo principal de esta tesis es revisar el tratamiento gramatical y lexicográfico de los prefijos y del procedimiento de prefijación en español desde una perspectiva histórica. Para ello, estudiamos una amplia nómina de gramáticas y diccionarios del español publicados a lo largo de los siglos XVIII, XIX y XX, pertenecientes tanto a la corriente no académica como a la tradición académica. Nuestro propósito se centra en revisar el tratamiento de los prefijos en los textos que for...

  1. El argumento de la notoria desigualdad en la relación de pareja (Lima y Quito, siglos xvii y xviii)

    OpenAIRE

    Lavallé, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Quien haya trabajado sobre los problemas de la familia y las relaciones de pareja durante la época colonial debe haberse topado con la cuestión de la notoria desigualdad. A partir de situaciones de varios tipos encontradas a lo largo de los siglos xvii y xviii en dos centros urbanos del virreinato peruano, esto es Lima y Quito, quisiéramos analizar en qué contextos surgía este problema, qué significado(s) podía tener según se tratara de los afectados, los denunciantes o el entorno social. En ...

  2. El matrimonio, espacio de conflictos : incumplimiento de palabra, divorcio y nulidad en la archidiócesis hispalense durante el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Macías Domínguez, Alonso Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Nuestra tesis doctoral, titulada “El matrimonio, espacio de conflictos. Incumplimiento de palabra, divorcio y nulidad en la archidiócesis hispalense (siglo XVIII)”, se adentra en el estudio de la pareja moderna antes y después del matrimonio: esponsales quebrados, casados que no observan la obligatoriedad de la convivencia o que se desean conseguir un permiso legal para abandonar la vida maridable, o individuos que pretenden anular el vínculo marital existente. El matrimonio en...

  3. The Russian Orthodox Church in Religious Space of Kazakhstan: Stages and Peculiarities of Institutional Model (XVIII – Beginning of ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features attempts on analyzing the cultural – historic situation, which conditioned the formation of orthodox population and institutions of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan in XVIII – beginning of XX centuries. The article also features the construction techniques of diocesan, parochial schools in the region and the main activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan. The results of complex analysis let determine the decree of integration effectiveness in cultural-religious space of the region, to reveal influential objective and subjective factors.

  4. Algunas propuestas didácticas sobre el teatro español del siglo XVIII / Some didactic studies on the Spanish theatre of the 18th century

    OpenAIRE

    Malén Álvarez Franco

    2009-01-01

    Resumen: Nuestro trabajo pretende analizar las propuestas didácticas reales llevadas a cabo en distintos institutos de la comunidad extremeña y madrileña en torno al teatro del siglo XVIII. Desde este punto de partida, es nuestra intención proponer nuevas vías de trabajo que no se recogen en los manuales de aula al uso, amplificando de este modo la cultura teatral del alumnado para estos niveles.Abstract: This essay aims to analyze the actual didactic strategies carried out in different se...

  5. ¿Activos desde cuándo? La edad de acceso al mercado de trabajo en la España del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Sarasúa, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo trata sobre la edad a la que niños y niñas accedían al trabajo remunerado en la España del siglo XVIII. Utilizando como fuente los Memoriales del Catastro de Ensenada (1751-1753), se propone la edad de diez años como edad media de acceso, a partir de la cual se puede calcular la tasa de actividad. La Mancha era una región rica en industria rural, sobre todo de manufacturas textiles, que abastecían al mercado madrileño, el de otras ciudades e incluso al colonial, y que generaban u...

  6. El racismo científico del siglo XVIII y las estrategias de auto-representación : la narrativa interesante de Olaudah Equiano

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Durán, María del Mar

    2011-01-01

    La narrativa interesante de Olaudah Equiano se presenta como un magnífico referente para las narraciones de esclavitud, porque responde a la controvertida imagen del africano como ser inferior promulgada por la incipiente “ciencia de las razas” del siglo XVIII, a la vez que desarrolla estrategias de auto-representación de gran importancia. Para analizar la narrativa, se centra la atención en tres aspectos fundamentales: en primer lugar, el ataque sistemático a la institución de la...

  7. Arquitectura de madera en las misiones jesuíticas de chiquitos (Bolivia) del siglo XVIII y sus orígenes prehispánicos y europeos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Trujillo, Wilson Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Las actuales poblaciones de Concepción, San José, San Javier, San Miguel, Santa Ana y San Rafael, seis de las diez antiguas reducciones de las Misiones Jesuíticas de Chiquitos (Bolivia), fundadas a principios del siglo XVIII, representan el mejor ejemplo de pueblos vivos, por la conservación de su patrimonio tangible, como el conjunto religioso e intangible como sus tradiciones y costumbres adoptadas desde el periodo misional. Por este motivo fueron declaradas el año 1990, Patrimonio Cultural...

  8. La poesía inglesa de la naturaleza en el siglo XVIII y su influencia en Meléndez Valdés

    OpenAIRE

    García Calderón, Ángeles

    2007-01-01

    ‘Nature’ es una palabra clave a comienzos del siglo XVIII que aparece en todos los campos del conocimiento; el término es repetido una y otra vez por los críticos literarios, y así Pope aconsejará a los poetas: «First follow Nature, and your Judgment frame/By her just Standards, which is still the same», Essay on Criticism. Bajo la influencia de Descartes, de Newton y de Locke, la belleza viene a significar armonía, equilibrio y orden perfecto. Durante el primer cuarto del XVII...

  9. Las roturaciones de tierras forestales en el siglo XVIII frente al abandono agrícola actual: El monte Pereroles de Morella (Castelló)

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, Javier Soriano; Chabrera, Vicent Ortells

    2001-01-01

    La comarca de Els Ports, ubicada en el extremo NW de la provincia de Castelló, asiste en apenas doscientos años a dos realidades contrapuestas en relación con su paisaje agroforestal, característico de la montaña media mediterránea. El insólito crecimiento demográfico obligó a realizar unos masivos rompimientos de tierras con la finalidad de obtener alimentos suficientes para la población desde el último tercio del siglo XVIII. Desde entonces se asiste a una fuerte intervención antrópica en e...

  10. La enfermedad del canónigo Calderón. Una historia clínica de demencia en el Burgos de principios del siglo XVIII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel López Gómez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Una revisión de la bibliografía históricomédica española moderna nos permite comprobar cómo los trabajos dedicados al estudio de historias clínicas de carácter psiquiátrico son muy poco numerosos. Entre otras causas por la escasez de las que han llegado a nuestros días, escasez tanto mayor cuanto más retrocedemos en el tiempo. La situación no mejora demasiado al analizar los fondos manuscritos de algunas de las principales instituciones académicas del siglo XVIII.

  11. Usos y acepciones de chino, china en el norte del Perú, siglos XVIII-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andrade Ciudad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe estudian los usos de la palabra chino, china en el norte peruano, entre los siglos XVIII y XIX, a partir de documentos históricos y coplas de la lírica popular. En contra de propuestas anteriores, se confirma el uso efectivo del término, sobre todo en su forma femenina, y se postulan dos acepciones: la primera, vinculada a la terminología de castas, alude a un tipo de mestizaje que une los troncos indio y africano, con un componente menor, variable, de “sangre blanca”, mientras que la segunda hace referencia a una mujer joven, generalmente campesina. Se estudia también el uso de la palabra como una fórmula de apelación a la amada en la lírica popular y se concluye que, aunque probablemente esta fórmula se derivó de la terminología racial, la palabra rápidamente adquirió matices afectivos positivos, con lo cual permitió aludir a la mujer cercana, aquella que era posible cortejar. Se sugiere que la antigua acepción ‘criada’, central en las fuentes coloniales del XVI y el XVII, se empezó a desdibujar en el período estudiado y, en línea con trabajos previos, se postula una competencia entre este lexema y la palabra homófona referida a las migrantes asiáticas desde fines del XIX.Palabras clave: categorización racial de seres humanos, lexicología, norte del Perú, siglos XVIII y XIXAbstractThis paper studies the uses of the word chino, china in northern Peru in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, via historical documents and popular poetry couplets. Contrary to previous proposals, we corroborate the actual use of this term, especially in its feminine form, and we propose two possible meanings for it: the first, linked to caste terminology, refers to a type of “racial mix” between “Indian” and “African”, with a minor and variable component of “white blood”, while the second refers to a young woman, usually a peasant. We also examine the use of the word as a formulaic

  12. DE ESPIRITUALES A HISTÉRICAS: LAS BEATAS DEL SIGLO XVIII EN LA NUEVA ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA ARAYA ESPINOZA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos inquisitoriales a beatas por ilusas y alumbradas en la Nueva España, durante el siglo XVIII, muestran cómo la "anormalidad" del modelo de espiritualidad místico y ascético, al que las mujeres fueron tan proclives en dicha centuria, pasó al campo del discurso médico. La mirada masculina se desconcierta con la continuidad de los signos exteriores de la espiritualidad femenina, son sus cuerpos el medio por el cual dan cuenta de que algo fuera de lo normal las identifica: arrobamientos, posesiones, ataques, temblores y mal de corazón, entre otros. En las beatas, estos fenómenos desconciertan y son considerados más sospechosos, por cuanto ellas suelen ser mujeres pobres y simples -al decir de los religiosos- que viven de forma indenpendiente y hacen de la vida religiosa una forma de subsistencia. Este trabajo muestra cómo los inquisidores se suman a la lógica racionalista del siglo institucionalizando la asociación entre fenómenos místicos, locura e histeria en las mujeres. El cuerpo femenino, su extrañeza y la incomodidad que provoca en toda sociedad, permite en la sociedad occidental y en el espacio colonial realizar los primeros usos legales de la histeria como devaluación del verbo y la acción de las mujeres en el gran relato de la historiaThe inquisitorial trials of pious women on the charges of being deluded and spellbound in the New Spain, during the XVIII century, show how the ""abnormality" of the mistic and ascetic model of spirituality to which women were so fond of in said century moved in to the realm of the medical discourse. The male look is bewildered by the continuity of the external signs of female sprirituality, their bodies are the means through which they account for something out the normalcy that identifies them: raptures, possessions, fits, shudders, and melancholy, among others. In the pious women, these phenomena puzzle the mind and are suspiciously considered in that they used to be poor and

  13. Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter updates information taken from Chapters 3 to 6 of the IPCC Working Group I Third Assessment Report. It concerns itself with trends in forcing agents and their precursors since 1750, and estimates their contribution to the radiative forcing (RF) of the climate system. Discussion of the understanding of atmospheric composition changes is limited to explaining the trends in forcing agents and their precursors. Areas where significant developments have occurred since the TAR are highlighted. The chapter draws on various assessments since the TAR, in particular the 2002 World Meteorological Organization (WMO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion (2003) and the IPCC Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) special report on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (2005). The chapter assesses anthropogenic greenhouse gas changes, aerosol changes and their impact on clouds, aviation-induced contrails and cirrus changes, surface albedo changes and natural solar and volcanic mechanisms. The chapter reassesses the 'radiative forcing' concept (Sections 2.2 and 2.8), presents spatial and temporal patterns of RF, and examines the radiative energy budget changes at the surface. For the long-lived greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluoro-carbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hereinafter collectively referred to as the LLGHGs; Section 2.3), the chapter makes use of new global measurement capabilities and combines long-term measurements from various networks to update trends through 2005. Compared to other RF agents, these trends are considerably better quantified; because of this, the chapter does not devote as much space to them as previous assessments (although the processes involved and the related budgets are further discussed in Sections 7.3 and 7

  14. Valeurs bibliophiles dans la langue française presentes en Bucovine (XVII-eme-XVIII-eme siecles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Mitric

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Comme on le sait, la Moldavie a été la plus réceptive des trois provinces roumaines à la culture française. Dans cette province-ci, les contacts avec le mouvement d'idées européen ont été plus puissants. La lutte d'affirmation nationale a mené à l'augmentation de la conscience politique de la société moldave et à une participation plus accentuée à la vie politique. Le goût pour la lecture a évolue, aussi, pendant que la mentalité a commencé se transformer; on sollicite et ensuite traduit les oeuvres dans lesquelles apparaissent les idées sociales politiques, l'histoire universelle, la géographie, les conquêtes de la technique ou la littérature philosophique-moralisatrice. Les plus anciennes copies en roumain des oeuvres traduites du français, qui se trouvent dans nos bibliothèques datent de la fin du XVIII-ème siècle. Celles-ci sont des traductions de Voltaire, Marmontel, Ambrosius Marlianus, Francesco Loredano, Fénélon, Johan Thuresson Oxenstiern, Gabriel Pérau, Alain Réné Lesage, André Guillaume Constant d' Orville. Le livre imprimé (inclusivement jusqu' en 1800 provient des ateliers typographiques de Paris, Londres, Genève, Regensburg, Basel et Berlin. Le plus ancien exemplaire, Le tableau de L'Europe, est imprimé à Paris, en 1651. Pour ceux qui s'y intéressent, nous avons organisé la liste de ces livres, sur catégories de détenteurs.

  15. El núcleo de instituciones científicas matritenses en el Paseo del Prado desde el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baratas Díaz, Luis Alfredo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout second half of 18th century was constituted a scientific institutions centre around the “Paseo del Prado” (Royal Botanical Garden, Sciences Academy, Astronomic Observatory, General Hospital,.... The development of this scientific area suffered the vicissitudes and limitations that affected to the illustrated scientific policy. In 19th century the new educational and research centers establishment was scarce and laking of clear guidelines; the various projects to build a Sciences Faculty or the Arts and Trades School limited considerably the extension of the Royal Garden. In the first third of 20th century the constructing activity would be limited to the works in the Cajal Institute (plagued by misundestanding and upsetting and some constant remodeling works in the Velasco Museum and Royal Garden.

    A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII se constituyó en torno al actual Paseo del Prado un importante núcleo de instituciones científicas (Real Jardín Botánico, Academia de Ciencias, Observatorio Astronómico, Hospital General,.... El desarrollo de este foco científico sufrió las vicisitudes y limitaciones que afectaron a la política científica ilustrada. En el siglo XIX el establecimiento de nuevos centros docentes en esta zona fue escaso y carente de una idea directriz; los diversos proyectos para edificar una Facultad de Ciencias o la Escuela de Artes y Oficios limitaron considerablemente la extensión del Real Jardín. En el primer tercio del siglo XX la actividad constructora se limitaría a las obras en el Instituto Cajal (plagadas de malentendidos y desajustes y unas constantes obras de remodelación en el Museo Velasco y el Jardín Botánico.

  16. CUANDO LAS AFRENTAS SE LAVABAN CON SANGRE: HONOR, MASCULINIDAD Y DUELOS DE ESPADAS EN EL SIGLO XVIII CHILENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Undurraga Schüler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la relación entre honor y prácticas sociales en el siglo XVIII chileno, analizando la figura de los duelos o expresiones de violencia masculina formalizada. Junto con indagar en los mecanismos restitutorios del honor y su vinculación a los fundamentos de una masculinidad tradicional, reflexiona sobre las gamas de manejo social de dicho valor en el período señalado. Teóricamente se rescatan los aportes de la antropología y se hace un balance del tratamiento historiográfico del problema. Desde los registros judiciales se plantea el carácter transversal del honor en términos sociales y se aborda su "doble naturaleza" en cuanto espacio relacional y ámbito de confrontación de los individuos.This works deals with the relationship between honor and social practices in Chile's eighteenth century and analyzes formal duels or expressions of legalized masculine violence. This article explores various manifestations of the social ways used to deal with honor at that time, together with the inquiries about mechanisms used to restore honor and its links with traditional masculinity. Theoretically, this work rescues contributions made by anthropologists and provides an overview of how honor and masculinity have been examined in the historiography. Starting from judicial records, the article considers the transversal character of honor in social terms and approaches its "double significance" as both a relational space for people and as a sphere for the confrontation of individuals.

  17. I banchi pubblici napoletani e la loro contabilità nel secolo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Vittoria Ferrandino

    2013-01-01

    Sorti per iniziativa di opere pie, i banchi pubblici napoletani si erano sviluppati grazie alla diffusione della fede di credito, un titolo di credito rilasciato a fronte dei depositi effettuati dalla clientela. Scopo di questo saggio è illustrare gli aspetti salienti dell’attività bancaria a Napoli nel Settecento, come il vantaggio derivante dall’aumento dei depositi e quindi dei fondi da investire, nonché il funzionamento delle scritture contabili e la finalità della redazione del bilancio ...

  18. Mineral Nutrition of Plants. Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai

    1995-01-01

    The ultimate source of nutrients for all living organisms consists of the inanimate nutrient reserves found on earth. Of the elements known to exist, seven are considered essential to plants in large amounts (macronutrients), and many others are required in smaller quantities (micronutrients). Essentiality of a nutrient is defined according to the following concepts: (a) A deficiency of the element makes it impossible for the plant to complete the vegetative or reproductive stage of its cycle; (b) such deficiency is specific to the element in question and can be prevented or corrected only by supplying this element; (c) the element is directly involved in the nutrition of the plant quite apart from its possible effects in correcting some unfavorable microbiological or chemical condition of the soil or other culture medium. From that standpoint a favorable response from adding a given element to the culture medium does not constitute conclusive evidence of its indispensability in plant nutrition. All the elements occurring in the outer part of the earth are in constant turnover among the different components of earth. This overall migration is referred to as geochemical cycling. When cycling includes a role for biological organisms, it is referred to as "biogeochemical cycling." Like most cyclical processes in nature, the biogeochemical cycling of elements is not continuous, nor does it proceed in a well-defined direction. At stages, it may be halted or short-circuited, or it may change. Any changes will eventually impact the survival, evolution, and development of biological species in the system. The relationship of the various systems is represented in a schematic manner. To assess the efficiency of operation of the biogeochemical cycles, it is important to include both natural and human activities. Often reliable values on use by man are difficult to obtain for a number of reasons, such as lack of international cooperation, and lack of proper bookkeeping and

  19. Backup power working group best practices handbook for maintenance and operation of engine generators, Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook is divided into the four chapters. Chapter one covers the design, procurement, storage, handling and testing of diesel fuel oil to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter two discusses the selection of automatic transfer switches to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter three is about low voltage open frame air circuit breaker operation, testing, and maintenance for DOE backup power supplies. And chapter four covers installation, design, and maintenance of engine cooling water and jacket water systems

  20. Backup power working group best practices handbook for maintenance and operation of engine generators, Volume 1. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.; Padgett, A.B.; Burrows, K.P.; Fairchild, P.N.; Lam, T.; Janes, J.

    1997-06-01

    This handbook is divided into the four chapters. Chapter one covers the design, procurement, storage, handling and testing of diesel fuel oil to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter two discusses the selection of automatic transfer switches to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter three is about low voltage open frame air circuit breaker operation, testing, and maintenance for DOE backup power supplies. And chapter four covers installation, design, and maintenance of engine cooling water and jacket water systems.

  1. “Troppo vicini”. Letture della catastrofe prossima nel pensiero meridionale alla fine del XVIII secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Riccio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available “Too close”. Reading nearby catastrophes in Southern Italian thought at the end of the XVIIIth century. This paper analyses the intersections between the ideas of catastrophe and revolution in Southern Italian writers at the end of the XVIIIth century, focusing on those who operated in the proximity of a natural or political upheaval. The way in which this proximity modifies the value of the concept of catastrophe is well shown by the writings of the “observers” of the 1783 earthquake in Calabria and Messina and by their effort to offer a testimony and narrate the catastrophe at present tense.

  2. Appendix XVIII: 'Batch' approach to new employee entry and some other training schemes of DAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. - NPCIL is Government of India Enterprise under Department of Atomic Energy engaged in Design, Construction and Operation activities of Nuclear Power Plants. The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of India has a long running induction training programme run by the Human Resource Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) also known as BARC Training School. This is considered a unique and valuable scheme to impart nuclear knowledge towards meeting the goals of DAE and constitutes one of the important knowledge management activities. This and other training schemes of DAE are presented

  3. 38 CFR 3.815 - Monetary allowance under 38 U.S.C. chapter 18 for an individual with disability from covered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Congenital heart disease; (iv) Congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot); (v) Esophageal and intestinal atresia; (vi) Hallerman-Streiff syndrome; (vii) Hip dysplasia; (viii) Hirschprung's disease (congenital...-Sachs disease; (xviii) Thalassemia; and (xix) Wilson's disease. (3) Conditions that are...

  4. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  5. Child support policy: An international perspective (Chapter 1)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Skinner; Bradshaw, J. (Jonathan); Davidson, J.

    2008-01-01

    This is a chapter from a report of a comparative study of child support policy in fourteen countries (Skinner, C., Bradshaw, J. and Davidson, J. (2007) Child support policy: an international perspective, Department for Work and Pensions Research Report 405, Leeds: Corporate Document Services. www.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/rports2007-2008/rrep405.pdf. The chapter is an analysis of LIS data for twelve of these countries and explores the contribution of child support to the reduction in child poverty....

  6. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  7. Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals Based on 90Y Biotin. Chapter 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of a biotin derivative labelled with 90Y to be employed as a breast cancer therapeutic radiopharmaceutical in the application of the new IART approach is described in this chapter. The effects of pH on the labelling yield and in vitro affinity for avidin of the resulting radiolabelled conjugate are evaluated. Radiolabelling was performed using a manual and an automated procedure, and radiation exposure was measured for each operational condition. Microbiological tests were conducted on each final batch after decay of activity. Results obtained from a first clinical study are also described. (author)

  8. Chapter 13. Personnel and economic data of the UJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results achieved by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) in the area of state supervision upon nuclear safety in 2000 were also backed up by the quality of work resulting from the UJD financial policy and personnel management. As of 31 December 2000, a staff of 82 in natural persons were in the employ of UJD, of which 30 women and 52 men. The total share of the employed women accounts for 36.6 %. Of total staff, 44 employees carried out a direct inspection activity of nuclear safety, of which 4 women. The staff education pattern had a direct impact on the professional level of UJD. As many as 77% of staff are university graduates, 21% received full secondary education, as did 2% secondary vocational education. The position of UJD as a central state administrative authority means also its independent position and action in the process of financial policy and budgeting in relation to the state budget. Funding of the performance of state supervision upon nuclear safety in 2000 was realised from public funds through UJD's chapter of budget. In addition to this financial resource, funding from assistance funds by the Swiss government under the projects SWISSLOVAK, SWISSUP, EVITA and IAEA projects was provided to beef up and complete lacking resources. The aggregate volume of expense drawn came to 73,222 th. slovak crowns (SKK) (including extra-budgetary funds). A sum of 69,135 th. SKK was expended toward the UJD current activities, while funds totalling 4,087 th. SKK were drawn to procure capital assets. Following the deduction of extra-budgetary funds running at 1,219 th. SKK, the actual draw down of public funds amounted to 72,003 th. SKK. According to the provided financial resource, the draw down in 2000 under the basic type classification spending in th. SKK was as follows: In the current budgetary expenditure structure, the highest share was held by payments for current transfers to abroad totalling 24,512 th. SKK, i.e. the

  9. Tritium recoil reactions in inorganic solid compounds. Chapter 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of recoil tritium produced in inorganic solid compounds is an esoteric chapter of the already esoteric field of Hot Atom Chemistry. A very small group of investigators have devoted their attention to this problem. The author summarizes the results of their studies. (Auth.)

  10. Functional Literacy in Romania: Between Myth & Reality. Chapter 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Florentina

    This chapter reviews the history of literacy training in Romania through the pretotalitarian period (1890-1945), the totalitarian period (1945-1989), and the posttotalitarian period (1989-present). Current literacy development efforts face many challenges including the facts that 592 classrooms do not have indoor plumbing, that more than 1,700…

  11. Instructional Interventions to Improve Social Competence. Chapter Eighteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Laurence R.

    A conceptual framework of social competence is presented to formulate actions that will enhance the social competence of learners with mental disabilities. This chapter discusses the individual's culturally determined inputs; the processes of social affects, social skills, and social thinking; and the desired social outcomes. The history of social…

  12. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  13. Tourette Association Chapters, Support Groups, and Centers of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.tsa-SoCal.org Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/groups/311427567715/ • Tourette Association Center of Excellence University ... http://www.li-tsa.org Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/longIslandtsa • Greater Rochester and Finger Lakes Area Chapter ...

  14. Fundamentals of Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the structure of the atom, elementary nuclear physics, the nature of electromagnetic radiation and the production of X rays is fundamental to the understanding of the physics of medical imaging and radiation protection. This, the first chapter of the handbook, summarizes those aspects of these areas which, being part of the foundation of modern physics, underpin the remainder of the book

  15. Chapter Two: Foundations for the Study of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the historical roots of contemporary Practice Theory are unearthed in the work of semioticians, philosophers, and anthropologists. Saussure's semiotic theory is contrasted with that of Peirce, and the importance of Peirce's work for understanding the context of signs is stressed. The philosophy of language in the writings of…

  16. Chapter 4: Establishment of the integrated modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter summarizes how the Integrated Modelling System has been established. The Danubian Lowland Information System (DLIS) has been developed, providing a central database and Geographical Information System (GIS) with facilities for data storage, maintenance, processing and presentation. In addition, data can be imported and exported in the file formats readable for the applied modelling system

  17. Global Operations Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , international comparative studies providing comprehensive insights from it are still rare. With the objective of bridging this gap, Global Operations Networks (GONE) project (sponsored by the Danish Research Council) brought together numerous academic and industrial partners from Denmark, Sweden and Finland...... of global operations and operations strategy. This summative volume utilises the rich and diverse empirical foundation generated during the project activities in Denmark, Sweden and Finland. Chapters of the book are based on quantitative data and multiple case studies which the project partners have been...... closely working with, and which are best suited to illuminate a particular aspect of organising and managing global operations in networks. The book addresses the following broadly defined themes: • Contexts of global operations networks, • Configurations of global operations networks, • Capabilities...

  18. Schroedinger operators and evolutionary strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First we introduce a simple model for the description of evolutionary algorithms, which is based on 2nd order partial differential equations for the distribution function of the individuals. Then we turn to the properties of Boltzmann's and Darwin's strategy. the next chapter is dedicated to the mathematical properties of Schroedinger operators. Both statements on the spectral density and their reproducibility during the simulation are summarized. The remaining of this chapter are dedicated to the analysis of the kernel as well as the dependence of the Schroedinger operator on the potential. As conclusion from the results of this chapter we obtain the classification of the strategies in dependence of the fitness. We obtain the classification of the evolutionary strategies, which are described by a 2nd order partial differential equation, in relation to their solution behaviour. Thereafter we are employed with the variation of the mutation distribution

  19. КАРТОГРАФИЧЕСКИЕ РАБОТЫ ЗЕМЛЕМЕРОВ В ЯКУТИИ В XVIII-XIX ВВ

    OpenAIRE

    Катионов, О.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents cartographic works in Yakutia (XVIII XIX centuries), necessitated by the foundation of the new administrative district, that required land management and legal land use. An interesting personality is introduced.

  20. 25 CFR 502.10 - Gaming operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gaming operation. 502.10 Section 502.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.10 Gaming operation. Gaming operation means each economic entity that is licensed by a...

  1. Operator algebras and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes, based on three lectures on operator algebras and topology at the 'School on High Dimensional Manifold Theory' at the ICTP in Trieste, introduce a new set of tools to high dimensional manifold theory, namely techniques coming from the theory of operator algebras, in particular C*-algebras. These are extensively studied in their own right. We will focus on the basic definitions and properties, and on their relevance to the geometry and topology of manifolds. A central pillar of work in the theory of C*-algebras is the Baum-Connes conjecture. This is an isomorphism conjecture, as discussed in the talks of Luck, but with a certain special flavor. Nevertheless, it has important direct applications to the topology of manifolds, it implies e.g. the Novikov conjecture. In the first chapter, the Baum-Connes conjecture will be explained and put into our context. Another application of the Baum-Connes conjecture is to the positive scalar curvature question. This will be discussed by Stephan Stolz. It implies the so-called 'stable Gromov-Lawson-Rosenberg conjecture'. The unstable version of this conjecture said that, given a closed spin manifold M, a certain obstruction, living in a certain (topological) K-theory group, vanishes if and only M admits a Riemannian metric with positive scalar curvature. It turns out that this is wrong, and counterexamples will be presented in the second chapter. The third chapter introduces another set of invariants, also using operator algebra techniques, namely L2-cohomology, L2-Betti numbers and other L2-invariants. These invariants, their basic properties, and the central questions about them, are introduced in the third chapter. (author)

  2. Operation and development 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Technical Report on the Accelerators describes the operations for physics experiments and beam tests, various technical improvements and ongoing projects during the year 1999. As usual, the first chapter reports on the standard operation of GANIL with stable ions, with analysis of the beam time distribution and statistics, including failures. A major project was the production and subsequent acceleration, over a long period of time, of an intense {sub 58}Ni{sup 11+} beam produced using the MIVOC method, which contributed strongly to the discovery of the doubly-magic {sub 48}Ni element. The renovation and development program (Chapter 2), including methods for producing metallic ion beams, gathered speed thanks to the completion of SPIRAL. A large share of these projects were high-intensity oriented. This trend also obviously applies to projects directly linked to the THI operation. In a special test, a 1.3 x 10{sup 13} pps {sub 13}C beam (later raised to 2 x 10{sup 13} pps for several hours) was accelerated and extracted from SSC2 at an energy of 75 MeV/n. Simultaneously, comparisons were made between simulations and beam test results for a clearer understanding of space charge effects on accelerator transmission efficiency. Chapter 3 covers the THI related projects. The final chapter deals with IRRSUD. This project, which is funded and on the way to completion, uses low energy beams delivered by the two injector cyclotrons for industrial applications and research, such as nano-technologies and simulation of defects in solids. (author)

  3. Operating experience review -- Conduct of operations at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research examined human error related occurrences, reported in the ORPS database, for the purpose of identifying weaknesses in the implementation of the guidance regarding the Conduct of Operations contained in DOE 5480.19. Specifically, this research examined three separate samples of occurrence reports from Defense Program facilities, which cited human error as a direct or contributing cause. These reports were evaluated using a coding scheme which incorporated the guidelines present in 5480.19, as well as a number of generic human factors concerns. The second chapter of this report summarizes the coding scheme which was used to evaluate the occurrence reports. Since the coding scheme is quite lengthy, only the parts of the scheme needed to make the remainder of the report clear are included in this chapter. Details on the development and content of the coding scheme are reported in Appendices A, B, and C. Chapter 3 presents the analysis of three different data sets. This chapter demonstrates that similar results were obtained across different data sets, collected at different points in time, and coded by different raters. The implications of the results obtained in Chapter 3 are discussed in Chapter 4. This chapter makes a number of suggestions for reducing the problems found in the occurrence reports. Chapter 5 applies the methodology that has been developed in this report to two facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Finally, Chapter 6 reiterates the major findings of this report. Several additional analyses appear in appendices at the end of this report

  4. Algunas propuestas didácticas sobre el teatro español del siglo XVIII / Some didactic studies on the Spanish theatre of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malén Álvarez Franco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Nuestro trabajo pretende analizar las propuestas didácticas reales llevadas a cabo en distintos institutos de la comunidad extremeña y madrileña en torno al teatro del siglo XVIII. Desde este punto de partida, es nuestra intención proponer nuevas vías de trabajo que no se recogen en los manuales de aula al uso, amplificando de este modo la cultura teatral del alumnado para estos niveles.Abstract: This essay aims to analyze the actual didactic strategies carried out in different secondary schools within the Extremadura and Madrid areas concerning the 18th century theatre. Under these premises, it is our intention to propose new learning and teaching methodologies, which are not gathered in regular classroom textbooks . By so doing we aim to enhance student´s theatrical knowledge and background at those levels.

  5. Moterų vienuolynų reformos LDK XVIII a. II p.: dviejų atvejų analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Janulevičiūtė, Justė

    2010-01-01

    Darbe analizuojamos Gardino brigičių ir Vilniaus Šv. Mykolo bernardinių vienuolynų reformos, kurios laikytinos ryškiausiais bandymais atnaujinti moterų vienuolinį gyvenimą LDK XVIII amžiuje. Gardino brigičių reforma kilo pačių vienuolių iniciatyva. Šia reforma buvo siekiama grįžti prie pirminės regulos ir ordino įkūrėjos dvasios. Vienuolyno abatė siekė reformuoti visų pirma dvasinį vienuolyno gyvenimą. Ji taip pat reikalavo griežtai laikytis neturto įžado, vienuolinės disciplinos ir klauzūros...

  6. El poder y la gloria: élites y asientos militares en el astillero de La Habana durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel SERRANO ÁLVAREZ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El astillero de la Habana reflejaba muy bien a lo largo del siglo XvIII las luchas de intereses entre las élites locales y las necesidades imperiales de España en el Caribe. El poder, asociado al dinero, y la gloria, vinculada a la posición social, fueron los grandes caballos de batalla de la poderosa élite habanera en su colaboración con las autoridades políticomilitares enviadas desde España. los asientos militares fueron uno de los canales para alcanzar ambos objetivos, y provocaron una continua lucha en torno al vital arsenal militar, fuente de riqueza, poder e intrigas permanentes. Este trabajo dibuja un panorama de una cooperación tan necesaria como forzosa.

  7. La prensa y la divulgación del conocimiento ilustrado en el virreinato de Nueva España en el Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio E. de Pedro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea como tema central, el papel que desempeño, por la prensa durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, en el espacio colonial americano, específicamente en Nueva España. Y como constituyó un instrumento esencial para la divulgación de los conocimientos científicos tanto desde el continente europeo, como desde la propia tradición colonial americana. Asimismo, se destaca el papel de los criollos como José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez al frente de publicaciones que se preocuparon por el atraso en que se encontraban sus territorios, contribuyendo con sus artículos y ensayos a la educación no formal de las elites criollas y a su concientización como precursoras de una identidad nacional.

  8. Engenho e temperamentos nos catálogos e no pensamento da Companhia de Jesus nos séculos XVII e XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Massimi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa entender as relações entre a potência psíquica do "engenho", algumas qualidades temperamentais específicas e as funções a serem exercidas pelo indivíduo possuidor destas características delineadas nos Catálogos da Companhia de Jesus ao longo dos séculos XVII e XVIII. Evidencia a presença destas associações como lugar-comum na literatura jesuítica da época, a importância do engenho como qualidade exigida para exercer ministérios relevantes na Ordem, e necessidade do indivíduo possuir uma complexão física adequada a estas exigências.

  9. Violations of Law in the Bureaucrats Community and Their Perception by the Ukrainian and Russian People in the Late XVIII – First Half of XIX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Degtyarev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies the problem of service violations and abuses, which were extremely common in the bureaucratic environment of the Russian Empire in the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. The author attempts to answer the question of how these negative phenomena were perceived various population groups in different regions of the empire? It was concluded, that range of offenses, which were committed officials, was extremely broad. In doing so they affected the interests of society regardless of ethnic, social or professional affiliation of its members. This contributed to occurrence of a negative image of officials at all levels of society and in all regions of the empire. Inability and unwillingness of the government fight the offense in the environment of bureaucracy during many decades has led to the creation a negative image of the official. It was display in numerous literary works and poetry of Ukrainian and Russian authors, the memoirs of contemporaries, official documents.

  10. Formación y desarrollo del léxico de la electricidad en español (siglos XVIII-XIX)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Villanueva, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El objeto de esta investigación es el estudio de las vías de penetración, desarrollo y difusión en español del léxico relativo a la electricidad desde mediados del siglo XVIII hasta finales del siglo XIX a partir del análisis de los textos científicos aparecidos en España durante ese periodo. La tesis consta de ocho capítulos, más un anexo en el que se da detalle del corpus de estudio, integrado por un total de 1015 términos. Los dos primeros se destinan a la presentación del estudio y a l...

  11. Leitura do pensamento bioético de Paulo da Cruz (século XVIII), no seu epistolário

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, João Alírio Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Esta dissertação centra-se, como o título indica, na “Leitura do Pensamento Bioético de Paulo da Cruz (século XVIII), no seu epistolário”. É um trabalho original, de pesquisa hermenêutica, debruçada sobre o epistolário de um pensador humanista, porque místico. Este recuo diacrónico é coadjuvante na sincronia do pensamento bioético, porque o pensamento de Paulo da Cruz, revelado no seu epistolário, enriquece-o, precisamente porque visa o agir ético, ora dos agentes da saúde, ora...

  12. PREFACE: XVIII International Scientific Symposium in Honour of Academician M. A. Usov: Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    XVIII International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development'' (for students and young scientists) was organized under the guidance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Being one of the oldest technical higher education institutions which trains specialists who contribute to scientific research in geosciences, The Institute of Natural Resources of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU INR) was chosen to hold the symposium. In 2014 The Institute of Natural Resources celebrated its 113th anniversary. It was founded in 1901 by V.A. Obruchev, the first geologist in Siberia, member of USSR Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, and the first Laureate of the Lenin Prize. He was recognized all over the world as a prominent scientist in the area of geology. INR is the first institute of geological education and geosciences in the Asian part of Russia. Siberian Mining and Geological Schola, established by V.A. Obruchev and M.A. Usov, has been retaining its significance for discovery, exploration and development of mineral resources not only in Siberia, in the Far East and North-East of the country, but also in Central Asia. There are a lot of outstanding scientists, engineers and manufacturers among alumni of The Institute of Natural Resources. The institute is proud of M.A. Usov, the student and first postgraduate of V.A. Obruchev, first professor and academician in Siberia, whose name is associated with the development of the mining industry in Siberia; Academician K.I. Satpaev, the founder and first president of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan; Professor N.N. Urvantsev, the discoverer of the unique Norilsk ore deposits in the north of East Siberia and Professor M.K. Korovin, who considered West Siberia deposits to be prospective for oil-gas exploration. There are over 35 000 graduates of the institute and

  13. La poesía inglesa de la naturaleza en el XVIII y su influencia en Meléndez Valdés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Calderón, Ángeles

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Nature’ is a key word at the beginning of the 18th c. that appear in all fields of knowledge; the term is frequently repeated by literary critics, and thus Pope would advice poets: «First follow Nature, and your Judgment frame/By her just Standards, which is still the same», Essay on Criticism. Under the influence of Descartes, Newton and Locke, the beauty mean harmony, balance and perfect measure. During the fist quarter of 18th c. the representation of nature wild end up in the Thomson’s poem Winter. Would read the scottish poet in the english original (in his library there is a sample of the 1744 edition, and the poem wild exert considerable influence on the poet from Extremadura, above all in the Odas filosóficas y sagradas.Nature’ es una palabra clave a comienzos del siglo XVIII que aparece en todos los campos del conocimiento; el término es repetido una y otra vez por los críticos literarios, y así Pope aconsejará a los poetas: «First follow Nature, and your Judgment frame/By her just Standards, which is still the same», Essay on Criticism. Bajo la influencia de Descartes, de Newton y de Locke, la belleza viene a significar armonía, equilibrio y orden perfecto. Durante el primer cuarto del XVIII la representación de la naturaleza desembocará en la obra de Thomson, Winter. Meléndez leerá al poeta escocés en el original inglés (en su biblioteca consta un ejemplar de Seasons, edición de 1744, y el poema ejercerá bastante influencia sobre algunas composiciones del extremeño, sobre todo en las Odas filosóficas y sagradas.

  14. Chapter No.12. UJD personnel and economic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    second place belonged to employees at the age of 51-60 years representing 26% of overall number of employees. This statistics proves, that the state supervision was provided mostly by employees with the long-standing practice, i.e., by employees at the age of 41-60 years representing 62% of an overall number of employees. Other age categories were represented as follows: 23% of all employees at the age of 20-30 years, 10% of all employees at the age of 31-40 years an 5% of all employees at the age over 60 years. UJD as the central state body has an independent status and acts independently in the budgetary process, i.e., it has its own budgetary chapter with incomes and outcomes directly connected with the State Budget. In 2001, the state regulation and supervision over the nuclear safety was funded from the State Budget amounting to SKK 77,911 thousands. Apart from these funds, UJD used the extra-budgetary funds from abroad (from the Swiss Government through the SWISSLOVAK, SWISSUP Project, Evita Project, IAEA Projects and from the Temporary Secretariat of Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) amounting to SKK 1,773 thousands. Overall expenditures as of 31 December 2001 amounted to SKK 79,684 thousands. From total amount of budgetary funds, the amount of SKK 71,394 thousands was used as running expenditures and the amount of SKK 6,517 thousands was used for capital assets acquisition. Total amount of finance from the State Budget did not exceed the limit of available funds, i.e. the amount of SKK 3,685 thousands from the budgetary chapter was not drawn. This situation is connected with unrealised foreign transfers in favour of the international organisations (payment obligation did not arise) as well as with lower use of other current expenditures. Current foreign transfers amounting to SKK 24,967 thousands represented the largest portion of budgetary expenditures, i.e. transfer to EBRD on Chernobyl containment renovation, two contributions to IAEA Technical Co-operation

  15. Planning and setting objectives in field studies: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter enumerates the steps required in designing and planning field studies on the ecology and conservation of reptiles, as these involve a high level of uncertainty and risk. To this end, the chapter differentiates between goals (descriptions of what one intends to accomplish) and objectives (the measurable steps required to achieve the established goals). Thus, meeting a specific goal may require many objectives. It may not be possible to define some of them until certain experiments have been conducted; often evaluations of sampling protocols are needed to increase certainty in the biological results. And if sampling locations are fixed and sampling events are repeated over time, then both study-specific covariates and sampling-specific covariates should exist. Additionally, other critical design considerations for field study include obtaining permits, as well as researching ethics and biosecurity issues.

  16. Chapter 10: Mining genome-wide genetic markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association study (GWAS aims to discover genetic factors underlying phenotypic traits. The large number of genetic factors poses both computational and statistical challenges. Various computational approaches have been developed for large scale GWAS. In this chapter, we will discuss several widely used computational approaches in GWAS. The following topics will be covered: (1 An introduction to the background of GWAS. (2 The existing computational approaches that are widely used in GWAS. This will cover single-locus, epistasis detection, and machine learning methods that have been recently developed in biology, statistic, and computer science communities. This part will be the main focus of this chapter. (3 The limitations of current approaches and future directions.

  17. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  18. Chapter 5: Anthropogenic methane sources, emissions and future projections

    OpenAIRE

    HOGLUND-ISAKSSON Lena; Thomson, Allison; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Rao, Shilpa; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent global assessments of anthropogenic methane emissions, their expected future development and estimated reduction potentials. Because methane is a gas which mixes rapidly in the global atmosphere, it is of interest to review emissions at the global scale as well as for the area covered by the eight Arctic nations. The following key findings have been identified: • Bottom-up emission inventories agree fairly well in terms of the overall magnitude of global anthropogeni...

  19. What do we know about Chapter 13 personal bankruptcy filings?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Li

    2007-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of households filing for bankruptcy has more than tripled. This drastic increase in personal bankruptcy filings led to substantial debate among economists and policymakers. That debate subsequently resulted in the enactment of extensive reforms in 2005 when Congress passed the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act. Ultimately, the rationale for this legislation is the presumption that Chapter 13 leads to more appropriate outcomes compared with either C...

  20. Nuclear criticality safety. Chapter 0530 of AEC manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme objectives of this chapter of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission manual on nuclear criticality safety are to protect the health and safety of the public and of the government and contractor personnel working in plants that handle fissionable material and to protect public and private property from the consequences of a criticality accident occurring in AEC-owned plants and other AEC-contracted activities involving fissionable materials

  1. Indexes a chapter from the Chicago Manual of Style

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    For nearly one hundred years, The Chicago Manual of Style has been the authoritative reference for writers, editors, and publishers. Now in its fifteenth edition, the Manual has been thoroughly revised and updated. The chapter on indexing presented here has been reorganized, streamlined, and revised for the electronic age. It provides examples and recommendations on style and method for professionals, authors, and others who prepare indexes for published works.

  2. Chapter VI: Population and its activities in landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter brings the detailed characterisation of the demographic and economic structures according to the individual industries. A considerable part of it is dedicated to settlement. These phenomena are highly variable and relatively unstable. The authors have succeeded to reflect the most recent situation relying on the last census of population, houses, and flats carried out in 2001 according to the data provided by the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. (author)

  3. HARAMEKHALA – TANTRA (THE FIRST CHAPTER ON MEDICINE)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala – tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  4. Hydrologic processes and the water budget: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Winter, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the hydrological setting of Mirror Lake and its water budget. It first describes the glacial deposits and bedrock topography in the Mirror Lake area. It then provides an overview of the hydrologic processes associated with Mirror Lake and examines the field and analytical methods used to determine its water budget. It presents results from the hydrologic studies, which are based on monthly and annual water budgets for the calendar years 1981 through 2000.

  5. Chapter 2 - Luminescence analysis (OSL and TL) from Karabai I

    OpenAIRE

    Burbidge, C. I.; Richter, D.; Sanderson, D.C.W; Housley, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reports a pilot study by two luminescence laboratories on samples from the 2004 excavations of Karabai I. The Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) examined the optical stimulated luminescent (OSL) properties of the sediments using a method called luminescence profiling (Burbidge et al. 2007); the Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig attempted to analyse the thermoluminescence (TL) age of a small collection of heated stones. Luminescen...

  6. Chapter 1. Impacts of the oceans on climate change.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, PC; Fischer, AC; Lewis-Brown, E.; Meredith, MP; Sparrow, M; Andersson, AJ; Antia, A.; Bates, NR; Bathmann, U.; Beaugrand, G.; Brix, H.; Dye, S.; Edwards, M.; T. Furevik; Gangstø, R.

    2010-01-01

    The oceans play a key role in climate regulation especially in part buffering (neutralising) the effects of increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and rising global temperatures. This chapter examines how the regulatory processes performed by the oceans alter as a response to climate change and assesses the extent to which positive feedbacks from the ocean may exacerbate climate change. There is clear evidence for rapid change in the oceans. As the main heat store for the wor...

  7. A POPULARIZAÇÃO NA CIÊNCIA: A ÓPTICA DE NEWTON NO SÉCULO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniek Silva Venceslau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As atuais aulas de ciências, geralmente, não apresentam discussões referentes à aspectos da natureza da ciência, por exemplo, como uma teoria se desenvolve com o tempo e a influência de fatores não-racionais na sua construção. Tais aspectos são relevantes na hora do aluno desenvolver uma visão mais adequada na sua compreensão de como uma teoria ou modelo é construído. Além disso, as abordagens mais tradicionais, também, já não garantem a aprendizagem de teorias físicas. Com a inserção de discussões, que envolvam a História e a Filosofia da Ciência (HFC, os alunos poderão vivenciar o desenvolvimentos de teorias físicas e, também, realizar estudos sobre a natureza da ciência, colocando em evidência aspectos não abordados nas práticas mais tradiconais. Este estudo é baseado em uma pesquisa bibliográfica, que contempla a história da óptica, e, em especial, a controvérsia existente em relação a natureza da luz com destaque a influência newtoniana para a aceitação da teoria corpuscular no século XVIII. Neste trabalho problematizaremos uma visão ingênua do desenvolvimento histórico da ciência, onde, geralmente, ela é vista de forma contínua e fatores não-racionais são excluídos da construção de teorias físicas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: história e filosofia da ciência, popularização na ciência, Isaac Newton. THE POPULARIZATION IN SCIENCE: THE NEWTON APPROACH IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ABSTRACT The current science classes generally do not have discussions concerning aspects of the nature of science, for example, as a theory developed over time, the influence of non-rational factors in its construction. These aspects are relevant at the time of the student developing a more appropriate method in their understanding of how a theory or model is built. In addition to more traditional approaches, too, no longer guaranteeing the physical theories of learning. With the insertion of discussions, involving

  8. ANÁLISIS DE OBRAS MUSICALES VENEZOLANAS Y EUROPEAS DE LOS SIGLOS XVIII, XIX Y XX REFERENTES AL REINO ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naudy Trujillo Muscia

    2012-09-01

    venezolanos y europeos de los siglos XVIII, XIX y XX. Los resultados indican a las aves silvestres como las más tratadas en piezas musicales tanto en Europa como en Venezuela; manifiestan también una proporción mayor de piezas musicales que tratan los animales de producción versus animales domésticos en Venezuela, mostrándose lo contrario en el continente europeo. Se concluye, en primer lugar, que tanto en Venezuela como en Europa, la cultura humana busca enaltecer la fauna silvestre, ya sea de forma naturalista o romántica; se confirma el fuerte arraigo de la mentalidad agropecuaria venezolana y su importancia en el desarrollo de la cultura nacional a la par que en Europa; los resultados reflejan el poco contacto con áreas verdes abiertas y sistemas de producción agropecuarios que poseían los compositores y público académico de la época. Esta investigación fomenta la interdisciplinariedad en la sociedad científica venezolana, haciendo aportes científicos al desarrollo de la cultura, además de servir a docentes, terapeutas musicales, historiadores y la sociedad en general en sus investigaciones y ocupaciones al generar nuevas preguntas en el campo científico de la psiquis humana dentro de la relación hombre/animal y brindar nuevos conocimientos a la ciencia histórica de la Medicina Veterinaria y la Música Universal.

  9. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    Chapter 1. Measurement 1. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2. Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. 2 Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3. Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the desert plains? 3-1 What Is Physics? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4. Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5. Force and Motion--I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to .y the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6. Force and Motion--II. Can a

  10. Orchidaceae novae Malayenses XVIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1945-01-01

    Planta parva. Caules erecti, tenues, basi tantum ramosi, basi radicantes, c. 23 cm longi, inferne vaginati, superne 3—4-foliati. Folia erecto-patentia, lanceolata, acuminata, acutissima, basi acuta, nervis 5 majoribus sicco subtus et etiam supra prominentibus pluribusque tenuibus, sicco membranacea,

  11. Operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe. Chapter 61

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukkonen, J.; Balk, T.; Schultz, D.M.; Baklanov, A.; Klein, T.; Miranda, A.I.; Monteiro, A.; Hirtl, M.; Lehtinen, K.; Karatzas, K.; San José, R.; Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Schaap, M.; Reimer, E.; Jakobs, H.; Tarvainen, V.; Boy, M.; Peuch, V.H.; PoupKou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Finardi, S.; Sofiev, M.; Eben, Kryštof; Sokhi, R.

    Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V, 2011 - (Steyn, D.; Castelli, S.), s. 359-365. (NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmetal Security. 4). ISBN 978-94-007-1358-1. ISSN 1874-6519. [NATO/SPS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Applications /31./. Torino (IT), 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : chemical weather * scientific model evaluation * forecasting model Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality

  12. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 1 (Chapters 1-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Chapter 1.Measurement. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2.Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3.Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the deser t plains? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4.Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5.Force and Motion-I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to fly the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6.Force and Motion-II. Can a Grand Prix race car be driven

  13. A valorização total do espaço: capitalismo e geografia em Civilisation Matérielle, Économie et capitalisme - XV-XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a relação entre espaço e economia em Civilisation Matérielle, Économie et Capitalisme - XV-XVIII (1979) do historiador francês Fernand Braudel (1902-1985). A partir do conceito de economia-mundo, podemos observar o papel crucial do espaço em sua original interpretação sobre o desenvolvimento do capitalismo.

  14. A valorização total do espaço: capitalismo e geografia em Civilisation Matérielle, Économie et capitalisme - XV-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ribeiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a relação entre espaço e economia em Civilisation Matérielle, Économie et Capitalisme - XV-XVIII (1979 do historiador francês Fernand Braudel (1902-1985. A partir do conceito de economia-mundo, podemos observar o papel crucial do espaço em sua original interpretação sobre o desenvolvimento do capitalismo.

  15. Chapter Leadership Profiles among Citizen Activists in the Drunk Driving Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerleider, Steven; Bloch, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Study of Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) analyzed the chapter emphasis, levels of satisfaction and relationship to national office on several measures. Surveying 212 chapters, MADD leadership provided profile of independent, autonomous activists in the drunk driving countermeasure movement. (Author)

  16. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  17. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 3 (Chapters 22-33)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-03-01

    Chapter 21. Electric Charge. Why do video monitors in surgical rooms increase the risk of bacterial contamination? 21-1 What Is Physics? 21-2 Electric Charge. 21-3 Conductors and Insulators. 21-4 Coulomb's Law. 21-5 Charge Is Quantized. 21-6 Charge Is Conserved. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 22. Electric Fields. What causes sprites, those brief .ashes of light high above lightning storms? 22-1 What Is Physics? 22-2 The Electric Field. 22-3 Electric Field Lines. 22-4 The Electric Field Due to a Point Charge. 22-5 The Electric Field Due to an Electric Dipole. 22-6 The Electric Field Due to a Line of Charge. 22-7 The Electric Field Due to a Charged Disk. 22-8 A Point Charge in an Electric Field. 22-9 A Dipole in an Electric Field. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 23. Gauss' Law. How can lightning harm you even if it do es not strike you? 23-1 What Is Physics? 23-2 Flux. 23-3 Flux of an Electric Field. 23-4 Gauss' Law. 23-5 Gauss' Law and Coulomb's Law. 23-6 A Charged Isolated Conductor. 23-7 Applying Gauss' Law: Cylindrical Symmetry. 23-8 Applying Gauss' Law: Planar Symmetry. 23-9 Applying Gauss' Law: Spherical Symmetry. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 24. Electric Potential. What danger does a sweater pose to a computer? 24-1 What Is Physics? 24-2 Electric Potential Energy. 24-3 Electric Potential. 24-4 Equipotential Surfaces. 24-5 Calculating the Potential from the Field. 24-6 Potential Due to a Point Charge. 24-7 Potential Due to a Group of Point Charges. 24-8 Potential Due to an Electric Dipole. 24-9 Potential Due to a Continuous Charge Distribution. 24-10 Calculating the Field from the Potential. 24-11 Electric Potential Energy of a System of Point Charges. 24-12 Potential of a Charged Isolated Conductor. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 25. Capacitance. How did a fire start in a stretcher being withdrawn from an oxygen chamber? 25-1 What Is Physics? 25-2 Capacitance. 25-3 Calculating the Capacitance. 25

  18. Chapter 6. Models of groundwater ages and residence times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CFC ages are generally based on absolute concentrations. As a result, when waters of different ages mix, the CFC concentration changes and so does the apparent age. Because CFC concentrations in the atmosphere are not a linear function of time, the apparent age is not necessarily proportional to the fraction of each component of water in the mixture. In this chapter, more general models of groundwater age distributions in simple aquifer types are reviewed, as well as how the age distribution relates to aquifer properties

  19. Energy consumption and quality of man's life. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Chapter 1 a dependence of public life quality showings from energy consumption value is proved. Priority of fuel-energetic complex development is grounded as well. Specific features of Kazakhstan power engineering during its integration into world economics are given. Problems of liberalization of power engineering economy are illustrated. Dependences between assessments of human potential and energy consumption level in the world and Kazakhstan are given in tabular form. In Kazakhstan under relatively stable education level index an energy consumption reduction was resulted to gross national product decrease on via capita

  20. Chapter 5. The strategic plans of the Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fifth chapter of this CD ROM the strategic plans of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The programme of strategic changes (Declaration of the programme; The need for change; Major tasks; The management structure; Interconnections between the PSC target areas; The PSC projects); (2) The development of the Company (The major objectives of the Company; The energy plan of Slovakia; Analysis of development Alternatives; Results of the analysis; Economic comparison of the alternatives; Development of generation, The information system; Strategic goals and legislation). (3) The quality control system

  1. Chapter 2. Use of tracer technology in mineral fertilizer management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter provides background information on fertilizer nitrogen (N) consumption and production (2.1) and estimates of future requirements, followed by methods for the measurement of fertilizer N use efficiency (2.2). Aspects relevant to the use of fertilizer N in agricultural production systems, such as factors affecting its efficiency and loss (2.3), and interactions with other N sources and soil testing for providing fertilizer recommendations, are discussed, as are approaches/strategies to improve fertilizer N efficiency (2.4), with particular emphasis on the use of isotopic tracers. (author)

  2. Chapter 7: Fatwas at the rescue of hard cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazzal, Zouhair

    2013-01-01

    All four cases examined in detail thus far in the two previous chapters (three related to the Shihābs, in addition to a regular Beirut case similar in its structure to that of Bashīr III) reveal an eagerness to go beyond the limitations imposed by both Maronite canon law and Ḥanafī practice. But a great deal of conservatism also reveals itself in that the court procedures, which by and large consisted of legal subterfuges, did not touch upon the substance of the law. However, even with the ex...

  3. GROWING AND MAINTAINING VIABLE STUDENT CHAPTERS OF PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: THE CASE OF THE NATIONAL AGRIMARKETING ASSOCIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenheim, Cheryl J.

    2006-01-01

    There are 35 accredited student chapters of the National AgriMarketing Association (NAMA) from 24 states and 3 Canadian Provinces. Membership in a NAMA student chapter allows students to network with professionals, develop their marketing and communication skills, and develop leadership and team-building skills. A survey of student chapter advisors was used to identify what facilitates and what constrains student chapter success. Advisors indicated the opportunity and enjoyment of the nationa...

  4. Chapter 15. Safety of work in nuclear scientific and technological disciplines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems of safety of work in nuclear scientific and technological disciplines. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Safety at the work with radioactive substances; (2) Safety at the work with radioactive wastes; (3) Prevention of formation of supercritical state; (4) Nuclear safety of nuclear power plants

  5. Chapter 9. Behaviour of individual groups of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with behaviour of individual groups of radionuclides in the environment. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Noble gases; (2) Non-metals; (3) Alkali metals; (4) Alkaline earth metals; (5) Heavy metals; (6) Rare earth elements; (7) Actinides

  6. 38 CFR 21.382 - Training and staff development for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... development for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31. 21.382 Section 21.382 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Personnel Training and Development § 21.382 Training and staff development for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31. (a)...

  7. Overview of NATO Background on Scramjet Technology. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Bouchez, Marc; McClinton, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present overview is to summarize the current knowledge of the NATO contributors. All the topics will be addressed in this chapter, with references and some examples. This background enhances the level of knowledge of the NATO scramjet community, which will be used for writing the specific chapters of the Report. Some previous overviews have been published on scramjet technology worldwide. NASA, DOD, the U.S. industry and global community have studied scramjet-powered hypersonic vehicles for over 40 years. Within the U.S. alone, NASA, DOD (DARPA, U.S. Navy and USAF), and industry have participated in hypersonic technology development. Over this time NASA Langley Research Center continuously studied hypersonic system design, aerothermodynamics, scramjet propulsion, propulsion-airframe integration, high temperature materials and structural architectures, and associated facilities, instrumentation and test methods. These modestly funded programs were substantially augmented during the National Aero-Space Plane (X-30) Program, which spent more than $3B between 1984 and 1995, and brought the DOD and other NASA Centers, universities and industry back into hypersonics. In addition, significant progress was achieved in all technologies required for hypersonic flight, and much of that technology was transferred into other programs, such as X-33, DC-X, X-37, X-43, etc. In addition, technology transfer impacted numerous other industries, including automotive, medical, sports and aerospace.

  8. DIMENSIUNILE ECONOMICĂ ŞI SOCIALĂ ALE PROCESULUI DE MODERNIZARE A ŢĂRII MOLDOVEI ÎN A DOUA JUMĂTATE A SEC.XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin ARAPU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problema dimensiunilor economică şi socială ale procesului de modernizare a Ţării Moldovei în a doua jumătate a sec. XVIII este actuală prin prisma abordărilor ştiinţifice interdisciplinare. Transformările din societate sunt reflectate prin investigaţiile de ordin istoric, economic, social, demografic, sociologic şi juridic. Tema este cercetată pe dimensiu-nile didactică, economică şi socială. Pe dimensiunea didactică este elucidat conceptul de modernizare, fiind relevate principalele scheme de periodizare a epocii moderne în plan universal şi naţional. Aspectul modernizării pe dimensiunea economică este reflectat prin accentuarea rolului exercitat de centrele urbane în economia ţării şi al atelierelor noi de producţie în cadrul cărora procesul de muncă era organizat după modelul manufacturilor descentralizate. Majoritatea manufacturilor au fost înfiinţate de către domnitori, marii boieri sau la porunca nemijlocită a sultanilor. Dimensiunea socială a procesului de modernizare este relevantă prin sporirea rolului şi a ponderii exercitate de către viitoarea pătură burgheză, reprezentată de negustori, meseriaşi, intelectuali, funcţionari, proprietari de manufacturi şi de mici instalaţii industriale, cămătari, arendaşi de moşii şi de un număr însemnat de alogeni înstăriţi, care, prin activităţile lor, contribuiau la dezvoltarea relaţiilor pre-capitaliste.ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF THE MODERNIYATION PROCCES OF MOLDAVIAN PRINCIPALITY IN SECOND HALF OF XVIII CENTURY The problem of economic and social dimensions of the modernization of Moldavian Principality in the second half of XVIII century is actual through the interdisciplinary scientific approaches. The changes in society are reflected in historical, economic, social, demographic, sociological and judicial investigations. This theme is researched on didactic, economic and social dimensions. On the didactic dimension is

  9. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal

    2013-04-01

    The International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Student Chapter Freiberg was founded in 2007 at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF) in Germany by national and international graduate and undergraduate students of various geoscientific as well as natural science disciplines. The major aim of the IAMG is to promote international cooperation in the application and use of Mathematics in Geosciences research and technology. The IAMG encourages all types of students and young scientists to found and maintain student chapters, which can even receive limited financial support by the IAMG. Following this encouragement, generations of students at TUBAF have build up and established a prosperous range of activities. These might be an example and an invitation for other young scientists and institutions worldwide to run similar activities. We, some of the current and former students behind the student chapter, have organised talks, membership drives, student seminars, guest lectures, several short courses and even international workshops. Some notable short courses were held by invited IAMG distinguished lecturers. The topics included "Statistical analysis in the Earth Sciences using R - a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics", "Geomathematical Natural Resource Modeling" and "Introduction to Geostatistics for Environmental Applications and Natural Resources Evaluation: Basic Concepts and Examples". Furthermore, we conducted short courses by ourselves. Here, the topics included basic introductions into MATLAB, object oriented programming concepts for geoscientists using MATLAB and an introduction to the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Most of those short courses lasted several days and provided an excellent and unprecedented teaching experience for us. We were given credit by attending students for filling gaps in our university's curriculum by providing in-depth and hands-on tutorials on topics, which were merely

  10. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 4 (Chapters 34-38)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-04-01

    Chapter 33. Electromagnetic Waves. Why can one rainbow or two rainbows be seen in the sky but never three rainbows? 33-1 What Is Physics? 33-2 Maxwell's Rainbow. 33-3 The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave, Qualitatively. 33-4 The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave, Quantitatively. 33-5 Energy Transport and the Poynting Vector. 33-6 Radiation Pressure. 33-7 Polarization. 33-8 Reflection and Refraction. 33-9 Total Internal Reflection. 33-10 Polarization by Reflection. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 34. Images. What creates the illusion of hallways in a mirror maze? 34-1 What Is Physics? 34-2 Two Types of Images. 34-3 Plane Mirrors. 34-4 Spherical Mirrors. 34-5 Images from Spherical Mirrors. 34-6 Spherical Refracting Surfaces. 34-7 Thin Lenses. 34-8 Optical Instruments. 34-9 Three Proofs. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 35. Interference. How do color-shifting inks on paper currency shift colors? 35-1 What Is Physics? 35-2 Light as a Wave. 35-3 Diffraction. 35-4 Young's Interference Experiment. 35-5 Coherence. 35-6 Intensity in Double-Slit Interference. 35-7 Interference from Thin Films. 35-8 Michelson's Interferometer. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 36. Diffraction. How were variable displays on credit cards made bright and counterfeit-proof? 36-1 What Is Physics? 36-2 Diffraction and the Wave Theory of Light. 36-3 Diffraction by a Single Slit: Locating the Minima. 36-4 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Qualitatively. 36-5 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction, Quantitatively. 36-6 Diffraction by a Circular Aperture. 36-7 Diffraction by a Double Slit. 36-8 Diffraction Gratings. 36-9 Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power. 36-10 X-Ray Diffraction. Review & Summary Questions. Problems. Chapter 37. Relativity. How can we determine what lurks at the center of the galaxy M87, 50 million light-years away? 37-1 What Is Physics? 37-2 The Postulates. 37-3 Measuring an Event. 37-4 The Relativity of Simultaneity. 37-5 The Relativity

  11. La contradanza en España en el siglo XVIII: Ferriol y Boxeraus, Minget e Yrol y los bailes públicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Osés, Clara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The country-dance arrived to Spain through the France border during the fi rst half of the 18th century and it was codifi ed in Spanish language by the French dance treatises authors (Ferriol and Minguet. Both described two basic categories of countrydance: the English and the French, and they choreographed several examples following the pattern of treatises created by authors such as Feuillet (1706 and De la Cuisse (1762. During the second half of the century country-dance became essential in public balls, proof of which are the numerous English and French country-dance compilations in performed within those balls. The present study aims to explore the evolution of country-dance in Spain during the 18th century: Is it possible to establish certain particular characteristics? Were Spanish choreographers and composers able to write their own choreographies? To what extent were the French notation systems assimilated by Spanish authors?

    La contradanza llegó a España, a través de Francia, durante la primera mitad del siglo XVIII y fue codifi cada por los autores de tratados de danza francesa en español (Ferriol y Minguet. Ambos describen dos tipos básicos de contradanza: la inglesa y la francesa y coreografían varios ejemplos siguiendo los modelos de tratadistas franceses como Feuillet (1706 o De la Cuisse (1762. Durante la segunda mitad de siglo, las contradanzas se convierten en la esencia de los bailes públicos; prueba de ello son los numerosos recopilatorios de contradanzas, inglesas y francesas, que se interpretaban en dichos bailes. Este estudio se propone explorar la evolución de la contradanza en España en el siglo XVIII: ¿Es posible establecer unas características propias?, ¿Fueron los compositores y coreógrafos españoles capaces de escribir sus propias coreografías?, ¿Hasta qué punto fueron asimilados los sistemas franceses de notación?.

  12. Transistor electronics use of semiconductor components in switching operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rumpf, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Transistor Electronics: Use of Semiconductor Components in Switching Operations presents the semiconductor components as well as their elementary circuits. This book discusses the scope of application of electronic devices to increase productivity. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general equation for the representation of integer positive numbers. This text then examines the properties and characteristics of basic electronic components, which relates to an understanding of the operation of semiconductors. Other chapters consider the electronic circuit ar

  13. Programming languages and operating systems used in data base systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some apsects of the use of the programming languages and operating systems in the data base systems are presented. There are four chapters in this paper. In the first chapter we present some generalities about the programming languages. In the second one we describe the use of the programming languages in the data base systems. A classification of the programming languages used in data base systems is presented in the third one. An overview of the operating systems is made in the last chapter. (author)

  14. Impact of alien terrestrial arthropods in Europe. Chapter 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Kenis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter reviews the effects of alien terrestrial arthropods on the economy, society and environment in Europe. Many alien insect and mite species cause serious socio-economic hazards as pests of agriculture, horticulture, stored products and forestry. They may also affect human or animal health. Interestingly, there is relatively little information available on the exact yield and financial losses due to alien agricultural and forestry pests in Europe, particularly at continental scale. Several alien species may have a positive impact on the economy, for example parasitoids and predators introduced for the biological control of important pests. Invasive alien arthropods can also cause environmental hazards. They may affect native biodiversity through various mechanisms, including herbivory, predation, parasitism, competition for resource and space, or as vectors of diseases. They can also affect ecosystem services and processes through cascading effects. However, these ecological impacts are poorly studied, particularly in Europe, where only a handful cases have been reported.

  15. Chapter 12: Trapped Electrons as Electrical (Quantum) Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, José

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a detailed model of the equivalent electric circuit of a single trapped particle in a coplanar-waveguide (CPW) Penning trap. The CPW-trap, which is essentially a section of coplanar-waveguide transmission-line, is designed to make it compatible with circuit-quantum electrodynamic architectures. This will enable a single trapped electron, or geonium atom, as a potential building block of microwave quantum circuits. The model of the trapped electron as an electric circuit was first introduced by Hans Dehmelt in the 1960s. It is essential for the description of the electronic detection using resonant tank circuits. It is also the basis for the description of the interaction of a geonium atom with other distant quantum systems through electrical (microwave) signals.

  16. Other elements: Cs, K, and Kr. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter deals with two types of Moessbauer candidates with totally different chemical behavior: alkali metals, cesium and potassium, and a noble rare gas, krypton. Cesium and potassium generally form strongly ionic compounds by more or less completely losing a valence electron. This leaves behind a spherically symmetric and relatively inert core. Thus one expects a lack of variety in the resulting Moessbauer spectra. However, some measurable differences between the isomer shifts of different compounds have been found. In alloys of cesium, on the other hand, large differences in the isomer shifts indicate considerable, but ill-understood differences in the band structures. In the case of potassium a similar behavior would be expected but no isomer shifts have been found to date. In this isotope the presence of a large second-order Doppler shift can conceal the chemical information however accurately the shifts might have been measured. (Auth.)

  17. Finite Element Method (Chapter from "Gratings: Theory and Numeric Applications")

    CERN Document Server

    Demésy, Guillaume; Nicolet, André; Vial, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate a general formulation of the Finite Element Method allowing to calculate the diffraction efficiencies from the electromagnetic field diffracted by arbitrarily shaped gratings embedded in a multilayered stack lightened by a plane wave of arbitrary incidence and polarization angle. It relies on a rigorous treatment of the plane wave sources problem through an equivalent radiation problem with localized sources. Bloch conditions and a new Adaptative Perfectly Matched Layer have been implemented in order to truncate the computational domain. We derive this formulation for both mono-dimensional gratings in TE/TM polarization cases (2D or scalar case) and for the most general bidimensional or crossed gratings (3D or vector case). The main advantage of this formulation is its complete generality with respect to the studied geometries and the material properties. Its principle remains independent of both the number of diffractive elements by period and number of stack layers. The flexi...

  18. Dispensas y libros secretos de matrimonios en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX en actuales territorios argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Siegrist

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizan fuentes en archivos y obras de la bibliografía europea e Hispanoamericana vinculados al Derecho Canónico en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX. Los Libros Secretos de Matrimonios, escasamente conocidos, revelan la existencia de una realidad justamente secreta, de allí que pocos tuvieron acceso a un material guardado a través del tiempo por la Iglesia Católica. Motivaciones disímiles como consanguinidad directa, primer grado de afinidad en línea recta, disparidad de linaje, de religión, falta de permisos por parte de las autoridades a funcionarios de la administración en Indias y a oficiales militares para que pudieran casar, como el hecho de que algunos Cargadores de Cádiz quisieron ser considerados como solteros ante la sociedad, fueron motivo de que ciertas nupcias se guardaran de incógnito en las Cámaras Episcopales, en libros bajo llave. Se da cuenta de ejemplos ubicados en Buenos Aires, Córdoba y Mendoza, con extensión a antecedentes existentes en otras regiones geográficas.

  19. Hibridación, interacción social y adaptación cultural en la Costa de Mosquitos, siglos XVII y XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Claudia

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From their emergence as a socially differentiated group at the end of the 17th Century, the Miskitu Indians transformed their culture through processes which were profoundly influenced by their interaction with Others, by their ideas and their customs. And, whilst assimilating into the group individuals of different ethnic origins, they also incorporated material objects which would subsequently become new cultural requirements. The aim of this project is to relate the social behaviour of the Miskitu during the 17th and 18th Centuries to their interest in obtaining non-traditional products.

    A partir de su emergencia como grupo socialmente diferenciado a fines del siglo XVII los indios miskitu transformaron su cultura por medio de procesos profundamente influenciados por la interacción con el Otro, por sus ideas y por sus prácticas. Y el grupo, al tiempo que asimilaba a individuos de diferente procedencia étnica, incorporaba objetos materiales que se convirtirían en necesidades culturales nuevas. La intención de este trabajo es relacionar la conducta social de los miskitu durante los siglos XVII y XVIII con su interés por obtener productos no tradicionales.

  20. Campanas y campaneros: el taller de fundición del siglo XVIII de la ermita de Vera Cruz de Frandovínez (Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Fernández, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results achieved in the archaeological excavation at the ancient shrine of the Vera Cruz of Frandovínez (Burgos, more specifically those related to a bell foundry of the 18th century, represents an important step forward in the knowledge of this kind of elements of the industrial historical heritage, since, exceptionally, all the structures of the foundry have been documented. Furthermore, the existing documentation dated in 1788, has made possible investigating aspects of the work contract, the economic amount, and different artisan guilds that participated in the work.Los resultados obtenidos en la excavación arqueológica realizada en la antigua ermita de la Vera Cruz de Frandovínez (Burgos, en concreto los relacionados con un taller de fundición de campanas del siglo XVIII, constituyen un importante avance en el conocimiento de este tipo de elementos del patrimonio histórico industrial, ya que de manera excepcional han sido documentadas la totalidad de las estructuras integrantes del taller. Por otro lado, la documentación existente de 1788, ha permitido indagar en aspectos relacionados con la contratación de la obra, el montante económico y los diferentes oficios que participaron en la empresa.

  1. Artefatos e práticas sociais em torno das refeições (São Paulo, séculos XVIII e XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Menezes Borrego

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Em 1923, ingressava no Museu Paulista, por vontade testamentária de D. Francisca Miquelina de Paula de Souza Queiroz, um conjunto de duas cadeiras, canapé e mesa que havia pertencido a seu avô, o Brigadeiro Luis Antonio de Souza Queiroz, uma das maiores fortunas da primeira metade do século XIX paulista, falecido em 1819.Seus atributos físicos são testemunhos das transformações socioeconômicas e incitam à reflexão sobre o significado da posse de objetos, as relações pessoais por eles mediadas e o papel conformador de práticas sociais desempenhado pelos artefatos. A partir do estudo desses móveis e dos bens descritos em inventários de habitantes da cidade de São Paulo, o artigo analisa a dimensão material da vida social, nos séculos XVIII e inícios do XIX, focalizando as práticas sociais em torno das refeições no espaço doméstico, num contexto marcado pela gradual interiorização das sociabilidades.

  2. Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitions in He-like Cl XVI, K XVIII, Ca XIX and Sc XX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation cross sections and rates for transitions in He-like Cl XVI, K XVIII, Ca XIX and Sc XX. The GRASP (general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package) is adopted for calculating energy levels and radiative rates. To determine the collision strengths and subsequently the excitation rates, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (DARC) is used. Oscillator strengths, radiative rates and line strengths are reported for all E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions among the lowest 49 levels of each ion. Collision strengths are averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution and the effective collision strengths obtained listed over a wide temperature range up to 107.4 K. Comparisons are made with similar data obtained from the flexible atomic code (FAC) to highlight the importance of resonances, included in calculations with DARC, in the determination of effective collision strengths. Discrepancies between the collision strengths from DARC and FAC, particularly for forbidden transitions, are also discussed. Additionally, theoretical lifetimes are listed for all the 49 levels of the above four ions.

  3. Extended calculations of level and transition properties in the nitrogen isoelectronic sequence: Cr XVIII, Fe XX, Ni XXII, and Zn XXIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radžiūtė, L.; Ekman, J.; Jönsson, P.; Gaigalas, G.

    2015-10-01

    Extensive multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) calculations and relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) calculations are performed for 272 states of the 2s22p3, 2s2p4, 2p5, 2s22p23l, 2s2p33l, and 2p43l (l = 0,1,2) configurations in the nitrogen-like ions Cr XVIII, Fe XX, Ni XXII, and Zn XXIV. Valence, core-valence, and core-core electron correlation effects are accounted for through large configuration state function expansions. Calculated energy levels are compared with data from other calculations and with experimental data from the NIST database. Landé gJ-factors; hyperfine structures; isotope shifts; and radiative electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), and magnetic dipole (M1) transition rates are given for all ions. The accuracy of the calculated energy levels is high enough to facilitate identification of observed spectral lines involving the 2l43l' configurations, for which experimental data are largely missing. Tables 5-21 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/582/A61

  4. Verónica Undurraga Schüler. Los rostros del honor. Normas culturales y estrategias de promoción social en Chile colonial, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Paola López Jerez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “Soy un pobre artesano, pero tengo honor”. Esta frase expresada por el sastre Diego Escobar, cargada de sentido, pero también de aparentes contradicciones, fue uno de los indicios que luego de un juicioso análisis, realizado durante siete años con más de doscientos expedientes judiciales por injurias, calumnias, lesiones, homicidios, heridas y disensos matrimoniales, extraídos del Archivo Nacional Histórico de Chile, además de registros de escribanos y documentación parroquial, le permitieron a Verónica Undurraga señalar que “durante el siglo XVIII en Santiago de Chile el honor dejó de ser un código cultural monolítico y patrimonio exclusivo de las élites y se desgajó en múltiples capas, se cercenó en diversos horizontes, prestando sus representaciones polisémicas a sujetos de los más variados lugares sociales” (p. 26.

  5. Mujeres casadas en los negocios y el comercio ultramarino entre el Río de la Plata y la Península a fines del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirrezabala, Marcela

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se circunscribe al estudio de la participación económica de la mujer en un ámbito generalmente asociado a la figura masculina, como es el portuario, en la colonia y a fines del siglo XVIII. Nos acercamos a dos mujeres en particular puesto que, lejos de señalar excepciones, es a través de ellas que se puede develar su adecuación a la normativa desde dos situaciones distintas, contempladas por la legislación respecto a la mujer casada. Estas mujeres parecen conocer el lenguaje de los negocios, los vínculos mercantiles, el engranaje de una compañía comercial, las obligaciones de las partes como las contratas y valores que se manejan. Analizar las pautas de comportamiento como las estrategias utilizadas por estas mujeres en una sociedad donde los hombres son los constructores de los espacios reales e imaginarios, se nos presenta como una alternativa diferente, que nos permite dejar de lado la supuesta invisibilidad de la mujer y su identificación con el universo doméstico en función del sexo. En tal sentido, el concepto de género nos da las herramientas necesarias para estudiar a las mujeres en relación a los hombres, sabiendo que la información sobre uno es también conocimiento sobre el otro.

  6. Rendición de Cuentas de los Administradores del Obispado en Sede Vacante en España, Siglos XVIII-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Calvo Cruz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La relevancia adquirida por la Colecturía general de Espolios y Vacantes durante casi un siglo, como consecuencia de la labor desarrollada para recaudar y administrar las rentas de los obispados, cuando sus sedes se encontraban vacantes, dio lugar a una importante documentación contable. En este trabajo abordamos la organización administrativa de la diócesis, el método contable aplicado, y el proceso contable seguido en la formación de las cuentas que debían elaborar los administradores de las rentas del obispado, cuando dicho cargo quedaba vacante. Palabras clave: historia de la contabilidad, contabilidad privada, siglos XVIII y XIX.The importance acquired by the Colecturía general de Espolios y Vacantes for almost a century, as consequence of the work developed for collection and administration of bishoprics incomes when its sees were vacant, gave rise to an important account documentation. In this investigation, we tackle the administrative organization of the dioceses, the account method applied, and the account process followed in the formation of accounts that administrators of bishoprics incomes had to work out, when such office remained vacant.

  7. Aproximación a los problemas en la vista y el uso de anteojos en el burgos de mediados del XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sanz de la Higuera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Burgos de mediados del siglo XVIII, la posesión de «anteojos» estaba circunscrita a un reducido número de hogares. Únicamente en el 5.7 % de los inventarios post-mortem se mencionan dichos pertrechos oculares, porcentaje que se eleva hasta el 16.9 % en las viviendas de los clérigos y a un 10.3 % en las casas de los nobles rentistas. La posesión de «anteojos» era en el Antiguo Régimen un acontecimiento excepcional, un producto de lujo, y aún exótico, aunque sus módicos precios, la oferta existente en las tiendas de la ciudad y el dinero líquido atesorado en las casas de la ciudad, los hacía relativamente asequibles. Empero, y por contraste, el Catastro de Ensenada nos brinda el conocimiento de múltiples casos de ceguera y graves disfunciones oculares, patologías de las que estaban aquejados, en su inmensa mayoría, hogares de hilanderas, pobres de solemnidad, jornaleros, labradores y artesanos, es decir, las categorías socio-profesionales más analfabetas, paupérrimas y alojadas en la estrechez, para las cuales, en ningún caso, hemos encontrado, en sus inventarios post-mortem, ningún anteojo por modesto que fuera.

  8. Formación, desarrollo y configuración socio-étnica de una ciudad colonial: Cuenca, siglos XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simard, Jacques P.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El artículo aborda el crecimiento físico y la organización social de la ciudad de Cuenca (Audiencia de Quito. Interesándose fundamentalmente en la urbanización de la población indígena, y basándose en los datos de los contratos de compra-venta de tierras, distingue varias áreas de poblamiento: el centro de la ciudad, los suburbios o áreas periurbanas, y las periferias semi-rurales y trata de medir el crecimiento de Cuenca. Plantea tres modelos sucesivos de organización: primero, el intento inicial de la segregación étnica entre españoles e indios; segundo, la jerarquización socio-étnica de los barrios y lugares de residencia urbanos y periurbanos; tercero, el mestizaje y la constitución de barrios “populares”. El trabajo cuenta con cuatro propuestas cartográficas de la ciudad: en 1557, 1600, 1700 y 1780, y con un mapa del valle de Cuenca a fines del siglo XVIII.

  9. Innovative electronic publication in plant systematics: PhytoKeys and the changes to the “Botanical Code” accepted at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. John Kress

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available PhytoKeys was established less than a year ago in response to four main publication challenges of our time: (1 the appearance of electronic publications as amendments or even alternatives to paper publications; (2 Open Access (OA as a new publishing model; (3 the linkage of electronic registers, indices, and aggregators, which summarize information on biological species through taxonomic names or their persistent identifiers; and (4 Web 2.0 technologies, which permit the semantic markup of, and semantic enhancements to, published biological texts. The appearance of the journal was concomitant with lively discussions on the validity of nomenclatural acts published electronically (Knapp and Wright 2010, Knapp et al. 2010, Penev et al. 2010, Chapman et al. 2010. At the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in July 2011 (IBC 2011 these discussions culminated in the decision to amend the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature to allow electronic-only publishing of new taxa. Even before the end of the Congress and formal acceptance of the changes PhytoKeys was able to publish a report on the main outcomes of the Nomenclature Section on electronic publishing (Miller et al. 2011.

  10. LA LIBERTÀ E LE IMMAGINI: UNA DRAMMATURGIA A STAZIONI PER IL CONTROLLO DELL’AMORE. LETTURA DI PURGATORIO XVIII-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottavio Brigandì

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro si propone come lettura dei canti XVIII e XIX del Purgatorio, dove il centrale discorso di Virgilio sull’amore come fondamento dell’agire umano trova esemplificazione nella doppia forma dell’incontro con le anime accidiose e del sogno (la celebre «femminabalba». Che sia in dialogo col maestro o nella descrizione dei purganti o per esperienza onirica, la scoperta della forza del desiderio è seguita, rassicurazione e monito insieme, dalla certezza che il libero arbitrio può trattenerci dalle azioni ree, riconducendo il potere appetitivoa quello conoscitivo e dunque trasformando il “moto” d’amore nella feconda stasi della riflessione. Fra gli espedienti che sortiscono l’effetto di porre il lettore sullo stesso piano del Viator, si segnalano l’impianto teatrale del discorso, fitto di stazioni narrative e tematiche, e lo stile ricco di figurazioni, allusivo a un impiego della facoltà immaginativa per un fine poetico che intende mostrarsi utile all’educazione umana e davvero “libero” dal giogo amoroso.

  11. Entre lo íntimo y lo público. La vestimenta en la ciudad de Córdoba a fines del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Moreyra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se inscribe dentro del campo de estudio de la cultura material y parte de la idea de que los objetos cotidianos constituyen una puerta de entrada para la comprensión de diferentes dinámicas y relaciones sociales. En este sentido, observamos, describimos y analizamos la vestimenta como un aspecto de la vida material en la ciudad de Córdoba, a fines del siglo XVIII. Observada la indumentaria, inserta dentro de las prácticas y relaciones sociales de las que formaba parte, hay una aproximación a cuestiones como la representatividad social de la vestimenta, la circulación intergeneracional de las prendas de vestir, elementos vinculados al vestido e higiene y la indumentaria como claro indicador de género. A lo largo del artículo se puede advertir que los objetos de uso cotidiano no sólo tenían efectos físicos, sino significados sociales y simbólicos que acercan a la compresión de la sociedad en general.

  12. Las misiones de los capuchinos en el valle del río cesar en la primera mitad del siglo xviii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues R. Sánchez Mejía

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de controlar y evangelizar a la población indígena de la gobernación de Santa Marta y la península de la Guajira permitió un tipo de poblamiento que se denominó en la época como congregaciones.1 Estas congregaciones estuvieron a cargo de lo frailes de la orden de los capuchinos. Estos, iniciaron hacía el año de 1716 un proceso que permitiría la congregación de un número importante de indígenas de  diversas etnias en cercanías a las ciudades de Valledupar y Riohacha. Este proceso se relaciona fuertemente con el nacimiento de sitios o poblados que para finales delsiglo XVIII aparecen como parroquias de libres y cercanos a hatos ganaderos. Se podrían ubicar las congregaciones hechas por los capuchinos como un antecedente de las campañas "pobladoras» que se originan a partir de 1740 por parte de Fernando de Mier y Guerra.

  13. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter I: introduction, and chapter II: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report corresponds to Chapters I and II of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. The major objectives of the INTOR workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2 are to study critical technical issues, and to assess scientific and technical data bases, and to finally upgrade the INTOR design concept. To study critical technical issues that affect the feasibility or practicability of the INTOR design concept, the following five groups are organized; (A) Impurity control, (B) RF heating and current drive, (C) Transient electromagnetics, (D) Maintainability, (E) Technical benefit. In addition to those groups, the three disciplinary groups are organized to assess the worldiode scientific and technical data bases that exist now and that will exist 4-5 years to support the detailed design and construction of an INTOR-like machine, and to identify additional R D that is required; (F) Physics, (G) Engineering, (H) Nuclear. (author)

  14. Chinese Biogas Digester. A Potential Model for Small-Scale, Rural Applications. (A Manual for Construction and Operation). Reprint No. R-51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Charles H.; Honquilada, Q. L.

    This book provides the basic knowledge and guides for the construction and operation of a small-scale, family-size biogas unit. The first chapter discusses the benefits of biogas production and the Chinese biogas model. The second chapter shows the components, design formulas, and sizing units of the biogas model. Chapter 3 describes actual…

  15. The diffusion equation and the steady state. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We shall now study the equations that govern the neutron field in a reactor. These equations are based on the concept of local neutron balance, which takes into account the reaction rates in an element of volume and the net leakage rates out of the volume. The reaction rates are written in terms of the local cross sections, assumed known from a preprocessed database (e.g., ENDF/B-VI). The starting equation is the Maxwell-Boltzmann transport equation, in its integro-differential form. The various approximations required to go from the transport equation to the neutron diffusion equation will be presented first, because all finite-reactor calculations are based on the diffusion approximation. We shall then discuss the multi-group formalism of the diffusion equations and study the mathematical properties of this equation in steady state. This preliminary step will allow us to derive in a more accurate way, in the next chapter, the reactor point-kinetics equations. In the diffusion approximation, neutrons diffuse from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration, just as heat diffuses from regions of high temperature to those of low temperature, or, rather, as gas molecules diffuse to reduce spatial variations in concentration. While it is sufficiently accurate to treat the transport of gas molecules as a diffusion process, this approach is too limiting for neutron transport. In contrast to a gas, where collisions are very frequent, the cross sections for the interaction of neutrons with nuclei are relatively small, as we saw in chapter 1 (of the order of barns, i.e., 10-24cm2) . This implies that neutrons traverse appreciable distances (of the order of a centimetre) between collisions. This relatively long neutron mean free path, together with the heterogeneity of the physical medium, requires that a more complete treatment be carried out, taking account of variations in the angular distribution of neutron speed in the vicinity of highly absorbing

  16. Estudio de las Obras de D. Antonio Rafael Mengs, primer pintor de Cámara del Rey, de D. José Nicolás de Azara: Aportación a la historia del léxico del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    López Mora, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    A partir del estudio de las Obras de D. Antonio Rafael Mengs, primer pintor de Cámara del Rey, publicadas por D. José Nicolás de Azara a finales del siglo XVIII, la autora de esta investigación realiza, en primer lugar, una caracterización lexicológica de este tratado teórico-artístico, prestando especial atención al léxico propio del género al que pertenece. A continuación, se analizan los neologismos del siglo XVIII encontrados en el texto.

  17. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 11, Reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume includes the following chapters describing: Organisation of reactor operation (including operational safety, fuel management, and regulatory rules for RA reactor operation); Control and maintenance of reactor components (reactor core, nuclear fuel, heavy water and cover gas systems, mechanical structures, electric power supply system, reactor instrumentation); Quality assurance and Training of the reactor personnel

  18. California spotted owls: Chapter 5 in Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Suzanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) are habitat specialists that are strongly associated with late-successional forests. For nesting and roosting, they require large trees and snags embedded in a stand with a complex forest structure (Blakesley et al. 2005, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, Verner et al. 1992b). In mixedconifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California spotted owls typically nest and roost in stands with high canopy closure (≥75 percent) [Note: when citing studies, we use terminology consistent with Jennings et al. (1999), however, not all studies properly distinguish between canopy cover and closure and often use the terms interchangeably (see chapter 14 for clarification)] and an abundance of large trees (>24 in (60 cm) diameter at breast height [d.b.h.]) (Bias and Gutiérrez 1992, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, LaHaye et al. 1997, Moen and Gutiérrez 1997, Verner et al. 1992a). The California spotted owl guidelines (Verner et al. 1992b) effectively summarized much of the information about nesting and roosting habitat. Since that report, research on the California spotted owl has continued with much of the new information concentrated in five areas: population trends, barred owl (Strix varia) invasion, climate effects, foraging habitat, and owl response to fire.

  19. The impact of climate change on coastal ecosystems: chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Nicholls, Robert J.; Forbes, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we stress two important features of coasts and coastal ecosystems. First, these are dynamic systems which continually undergo adjustments, especially through erosion and re-deposition, in response to a range of processes. Many coastal ecosystems adjust naturally at a range of time scales and their potential for response is examined partly by reconstructing how such systems have coped with natural changes of climate and sea level in the geological past. Second, coasts have changed profoundly through the 20th Century due to the impacts of human development (such as urbanisation, port and industrial expansion, shore protection, and the draining and conversion of coastal wetlands), with these development-related drivers closely linked to a growing global population and economy. It remains a challenge to isolate the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise from either the natural trajectory of shoreline change, or the accelerated pathway resulting from other human-related stressors. There exists a danger of overstating the importance of climate change, or overlooking significant interactions of climate change with other drivers.

  20. Image Post-Processing and Analysis. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decades, scientists have used computers to enhance and analyse medical images. At first, they developed simple computer algorithms to enhance the appearance of interesting features in images, helping humans read and interpret them better. Later, they created more advanced algorithms, where the computer would not only enhance images but also participate in facilitating understanding of their content. Segmentation algorithms were developed to detect and extract specific anatomical objects in images, such as malignant lesions in mammograms. Registration algorithms were developed to align images of different modalities and to find corresponding anatomical locations in images from different subjects. These algorithms have made computer aided detection and diagnosis, computer guided surgery and other highly complex medical technologies possible. Nowadays, the field of image processing and analysis is a complex branch of science that lies at the intersection of applied mathematics, computer science, physics, statistics and biomedical sciences. This chapter will give a general overview of the most common problems in this field and the algorithms that address them

  1. Technetium-99m Radiopharmaceuticals in Neurology. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ideal radioisotope for single photon emission computed tomography imaging is 99mTc, due to its physical decay characteristics, its availability through commercially available generator systems and its low cost per dose. Technetium-99m hydrophilic complexes are used to evaluate the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, while neutral and lipophilic complexes are used as brain perfusion imaging agents for determination of changes in regional cerebral blood flow in various neurological disorders. Radiopharmaceuticals that bind to central nervous system (CNS) receptors in vivo are useful for understanding the pathophysiology of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, their diagnosis and treatment. Nowadays, CNS receptor imaging agents are, with some exceptions, typically positron emission tomography radionuclide based radiopharmaceuticals. The reason for this is not based on principal but is rather as a result of the fact that efforts in the direction of 99mTc containing agents have not been strong or consistent enough. In the chapter, the progress made in the development of 99mTc complexes for imaging dopamine transporter, 5-HT1A receptor and amyloid plaques is presented. (author)

  2. Technetium-99m Labelled Molecules for Hypoxia Imaging. Chapter 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of diagnostic imaging, the concept of imaging hypoxia constitutes an important development and 99mTc labelled vectors have taken a long stride in this direction. Delineation of hypoxic cells amidst oxygenated cells has a strong bearing on treatment strategies and regimes, since hypoxic cells are normally resistant to therapy, thus having a direct influence on the extent of tumour propagation and malignant progression. Inherent drawbacks in the invasive methods currently available for measuring hypoxia led to the development of non-invasive modalities such as use of radiolabelled molecules for imaging hypoxia. In the chapter, an attempt is made to provide a comprehensive overview of 99mTc based radiopharmaceutical agents as well as a brief discussion of other radiolabelled agents that show considerable promise in diagnostic imaging of tumour hypoxia. The review also discusses the phenomenon of hypoxia, other non-invasive methods of detecting hypoxia currently available and the evolution of radiopharmaceuticals to image hypoxia. (author)

  3. Chapter 4: neurology in the Bible and the Talmud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsod, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The Bible, a major pillar of Western Civilization consists of Hebrew Scriptures, assembled over a millennium and accepted as of divine origin. The Talmud is a compendium of Jewish laws, covering every possible aspect of life, analyzed in depth from 200 BCE to 600 CE, becoming the foundation of Jewish existence. The all-encompassing character of the books provides numerous medical problems and observations that appear in various connotations. When in need to clarify various legal dilemmas, the Talmudic sages displayed astoundingly accurate anatomical knowledge and were pioneers in clinical-pathological correlations. The descriptions of "neurological" events in the Bible are very precise but show no evidence of neurological knowledge. Those reported in the various tractates of the Talmud are evidence of a substantial medical knowledge, marked by Hellenistic influence. Subjects such as head and spinal injuries, epilepsy, handedness neuralgias aphasia tinnitus and tremor were discussed in depth. This chapter is an updated collection of the studies, extracting observations and discussions of neurological manifestations from the ancient texts. PMID:19892107

  4. Chapter 20: neurological illustration from photography to cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores iconography in neurology from the birth of photography up to the early medical applications of cinematography before 1914. The important visual part of neurological diagnosis explains why these techniques were adopted very early by neurologists. Duchenne published the first medical book illustrated with photographs of patients. The first and most famous photographic laboratory was created in Charcot's department, at the Salpêtrière in Paris, under the direction of Albert Londe. Londe published the first book dedicated to medical photography. The physiologist Marey and the photographer Muybridge, in association with neurologists, played key roles in the development of chronophotography and cinematography. Germany was the first country to welcome cinematography in a neurology department. Independently, neurologists began to film patients in other countries in Europe and in America. In 1905, Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, began systematically to film neurologic patients, with the intention of building up a complete neurological iconographic collection. This collection has survived and has been restored in the laboratory of the Royal Belgian Film Archive where the films are now safely stored in their vaults. PMID:19892123

  5. Magias de cozinha: escravas e feitiços em Portugal - Séculos XVII e XVIII Kitchen spells: female slaves and magic spells in Portugal - 17th and 18th Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Buono Calainho

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar algumas considerações acerca das manifestações mágico-religiosas da população feminina de origem africana em Portugal entre os séculos XVII e XVIII, relacionadas ao uso de ervas, alimentos e outros ingredientes que compunham os feitiços.With this work I intend to present some considerations on the religious-magical practices of African female populations in Portugal during the 17th and 18th centuries, related to the use of herbs, food and other ingred...

  6. Magias de cozinha: escravas e feitiços em Portugal - Séculos XVII e XVIII Kitchen spells: female slaves and magic spells in Portugal - 17th and 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Buono Calainho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar algumas considerações acerca das manifestações mágico-religiosas da população feminina de origem africana em Portugal entre os séculos XVII e XVIII, relacionadas ao uso de ervas, alimentos e outros ingredientes que compunham os feitiços.With this work I intend to present some considerations on the religious-magical practices of African female populations in Portugal during the 17th and 18th centuries, related to the use of herbs, food and other ingredients which were used in magic spells.

  7. Vicente Mora Chimo, de «Indio principal» a «Procurador General de los Indios del Perú»: cambio de legitimidad del poder autóctono a principios del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Mathis, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    A través de la trayectoria de Vicente Mora Chimo, descendiente de caciques del valle de Chicama (Trujillo, Perú), nos proponemos mirar cómo el poder autóctono va forjando nuevas bases de legitimidad, en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII. Este Indio principal de Santiago de Cao pasó a ser Procurador General de los Indios del Perú desde España. Al asimilar las reglas de la justicia colonial para defender a los indígenas, logró eficacia ganándose su reconocimiento. Supo interactuar con magistrado...

  8. Pedro Gutiérrez Bueno (1745-1822), los libros de texto y los nuevos públicos de la química en el último tercio del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    García Belmar, Antonio; Bertomeu Sánchez, José Ramón

    2001-01-01

    El presente trabajo se enmarca en un proyecto de investigación acerca del papel de las prácticas y los conocimientos químicos en la transición de la materia médica a la farmacología experimental. Dentro de ese esquema general, el objeto de este artículo es el estudio de los libros de texto destinados a los estudiantes de medicina y de cirugía durante los años finales del siglo XVIII y la primera mitad del siglo XIX. En un estudio anterior, publicado en esta revista nos ocupamos de establecer ...

  9. El gesto coréutico en la música hispánica de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII: una propuesta de interpretación históricamente informada del fandango

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    María José Ruiz Mayordomo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del marco que ofrece este congreso dedicado al fandango, el equipo formado por la coreóloga María José Ruiz Mayordomo y la musicóloga Aurèlia Pessarrodona quiere presentar un estudio de este género desde su gesto, un aspecto prácticamente ausente dentro de los múltiples enfoques de los que ha sido objeto. Nuestra propuesta parte de una metodología transdisciplinar (músicocoréutica y teóricopráctica que analiza la gestualidad de la obra musical misma captada a través del cuerpo danzante ideal de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, estableciendo a su vez un diálogo con el entorno coréutico de la época. Nuestro objetivo en este trabajo es restaurar un fandango de teatro del siglo XVIII. Ante la escasez de testimonios escritos, tomamos como fuentes principales fandangos coréuticos antiguos conservados en la tradición bolera, transmitida de manera ágrafa, oral, visual, corporal y artística, es decir, por aprendizaje directo entre transmisor repetidor y maestro e intérprete. En este caso partimos del baile conocido como Fandango del Siglo XVIII, cuya coreografía encaja perfectamente con la música de un fandango de teatro de finales de siglo XVIII compuesto por Bernardo Álvarez Acero. El análisis de la relación entre gestos musicales y coréuticos de ambas obras proporciona claves para entender estos y otros fandangos musicales de la época. Así pues, esta propuesta pretende acercar a teóricos e intérpretes al fenómeno del fandango de un modo más integral, de cara a restaurar e interpretar estas obras desde un punto de vista coreográfica y coreológicamente informado.

  10. [The becoming of public medicine (second half of XVIII-first half of xix centuries). Report I: The origin of concept of medical police, governing bodies of medical sanitary business, physician sanitary legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotchik, A M; Zatravkin, S N; Stotchik, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present report covers the history of origination of concept of medical police in the second half of XVIII century. This body became one of the most important tool of state governance in Austria. France, Prussia and Russia. The relationship between origin of this concept and the results of scientific studies in area of investigation of epidemic constitutions is demonstrated. Two directions of activity of bodies of state governance are considered concerning the implementation of medical police--imposition of public administration of activities of physicians and development by joint efforts of physicians and lawyers of special physician sanitary legislation. PMID:23672072

  11. [The becoming of public medicine in the second half of XVIII-first half of XIX centuries. Report II. The development of public systems of training of medical manpower and charity provision to socially unprotected groups of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochik, A M; Zatravkin, S N; Stochik, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present report considers the history of becoming of concept of medical police in second half of XVIII century. This concept became one of the most important instruments of public management in Austria, France, Prussia and Russia. Two directions of activity of public authorities in the area of implementation of medical police are discussed i.e. control of frauds and development of public systems of training of medical manpower and charity provision to socially unprotected groups of population. The historiographical data is presented concerning the development of public systems of training of medical manpower, reform of university medical education, implementation of hospital reform. PMID:23808045

  12. Johann Andreas Cramer e o "ensaio químico mineral" no século XVIII Johann Andreas Cramer and the "mineral chemical assaying" in the Eighteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bortolotto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we seek to corroborate the contributions of Chemistry to the identification, extraction and classification of minerals in the XVIII century, as well as, to approach the discussion that History of Chemistry shouldn't be understood in terms of a tight line of thoughts. For that, we analyze the work of Johann Andreas Cramer (1710-1777, Elements of the Art of Assaying Metals. Cramer proposed a method of mineral assaying based on the chemical behavior of the bodies, which allowed him to identify, extract and classify the minerals with more assertiveness.

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XVIII, ALTERNATOR AND REGULATOR SERVICING AND TESTING, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTOR REGULATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED AS A REVIEW OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND SERVICING PROCEDURES FOR GENERATORS AND AS AN INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTOR CONTROLLED VOLTAGE REGULATION FOR GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF GENERATOR PRINCIPLES, AC AND DC, (2) SERVICING AND TESTING ALTERNATORS, AND (3)…

  14. Stematografija Hristofora Žefarovicia jako dokument kulturowych i narodowych dążeń Serbów w pierwszej połowie XVIII wieku

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    Justyna Romanowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hristofor Zhefarovich’s Stemmatographia as a document of the cultural and national aspirations of the Serbs in the first half of the eighteenth centuryStemmatographia, by Hristofor Zhefarovich (1741, was one of the most important Serbian books published in the first half of the 18th century. The first part contains the majestic portraits of the canonized Serbian sovereigns who built and strengthened the medieval Serbian state; the second part presents images of the coats of arms of the Balkan lands. Work composed in such a way corresponded to the political and religious program of the Archbishopric of Karlovci, the most important Serbian religious and secular institution in the lands belonging to the Habsburg monarchy. The reference to the tradition of the medieval state by presenting images of rulers and marking its territories by coats of arms legitimized the authority of the Serbian Orthodox Church that declared itself to be the heir and continuator of this tradition. At the same time, the gallery of portraits of the rulers and Orthodox Church notables constituted the national pantheon of saints that conferred a sacral aspect on Serbian history. Stematografija Hristofora Žefarovicia jako dokument kulturowych i narodowych dążeń Serbów w pierwszej połowie XVIII wiekuStematografija Hristofora Žefarovicia (1741 była jedną z najważniejszych serbskich książek wydanych w pierwszej połowie XVIII wieku. Pierwsza jej część zawiera majestatyczne portrety kanonizowanych serbskich władców, którzy budowali i umacniali średniowieczne państwo serbskie; druga przedstawia wizerunki herbów ziem bałkańskich. Tak skomponowanie dzieło wpisywało się w polityczno-religijny program Metropolii Karłowickiej, najważniejszej serbskiej instytucji religijnej i świeckiej na ziemiach należących do monarchii habsburskiej. Odwołanie się do tradycji średniowiecznego państwa poprzez zaprezentowanie wizerunków władców oraz okre

  15. Aportes de los "intermediarios culturales" en la conformación de los paisajes fronterizos del norte de la patagonia a fines del siglo XVIII

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    Laura Aylén Enrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fines del siglo XVIII la Corona española envió expedicionarios a reconocer el norte de la Patagonia, un territorio dominado por grupos indígenas pero de importancia estratégica para los hispanocriollos. Los funcionarios del Virreinato del Río de la Plata que llevaron a cabo dichas exploraciones registraron sus impresiones en diarios de viaje que analizamos con el objetivo de examinar los modos en que el paisaje norpatagónico fue construido simbólicamente. Consideramos que dicho paisaje se constituyó en base a las luchas desplegadas tanto por hispanocriollos como por indígenas buscando dar sentido al territorio. Sostenemos que, en este contexto, los personajes que se desempeñaban como intérpretes ejercían un rol fundamental en la configuración del territorio, dada la ambigüedad de su posición de intermediarios en las relaciones interétnicas.By late eighteen century the Spanish Crown sent expedition to recognize north Patagonia, a territory dominated by indigenous groups but also of strategic importance to the Hispanic-Creole population. River Plate Viceroyalty officials in charge of the above-mentioned explorations registered their impressions in travel diaries that are thoroughly analyzed in order to discover the ways this landscape of north Patagonia was symbolically constructed. We think this mestizo landscape was the result of struggles maintained between Hispanic-Creoles and natives searching to convey meaning to the territory. Moreover, we state that in this context, the actors who served as interpreters developed a key role in the territorial configuration, given the ambiguity of their position as intermediaries of interethnic relations.

  16. Médicos y redes sociales. Mecanismos de poder en la profesión médica en el siglo XVIII

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    Granjel, Mercedes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the analysis carried out in this paper is a global and descriptive examination of the social identity of the physicians that practiced medicine in Salamanca during the 18th century. Through their biographies we obtain profiles, careers and behavior that confirm the rich diversity of this community. By studying their family ties, their relation with the local elite, and the social networks engaged throughout their lives and careers we may reconstruct the context and dynamics of their relational world and establish their role in the processes of social mobility. The methodological approach set out in this paper combines prosopography and an analysis of the social networks (family, friendship, business, which constitutes an unexplored tool in the social analysis of the medical profession.

    Este trabajo analiza de forma global y articulada la identidad social de los médicos que ejercieron en Salamanca a lo largo del siglo XVIII. A través de sus biografías obtenemos perfiles, trayectorias y pautas de comportamiento que ponen de manifiesto la diversidad interna de este colectivo. El estudio de los vínculos familiares, relaciones con las élites locales y las redes sociales tejidas al hilo de sus trayectorias y actividad profesional, nos permite reconstruir el conjunto relacional en que se mueven y verificar su papel en los procesos de ascenso social. Se trata de una propuesta metodológica que conjuga la prosopografía con el análisis de las redes sociales (familia, amistades, clientela, prácticamente inexplorada como instrumento de análisis social de la profesión médica.

  17. Un documento inédito del siglo XVIII. El padre jesuita Pedro Lozano y su primera carta anua, 1720-1730

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    Svriz Wucherer, Pedro Miguel Omar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Letters Anuas of the Jesuit Province of Paraguay are very important and historical sources necessary for the reconstruction of the cultural and evangelizing by the Company of Jesus in the territories of the River Plate. For this reason, the editing and analysis of such sources are fundamental tasks in this case we refer to the first letter Anua made by father Lozano and reporting to the father General, resident in Rome, about the context in which they developed their evangelizing work parents of the order. Besides highlighting the image of the author, father Pedro Lozano, the context in which he wrote, the role of these documents, and some of the particularities and topics that exposes the source of the first half of the eighteenth century.Las Cartas Anuas de la Provincia Jesuítica del Paraguay son fuentes históricas muy importantes e indispensables para la reconstrucción de la labor cultural y evangelizadora realizada por la Compañía de Jesús en los territorios del Río de la Plata. Por esta razón, la edición y análisis de este tipo de fuentes son tareas fundamentales, en este caso nos referiremos a la primera Carta Anua que realizó el padre Lozano y que informan al padre General, residente en Roma, acerca del contexto en los cuales desarrollaron su labor evangelizadora los padres de la orden. Además resaltaremos la figura de su autor el padre Pedro Lozano, el contexto en el cual escribió, la función que cumplieron estos documentos, y algunas de las particularidades y tópicos que expone esta fuente de la primera mitad del siglo XVIII.

  18. Tipología de cúpulas tabicadas. Geometría y construcción en la Valencia del siglo XVIII

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    Soler-Verdú, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of tile vaults, domes are distinguished by its architectural importance and special features. The proposed constructive typology has been made from a series of tile domes where restoration works have been carried out. This fact has made it possible to define its construction detail and geometry. The results obtained situate them as extremely thin shells, with thickness close to the limits. These are representative of hundreds of domes built in the eighteenth century, focused in the city of Valencia, where experience in building tile vaults is proven since the end of the fourteenth century. However common features make the study applicable over the Hispanic area and in a wide period since the beginnings, in the sixteenth century, to the latest contemporary achievements.En el contexto de las bóvedas tabicadas, destacan las cúpulas por su protagonismo arquitectónico y particularidades constructivas. La propuesta de tipos constructivos, se ha realizado a partir de una serie de cúpulas tabicadas en las que se han llevado a cabo obras de restauración, lo que ha hecho posible conocer su composición constructiva y geometría. Los resultados obtenidos permiten encuadrarlas como cáscaras extremadamente delgadas, con espesores que alcanzan límites difícilmente superables. Son representativas de centenares de cúpulas levantadas en el siglo XVIII, que tienen como epicentro difusor a la ciudad de Valencia, de acreditada experiencia en la construcción de sistemas de abovedamientos tabicados, desde finales del trescientos. No obstante, las características comunes, hacen que el estudio sea de aplicación en un amplio ámbito hispánico y en un dilatado periodo temporal desde su inicio en el siglo XVI hasta las últimas realizaciones contemporáneas.

  19. Ciência, religião e Ilustração: as academias de ensino dos dissentes racionalistas ingleses no século XVIII

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    Luiz Carlos Soares

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available No século XVIII, as Academias Protestantes Dissidentes se constituíram no espaço privilegiado para o ensino das novas Ciências Naturais, na sociedade inglesa. Impossibilitados de ingressar no sistema de ensino fundamental e universitário inglês, controlado legalmente pelos Anglicanos, não restou aos Dissidentes ou Não-Conformistas outra alternativa que não fosse o estabelecimento de Academias de Ensino com o objetivo de preparar os jovens para ingressarem no ministério religioso, na vida universitária e nas atividades profissionais. Entre estas instituições se destacaram as Academias de Warrington e Manchester, sendo a primeira fundada pelos Presbiterianos (autodenominados Dissidentes Racionalistas e a segunda pelos Unitários, herdeiros do Racionalismo Presbiteriano, mas distanciados da sua perspectiva teológica Calvinista.The Academies of Prostestant Dissenters were the outstanding institutions for the teaching of new Natural Sciences in the eighteenth-century in the English society. As the Prostestant Dissenters were not allowed to enter in the English system of fundamental and university education, legally controlled by the Anglicans, there was no other alternative to them than the establishment of their Academies for Further Education in order to instruct their youth to the religious ministry, the university courses or the business life. The Academies of Warrington and Manchester were the most distinguished amongst these educational institutions, being respectively established by the Prebysterians (self-named the Rational Dissenters and the Unitarians, the heirs of Prebysterian Rationalism although distanced of their Calvinist teological perspective.

  20. El Tribunal de la Inquisición de Valladolid y el control de las ideas en la España del siglo XVIII

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    Ángel de PRADO MOURA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El tribunal inquisitorial de Valladolid, al igual que el resto de los tribunales que formaban el Santo Oficio español, mostró durante el siglo XVIII una especial preocupación por el control de las ideas, particularmente aquellas que quedaban reflejadas en obras manuscritas e impresas. Los inquisidores vallisoletanos se esforzaron para evitar que en su distrito penetraran las obras que tanto éxito estaban teniendo fuera de nuestras fronteras, pero la existencia de una fuerte demanda, probablemente por ubicarse en él las universidades de Valladolid y Salamanca, hizo que la censura no fuera tan eficaz como ellos hubieran querido. Tal como queda reflejado en este artículo, no se impidió, pero sí se dificultó la difusión de libros total o parcialmente prohibidos.ABSTRACT: The Tribunal of the Inquisition of Valladolid —similarly to the rest of the tribunals of the Spanish Holy Office— showed a special concern for the control of ideas, mostly those ideas expressed in manuscript and printed works. The Inquisitors of Valladolid took pains to avoid the entrance of texts that were succesful abroad, but the existence of an important demand —probably due to the foundation of the Universities of Valladolid and Salamanca— decreased the efficiency of the censorship they wanted to impose. This paper intends to show that the reading and commerce of completely or partially forbidden books was not prevented, but it was certainly hindered.

  1. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined. To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  2. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  3. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sandra; McNeill, John; Turland, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC). The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF) with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication) the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank). Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined. To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon. PMID:21917189

  4. Organización de corridas de toros en la Nueva España del siglo XVIII y primeros años del XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Hernández, Benjamín

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the bullfights organization in New Spain during the XVIIIth Century, when bullfight had changed to the infantry bullfight. Then, generally, there were two weeks seasons, with four days of bullfight each week, in the morning and in the afternoon. Authorities auctioned the ring, and they organized everything. The collected money was used to pay some public works. During whole century, there were still bullfights to celebrate royal occasions, like coronations, royal marriages and royal births. Some times, there were bullfights in theatres, cockrings and slaughterhouses.

    Se estudia cómo se organizaron las corridas de toros en Nueva España durante el siglo XVIII y los primeros años del XIX, después de que quedó establecido en el virreinato, al igual que en la Península Ibérica, el moderno toreo a pie. Se constata que la forma fundamental de la fiesta brava fue la de temporadas de una o dos semanas de duración, con cuatro días de corrida en cada una, a mañana y tarde. Las autoridades remataban la administración de la plaza, poniendo todo a punto para obtener el mayor éxito. Con los beneficios económicos se costeaban obras públicas, y finalmente los toros llegaron a ser ramo de Real Hacienda. Por lo demás, durante todo ese tiempo siguieron dándose festejos taurinos con motivo de fiestas reales: coronaciones, bodas y nacimientos reales y recibimiento de virreyes, así como en algunas celebraciones de tipo religioso. También hubo lidias informales en rastros, palenques y teatros.

  5. Weapon in houses in Burgos in the eighteenth century. Between functionality and exhibitionism Armas en las casas burgalesas del siglo XVIII. Entre la funcionalidad y el exhibicionismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In domestic interiors in Burgos in the eighteenth century, the post-mortem inventories allow a deep analysis of a rather unknown and disturbing aspect of material culture, the ownership and use of weapons among the urban population of the old Regime. Not all socio-professional and socio-economic categories have access in the same way to firearms or «white» weapons and their availability changes throughout the century. Who owned the weapons? What was their weight on the volume of their fortunes? What accounts for their presence at homes? Personal and domestic protection, professional requirements, exhibitionism in the social hierarchy and ostentation, hunting needs? How much permeability and penetration did weapons know throughout the eighteenth century?En los interiores domésticos del Burgos del siglo XVIII, los inventarios post mortem permiten un análisis intenso de un aspecto bastante desconocido e inquietante de la cultura material, la posesión y usufructo de armas entre la población urbana del Antiguo Régimen. No todas las categorías socioprofesionales y socioeconómicas tenían acceso de la misma manera a las armas de fuego o a las armas «blancas» y su disponibilidad cambia a lo largo de la centuria. ¿Quiénes eran propietarios de armas? ¿Cuál era su peso relativo sobre el volumen de sus fortunas? ¿A qué responde su aparición en las viviendas? ¿Protección personal y doméstica, exigencias profesionales, exhibicionismo en la jerarquía social y boato, necesidad cinegética? ¿Qué grado de permeabilidad y penetración conocieron las armas a lo largo del Setecientos?

  6. The Role of Safety in IVHM - Chapter 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — When we address safety in a book on the business case for IVHM, the question arises whether safety isn’t inherently in conflict with the need of operators to run...

  7. Chapter 13: Mining electronic health records in the genomics era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Joshua C

    2012-01-01

    chapter reviews several examples of phenotype extraction and their application to genetic research, demonstrating a viable future for genomic discovery using EHR-linked data. PMID:23300414

  8. Chapter 13: Mining electronic health records in the genomics era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Denny

    individuals. This chapter reviews several examples of phenotype extraction and their application to genetic research, demonstrating a viable future for genomic discovery using EHR-linked data.

  9. Volcanism on the Red Planet: Mars. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Bridges, Nathan T.; Crown, David A.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Zimbelman, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Of all the planets in the Solar System, Mars is the most Earthlike in its geological characteristics. Like Earth, it has been subjected to exogenic processes, such as impact cratesing and erosion by wind and water, as well as endogenic processes, including tectonic deformation of the crust and volcanism. The effects of these processes are amply demonstrated by the great variety of surface features, including impact craters, landslides, former river channels, sand dunes, and the largest volcanoes in the Solar System. Some of these features suggest substantial changes in Mars' environment during its history. For example, as reviewed by Carr, today Mars is a cold, dry desert with an average atmospheric pressure of only 5.6 mbar which does not allow liquid water to exist on the surface. To some planetary scientists, the presence of the channels bespeaks a time when Mars was warmer and wetter. However, others have argued that these features might have formed under current conditions and that there might not have been a shift in climate. Could the morphology of volcanoes and related features provide clues to past Martian environments? What role is played by atmospheric density in the styles of eruptions on Mars and resulting landforms? If these and related questions can be answered, then we may have a means for assessing the conditions on Mars' surface in the past and comparing the results with models of Martian evolution. In this chapter, we outline the sources of information available for volcanism on Mars, explore the influence of the Martian environment on volcanic processes, and describe the principal volcanic features and their implications for understanding the general evolution of the Martian surface.

  10. Observations. Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindoff, N.L.; Willebrand, J.; Artale, V.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.; Gulev, S.; Hanawa, K.; Le Quere, C.; Levitus, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Shum, C.K.; Talley, L.D.; Unnikrishnan, A.

    2007-09-15

    and hence change the sea level both regionally and globally. The ocean varies over a broad range of time scales, from seasonal (e.g., in the surface mixed layer) to decadal (e.g., circulation in the main subtropical gyres) to centennial and longer (associated with the MOC). The main modes of climate variability, which are described in Chapter 3, are the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which is related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Forcing of the oceans is often related to these modes, which cause changes in ocean circulation through changed patterns of winds and changes in surface ocean density. The Third Assessment Report (TAR) discussed some aspects of the ocean's role. Elsewhere it was concluded that the global ocean has significantly warmed since the late 1950's. This assessment provides updated estimates of temperature changes for the oceans. Furthermore, it discusses new evidence for changes in the ocean freshwater budget and the ocean circulation. The TAR estimate of the total inorganic carbon increase in the ocean was based entirely on indirect evidence. This assessment provides updated indirect estimates and reports on new and direct evidence for changes in total carbon increase and for changes in ocean biogeochemistry (including pH and oxygen). Others determined a range of 1 to 2 mm/yr for the observed global average sea level rise in the 20th century. This assessment provides new estimates for sea level change and the climate-related contributions to sea level change from thermal expansion and melting of ice sheets, glaciers and ice caps. The focus of this chapter is on observed changes in the global ocean basins, however some regional changes in the ocean state are also considered. Many ocean observations are poorly sampled in space and time, and regional distributions often are quite heterogeneous. Furthermore, the

  11. 20 CFR 30.1 - What rules govern the administration of EEOICPA and this chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General Provisions Introduction § 30.1 What rules govern the administration of EEOICPA and this chapter... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What rules govern the administration of EEOICPA and this chapter? 30.1 Section 30.1 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION...

  12. 77 FR 39731 - Swinomish Indian Tribal Community-Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Swinomish Indian Tribal Community--Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization... publishes Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and License Code for the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor...

  13. Draft of chapters 4-9 as of May 11, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised outline for the final report is given, and the first draft of chapters 4 - 9 are included. The chapters cover enrichment demands according to various fuel cycle strategies, comparison of enrichment demand and availability, assessment and comparison of the proliferation aspects of enrichment, assurance of supply, special needs of developing countries, and general conclusions

  14. Advances of evolutionary computation methods and operators

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Erik; Oliva Navarro, Diego Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this book is to present advances that discuss alternative Evolutionary Computation (EC) developments and non-conventional operators which have proved to be effective in the solution of several complex problems. The book has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently from the others. The book contains nine chapters with the following themes: 1) Introduction, 2) the Social Spider Optimization (SSO), 3) the States of Matter Search (SMS), 4) the collective animal behavior (CAB) algorithm, 5) the Allostatic Optimization (AO) method, 6) the Locust Search (LS) algorithm, 7) the Adaptive Population with Reduced Evaluations (APRE) method, 8) the multimodal CAB, 9) the constrained SSO method.

  15. Chapter No.3. Assessment and inspection of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment activity of UJD in relation to nuclear installation lies in assessment of safety documentation for constructions realised as nuclear installations, or construction through which changes on nuclear installations are realised. The assessment activity of UJD in 2001 was focused on National Repository of Radwaste in Mochovce, on Radwaste conditioning and treatment technology in Jaslovske Bohunice and on the assessment of documentation for the project of modernisation of Bohunice V-2 NPPs which is under preparation. The assessment of the technical condition of equipment, important in terms of nuclear safety, primarily based on results of in-service inspections and surveillance testing of safety related components and systems, is also a part of the safety assessment of nuclear installation operation. The inspectors take part in training courses and participate in other technical meetings and workshops organised by the IAEA and also take part in special training courses organised by the Nuclear Authorities of European countries, USA and Japan. Bohunice V-1 NPP is equipped with two reactors of WWER 440 type V-230 and was put into operation in 1978-1980 as one of the last nuclear power plants with this type of reactor. Both units of NPP V-1 Bohunice operated in 2001 according to the requirements of energy dispatching at nominal power, or in a regime of tertiary regulation. November 2000, a mission of experts invited by UJD and delegated by IAEA took place at the Bohunice NPPs. The mission members together with experts of the plant operator assessed the safety of the units of WWER-440/V-230 of Bohunice V-1 NPP after the reconstruction. The members of the mission prepared the report on the current status of safety of these units for the IAEA. In 2001, UJD by its decision, issued the approval for further operation of both reactor units of Bohunice V-1 NPP. In sense of the relevant decree on operational events, 20 events have been recorded, at Bohunice V-1 NPP in

  16. Atti del seminario internazionale "Immagini d'Italia e d'Europa nella letteratura e nella documentazione di viaggio nel XVIII e nel XIX secolo", (Firenze, 1999-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pasta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Renato Pasta, Introduzione. Paolo Marchetti, I giuristi e i confini. L'elaborazione giuridica della nozione di confine tra Medioevo ed età moderna. Jürgen Osterhammel, Atlantic Slavery: A Problem of Cross-Boundary History. Hans Erich Boedeker, "Europe" in the Discourse of the Sciences of State in 18th Century Germany. Sergueï Karp, Les recherches récentes (1990-2000 des relations culturelles franco-russes au XVIIIe siècle. Ananij Gerasimovič Ivanov, Il sistema amministrativo russo nella regione dei Mari dalla seconda metà del XVI al XVIII secolo. Il voevoda. Giulia Cecere, L' «Oriente d'Europa»: un'idea in movimento (sec. XVIII. Un contributo cartografico. Natividad Planas, Conflits de compétence aux frontières. Le contrôle de la circulation des hommes et des marchandises dans le royaume de Majorque au XVIIe siècle. Augustin Hernando, Identidad y representación de Europa en la docencia e investigación geográfica española. Teresa Isenburg, Separare ed Unire. Appunti sulle frontiere brasiliane fra Otto e Novecento: il caso della Guiana britannica

  17. Del caos de la maravilla al orden de la razón. Los sistemas de la naturaleza y los límites de la razón en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez López, Susana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Partiendo de una comparación entre los primeros museos de objetos naturales surgidos en el siglo XVI y los gabinetes de historia natural del siglo XVIII, el presente trabajo se concentra en la transformación producida en aquel periodo en los modos de «ordenar» y «clasificar» la naturaleza. El gusto por lo exótico y maravilloso que caracterizó a las colecciones e historias, naturales del Renacimiento y del Barroco fue perdiendo fuerza a medida que aumentaba el interés por ordenar la naturaleza según «sistemas». Los nuevos modos de clasificación natural, que tuvieron su momento cumbre con la obra del Linneo, dieron origen a una intensa polémica sobre el carácter natural o artificial de los sistemas naturales y a un debate sobre su sentido y su utilidad. Las críticas de los enciclopedistas del siglo XVIII al espíritu sistemático de Linneo y su convicción en la necesidad de crear una estructura abierta y didáctica del saber se reflejaron también en la disposición y finalidad de los gabinetes naturalistas.

  18. Chapter 1. Direct and surrogate measures of soil water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance for field scientists who are not instrumentation experts but who wish to determine soil water content as part of their work. This publication is targeted to help those setting up soil water monitoring projects in the developing countries where expertise in many technologies is not readily available. However, it also has value to anyone planning a project involving the determination of field soil water content. Most importantly, it will also give some guidance as to what corroborative measurements are needed to check the performance of water sensing technology being used. A substantial suite of soil water sensors and technologies are available today. Some are well understood as to their technical capability and are both mechanically and electronically reliable. However, some technologies that claim to measure soil water content are quite unsuited to some applications and produce results that have little, if any, relation to soil water content in the field. This manual sets out a decision making process and critical factors for matching various water measurement technologies to project objectives. The first factor is the accuracy required by the user. The second is the degree of water content variability across the field to be measured. The third is the presence of interferences to the measurement process. And the fourth consists of the capabilities of the available devices in light of the spatial variability of water content and the interferences that are present. A successful outcome can only be obtained if all four factors are considered. Because this manual is intended to be a practical guide, it cannot be a simple one. Only reliable measurements are practically useful. The techniques involved in obtaining reliable values of soil water content are not simple, nor are the potential problems, pitfalls, and sensor interferences that can prevent good values from being obtained. The manual is divided into chapters that

  19. Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control. Chapter 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Envia, Edmane

    2004-01-01

    . An example of this type of engine is shown in Figure IC, which is a schematic of the Honeywell T55 engine that powers the CH-47 Chinook helicopter. Since the noise from the propellers or helicopter rotors is usually dominant for turbo-shaft engines, less attention has been paid to these engines in so far as community noise considerations are concerned. This chapter will concentrate mostly on turbofan engine noise and will highlight common methods for their noise prediction and reduction.

  20. Network operations support systems as a competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Soh, Andrew K. L.

    2005-01-01

    The overall purpose of this paper is to perfom an analysis of TELUS and to examine if Network Operation Support Systems (OSS) can provide TELUS with a sustainable competitive advantage. The paper begins with the first three chapter exploring overviews of the components of the Canadian Telecommunications services industry, TELUS and its products, and the markets and revenues. The next chapter is an industry analysis of the industry landscape and its players. Michael Porter's Five Forces model ...

  1. Applied math for wastewater plant operators

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Joanne K

    1998-01-01

    With many worked examples, this book provides step-by-step instruction for all calculations required for wastewater treatment. Pertinent calculations are conveniently summarized in each chapter. The text covers all the fundamental math concepts and skills needed for daily wastewater treatment plant operations. The workbook for this book can be purchased separately or together in the Applied Math for Wastewater Plant Operators Set (ISBN: 9781566769891).

  2. Honduras : Public Expenditure Review, Volume 2. Background Chapters and Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Macroeconomic developments in Honduras over the last four years have been generally favorable, largely reflecting a benign external environment. Honduras' medium-term macroeconomic outlook, however, is clouded by several significant fiscal challenges. These challenges include: (a) rising operating losses of the public enterprises; (b) rising public wages; and (c) popular pressures to incre...

  3. Chapter 23: New Directions - Research and Development Challenges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hashimoto, K.; Kawase, M.; Petskovska, M.; Hanika, Jiří; Li, Ch-Y.; Adesina, A.; Sapoundjiev, H.; Scharer, J.; Silvestone, P.L.

    Oxford : Butterworth-Heinemann, 2013, s. 679-689 ISBN 978-0-12-391854-3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organics compounds * reaction * biochemical applications Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www. amazon .com/Periodic-Operation-Reactors-P-Silveston/dp/0123918545

  4. Fast breeder reactors in relation to energy requirements. Chapter 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the world is going to need substantial quantities of energy from new sources early in the next century. Although it may be possible to get a significant amount from solar and geothermal sources, it is far too early to predict how large a contribution they will be able to make. Nuclear power can make a large contribution and it would be wrong to do anything to close this option at this stage. Although there is considerable uncertainty about the precise quantity of commercially exploitable uranium in the world, it is almost certain that breeder reactors will be required. The time-scale is such that utilities throughout the world will need to be able to order breeders in quantity with complete confidence for operation from the mid 1990s onwards. The engineering, safety and logistic problems that are considered in the other chapters of this book are such that, if we are to meet this time-scale, we must press ahead with the utmost urgency. (author)

  5. A exposição da carne: condutas sexuais de carmelitas reformados na América portuguesa do século XVIII = The exposure of the flesh: sexual behaviors of retired carmelite in portuguese America in the XVIII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honor, André Cabral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivado pelos constantes questionamentos que lhe são feitos sobre o comportamento dos religiosos na América portuguesa, o autor, por meio do presente artigo, analisa três casos do século XVIII que envolveram denúncias de conduta sexual de frades carmelitas seguidores da Constituição Turônica, adotada nos conventos da Cidade da Paraíba, Recife e Goiana. As peças documentais, objetos desse estudo, foram retiradas dos fundos portugueses Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo e Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino. Aplicando as ferramentas teórico-metodológicas da micro história italiana, procura-se compreender esses acontecimentos não como uma parte que demonstra o todo, mas sim como um pedaço da complexidade de uma realidade maior, na qual está inserida a presença portuguesa nos trópicos. Partindo desse pressuposto teórico, pretende-se analisar as motivações que levavam esses desvios de conduta a tornarem-se objetos de denúncias às autoridades religiosas e administrativas da América portuguesa. Esses relatos adquiriam novas dimensões ultrapassando o status de boatos corriqueiros para transformarem-se em reprimendas a esses religiosos.

  6. Regulation and policy initiatives for sustainable energy in sub-Saharan Africa. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and ownership. However, once initiated, an established market economy, involving many competitive private companies, should produce electricity at less cost to the consumer and the nation, than if wholly owned and operated by government. Such improvement requires a carefully constructed legal framework, especially because there are many monopoly aspects of electricity supply. The administration and control of the legal objectives requires jurisdiction, usually by the appointment of a Regulator with a specialist and independent staff. Thus, hand-in-hand with the liberalization of energy supplies is the requirement for regulation. Since 1990, liberalization of energy supply, especially of electricity, has been introduced throughout Europe. The main actions have been at national level; consequently, individual national policies and methods dominate. Nevertheless, having an integrated European electricity grid encourages commonality throughout Europe. Associated with liberalization is the growth of private company participation and hence the need for legally enforceable regulation by a Regulator. The pattern of development in Europe is similar to many other world regions including North America. However, European electricity supply is older and the population more concentrated than in most other regions, therefore the opportunity for structured liberalization came first in Europe. Consequently, the European experience is important for formulating policy elsewhere, including Africa. However, without competition from several private companies for each contract, liberalization may well fail to deliver the improved services and reduced energy tariffs expected; chapter three considers such experience. Coincidentally with the trend to energy supply liberalization, has come the need for renewable energy supplies and increased energy efficiency. This change is promoted by several factors, including: sustainable development, new technology, reduced emissions and climate change

  7. Estudio y composición de nueve estatuillas chinas y japonesas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales aportadas por D. Juan de Cuellar en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Guinea, Javier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a historical study combined with a non-destructive chemical and molecular characterisation (using ESEM-EDS and Raman spectroscopy of nine small sculptures. The specimens kept in the National Museum of Natural Sciences (MNCN institution are composed of steatite or soapstone, a soft and unctuous mineral containing talc and pyrophyllite. We found that two of the specimens are made of pyrophyllite from Japan while the other seven are talc carved with Chinese-style ornamentation. These talc specimens from China include calcite formed by dolomite metamorphism, while the pyrophyllite samples show Pb, Fe, Cl, As, P, S, Na and Ca, chemical elements more characteristic of hydrothermal alterations of felsic rocks from Japan. The statuettes were brought to what was then the RGHN from Philippines in the eighteenth century by Juan de Cuellar. The paper includes a short biography of this Spanish explorer and botanist and an account of his scientific and economic activities. These specimens are an excellent example of the Enlightenment fashion for collecting Asian objects.Se presenta un estudio histórico y de caracterización química y molecular por técnicas no destructivas, ESEMEDS y Raman, de nueve esculturas de pequeño tamaño, fabricadas en esteatita, antigua denominación de minerales blandos y untuosos como talco y pirofilita, conservadas en el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN. Se concluye que dos especímenes son de pirofilita y procedentes de Japón, mientras que las otras siete son de talco con ornamentación de procedencia China. Las muestras de talco de China tienen calcita con algo de cobre, típica de metamorfismo de dolomías, mientras que las pirofilitas tienen Pb, Fe, Cl, As, P, S, Na y Ca, elementos químicos de origen hidrotermal de rocas félsicas más característico de Japón. Las estatuillas fueron aportadas al RGHN desde Filipinas, en el siglo XVIII, por D. Juan de Cuellar, expedicionario y bot

  8. Madre sólo hay una. Ilustración, maternidad y medicina en el Perú del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosas Lauro, Claudia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the construction of a model of maternity that served as the base of the enlightenment family in the late 18th century of Peru. It analyzes journalism and other texts of the period, to show the hygienist discourse about pregnancy and birth, the controversies about breast-feeding, the diatribes against midewifes versus scientific knowledge of medical doctors, among other aspects, to configure a new vision of maternity. This vision relates to a more complex process of society on the whole, such as the birth of a modern journalism and public opinion or the formalization of scientific knowledge and the increased social role of medical doctor. In this way, this discourse shows one of the many faces of the difficult process of modernity.

    Este trabajo estudia cómo a fines del siglo XVIII en el Perú se dio la construcción de un modelo de madre, que sería el eje en torno al cual debía girar la familia ilustrada. A través del análisis de la prensa y otros escritos de la época, se muestra cómo el discurso higienista sobre el embarazo y el parto, la polémica sobre la lactancia materna y la diatriba de las parteras frente al saber científico del médico, entre otros aspectos, van configurando una nueva visión de la maternidad. Esta, a su vez, se vincula con procesos más complejos que involucraban a la sociedad en su conjunto como son la emergencia de un periodismo moderno y una opinión pública o la tentativa de formalizar el saber científico con el acrecentamiento del rol social del médico. De esta manera, se muestra una de las múltiples caras que asume el difícil proceso de construcción de la modernidad.

  9. La noticia individual (relación entre los siglos XVII y XVIII: Tres tipologías, tres textos recuperados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Díaz Noci

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones de noticias existen como forma preperiodística desde al menos los siglos XV y XVI, aunque es en las siguientes dos centurias cuando alcanza su culmen, con miles de títulos diferentes publicados en prácticamente todos los lugares de España y Portugal donde había una imprenta. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVII español y durante todo el XVIII convive con las gacetas, publicaciones misceláneas y noticiosas, que irán adquiriendo una cadencia de publicación determinada y ser irán convirtiendo en los periódicoscomo los conocemos hoy en día. Las relaciones individuales de noticias mostraron diversas formas y tipología, aunque tenían en común su carácter generalmente breve, cuatro páginas en cuarto, venta rápida y vida breve. Aquí transcribimos tres relaciones de muy diversas épocas, pertenecientes a nuestra colección particular, describimos sus técnicas de redacción (lenguajes y paralenguajes y aportamos datos sobre su digitalizaciónThe so called relaciones de noticias (newssheets exist as a form of ancient journalismsince at least the 15th and 16th centuries, but it was during the 17th and 18th centuries when they were most developed as a way of communicate individual news. Thousand of different titles were published at almost every place in Spain and Portugal where a printingpress was. During the second half of the 17th century in Spain and during all the 18th century the relaciones lived all together with the gazettes, or miscellaneous news sheets, that became periodicals and formed the daily press as we currently know it. Those newssheetscontaining just one news were of different form and type, nevertheless most of them were short stories –normally four pages–, and quick selling. We now transcribe three of those newssheets, which we owned, from both the 17th and the 18th centuries, describe the newswriting and images used in them, and explain how we digitised them.

  10. Apante, cultivo de caña de azúcar y sus repercusiones en el reino de Guatemala, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Castellón

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La vida de las provincias de San Salvador y Sonsonate, que conformaron el actual El Salvador, enAmérica Central, estuvo caracterizada por la dependencia de la capital y el monocultivo. Para la segundamitad del siglo XVIII aconteció el despunte añilero (sustituyendo al cacao sonsonateco tras sudeclive que tanta relevancia tuvo para la economía del reino y que repercutió de manera particularen las economías locales, «tironeando» el desarrollo de otros productos. El más sobresaliente de ellosfue la caña de azúcar, con una producción tan considerable que llegó a hacerse de una importante porcióndel mercado capitalino guatemalteco. El presente trabajo sostiene que esto sólo fue posible graciasal empleo del apante o regadío, ya presente en los limitados espacios tecnológicos y comerciales deaquella sociedad rural. Rompiendo los paradigmas del sistema productivo cañero, las elevadas posibilidadesproductivas del apante, los antecedentes de su uso y el mismo sistema productivo añilero,aseguraron el éxito de la empresa, en un ejemplo poco conocido del aporte de la tecnología indígenaen las sociedades y economías del interior colonial.The life of the provinces of San Salvador and Sonsonate, which formed the actual El Salvador inCentral America, was characterized by their dependency of Guatemalan city and their monoculture.For the second half of the eighteenth century (replacing Sonsonate’s cacao after its decline the añilink became the most important product for the economy of the kingdom, pushing the developmentof other products. The most prominent of these was the sugarcane, with such a large production thatit came to be an important part of the Guatemalan capital market. This paper argues that this wasonly possible by the use of an irrigation system of «apante», which was already present in the limitedtechnological and commercial spaces in the rural society. Breaking paradigms of the sugarcaneproduction system, the high

  11. Orden y ambigüedad en la formación territorial de Río de la Plata a fines del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Wilde

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Por mucho tiempo la heterogénea población que habitaba la región Río de la Plata, en las fronteras entre España y Portugal, hacia fines del siglo XVIII fue asociada con la barbarie. Con el fin de homogeneizar a esta población y ajustar su comportamiento a las leyes indianas, la monarquía española implementó varias políticas de control. Sin embargo, en el corto plazo estas políticas no lograron modificar las prácticas económicas, políticas y simbólicas de esta población ni su débil percepción del Estado. Por el contrario, los actores locales mantuvieron sus dinámicas relativamente autónomas hasta casi la mitad del siglo XIX. Este artículo analiza la contradicción entre las representaciones del Estado sobre esos actores locales, construidos como "alteridad", y las dinámicas concretas que los caracterizaban, sus percepciones del territorio y el Estado, y sus estrategias para evadir los controles de las autoridades oficiales.For a long time, the heterogenous population that inhabited the Río de la Plata Region, in the borderlands of Spain and Portugal, toward the end of 18th Century, was associated to barbarism. To make that population homogenous and to adjust its behavior to indigenous Law, the Spanish Monarchy carried out several policies of control. However, in a short term these policies were neither able to modify the economic, political and symbolic practices of that population, nor were they able to weaken the perception this population had of the State. On the contrary, local actors kept their own dynamics until almost the first half of the 19th Century. This paper analyses the contradiction between State representations of local actors and the concrete dynamics that characterized them, their perceptions of territory and State, and their strategies for avoiding control by official authorities.

  12. «Un capellán que sirve la mesa» y otros menesteres. Burgos a mediados del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En la ciudad de Burgos, a mediados del siglo XVIII, nueve hogares disponían, entre sus componentes, de un capellán privativo, contratado por el pater-familias a título de «doméstico». Sus quehaceres eran múltiples: dirigir la celebración de actos religiosos, servir la mesa, educar a la progenie, llevar los asuntos de su patrón, etcétera. Muchos de esos hogares tenían, en sus grandes mansiones, oratorio y cochera, donde se guardaban celosamente los menajes sacros y los carruajes. Las razones para contratar capellanes ah hoc son varias, pero una destaca entre las demás. En un siglo caracterizado por la transición desde una religiosidad colectiva, teatralizada, de templo y estridencias en las calles hasta una religiosidad más intimista, doctrinal, hogareña, personal e individualista, se mantenía, alimentaba y/o asalariaba a un clero flotante que servía en exclusiva a los miembros de algunos hogares aristocráticos. Estos hogares disfrutaban, en general, de unos niveles de renta y de fortuna elevados, muy por encima de la inmensa mayoría de los habitantes de la ciudad.ABSTRACT: In the city of Burgos, in the middle of the 18th century, nine homes had, as their members, a private chaplain, contracted by the pater-familias, as household servant. These jobs were of a great variety: to lead the celebration of religious events, to serve meals, to educate offspring, to be in charge of his landlord's bussiness, etcétera. Many of those homes had, in their great mansions, an oratory and a garage, where the sacred items and the carriages were well kept. The reasons to contract chaplains ad hoc are different, but one is the most important. In a century characterized for the changings from a collective religiousness, exaggerated, in churchs and stridency in the streets to a religiousness more intimate, doctrinal, familiar, personal and individualistic, maintained, fed and/or paid a floating clergy who served the members of some

  13. El ambulantaje en imágenes : una historia de representaciones de la venta callejera en la Ciudad de México (siglos XVIII-XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Exbalin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es un análisis de las representaciones del ambulantaje (comercio ambulante, trabajo en la vía pública en la Ciudad de México, a través de la pintura de castas del siglo XVIII, la fotografía de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX y la fotografía de prensa de finales del siglo XX. Este ensayo observa las transformaciones que esta actividad ha tenido en las diferentes épocas de desarrollo de la ciudad de México, a través del análisis de los productores de la imagen y del imaginario alrededor de este tipo de comercio, transmitido por medio de la pintura de castas o de la fotografía. Los tres artículos que conforman este ensayo, intentan indagar de forma general cómo se ha representado el ambulantaje en cada época, qué rasgos de esta actividad se modifican y cuáles se mantiene en el paso de un período a otro, de qué forma el análisis de las representaciones de una temporalidad nos ayuda a entender las imágenes propagadas en los siguientes periodos. Los autores abordaron principalmente tres dimensiones de la representación del ambulantaje para cada periodo: la social, la territorial y la económica. A pesar de las diferentes fuentes y perspectivas de análisis, logramos identificar aspectos que permanecen constantes en este largo periodo y que nos permiten entender la dinámica del fenómeno social de este tipo de comercio en la ciudad de México, dentro de un marco histórico y tradicional. Por otro lado, es concluyente que el ambulantaje es una actividad que se adapta a las cambiantes condiciones del espacio público, y que esta adaptabilidad hace posible su realización en los diferentes momentos del desarrollo urbano de la ciudad.

  14. Rojas Zorrilla y otros dramaturgos españoles en la biblioteca de un sefardí de Gibraltar del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Mas, Paloma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript Ms 22090 preserved in the National Library in Madrid is the Cancionero de Abraham Israel, a collection of poems and songs in Spanish, English and lingua franca collected by a Sephardic Jew of Gibraltar from 1761 to 1770. The manuscript also included under the title «Notta de las comedias que tengo en libros» (‘list of the plays I have in books’, a small list of 36 titles of 17th Century Spanish plays, one of whose is Rojas Zorrilla’s Progne y Filomena. The aim of this article is to identify the plays cited in that list, paying special attention to the editions along the 18th century, and to analize how Jews of Gibraltar become from early times a link between Spanish modern culture and Sephardic Jews settled in Morocco, and contributed to the re-hispanization of Morrocan Sephardic language and culture that reach its highest point in the 20th century.El manuscrito Ms 22090 de la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid es el Cancionero de Abraham Israel, una colección de poemas y canciones en español, inglés y lingua franca recogidos por un sefardí de Gibraltar desde 1761 hasta 1770. En el manuscrito se incluye también, bajo el título «Notta de las comedias que tengo en libros» una breve lista de 36 titulos de obras teatrales españolas del siglo XVII, entre ellas Progne y Filomena, de Rojas Zorrilla. En este artículo identificamos las obras mencionadas en esa lista, con especial atención a las ediciones sueltas impresas en el siglo XVIII, y analizamos cómo los judíos de Gibraltar se convirtieron desde época temprana en un puente entre la cultura española peninsular moderna y la de los sefardíes de Marruecos, lo cual contribuyó a la rehispanización de la lengua y la cultura de los sefardíes marroquíes, que culminó en el siglo XX.

  15. Microscopios del siglo XVIII del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. CSIC. Dos piezas únicas de la Ilustración para la investigación naturalista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Alcalde, Julio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to make a journey the history, characteristics and process of restoring of two of the oldest pieces in the Collection of the Technology and Industrial Archeology from the National Museum of Natural Sciences. CSIC. They are two microscopes from the eighteenth century, built in England. The simple-compound microscope, built by George Adams around 1750-1770, might have belonged to Don Antonio de Ulloa or Don Pedro Franco Dávila. Only two similar pieces are displayed in the Science Museum in Geneva and London. The compound microscope, built by Dollond in the 1780s, was owned by Eugenio Izquierdo de Rivera y Lazaún successor of D. Pedro Franco Dávila in the direction of the Royal Cabinet of Natural History. He was a well-known naturalist as well as a judge, diplomat, secretary and informant of Manuel Godoy.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es efectuar un recorrido por la historia, características y proceso de restauración de dos de las piezas más antiguas de la Colección de Arqueología de la Técnica e Industrial del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. CSIC. Son dos microscopios del siglo XVIII, construidos en Inglaterra. El microscopio simple-compuesto, construido por George Adams hacia 1750-1770 pudo pertenecer a D. Antonio de Ulloa o a Don Pedro Franco Dávila. Sólo se exponen dos piezas semejantes en el Museo de la Ciencia de Ginebra y en el de Londres. El microscopio compuesto, construido por Dollond hacia 1780, fue propiedad de Eugenio Izquierdo de Rivera y Lazaún sucesor de D. Pedro Franco Dávila en la dirección del Real Gabinete de Historia Natural, actual Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Era un conocido naturalista y, además, juez, diplomático, secretario e informante de Manuel Godoy.

  16. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  17. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  18. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  19. Operating procedures for the Pajarito Site Critical Assembly Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating procedures consistent with DOE Order 5480.2, Chapter VI, and the American National Standard Safety Guide for the Performance of Critical Experiments are defined for the Pajarito Site Critical Assembly Facility of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These operating procedures supersede and update those previously published in 1973 and apply to any criticality experiment performed at the facility

  20. Pavlovian, Skinner, and Other Behaviourists' Contributions to AI. Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Withold; Zaczek-Chrzanowska, Dominika

    2007-01-01

    A version of the definition of intelligent behaviour will be supplied in the context of real and artificial systems. Short presentation of principles of learning, starting with Pavlovian s classical conditioning through reinforced response and operant conditioning of Thorndike and Skinner and finishing with cognitive learning of Tolman and Bandura will be given. The most important figures within behaviourism, especially those with contribution to AI, will be described. Some tools of artificial intelligence that act according to those principles will be presented. An attempt will be made to show when some simple rules for behaviour modifications can lead to a complex intelligent behaviour.

  1. Comparative systems and the functioning of networks: the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific models of trade. XVII and XVIII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picazo Muntaner, Antoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available All commercial networks operating during the First Global Age in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific systems had a number of common elements, although it is also true that in these two areas of study, very different dynamics emerged. In both areas, the strategies implemented by networks were designed to make them extremely cooperative, very dynamic, with a nonlinear structure and multifunctional. In contrast, noteworthy among the most significant differences is the high degree of participation of native traders and commercial networks in the Asia-Pacific, with Europeans taking part and learning alongside them, while the Atlantic, and the Caribbean in particular, were essentially European in nature.Todas las redes mercantiles que operaron en la primera Edad Global en el sistema Atlántico y en el Indo- Pacífico tuvieron una serie de elementos comunes, aunque también es cierto que en las dos áreas de estudio se crearon dinámicas muy diferentes. En ambas zonas las estratégicas que implementaron las redes estuvieron configuradas por una cooperación muy elevada, un fuerte dinamismo, una estructura no lineal y polifuncional. En cambio, entre las diferencias más significativas destacaría la elevada participación en Asia-Pacífico de comerciantes y redes mercantiles nativas junto a las que participaron y aprendieron las europeas, mientras que el Atlántico, y el Caribe en particular, fueron básicamente de índole europea.

  2. Operator Fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent events show the need for constant attention on the operator fundamentals, in the commercial nuclear industry. The first report about decline in the application of operator fundamentals during plant operational activities and transient situations was issued in July 2005. Analyses of the events recorded during 18 month period between 2010 and 2011 show similar causes and contributors like it was before July 2005. Due to that fact, the WANO issued SOER 2013-1 Operator Fundamentals Weaknesses with proposed suggestions how to analyse area of operator fundamentals and gives recommendations for effective and sustainable corrective actions. Operator fundamentals are the essential knowledge, skills, behaviours, and practices that operating crews need to apply to operate the plant effectively. These fundamentals are as follows: · Monitoring plant indications and conditions closely · Controlling plant evolutions precisely · Operating the plant with a conservative bias · Working effectively as a team · Having a solid understanding of plant design, engineering principles, and sciences. NEK analysed area of operator fundamentals and verified how consistently the basic principles in the plant control are followed in practice. Some opportunities for improvement were recognized for the training area, operational procedures format improvement and improvement in process of preparation of the planned activities during power operation or during plant shutdown. Among other measures, stability in operation with a sufficient safety margin can be achieved only through continuous monitoring of the operational practice and by constant highlighting of the operational standards. (author)

  3. Chapter 9: The FTU Machine - Design Construction and Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main design features and guidelines for the construction of the 8-T cryogenically cooled Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) are presented. The main features include the very compact toroidal magnets based on the concept of the 'Bitter' type of coil with wedge-shaped turns, utilized for the first time for the Alcator A and C magnets, and the original configuration of the vacuum vessel (VV) structure, which is fully welded in order to achieve the required high strength and electric resistivity. The present toroidal limiter has been installed following several years of operation, and this installation has required the development of specific remote-handling tools. The toroidal limiter consists of 12 independent sectors made of stainless steel carriers and molybdenum alloy (TZM) tiles. The main fabrication processes developed for the toroidal and poloidal coils as well as for the VV are described. It is to be noted that the assembly procedure has required very accurate machining of all the structures requiring several trials and steps. The machine has shown no problem in operating routinely at its maximum design values (8 T, 1.6 MA)

  4. Geology. Chapter 2. [Geological aspects of CO2 and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter presents an overview of the geological issues involved in the ultimate disposal of carbon dioxide (CO2) and radioactive waste in geological formations. It is based on the information collected by research teams participating in this Coordinated Research Project (CRP) in their own Member States. The chapter is intended to serve as a reference for the thematic discussions in subsequent chapters. The main objectives of the chapter are: • To present an up to date overview of the methods in geological assessments for the disposal of CO2 and radioactive waste; • To review the specific geological conditions and the status of research in the countries involved in this CRP; • To present a comparative analyses of the geological issues in the disposal of CO2 and radioactive waste. The countries involved in the geological component of this CRP include Bulgaria, Cuba, the Czech Republic, Germany, India, the Republic of Korea and Switzerland

  5. Algorithms and their Impact on Integrated Vehicle Health Management - Chapter 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter discussed some of the algorithmic choices one encounters when designing an IVHM system. While it would be generally desirable to be able to pick a...

  6. Economic Issues Raised by Treatment of Takings Under NAFTA Chapter 11

    OpenAIRE

    Edward M. Graham

    2002-01-01

    Chapter 11 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) allows most foreign investors from any NAFTA country to seek monetary damages for properties that might be appropriated, or any measure that might be deemed "tantamount to an expropriation" by the governments of any of the other NAFTA parties (Canada, Mexico, and the United States); to obtain such damages, the investor must go through the dispute settlement process provided in chapter 11 part B. A number of investors have used thes...

  7. Parental participation in a chapter I parent center as a predictor of academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Barbara Ann Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship of participation in the Chapter I Parent Center to four of the variables often associated with academic achievement namely: (1) the child's home environment; (2) parental attitude towards education; (3) the child's self-concept; and (4) the child's motivation to learn. In addition, the study examines the relationship between participation in the Chapter I Parent Center program and reading achievement. The basic objective of th...

  8. Chapter 4. Making Heroes: the Early days of OUN-UPA

    OpenAIRE

    Marples, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This chapter examines interpretations of the topic of OUN-UPA as constituents in the process of constructing a national history in Ukraine, and in particular the changing interpretations of this organization in Ukraine. Several introductory premises need to be stated. First, as earlier, the goal is not to determine factual truth per se, but rather to analyze the prevailing narratives. Second, this chapter includes a sampling of newspapers of different political perspectives and r...

  9. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  10. 31 CFR 596.503 - Financial transactions with a Terrorism List Government otherwise subject to 31 CFR chapter V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Terrorism List Government otherwise subject to 31 CFR chapter V. 596.503 Section 596.503 Money and Finance... subject to 31 CFR chapter V. United States persons are authorized to engage in financial transactions with a Terrorism List Government that is subject to regulations contained in parts of 31 CFR chapter...

  11. Summary and Recommendations for Future Work. Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shavers, Mark R.; Saganti, Premkumar B.; Miller, Jack

    2003-01-01

    The safety of astronauts is the primary concern of all space missions. Space radiation has been identified as a major concern for ISS, and minimizing radiation risks during EVA is a principle component of NASA s radiation protection program. The space suit plays a critical role in shielding astronauts from EVA radiation exposures. In cooperation with the JSC Extravehicular Activity Project Office, and the Space Radiation Health Project Office, the NASA EMU and RSA Orlan space suits were taken to the LLUPTF for a series of measurements with proton and electron beams to simulate exposures during EVA operations. Additional tests with material layouts of the EMU suit sleeve were made in collaboration with NASA LaRC at the LBNL 88-inch cyclotron and at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron.

  12. Quantitation of diagnostic ventilation and perfusion lung scans. Chapter 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable method of generating quantitative data from 81Krsup(m) ventilation and 99Tcsup(m) perfusion lung scans without operator intervention has been demonstrated, using a digital computer. Two hundred patient scans performed for routine diagnosis and 21 scans from normal subjects were processed to evaluate the method. In general the use of the (V-Q) profile provided better discrimination between normal and abnormal cases than did the profiles of V or Q alone, and was easier to interpret than V/Q. [V= Ventilation, Q= Perfusion]. With the exception of very severe obstructive airways disease, the method appeared to indicate unequivocally pathological areas of underperfusion. The method could be of particular importance in the detection of pulmonary embolism. (author)

  13. Krypton 81m generators for ventilation and perfusion. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generators have been developed to deliver constant concentrations of 81Krsup(m) for intravenous and intra-arterial infusion as well as in the gas phase for use in lung ventilation studies. Techniques for cyclotron production of useful quantities of the 81Rb parent are reviewed. A comparison is made of two types of generator, both of which use a cation exchange material to retain the 81Rb whilst allowing the 81Krsup(m) to be recovered. The zirconium phosphate type has the advantage that it can be loaded rapidly at high efficiency, even in the presence of high concentrations of sodium ions. Routine clinical operation of the zirconium phosphate generator is described, together with procedures for generator testing. (U.K.)

  14. 52 years of Kahl pilot nuclear power station. A special chapter in German technology history come to an end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since October 2010, the site of the former Kahl Experimental Nuclear Power Station (VAK) has been returned to the desired green-field condition. A special chapter in the German history of the use of nuclear power, which has played a major role in the technical and economic development of this energy resource, has come to an end after 52 years. When nuclear power pioneer Heinrich Mandel ordered VAK from AEG in 1958, the mood associated with using this source of energy was different from what it is now. Politicians of all parties were euphoric about the use of nuclear power, while power plant operators were more reluctant. Finally, also RWE was convinced and planned the construction of VAK as a joint venture with the Bayernwerk AG (now E.ON) utility in Grosswelzheim, Bavaria. The objective was clear: 'The order was placed so that the atomic power plant to be built could be used to accumulate experience in planning, operation, in capital cost and operating cost.' After a construction period of only 29 months, VAK was commissioned on November 13, 1960 as the first German nuclear power plant. The US-designed boiling water reactor had been designed for a power of 16,000 kilowatt. After synchronization with the power grid, the first electricity produced from nuclear power in Germany was fed into the interconnected grid system on June 17, 1961. In its 25 years of operation, VAK proved to be a valuable experimental facility. The plant was decommissioned on November 25, 1985 as planned. In order to maintain its experimental character also beyond the operating phase, the operators had agreed from the beginning to demolish VAK completely to green-field conditions immediately after the end of operations. This became official on May 17, 2010, when the plant was released from the scope of the Atomic Energy Act and was granted a permit for demolition under conventional building law. (orig.)

  15. Urban operations

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Ian C.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines military performance in both urban and traditional non-urban environments. Cases used in this study are German operations on the Russian front, Israeli operations during the Yom Kippur War, and U.S. Marine operations in South Vietnam. This thesis establishes a framework for analysis consisting of six factors. These include environment, time, informational aspects of military operations, application of existing technology, intangible human factors, and the decisionmaking o...

  16. COMPACT OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Swartz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a characterization in terms of the transpose operator for a continuous linear operator between locally convex spaces to map bounded sets into relatively weakly compact [relatively compact, precompact] sets. Our results give a known characterization for compact operators between Banach spaces.

  17. Theories of Simplification and Scaling of Spatially Distributed Processes. Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Simon A.; Pacala, Stephen W.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of scaling is at the heart of ecological theory, the essence of understanding and of the development of a predictive capability. The description of any system depends on the spatial, temporal, and organizational perspective chosen; hence it is essential to understand not only how patterns and dynamics vary with scale, but also how patterns at one scale are manifestations of processes operating at other scales. Evolution has shaped the characteristics of species in ways that result in scale displacement: Each species experiences the environment at its own unique set of spatial and temporal scales and interfaces the biota through unique assemblages of phenotypes. In this way, coexistence becomes possible, and biodiversity is enhanced. By averaging over space, time, and biological interactions, a genotype filters variation at fine scales and selects the arena in which it will face the vicissitudes of nature. Variation at finer scales is then noise, of minor importance to the survival and dynamics of the species, and consequently of minor importance in any attempt at description. In attempting to model ecological interactions in space, contributors throughout this book have struggled with a trade-off between simplification and "realistic" complexity and detail. Although the challenge of simplification is widely recognized in ecology, less appreciated is the intertwining of scaling questions and scaling laws with the process of simplification. In the context of this chapter simplification will in general mean the use of spatial or ensemble means and low-order moments to capture more detailed interactions by integrating over given areas. In this way, one can derive descriptions of the system at different spatial scales, which provides the essentials for the extraction of scaling laws by examination of how system properties vary with scale.

  18. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE, SQUIRREL-I, and SQUIRREL-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation conducted during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended. Because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place, results may be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  19. Nuclear heating plants. Technical concepts and market potentials. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the single-phase and the two-phase natural circulation cooling system has characteristic effects on the dynamic behavior of heating reactors. In two-phase systems, thermohydraulically conditioned flow oscillations can occur for certain pairs of values of inlet subcooling and thermal power, which, because of the feedback of the moderator density on the reactivity, lead to power oscillations. By means of a stability analysis the stability domains were identified for the operation of small and large heating reactors. In support of the computational model experiments were carried out on a heated test loop with natural circulation cooling. The analysis of the irregular load following behavior of heating reactors with natural circulation cooling takes up relatively much space. The HERE-300 and NHR-200 types are typical examples of single-phase and two-phase cooling, respectively. Contrary to common expectations the dynamic calculations prove that even the two-phase system shows a natural load following behavior under heating reactor conditions. (orig.)

  20. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout