WorldWideScience

Sample records for chapter xviii operative

  1. Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribov, Y.; Humphreys, D.; Kajiwara, K.; Lazarus, E. A.; Lister, J. B.; Ozeki, T.; Portone, A.; Shimada, M.; Sips, A. C. C.; Wesley, J. C.

    2007-06-01

    The ITER plasma control system has the same functional scope as the control systems in present tokamaks. These are plasma operation scenario sequencing, plasma basic control (magnetic and kinetic), plasma advanced control (control of RWMs, NTMs, ELMs, error fields, etc) and plasma fast shutdown. This chapter considers only plasma initiation and plasma basic control. This chapter describes the progress achieved in these areas in the tokamak experiments since the ITER Physics Basis (1999 Nucl. Fusion 39 2577) was written and the results of assessment of ITER to provide the plasma initiation and basic control. This assessment was done for the present ITER design (15 MA machine) at a more detailed level than it was done for the ITER design 1998 (21 MA machine) described in the ITER Physics Basis (1999 Nucl. Fusion 39 2577). The experiments on plasma initiation performed in DIII-D and JT-60U, as well as the theoretical studies performed for ITER, have demonstrated that, within specified assumptions on the plasma confinement and the impurity influx, ITER can produce plasma initiation in a low toroidal electric field (0.3 V m-1), if it is assisted by about 2 MW of ECRF heating. The plasma basic control includes control of the plasma current, position and shape—the plasma magnetic control, as well as control of other plasma global parameters or their profiles—the plasma performance control. The magnetic control is based on more reliable and simpler models of the control objects than those available at present for the plasma kinetic control. Moreover the real time diagnostics used for the magnetic control in many cases are more precise than those used for the kinetic control. Because of these reasons, the plasma magnetic control was developed for modern tokamaks and assessed for ITER better than the kinetic control. However, significant progress has been achieved in the plasma performance control during the last few years. Although the physics basis of plasma operation

  2. 14 CFR 119.71 - Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted under part 135 of this chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or Part 135 of This Chapter § 119.71 Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted under part 135 of this chapter. 119.71 Section 119.71 Aeronautics and Space...

  3. 14 CFR 119.67 - Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted under part 121 of this chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or Part 135 of This Chapter § 119.67 Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted under part 121 of this chapter. 119.67 Section 119.67 Aeronautics and Space...

  4. 14 CFR 119.65 - Management personnel required for operations conducted under part 121 of this chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or Part 135 of This Chapter § 119.65 Management personnel required for operations conducted under... of management personnel due to— (1) The kind of operation involved; (2) The number and type of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management personnel required...

  5. 14 CFR 119.69 - Management personnel required for operations conducted under part 135 of this chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or Part 135 of This Chapter § 119.69 Management personnel required for operations conducted under... of management personnel due to— (1) The kind of operation involved; (2) The number and type of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management personnel required...

  6. Evaluation of Anomaly Detection Capability for Ground-Based Pre-Launch Shuttle Operations. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This chapter will provide a thorough end-to-end description of the process for evaluation of three different data-driven algorithms for anomaly detection to select the best candidate for deployment as part of a suite of IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. These algorithms were deemed to be sufficiently mature enough to be considered viable candidates for deployment in support of the maiden launch of Ares I-X, the successor to the Space Shuttle for NASA's Constellation program. Data-driven algorithms are just one of three different types being deployed. The other two types of algorithms being deployed include a "nile-based" expert system, and a "model-based" system. Within these two categories, the deployable candidates have already been selected based upon qualitative factors such as flight heritage. For the rule-based system, SHINE (Spacecraft High-speed Inference Engine) has been selected for deployment, which is a component of BEAM (Beacon-based Exception Analysis for Multimissions), a patented technology developed at NASA's JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and serves to aid in the management and identification of operational modes. For the "model-based" system, a commercially available package developed by QSI (Qualtech Systems, Inc.), TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System) has been selected for deployment to aid in diagnosis. In the context of this particular deployment, distinctions among the use of the terms "data-driven," "rule-based," and "model-based," can be found in. Although there are three different categories of algorithms that have been selected for deployment, our main focus in this chapter will be on the evaluation of three candidates for data-driven anomaly detection. These algorithms will be evaluated upon their capability for robustly detecting incipient faults or failures in the ground-based phase of pre-launch space shuttle operations, rather than based oil heritage as performed in previous studies. Robust

  7. Chapter 9: Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algora, Carlos; Espinet-Gonzalez, Pilar; Vazquez, Manuel; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David; Kurtz, Sarah; Rubio, Francisca; McConnell,Robert

    2016-04-15

    This chapter describes the accumulated knowledge on CPV reliability with its fundamentals and qualification. It explains the reliability of solar cells, modules (including optics) and plants. The chapter discusses the statistical distributions, namely exponential, normal and Weibull. The reliability of solar cells includes: namely the issues in accelerated aging tests in CPV solar cells, types of failure and failures in real time operation. The chapter explores the accelerated life tests, namely qualitative life tests (mainly HALT) and quantitative accelerated life tests (QALT). It examines other well proven and experienced PV cells and/or semiconductor devices, which share similar semiconductor materials, manufacturing techniques or operating conditions, namely, III-V space solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). It addresses each of the identified reliability issues and presents the current state of the art knowledge for their testing and evaluation. Finally, the chapter summarizes the CPV qualification and reliability standards.

  8. Epidemiology chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, J H; Butaev, M K; Duysheev, A; Gabbasova, A R; Khasanov, O S; Kulakov, Yu K; Mkrtchyan, A R; Myrzabekov, A M; Nurgaziev, R Z; Tsirel'son, L E; Willer, R D; Yaraev, R G; Zheludkov, M M

    2010-10-01

    This chapter outlines the epidemiology of brucellosis in the Russian Federation and in five countries bordering Russia. Since the Soviet Union's dissolution, Russia and the newly formed independent republics have failed to maintain policies to control brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Many of these republics, due to weak animal control and prevention systems and dangerous food preparation practices, are still burdened with the human cost of brucellosis. The final summary of this section provides an example of the successful transboundary cooperative efforts between Arizona and Mexico, which could be applied to the situation between Russia and the bordering independent republics.

  9. Keila XVIII muinsuskaitsepäev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    15. V Keila sotsiaalkeskuse saalis Keila XVIII muinsuskaitsepäeva puhul arhitektuurile pühendatud Harjumaa muuseumi konverents. Esinevad Kaspar Kuuse, Silja Konsa, Heli Kirikal, Silvi Lindmaa-Pihlak, Mart Kalm. Avatud Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumi näitus "Eesti puitarhitektuur"

  10. La civilización como modelo de vida en el Madrid del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Barrientos, Joaquín

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter, the author approaches the social changes, both urban and rural, that Madrid sustained during the 18th century and which resulted in new manners and customs. It is a study of how civilization entered the Ancient Régime.

    Este trabajo es un acercamiento a los cambios sociales, urbanos y rurales, que se dieron en el Madrid del siglo XVIII desde el punto de vista de las nuevas costumbres: un estudio de cómo penetró la civilización en el Antiguo Régimen.

  11. Russian-Swedish Maritime Rivalry in XVIII cen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kolotov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the military-technical aspect of Russian-Swedish confrontation of the XVIII cen. Given short chronology of hostilities and influence the characteristics of the ships on the results of campaigns.

  12. Chapter Four: Discursive Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the focus of attention moves from the contexts described in chapter 3 to the verbal, nonverbal, and interactional resources that participants employ in discursive practices. These resources are discussed within the frame of participation status and participation framework proposed by Goffman. Verbal resources employed by…

  13. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  14. Opinion publique e nozione di affaire nella Francia del XVIII secolo: Voltaire difensore di Calas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pontieri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the famous case of Jean Calas’s trial and on the defense made by Voltaire after Calas’ death. Voltaire’s complex operation succeed in mobilizing public opinion and was resumed in the well known Traité sur la tolérance, an early example of the typical scheme of the affaire. Through the analysis of the public opinion in France during the XVIII century, we will demonstrate the ambivalence of Voltaire’s thoughts in relation to this concept: one one side reign of the irrationality, when linked to the local reality, on the other, source of truth when enlightened and universal.

  15. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  16. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  17. Chapter 9: Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Spieler, Helmuth G

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  18. Endostatin/Collagen XVIII Is Increased in Cerebrospinal Fluid after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin/collagen XVIII might play an important role in the secondary brain injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI. In this study, we measured endostatin/collagen XVIII concentrations serially for 1 week after hospitalization by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 30 patients with TBI and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score of 8 or less on admission. There was a significant trend toward increased CSF levels of endostatin after TBI versus control from 72 h after injury. In patients with GCS score of 3–5, CSF endostatin concentration was substantially higher at 72 h after injury than that in patients with GCS score of 6–8 (P<0.05 and peaked rapidly at day 5 after injury, but decreased thereafter. The CSF endostatin concentration in 12 patients with an unfavorable outcome was significantly higher than that in 18 patients with a favorable outcome at day 5 (P=0.043 and day 7 (P=0.005 after trauma. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested a reliable operating point for the 7-day CSF endostatin concentration predicting poor prognosis to be 67.29 pg/mL. Our preliminary findings provide new evidence that endostatin/collagen XVIII concentration in the CSF increases substantially in patients with sTBI. Its dynamic change may have some clinical significance on the judgment of brain injury severity and the assessment of prognosis. This trial is registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01846546.

  19. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  20. Sustainable careers: Introductory chapter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Vos, A de

    2015-01-01

    In this introductory chapter we will introduce the concept of ‘sustainable careers’ within the broader framework of contemporary careers. Departing from changes in the career context with regard to the dimensions of time, social space, agency and meaning, we advocate a fresh perspective on careers t

  1. Chapter 3: Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, Thomas D.; Arent, Doug; de Carvalho Macedo, Isaias; Goldemberg, Jose; Hoysala, Chanakya; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Nigro, Francisco E. B.; Richard, Tom L.; Saddler, Jack; Samseth, Jon; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This chapter considers the energy security implications and impacts of bioenergy. We provide an assessment to answer the following questions: What are the implications for bioenergy and energy security within the broader policy environment that includes food and water security, development, economic productivity, and multiple foreign policy aspects? What are the conditions under which bioenergy contributes positively to energy security?

  2. Hurrah for Chapter Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Glenowyn L.

    This annotated bibliography contains a list of 42 recent Chapter Books. The bibliography is divided into the following topics: Adventure-Survival (3 titles); Autobiography-Biography (3 titles); Death (1 title); Easy Readers (8 titles); Good Reading (12 titles); Historical Fiction (10 titles); Mystery (3 titles); Newbery Award Winner, 2000; and…

  3. Tourette Association Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adultos Tics en público: 8 formas de manejarlos Empleo: Como conseguir trabajo y conservarlo Redes Sociales Educación ... tsanj.org Website: http://www.tsanj.org/ New Mexico New Mexico Chapter Email: info@taanm.org Website: ...

  4. Sibilantes em manuscritos do século XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ferreira Munhoz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata das alternâncias no emprego das sibilantes, variação linguística encontrada em documentos da segunda metade do século XVIII editados no âmbito do projeto Filologia Bandeirante.

  5. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 15, The Real Number System, Chapter 16, Area, Volume, and Computation. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    Topics covered in the first chapter of Unit 8 of this SMSG series include square roots, operations with radicals, operations with real numbers, and the structure of the real number system. The second chapter deals with measurement of area (for rectangular regions, other polygons, and circles), volume and surface area, computation involving…

  6. Chapter Houses, Navajo Nation, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features representing Chapter Houses in the Navajo Nation. Chapter Name is included in the Attributes. This dataset contains 111...

  7. La Meteorologia a Ferrara dal XVIII al XX secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Caracciolo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The meteorology is the science studying the physical phenomena responsible of the weather. The history of meteorology has endured in the centuries a long and laborious process; this discipline is considered a Science only in the XIX century. This study focuses on the researchers who made the history of meteorology in the University of Ferrara (Italy. The teaching, the researches, the effort for the development are reconstructed for the first time from archive documents, with references to the general history of meteorology. The article focuses the attention on the period between XVIII and XX century. This work is a continuation of a more extended research started a few years ago, and still in action, on the history of experimental physics in the University of Ferrara. [The Meteorology in Ferrara from XVIII to XX century

  8. [Disease control on the Russian fleet in XVIII century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, A V

    2014-03-01

    Disease control in domestic fleet in XVIII century was a part of government measures concerning protection of the territory of the Russian Empire from the penetration of dangerous infectious diseases. Understanding the role fleet could play in the spread of infection, the government sought to prevent its entry from the sea. Following this task, in the early 20-s of XVIII century on islands of the Gulf Seskar and Wolf organized sanitary quarantine stations where ships from unfavorable in relation to the epidemic areas stayed before they pester the Russian shore. Eventually when the Black Sea Fleet was created, similar items appeared in Ochakov, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Yalta and Kerch. In XVIII century health legislation was supplemented by a number of regulations relating to the activities of the fleet. In particular, during the reign of Peter I epidemic rules were composed, which, as it became known, lasted for about sixty years. In 1786, the band released a set of quarantine rules designed to streamline the work of sanitary and quarantine stations. Important for protection against the penetration of Russian borders infectious diseases had timely warning of epidemics broke out abroad. Cooperating with European countries in the prevention and control of communicable diseases, Russia has successfully developed methods antiepidemic protection.

  9. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  10. Chapter 6: Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hauer, F. Richard; F. Richard Hauer,; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Stream temperature has direct and indirect effects on stream ecology and is critical in determining both abiotic and biotic system responses across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Temperature variation is primarily driven by solar radiation, while landscape topography, geology, and stream reach scale ecosystem processes contribute to local variability. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in freshwater ecosystems influences habitat distributions, physiological functions, and phenology of all aquatic organisms. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods for monitoring stream temperature, characterization of thermal profiles, and modeling approaches to stream temperature prediction. Recent advances in temperature monitoring allow for more comprehensive studies of the underlying processes influencing annual variation of temperatures and how thermal variability may impact aquatic organisms at individual, population, and community based scales. Likewise, the development of spatially explicit predictive models provide a framework for simulating natural and anthropogenic effects on thermal regimes which is integral for sustainable management of freshwater systems.

  11. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  12. Chapter 5. Morphology: Pronouns

    OpenAIRE

    Nesset, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever wondered whether the so-called reflexive postfix ‑ся is related to the reflexive pronoun себя? Do you know the etymology of сейчас and сегодня? And do you know where the н in the pronoun comes from in prepositional phrases like к нему ‘to him’? Answers to these and many other questions are offered in this chapter, which explores the declension of personal pronouns (sections 5.1 and 5.2), demonstrative pronouns (section 5.3), possessive pronouns (section 5.4), вьсь ‘all’ (section...

  13. Chapter 7: Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca; Coleman, Andre; Wigmosta, Mark; Schoenung, Susan; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Langholtz, Matthew; Davis, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    This chapter of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report provides an estimate of biomass potential at given minimum selling prices. This is not a projection of actual measured biomass or a simulation of commercial projects. Biomass potential is estimated based on 30 years of hourly local climate and strain-specific biophysical characteristics using the Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT), assuming sufficient available nutrients (including CO2). As is the case for terrestrial feedstocks, important resource analysis questions for algae include not only how much of the crop may be available but also what price might be needed to procure that supply. Identifying resource co-location opportunities for algal biofuel facilities has the potential to reduce costs, utilize waste resources, and focus attention on appropriate technologies and locations for commercialization.

  14. El oficio de los neveros en Gran Canaria en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Miranda Calderin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A finales del s. XVII el Cabildo Catedral de Canarias, con sede en la capital de Gran Canaria, construyó en la cumbre de la Isla dos pozos de nieve. Allí la recogían y conservaban hasta que era transportada en verano a la ciudad. Las libras de nieve se vendieron en la «nevería» ubicada en la trasera de la Catedral desde 1694 hasta 1866. En este artículo estudiamos el oficio de nevero en Gran Canaria, que había sido olvidado por completo, sus salarios, alimentación y especialidades en el s. XVIII.At the end of XVIIIth century the Canary Cathedral Chapter, settled in Gran Canaria Island capital, built, up in the mountains, two snow wells. Workers collected the snow and filled the wells until it was transported, in summer time, from the top of the island (1.949 meters to the city. Snow pounds were sold in the back of the Cathedral from 1694 to 1866. In this article we study the «neveros» job (snow workers in Gran Canaria, that it had been completely forgotten nowdays, their salaries, food and specialities in XVIIIth century.

  15. Operations Research – Tools & Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2017-01-01

    Chapter 1 : Introduction to Operations Research   Chapter 2 : Linear Programming (LP)   Chapter  3 : Graphical Method in LP   Chapter  4 :  Simplex Method in LP   Chapter  5 :  Transportation Problems   Chapter  6 :  Assignment Problems   Chapter  7 :  Network Scheduling   Chapter  8 :  Game Theory   Chapter  9 :  Queuing Theory   Chapter  10 :  Markov Analysis   Chapter  11 :  Simulation Techniques   Chap...

  16. Synthesis: Chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Geiser, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Driscoll, C.T.; Goodale, C.L.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, J. S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition (Galloway et al. 2003). Because of past, and, in some regions, continuing increases in emissions (Lehmann et al. 2005, Nilles and Conley 2001), this N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations and damage in many ecosystems across the United States. In some ecoregions, the impact of N deposition has been severe and has changed the biotic community structure and composition of ecosystems. In the Mediterranean California ecoregion, for example (see Chapter 13), replacement of native by exotic invasive vegetation is accelerated because exotic species are often more productive under elevated N deposition than native species in some California grasslands, coastal sage scrub, and desert scrub (Fenn et al. 2010, Rao and Allen 2010, Rao et al. 2010, Weiss 1999, Yoshida and Allen 2004). Such shifts in plant community composition and species richness can have consequences beyond changes in ecosystem structure: shifts may lead to overall losses in biodiversity and further impair particular threatened or endangered species (Stevens et al. 2004). Th e extirpation of the endangered checkerspot butterfl y (Euphydryas editha bayensis), because the host plant for the larval stage disappears in N-enriched ecosystems (Fenn et al. 2010, Weiss 1999), is just one example of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition.

  17. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  18. ASPECTOS DE LA VIDA Y SOCIEDAD NOVOHISPANA DEL SIGLO XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Quirós Vicente

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se habla acerca de diversos aspectos de la vida y sociedad en la Nueva España. Se tratan concretamente dos temas que sirven de reflejo de esta la sociedad colonial de principios del siglo XVIII; en primer lugar el de la relación las colonias españolas de ultramar con la corona española, en la época de la Guerra de la Sucesión, y en segundo el de la esclavitud que se desarrolla en este mismo periodo, con el negocio conocido como Paso Medio, con africanos mayormente provenient...

  19. Datos de plateros vallisoletanos de finales del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Parrado del Olmo, Jesús María

    2006-01-01

    En el panorama decadente de la platería vallisoletana del último tercio del siglo XVIII, se advierte que la Congregación de San Eloy, la cofradía gremial, sigue defendiendo los intereses de los orfebres vallisoletanos frente a los intrusos, amparándose en las ordenanzas reales de 1771. Hay también en estos momentos otras querellas de interés sociológico. By the third quarter of the 18th Century the art of the silversmiths in Valladolid was already on the wane, but we can see that the guild...

  20. Chapter 59: Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M. J.

    Web services are a cornerstone of the distributed computing infrastructure that the VO is built upon yet to the newcomer, they can appear to be a black art. This perception is not helped by the miasma of technobabble that pervades the subject and the seemingly impenetrable high priesthood of actual users. In truth, however, there is nothing conceptually difficult about web services (unsurprisingly any complexities will lie in the implementation details) nor indeed anything particularly new. A web service is a piece of software available over a network with a formal description of how it is called and what it returns that a computer can understand. Note that entities such as web servers, ftp servers and database servers do not generally qualify as they lack the standardized description of their inputs and outputs. There are prior technologies, such as RMI, CORBA, and DCOM, that have employed a similar approach but the success of web services lies predominantly in its use of standardized XML to provide a language-neutral way for representing data. In fact, the standardization goes further as web services are traditionally (or as traditionally as five years will allow) tied to a specific set of technologies (WSDL and SOAP conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization). Alternative implementations are becoming increasingly common and we will cover some of these here. One important thing to remember in all of this, though, is that web services are meant for use by computers and not humans (unlike web pages) and this is why so much of it seems incomprehensible gobbledegook. In this chapter, we will start with an overview of the web services current in the VO and present a short guide on how to use and deploy a web service. We will then review the different approaches to web services, particularly REST and SOAP, and alternatives to XML as a data format. We will consider how web services can be formally described and discuss how advanced features such as security, state

  1. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  2. State Chapter 1 Participation and Achievement Information--1992-93. Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Beth; Gutmann, Babette

    This report summarizes the 1992-93 State Performance Reports for the Chapter 1 Local Education Agency (LEA) program and the Chapter 1 State Agency Neglected or Delinquent Program. The Neglected or Delinquent Program serves youth in state-operated correctional facilities and in facilities for neglected youth. Chapter 1 participation has steadily…

  3. El Quijote en un biombo novohispano del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARNULFO HERRERA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo una revisión historiográfica sobre algunas de las resonancias de El Quijote en la vida cultural de la Nueva España. El análisis se centró en el examen de un biombo del siglo XVIII de autor desconocido en donde se plasmaron algunas de las escenas más importantes de la obra cervantina. Asimismo se plantearon dos hipótesis: primera, que tanto el estilo como el tópico del objeto se habrían convertido en una constante para este tipo de artículos suntuarios que proliferaron en las casas de los novohispanos pudientes, y segunda, que habría existido otro biombo novohispano con motivos iconográficos de la más famosa novela de Cervantes.

  4. Metrology of Large Parts. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    As discussed in the first chapter of this book, there are many different methods to measure a part using optical technology. Chapter 2 discussed the use of machine vision to measure macroscopic features such as length and position, which was extended to the use of interferometry as a linear measurement tool in chapter 3, and laser or other trackers to find the relation of key points on large parts in chapter 4. This chapter looks at measuring large parts to optical tolerances in the sub-micron range using interferometry, ranging, and optical tools discussed in the previous chapters. The purpose of this chapter is not to discuss specific metrology tools (such as interferometers or gauges), but to describe a systems engineering approach to testing large parts. Issues such as material warpage and temperature drifts that may be insignificant when measuring a part to micron levels under a microscope, as will be discussed in later chapters, can prove to be very important when making the same measurement over a larger part. In this chapter, we will define a set of guiding principles for successfully overcoming these challenges and illustrate the application of these principles with real world examples. While these examples are drawn from specific large optical testing applications, they inform the problems associated with testing any large part to optical tolerances. Manufacturing today relies on micrometer level part performance. Fields such as energy and transportation are demanding higher tolerances to provide increased efficiencies and fuel savings. By looking at how the optics industry approaches sub-micrometer metrology, one can gain a better understanding of the metrology challenges for any larger part specified to micrometer tolerances. Testing large parts, whether optical components or precision structures, to optical tolerances is just like testing small parts, only harder. Identical with what one does for small parts, a metrologist tests large parts and optics

  5. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Daryl R.

    2016-04-15

    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  6. ASPECTOS DE LA VIDA Y SOCIEDAD NOVOHISPANA DEL SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Quirós Vicente

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se habla acerca de diversos aspectos de la vida y sociedad en la Nueva España. Se tratan concretamente dos temas que sirven de reflejo de esta la sociedad colonial de principios del siglo XVIII; en primer lugar el de la relación las colonias españolas de ultramar con la corona española, en la época de la Guerra de la Sucesión, y en segundo el de la esclavitud que se desarrolla en este mismo periodo, con el negocio conocido como Paso Medio, con africanos mayormente provenientes de Angola y La Guinea. El ámbito geográfico se acota a la localidad de San Luís Potosí, en México. Y su desarrollo se basa en dos documentos encontrados en el Archivo Histórico Municipal del San Luís Potosí, en su sección de Alcaldía Mayor.

  7. O Governo dos Sentimentos Morais no Século XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pereira Andrade

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente artigo realiza uma história da noção de sentimentos morais na governamentalidade britânica do século XVIII e de sua estratégia de poder “emocional”, a qual difere de outras concepções gerais de vida “emocional”, como a de paixões do século XVII. Partindo do construcionismo social das emoções, busca-se compreender como os discursos e as técnicas de poder moldam a maneira de sentir. Com este fim, são explicadas suas fontes causadoras (senso moral, simpatia e sociedade, como se relacionam com as demais faculdades da mente (julgamentos morais, razão, imaginação e memória, com o corpo (sensorial de dor e prazer e como determinam as condutas. Após este percurso, argumenta-se que o discurso dos sentimentos morais constituiu um poder emocional caracterizado por determinados objetos (julgamentos morais, técnicas (simpatia, arte de agradar feminina e mitologização da comunidade nacional, finalidades (desenvolvimento da personalidade atrelado à integração grupal e regras emocionais (prescrição do amor benevolente e moderação do amor de si e expressivas (manifestações de solidariedade.

  8. 77 FR 10740 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XVIII, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC, FFP Project 95... Friends Fund XVIII for Project No. 14261-000, Upper Hydroelectric, LLC for Project No. 14268-000,...

  9. Universal Sensor and Actuator Requirements. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Taylor; Webster, John; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The previous chapters have focused on the requirements for sensors and actuators for "More Intelligent Gas Turbine Engines" from the perspective of performance and operating environment. Even if a technology is available, which meets these performance requirements, there are still various hurdles to be overcome for the technology to transition into a real engine. Such requirements relate to TRL (Technology Readiness Level), durability, reliability, volume, weight, cost, etc. This chapter provides an overview of such universal requirements which any sensor or actuator technology will have to meet before it can be implemented on a product. The objective here is to help educate the researchers or technology developers on the extensive process that the technology has to go through beyond just meeting performance requirements. The hope is that such knowledge will help the technology developers as well as decision makers to prevent wasteful investment in developing solutions to performance requirements, which have no potential to meet the "universal" requirements. These "universal" requirements can be divided into 2 broad areas: 1) Technology value proposition; and 2) Technology maturation. These requirements are briefly discussed in the following.

  10. Los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII de la literatura en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pachón Padilla

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available La literatura de hispanoamérica en la colonia, desde la fundación de sus primeras ciudades hasta un poco más de la mitad del siglo XVIII, poseía, indiscutiblemente, todas las características de la literatura peninsular.

  11. Role of Svyatogorsk Monastery in Economical Development of Podontsov’e in XVI–XVIII Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Shkribitko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the development of Svyatogorsk Monastery in XVI–XVIII centuries. The author describes monk’s structure and types of economical activities, monastery property location and management and monastery impact on Donetsk Region economy formation and development.

  12. Beyond Chapter 4.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Lilon Gretl

    2015-12-01

    Chapter 4.7 of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research refers specifically to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. It lays out the points at which researchers working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders must consider their approach, and the engagement with individuals, communities or groups who are involved in or affected by their research. History, of Australia and of research involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, has informed this approach. The response to that history has been a rational, institutionalised, systematic demand for a different perception of what should direct research and research processes to ensure engagement with and service to the community with whom the researchers wish to do the work. This paper considers whether these principles could inform the approach to other research work.

  13. Background and introduction: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2010-01-01

    efforts.In addition to the legislative context described above, this chapter describes the geographic and environmental contexts surrounding the Act, including key terminology used in subsequent chapters of this report. Subsequent chapters synthesize the state-of-the-science on the following topics: distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar and Russian olive in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with control of saltcedar and Russian olive and associated restoration, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following control, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control. A concluding chapter includes discussion of possible long-term management strategies, areas for additional study, potentially useful field demonstrations, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  14. El isomorfismo de las bibliotecas jesuitas (siglos XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli de Tezanos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Para alcanzar nuestro objetivo, que es mostrar el isomorfismo de las bibliotecas jesuitas, se llevó a cabo el desciframiento y la transcripción, por primera vez, de los inventarios de las bibliotecas jesuitas de los colegios de Santiago, Concepción y Castro, que se encuentran en las temporalidades jesuitas en el Archivo Nacional de Chile. Para comprender la estructura y el desarrollo de las bibliotecas de la Compañía de Jesús, se da cuenta del significado de algunos conceptos claves (scriptor-auctor/inventario-catálogo, incluyendo aspectos de la historia de las formas de catalogación elaboradas por la Orden. Se presenta la cartografía de las bibliotecas que podían encontrarse en general en los diversos colegios y casas jesuitas, su organización y el papel del bibliotecario en relación con el acceso a los libros. Se recurre a la noción de isomorfismo que en matemáticas implica una relación de similitud entre dos objetos y que en teoría de grupos, permite deducir varias propiedades de un grupo a partir de otro. Esta noción la empleamos como herramienta para mostrar a través de la comparación entre los autores repertoriados en los inventarios y catálogos de las bibliotecas de los ocho colegios jesuitas, realizados en el siglo XVIII, que ellos comparten casi 300 autores en diversas disciplinas. Este isomorfismo de las bibliotecas jesuitas es la expresión de una experiencia común, de una tradición compartida y transmisible, y finalmente, lo convierte en un elemento constitutivo de la memoria colectiva de la O

  15. Tolerancia, verdad y libertad de conciencia en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello, Eduardo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century defense of tolerance rests upon two lines of argument; lines that we can observe in thinkers such as Montesquieu and Rousseau, Diderot, Romilly and Voltaire. The first deconstructs the concept of absolute truth as it applies not only to the (orthodox doctrine itself, as revealed by God, but also to the Catholic Church insofar as it is taken to be the only institution where truth resides uniquely. The second line of argument would run as follows: Once we acknowledge the rights of consciousness to every single religion, how can we possibly avoid a circular justification of intolerance? Romilly and Voltaire defend, without renouncing to the rights of consciousness (which are the base of individual liberties, the Lockean thesis of the separation Church-State. However, they assign to the State the ius circa sacra. It is only upon this foundation that the idea and the practice of tolerance, both religiously as well as universally and multiculturally speaking, can be constructed.

    La defensa de la tolerancia, en el siglo XVIII, se apoya en dos líneas de argumentación, que observamos en pensadores como Montesquieu y Rousseau, Diderot, Romilly y Voltaire. Una es la que deconstruye el concepto de verdad absoluta aplicado tanto a la doctrina (ortodoxa, por ello revelada por Dios como a la institución considerada única depositaria de tal verdad, la Iglesia católica, única «verdadera». Otra sigue este argumento: si se reconocen los derechos de la conciencia a toda confesión religiosa, ¿acaso podría evitarse una justificación circular de la intolerancia? Sin renunciar a los derechos de la conciencia, base de las libertades individuales, Romilly y Voltaire sostienen la separación Iglesia-Estado, como lo hiciera Locke, asignando a éste el ius circa sacra. Sólo sobre esta base se logra fundamentar la idea y la práctica de la tolerancia no sólo religiosa, sino también universal o multicultural.

  16. A Summary of State Chapter 1 Participation and Achievement Information--1989-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Beth; Gutmann, Babette

    This report summarizes the 1989-90 State Performance Reports for the Chapter 1 Basic Grants to Local Educational Agencies (LEAs) and the Chapter 1 State Agency Neglected or Delinquent Program. The Neglected or Delinquent Program served youths in state-operated adult and juvenile correctional facilities and facilities for neglected children. The…

  17. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or

  18. Chapter 12: Human microbiome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xochitl C Morgan

    Full Text Available Humans are essentially sterile during gestation, but during and after birth, every body surface, including the skin, mouth, and gut, becomes host to an enormous variety of microbes, bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and viral. Under normal circumstances, these microbes help us to digest our food and to maintain our immune systems, but dysfunction of the human microbiota has been linked to conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to antibiotic-resistant infections. Modern high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic tools provide a powerful means of understanding the contribution of the human microbiome to health and its potential as a target for therapeutic interventions. This chapter will first discuss the historical origins of microbiome studies and methods for determining the ecological diversity of a microbial community. Next, it will introduce shotgun sequencing technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the computational challenges and methods associated with these data, and how they enable microbiome analysis. Finally, it will conclude with examples of the functional genomics of the human microbiome and its influences upon health and disease.

  19. Sediment transport measurements: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplas, P.; Kuhnle, R.; Gray, J.; Glysson, D.; Edwards, T.; García, Marcelo H.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment erosion, transport, and deposition in fluvial systems are complex processes that are treated in detail in other sections of this book. Development of methods suitable for the collection of data that contribute to understanding these processes is a still-evolving science. Sediment and ancillary data are fundamental requirements for the proper management of river systems, including the design of structures, the determination of aspects of stream behavior, ascertaining the probable effect of removing an existing structure, estimation of bulk erosion, transport, and sediment delivery to the oceans, ascertaining the long-term usefulness of reservoirs and other public works, tracking movement of solid-phase contaminants, restoration of degraded or otherwise modified streams, and assistance in the calibration and validation of numerical models. This chapter presents techniques for measuring bed-material properties and suspended and bed-load discharges. Well-established and relatively recent, yet adequately tested, sampling equipment and methodologies, with designs that are guided by sound physical and statistical principles, are described. Where appropriate, the theory behind the development of the equipment and guidelines for its use are presented.

  20. The effects of Missouri River mainstem reservoir system operations on 2011 flooding using a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model: Chapter K in 2011 Floods of the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj, Adel E.; Christiansen, Daniel E.; Viger, Roland J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 the Missouri River Mainstem Reservoir System (Reservoir System) experienced the largest volume of flood waters since the initiation of record-keeping in the nineteenth century. The high levels of runoff from both snowpack and rainfall stressed the Reservoir System’s capacity to control flood waters and caused massive damage and disruption along the river. The flooding and resulting damage along the Missouri River brought increased public attention to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operation of the Reservoir System. To help understand the effects of Reservoir System operation on the 2011 Missouri River flood flows, the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was used to construct a model of the Missouri River Basin to simulate flows at streamgages and dam locations with the effects of Reservoir System operation (regulation) on flow removed. Statistical tests indicate that the Missouri River Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model is a good fit for high-flow monthly and annual stream flow estimation. A comparison of simulated unregulated flows and measured regulated flows show that regulation greatly reduced spring peak flow events, consolidated two summer peak flow events to one with a markedly decreased magnitude, and maintained higher than normal base flow beyond the end of water year 2011. Further comparison of results indicate that without regulation, flows greater than those measured would have occurred and been sustained for much longer, frequently in excess of 30 days, and flooding associated with high-flow events would have been more severe.

  1. Volcanism on Mars. Chapter 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Crown, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft exploration has revealed abundant evidence that Mars possesses some of the most dramatic volcanic landforms found anywhere within the solar system. How did a planet half the size of Earth produce volcanoes like Olympus Mons, which is several times the size of the largest volcanoes on Earth? This question is an example of the kinds of issues currently being investigated as part of the space-age scientific endeavor called "comparative planetology." This chapter summarizes the basic information currently known about volcanism on Mars. The volcanoes on Mars appear to be broadly similar in overall morphology (although, often quite different in scale) to volcanic features on Earth, which suggests that Martian eruptive processes are not significantly different from the volcanic styles and processes on Earth. Martian volcanoes are found on terrains of different age, and Martian volcanic rocks are estimated to comprise more than 50% of the Martian surface. This is in contrast to volcanism on smaller bodies such as Earth's Moon, where volcanic activity was mainly confined to the first half of lunar history (see "Volcanism on the Moon"). Comparative planetology supports the concept that volcanism is the primary mechanism for a planetary body to get rid of its internal heat; smaller bodies tend to lose their internal heat more rapidly than larger bodies (although, Jupiter's moon Io appears to contradict this trend; Io's intense volcanic activity is powered by unique gravitational tidal forces within the Jovian system; see "Volcanism on Io"), so that volcanic activity on Mars would be expected to differ considerably from that found on Earth and the Moon.

  2. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  3. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  4. Chapter 6: CPV Tracking and Trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Magalhaes, Pedro; Muller, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This chapter explains the functional requirements of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) sun tracker. It derives the design specifications of a CPV tracker. The chapter presents taxonomy of trackers describing the most common tracking architectures, based on the number of axes, their relative position, and the foundation and placing of tracking drives. It deals with the structural issues related to tracker design, mainly related to structural flexure and its impact on the system's acceptance angle. The chapter analyzes the auto-calibrated sun tracking control, by describing the state of the art and its development background. It explores the sun tracking accuracy measurement with a practical example. The chapter discusses tracker manufacturing and tracker field works. It reviews survey of different types of tracker designs obtained from different manufacturers. Finally, the chapter deals with IEC62817, the technical standard developed for CPV sun trackers.

  5. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  6. Assessment of canyon wall failure process from multibeam bathymetry and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) observations, U.S. Atlantic continental margin: Chapter 10 in Submarine mass movements and their consequences: 7th international symposium part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, Jason D.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Ten Brink, Uri; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Quattrini, Andrea M.; Brothers, Daniel S.; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Mountjoy, Joshu; Bull, Suzanne; Hubble, Tom; Krastel, Sebastian; Lane, Emily; Micallef, Aaron; Moscardelli, Lorena; Mueller, Christof; Pecher, Ingo; Woelz, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, canyons along the northern U.S. Atlantic continental margin have been the focus of intensive research examining canyon evolution, submarine geohazards, benthic ecology and deep-sea coral habitat. New high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in the major shelf-breaching and minor slope canyons, provided the opportunity to investigate the size of, and processes responsible for, canyon wall failures. The canyons cut through thick Late Cretaceous to Recent mixed siliciclastic and carbonate-rich lithologies which impart a primary control on the style of failures observed. Broad-scale canyon morphology across much of the margin can be correlated to the exposed lithology. Near vertical walls, sedimented benches, talus slopes, and canyon floor debris aprons were present in most canyons. The extent of these features depends on canyon wall cohesion and level of internal fracturing, and resistance to biological and chemical erosion. Evidence of brittle failure over different spatial and temporal scales, physical abrasion by downslope moving flows, and bioerosion, in the form of burrows and surficial scrape marks provide insight into the modification processes active in these canyons. The presence of sessile fauna, including long-lived, slow growing corals and sponges, on canyon walls, especially those affected by failure provide a critical, but as yet, poorly understood chronological record of geologic processes within these systems.

  7. Documentos para la historio social de Popayán en el Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marzalh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  Documentos para la Historia Social de Papayán en el siglo XVIII. Varios/ Archivo Central del Central del Cauca. Fondo: Protocolos Notariales. Años 1616, 1620, 1621, 1629, 1634. Transcripción de Peter Marzahl// En: Anuario No. 5 (1970; p. 143-188. Serie de documentos, testamentos, contratos, etc., en donde se dan datos importantes para reconstruir aspectos de la economía y sociedad del Cauca del siglo XVIII, tales como: número de vecinos, encomenderos, mano de obra indígena y esclava; importancia de la minería como motor económico de la región; relaciones entre encomienda y control de mano de obra; el desarrollo de una economía mercantil con surgimiento de compañías para tal actividad.  

  8. Chapter 13. Exploring Use of the Reserved Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Humphrey, Alan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Berzins, Martin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing

    2015-07-29

    In this chapter, we illustrate benefits of thinking in terms of thread management techniques when using a centralized scheduler model along with interoperability of MPI and PThread. This is facilitated through an exploration of thread placement strategies for an algorithm modeling radiative heat transfer with special attention to the 61st core. This algorithm plays a key role within the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) and current efforts taking place at the University of Utah to model next-generation, large-scale clean coal boilers. In such simulations, this algorithm models the dominant form of heat transfer and consumes a large portion of compute time. Exemplified by a real-world example, this chapter presents our early efforts in porting a key portion of a scalability-centric codebase to the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Specifically, this chapter presents results from our experiments profiling the native execution of a reverse Monte-Carlo ray tracing-based radiation model on a single coprocessor. These results demonstrate that our fastest run configurations utilized the 61st core and that performance was not profoundly impacted when explicitly oversubscribing the coprocessor operating system thread. Additionally, this chapter presents a portion of radiation model source code, a MIC-centric UCF cross-compilation example, and less conventional thread management technique for developers utilizing the PThreads threading model.

  9. Un conflicto matrimonial en el siglo XVIII: Henri de Vaucocour y Marie Boutinaud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Minvielle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El matrimonio en 1741 de dos miembros de la baja nobleza del suroeste de Francia, Henri de Vaucocour y Marie Boutinaud, desembocó, a partir de 1751, en un proceso judicial de separación. Los fondos documentales conservados sirven para analizar un conflicto matrimonial, las relaciones entre esposos, y las múltiples facetas de la violencia doméstica en la Francia del siglo XVIII

  10. Collagen XVIII/endostatin expression in experimental endotoxemic acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Cichy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a frequent complication of Gram-negative sepsis, with a high risk of mortality. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ARF is associated with hemodynamic changes that are strongly influenced by the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO through the cytokine-mediated up-regulation of inducible NO synthase. LPS-induced reductions in systemic vascular resistance paradoxically culminate in renal vasoconstriction. Collagen XVIII is an important component of the extracellular matrix expressed in basement membranes. Its degradation by matrix metalloproteases, cathepsins and elastases results in the formation of endostatin, claimed to have antiangiogenic activity and to be a prominent vasorelaxing agent. We evaluated the expression of endostatin/collagen XVIII in an endotoxemic ARF model. ARF was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 mg/kg followed by sacrifice 4 and 12 h later. Kidney tissue was the source of RNA and protein and the subject of histological analysis. As early as 4 h after LPS administration, blood urea, creatinine and NO levels were significantly increased compared to control. Endostatin/collagen XVIII mRNA levels were 0.71 times lower than sham-inoculated mice 4 h after LPS inoculation, returning to normal levels 12 h after LPS inoculation. Immunohistological examination revealed that acute injury caused by LPS leads to an increase of endostatin basement membrane staining in association with the decrease of CD31 endothelial basement membrane staining. These results indicate that in the early phase of endotoxemic ARF the endostatin levels were not regulated by gene expression, but by the metabolism of collagen XVIII.

  11. Increased angiogenic response in aortic explants of collagen XVIII/endostatin-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2004-08-01

    Endostatin, a proteolytic fragment of basement membrane-associated collagen XVIII, has been shown to be a potent angiogenesis inhibitor both in vivo and in vitro when given at high concentrations. The precise molecular mechanisms by which it functions and whether or not it plays a role in physiological regulation of angiogenesis are not clear. In mice with targeted null alleles of Col18a1, there appears to be no major abnormality in vascular patterns or capillary density in most organs. Furthermore, the growth of experimental tumors is not increased. However, a detailed analysis of induced angiogenesis in these mice has not been performed. Therefore, we compared the angiogenic responses induced by in vitro culture of aortic explants from collagen XVIII/endostatin-null mice (ko) to wild-type (wt) littermates. We found a twofold increase in microvessel outgrowth in explants from ko mice, relative to wt explants. This increased angiogenesis was reduced to the wt level by the addition of low levels (0.1 microg/ml) of recombinant mouse or human endostatin during the culture period. To address cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying this difference in angiogenic response between ko and wt mice, we isolated endothelial cells from both strains and compared their biological behavior. Proliferation assays showed no difference between the two types of endothelial cells. In contrast, adhesion assays showed a striking difference in their ability to adhere to fibronectin suggesting that collagen XVIII/endostatin may regulate interactions between endothelial cells and underlying basement membrane-associated components, including fibronectin, such that in the absence of collagen XVIII/endostatin, endothelial cells are more adhesive to fibronectin. In the aortic explant assay, characterized by dynamic processes of microvessel elongation and regression, this may result in stabilization of newly formed vessels, reduced regression, and a net increase in microvessel outgrowth in

  12. Star formation history of And XVIII: a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in isolation

    CERN Document Server

    Makarova, L N; Karachentsev, I D; Tully, R B; Rizzi, L

    2016-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the Andromeda XVIII dwarf spheroidal galaxy associated with M31, and situated well outside of the virial radius of the M31 halo. The galaxy was resolved into stars with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys revealing the old red giant branch and red clump. With the new observational data we determined the Andromeda XVIII distance to be D = 1.33+-0.08 Mpc using the tip of red giant branch method. Thus, the dwarf is situated at the distance of 579 kpc from M31. We model the star formation history of Andromeda XVIII from the stellar photometry and Padova theoretical stellar isochrones. An ancient burst of star formation occurred 12-14 Gyr ago. There is no sign of recent/ongoing star formation in the last 1.5 Gyr. The mass fractions of the ancient and intermediate age stars are 34 and 66 per cent, respectively, and the total stellar mass is 4.2x10^6 Msun. It is probable that the galaxy has not experienced an interaction with M31 in the past. We also discuss star form...

  13. La Librería de Juan Polo en Murcia a mediados del siglo XVIII Juan Polo's library in Murcia in the middle of the XVIII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo García Cuadrado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A través del análisis del inventario de los bienes dejados a su muerte por el librero Juan Polo, junto a la utilización de otras fuentes archivísticas, se retrata el perfil vital y las actividades desarrolladas por este profesional del libro en la Murcia de mediados del siglo XVIII. La trascripción e identificación de los libros y otros impresos menores reseñados en el inventario y, sobre todo, la cuantía de ejemplares por título ha permitido abordar el tipo de clientela de la librería y la aceptación o el éxito de determinados productos editoriales, siempre en consonancia con unas necesidades prácticas, formativas o recreativas y con unos hábitos lectores fácilmente reconocibles.The profile and activities carried out by the bookseller Juan Polo during the XVIII century are analyzed through the inventory of assets and other archival sources which remained after his death. The identification and transcription of books and other minor works recorded in the inventory, and above all the quantity of existing copies of each title, allow us to also depict the profile of regular clients, and to assess the degree of success attained by certain publishing products. Practical, recreational or educational needs were also kept in mind in order to acknowledge easily recognizable reader's habits.

  14. Chapter 16: Retrocommissioning Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Retrocommissioning (RCx) is a systematic process for optimizing energy performance in existing buildings. It specifically focuses on improving the control of energy-using equipment (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment and lighting) and typically does not involve equipment replacement. Field results have shown proper RCx can achieve energy savings ranging from 5% to 20%, with a typical payback of 2 years or less. A study conducted on behalf of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory analyzed data from 11 utilities operating RCx programs across the United States. The dataset included 122 RCx projects and more than 950 RCx measures.

  15. Chapter 17. Engineering cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbee, Charles V.

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1970s, life cycle costing (LCC) was adopted by the federal government. LCC is a method of evaluating all the costs associated with acquisition, construction and operation of a project. LCC was designed to minimize costs of major projects, not only in consideration of acquisition and construction, but especially to emphasize the reduction of operation and maintenance costs during the project life. Authors of engineering economics texts have been very reluctant and painfully slow to explain and deal with LCC. Many authors devote less than one page to the subject. The reason for this is that LCC has several major drawbacks. The first of these is that costs over the life of the project must be estimated based on some forecast, and forecasts have proven to be highly variable and frequently inaccurate. The second problem with LCC is that some life span must be selected over which to evaluate the project, and many projects, especially renewable energy projects, are expected to have an unlimited life (they are expected to live for ever). The longer the life cycle, the more inaccurate annual costs become because of the inability to forecast accurately.

  16. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  17. How to write a medical book chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-09-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills.

  18. Structured decision making: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Cain, James W. III

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.

  19. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  20. Star formation history of And XVIII: a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Tully, R. B.; Rizzi, L.

    2016-10-01

    We present a photometric study of the Andromeda XVIII dwarf spheroidal galaxy associated with M31, and situated well outside of the virial radius of the M31 halo. The galaxy was resolved into stars with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys revealing the old red giant branch and red clump. With the new observational data we determined the Andromeda XVIII distance to be D = 1.33_{-0.09}^{+0.06} Mpc using the tip of red giant branch method. Thus, the dwarf is situated at the distance of 579 kpc from M31. We model the star formation history of Andromeda XVIII from the stellar photometry and Padova theoretical stellar isochrones. An ancient burst of star formation occurred 12-14 Gyr ago. There is no sign of recent/ongoing star formation in the last 1.5 Gyr. The mass fractions of the ancient and intermediate age stars are 34 and 66 per cent, respectively, and the total stellar mass is 4.2 × 106 M⊙. It is probable that the galaxy has not experienced an interaction with M31 in the past. We also discuss star formation processes of dSphs KKR 25, KKs 03, as well as dTr KK 258. Their star formation histories were uniformly measured by us from HST/ACS observations. All the galaxies are situated well beyond the Local Group and the two dSphs KKR 25 and KKs 03 are extremely isolated. Evidently, the evolution of these objects has proceeded without influence of neighbours.

  1. Star formation history of And XVIII: a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Tully, R. B.; Rizzi, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the Andromeda XVIII dwarf spheroidal galaxy associated with M31, and situated well outside of the virial radius of the M31 halo. The galaxy was resolved into stars with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) revealing the old red giant branch and red clump. With the new observational data, we determined the Andromeda XVIII distance to be D = 1.33_{-0.09}^{+0.06} Mpc using the tip of red giant branch method. Thus, the dwarf is situated at the distance of 579 kpc from M31. We model the star formation history of Andromeda XVIII from the stellar photometry and Padova theoretical stellar isochrones. An ancient burst of star formation occurred 12-14 Gyr ago. There is no sign of recent/ongoing star formation in the last 1.5 Gyr. The mass fractions of the ancient and intermediate age stars are 34 and 66 per cent, respectively, and the total stellar mass is 4.2 × 106 M⊙. It is probable that the galaxy has not experienced an interaction with M31 in the past. We also discuss star formation processes of dSphs KKR 25, KKs 03, as well as dTr KK 258. Their star formation histories were uniformly measured by us from HST/ACS observations. All the galaxies are situated well beyond the Local Group, and the two dSphs KKR 25 and KKs 03 are extremely isolated. Evidently, the evolution of these objects has proceeded without influence of neighbours.

  2. La consulta médica. Una práctica de la medicina en el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    León, Pilar

    2002-01-01

    Pretendemos realizar una tipología de la práctica de las consultas, centrándonos en las presenciales. Observamos que la consulta médica del siglo XVIII no difiere de la ya practicada en siglos precedentes. La consulta médica, con una etiqueta bien definida, fue un instrumento para jerarquizar a quienes a ella concurrían. Refleja bien la inestabilidad que preside el dieciocho español desde el punto de vista profesional. Las fuentes utilizadas son los relatos de médicos del siglo XVIII español ...

  3. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  4. Chapter 10: CPV Multijunction Solar Cell Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, Carl R.; Siefer, Gerald

    2016-04-15

    Characterization of solar cells can be divided into two types: the first is measurement of electrooptical semiconductor device parameters, and the second is determination of electrical conversion efficiency. This chapter reviews the multijunction concepts that are necessary for understanding Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cell characterization techniques, and describes how CPV efficiency is defined and used. For any I-V measurement of a multijunction cell, the sun simulator spectrum has to be adjusted in a way that all junctions generate the same photocurrent ratios with respect to each other as under reference conditions. The chapter discusses several procedures for spectral irradiance adjustments of solar simulators, essential for multijunction measurements. It overviews the light sources and optics commonly used in simulators for CPV cells under concentration. Finally, the chapter talks about the cell area, quantum efficiency (QE), and current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements that are needed to characterize cells as a function of irradiance.

  5. The discovery of the political economy of New Granada at the of the XVIII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the biography and thinking of Camilo Torres, who belonged to one of the impoverished aristocratic families of Popayan at the end of the XVIII century, this article studies the way, in which the enlightened inhabitants of New Granada, mostly clerics and engineers, army officers and merchants - were worried about the economy mainly motivated by the rhetoric of the Illustration and botanical studies. Many undertook the founding of companies that had poor commercial success, even though their main objective, was to methodically take advantage of the natural resources. That they believed to be unlimited to generate export agricultural products.

  6. Bosquejo del comercio canario con América a finales del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Santana Pérez

    2007-01-01

    A fines del siglo XVIII existía un contacto regular entre las Islas Canarias y América. No obstante, esta relación no era nueva y había existido desde el siglo XV. Las Islas tuvieron estrechos lazos, sobre todo con Latinoamérica, pero también establecieron nexos con Norteamérica. La Habana era la que encabezaba este comercio, aunque Caracas, Puerto Rico, Buenos Aires y los puertos de la costa este de Estados Unidos también mantuvieron un intenso intercambio, por ejemplo con Filadelfia. Los ba...

  7. El mercado interno colonial novohispano. Siglos XVIII-XIX. Evidencias y resultados

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Silva Riquer

    2010-01-01

    El interés de este trabajo radica en realizar una reflexión sobre los aportes y carencias que tenemos hasta ahora desde los estudios del mercado interno colonial. En ese sentido, es necesario centrar la discusión en los términos teórico-metodológicos indispensables para tener una idea más acabada sobre esos trabajos, que buscan dar una explicación de la economía novohispana a fines del siglo XVIII y principios del XIX. Debemos recuperar las diversas interpretaciones teóricas presentadas por e...

  8. Las falsificaciones granadinas del siglo XVIII. Nacionalismo y arqueología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora, Gloria

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the forgeries of Granada in the eighteenth century, as a case of manipulation of archaeological findings with a political purpose. The context of this case is the Enlightenment reform of historical methodology.

    En el contexto de la reforma de los métodos de investigación histórica en época ilustrada, se estudia en este trabajo el uso de la arqueología con fines políticos y nacionalistas. Para ello nos basamos en el caso de las falsificaciones granadinas de mediados del siglo XVIII.

  9. Chicha, guarapo y presión fiscal en la sociedad colonial del siglo xviii

    OpenAIRE

    Mora de Tovar, Gilma Lucía

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo reúne dos ensayos sobre el aguardiente y la bebidas embriagantes. Se inscribe en el contexto de la aplicación de medidas administrativas y fiscales impulsadas por la Corona Española, en la Península y en América, durante el siglo XVIII. La necesidad de recursos que le permitieran atender tanto las obligaciones propias de la administración de gobierno como las que se derivaban de las acciones bélicas, estimuló la ejecución de una política de libre comercio en el campo econó...

  10. Chicha, guarapo y presión fiscal en la sociedad colonial del Siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Gilma Lucía Mora de Tovar

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo reúne dos ensayos sobre el aguardiente y la bebidas embriagantes. Se inscribe en el contexto de la aplicación de medidas administrativas y fiscales impulsadas por la Corona Española, en la Península y en América, durante el siglo XVIII. La necesidad de recursos que le permitieran atender tanto las obligaciones propias de la administración de gobierno como las que se derivaban de las acciones bélicas, estimuló la ejecución de una política de libre comercio en el campo econó...

  11. Sociabilidad literaria: tertulias y cafés en el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín ÁLVAREZ BARRIENTOS

    2002-01-01

    Aunque Maurice Aguhlon introdujo en los años sesenta el concepto de "sociabilidad" en los estudios históricos desde el campo de la sociología, la palabra, asociada a lo que después se teorizó, existía ya en los diccionarios del siglo XVIII. Así; el Diccionario de Autoridades la define como "el tratamiento y correspondencia de unas personas con otras". y el de Terreros: como "sociedad, trato de unas personas con otras". Y lo mismo se encuentra en diccionarios ingleses. franceses...

  12. IZ MAĐARSKO-HRVATSKIH KNJIŽEVNIH VEZA U XVIII. STOLJEĆU

    OpenAIRE

    Nyomárkay, István

    1999-01-01

    Poslije jednoga pada mađarsko-hrvatskih kulturnih veza (i inih) u XVIII. stoljeću, koncem toga stoljeća počinju se te veze opet obogaćivati, čemu pridonose bosanski franjevci. U radu se govori o djelovanju Jerolima Lipovčića (Hieronymus Lipovchich): njegovo je djelo 'Dušu čuvajuće pohođenje' (Budim 1750) prijevod djela 'Lelket őriző látogatás' Martina Biróa de Padánya (Padányi Biro Márton).

  13. Representaciones del espacio arquitectónico en la narrativa libertina francesa del siglo XVIII.

    OpenAIRE

    Lence Guilabert, Mª Ángeles

    2005-01-01

    RESUMEN Con este título he querido ser lo más explícita posible al referirme al modo en cómo se representa la arquitectura en las novelas y cuentos libertinos del siglo XVIII en Francia, delimitando mi corpus a un periodo que abarca desde 1741 con la publicación de las Confessions du comte de*** de Duclos hasta la publicación de Point de lendemain de Vivant Denon en 1777. En primer lugar, he partido de la narrativa libertina de la época para seleccionar los textos más descriptivos en re...

  14. Arte, legislación y política en Lima: Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Barriga Tello

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto establecer las relaciones entre política,legislación y producción artística durante el siglo XVIII en el Virreynatodel Perú. Se establecen, así, tres momentos diferenciados en los que elEstado mostró su preocupación por el patrimonio artístico y la actividadvinculada al arte. El estudio se centra en la legislación local y en la peninsularque normaron esta actividad y en el papel que los agentes relacionadoscon el arte desempeñaron durante ese siglo.

  15. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  16. Denmark - Chapter in Handbook of Global Bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Faber, Berit A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter about bioethics in Denmark focuses on specific Danish characteristics. These are the early start of a bioethics debate, legislation and bioethics councils; the independence of the councils and the parliamentarians voting on ethical issues; the introduction and extraordinary importance...... of laymen as a part of the bioethical debate and decisions; and the strong focus on debate and educational tools....

  17. Workplace innovation in the Netherlands: chapter 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Dhondt, S.; Korte, E. de; Oeij, P.; Vaas, F.

    2012-01-01

    Social innovation of work and employment is a prerequisite to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labor market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organizational level. This chapter focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  18. Chapter 12: spatial or area repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial repellents a three-dimensional zone of protection around a host from attacks by biting arthropods. This chapter reviews current knowledge and outlines future directions for utilization of spatial repellents. Current knowledge includes the kinds of products, both active and passive devices,...

  19. Transfer of property inter vivos : chapter 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will give an overview of the various transfer systems for movable property and immovable property. It will focus on voluntary transfers based on a legal act between the transferor and transferee. First the difference between the unitary approach and the functional approach to passing of

  20. Structure of Hilbert space operators

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Chunlan

    2006-01-01

    This book exposes the internal structure of non-self-adjoint operators acting on complex separable infinite dimensional Hilbert space, by analyzing and studying the commutant of operators. A unique presentation of the theorem of Cowen-Douglas operators is given. The authors take the strongly irreducible operator as a basic model, and find complete similarity invariants of Cowen-Douglas operators by using K -theory, complex geometry and operator algebra tools. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Background (153 KB). Contents: Jordan Standard Theorem and K 0 -Group; Approximate Jordan Theorem of Opera

  1. Conflictos por el agua en Tepetitlán (Hidalgo, México, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Luis Jiménez Abollado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea una aproximación a las luchas por el control y el acceso al agua entre las élites regionales hispanas y criollas y los pueblos de indios de la jurisdicción de Tula, durante el siglo XVIII. Una lucha que, en definitiva, hundía sus raíces en las nuevas perspectivas económicas regionales, provocadas por el descenso de la actividad ganadera. De esta manera, hacia el siglo XVIII la economía regional volteó la mirada hacia el cultivo de granos, sin dejar de lado la cría de ganado para las matanzas. Dentro de este contexto, las élites regionales, antiguas propietarias de grandes hatos de ganado, invirtieronimportantes capitales en la construcción de una infraestructura hidráulica (zanjas, presas, jagüeyes, encaminada al riego de los cultivos. Sin embargo, eran los pueblos indios quienes desde antaño habían controlado una parte importante de los recursos hídricos disponibles, por lo cual la confrontación fue el resultado inevitable del proceso.

  2. Los incas representados (Lima – siglo XVIII: ¿Supervivencia o renacimiento?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perissat, Karine

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 18th Century the indigenous people of Lima were accorded permission to celebrate the Spanish kings in a segregated group. The criollo elites expected them to represent their old kings in the demostrations, thus taking part in the exaltation of the Peruvian history. The descriptions of the limeño festivities, which show that the costumes of the Incas in the masquerades were highly hibridisized and baroque, allow us to analyse the characteristics of the Inca renaissance in the 18th Century. The costume played a basic role in the rehabilitation of the old Peruvian kings in the Colonial society.

    Al principio del siglo XVIII, se les otorgó a los indios de Lima la posibilidad de festejar a los monarcas españoles en grupo aparte. De ellos se esperaba que representasen a sus antiguos monarcas en desfiles o mascaradas y participaran por consiguiente, animados por las elites criollas, en la exaltación de la historia peruana. Fuertemente mestizada y apropiada a los gustos barrocos, la indumentaria de los incas de las mascaradas descrita en las relaciones de fiestas limeñas nos permite analizar las características del renacimiento incaico del siglo XVIII y ver cómo la vestimenta desempañaba un papel fundamental en la rehabilitación de los antiguos monarcas peruanos en la sociedad colonial.

  3. Reformismo cristiano y tolerancia en España a finales del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez Fernández, Juan Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the ideal of religious tolerance in 18th century Europe was not the exclusive work of deists or atheists. Many Christians then argued that intolerance was contrary to the Gospel and the spirit of the early centuries of the Church. The censorship of the Inquisition and the absence of religious minorities prevented the discussions on tolerance taking place in countries such as France or Austria from occurring south of the Pyrenees. Even so, Christian arguments in favour of religious freedom appeared, albeit stealthily, in 18th century Spain and were reflected in the texts of some Spanish reformers.La expansión del ideal de tolerancia religiosa en la Europa del siglo XVIII no fue obra exclusiva de deístas o ateos. Muchos cristianos defendieron por entonces que la intolerancia era contraria al Evangelio y al espíritu de los primeros siglos de la Iglesia. La labor censoria de la Inquisición y la ausencia de minorías religiosas impidieron que los debates sobre la tolerancia desarrollados en países como Francia o Austria se reprodujeran al sur de los Pirineos. Aun así, los argumentos cristianos en favor de la libertad religiosa entraron, aunque fuese a hurtadillas, en la España del siglo XVIII y se reflejaron en los textos de algunos reformistas españoles.

  4. El comercio leonés de hilos e hilazas en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel BARTOLOMÉ BARTOLOMÉ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La ciudad de León en la Edad Moderna , siglo XVIII, se convirtió en uno de los centros más importantes de España en la comercialización, a través de sus ferias anuales, del hilo e hilaza que se elaboraba del lino. Esta materia prima textil tenía como núcleos principales de producción y abastecimiento las vegas del norte de la ciudad de León: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga y Luna. Desde la ciudad de León este hilo e hilaza comercializado, que llegaba a suponer los 26.568 kilos de media anual en los años sesenta, se dirigía a los mercados manchegos, sobre todo al toledano, y al vallisoletano, apoyándose en precios muy competitivos.ABSTRACT: In the XVIII century, León was famous for the production de linen thread. In this city there annual markets where people could rind this material. The linen thread was produced in land along the main valleys: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga, and it was distributed to a number of different markets: Toledo, Valladolid, Villalón... The clue to this success was its competitive price.

  5. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  6. Collagen XVIII: a novel heparan sulfate proteoglycan associated with vascular amyloid depositions and senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease brains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horssen, J. van; Wilhelmus, M.M.M.; Heljasvaara, R.; Pihlajaniemi, T.; Wesseling, P.; Waal, R.M.W. de; Verbeek, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) may play a role in the formation and persistence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease brains. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the human extracellular matrix-associated molecule collagen XVIII is the first collagen carrying

  7. Basement Membrane Zone Collagens XV and XVIII/Proteoglycans Mediate Leukocyte Influx in Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaferani, Azadeh; Talsma, Ditmer T.; Yazdani, Saleh; Celie, Johanna W. A. M.; Aikio, Mari; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Navis, Gerjan J.; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; van den Born, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Collagen type XV and XVIII are proteoglycans found in the basement membrane zones of endothelial and epithelial cells, and known for their cryptic anti-angiogenic domains named restin and endostatin, respectively. Mutations or deletions of these collagens are associated with eye, muscle and microves

  8. EDXRF portable system used in the analysis of altars, sculptures and paintings from XVII and XVIII centuries in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, R.P. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); CEFETEQ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Calza, C.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, R.O. [RG Conservation and Restoration, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The preservation of cultural heritage has acquired increasing interest in the last decades and many scientific techniques have been employed to analyze paintings, manuscripts, ceramics, glasses, statues, coins and metal artifacts in order to solve problems related to restoration, conservation, dating and attribution of artworks. There is also an increasing trend for non-destructive investigations since most of the samples are unique and precious objects of art and archaeology. X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) is the most widely used investigative technique in the field of archaeometry, due to a number of favorable analytical characteristics, such as multielemental and non-destructive analysis, high sensitivity and applicability to a wide range of samples. In this work, XRF was used to analyze altars, sculptures and paintings in the Saint Anthony Convent (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The cornerstone of this convent was launched in 1608, by the Franciscan friars, and the construction of the church was finished in 1620. The Saint Anthony sculpture in the main altar is one of the few remaining pieces from the XVII century in Rio de Janeiro. The splendid Baroque carvings of the chapel, covered with integral gilding, in the national Portuguese style, dates from 1716 to 1719. The results obtained during the analyses have been used in the meticulous process of restoration, developed in the last two years, in order to recover the original splendour of this important piece of our cultural heritage. The analyses were carried out with an EDXRF portable system developed in the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 {mu}A, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. In each sample were obtained several spectra, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 1.5 and 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL from IAEA. The analysis of the golden carvings of the altars, in

  9. General Matthew B. Ridgway: A Commander’s Maturation of Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    crossings near Neerpelt, Valkenswaard, Eindhoven , Son, St. Oedenrode, Veghel, and Uden, and insure the advantage of the Second British Army.”125 These...Combat jump into Normandy before D-Day August 1944 – Assigned command of the new XVIII Airborne Corps, led combat operations near Eindhoven , the

  10. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.; Edited by Gudding, Roar; Lillehaug, Atle; Evensen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  11. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P V

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  12. Chapter 2. The market orientation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to introduce the concept of market orientation presented as an alternative to the traditional marketing concept. The Internet technology is creating a dual trading arena where traditional market actors have changing roles and new actors are emerging. To cope with this increased market complexity, a distinction is made between a cultural and an instrumental definition of the Market Orientation (MO) concept. Market orientation as an organisational culture is a c...

  13. Con toda fiesta y regocijo. Arte y fiesta en las villas vizcaínas de los siglos XVII y XVIII.

    OpenAIRE

    Labarga, F.

    2016-01-01

    Miren Aintzane Eguiluz Romero, Con toda fiesta y regocijo. Arte y fiesta en las villas vizcaínas de los siglos XVII y XVIII, Servicio Editorial de la Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao 2014, 385 pp.

  14. Guayaquil: un puerto colonial en los mares del sur, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Chaves

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el emplazamiento, las dinámicas económicas y las relaciones sociales que caracterizaron a Guayaquil durante el siglo XVIII. El desarrollo económico y productivo que experimentó la ciudad-puerto se debió a su feraz entorno natural y a las posibilidades de comunicación que brindó el sistema fluvial del Guayas. Se analizan las particularidades de su estructura social, las relaciones entre la elite y los sectores subalternos, las estructura político administrativa del cabildo y la influencia que este centro ejerció sobre los pueblos y partidos en su hinterland.

  15. Cerdos y control social de pobres en la provincia de Antioquia, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Alejandro Gómez Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cabildos de Antioquia, durante el siglo xviii, instaban a los habitantes de ciudades y villas a matar los cerdos callejeros. Este rasgo de violencia permite acercarse a la confrontación cotidiana entre la élite y los criadores de cerdos, un grupo social bajo. Los cabildos defendían un modelo de civilidad basado en estrategias de control social impulsadas por la administración borbónica. Los criadores de puercos, pobres en su mayoría, actuaban como colectivo defendiendo esta actividad, de donde obtenían unos pesos para subsistir. Con el frecuente ataque a los cerdos urbanos, y a sus dueños, la élite quiso impedir que ese sector de pobres adquiriera independencia económica, pues convenía sujetarlos, ocupando su mano de obra en labores mineras, agrícolas y ganaderas.

  16. La visión ilustrada de los desastres naturales en Lima durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcelén Reluz Carlos Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XVIII, Perú fue afectado por una serie de desastres naturales y epidemias que mermaron tanto la población como la producción agrícola. El artículo analiza tres casos: el período recurrente de frío extremo en los meses de invierno desde 1714 hasta 1720, que posibilitó una gran epidemia que asoló el sur de los Andes; el terremoto de 1746 en Lima, que marcó un hito en la sociedad, debido a la magnitud de su destrucción, y el fenómeno de ‘el niño’ (o ENSO de 1791 a 1794, uno de los que más daños generó, sobretodo en la costa norte del país.

  17. Chicha, guarapo y presión fiscal en la sociedad colonial del Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Lucía Mora de Tovar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo reúne dos ensayos sobre el aguardiente y la bebidas embriagantes. Se inscribe en el contexto de la aplicación de medidas administrativas y fiscales impulsadas por la Corona Española, en la Península y en América, durante el siglo XVIII. La necesidad de recursos que le permitieran atender tanto las obligaciones propias de la administración de gobierno como las que se derivaban de las acciones bélicas, estimuló la ejecución de una política de libre comercio en el campo económico y, en el campo político, un mayor control estatal.

  18. Dos comerciantes británicos en Cartagena a principios del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Fajardo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La llegada a Cartagena de Indias en 1713 de los factores, o representantes comerciales de la Compañía Británica del Mar del Sur, con el fin de operar el llamado asiento de negros, constituye el primer acercamiento formal del naciente imperio mercantil británico a la Nueva Granada. Si bien a lo largo de los siglos XVI y XVII unos cuantos aventureros ingleses, empezando por Drake, habían arribado a estas costas en busca de riqueza personal, la instalación de la factoría de la South Sea Company en Cartagena representó un intento más elaborado de integrar el Nuevo Reino al sistema comercial global que en el siglo XVIII comenzaba a girar en torno a Londres.

  19. El régimen municipal en el nuevo reino de granada durante el siglo xviii

    OpenAIRE

    Ots Capdequí, José María

    2010-01-01

    Avance del libro Nuevos Aspectos del siglo XVIII español en América. (El Régimen Municipal. La Organización Judicial. El Régimen Fiscal. El Régimen Económico).Capítulo I. El régimen minicipal: 1-Sobre las ciudades que eran cabeza de provincia; 2-Sobre la actuación de los cabildos; 3-Los cabildos municipales y el régimen de tierras; 4-Sobre la administración de determinadas rentas reales por los cabildos a título de encabezamiento; 5-Sobre la facultad de los cabildos para recibir a los provist...

  20. Conflictos en torno a la venta de esclavos en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pita Pico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se centra en el análisis de los conflictos que giraron en torno a las operaciones de compra de esclavos en el nororiente neogranadino durante el siglo XVIII. Legalizaciones aplazadas, ventas desautorizadas, pagos pendientes, esclavos hipotecados y confusiones sobre el estado real del esclavo comercializado fueron situaciones que desataron enconadas disputas y pleitos judiciales que terminaron algunas veces con la declaratoria de redhibitoria, es decir, la anulación del contrato de venta y la devolución del esclavo. En vista de estos antecedentes, y con un ánimo preventivo, los negociantes se aseguraron de fijar en las escrituras de compraventa ciertas garantías o aclaraciones para no verse involucrados en tales litigios.

  1. Repoblación de Costa de Mosquitos en el último cuarto del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Suárez, José Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We try to locate in the international context the conflicts between Spain and Great Britain in the Mosquitos Coast during the second of the half Eigthteenth Century and the projects of repoblation with Asturian, Galician and Canarian families. We have been able to quantify the population the new reality they have met, the high vulnerability to illnesses and the difficulties to get to adapt to the particular environment.

    Tratamos de ubicar en el contexto internacional los conflictos entre España y Gran Bretaña en la Costa de Mosquitos en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y los proyectos de repoblación con familias asturianas, gallegas y canarias. Utilizando los informes que se generaron en esta coyuntura hemos podido cuantificar el contingente poblacional, el choque con la realidad, la alta vulnerabilidad a las enfermedades y las dificultades de adaptación al medio concreto.

  2. Petrus Van Musschenbroek y la física experimental del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijarro Mora, Víctor

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the meaning and scope of Eigtheenth-century experimental physics. In particular, it is focused on anlysing the price role played by the different type of experiments considered among the strict experimental physicists. On the other hand, the paper is intended to account for one of the basic principles of these natural philosophers: the rejection of mathematics, especially the geometrical approach to nature.

    El artículo se centra en el estudio del significado y alcance de la física experimental en el siglo XVIII. En particular, se analiza el papel preciso que desempeñaron los diferentes tipos de experimentos planteados dentro de esta concepción de los fenómenos naturales así como la importancia que el rechazo de las matemáticas (en especial la geometría tuvo entre los físicos experimentales en sentido estricto.

  3. La visión ilustrada de los desastres naturales en Lima durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guillermo Carcelén Reluz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XVIII, Perú fue afectado por una serie de desastres naturales y epidemias que mermaron tanto la población como la producción agrícola. El artículo analiza tres casos: el período recurrente de frío extremo en los meses de invierno desde 1714 hasta 1720, que posibilitó una gran epidemia que asoló el sur de los Andes; el terremoto de 1746 en Lima, que marcó un hito en la sociedad, debido a la magnitud de su destrucción, y el fenómeno de 'el niño' (o ENSO de 1791 a 1794, uno de los que más daños generó, sobretodo en la costa norte del país.

  4. Sentimiento y vida familiar en el Nuevo Reino de Granda, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Villafuerte García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Rodríguez, Sentimiento y vida familiar en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglo XVIII. Ariel Historia, Santafé de Bogotá, 1997.El estudio de Pablo Rodríguez constituye un paso decisivo para la comprensión no sólo de la familia colombiana sino de la familia latinoamericana. El estudio nos muestra un amplio panorama que va de los fenómenos demográficos, pasando por ciertas épocas de la vida que muy poco se han estudiado, para tocar luego temas tan importantes como el matrimonio, la vida conyugal y la separación de las parejas, así como los detalles de la vida cotidiana de las familias neogranadinas.

  5. Childhood and its Age Limits in Society of Getmanat in the XVIII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Serdiuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will talk about the child in society of Hetman – the autonomous entity within the Russian Empire, which was rapidly losing the remnants of autonomy in the second half of the XVIII century, subjecting to the desire of the center to modernize and unify its border territory. Such interaction of traditions and innovations influenced the public's worldview and determined the attitude to the family, marriage, child. These topics are still relatively poorly studied in the Ukrainian material, particularly the problems of childhood. The studies of actually "little man" in Ukraine of XVIII century are made virtually from a clean slate and at the beginning it is necessary to determine whom society is considered as a child, and also when the childhood is ended. This issue is harder than it seems at first glance, because the society of Hetmanate in relation to children was guided by the stratagem of folk traditions, religious norms, the "old" law (the Lithuanian Statute, the Magdeburg right and sachsenspiegel inherited from the Commonwealth and the "new" laws of the Russian Empire. They determined the age of adulthood in different ways, when the individual became a child and was no longer to be, as well as the criteria of those age limits. It is important that the legal mechanisms of age-identification included in the action in the case of judicial proceedings, property disputes, marital conflicts. On a daily level, the perception of childhood and maturity depended on the combination of external features of an individual (body type, facial features, etc., conduct, and perform social roles. A huge role is played the institution of marriage, act of which was probably the most important and revealing marker of the fact that the kid finally became an adult.

  6. VARIACIONES MONETARIAS, IMPULSO URBANO Y SALARIOS EN SANTIAGO EN LA SEGUNDA MITAD DEL SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENRIQUETA QUIROZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es demostrar que en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, en Santiago de Chile, la circulación monetaria fue mucho más activa de lo que hasta ahora se ha aceptado. Con este propósito se han revisado los niveles de acuñación, especialmente los de moneda menuda, porque esta era la que circulaba en los mercados cotidianamente y se usaba para fijar los precios de los comestibles, así como para pagar los jornales de los trabajadores en la ciudad de Santiago a fines del siglo XVIII y comienzos del siglo XIX. Esto quiere decir que la gente común conocía el dinero y lo utilizaba para pagar sus transacciones cotidianas, lo que a su vez implicaría que la economía chilena estaba creciendo y conformando un mercado con sus propias características.The object of this article is to illustrate that during the second half of the eighteenth century monetary circulation was much more active in Santiago than had been previously thought. To that end minting levels have been analyzed especially the volume of small change as this was the currency that circulated in the daily market and was used to fix the price of foodstuffs as well as to pay daily wages in the city of Santiago during the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth century. This means that common people knew about and used money in their daily transactions and also implies that the Chilean economy was growing and forming a market of its own.

  7. El sistema beneficial en la España del siglo XVIII. Pervivencias y cambios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano BARRIO GOZALO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Al estudiar el clero secular lo primero que se observa es la importancia que tiene el sistema beneficial en la Iglesia de la época moderna, pues en función del beneficio eclesiástico el clero se jerarquiza y se diferencia, tanto por su cargo como por su condición económica y social. Ante la amplia gama de elementos derivables del estudio de los beneficios eclesiásticos, en el presente trabajo me limito a ofrecer una panorámica general del sistema beneficial en la España del siglo XVIII; es decir, a describir el beneficio eclesiástico y el derecho de presentación, así como su tipología y forma de acceso, para terminar con unas palabras sobre la reforma beneficial que la administración ilustrada proyecta en la segunda mitad del siglo.ABSTRACT: When we start the study of the secular clergy, the first thing we consider is the importance of the beneficial system referred to the Church of the enlightenment age, but on account of the ecclesiastic benefit clergy is distinguished and organized into higher ranks or degrees, as to its ministry and economic and social status. Due to the wide range of elements from the study of the ecclesiastic benefits, at the present written work I try to show a general view of the beneficial system in Spain in the XVIII century; and thus to describe the ecclesiastic benefit and the right of presentation; and also its typology and way of access and to finish with some words concerning the beneficial reform which is arranged in the second half of the century by the enlightened administration.

  8. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...

  9. Composition operators on function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, RK

    1993-01-01

    This volume of the Mathematics Studies presents work done on composition operators during the last 25 years. Composition operators form a simple but interesting class of operators having interactions with different branches of mathematics and mathematical physics. After an introduction, the book deals with these operators on Lp-spaces. This study is useful in measurable dynamics, ergodic theory, classical mechanics and Markov process. The composition operators on functional Banach spaces (including Hardy spaces) are studied in chapter III. This chapter makes contact with the theory of analytic functions of complex variables. Chapter IV presents a study of these operators on locally convex spaces of continuous functions making contact with topological dynamics. In the last chapter of the book some applications of composition operators in isometries, ergodic theory and dynamical systems are presented. An interesting interplay of algebra, topology, and analysis is displayed. This comprehensive and up-to-date stu...

  10. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  11. Cloning of cDNA and genomic DNA encoding human type XVIII collagen and localization of the [alpha]1 (XVIII) collagen gene to mouse chromosome 10 and human chromosome 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S.P.; Warman, M.L.; Timmons, S.; Olsen, B.R.; Knoll, J.H.M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Seldin, M.F. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)); Cheng, Sou-De (Children' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Types XV and XVIII collagen belong to a unique and novel subclass of the collagen superfamily for which the authors have proposed the name the MULTIPLEXIN family. Members of this class contain polypeptides with multiple triple-helical domains separated and flanked by non-triple-helical regions. In this paper, they report the isolation of human cDNAs and genomic DNAs encoding the [alpha]1 (XVIII) collagen chain. Utilizing a genomic clone as probe, they have mapped the COL18A1 gene to chromosome 21q22.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In addition, using an interspecific backcross panel, they have shown that the murine Col18a1 locus is on chromosome 10, close to the loci for Col6a1 and Col6a2. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Columbia: The Economic Foundation of Peace. Chapters 21-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugale, Marcelo M., Ed.; Lafourcade, Olivier, Ed.; Luff, Connie, Ed.

    This document contains 8 chapters of a 35-chapter book that presents a comprehensive diagnosis of current economic, social, and educational conditions in Colombia and their importance to development prospects and the quest for peace. The eight chapters covered here are part of a section titled "Sharing the Fruits of Growth with All…

  13. 77 FR 21581 - Kootenai Tribe of Idaho: Chapter 11-Alcohol Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... credit shall be extended to any person, organization, or entity, except that this provision does not.... Liability for Bills. A Liquor Outlet License issued by the Council does not represent any promise or... Chapter is contingent on the agreement of the operator to hold the Tribe harmless from all claims...

  14. Volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. This chapter presents a summary of the sources, transport, fate, and remediation of volatile fuel hydrocarbons and fuel additives in the environment. Much research has focused on the transport and transformation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes and methyl tert‐butyl ether, in groundwater following release from underground storage tanks. Natural attenuation from biodegradation limits the movement of these contaminants and has received considerable attention as an environmental restoration option. This chapter summarizes approaches to environmental restoration, including those that rely on natural attenuation, and also engineered or enhanced remediation. Researchers are increasingly combining several microbial and molecular-based methods to give a complete picture of biodegradation potential and occurrence at contaminated field sites. New insights into the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel additives have been gained by recent advances in analytical tools and approaches, including stable isotope fractionation, analysis of metabolic intermediates, and direct microbial evidence. However, development of long-term detailed monitoring programs is required to further develop conceptual models of natural attenuation and increase our understanding of the behavior of contaminant mixtures in the subsurface.

  15. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  16. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  17. Tras ser desfigurado, Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla entra en el parnaso español. Los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Barrientos, Joaquín

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the presence of the theater of Francisco de Rojas in the Spanish scenes of centuries XVIII and XIX, as well as the way in which the critical and historians of Literature valued that author. The refundiciones of their works, their relation with Fernandez de Moratín and their entrance in the national Parnaso are detailed.El artículo estudia la presencia del teatro de Francisco de Rojas en los escenarios españoles de los siglos XVIII y XIX, así como el modo en que los críticos e historiadores de la literatura valoraron a ese autor. Se detallan las refundiciones de sus obras, su relación con Fernández de Moratín y su entrada en el Parnaso nacional.

  18. El cuento en el siglo XVIII: una propuesta para el rescate y estudio de un género olvidado

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    Marieta CANTOS CASENAVE

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este trabajo pretendo mostrar de qué manera el cuento del siglo XVIII se puede encontrar al rastrear en los periódicos, colecciones narrativas, misceláneas y libros de entretenimiento, y de qué manera este cuento tuvo que servir necesariamente de puente al nacimiento del cuento como género literario moderno en el siglo XVIII.ABSTRACT: In this article I try to show how the eighteenth-century short story can be found when we exam the eighteenth-century newspapers, miscellany and pleasant literature, and how this short story was in the origin of the modern literary genre.

  19. 78 FR 32165 - Commercial Radio Operators; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Commercial Radio Operators; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communication Commission...) Administers the Commission's commercial radio operator program (part 13 of this chapter); the Commission's... rules concerning radio operator licenses for maritime and aviation in order to reduce...

  20. Global Operations Coevolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Gubi, Ebbe

    2013-01-01

    Companies are actively seeking competitive advantage through their choice of location and ownership of operations. The purpose of this chapter is to uncover hidden effects of this development and propose how companies can respond to them. The chapter draws on a case study of a Danish industrial e...... of analysis and involving temporal adaptations. In terms of managerial implications, the study provides managers with lessons for designing a robust system of globally dispersed operations.......Companies are actively seeking competitive advantage through their choice of location and ownership of operations. The purpose of this chapter is to uncover hidden effects of this development and propose how companies can respond to them. The chapter draws on a case study of a Danish industrial...... equipment firm and describes how its operations configuration has been changing over time. The chapter identifies the key determinants of this change and uncovers some of its hidden effects. The chapter closes with propositions for how to respond to these effects through the development of a distinct...

  1. Letras ramistas e variação vocálica no século XVIII

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    Paula Held Lombardi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo de algumas ocorrências grafemáticas de letras ramistas e de variação fonética no século XVIII. Analisa os dados e aponta para critérios que oscilam entre influência da oralidade, da etimologia e da pseudo-etimologia na grafia da época.

  2. The girl from the Church of the Sacrament: a case of congenital syphilis in XVIII century Lisbon

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    Sheila Mendonça de Souza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a sexually or congenitally transmitted infectious disease with an impact on the health of human populations that has undergone important cycles in different countries and periods of history. Its presence was first diagnosed in Europe in the late XIV century. In Portugal, although there are various written records of the infection in the last centuries, there are rare references to it in archeological findings (mummified bodies are also rare in Portugal. The current study describes a probable case of congenital syphilis in an 18-month-old girl buried in the Church of the Sacrament in Lisbon. Her body, dating to the XVIII century, was found mummified together with dozens of others, still not studied. Symmetrical periostitis of the long bones, osteitis, metaphyseal lesions, left knee articular, and epiphyseal destruction, and a rarefied lesion with a radiological appearance compatible with Wimberger's sign all point to a diagnosis of congenital syphilis. The diagnosis of this severe form of the infection, possibly related to the cause of death in this upper-class girl, calls attention to the disease's presence in XVIII century Lisbon and is consistent with the intense mobilization at the time in relation to the risks posed by so-called heredosyphilis. It is the first case of congenital syphilis in a child reported in archeological findings in Portugal, and can be correlated with other cases in skeletons of adults buried in cemeteries in Lisbon (in the XVI to XVIII centuries and Coimbra (XIX century. Finally, this finding highlights the need to study the entire series of mummified bodies in the Church of the Sacrament in order to compare the paleopathological findings and existing historical documents on syphilis, so as to expand the paleoepidemiological knowledge of this infection in XVIII century Lisbon.

  3. As dívidas do açúcar na capitania de Pernambuco (século XVIII)

    OpenAIRE

    Marques,Teresa Cristina de Novaes

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the origin of sugar cane landlord’s debts in Pernambuco, in the XVIII century. It examines many implications of the disseminated indebtedness: the political ones, the patrimonial, and those that affected the families. It also investigates the way in which the philosophical thought of the physiocrats was appropriated by Portuguese thinkers in order to reflect upon the economic issues that concerned the Portuguese world. O ensaio examina a origem das dívidas d...

  4. SOMBRAS EN EL SIGLO DE LAS LUCES, MONSTRUOS, DEMONIOS Y PRODIGIOS EN LA ESTAMPERIA POPULAR DEL SIGLO XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    PEREZ GUILLEN, INOCENCIO VICENTE

    1993-01-01

    LOS ESTUDIOS DE CONJUNTO DE LA ESTAMPA POPULAR SON ESCASOS EN ESPAÑA, ABUNDANDO MUCHO MAS, COMO OCURRE CON OTRAS AREAS CULTURALES, EN LOS ESTUDIOS DE LITERATURA O FOLKLORE. MUY INTERESANTES SON LAS ILUSTRACIONES IMPRESAS DE LA LLAMADA LITERATURA DE CORDEL, QUE ECLOSIONA EN EL SIGLO XVIII Y TIENE COMO CENTRO PRINCIPAL DE PRODUCCION LA CIUDAD DE VALENCIA. EN LAS XILOGRAFIAS DE LAS CABECERAS DE LOS ROMANCES DESFILAN MONSTRUOS, ANIMALES FANTASTICOS, SERES DEMONIACOS, VISIONES CELESTIALES Y TODA U...

  5. Censura y prensa periódica a finales del siglo XVIII: El caso del Semanario erudito (1787-1791

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    Sutherland, Madeline

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How did censorship operate in Spain in the last decades of the eighteenth century? This article considers one periodical—the Semanario Erudito—as a case study. Extant correspondence between the editor (Antonio Valladares de Sotomayor, the Consejo de Castilla, and the censors (primarily Ignacio López de Ayala and Santos Díez González allow us to view the censorship process and the attitudes of the participants in the process. After introducing Valladares and reviewing the laws that regulated the printing of periodicals, we examine requests for printing licenses made by the editor and the justifications of the censors and the Consejo for their decisions. While the censors and the Consejo sought to maintain ideological and legal control over what was published, the correspondence shows that they were also interested in making important, useful documents available to the reading public and in insuring that what was printed was correct and accurate.¿Cómo operaba la censura periodística en España en las últimas décadas del siglo XVIII? Este trabajo considera el caso de un periódico en particular, el Semanario Erudito. La correspondencia existente entre el editor (Antonio Valladares de Sotomayor, el Consejo de Castilla, y los censores (principalmente Ignacio López de Ayala y Santos Díez González nos permite ver el proceso censorio y las actitudes de los participantes en el proceso. Tras describir las actividades editoras de Valladares y repasar las leyes que regulaban la imprenta de periódicos, se examinan las peticiones del editor y las justificaciones de los censores y el Consejo con respecto a sus decisiones. La correspondencia nos permite concluir que mientras los censores y el Consejo se interesaban en ejercer un control ideológico y jurídico sobre lo que se publicaba, les importaba también hacer posible la publicación de documentos importantes o útiles y asegurar la calidad de ellos haciendo correcciones y exigiendo precisi

  6. De estructuras, culturas y otros demonios: una revisión de las insurrecciones andinas de finales del siglo XVIII

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    Hanni Jalil Paier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo observa las insurrecciones populares del siglo XVIII no como episodios casuales o aislados, sino como síntomas de un sentimiento generalizado de descontento social e intensificado conflicto. Sentimientos cuya intensidad se incrementó durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y culminó con la Gran Rebelión de 1780-1783 en el sur de los Andes, el levantamiento en Quito de 1765 y la Rebelión de los Comuneros en la Nueva Granada de 1781. Este artículo examina los trabajos que hacen referencia a estas revueltas, reconociendo el hecho que la producción académica de las insurrecciones de finales del siglo XVIII en las colonias americanas forman parte de los amplios debates académicos que abordan las insurrecciones fuera del contexto Andino, e incorpora preguntas promulgadas por los estudiosos de las revueltas campesinas y el conflicto armado en otros campos y otros periodos.

  7. Presencia musical en la Catedral de La Seu d'Urgell en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII a través de sus actas capitulares

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    Roig i Capdevila, Jordi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With this essay we wish to contribute to the historical recuperation of our musical and cultural heritage with particular reference to one specific case. It will, therefore, describe the musical activity from 1700 to 1750 of the Cathedral Musical Chapel of La Seu d'Urgell which had been a particularly relevant centre ever since the Middle Ages for its importance as a frontier pass on the Pyrenees between France and Spain. There do exist certain historical studies of the Medieval and Renaissance periods that led to publications by Higini Anglés analyzing the figure of Joan Brudieu. But, on the other hand, very little is known about the musical life of that "Episcopal" town during the XVIII to XX centuries (recently being the bishop of La Seu also the prince of Andorra, all together with the President of the French Republic. Taking up where the work of Pedrell-Anglés had left off, this essay initiates the systematic compilation of whatever information concerning music is contained in the Cathedral Archives. Though it is our intention to continue our line of study, on this occasion we are only going to publish the Chapter Acts from the period 1700-1750, which will permit us to form a general idea about the activities and the repercussions of one of the principal Musical Chapel in Catalonia, and also of one of the centres in the Hispanic sphere of influence that Musicology has least studied until recently.

    El objetivo del presente artículo, es colaborar a la recuperación histórica de nuestra música y nuestro patrimonio, por medio de un caso concreto. Se pretende dar a conocer la vida musical —entre 1700 y 1750— de la capilla de música de la catedral de la Seu d'Urgell, un centro de particular relevancia desde época medieval, por ser un importante paso pirenaico entre Francia y España. Sobre los períodos medieval y renacentista existen algunos viejos estudios, que culminan con las publicaciones de Higini Anglés sobre Joan

  8. Un patronazgo en conflicto. La Virgen de Peña Sacra y su cofradía de Madrid (siglos XVII-XVIII

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    Fernández Suárez, Roberto

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The autor analyzes the aims of a 18th-century brotherhood in Madrid in promoting the cult to an image of Mary of Manzanares el Real, Madrid. This brotherhood, which incorporated and formed part of a specific and plural religious geography, operated in association with two convents of Madrid —Trinidad Calzada and San Felipe el Real— to legitimize the cult. By means of a self-serving campaign of control, the brotherhood destroyed, over decades, any element which could overshadow the cult in every aspect and type of ritual related to celebrations in the honor of Mary: a process that led to the complete manipulation of these celebrations.Se analizan las pretensiones de una cofradía madrileña del siglo XVIII de rendir culto a una imagen mañana venerada en Manzanares el Real (Madrid. Insertada en una geografía religiosa variada y plural, esta cofradía mantuvo contactos con dos conventos madrileños, la Trinidad Calzada y san Felipe el Real, para legitimar su culto. Bajo una interesada campaña de control, consiguió, durante muchos años, eliminar cualquier elemento que pudiera hacerle sombra en todos los modos rituales de la festividad de la Virgen, hasta llegar a su manipulación completa.

  9. Chapter 40: history of neurology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, François; Boller, François

    2010-01-01

    The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where "everything seems to happen in Paris," and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world. The chapter shows, however, that the work of Charcot was preceded by a long evolution in medical thinking, which culminated with the introduction of experimental medicine developed by Claude Bernard and François Magendie, and by the study of aphasia by Paul Broca and its localization of language in a specific area of the brain. Many of the great neurologists of France like Duchenne de Boulogne, Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski and Pierre Marie gravitated around Charcot while others like Charles-Edward Brown-Sequard and Jules Dejerine developed their talents independently. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital further illustrates this independence. It also shows the relation between neurology and psychiatry with Henri Ey, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, who collaborated with Henri Laborit in the clinical development of chlorpromazine. Sainte Anne also saw the birth of modern neuropsychology with Henry Hécaen. Jean Talairach and his group developed human stereotaxic neurosurgery and a 3-dimensional brain atlas that is used around the world. The chapter also mentions institutions (the CNRS and INSERM) that have contributed to developments partially independently from medical schools. It concludes with a presentation of schools located outside of Paris that have played a significant role in the development of neurology. Six of the most important ones are described: Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Lyon, and

  10. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  11. La educación en Almagro en el siglo XVIII

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    Francisco Asensio Rubio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un trabajo donde se analiza la enseñanza primaria y superior en el siglo XVIII, en una ciudad tan singular, como lo fue Almagro en esta centuria, donde llegó a ser la capital de la provincia de la Mancha. El trabajo está realizado, especialmente, en base a la documentación existente en el Archivo Histórico Municipal de Almagro, estudiándose la situación de la enseñanza primaria religiosa y seglar, así como la superior y universitaria. La enseñanza primaria religiosa estuvo dirigida básicamente por los jesuítas, que trataron pronto de sustraerse a la obligación contraída con el Ayuntamiento, cuando llegaron a Almagro; Íes relevaron en dicha obligación los hermanos hospitalarios de San Juan de Dios, que estaban muy necesitados de ayuda económica, por lo que aceptaron regentar las escuelas primarias. La enseñanza seglar estuvo a cargo de maestros, que en la mayoría de los casos ejercían sin titulación alguna, generando un evidente intrusismo profesional. En el último cuarto del siglo XVIII, con la aparición de maestros con titulación expedida por el Consejo de Castilla, se abrió un duro pleito entre unos y otros que se saldó en favor de los titulados, aunque siguieron funcionando las escuelas de maestros sin titulación. Por último se estudia la situación de los preceptores de Latinidad y Gramática, que preparaban a los alumnos para ingresar en las universidades españolas, así como la situación que padeció la Universidad de Almagro en el siglo xviii, en evidente proceso de decadencia, como otras muchas universidades menores.It is a question of a work where the elementary and most top education is analyzed in the 18th century, in so singular city, since it it (he, she was Almagro in this century, where it managed to be the capital of the province of the la Mancha. The work is realized made, specially, on the basis of the existing documentation in the Historial Municipal File of Almagro, being studied the

  12. Conflictos en la Audiencia de Quito a finales del siglo XVIII

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    Molina Martínez, Miguel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay studies the conflicts arisen in the Quito Audience during presidencies of José García de León y Pizarro and Juan José de Villalengua. These conflicts arose after the accusations and complaints interposed by different individuals all dissatisfactions with the politics carried out by those. They were accused of abuse of power, bribes and practical fraudulent. The president-regent García Pizarro was the main target of the critics, while its son-in-law and successor Villalengua worked to brake the attacks. Inside the Audience the hearer Fernando Cuadrado headed the movement opponent. The Crown could not avoid that this tribunal crossed a serious crisis that she remembered similar events in the first half of the XVIII century. This article analyzes some keys of the conflict and he reveals the particular interests that encouraged each one of the decrees in litigation.

    El presente trabajo se ocupa de estudiar los conflictos surgidos en la Audiencia de Quito durante las presidencias de José García de León y Pizarro y Juan José de Villalengua. Estos conflictos surgieron después de las denuncias y quejas interpuestas por diferentes individuos, todos descontentos con la política realizada por aquéllos. Se les acusó de abuso de poder, cohechos y prácticas fraudulentas. El presidente-regente García Pizarro fue el blanco principal de las críticas, mientras que su yerno y sucesor Villalengua trabajó para frenar los ataques. Dentro de la Audiencia, el oidor Fernando Cuadrado encabezó el movimiento opositor. La Corona no pudo evitar que este tribunal atravesara una grave crisis, que recordaba sucesos similares en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII. Este artículo analiza algunas claves del conflicto y revela los intereses particulares que animaban a cada uno de los bandos en litigio.

  13. Notas sobre la ebanistería madrileña en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiló Alonso, María Paz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available By pointing out the increasing importance of English furniture in Madrid in the first half of the 18th century, the author questions the widespread belief that Spanish furniture was under French influence at the time because of the advent of the Bourbons. In addition, the author calls attention to the most salient aspects of the union activity of cabinetmakers and joiners, such as membership of these artisans in a joint labor organization, their strategies to promote their craft as well as the union, the methods of examination used (with pieces selected beforehand and the important role played by cabinetmakers in value assessments of property, both for deeds of dowry and for postmortem inventories. The author's sources are documents found in the Archivo de Protocolos de Madrid which date to the years between 1740 through 1760. These documents significantly add new Information to the evidence already known about the activities of Madrid's woodwork craftsmen in the 18th century.

    Ante la idea generalizada de la influencia francesa en el mobiliario español con el advenimiento de los Borbones, se intenta apuntar la importancia creciente del mobiliario inglés en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII, al mismo tiempo que dar a conocer el mecanismo de las diversas actuaciones corporativas, desde la reunión en un solo gremio de ebanistas y ensambladores de nogal, su actividad para ejercer con mayor fortaleza su presencia en los foros ciudadanos, el sistema de exámenes con sus piezas determinadas de antemano hasta la importancia de los ebanistas en las labores de tasación, tanto en cartas de dote como en inventarios post mortem. Esta serie de documentos hallados en el Archivo Histórico de Protocolos de Madrid, relativos a las décadas de 1740-1760, sumándose a los ya publicados, irán completando el conocimiento sobre los ebanistas y ensambladores madrileños del siglo XVIII.

  14. Los alcaldes mayores del Corregimiento de Lérida en el siglo XVIII

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    Rafael CERRO NARGÁNEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Articulado por Felipe V en el Decreto de Nueva Planta de 1716, el corregimiento de Lérida se convirtió en uno de los más extensos de Cataluña durante toda la centuria, integrándose en él las antiguas veguerías, no sólo de Lérida, sino también de Balaguer y Tárrega, ambas capitales de alcaldía. En consecuencia, nuestro objetivo en este artículo ha sido estudiar el perfil sociológico y profesional de estos alcaldes mayores o tenientes de corregidor para el período comprendido entre 1720 —fecha de su entrada en servicio— y 1808; año éste en que con la invasión napoleónica se puso fin, cronológicamente, al Antiguo Régimen. Con ello hemos pretendido saldar una deuda historiográfica que había relegado los estudios monográficos sobre estos letrados al olvido, ensombrecidos por los corregidores-gobernadores militares; superiores suyos, a los que asesoraban en materia de justicia ordinaria civil y criminal y presidían los cabildos durante sus ausencias. En definitiva, conocer mejor estos oficiales reales a través de los individuos que sirvieron estas varas, ya que jugaron un papel importante en la dministración catalana de justicia del siglo XVIII, algunos de cuyos fundamentos siguen estando vigentes hoy en día.ABSTRACT: Articulate by Philip V in the Decree of the Nueva Planta, the corregimiento of Lérida is converted in one of the more extensive of Catalonia during the century, integrating with it the juridical district —veguerías antiques— not only of Lérida but too Balaguer and Tárrega, both capitals of alcaldía. In consequent our objective in this article was study the sociological profile and professional of the alcaldes mayores or lieutemants of corregidor, between 1720 —date of the begun service— and 1808, year of the napoleonic invasion in that finished the Antique Regime. With it we seek settle an historiografhic debt that forgot monografhicals studies from this lawyer, grow dark by the

  15. A ESCRITA MAGISTRAL: FORMAS DE APRENDIZADO DA ESCRITA DECORATIVA NO SÉCULO XVIII

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    Marcia Almada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:A escrita possui determinados conjuntos de normas que devem ser seguidas para o cumprimento de suas funções. Durante o século XVIII, documentos públicos ou privados deveriam ser executados segundo regras que atingiam tanto o texto quanto a ordem estética. Dos manuais da arte de escrever podem ser extraídos os padrões difundidos em cada época e as discussões que giravam em torno do ensino e do uso da caligrafia. Serão apresentados neste artigo os dois principais métodos de ensino da escrita magistral vigentes na Península Ibérica durante os séculos XVII e XVIII, cujas discordâncias motivaram um intenso debate entre seus defensores. De certa forma, a discussão refletia a preocupação com a inserção da caligrafia no grupo das artes liberais e, consequentemente, com o status dos profissionais envolvidos com a arte gráfica da palavra.PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Caligrafia; Ensino; Século XVIIIABSTRACT:The writing has certain sets of rules that must be followed to carry out its functions. During the eighteenth century, public or private documents should be executed according to rules that affected both the text and the aesthetic order. From manuals of writing art can be extracted the patterns broadcast in each time and the discussions revolved around the teaching and the use of calligraphy. It will be presented here in this article the two main teaching methods of masterful writing current in the Iberian Peninsula during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, whose disagreements prompted an intense debate among its supporters. Somehow, the discussion reflected the concern about the inclusion of calligraphy in the group of liberal arts and, consequently, the status of the professionals involved with the graphic word art.KEYWORDS: calligraphy, teaching, eighteenth centuryRecebido:30/06/2012     Aceito: 19/10/2012

  16. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; Jones, L; Lu, S.; Menut, L.; Mulcahy, J.; Nickovic, S.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Perez, C.; Reid, J. S.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Tanaka, T.; Terradellas, E.; Westphal, D. L.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Zhou, C.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  17. SOME ASPECTS OF AVAR KHANS POLICY BY RUSSIA (XVIII - BEG. XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara A. OMAROVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of our study is the policy of the Avar Khans towards Russia in XVIII XIX centuries. Most researchers believe that the Avar Khans State was always interested in close relations with the powerful nation, pursued a policy of deepening relations and, almost always, been loyal to Russia. This can be seen in the period of open confrontation Highlanders during the Caucasian War. Of course, such a policy could not lead to conflicts between the Avar Khan State and its nearest neighbors, causing the latter to exercise intolerance such loyalty to Russia. All of these issues are covered with the involvement of the literary and archival materials. Thus, based on the analysis of sources, the author establishes that the manifestation of the desire of the Avar Khan State, which occupies an isolated position in relation to other feudal lords, the establishment of a strong alliance with Russia is always determined by the desire Khans have Russia as a strong and reliable ally than to amass it in as an enemy. On the basis of archival sources, we can state the fact that Russia, in turn, highly valued the loyalty of Khan's house and noted it all sorts of honors. 

  18. The Evolution of Christianity in the Caucasus in the IV–XVIII Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the history of christianity in the Caucasus in the IV–XVIII centuries. The main attention is paid to the complex process of the formation and fate of christianity among the various peoples of the region, the role of Byzantine, Georgian and Russian christian missionaries. Among the sources there are used the pre-revolutionary materials on the history of christianity in the Caucasus, as well as scientific publications. The decision of research tasks is based on the principle of historicism. The problem of the spread of christianity in the Caucasus, while maintaining the pagan beliefs are seen as a consequence of specific socio-historical conditions, in the formation of which the important role was played by external factors, and also the conservative mentality of highlanders. In conclusion, the authors note that every of the caucasian peoples had its story of the spread and adoption of christianity in the Caucasus. On the one hand, the ancient christian Armenia and Georgia, relatively quickly emerging with paganism, on the other, the mountain tribes, who had no public began taking christianity in the reduced forms under the influence of Byzantium, Georgia, Russia with the broad preservation of pagan beliefs. Ultimately, under the influence of the first Crimean khans, and then the Ottoman Empire, these tribes have consistently converted to Islam.

  19. Excavaciones en el Tíber durante los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Sánchez, Jorge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Renaissance, the Tiber River has been the object of the most unusual archaeological quests, driven mainly by fantastic medieval lore. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the excavations on the river intensified and were epitomized by the scientific atmosphere of the Enlightenment, even tough they resulted in little archaeological worth. In 1819, even the Spanish monarch Fernando VII almost became a Shareholder in one of these archaeological companies. After the Italian unification, many finds were discovered in the works done along the Tiber's urban region, of wich many are now in the Museo Nazionale Romano.Desde el Renacimiento el Tiber ha sido objeto de las más peregrinas búsquedas arqueológicas, emprendidas habitualmente sobre la base de fantásticos relatos medievales. En los siglos XVIII y XIX las excavaciones en el río se intensificaron y se dotaron del cientificismo propio de la Ilustración, siendo no obstante el fruto de estos trabajos muy escaso; en 1819, incluso el propio monarca español Fernando VII estuvo a punto de convertirse en accionista de una de estas empresas arqueológicas. Tras la Unificación italiana, las obras de estructuración del curso urbano del Tiber propiciaron finalmente numerosos hallazgos, muchos de los cuales se conservan en el Museo Nazionale Romano.

  20. Armas en las casas burgalesas del siglo XVIII. Entre la funcionalidad y el exhibicionismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En los interiores domésticos del Burgos del siglo XVIII, los inventarios post mortem permiten un análisis intenso de un aspecto bastante desconocido e inquietante de la cultura material, la posesión y usufructo de armas entre la población urbana del Antiguo Régimen. No todas las categorías socioprofesionales y socioeconómicas tenían acceso de la misma manera a las armas de fuego o a las armas «blancas» y su disponibilidad cambia a lo largo de la centuria. ¿Quiénes eran propietarios de armas? ¿Cuál era su peso relativo sobre el volumen de sus fortunas? ¿A qué responde su aparición en las viviendas? ¿Protección personal y doméstica, exigencias profesionales, exhibicionismo en la jerarquía social y boato, necesidad cinegética? ¿Qué grado de permeabilidad y penetración conocieron las armas a lo largo del Setecientos?

  1. "La ciencia de los ingenieros..." en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Díaz, Jorge

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In Paris was published, in 1729, sign ed by some different authors, a book known as the first great modern engineering treatise. "La Science des Ingénieurs...", signed by Bernard Forest de Belidor, a french man of catalan origin, mathematics teacher in La Fére Artillery School, member as well of the Scientific Societies of London and Prussia and a correspondent of the Paris Royal Academy of Sciences. In this book we will appreciate a firm direction change in two fundamental aspects of the technical culture of actual engineers: the way to dimension structures, starting from the numerical procedures and the organization of the processes in construction works In the following pages I want to introduce you into the contents of this treatise in its original version and in its castiílan particular translation. But, before this, I have also to explain the teatrise role in the disociation of two professions that, till this time. have share attitudes and competitivines: architecture and engineering, such as they were understood in the Renaissance distant years where the durability, stability and solidity of a building, watever it was, was preceded by a perfect execution, by the use of appropriated materials, and where the different parts were measured following a general plan of whole proportions and the search of balance elements. We will see how -based on the science of these XVIII century engineers- all those principies have to be explained through the nature of the algebraical reasons, the mechanical knowledge and the abstract understanding of the structural elements. It is worthwhile to point out that this work is a part of a much more important investigation concerning the transformations of the technical knowledge concerning engineering and architecture between XVI and XVIII centuries, as well in Europe as in America, insisting on the role played by the academies and schools, in one or the other ocean side.En 1729 aparece publicado en París el

  2. en el noroeste de Sonora durante los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Douglas Taylor Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La explotación de yacimientos de oro y plata en el noroeste de Sonora, que inició con una serie de descubrimientos importantes durante el siglo XVIII, siguió desempeñando un papel significativo en la economía regional también en el siglo XIX. Esta continuidad se debió, en parte, a nuevos hallazgos de minerales, particularmente en la zona de la Papaguería (1834-1844, así como al resurgimiento de algunos de los sitios más antiguos, como La Cieneguilla y San Francisco de Asís. Al tomar en cuenta todo el periodo, la cantidad de metales preciosos producidos -en especia l de oro- fue considerable. Las actividades mineras ayudaron a estimular el comercio e i ncrementar la población de Altar, Caborca y Sonoita, que se convirtieron en centros importantes de la región.

  3. La limpieza de sangre en el Colegio de Abogados de Caracas a finales del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rafael Almarza Villalobos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El discurso de la limpieza de sangre es esencial para la comprensión de los valores de las sociedades hispanas de la época colonial. En este artículo se muestra cómo un discurso originado en el continente europeo pasó a ser la base del sistema de estratificación social en el nuevo orden colonial y se analiza el impacto de la transferencia de ideas desde España a las sociedades coloniales, a partir del estudio del Colegio de Abogados de Caracas. El concepto de limpieza de sangre en la provincia de Caracas fue distinto del establecido en la metrópolis. En estas tierras, la limpieza de sangre fue preocupación de todos los grupos sociales que conformaban la provincia durante el siglo XVIII y elemento fundamental para que la élite criolla mantuviera el control de las instituciones civiles y eclesiásticas.

  4. La inmigración extranjera a Ferrol durante el s. XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín García, Alfredo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The town of Ferrol experienced an important demographic increase during the second half of 18th century, thanks to the erection of the new crown arsenals in its port. The prospects opened up by this new situation, lead to the arrival of an important number of foreigners, highlighting the British, French, Italian and Portuguese contribution. The British attained an important role in the organization of the arsenals and the French held a privileged position in the town's commerce.

    La villa de Ferrol experimentó, en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, un importante crecimiento demográfico, merced a la erección en su puerto de los nuevos arsenales de la Corona. Las expectativas abiertas por esta novedosa situación, provocaron la llegada de un importante número de extranjeros, destacando la aportación británica, francesa, italiana y portuguesa. De entre ellos, los británicos adquirieron un notable papel en el organigrama de los arsenales y los franceses, ocuparon una posición privilegiada en el comercio de la villa.

  5. Alianzas y traiciones en la pampa rioplatense durante el siglo XVIII

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    Gabriel Taruselli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como escenario la región pampeana del Río de la Plata durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. En 1770 fue arrestado allí un indio llamado Flamenco. Remitido a la cárcel de Buenos Aires, el gobernador Vértiz dispuso inmediatamente una serie de diligencias para saber qué hacer con él. El expediente que entonces se formó contiene la opinión de los principales personajes de la campaña bonaerense y la declaración del propio Flamenco. Su análisis nos permite describir el mundo rural colonial rioplatense y las estrategias desplegadas por los españoles para controlar un territorio donde grupos indígenas mantuvieron su autonomía hasta mediados del siglo XIX. Para ampliar la información se relevaron fuentes documentales éditas e inéditas, conservadas en el Archivo General de la Nación, Argentina.

  6. El cielo y el infierno en el imaginario español del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta CANTERLA GONZÁLEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La creencia en la existencia de un Juicio posterior a la muerte cuya sentencia ha de conducir al individuo al Cielo o al Infierno –o bien, al estadio intermedio del Purgatorio– sigue estando presente en la sociedad española del siglo XVIII tanto, como medio de control social que como fuente de representaciones imaginativas. Esta última dualidad explica muchos rasgos de las pautas existenciales –presentes por igual en la vida cotidiana, la pintura, la literatura o la crítica social– del carácter ilustrado, así como del prerromántico.ABSTRACT: The belief in the existence of a Judgement wich sentence will lead the person after death to Heaven or Hell (or to the intermediate Stage of the Purgatory, is still being present in the spanish society of the XVIIIth century, so much as a way of social control, as a source of the imaginative representations. These last duality explain many characteristics of the existencial paterns of the enlightened and preromantic character, present equaly in the everiday life, the pinture, the literature and the social criticism.

  7. (Una visión del medioambiente en los siglos XV al XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ojeda Nieto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los siglos XV y XVIII los oriolanos persiguieron a lobos y pájaros. Buscaban el exterminio del predador para acabar con los desmanes en los rebaños de ganado y con el temor ancestral, revivido constantemente en cuentos y leyendas. Mataban pájaros porque su proliferación reducía las cosechas. Se trataba de controlar, cuando no eliminar, unos competidores desleales. A la historia del medioambiente le corresponde señalar no solo los fenómenos de transformación y degradación del espacio, también la relación antrópica con las demás especies. La relación hombre-lobos y pájaros, y aún las ratas, en la Orihuela de los siglos señalados, constituye un modelo de análisis que compete también al campo de las ciencias humanas.

  8. El viaje como formación: ejemplos de la literatura europea del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás BAS MARTÍN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La importancia que la literatura de viajes adquirió en el siglo XVIII es una de las razones que nos han llevado a indagar en la faceta instructiva que estas obras tuvieron en la sociedad del momento. Adoptando la premisa de «viajar para saber», el viaje se convirtió no sólo en un ejercicio de formación individual, sino en un instrumento de formación e información de primera magnitud. Gobiernos, instituciones e individuos hicieron de los viajes unas de sus fuentes de información más importantes. Expediciones que fueron llevadas pronto a la imprenta, completando el carácter pedagógico y didáctico de las mismas, al ir acompañadas de grabados de lugares, hombres y costumbres nunca hasta ahora conocidas. Con ese fin, de instruirse para instruir, recorremos algunas de las obras emblemáticas de la literatura de viajes de la Ilustración.

  9. Prácticas de sociabilidad. Salones y espacio público en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger CHARTIER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo estudia el papel desempeñado por las mujeres en la sociabilidad cultural del siglo XVIII francés, situándose en el marco del debate abierto en la historiografía, en particular norteamericana, en torno a la exclusión de las mujeres de la ciudadanía durante la Revolución y a las funciones que ejercieron en la vida política del Antiguo Régimen. A partir del análisis de los salones del siglo xvm, propone construir otra cronología, menos lineal, de la exclusión de las mujeres del espacio público de la crítica y de la política.ABSTRACT: This essay studies the role of women in eighteenth-century cultural sociability, in the framework of the debate on the issues of their exclusion from citizenship during the French Revolution and their functions in Ancien régime political life. On the base of analysis of the nature and roles of eighteenth- century salons, it proposes a less simplistic account of women's exclusion from the public sphere of intellectual debate and politics.

  10. Moving forward with imperfect information: chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Brekke, Levi D.; Kaatz, Laurna; Welling, Leigh; Hartge, Eric H.; Iseman, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarized the scope of what is known and not known about climate in the Southwestern United States. There is now more evidence and more agreement among climate scientists about the physical climate and related impacts in the Southwest compared with that represented in the 2009 National Climate Assessment (Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009). However, there remain uncertainties about the climate system, the complexities within climate models, the related impacts to the biophysical environment, and the use of climate information on decision making. Uncertainty is introduced in each step of the climate planning-an-response process--in the scenarios used to drive the climate models, the information used to construct the models, and the interpretation and use of the model' data for planning and decision making (Figure 19.1). There are server key challenge, drawn from recommendations of the authors of this report, that contribute to these uncertainties in the Southwest: - There is a dearth of climate observations at high elevations and on the lands of Native nations.

  11. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  12. Chapter 14: Web-based Tools - WESIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krughoff, K. S.; Connolly, A. J.

    We present here the design and features of the Web Enabled Source Identifier with X-Matching (WESIX). With the proliferation of large imaging surveys, it has become increasingly apparent that tasks performed frequently by astronomers need to be made available in a web-aware manner. The reasons for this are twofold: First, it is no longer feasible to work with the complete data sets. Calculations are much more efficient if they can be carried out at the data center where large files can be transferred quickly. Second, exploratory science can be greatly facilitated by combining common tasks into integrated web services. WESIX addresses both of these issues. It is deployable to large data centers where source identification can be carried out at the data source. In addition, WESIX can transparently leverage the capabilities of Open SkyQuery to crossmatch with large catalogs. The result is a web-based service that integrates object detection with the ability to crossmatch against published catalog data. In this chapter we will discuss how WESIX is constructed, its functionality and some example usage. Section 1 will give a brief overview of the architecture of the service. Section 2 will introduce the features of the service through both the web browser and SOAP web service interfaces. Section 3 gives a detailed overview of the web service methods. Section 4 walks through the example client distributed with the software package.

  13. Presencia musical en la Catedral de La Seu d'Urgell en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII a través de sus actas capitulares

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    Roig i Capdevila, Jordi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay is the continuation, presented as the second part, of the article published last year in this same Review, With its publication we shall have covered all of the 18th century, up to the beginning of the 19th century with respect to allusions of a musical nature made during the Chapter ceremonies in the Cathedral in the Pyrenees (the hiring and the activities of its musicians, protagonists of the religious functions with musical accompaniment, etc.. As the last issue covered the years 1700-1750, we continue on from 1751 to 1810. In this way we relate the musical life of this Cathedral music chapel, thus linking up with the anterior studies carried out by Felipe Pedrell and Higinio Anglés, who covered mostly the 16th and 17th centuries, thereby enlightening those interested concerning some of the fundamental characteristics of the cultural, social and artistic evolution of La Seu d'Urgell which stamped the city with an identity of its own.

    El presente artículo supone la continuación, como segunda parte, del publicado el año anterior en esta misma revista. Se cubre con ello todo el siglo XVIII, e incluso los primeros años del siglo XIX, en lo referente a alusiones de índole musical en las actas capitulares de la catedral pirenaica (contrataciones y actividad de sus músicos protagonistas, funciones religiosas con participación musical, etc., pues, editados en el número anterior los años 1700-1750, se prosigue ahora con los años 1751-1810. De este modo, se da noticia sobre la vida musical de esta capilla musical catedralicia, empalmando con los anteriores trabajos realizados por Felipe Pedrell e Higinio Anglés (que cubrían básicamente los siglos XVI y XVII, aproximando con ello al interesado algunas de las características fundamentales en la evolución cultural, social y artística de La Seu d'Urgell, que proporcionaron personalidad propia a la ciudad.

  14. Basic operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gohberg, Israel

    2001-01-01

    rii application of linear operators on a Hilbert space. We begin with a chapter on the geometry of Hilbert space and then proceed to the spectral theory of compact self adjoint operators; operational calculus is next presented as a nat­ ural outgrowth of the spectral theory. The second part of the text concentrates on Banach spaces and linear operators acting on these spaces. It includes, for example, the three 'basic principles of linear analysis and the Riesz­ Fredholm theory of compact operators. Both parts contain plenty of applications. All chapters deal exclusively with linear problems, except for the last chapter which is an introduction to the theory of nonlinear operators. In addition to the standard topics in functional anal­ ysis, we have presented relatively recent results which appear, for example, in Chapter VII. In general, in writ­ ing this book, the authors were strongly influenced by re­ cent developments in operator theory which affected the choice of topics, proofs and exercises. One ...

  15. Tensor norms and operator ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Defant, A; Floret, K

    1992-01-01

    The three chapters of this book are entitled Basic Concepts, Tensor Norms, and Special Topics. The first may serve as part of an introductory course in Functional Analysis since it shows the powerful use of the projective and injective tensor norms, as well as the basics of the theory of operator ideals. The second chapter is the main part of the book: it presents the theory of tensor norms as designed by Grothendieck in the Resumé and deals with the relation between tensor norms and operator ideals. The last chapter deals with special questions. Each section is accompanied by a series of exer

  16. Molecular Analysis of Collagen XVIII Reveals Novel Mutations, Presence of a Third Isoform, and Possible Genetic Heterogeneity in Knobloch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, O. T.; Sertié, A. L.; Der Kaloustian, V. M.; Kok, F.; Carpenter, M.; Murray, J.; Czeizel, A. E.; Kliemann, S. E.; Rosemberg, S.; Monteiro, M.; Olsen, B. R.; Passos-Bueno, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    Knobloch syndrome (KS) is a rare disease characterized by severe ocular alterations, including vitreoretinal degeneration associated with retinal detachment and occipital scalp defect. The responsible gene, COL18A1, has been mapped to 21q22.3, and, on the basis of the analysis of one family, we have demonstrated that a mutation affecting only one of the three COL18A1 isoforms causes this phenotype. We report here the results of the screening of both the entire coding region and the exon-intron boundaries of the COL18A1 gene (which includes 43 exons), in eight unrelated patients with KS. Besides 20 polymorphic changes, we identified 6 different pathogenic changes in both alleles of five unrelated patients with KS (three compound heterozygotes and two homozygotes). All are truncating mutations leading to deficiency of one or all collagen XVIII isoforms and endostatin. We have verified that, in exon 41, the deletion c3514-3515delCT, found in three unrelated alleles, is embedded in different haplotypes, suggesting that this mutation has occurred more than once. In addition, our results provide evidence of nonallelic genetic heterogeneity in KS. We also show that the longest human isoform (NC11-728) is expressed in several tissues (including the human eye) and that lack of either the short variant or all of the collagen XVIII isoforms causes similar phenotypes but that those patients who lack all forms present more-severe ocular alterations. Despite the small sample size, we found low endostatin plasma levels in those patients with mutations leading to deficiency of all isoforms; in addition, it seems that absence of all collagen XVIII isoforms causes predisposition to epilepsy. PMID:12415512

  17. Grand-Slam Strategies: Winning Tips for Cutting Chapter Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Melinda

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for more cost-effective college alumni chapter administration include better marketing and communications, regionally tailored periodicals, planning ahead, coordinating spring volunteer training with admissions travel, encouraging faculty participation, using mentors for program development, letting chapters pay expenses, and better use…

  18. Improving the Identification of Schools for Chapter 1 Program Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Jerome

    Technical problems with norm-referenced achievement testing that can lead to the erroneous evaluation of schools for Chapter 1 Program improvement is discussed, and an alternative testing model is presented. The history of Chapter 1 testing and evaluation policies is briefly reviewed, and problems with the norm-referenced model are explored. Data…

  19. El relato breve francés a finales del siglo XVIII y principios del siglo XIX : los cuentos y las nouvelles del Caballero de Boufflers

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente-Yagüe Jara, Antonio José de

    2012-01-01

    Stanislas de Boufflers (1738-1815), más conocido en su época como el caballero de Boufflers, es un escritor lorenés algo olvidado, perdido entre esa gran masa de autores que recorrieron el siglo XVIII francés. En estas páginas pretendemos presentar a este gran desconocido de la literatura francesa de finales del siglo XVIII y principios del XIX, al igual que analizar sus cuentos y sus nouvelles, ya que éstos constituyen un elemento imprescindible para comprender la personalidad de nuestro aut...

  20. El relato breve francés a finales del siglo XVIII y principios del siglo XIX: los cuentos y las nouvelles del caballero de Boufflers

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente-Yagüe Jara, Antonio José de

    2012-01-01

    Stanislas de Boufflers (1738-1815), más conocido en su época como el caballero de Boufflers, es un escritor lorenés algo olvidado, perdido entre esa gran masa de autores que recorrieron el siglo XVIII francés. En estas páginas pretendemos presentar a este gran desconocido de la literatura francesa de finales del siglo XVIII y principios del XIX, al igual que analizar sus cuentos y sus nouvelles, ya que éstos constituyen un elemento imprescindible para comprender la personalidad de nuestro aut...

  1. Población, sociedad y economía en la campaña rioplatense el pago de la costa en el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Olivero Guidobono, Sandra Fabiana

    2004-01-01

    Estudio de historia de la población de un pago rural, lindero con la ciudad de Buenos Aires, productor cerealero en el temprano Siglo XVIII. A través del análisis de padrones de población, listas nominativas, libros parroquiales, testamentos, dotes y proc Estudio de historia de la población de un pago rural, lindero con la ciudad de Buenos Aires, productor cerealero en el temprano Siglo XVIII. A través del análisis de padrones de población, listas nominativas, libros parroquiales, testamen...

  2. Dos poetes de la primera metada del XVIII: Xuan Fernández Porléi y Nicolás Torano de la Puerta

    OpenAIRE

    Busto Cortina, Xuan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo estudia y edita la obra en asturiano de dos poetas de la primera mitad del siglo XVIII inéditos hasta ahora: Xuan Fernández Porléi y Nicolás Torano de la Puerta. Las dos figuras vienen a cubrir un hueco temporal poco conocido en la historia literaria asturiana, entre los primeros autores del siglo XVII y la generación ilustrada de finales del XVIII. En los dos casos, se procede a un breve estudio biográfico de ambos autores y a la edición crítica anotada de las obras respectivas...

  3. La espiritualidad mundana en Cuenca a inicios del siglo XVIII. El caso de Martina Catalina de Barzallo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Catalina León Galarza

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo examina el proceso judicial de una monja en Cuenca, a inicios del siglo XVIII, que buscaba regresar a la "vida mundana" y anular su profesión y hábito. Este caso permite mostrar la mentalidad barroca, acercarse a la construcción cultural del cuerpo y a la situación de las mujeres. A partir de los fragmentos disponibles del juicio, el artículo sugiere que Martina Catalina de Barzallo reivindicó el retomo a la vida mundana y el rechazo a las prácticas coercitivas propias de la vida monástica.

  4. El color y su significado en los documentos cartográficos del Cuerpo de Ingenieros Militares del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita San Andrés Moya; José Manuel de la Roja de la Roja

    2009-01-01

    Los Documentos Cartográficos del Cuerpo de Ingenieros Militares del s. XVIII y las fuentes documentales asociadas a su ejecución tienen un gran interés histórico, artístico y cultural. En este artículo se analizan las fuentes relacionadas con las técnicas, los materiales y sus formas de aplicación. Se describen los pigmentos y colorantes recogidos en los distintos tratados relacionados con este arte, especialmente los referidos a la técnica del lavado, en los que, además, se hace referencia a...

  5. Aportación a la farmacoterapia del siglo XVIII: el recetario médico de Anselmo Arias Teixeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Soaje, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among a number of eighteen century manuscripts attributed to Anselmo Arias Teixeiro we had located the document presented in this research, a heterogeneous set of recipes aimed at a public with low income. It is a relatively common type of work throughout the century, whereby, its author based on some popular editions which circulate with relative success despite its limitations from a therapeutic point of view. The manuscript, which we present entirely helps to see the therapeutic of eighteenth century from a different perspective away from medical treatises or the official pharmacopoeia that characterize the new enlightened science.Entre una serie de manuscritos del siglo XVIII atribuidos a Anselmo Arias Teixeiro hemos localizado el documento que presentamos en esta investigación, un conjunto heterogéneo de recetas destinadas a un público con escasos recursos económicos. Se trata de un tipo de obra relativamente frecuente a lo largo de aquel siglo, por lo cual, el autor se basa en algunas ediciones que circularon con relativo éxito, a pesar de sus evidentes limitaciones desde el punto de vista terapéutico. El manuscrito, que presentamos íntegramente, contribuye a ver la terapéuticadel siglo XVIII desde una óptica diferente, alejada de los tratados de medicina o las farmacopeas oficiales que caracterizaban a la nueva ciencia ilustrada. [gl] Entre unha serie de manuscritos do século XVIII atribuidos a Anselmo Arias Teixeiro localizamos o documento que amosamos nesta investigación, un conxunto heteroxéneo de receitas destiñadas a un público con escasos recursos económicos. Trátase dun tipo de obra relativamente frecuente ao longo daquel século, polo cal, o autor baséase nalgunhas edicións que circularon con relativo éxito, a pesares das súas evidentes limitacións dende o punto de vista terapéutico. O manuscrito, o cal amosamos íntegramente, contribúe a ve-la terapéutica do século XVIII dende unha óptica diferente

  6. Municipalismo em Portugal: dinâmicas locais e oferta educativa (séculos XVIII-XX)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    O Encontro Nacional “Municipalismo em Portugal: dinâmicas locais e oferta educativa e cultural (séculos XVIII-XX). Centenário da Reforma Republicana da Administração local”, realizado em 20 de Dezembro de 2013, foi assumido por membros da equipa do projecto Atlas-Repertório. Este Encontro destinou-se a proporcionar ao conjunto de investigadores, que está directamente envolvido no trabalho de campo, oportunidade para apresentar publicamente resultados da própria investigação. O Encontro inclui...

  7. El orden público en la villa de Biar durante el siglo XVIII (1750-1798)

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado Izquierdo, Leonor

    1997-01-01

    Se estudian las causas de la violencia cotidiana en una villa alicantina de realengo durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, y la actuación de la justicia local, que hasta 1791 estuvo a cargo de dos alcaldes ordinarios. El nombramiento de un Alcalde Mayor de origen foráneo consiguió reducir considerablemente los problemas de orden público. The causes of the daily violence in a villa of Alicante, during the second half of the 18th Century, are studied in this article as well as the per...

  8. La administración de la provincia de Sonora: los alcaldes mayores en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Borrero Silva, María del Valle

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se quiere mostrar cómo funcionaban las alcaldías mayores en una provincia de la frontera novohispana, Sonora. Provincia que hasta 1732 va a depender del gobierno de la nueva Vizcaya, por lo tanto los alcaldes mayores tenían como autoridad superior a tal gobernador, aunque para todo lo judicial dependían de la Audiencia neogallega. Esta doble dependencia originó a lo largo del siglo XVIII muchos conflictos de intereses, que los propios alcaldes manejaron para su propio interés ...

  9. La consulta médica. Una práctica de la medicina del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Leon-Sanz, P. (Pilar)

    2002-01-01

    Pretendemos realizar una tipología de la práctica de las consultas, centrándonos en las presenciales. Observamos que la consulta médica del siglo XVIII no difiere de la ya practicada en siglos precedentes. La consulta médica, con una etiqueta bien definida, fue un instrumento para jerarquizar a quienes a ella concurrían. Refleja bien la inestabilidad que preside el dieciocho español desde el punto de vista profesional. Las fuentes utilizadas son los relatos de médicos del siglo...

  10. Acto de inauguración del XVIII Congreso Bianual de Geofísicos y Geodestas en la UNLP

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, Juan Carlos; Lima, Luis Julián; Torge, Wolfgang; Rodríguez, Rubén

    1994-01-01

    Radio Universidad Nacional de La Plata transmite en directo el acto de inauguración del XVIII Congreso Bianual de Geofísicos y Geodestas, realizado en 1994 en la UNLP. Hablan el decano de la Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Juan Carlos Forte, sobre el origen e historia del Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata; el titular de la Asociación Argentina de Geofísica y Geodesia, ingeniero Rubén Rodríguez; el presidente de la Asociación Internacional de Geofísica, profesor Wolfgang Tor...

  11. Niveles de riqueza y condiciones de vida del artesanado palentino de La Puebla en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolomé Bartolomé, Juan Manuel

    1996-01-01

    A través del estudio realizado por medio de los inventarios, hemos apreciado que los niveles de riqueza patrimonial y las condiciones de vida de los artesanos del "trato de la lana" o del "trato de la Puebla" palentinos en el siglo XVIII son muy modestos, concentrándose sobre todo en los bienes mobiliarios y con una escasa presencia en los bienes raíces y en la ganadería. Además, dentro de los bienes mobiliarios serán los conectados con su actividad profesional, los que absorberán la mayor pa...

  12. Cultura escrita, oralidade e gênero em conventos portugueses (séculos XVII e XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Bellini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda formatos e usos da escrita em mosteiros femininos e masculinos, no Portugal dos séculos XVII e XVIII, buscando explorar significados particulares do domínio de técnicas escriturais. Neste sentido, procura adaptar, à especificidade do contexto analisado, sugestões metodológicas dos estudos sobre as implicações do letramento e seus vínculos com a esfera da oralidade, noutros universos histórico-sociais.

  13. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  14. BAJA DE LA FECUNDIDAD Y FAMILIA URBANA EN REIMS EN EL SIGLO XVIII (1760-1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTOINETTE FAUVE-CHAMOUX

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Bajo el Antiguo Régimen, existió un sistema de reproducción familiar específico de las ciudades. Esta es la conclusión que se puede sacar de las investigaciones realizadas hasta ahora sobre la transición demográfica en el medio urbano. Comparando Ginebra con Rouen, Alfred Perrenoud logró demostrar que la alta burguesía, tanto suiza como normanda, practicaba el control de la natalidad en 1650 (Perrenoud, 1990, y esto antes incluso que empezara a bajar seriamente la tasa de mortalidad (Bardet, 1990. Tanto en Rouen como en Ginebra, el control de la descendencia se extendió luego rápidamente al conjunto de la población, como lo demuestra la caída regular de la fecundidad. A estos dos principales modelos testigos del comportamiento innovador de algunas familias urbanas de Europa occidental en los siglos XVII y XVIII, cabe agregar el de Reims, ciudad de los Reyes de Francia ubicada en Champagne con 30.000 habitantes, famosa desde luego por sus vinos espumantes después de 1700, pero también por sus tejidos de lana. Bajo el Antiguo Régimen, existió un sistema de reproducción familiar específico de las ciudades. Esta es la

  15. Ilustración y Riegos: la Real Acequia del Jarama en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo llera, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jarama Royal Channel was one of the first hydraulic developments in the 18 century, and thus, an exponent of the problems posed and the efforts made in order to improve Madrid's water supply. Proyected in the 16 century, stasted to be built in 17 century, was not finished until 1740. Nevertheless in the was only used for a short time due to the fact that it was soon affected by leaking and lanslide problems, which hindered its normal working process till well in the 20 century. The issues studied ar building problems, the main protagonists as well as the rules of irrigation, clear precedents of later publics works of great significance for our country.

    [es] La Real Acequia del Jarama fue una de las primeras actuaciones hidráulicas de nuestro siglo XVIII y, como tal, exponente de los problemas y esfuerzos por mejorar con el riego las condiciones de abastecimiento de Madrid. Proyectada en el siglo XVI e iniciada en el XVII, no se concluye hasta 1740, aunque por poco tiempo, pues pronto se vio afectada por numerosos problemas de filtraciones y derrumbamientos que impidieron su normal funcionamiento hasta bien entrado en siglo XX. Se estudian los problemas de la construcción, sus principales protagonistas y problemas, así como la reglamentación del regadío, claro precedentes de otras actuaciones posteriores, de gran trascendencia en nuestro país. [fr] Illustration et Arrosage: Le Canal Royal d'irrigation du Jarama au XVIIléme siècle. Le Canal Royal d'irrigation du Jarama a été une des premieres activités hydrauliques de notre XVIIIéme siècle et c'est la preuve des problèmes et des efforts d'amélioration, grâce à l´ irrigation , des conditions de ravitaillement de Madrid. Projeté au XVIéme, commencé au ; XVIIéme on ne le finit qu'en 1740, mais per peu de temps car très vite, il a été affecté par des nombreux problèmes de nitrations et d'écroulements qui ont emp

  16. Montes de Piedad eclesiásticos y particulares (S. XVIII-XIX: Usos monetarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Serrulla, María Teresa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Montes de Piedad (Mounts of Mercy, beneficial-credit institutions, arise in Italy (S. XV to initiative of Franciscans preachers, with the objective to provide loans on pignoratious guarantees to an interest lower than the demanded by the moneylenders. This type of institution propagates immediately by all Italian geography, and going beyond its borders will arrive at other European zones, among them to the Iberian Peninsula. Within the Hispanic monarchy in the beginnings of century XVIII the foundation of Monte de Piedad of Madrid takes place, by Piquer Father who will be inheriting of the spirit and objectives of primitive Italian predecessors and will include some new features as a result of the devotion of their founder and the particularities of that time. This Monte will serve as a model for other similar institutions as much in the peninsula as in the American virreinatos. With time, a series of new foundations will take place, bearing the same denomination (all will take by name Monte de Piedad, but with important differences in their constitutions and aims. These foundations arise as much in ecclesiastical as secular scope. The analysis of some of these institutions is the objective of the present study, differentiating ecclesiastical and secular foundations (in these last ones a further difference is made for the ones founded by members of the nobility. Starting off from original texts, the particular or general objectives and their beneficial aims are analyzed and different aspects related to their start up, lawsuits, use for aims different from the indicated ones in their foundation, etc.Los Montes de Piedad, instituciones benéfico-crediticias, surgen en Italia (S. XV a iniciativa de predicadores franciscanos, con el objetivo de proporcionar préstamos sobre garantías prendarias a un interés más bajo que el exigido por los prestamistas. Este tipo de institución se propaga enseguida por toda la geografía italiana, traspasando sus

  17. THEMES AND MOTIVES OF ORNAMENT FOLK EMBROIDERY IN THE RUSSIAN NORTH IN XVIII CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkevich S. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses a feature of graphic ornamental motives of embroidery in clothing and household decoration, typical for the North-West region of Russia in the XVIII century. The semiotic status of the Russian clothing and household decorations with decorative ornaments embroidery with figurative ornamental motives as a group of functionally related items have remained very high, having both utilitarian and sign pragmatics for millennia. Despite the sociohistorical processes, changing the external shape of the suit, the symbolism of embroidery patterns remained unchanged and continued to exist until the twentieth century. In connection with the political events, readier subjects and fine motives can be traced in the Russian folk embroidery due to the resettlement of Novgorod in the XV century. This is the way from Novgorod to Arkhangelsk and the path from Veliky Novgorod to Vologda where Novgorod settled, keeping their culture. It is proved, that there is a correlation between the zoomorphic pendants, amulets female ornaments of the tenth century and plot embroidered with iconic ornamental motives of the North-West region of Russia. People piously observed the laws of their fathers and grandfathers. The embroidery from generation to generation has been portraying images of ancient mythology. The most common images in the northern Russian embroidery were the goddess of Mokos, Rozhanitsy, birds, horses, moose, deer, and wild animals and plants, depicted in subject compositions. The zoomorphic motives are also the images of flying dragons, symbolizing lightning, they are often found in Russian folk tales. Fire Dragon was considered the protector of property and fire. The people’s attitude to fire was special: it was called "You sir, the King-fire", and it was regards’ a god. One of the main roles in the embroidery is given to the technical side. Counted Russian embroidery stitches do not only recreate the image, but also express its

  18. INSTALACIONES Y EQUIPAMIENTO VITIVINÍCOLA EN EL REINO DE CHILE. VASIJAS, PIPAS, LAGARES (SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo examina las instalaciones y el equipamiento de los establecimientos vitivinícolas del Reino de Chile en el siglo XVIII. El tema es relevante porque en ese momento, Chile era el principal polo vitivinícola de América y ejercía un liderazgo en la región. Se estudian las distintas formas de lagares, tanto los de cuero como los de adobe, cal y ladrillo; también se indaga en la evolución de la vasija vinaria, de la greda la madera. Los hornos botijeros ocuparon un lugar importante por su aporte a la fabricación de tinajas y botijas. Estos recipientes fueron como un icono característico de la viticultura del sur de América (en México la vasija no era de greda sino de madera, aún al comienzo de la industria vitivinícola. Posteriormente, a partir de la mitad de la centuria, comenzó la incorporación de vasija de madera (pipas y barriles en Chile. Durante cincuenta años éstas convivieron con los recipientes de greda, hasta comenzar a sustituirlos progresivamente en el siglo XIX. Este equipamiento hizo posible el desarrollo de una de las principales industrias que hubo en América española durante la época colonial y que, actualmente, sigue siendo la principal industria de Chile.

  19. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  20. Chapter 34 - Every Moment Counts: Synchrophasors for Distribution Networks with Variable Resources

    CERN Document Server

    von Meier, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Historically, with mostly radial power distribution and one-way power flow, it was only necessary to evaluate the envelope of design conditions, e.g., peak loads or fault currents, rather than continually observe the operating state. But the growth of distributed energy resources introduces variability, uncertainty, and opportunities to recruit diverse resources for grid services. This chapter addresses how the direct measurement of voltage phase angle might enable new strategies for managing distribution networks with diverse, active components.

  1. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  2. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  3. Applied Space Systems Engineering. Chapter 17; Manage Technical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Effective space systems engineering (SSE) is conducted in a fully electronic manner. Competitive hardware, software, and system designs are created in a totally digital environment that enables rapid product design and manufacturing cycles, as well as a multitude of techniques such as modeling, simulation, and lean manufacturing that significantly reduce the lifecycle cost of systems. Because the SSE lifecycle depends on the digital environment, managing the enormous volumes of technical data needed to describe, build, deploy, and operate systems is a critical factor in the success of a project. This chapter presents the key aspects of Technical Data Management (TDM) within the SSE process. It is written from the perspective of the System Engineer tasked with establishing the TDM process and infrastructure for a major project. Additional perspectives are reflected from the point of view of the engineers on the project who work within the digital engineering environment established by the TDM toolset and infrastructure, and from the point of view of the contactors who interface via the TDM infrastructure. Table 17.1 lists the TDM process as it relates to SSE.

  4. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  5. New Chapter in Exchange Rate Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of new trading model has multiple significance China's central bank invited public bidding among 10 major domestic commercial banks to carry out one-year-long currency swap transactions last November. This move, according to Zuo Xiaolei, Chief Economist of China Galaxy Securities Co. Ltd., not only enables financial derivatives to become an operational instrument for implementing monetary policy, but also represents another action of the marketization of the exchange rate regime after an ear...

  6. Contribuciones al estudiode los anfibios y reptiles de Méxicodurante el siglo XVIII y la Ilustración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Casas Andreu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las bases de la herpetología moderna en general se establecieron en el siglo XVIII,particularmente durante la Ilustración y quienes hicieron la mayor contribución fueronfundamentalmente los naturalistas franceses. No obstante, en México se hicieron varias publicacionesde cierto relieve, en especial por los misioneros jesuitas y otros estudiosos de la Nueva España. Esinteresante mencionar que aun con la trascendencia de Linneo para la biología moderna, algunoshistoriadores de los anfibios y los reptiles señalan que por lo menos para la herpetofauna de Méxicoexistió una importante regresión, ya que era mucho mayor el conocimiento que había dejadoFrancisco Hernández en el siglo XVI. Las contribuciones de los autores de la escuela francesa comoBuffon y quienes lo sucedieron como Lacepéde y Daudin, fueron los grandes pilares de laherpetología o estudios de los anfibios y los reptiles de la manera en que la conocemos en laactualidad. Las bases establecidas en el siglo XVIII sirvieron para que con la apertura de México almundo a partir de su independencia, se entrara en una de las etapas de mayor relevancia para laherpetología del país.

  7. Temática de las constituciones sinodales indianas (s. XVI-XVIII). Arquidiócesis de la Plata. [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Alejos-Grau, C.J. (Carmen José)

    2004-01-01

    Reseña de: Nelson C. DELLAFERRERA, Mónica P. MARTINI, Temática de las constituciones sinodales indianas (s. XVI-XVIII). Arquidiócesis de la Plata, Instituto de Investigaciones de Historia del Derecho, Buenos Aires 2002, 209 pp.

  8. Los conventos femeninos y el mundo urbano de la Puebla de los Ángeles del siglo XVIII. [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Luque-Alcaide, E. (Elisa)

    2003-01-01

    Reseña de: Rosalva LORETO LÓPEZ, Los conventos femeninos y el mundo urbano de la Puebla de los Ángeles del siglo XVIII, prólogo de Asunción Lavrín, El Colegio de México-Centro de Estudios Histórico, México 2000, 334 pp.

  9. La invención del catolicismo en América. Los procesos de evangelización, siglos XVI-XVIII. [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Benito-Rodríguez, J.A. (José Antonio)

    2010-01-01

    Reseña de: Fernando Armas Asín (ed.), La invención del catolicismo en América. Los procesos de evangelización, siglos XVI-XVIII, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos – Fondo Editorial de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Lima 2009, 258 pp.

  10. Chapter 3: Photovoltaic Module Stability and Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Profits realized from investment in photovoltaic will benefit from decades of reliable operation. Service life prediction through accelerated tests is only possible if indoor tests duplicate power loss and failure modes observed in fielded systems. Therefore, detailing and quantifying power loss and failure modes is imperative. In the first section, we examine recent trends in degradation rates, the gradual power loss observed for different technologies, climates and other significant factors. In the second section, we provide a summary of the most commonly observed failure modes in fielded systems.

  11. Fabricator opens next chapter in style

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Terry

    1997-07-01

    The evolution of two offshore fabrication yards over twenty five years at Nigg and Ardersier on the Cromarty and Moray Firths in Scotland is traced. For most of the period since opening in 1972, the two yards operated as separate competing entities under the ownership of the construction companies Brown and Root and McDermott. In the early 1990s, market demand was shifting from the yard`s traditional base of fixed platforms to floating and subsea technology while competition in the fabrication industry was growing in Europe. In response to this market challenge, in 1995 the two companies entered into a joint venture to operate the two yards as one entity, Barmac. Within three months of the formation of Barmac, the decision was taken to focus participation in the traditional offshore market at Ardersier and redevelop Nigg to take advantage of the rapidly expanding marine business. The key to this has been the transformation of Nigg`s dormant graving dock into a dry dock capable of handling new market applications such as floating production systems, production jackups and semi-submersibles as newbuild, conversions or refurbishment. Two major construction contracts using the dock have already been secured by Barmac and other opportunities are opening up. Meanwhile, performance improvements have also been made in the traditional business at Ardersier. (UK)

  12. Chapter Boundaries, Navajo Nation, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing the Chapter Boundaries within Navajo Nation. These administrative boundaries are related to the Navajo Nation...

  13. Seleucid, Demotic and Mediterranean mathematics versus Chapters VIII and IX of the Nine Chapters: accidental or significant similarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Similarities of geometrical diagrams and arithmetical structures of problems have often been taken as evidence of transmission of mathematical knowledge or techniques between China and “the West”. Confronting on one hand some problems from Chapter VIII of the Nine Chapters with comparable problems...... known from Ancient Greek sources, on the other a Seleucid collection of problems about rectangles with a subset of the triangle problems from Chapter IX, it is concluded, (1) that transmission of some arithmetical riddles without method – not “from Greece” but from a transnational community of traders...

  14. Gurruminos, petimetres, abates y currutacos en el teatro breve del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Valldaura, Josep Maria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study of certain negative models of sainetes [afterpieces] from the 18th century reveals not only a continuity of comic stereotypes, but also their relationship to the ideals of behaviour of the era: the authority of the husband, the submissiveness of the wife, thriftiness in managing household finances, etc. Afterpieces join other literary genres (journalism, satirical poetry and the moral essay in ridiculing those who are involved in the practice of cortejo and who readily adopt new forms of social behavior, fashions, foreign dances, etc., in contrast to traditional ways and tastes. Examples taken from Antonio de Zamora, Agramont, Ramón de la Cruz, Vázquez and González del Castillo are used to illustrate this reticence towards changes in mentality of a new culture of leisure, as well as to observe it a contrario: its “feminization”, its frivolity, and its uselessness.El estudio de ciertos modelos negativos del teatro breve del siglo XVIII revela no sólo la continuidad cómica de los tipos, sino también su relación con los ideales de conducta coetáneos: la autoridad del marido, la discreción de la mujer, el cuidado de la economía familiar... Los sainetes se unen a otros géneros literarios (el periodismo, la poesía satírica y el ensayo de carácter moral en la ridiculización de quienes practican el cortejo y aplauden nuevas formas de sociabilidad, las modas y los bailes extranjeros, etc. frente a la conducta y los gustos tradicionales. Ejemplos tomados de Antonio de Zamora, Agramont, Ramón de la Cruz, Vázquez y González del Castillo sirven para argumentar tales reticencias ante el cambio de mentalidades de una nueva cultura del ocio, así como para observarlo a contrario: su “afeminación”, su frivolidad y su inutilidad.

  15. PREFACE: XVIII International Youth Scientific School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakhov, M. Kh; Samartsev, V. V.; Gainutdinov, R. Kh

    2015-05-01

    Kazan Federal University has held the annual International Youth School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy" since 1997. The choice of the topic is not accidental. Kazan is the home of photon echo which was predicted at Kazan Physical-Technical Institute in 1963 by Prof. U.G. Kopvil'em and V.R. Nagibarov and observed in Columbia University by N.A. Kurnit, I.D. Abella, and S.R. Hartmann in 1964. Since then, photon echo has become a powerful tool of coherent optical spectroscopy and optical information processing, which have been developed here in Kazan in close collaboration between Kazan Physical-Technical Institute and Kazan Federal University. The main subjects of the XVIII International Youth School are: Nonlinear and coherent optics; Atomic and molecular spectroscopy; Coherent laser spectroscopy; Problems of quantum optics; Quantum theory of radiation; and Nanophotonics and Scanning Probe Microscopy. The unchallenged organizers of that school are Kazan Federal University and Kazan E.K. Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute. The rector of the School is Professor Myakzyum Salakhov, and the vice-rector is Professor Vitaly Samartsev. The International Youth Scientific School "Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy" follows the global pattern of comprehensive studies of matter properties and their interaction with electromagnetic fields. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from the USA, Germany, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia have given plenary lecture presentations. Here over 1000 young scientists had an opportunity to participate in lively discussions about the latest scientific news. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non-linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the fullsize papers prepared from the most interesting lectures and reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. The

  16. Cultura material y religiosidad popular en el seno familiar castellano del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo GARCÍA FERNÁNDEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se ponen de relieve dos aspectos fundamentales y concatenados durante el siglo XVIII: el arraigo de numerosas prácticas religiosas colectivas en el seno familiar y la relación entre las vivencias domésticas y las formas externas de la existencia cotidiana popular.Se analizan la reiteración de los rituales funerarios sacralizados y el consumo de ropa, y la incidencia de ambos temas en las prácticas culturales populares. El mantenimiento de los signos externos de la religiosidad y los cambios en la civilización material tenían igual cabida en la cotidianidad de aquella Castilla semiilustrada.La gran cuestión giraba en torno a la necesaria mezcla de los cuidados espirituales y mundanos para lograr una cómoda felicidad terrena junto a la ansiada salvación. «Nada de lo divino era extraño; todo era religión»; pero también era una realidad en la época el ideal: «viva la industria de la persona».ABSTRACT: This paper highlights two fundamental closely connected developments of the Eighteenth century in Castile, namely: that many collective religious practices became deeply rooted in the family household; also, that a relationship took shape between domestic experiences and the outer forms of the people’s daily existence.Thus the reiteration of sacralized burial rites and the consumption of clothing are analysed, as well as the effect of both on popular culture practices. In the everyday life of semi-Enlightened Castile, the preservation of external signs of religiousness was on an equal footing with the evolution of material culture. It was a matter of attaining the necessary mixing of spiritual and worldly cares so as to attain comfortable, earthly happiness along with the much longed-for salvation. «Nada de lo divino era extraño; todo era religión», but no less true was the motto: «viva la industria de la persona».

  17. Censura gubernativa, Iglesia e inquisición en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro López, Ceferino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Government censorship in Eighteenth Century Spain was another means of the Spanish Enlightenment policy. Until mid-century both powers of Church and State were balanced; from Charles Ill's reign on the censorship of the Consejo de Castilla tried to control and restrict not only the traditional power of the Inquisition, but also the intellectual output of the country, either ideological —criticism on the Crown's policy— or cultural-publishing religious works. It is important to notice that many members of the clergy collaborated with the State in that task; and also that, after the French Revolution, the Inquisition regained its previous role. In the last decade of the Seventeenth century the irreconcilable clash between the advocates and the critics of the Inquisition became evident.

    La práctica de la censura gubernativa fue, en el siglo XVIII, un instrumento más de la política regalista de la Ilustración española. Si hasta mediados del siglo se mantuvieron estables las relaciones de poder entre Iglesia y Estado, a partir del reinado de Carlos III se nota cómo la censura del Consejo de Castilla intentaba vigilar y limitar no sólo el tradicional poder de la Inquisición, sino también la producción ideológica —crítica a la política de la Corona— y cultural-edición de obras de religión. Es importante observar que muchos hombres de Iglesia colaboraron con el Estado en esas tareas; y también que tras la Revolución Francesa la Inquisición volvió a asumir el papel que había jugado con anterioridad. En el último decenio del Setecientos se pone de manifiesto el enfrentamiento irreconciliable entre los partidarios y los detractores de la Inquisición.

  18. Intelligent Control and Health Monitoring. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Kumar, Aditya; Mathews, H. Kirk; Rosenfeld, Taylor; Rybarik, Pavol; Viassolo, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced model-based control architecture overcomes the limitations state-of-the-art engine control and provides the potential of virtual sensors, for example for thrust and stall margin. "Tracking filters" are used to adapt the control parameters to actual conditions and to individual engines. For health monitoring standalone monitoring units will be used for on-board analysis to determine the general engine health and detect and isolate sudden faults. Adaptive models open up the possibility of adapting the control logic to maintain desired performance in the presence of engine degradation or to accommodate any faults. Improved and new sensors are required to allow sensing at stations within the engine gas path that are currently not instrumented due in part to the harsh conditions including high operating temperatures and to allow additional monitoring of vibration, mass flows and energy properties, exhaust gas composition, and gas path debris. The environmental and performance requirements for these sensors are summarized.

  19. Chapter 1: Sinonasal anatomy and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgorf, Dustin M; Harvey, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of paranasal sinus anatomy based on important fixed landmarks rather than variable anatomy is critical to ensure safe and complete surgery. The concept of the paranasal surgical box defines the anatomic limits of dissection. The boundaries of the surgical box include the middle turbinate medially, orbital wall laterally, and skull base superiorly. The "vertical component" of the surgical box defines the boundaries of the frontal recess and includes the middle turbinate and intersinus septum medially, medial orbital wall and orbital roof laterally, nasofrontal beak anteriorly, and skull base and posterior table of frontal sinus posteriorly. The paranasal sinuses are divided into anterior, posterior, and sphenoidal functional cavities based on their distinct drainage pathways into the nose. The ultimate goal of surgery is to create a functional sinus cavity. Application of the paranasal surgical box and its vertical component enables the surgeon to view the limits of dissection with a single position of the endoscope. This will ensure complete dissection of the functional sinonasal compartments and effectively avoid leaving behind disconnected cells from the surgical cavity, mucocele formation, mucous recirculation, overcome obstructive phenomenon and enable maximal delivery of topical therapy in the post-operative setting. This article reviews the structure and function of the nasal cartilages and turbinates. It also describes the concept of the paranasal surgical box, key anatomical landmarks and limits of dissection. Normal anatomy and common variants of normal anatomy are discussed.

  20. Nuclear material operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  1. UMA SOCIEDADE DE APARÊNCIA: A JOALHERIA EM SABARÁ, MINAS GERAIS NO SÉCULO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Ozanan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O texto aponta os diversos atores sociais que produziram, comercializaram e usaram joias na antiga Vila Real de Nossa Senhora da Conceição do Sabará, hoje cidade de Sabará, um antigo arraial que se transformou em um dos maiores centros produtores de ouro de Minas Gerais no século XVIII. Pretende-se estabelecer as diversas relações e posturas daquela sociedade perante o uso e a posse de joias. Cada possuidor de joia naquele período tinha uma justificativa para tal utilização, sendo as mais comuns a demonstração da religiosidade e a demonstração do poder que essas  joias proporcionam. A abordagem perpassa por quais os atores e quais suas expectativas com relação ao uso das joias, bem como a relação entre os tipos mais utilizados, sempre embasados na documentação produzida pelos cartórios de Sabará durante o século XVIII. Vamos, nesse texto, entender como joia, o artefato feito a partir de materiais nobres, como ouro e prata, com ou sem o uso de pedraria.Palavras-chave: Joalheria, Minas Gerais, Design de joias, Cultura Material. Abstract: The text points out the various social actors that produced, marketed and used jewelry in old Vila Real de Nossa Senhora da Conceição of Sabara, today city of Sabara, an ancient village that has become one of the largest producers of gold centers of Minas Gerais in century XVIII. It is intended to establish the various relationships and attitudes that society to the use and possession of jewelry. Each jewel possessed at that time had a justification for such use, the most common being the demonstration of religion and the demonstration of the power that these jewels provide. The approach which permeates the actors and what their expectations regarding the use of jewelry, as well as the relationship between the most popular types, always grounded in the documentation produced by the notary Sabara during the eighteenth century. Come on, this text, understand how jewel, the artifact

  2. Mineral Nutrition of Plants. Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai

    1995-01-01

    The ultimate source of nutrients for all living organisms consists of the inanimate nutrient reserves found on earth. Of the elements known to exist, seven are considered essential to plants in large amounts (macronutrients), and many others are required in smaller quantities (micronutrients). Essentiality of a nutrient is defined according to the following concepts: (a) A deficiency of the element makes it impossible for the plant to complete the vegetative or reproductive stage of its cycle; (b) such deficiency is specific to the element in question and can be prevented or corrected only by supplying this element; (c) the element is directly involved in the nutrition of the plant quite apart from its possible effects in correcting some unfavorable microbiological or chemical condition of the soil or other culture medium. From that standpoint a favorable response from adding a given element to the culture medium does not constitute conclusive evidence of its indispensability in plant nutrition. All the elements occurring in the outer part of the earth are in constant turnover among the different components of earth. This overall migration is referred to as geochemical cycling. When cycling includes a role for biological organisms, it is referred to as "biogeochemical cycling." Like most cyclical processes in nature, the biogeochemical cycling of elements is not continuous, nor does it proceed in a well-defined direction. At stages, it may be halted or short-circuited, or it may change. Any changes will eventually impact the survival, evolution, and development of biological species in the system. The relationship of the various systems is represented in a schematic manner. To assess the efficiency of operation of the biogeochemical cycles, it is important to include both natural and human activities. Often reliable values on use by man are difficult to obtain for a number of reasons, such as lack of international cooperation, and lack of proper bookkeeping and

  3. Interacción étnica y diplomacia de fronteras en el reino miskitu a fines del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Claudia

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo me propongo examinar las interacciones sociales, étnicas y de género del reino miskitu, durante el intento de colonización española a fines del siglo XVIII. Es durante este período, y como consecuencia de acuerdos internacionales, que Gran Bretaña aceptó que su población desocupara la región, posibilitando por primera vez el asentamiento de españoles. El efímero proyecto colonizador español del reino miskitu, que se implementó desarrollando una diplomacia de fronteras con el fin de asegurar la lealtad del rey miskitu, dependió en gran medida de la historia de amor entre uno de los jefes indios principales y su cautiva española.

  4. Carretas y transporte terrestre bioceánico: la ruta Buenos Aires-Mendoza en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A carreta foi o principal meio de transporte terrestre na América colonial entre os séculos XVI e XIX. Uma das rotas mais utilizadas foi Buenos Aires-Mendoza, estabelecendo uma ligação entre os mercados do Atlântico e do Pacífico. Este artigo examina essas rotas, ao final do século XVIII, com base no processamento das viagens de 16. 000 carretas. O tema será aprofundado em um segundo trabalho intitulado "Los troperos y los orígenes de la burguesía en el Cono Sur de América colonial" (previsto para o próximo número de Estudos Ibero-Americanos

  5. EL DISCURSO CONFESIONAL EN EL EPISTOLARIO DE SOR JOSEFA DE LOS DOLORES PEÑA Y LILLO (SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCÍA INVERNIZZI SANTA CRUZ

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to make known the Epistolary, up to now inedited, of Sister Josefa de los Dolores Peña y Lillo, chilean dominican nun from the XVIII th century. Her text constituted by sixty five letters, addressed to her father confessor, the jesuit Manuel Alvarez. These letters are kept in the Archive of the Dominican Monastery of Santa Rosa de Lima in Santiago, Chile. The letters seem a manifestation of confessional discourse which the nuns had to write by order of their father confessors or ecclesiastical autorities. However, the Epistolary analysis reveals the transformations of that discoursive pattern, which Sor Josefa's writing constitutes itself in the support of a selfknowing process and in a construction of woman identity, which is not recognized only in her religious vocation and virtues, but also in her knowing capacity, wisdom and words management.

  6. LOS POTREROS DE ANTOFAGASTA. TRABAJO INDÍGENA Y PROPIEDAD (FINALES DEL SIGLO XVIII Y COMIENZOS DEL XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos N. Quesada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos la forma en que el trabajo de los campesinos indígenas de la puna meridional organizó, de acuerdo a una lógica local, la producción agrícola que le permitió su reproducción y articulación con la economía regional a finales del siglo XVIII y comienzos del XIX. El uso co de metodologías y técnicas históricas y arqueológicas nos permite proponer una visión alternativa de las formas locales de producción agrícola, poniendo en evidencia procesos de trabajo y mecanismos de apropiación que de otra forma permanecían invisibilizados.

  7. Pattern of dental development in Hominid XVIII from the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos site (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez De Castro, J M; Rosas, A

    2001-04-01

    . We describe the pattern of dental development of Hominid XVIII from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos (SH) site of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain). As expected, this pattern is similar to that of modern humans. A delay of development of the lower and upper canines was observed. In contrast, the relative advanced development of the lower second molars and, especially, the upper and lower third molars is noteworthy. This latter feature seems to be common in Pleistocene hominids, and suggests that the pattern of dental development evolved in the genus Homo during the Pleistocene. In European Middle Pleistocene hominids, this pattern probably was facilitated by the extra space available in the mandible and maxilla for developing teeth.

  8. A influência dos tratados de cálculo infinitesimal de Euler no séc. XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    João Caramalho Domingues, João

    2012-01-01

    Leonhard Euler (1701–1783) foi provavelmente o mais influente matemático do séc. XVIII. Entre as suas obras clássicas contam-se três tratados que, no seu conjunto (perfazendo seis volumes), fornecem uma apresentação «completa» do cálculo infinitesimal: uma introdução à análise infinitesimal [Euler 1748 ]; um tratado de cálculo diferencial [Euler 1755 ]; e um tratado de cálculo integral [Euler 1768–1770 ]. Estes tratados são muito mais avançados do que quaisquer outros publicados anteriormente...

  9. A escrita em guarani dos mayordomos e o exemplo de Valentín Ybariguá (Paraguai, XVIII)

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Eduardo S.

    2014-01-01

    En las reducciones del Paraguay, la enseñanza de las “artes y oficios” alcanzó un nivel sorprendente. La conquista del alfabeto por los guaraníes fue un aspecto de ese desarrollo, que amplió las posibilidades de comunicación de los indígenas con los poderes coloniales. A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII fue frecuente la práctica de la escritura entre los indígenas de las misiones. El conocimiento de los protocolos letrados permitió a la élite indígena una vía de comunicación direc...

  10. Do maravilhoso ao desencantamento: Olhares sobre a natureza no cerrado nos séculos XVIII e XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepita de Souza Afiune

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é analisar as representações diferenciadas sobre o cerrado goiano. No século XVIII, relatos de bandeirantes e colonizadores expressaram uma visão maravilhosa da natureza, como um lugar de riquezas expressas nas singularidades das formas geológicas. Já no século XIX, no contexto da emergência do racionalismo científico, o cerrado foi visto, tanto por viajantes-cientistas (como o austríaco Pohl, como por políticos-exploradores (como Taunay de modo desencantado, sendo enfatizado a sua pertinência para o desenvolvimento da ciência ou para o desenvolvimento econômico.

  11. Resistencia india, conciliación y estrategia militar en Quixos durante la primera mitad del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Gómez González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El noroccidente amazónico, en especial la gobernación de Quixos, fue una de las más ignotas regiones de América del Sur durante el siglo XVIII. Sus jurisdicciones, dependientes en parte de la Real Audiencia de Quito, no gozaron de suficiente atención por parte de la administración monárquica; por tanto, la dominación del territorio y sus habitantes originarios no pudo concretarse en términos absolutos debido a las dificultades supuestas por la resistencia indígena frente a unas estrategias de sometimiento poco consecuentes y evidentemente desarticuladas de las políticas hispánicas para los territorios fronterizos.

  12. Cacicas indígenas en la Audiencia de Quito, siglo XVIII: las redes ocultas del poder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Coronel Feijóo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el rol que las mujeres mitmas y llactayas tuvieron como cacicas de los antiguos señoríos norandinos, en el contexto de la Audiencia de Quito, en el siglo XVIII. A pesar de los cambios introducidos por las conquistas inca y española, el trabajo descubre una importante línea de continuidad de los linajes femeninos en determinadas organizaciones étnicas. Encuentra que las mujeres negociaron con el poder colonial y con otros caciques por medio de estrategias que incluyeron habilidad e inteligencia para jugar con el derecho español y con la tradición indígena, la movilización de elementos económicos y simbólicos, y la manipulación del mestizaje.

  13. El tropero y el origen de la burguesía en el Cono Sur (Mendoza, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aprofunda a análise sobre a carreta e o tropeiro, para definir em que medida contribuíram para o processo de construção de uma cultura empresarial na América Colonial, levando ao surgimento de uma burguesia. Atenta-se, em especial, para temas como mobilidade social, riscos empresariais, fomento do crédito em confiança ou por hipoteca de carretas, circulação de idéias e configuração de um ethos capitalista. Este trabalho constitui a continuação e a conclusão de um anterior intitulado "Carretas y transporte terrestre bioceánico: la ruta Buenos Aires-Mendoza en el siglo XVIII" (Estudos Ibero-Americanos, vol. XXXI, nº 1, 2005

  14. La Casa de Borbón y las órdenes militares durante el siglo XVIII (1700-1809)

    OpenAIRE

    Gijón Granados, Juan de A.

    2008-01-01

    El interés de este trabajo de investigación radica en iluminar una página de la historia de la Monarquía Hispánica en relación a las Órdenes Militares de la que no existía ningún estudio general que se ocupara del período 1700-1809. A lo largo de esta tesis doctoral se puede apreciar el peso político, social y económico que las Órdenes Militares aun tenían en el siglo XVIII. La vinculación a miembros de la Familia Real de dotaciones económicas anuales procedentes de unos señoríos de Órdenes M...

  15. La literatura de viajes y el transporte en Galicia desde el último tercio del siglo XVIII hasta mediados del XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindoso-Tato, Elvira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain, in general, and Galicia, in particular, stayed away from the Grand Tour, major exponent of the modern tourism born in Great Britain. The ignorance of the land and the poor ground transportation contributed to this distance, among other things. In this way, the paper focuses in the analysis of both obstacles in the first tourism development in Galicia, between the late eighteenth century and the mid-nineteenth century, before the railway construction. On the one hand, it analyses the image that some foreign travelers offered about their travels in Galicia, and, on the other hand, it studies the state of the ground transportation during the period. The foreign testimonies about the Galician region were short compared with other parts of the peninsula. Although they relieved in certain degree the ignorance about Galicia with the marking of some points of future tourist interest. At last, several and partial improvements in the ground transportation were made in the last third of the eighteenth century.España, en general, y Galicia, en particular, permanecieron alejadas de las rutas del Grand Tour, exponente principal del turismo moderno iniciado en Gran Bretaña. El desconocimiento del territorio y el deficiente estado de los transportes terrestres contribuyeron a este alejamiento, entre otros factores. Así, el trabajo se centra en el análisis de ambos obstáculos al primer desarrollo del turismo en Galicia entre finales del siglo XVIII y mediados del siglo XIX, antes de la construcción del ferrocarril. Por un lado, se analiza la imagen que ofrecieron algunos viajeros extranjeros en sus crónicas de viaje por tierras galaicas y, por otro lado, se estudia el estado del transporte terrestre de la época. Se observa que los testimonios forasteros sobre la región gallega resultaron escasos en comparación con otros puntos peninsulares aunque aliviaron en cierto grado el desconocimiento que pesaba sobre la comunidad, marcando una serie de

  16. Backup power working group best practices handbook for maintenance and operation of engine generators, Volume 1. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.; Padgett, A.B.; Burrows, K.P.; Fairchild, P.N.; Lam, T.; Janes, J.

    1997-06-01

    This handbook is divided into the four chapters. Chapter one covers the design, procurement, storage, handling and testing of diesel fuel oil to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter two discusses the selection of automatic transfer switches to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter three is about low voltage open frame air circuit breaker operation, testing, and maintenance for DOE backup power supplies. And chapter four covers installation, design, and maintenance of engine cooling water and jacket water systems.

  17. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  18. Body cooling, modelling & risk assessment - Immersion Hypothermia Chapter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tikuisis, P; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes a model that can be used to predict hypothermia during cold water immersion. Drowning in cold water might precede the onset of hypothermia due to cold shock, injury or incapacitation. As pointed out in Chap. 129, there are three phases of increasing incapacitation leading to l

  19. Chapter Two: Foundations for the Study of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the historical roots of contemporary Practice Theory are unearthed in the work of semioticians, philosophers, and anthropologists. Saussure's semiotic theory is contrasted with that of Peirce, and the importance of Peirce's work for understanding the context of signs is stressed. The philosophy of language in the writings of…

  20. "Preescolar Na Casa": Teaching Parents To Teach Children. Chapter 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ermitas

    This chapter describes a school readiness program that has been implemented in rural Galicia (Spain) since 1977. Data reveal that 70 percent of Galicia's population lives in rural areas, the economy remains primarily agricultural, Galicians earn less than the national average and have the largest number of public assistance recipients, and there…

  1. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 6: Special Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Issues Involved With the Use of Computer-Assisted Counseling, Testing, and…

  2. 41 CFR Appendix D to Chapter 301 - Glossary of Acronyms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Standards and Technology NTE: Not to Exceed OBE: Online Self-service Booking Tool OCONUS: Outside... Appendix D to Chapter 301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System...: Automated Teller Machine CAS: Commercial Aviation Service(s) CDW: Collision Damage Waiver CFR: Code...

  3. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: biomedical and biophysical analysis (Chapter XXX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordergraaf, G.J; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Scheffer, G.J.;

    2004-01-01

    of thousands each year. This chapter will address functional aspects of CPR required for a working understanding of the biomedical aspects of CPR. It does not purport to be a CPR course, although practical aspects relevant to understanding will be addressed, but not exhaustively. The development in CPR...

  5. Estela de Tuiia, arquero del rey: Traducción de una estela egipcia de la dinastía XVIII al castellano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria González Márquez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación, transliteración y traducción de una estela egipcia de la Dinastía XVIII creada en honor a Tuiia, un arquero y sirviente personal del rey. La estela nos ofrece una puerta de acceso a los ritos funerarios y las relaciones familiares en el contexto del universo cultural del Reino Nuevo. El documento se encuentra preservado en el Museo Británico

  6. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  7. «A REWARD FOR VIRTUE, AND A PENANCE FOR INIQUITY»: THE PROBLEMS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE LEGAL POLITICAL LANGUAGE IN XVIII CENTURY RUSSIAN PUBLIC THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin D. BUGROV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of functioning of the legal political language in Russian public thought of XVIII century. The author demonstrates that for XVIII century Russian elites legal categories were inferior in comparison with the moral categories of the political analysis. The Russian political culture was dominated by the court communication sphere with panegyric, manifesto and report as its main genres and therefore was not sensitive to the theories of natural law and contractualism, staying closer to moralism of Leibniz rather than natural law jurisprudence of Pufendorf. However, in Russia the court political discourse also embraced the idea of miracle, a direct intervention of Providence into the political life, which reflected in the legitimation of several palace coups. The court elites were treating the law as a classification of administrative regulations and the necessity of punishing the vices and rewarding the virtues, just as Godly justice did. In turn, the growing public sphere also had little interest in the juridical glossaries, preferring to debate the moral, historical and economic texts. The author concludes that the weakness of the juridical doctrines in XVIII century Russia was conditioned by the specifics of Russian political system.

  8. Los boticarios del hospital Real de Santiago de Compostela en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmartín Miguez, J. Santiago

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The present work tries to illustrate the life and work of the professionals of a Pharmacy at an outstanding Spanish hospital in the 18th century. This centre, founded by the Catholic King and Queen (Fernando of Aragón and Isabel of Castilla in the late 15th century, will provide the professionals of Pharmacy with an original constitution that shall rule their lives beyond their pharmaceutical activity. The author aims to recreate the figure of the Institution´s Pharmacists, both on their professional aspects and on their projection on the urban society of their time. To do so, different sections focus on the obligations of the Pharmacists as drugs technicians and as Major Ministers of the Institution; Their interaction among the centre sanitary personnel and the conflicts that arise among the different professionals; their formation; their salary which is compared to those of similar professionals and even with those of other similar Spanish hospitals, the criteria for their promotion as well as their social origin and consideration their job gives them.



    El presente trabajo trata de dar a conocer la vida y la actividad de los profesionales de la Botica de un emblemático hospital español durante el siglo XVIII. Este Centro sanitario, fundado por los Reyes CatTerritorialidad y reproducción social: Los tinogasta en Belén, Catamarca, durante el siglo XVIII Territoriality and social reproduction: The tinogasta in Belen, Catamarca. 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Ignacio Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las prácticas de territorialización desplegadas por los Tinogasta en Belén durante el siglo XVIII. Se analizaran los mecanismos jurídicos coloniales a partir de los cuales los Tinogasta buscaron "reterritorializar" su espacio, para recomponer sus condiciones de reproducción social. En este sentido, se observará cómo, frente a diversas prácticas de dominación, algunas poblaciones indígenas implementaron estrategias de resistencia, negociación y/o alianza para reinterpretar la realidad colonial y operar sobre ella. Así, lejos de ser meros espectadores pasivos de su dominio se transformaron en agentes de su reproducción social en un contexto de asimetría.This paper analyzes the practices of territorialization deployed by the Tinogasta in Belen through the 18th century. It will analyze how, through colonial legal mechanisms, the Tinogasta looked for "re-territorialize" their space in order to rebuild their conditions of social reproduction. We intend to observe how some Indian populations implemented multiple resistance, negotiation and/or alliance strategies against diverse domination practices in order to reinterpret -and operate on- the colonial reality. Then, far from being mere passive spectators of their dominance they became agents of their own social reproduction in an asymmetrical context.

  9. Nueva axiología de la España del siglo XVIII en el contexto europeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro DIZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La revisión de las creencias básicas que realiza Europa en el siglo XVIII tiene su correlato en España donde, al mismo tiempo que se cuestionan y reinterpretan los conceptos tradicionales, van perfilándose el sentido de las principales nociones dieciochescas. Se analizan en esta axiología el «nuevo arquetipo humano» en relación con la mentalidad burguesa y las cualidades que corresponden al hombre de bien y el hombre social (sinceridad, autenticidad, sensibilidad y buen gusto. Asimismo el cambio en el concepto de pasiones, la idea de progreso y el sentido otorgado a la noción de felicidad. El artículo abunda en la interpretación del humor, la ironía y la risa, del lujo para enmarcar estos conceptos en la nueva idea de sociabilidad y el principio de utilidad, y también en el cambio de usos y costumbres y en el sentido de la fe que conlleva el siglo XVIII.ABSTRACT: The revision of basic beliefs carried out in Europe in the eighteenth century has its correlation in Spain, where, at the same time that the traditional concepts were questioned and reinterpreted, the sense of the main eighteenth century notions were developing. In this axiology an analysis is made of the «new human archetype» in relation to bourgeois mentality and the qualities corresponding to «the good man» and «the social man» (sincerity, genuineness, sensibility and good taste. The change in the concept of passions, the idea of progress and the sense given to the notion of happiness are also analysed. The article deals with the interpretation of humour, irony and laughter, the luxury to frame these concepts in the new idea of sociability and the principie of utility, and also in the change of uses and customs and in the sense of faith in the eighteenth century.

  10. El retablo mayor de la iglesia de Santa Baia de Vedra en los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novo Sánchez, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the study of the main altarpiece of thechurch of Santa Baia de Vedra, in the Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela, one of the best examples of Galician Baroque polychrome wood sculpture, carved by Manuel de Leis around 1758. The structure and ornamentation are influenced by Galicia’s two principal eighteenth century architects, Fernando Casas y Novoa and Simón Rodríguez, and also by architectural treatises. Some of the images were carved at this time and others date from earlier. The first polychromy were not apply until a century later, in 1865, being its author Andrés Cardama.La presente investigación tiene por objeto el estudio del retablo mayor de la iglesia parroquial de Santa Baia de Vedra, perteneciente a la archidiócesis de Santiago de Compostela, una de los mejores obras de madera policromada del Barroco gallego, ejecutada por Manuel de Leis hacia 1758. La estructura y el aparato ornamental acusan la influencia de los dos grandes maestros de la Galicia del siglo XVIII, Fernando de Casas y Novoa y Simón Rodríguez, y de los tratados de arquitectura. Una parte de la imaginería se esculpe para este retablo y otra proviene de etapas anteriores. La primera policromía, encomendada a Andrés Cardama, no se administra hasta un siglo después, en 1865. [gl] O obxectivo da presente investigación é o estudo do retablo maior da igrexa parroquial de Santa Baia de Vedra, integrada na arquidiocese de Santiago de Compostela, unha das mellores obras de madeira policromada do Barroco galego, executada por Manuel de Leis preto de 1758. A estrutura e a decoración acusan a influencia dos dous grandes mestres da Galicia do século XVIII, Fernando de Casas y Novoa e Simón Rodríguez, e dos tratados de arquitectura. Algunhas imaxes escúlpense para este retablo e outras pertencen a etapas anteriores. A primeira policromía, encomendada a Andrés Cardama, non se administra ata un século máis tarde, en 1865.

  11. Planning and setting objectives in field studies: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This chapter enumerates the steps required in designing and planning field studies on the ecology and conservation of reptiles, as these involve a high level of uncertainty and risk. To this end, the chapter differentiates between goals (descriptions of what one intends to accomplish) and objectives (the measurable steps required to achieve the established goals). Thus, meeting a specific goal may require many objectives. It may not be possible to define some of them until certain experiments have been conducted; often evaluations of sampling protocols are needed to increase certainty in the biological results. And if sampling locations are fixed and sampling events are repeated over time, then both study-specific covariates and sampling-specific covariates should exist. Additionally, other critical design considerations for field study include obtaining permits, as well as researching ethics and biosecurity issues.

  12. Chapter 10: Mining genome-wide genetic markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association study (GWAS aims to discover genetic factors underlying phenotypic traits. The large number of genetic factors poses both computational and statistical challenges. Various computational approaches have been developed for large scale GWAS. In this chapter, we will discuss several widely used computational approaches in GWAS. The following topics will be covered: (1 An introduction to the background of GWAS. (2 The existing computational approaches that are widely used in GWAS. This will cover single-locus, epistasis detection, and machine learning methods that have been recently developed in biology, statistic, and computer science communities. This part will be the main focus of this chapter. (3 The limitations of current approaches and future directions.

  13. Necessity and Utility of a Virtual Laboratory in AVT-113. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, John E.; Luckring, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The Virtual Laboratory (VL) was to be an integral part of the database service that NASA provided to the international community, and for a brief period the VL was fully operational in the CAWAPI facet of the AVT-113 task group. This chapter details how one can construct a VL and also some of the lessons learned along the way that required changes to be made. The VL was to support both the CAWAPI and VFE-2 facets but due to the lack of funding and sufficient Information Technology (IT) support people with the right skills, the VFE-2 facet only reached the advanced planning stage with little software in place. However, both efforts point out the value of a VL in a task group like AVT-113 and illustrate that there needs to be a budgeted item for the IT effort to bring the VL to full operational status in each application.

  14. HARAMEKHALA – TANTRA (THE FIRST CHAPTER ON MEDICINE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala – tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation. PMID:22557515

  15. HARAMEKHALA – TANTRA (THE FIRST CHAPTER ON MEDICINE)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, P. V.

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala – tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  16. Chapter 52: How to Build a Simple SIAP service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, B. R.

    This chapter will give an example of how to build a service around an archive of images using the Simple Image Access Protocol (SIAP). The different image service types and basic requirements for user input using a HTTP GET request will be described. The metadata requirements will be discussed. The service will return a VOTable and options for several different image formats, including FITS and JPEG.

  17. Computer modelling for ecosystem service assessment: Chapter 4.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Robert; Harrison, Paula; Bagstad, Kenneth J.

    2017-01-01

    Computer models are simplified representations of the environment that allow biophysical, ecological, and/or socio-economic characteristics to be quantified and explored. Modelling approaches differ from mapping approaches (Chapter 5) as (i) they are not forcibly spatial (although many models do produce spatial outputs); (ii) they focus on understanding and quantifying the interactions between different components of social and/or environmental systems and (iii)

  18. Chapter 1. Impacts of the oceans on climate change.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, PC; Fischer, AC; Lewis-Brown, E; Meredith, MP; Sparrow, M; Andersson, AJ; Antia, A.; Bates, NR; Bathmann, U.; Beaugrand, G.; Brix, H.; Dye, S.; Edwards, M.; Furevik, T.; R. Gangstø

    2009-01-01

    The oceans play a key role in climate regulation especially in part buffering (neutralising) the effects of increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and rising global temperatures. This chapter examines how the regulatory processes performed by the oceans alter as a response to climate change and assesses the extent to which positive feedbacks from the ocean may exacerbate climate change. There is clear evidence for rapid change in the oceans. As the main heat store for the wor...

  19. Chapter 18 - Gliadins in foods and the electronic tongue

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Ana C. A.; Luís G. Dias; Rodrigues, Lígia R.; Peres, António M.

    2016-01-01

    The commercialization of safe foods is a main concern and should be ensured throughout the entire food supply chain. So, fast, sensitive, and reliable analytical methods are needed to identify food-related specific hazards, ensuring consumers protection and avoiding health problems. This chapter is focused on the emerging (bio)sensors to detect the heat-stable allergen gliadin in gluten-free foods. A brief overview concerning gliadin and its relation to celiac disease is provided. Several wor...

  1. Los Pacientes del ‘Hospital de paisanos’ de Zamora en el Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Álvarez, María José

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerous hospitals in existence in the city of Zamora in the Middle Ages were considerably streamlined in the Early Modern Era. The foundation of the Sotelo hospital in the 16th century and the La Encarnación hospital in the 17th century endowed the city with two main centres offering medical and health care. This study focused on an analysis of the patients who received care at the La Encarnación hospital, which was governed by the City Council and the Cathedral Chapter. A patient profile was constructed from admission and mortality records, depending on the case. However, the main focus was an analysis of the hospital’s area of influence, which was found to amply exceed its immediate geographical context.El gran número de hospitales que tuvo la ciudad de Zamora durante la Edad Media quedó notablemente simplificado en la época Moderna. La fundación en el siglo XVI del hospital de Sotelo y en el XVII de La Encarnación, supuso dotar a la ciudad con dos importantes centros que ofrecía atención médico-sanitaria. Este trabajo está centrado en el de La Encarnación, entre cuyos administradores se hallaban el Ayuntamiento y el Cabildo de la Catedral, y el objeto de análisis han sido los asistidos. A partir de los registros de ingreso y defunciones, dependiendo del momento, hemos trazado el perfil de los mismos, pero, sobre todo, nos hemos centrado en el radio de influencia del establecimiento, que, como hemos podido comprobar, superaba ampliamente el marco geográfico de emplazamiento.

  2. Entre leyes, costumbres y misteriosas ceremonias: Patronato regio y rituales del Jueves Santo en el siglo XVIII novohispano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID CARBAJAL LÓPEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo del sigloXVIII, en diversas catedrales novohispanas se plan-teó el problema de los rituales propios de los vicepatronos, en particu-lar durante las solemnidades del Jueves Santo. Este tema fue abordadosólo de manera indirecta y ambigua en la legislación civil. Losreformadores borbónicos no se decidieron a establecer reglas fijaspara él, por lo que estuvo fuertemente marcado por la diversidad decostumbres locales. Así, se introdujeron prácticas como la demostra-ción de la Eucaristía antes de su depósito o la entrega de la llave delSagrario a los vicepatronos. Los obispos de la época, aunque fielessúbditos de la Corona, trataron de limitar en lo posible su intervenciónen unas ceremonias que estimaban sagradas. Se fue construyendo asíel ceremonial que heredarían los primeros gobiernos republicanos.

  3. LA "BODEGA DEL AMOR" Y LA TRADICIÓN MÍSTICA EN UN TEXTO CHILENO DEL SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Invernizzi Santa Cruz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se refiere al Epistolario de una monja chilena del siglo XVIII, sor Josefa de los Dolores Peña y Lillo, y se centra en la consideración de la imagen mística de la "bodega del amor" que en el texto se transforma en "retrete del amor". A propósito de ello, se establece la vinculación del Epistolario con la tradición de la literatura mística española y se proponen sentidos para el relieve de lo íntimo y privado que esa transformación confiere a la imagen mística tradicionalThis article refers to the Epistolary of a Chilean nun of the 18th Century, Sister Josefa de los Dolores Peña y Lillo. It centers on the consideration of the mystical image of the "Love's storeroom", which in the text is transformed into the "Love privy". In relation to it, a link between the Epistolary and the tradition of the Spanish mystical literature is discussed, while different senses are suggested for the highlighting of the private and intimate which that transformation confers upon the traditional mystical image

  4. Las reformas fiscales novohispanas del siglo XVIII en sus dimensiones históricas múltiples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Pietschmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de un análisis de las dimensiones del reformismo en el virreinato novohispano a través de la amplia bibliografía cubriendo casi todo el siglo XVIII completo, este estudio analiza las dimensiones políticas del reformismo en sus distintas fases, desde Felipe V hasta Carlos IV. Insistiendo particularmente en el período de la visita de José de Gálvez, el estudio parte de la hipótesis de que los conflictos en torno a estas reformas versan en el fondo sobre si debería continuar el régimen imperial, heredado del período de los habsburgos y condensada en órden legal en la Recopilación de las Leyes de Indias de 1680/1, o si la cohesión de la monarquía transatlántica exigía el cambio a un régimen de gobierno territorial. A pesar de las reformas de Carlos III y sus ministros, el dilema se mantiene hasta el final del siglo y explica en gran medida que, a pesar del cúmulo de reformas, nunca se decide de forma clara esta alternativa subyacente de las reformas.

  5. La influencia de la narrativa del Siglo de Oro en la novela británica del XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila, J. A. G.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, considerable research has further denounced to what extent Spanish Golden Age narratives were influential upon eighteenth-century English novel. The aim of this essay is: (1 to signal the literary conditions which triggered the Spanish influence upon the fathers of the English novel; (2 to clarify the actual magnitude of this influence —already suggested by former research—, and (3 to discuss the semantics of the terms quixotic fiction and picaresque fiction.Durante la pasada década, la investigación en torno al influjo hispánico, en particular de la narrativa del Siglo de Oro, en la novela inglesa del siglo XVIII ha producido un interesante número de contribuciones que demuestran las dimensiones de la misma. En este breve ensayo se pretende: (1 señalar los factores literarios e históricos que propiciaron el influjo hispánico en los padres de la novela británica, (2 deslindar las verdaderas dimensiones de dicha influencia —que ya ha desvelado una parte de la crítica— y (3 discutir la semántica de los términos quixotic fiction y picaresque fiction.

  6. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor peptides derived from the endostatin-containing NC1 fragment of human collagen XVIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Shirley L; Sabatini, Regiane A; Sampaio, Tatiana C; Hirata, Izaura Y; Cezari, Maria Helena S; Juliano, Maria A; Sturrock, Edward D; Carmona, Adriana K; Juliano, Luiz

    2006-05-01

    Extracellular matrix and soluble plasma proteins generate peptides that regulate biological activities such as cell growth, differentiation and migration. Bradykinin, a peptide released from kininogen by kallikreins, stimulates vasodilatation and endothelial cell proliferation. Various classes of substances can potentiate these biological actions of bradykinin. Among them, the best studied are bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs) derived from snake venom, which can also strongly inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. We identified and synthesized sequences resembling BPPs in the vicinity of potential proteolytic cleavage sites in the collagen XVIII molecule, close to endostatin. These peptides were screened as inhibitors of human recombinant wild-type ACE containing two intact functional domains; two full-length ACE mutants containing only a functional C- or N-domain catalytic site; and human testicular ACE, a natural form of the enzyme that only contains the C-domain. The BPP-like peptides inhibited ACE in the micromolar range and interacted preferentially with the C-domain. The proteolytic activity involved in the release of BPP-like peptides was studied in human serum and human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. The presence of enzymes able to release these peptides in blood led us to speculate on a physiological mechanism for the control of ACE activities.

  7. Trasvase de religiones y culturas en el mundo mediterráneo del siglo XVIII. Renegados y conversos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano BARRIO GOZALO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el contexto de la guerra corsaria, que sigue azotando el Mediterráneo en el siglo XVIII, nos encontramos con los esclavos o cautivos que viven a ambas orillas, muchos de los cuales reniegan del cristianismo y se hacen musulmanes o abandonan la religión musulmana y se convierten al cristianismo. Las razones del cambio de religión de los renegados y conversos, así como los efectos de su conversión son los principales aspectos que se analizan en el trabajo.ABSTRACT: In the context of the privateers wars, which were devastating and plundering the Mediterranean sea, one could find slaves and captives who were dwelling in both sides of the sea. Lot of them denied their religion and became Mohammedans or on the contrary Christians. The main reasons to explain this change of religion from renegades and converters, and also the consequences of their conversion are analysed in this piece of work.

  8. Conflictos en torno a la compra y venta de esclavos en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pita Pico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se centra en el análisis de los conflictos que giraron en torno a las operaciones de compra de esclavos en el nororiente neogranadino durante el siglo XVIII. Legalizaciones aplazadas, ventas desautorizadas, pagos pendientes, esclavos hipotecados y confusiones sobre el estado real del esclavo comercializado fueron situaciones que desataron enconadas disputas y pleitos judiciales que terminaron algunas veces con la declaratoria de redhibitoria, es decir, la anulación del contrato de venta y la devolución del esclavo. En vista de estos antecedentes, y con un ánimo preventivo, los negociantes se aseguraron de fijar en las escrituras de compraventa ciertas garantías o aclaraciones para no verse involucrados en tales litigios. This paper focuses on the analysis of the conflicts that revolved around the buying of slaves in northeast New Granada during the 18th century. Deferred legalization, unauthorized sales, pending payments, mortgaged slaves, confu-sion about the real state of the slave traded, were situations that triggered bitter disputes and lawsuits ended sometimes with the declaration of rescission, that is, the cancellation of the contract of sale and the return of the slave. Given this background, traders were careful to place certain warranties or clarifications into the deed of sale to avoid being involved in such litigation.

  9. La naturaleza como percepción cultural. Montes y selvas en el Nuevo Reino de Granada, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Pérez Morales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo es una aproximación al mundo de las percepciones culturales sobre los principales entornos selváticos del Nuevo Reino de Granada durante el siglo XVIII, basada fundamentalmente en la consulta sistemática de fuentes primarias manuscritas y publicadas y apoyada en algunos aportes fundamentales de la perspectiva cultural de la historia ambiental y de la historia cultural del período de la Ilustración. En lo fundamental, se presentan las ideas, valoraciones, tensiones conflictivas y usos técnicos que se generaron desde los ámbitos perceptivos de los pobladores urbanos, las autoridades virreinales, algunos grupos indígenas y los hombres ilustrados. La noción de desierto, la sensibilidad del miedo o la categoría de “barbarie” se destacan entre los componentes principales de la percepción cultural de la época, estrechamente ligada a herencias europeas judeocristianas.

  10. Edição e análise das abreviaturas de documento do século XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Nogueira de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Os manuscritos são documentos básicos para trabalhos de pesquisas em diversas áreas. Durante o processo de consulta aos manuscritos, é comum os pesquisadores enfrentarem dificuldades de leitura, devido aos materiais básicos de leitura – papel e tinta –, e também a problemas ligados à grafia, caligrafia, vocabulário e, principalmente, às abreviaturas. Este trabalho se dedica a analisar as abreviaturas no âmbito da edição crítica de textos, a partir da versão manuscrita, guardada na Biblioteca Pública de Évora, em Portugal, do documento do século XVIII, conhecido como Mapa geográfico, que descreve o caminho de ouro e pedras preciosas no Brasil, a partir dos estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. As perguntas que nos norteiam referem-se à necessidade (ou não de as abreviaturas serem desenvolvidas durante a transcrição de textos antigos, ou posteriormente. Para isso, apresentamos a proposta de um glossário das abreviaturas em que descrevemos e discutimos todas as ocorrências.

  11. Ingresos y egresos del tribunal del Santo Oficio de la nueva España en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Islas, Alfredo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This article informs on the means through which the Inquisition of New Spain obtained the necessary resources and the way in which such resources were disposed of. Through the analysis of archive sources and chosen bibliography a series of tables have been built up showing the income and outcome entries as well as the corresponding amounts and percentages. It is the aim of this work to increase our knowledge of this institution by exploring a little known aspect of the same: that of the economy on which it was run.

    El artículo busca proporcionar información acerca de la manera en que la Inquisición novohispana obtenía en el siglo XVIII los recursos que permitían su correcto funcionamiento y, al tiempo, la forma en que los mismos se distribuían. Mediante el análisis de los datos contenidos en documentos de archivo, y en la bibliografía apropiada, se confeccionaron una serie de tablas que presentan los rubros que componían al ingreso y al egreso del Tribunal, así como sus montos y porcentajes, de los cuales sólo se incluye un par por razones de espacio. El objetivo es enriquecer el conocimiento existente sobre el Santo Oficio, explorando su vertiente menos conocida: la económica.

  12. Asentistas y fabricantes: el abastecimiento de armas y municiones al Estado en los siglos XVII y XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín GONZÁLEZ ENCISO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia cómo resolvía el Estado español el abastecimiento de armas en los siglos XVII y XVIII según la fórmula empresarial utilizada: qué tipo de empresario y qué tipo de organización empresarial. Ello lleva, en primer lugar, a una somera, pero necesaria descripción del sector, en concreto, la fabricación de cañones, de municiones y de fusiles. Esta parte incluye consideraciones sobre la organización empresarial y sobre los aspectos técnicos. El cuerpo del trabajo estudia la figura de los asentistas en cada sector: quiénes eran, qué otros negocios tenían, cuáles eran las características de los asientos, cuál era su relación con la Administración, si desarrollaban vínculos familiares, etc. Hasta 1760 dominó el abastecimiento por asiento, pero tras esa fecha el Estado cambió, en unos cuantos casos, hacia otras fórmulas, para pasar a ser un Estado fabricante. La última parte del artículo estudia esta época, sus circunstancias y las consecuencias que trajo en la producción, en el abastecimiento y en los empresarios.

  13. Más allá del telar: el mundo del trabajo femenino en la Asturias del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Suárez Álvarez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Siglo de la Razón proliferaron los tratados dónde, por primera vez en la historia, se ponía de relieve la necesidad de educar de forma conveniente a las mujeres. Sin embargo, a pesar del reconocimiento que los Ilustrados otorgaron al sexo femenino, siguieron relegando a éstas a las paredes del hogar, exhortándoles a quedarse fuera del mundo del trabajo extra-doméstico, reservado sólo para los hombres de la familia. No obstante, la necesidad obligaba, y cuando los recursos u hombres de una casa escaseaban, la mujer tenía que salir a buscarse el sustento. Este es el caso de cientos de mujeres del Principado de Asturias, dónde, a mediados del siglo XVIII, la realidad femenina difería de lo que lo que se consideraba ideal. Este trabajo arrojará pues luz, en un campo hasta ahora desconocido: el del mundo profesional de las mujeres asturianas del Setecientos, dónde comprobaremos cómo en ocasiones llegaban a adquirir, gracias a su status profesional, papeles relevantes dentro de la sociedad.

  14. El color y su significado en los documentos cartográficos del Cuerpo de Ingenieros Militares del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita San Andrés Moya

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Los Documentos Cartográficos del Cuerpo de Ingenieros Militares del s. XVIII y las fuentes documentales asociadas a su ejecución tienen un gran interés histórico, artístico y cultural. En este artículo se analizan las fuentes relacionadas con las técnicas, los materiales y sus formas de aplicación. Se describen los pigmentos y colorantes recogidos en los distintos tratados relacionados con este arte, especialmente los referidos a la técnica del lavado, en los que, además, se hace referencia a los códigos de color según el elemento representado, el orden o secuencia de trabajo y las mezclas de colores. Puesto que se trata de documentos que en aquella época tuvieron una función eminentemente práctica, en su ejecución se seguían unas pautas determinadas, que permitían normalizar su lectura e interpretación. Desde la perspectiva de la Conservación-Restauración, la documentación estudiada aporta una información significativa relacionada con los materiales sobre los que se intervienen, la detección de procesos de degradación y la autentificación de documentos.

  15. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    Chapter 1. Measurement 1. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2. Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. 2 Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3. Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the desert plains? 3-1 What Is Physics? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4. Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5. Force and Motion--I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to .y the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6. Force and Motion--II. Can a

  16. Chapter 29: Using an Existing Environment in the VO (IDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    The local environment of a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) can provide insight into the (still not understood) formation process of the BCG itself. BCGs are the most massive galaxies in the Universe, and their formation and evolution are a popular and current research topic (Linden et al. 2006, Bernardi et al. 2006, Lauer et al. 2006). They have been studied for some time (Sandage 1972, Ostriker & Tremaine 1975, White 1976, Thuan & Romanishin 1981, Merritt 1985, Postman and Lauer 1995, among many others). Our goal in this chapter is to study how the local environment can affect the physical and measurable properties of BCGs. We will conduct an exploratory research exercise. In this chapter, we will show how the Virtual Observatory (VO) can be effectively utilized for doing modern scientific research on BCGs. We identify the scientific functionalities we need, the datasets we require, and the service locations in order to discover and access those data. This chapter utilizes IDL's VOlib, which is described in Chapter 24 of this book and is available at http://www.nvo.noao.edu. IDL provides the capability to perform the entire range of astronomical scientific analyses in one environment: from image reduction and analysis to complex catalog manipulations, statistics, and publication quality figures. At the 2005 and 2006 NVO Summer Schools, user statistics show that IDL was the most commonly used programming language by the students (nearly 3-to-1 over languages like IRAF, Perl, and Python). In this chapter we show how the integration of IDL to the VO through VOlib provides even greater capabilities and possibilities for conducting science in the era of the Virtual Observatory. The reader should familiarize themselves with the VOlib libraries before attempting the examples in this tutorial. We first build a research plan. We then discover the service URLs we will need to access the data. We then apply the necessary functions and tools to these data before we can do our

  17. Operation and development 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Technical Report on the Accelerators describes the operations for physics experiments and beam tests, various technical improvements and ongoing projects during the year 1999. As usual, the first chapter reports on the standard operation of GANIL with stable ions, with analysis of the beam time distribution and statistics, including failures. A major project was the production and subsequent acceleration, over a long period of time, of an intense {sub 58}Ni{sup 11+} beam produced using the MIVOC method, which contributed strongly to the discovery of the doubly-magic {sub 48}Ni element. The renovation and development program (Chapter 2), including methods for producing metallic ion beams, gathered speed thanks to the completion of SPIRAL. A large share of these projects were high-intensity oriented. This trend also obviously applies to projects directly linked to the THI operation. In a special test, a 1.3 x 10{sup 13} pps {sub 13}C beam (later raised to 2 x 10{sup 13} pps for several hours) was accelerated and extracted from SSC2 at an energy of 75 MeV/n. Simultaneously, comparisons were made between simulations and beam test results for a clearer understanding of space charge effects on accelerator transmission efficiency. Chapter 3 covers the THI related projects. The final chapter deals with IRRSUD. This project, which is funded and on the way to completion, uses low energy beams delivered by the two injector cyclotrons for industrial applications and research, such as nano-technologies and simulation of defects in solids. (author)

  18. 14 CFR 137.51 - Operation over congested areas: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation over congested areas: General... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.51 Operation over congested areas: General. (a) Notwithstanding part 91 of this chapter, an aircraft may be operated over a congested area at altitudes...

  19. Operator Inequalities of Ostrowski and Trapezoidal Type

    CERN Document Server

    Dragomir, Silvestru Sever

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities of Ostrowski and Trapezoidal Type for Functions of Selfadjoint Operators on Hilbert Spaces presents recent results concerning Ostrowski and Trapezoidal type inequalities for continuous functions of bounded Selfadjoint operators on complex Hilbert spaces. The first chapter recalls some fundamental facts concerning bounded Selfadjoint operators on complex Hilbert spaces. The generalized Schwarz's inequality for positive Selfadjoint operators as well as some results for the spectrum of this class of operators are presented. The author also introduces and explores the fundamental resu

  20. Chapter 1 posttraumatic stress disorder: a view from the operating theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchiano, Charles A; Wofford, Kenneth A; Titch, J Frank

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops following exposure to a traumatic event. The prevalence and symptom severity of PTSD is greater in military combat Veterans than the civilian population. Although PTSD is a psychiatric disorder, in Veterans, it is associated with several physical comorbidities, chronic pain, substance abuse, and worse self-reported health status which may predispose them to greater perioperative morbidity and mortality. At present, the effect of surgery on the severity of PTSD is largely unknown. However, the perioperative clinician should consider PTSD a chronic illness associated with the accumulation of risk factors across the life span.

  1. Grandes de Portugal no século XVIII. Inventários da casa de Tavora, Atoguia e Aveiro (1758-1759

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Benavente Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cada país tiene sus casos historiográficos y Portugal no escapa a la regla. Tenemos muchos casos, muchas dudas, muchas historias. El dia 3 de septiembre de 1758 quedará para siempre envuelto en el misterio, lo que no impide que procuremos hacer la mayor luz posible sobre el tema del atentado contra el rey D. José, junto a la quinta de Belém. El atentado originó un proceso sumarísimo que en casi cuatro meses liquidó las Casas de Távora, Atouguia y Aveiro, así como a la Compañía de Jesús, con las monstruosas ejecuciones en el patíbulo de Belém del 13 de enero de 1759. Los inventarios y el secuestro de bienes ejecutados por orden de la Junta da Inconfidência, pueden servir tanto para medir la grandeza de las Casas, como también su situación social y financiera. Por estos inventarios se evidencia que estas Casas, que eran socialmente de las más consideradas en Portugal en el siglo XVIII, estaban bastante endeudadas. A mediados del siglo XVIII, la clase emergente de hombres de negocios y de prestamistas era, de hecho, la poseedora de los grandes activos de éstos y de otros Grandes de Portugal ya que los mismos servían de garantía a los créditos concedidos. Sin embargo, la aristocracia, profundamente endogámica, no se permitía ninguna contaminación con las clases adineradas, pero sin título. Este hecho nos sirve de punto de partida para llegar a conclusiones tangenciales de coyuntura para la década de los 50 del siglo XVIII, así como también de estructura, válidas éstas para todo el período pombalino, por lo que respecta a los Grandes de Portugal.Each country has its own histograph cases and Portugal is no exception. We have plenty of cases, lots of doubts and many histories. September 3 1758 will be forever a landmark shrouded in mistery, which doesn’t prevent our attempt to bring to the light, as much as possible, the attempt on D. José’s life, close to what was known as the place of Belém. The murder plot gave

  2. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 2 (Chapters 12-20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Chapter 12 Equilibrium and Elasticity. What injury can occur to a rock climber hanging by a crimp hold? 12-1 What Is Physics? 12-2 Equilibrium. 12-3 The Requirements of Equilibrium. 12-4 The Center of Gravity. 12-5 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium. 12-6 Indeterminate Structures. 12-7 Elasticity. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 13 Gravitation. What lies at the center of our Milky Way galaxy? 13-1 What Is Physics? 13-2 Newton's Law of Gravitation. 13-3 Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition. 13-4 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface. 13-5 Gravitation Inside Earth. 13-6 Gravitational Potential Energy. 13-7 Planets and Satellites: Kepler's Laws. 13-8 Satellites: Orbits and Energy. 13-9 Einstein and Gravitation. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 14 Fluids. What causes ground effect in race car driving? 14-1 What Is Physics? 14-2 What Is a Fluid? 14-3 Density and Pressure. 14-4 Fluids at Rest. 14-5 Measuring Pressure. 14-6 Pascal's Principle. 14-7 Archimedes' Principle. 14-8 Ideal Fluids in Motion. 14-9 The Equation of Continuity. 14-10 Bernoulli's Equation. Review & SummaryQuestionsProblems. Chapter 15 Oscillations. What is the "secret" of a skilled diver's high catapult in springboard diving? 15-1 What Is Physics? 15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-3 The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 15-6 Pendulums. 15-7 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion. 15-8 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-9 Forced Oscillations and Resonance. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 16 Waves--I. How can a submarine wreck be located by distant seismic stations? 16-1 What Is Physics? 16-2 Types of Waves. 16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves. 16-4 Wavelength and Frequency. 16-5 The Speed of a Traveling Wave. 16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String. 16-7 Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String. 16-8 The Wave Equation. 16-9 The Principle of Superposition

  3. Skull lichens: a curious chapter in the history of phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenesi, P

    2009-04-01

    Lichens growing on skulls were known in late medieval times as usnea or moss of a dead man's skull and were recommended as highly beneficial in various diseases. They were, in addition, the main ingredient of Unguentum armariun, a liniment used in a curious medical practice: the magnetic cure of wounds. We can place this chapter of the history of phytotherapy within the wider cultural context of the period, which saw the definition of nature become increasingly more fluid and open to a variety of novel interpretations.

  4. ¿Obligación moral o responsabilidad política? Las autoridades borbónicas en tiempo de epidemias en la Cataluña del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    En el marco de un siglo XVIII caracterizado por el crecimiento, este trabajo se centra en el estudio de las enfermedades epidémicas que afectaron a la población de la Conca de Barbera durante la segunda década del siglo XVIII. Primeramente, se evalúa la incidencia de las enfermedades en la evolución de la población, junto a los posibles elementos causales, dentro de un contexto socioeconómico que permite analizar el «marco social de la crisis». En segundo lugar, se estudian las medidas de luc...

  5. La dramaturgia poético-musical de Antonio de Zamora: estudio de las fiestas reales barrocas en un autor de finales del siglo XVII y principios del XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Gregorio, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    [spa] Antes de empezar el estudio de la dramaturgia poético-musical de Antonio de Zamora (1665-1727) propiamente dicho, es necesario detenerse en la recepción de su obra durante los siglos XVIII, XIX y principios del XX. Esta, desvirtuada y errónea, motivó la postergación del dramaturgo y, con él, la fundamental etapa de entresiglos, convirtiéndose esta recepción en un indicador privilegiado del cambio de etapa cultura y literaria de España a lo largo del siglo XVIII. Tiene especial interés L...

  6. OPERATION COBRA. Deliberate Attack, Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-25

    Analysis CONTENTS Page Chapter I "Introduction" o . o . - 1-1 Map A "The Areaof Operations** o • (Prepared by MAJ Michael Marshall) Chapter II "The Strategic...Significance of the Action", . a 5-1 (Prepared by MAJ Mike Mecuffie & CPT Von Richardson) BIBLIOGRAPHY . . .0 . • - ’ 6-1 (Prepared by MAJ Michael Marshall...Selune River to facilitate the VIII Corps advance. Despite a hard fight at Ducey by elements of 5th SS Parachute Division, all 4, objectives were taken by

  7. A Summary of State Chapter 1 Participation and Achievement Information -- 1990-91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Beth; Gutmann, Babette

    This report summarizes the 1990-91 State Performance Reports for the Chapter 1 (Education Consolidation and Improvement Act) local education agency (LEA) program and the Chapter 1 State Agency Neglected or Delinquent program. Chapter 1 represents the largest investment in elementary and secondary education of the Federal government. With the…

  8. Advanced-Skill Instruction in Chapter 1 Summer Programs and Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Jerome; Hiestand, Nancy

    Summer school is thought to be an effective alternative delivery mode for Chapter 1 education. The effectiveness of summer Chapter 1 programs was studied during Fall 1993 in 68 Chicago (Illinois) public schools. Students who had been in fourth grade in 1991-92 were divided into a group that had received Chapter 1 help during the school year and…

  9. La formulación de una teoría general de la enfermedad en Francia en el tránsito del siglo XVIII al XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Arquiola, Elvira

    1992-01-01

    En la medicina francesa del tránsito del siglo XVIII al XIX el sensualismo y el recurso al método analítico se convirtieron en elementos constantes y fundamentales. A ellos se recurrió para abordar el estudio del cuerpo humano en estado de salud y de enfermedad. El desarrollo del llamado «método anatomoclínico» fue una de las consecuencias más importantes de la aplicación a la medicina de dicho método analítico. No obstante, y reconocida la importancia de las deudas que con ellos tiene la med...

  10. Sotos con santos en lienzos y esculturas. La apropicación de la imagen religiosa en la Provincia de Antioquia, segunda mitad del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Pérez Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone indagar la importancia de las imágenes religiosas para la Provincia de Antioquia en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, basándose fundamentalmente en dos ejes de análisis: los circuitos comerciales establecidos para el ingreso de objetos religiosos a la provincia y el valor de la imagen para la sociedad colonial. Con ello se pretende, además, hacer un acercamiento a un campo de estudio que ha sido poco explorado por la historiografía antioqueña, como lo es historia cultural del arte colonial.

  11. Historias de dos desgraciadas. Estereotipos de la culpa en la literatura popular española de los siglos XVIII y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Alison

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se contrastan los casos de dos mujeres a quienes se les echaba la culpa de hacer mal, y que como consecuencia se veían calificadas de «desgraciadas»: Rosaura de Trujillo, víctima de violación, y Teresa, la criada castigada por Dios por su falta de caridad para con los pobres. Ambos casos pertenecen al género de los pliegos sueltos, forma de literatura popular en España, su origen es el siglo XVIII, y volvieron a publicarse repetidas veces hasta bien entrado el XIX. Al caer fu...

  12. Una perspectiva literaria e histórica de la imagen femenina en Francia desde la Edad Media hasta el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Cersosimo, Emilie M.

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la condición de la mujer desde una perspectiva histórica y literaria. Se exponen los acontecimientos culturales más relevantes en la Edad Media, en el Renacimiento, así como los albores del feminismo en Francia y la mujer vista por los escritores y filósofos hasta el siglo XVIII. This article analyses the condition of woman from a historical and literary perspective. We expose the most relevant cultural events during Middle Age, Renaissance and even the beginnin...

  13. Topografía de la legitimidad paisaje y arquitectura como metáfora a comienzos de la XVIII dinastía egipcia

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Accino Picatoste, José Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Las circunstancias históricas y políticas de Egipto a comienzos del Reino Nuevo durante la dinastía XVIII (1539-1292 a.C) tienen una especial incidencia en las manifestaciones materiales de la misma, como es el uso de la arquitectura y el aprovechamiento del paisaje para expresar un mensaje que refuerce la idea de legitimidad de una dinastía que ha experimentado serios problemas de continuidad debido a la muerte prematura de alguno de sus monarcas y a la falta de herederos varones de consangu...

  14. Sustanciales cambios en las ciudades del País Vasco y en su representación cartográfica entre los siglos XVIII y XX

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Ramos, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Entre el siglo xviii y el siglo xx la representación cartográfica de la ciudad experimentó cambios trascendentales, apoyada en avances técnicos pero sobre todo en la transformación de las ciudades. En el País Vasco se pudo apreciar cómo sobre un territorio reducido se acumularon las variaciones estructurales que fundaron las bases de un país nuevo en el que las ciudades industriales acabaron por ser protagonistas. La representación cartográfica, con su activo papel proposi...

  15. La evolución del uso de las labiales b y v en documentos coloniales ecuatorianos de los siglos XVI a XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaud Oudot, Natacha

    2016-01-01

    The nivelling of bilabials b and v is a discuted and controverted study’s object in the field of Hispanic Phonology. It has been observed that in America, during the XVII and XVIII century, there was no distinction between these two phonemes in Buenos Aires, Tucumán, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Venezuela. This article brings a detailed analysis of the uses of b and v in the Audiencia of Quito, particulary in the XVI century, related with the information observed in the severals ortho...

  16. O concerto para violino no século XVIII (forma e evolução técnico-interpretativa)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bouso Fernández, Mariña

    2016-01-01

    O objetivo da minha dissertação é, por um lado, analisar o género musical Concerto e a influência deste no desenvolvimento do violino durante o período Barroco. Por outro lado, irei analisar a técnica do violino utilizada no século XVIII aplicada ao Concerto e à prática interpretativa da época, abordando aspectos como a utilização de instrumentos históricos, o papel do concertino ou a pratica das cadenzas, entre outros. Para finalizar, irei incluir uma análise sobre um dos Concertos int...

  17. Measurement of wavelengths and lamb shifts for inner-shell transitions in Fe XVIII-XXIV. [from solar flare X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, J. F.; Feldman, U.; Safronova, U. I.

    1986-01-01

    The wavelengths of inner-shell 1s-2p transitions in the ions Fe XVIII-XXIV have been measured in solar flare spectra recorded by the Naval Research Laboratory crystal spectrometer (SOLFLEX) on the Air Force P78-1 spacecraft. The measurements are compared with previous measurements and with recently calculated wavelengths. It is found that the measured wavelengths are systematically larger than the wavelengths calculated using the Z-expansion method by up to 0.65 mA. For the more highly charged ions, these differences can be attributed to the QED contributions to the transition energies that are not included in the Z-expansion calculations.

  18. Espiritualidad e inquisición en Asturias en el siglo XVIII: El proceso del Obispo José Fernández de Toro

    OpenAIRE

    Tuñón Escalada, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    La investigación realizada profundiza en el estudio de la diócesis de Oviedo en el primer tercio del siglo XVIII, un periodo escasamente abordado por la historiografía. Analiza el complejo y controvertido episcopado ovetense de José Fernández de Toro, tardío pero significativo exponente de la difusión alcanzada en España por Miguel de Molinos y su Guía Espiritual. Estudia minuciosamente y saca a la luz el singular, y prácticamente inédito, proceso inquisitorial seguido contra el obispo oveten...

  19. Catálogo de gramáticas en español y publicadas en España a lo largo del siglo XVIII.

    OpenAIRE

    Montoro Cano, Estela del Rocío

    2008-01-01

    La biblioteca del Hospital Real de la Universidad de Granada contiene unos fondos antiguos en muchos casos bastante desconocidos y, entre ellos, se encuentran gran cantidad de gramáticas del siglo XVIII, que no han sido suficientemente estudiadas, pero que consideramos realmente importantes. La ausencia de una previa recopilación de obras de teoría gramatical, publicadas en el siglo ilustrado en nuestro país, ha motivado la elaboración de este catálogo. Tras una breve introd...

  20. Opinión pública y opinión popular en la Francia del siglo XVIII : el philosophe o el nacimiento del intelectual

    OpenAIRE

    Cases Martínez, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    La opinión pública no es una categoría transhistórica, sino que se trata de una configuración sociopolítica que emerge en el siglo XVIII. Fue entonces cuando se multiplicaron de manera exponencial las publicaciones periódicas, cuando proliferaron escenarios tales como los salones, las academias y las casas de café, en el interior de los cuales los individuos pudieron discutir acerca de numerosas cuestiones de la vida pública. Fue entonces, ante todo a partir de 1750, cuando la apelación a la...

  1. ARTICULACIÓN POLÍTICA Y ETNOGÉNESIS EN LOS VALLES CALCHAQUÍES. LOS PULARES DURANTE LOS SIGLOS XVII Y XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Quinti\\u00E1n

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una revisión crítica de la documentación sobre la formación de la frontera Calchaquí donde los pulares desarrollaron adaptaciones y resistencias particulares que los habilitaron para integrarse al orden colonial en condiciones ventajosas. Durante el siglo XVIII, el acceso de los pulares a la justicia colonial como estrategia les permitió mantener el control de sus tierras y la reproducción social de algunos de sus pueblos dentro del orden colonial.

  2. EL CONTRATO COLONIAL DE CHILE CRITICA A LA RACIONALIDAD IMPURA, EN LA CONFIGURACION RACIAL DEL DISCURSO CIENTIFICO, POLITICO Y PRACTICAS CULTURALES EN LOS SIGLOS XVII, XVIII Y XIX

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Esta es una investigación transdiciplinaria, sobre la base de una revisión crítica de fuentes primarias de los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX, y una extensa literatura secundaria proveniente de la historia de la cultura, de la historia de la ciencia, de la antropología social y cultural, de la filosofía. Nuestro enfoque crítico o metodológico sigue los lineamientos de una 'hermenéutica diatópica', y todo el marco teórico lo hemos articulado en torno a la perspectiva de los 'estudios postcoloniales'...

  3. Casamientos católicos secretos de funcionarios y militares en Buenos Aires e Hispanoamérica. Siglos XVIII-XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Siegrist

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es dar a conocer los casamientos secretos efectuados por la Iglesia Católica a espaldas del Rey y las autoridades virreinales en Buenos Aires; especialmente, de funcionarios y oficiales de las fuerzas terrestres y navales de la monarquía en el siglo XVIII. Los análisis se basan en el Derecho Canónico y lo establecido en el Concilio de Trento (1545-1563). Una variada bibliografía relacionada con la constitución de las familias en Europa e Hispanoamérica permitió explora...

  4. A novela alegórica em português dos séculos XVII e XVIII : o belo ao serviço do bem

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Maria Micaela Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento - Área das Ciências da Literatura, Ramo da Literatura Portuguesa. O presente trabalho teve como principal objectivo realizar um estudo da novela alegórica escrita em língua portuguesa, enquanto subgénero narrativo de ficção produzido no período barroco. Para a consecução de tal propósito, seleccionou-se um corpus textual composto por cinco textos impressos, publicados entre o último quartel do século XVII e a primeira metade do século XVIII. Fazem parte ...

  5. Acomodar, ordenar y leer. La disposición de los libros en acervos novohispanos durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El articulo representa un primer acercamiento a la forma en que los novohispanos acomodaban sus libros en los estantes, tanto de bibliotecas particulares como de librerías durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. A partir de una serie de inventarios levantados por el control que llevaba el Santo Oficio, estudio brevemente algunos casos concretos en donde se revela la forma en la que estaban dispuestos los volúmenes; en un primer momento me refiero a bibliotecas particulares y después algunas...

  6. Crónica de una muerte anunciada: familia, muerte y eficacia biológica en dos poblaciones del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Las poblaciones de Santo Domingo de Soriano y Las Víboras, ubicadas al sureste del territorio uruguayo, tienen orígenes diversos pero el mismo destino como poblaciones de un entorno rural colonial. La primera de ellas es una reducción indígena establecida hacia fines del siglo XVII; la segunda se origina en el asentamiento de pobladores errantes presentes desde principios del siglo XVIII en el territorio dedicados a la explotación ganadera. Ambos poblados se caracterizan por una gran variabil...

  7. ILUSTRACIÓN, JUSTICIA Y TÍTULOS DE TIERRAS. EL CASO DEL PUEBLO DE LA ASUNCIÓN MALACATEPEC EN EL SIGLO XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    René García Castro; Jesús Arzate Becerrril

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el uso de los títulos falsificados en la defensa jurídica de las tierras corporativas de los pueblos de indios del centro de México en el siglo XVIII. Se examina el proceso judicial seguido en la Audiencia de México y el rol jugado por los abogados y magistrados ilustrados para determinar como prueba legítima la presentación de los títulos apócrifos del pueblo de La Asunción Malacatepec, así como las consecuencias de ello.

  8. Fortines y pueblos en Buenos Aires del siglo XVIII. ¿Una política de urbanización para la frontera?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Canedo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the urban development in America was not exclusive of the European colonization, the foundation of towns and cities constituted a specific politics of conquest and colonial dominance. During the second half of the XVIII century and under the government of the Borbones, the politics established seemed to accompany the increase and growth of the cities and the towns in Spanish America, and to incentivate the urbanization of the areas of frontier of their Empire. Two queries articulate this work. Can the proposals formulated by the colonial authorities for Buenos Aires be located inside the urbanization politics proposed by the Borbones for frontier areas in Spanish America ? If this was this way, what concretion level has this politics had during the last decades of colonial bond? The establishment of towns will be studied for the case of Buenos Aires during the last decades of the XVIII century.Aunque el desarrollo urbano en América no fue privativo de la colonización europea, la fundación de pueblos y ciudades constituyó una política específica de conquista y dominación colonial. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y bajo el gobierno de los Borbones, las políticas establecidas parecieron acompañar el aumento y crecimiento de las ciudades y los pueblos en Hispanoamérica, e incentivar la urbanización de las zonas de frontera de su Imperio. Dos interrogantes articulan este trabajo. ¿Pueden ubicarse las propuestas formuladas por las autoridades coloniales para Buenos Aires dentro de la política de urbanización propuesta por los Borbones para zonas de frontera en Hispanoamérica? Si esto fue así, ¿qué nivel de concreción ha tenido dicha política durante las últimas décadas de vínculo colonial? Se estudiará el establecimiento de pueblos para el caso de Buenos Aires durante las últimas décadas del siglo XVIII.

  9. Las márgenes de los pueblos de indios. Agregados, arrendatarios y soldados en el Tucumán colonial. Siglos XVIII y XIX.

    OpenAIRE

    Farberman, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Desde mediados del siglo XVIII, la documentación sobre los pueblos de indios del Tucumán incluye escuetas referencias sobre “agregados” y “soldados”, la móvil población que va creciendo en sus márgenes y que podía incluso superar en número a las familias tributarias. Normalmente, los agregados se vinculaban a los pueblos pagando un arriendo al cacique. Por ello, pudieron contribuir a la perduración de algunas reducciones y a la consolidación de su sistema de autoridades. Sin embargo, el mismo...

  10. Repensando las clasificaciones socio-étnicas del siglo XVIII. Indios, mestizos y españoles al sur del valle Calchaquí (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Lorena B.

    2008-01-01

    A partir del análisis de la composición poblacional del valle de Santa María (noroeste argentino) durante el siglo XVIII, el objetivo de este artículo es repensar el problema de las clasificaciones socio-étnicas. En ese sentido, a la vez que centramos nuestra propuesta en un debate teórico-metodológico acerca del tipo de fuentes que utilizamos o la forma como lo hacemos o lo hicieron otros investigadores, pretendemos historizar y contextualizar el uso de algunas categorías como indio, español...

  11. Notas para una historia de la infancia en Buenos Aires : Fines del siglo XVIII-primeras décadas del siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Cowen, Miguel Pablo

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo analizaremos principios a nuestro entender indispensables, a tener en cuenta como coadyuvantes para el conocimiento de la situación de la infancia porteña a fines del período Tardo Colonial y primeros años del siglo XVIII. Nos concentraremos en el análisis de: conceptos tenidos como universalmente válidos, pero de dudosa vigencia en sociedades distintas a las de Europa Occidental y América del Norte. En la problemática planteada por la búsqueda y selección de fuentes primarias...

  12. DE ESPIRITUALES A HISTÉRICAS: LAS BEATAS DEL SIGLO XVIII EN LA NUEVA ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA ARAYA ESPINOZA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos inquisitoriales a beatas por ilusas y alumbradas en la Nueva España, durante el siglo XVIII, muestran cómo la "anormalidad" del modelo de espiritualidad místico y ascético, al que las mujeres fueron tan proclives en dicha centuria, pasó al campo del discurso médico. La mirada masculina se desconcierta con la continuidad de los signos exteriores de la espiritualidad femenina, son sus cuerpos el medio por el cual dan cuenta de que algo fuera de lo normal las identifica: arrobamientos, posesiones, ataques, temblores y mal de corazón, entre otros. En las beatas, estos fenómenos desconciertan y son considerados más sospechosos, por cuanto ellas suelen ser mujeres pobres y simples -al decir de los religiosos- que viven de forma indenpendiente y hacen de la vida religiosa una forma de subsistencia. Este trabajo muestra cómo los inquisidores se suman a la lógica racionalista del siglo institucionalizando la asociación entre fenómenos místicos, locura e histeria en las mujeres. El cuerpo femenino, su extrañeza y la incomodidad que provoca en toda sociedad, permite en la sociedad occidental y en el espacio colonial realizar los primeros usos legales de la histeria como devaluación del verbo y la acción de las mujeres en el gran relato de la historiaThe inquisitorial trials of pious women on the charges of being deluded and spellbound in the New Spain, during the XVIII century, show how the ""abnormality" of the mistic and ascetic model of spirituality to which women were so fond of in said century moved in to the realm of the medical discourse. The male look is bewildered by the continuity of the external signs of female sprirituality, their bodies are the means through which they account for something out the normalcy that identifies them: raptures, possessions, fits, shudders, and melancholy, among others. In the pious women, these phenomena puzzle the mind and are suspiciously considered in that they used to be poor and

  13. Usos y acepciones de chino, china en el norte del Perú, siglos XVIII-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andrade Ciudad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe estudian los usos de la palabra chino, china en el norte peruano, entre los siglos XVIII y XIX, a partir de documentos históricos y coplas de la lírica popular. En contra de propuestas anteriores, se confirma el uso efectivo del término, sobre todo en su forma femenina, y se postulan dos acepciones: la primera, vinculada a la terminología de castas, alude a un tipo de mestizaje que une los troncos indio y africano, con un componente menor, variable, de “sangre blanca”, mientras que la segunda hace referencia a una mujer joven, generalmente campesina. Se estudia también el uso de la palabra como una fórmula de apelación a la amada en la lírica popular y se concluye que, aunque probablemente esta fórmula se derivó de la terminología racial, la palabra rápidamente adquirió matices afectivos positivos, con lo cual permitió aludir a la mujer cercana, aquella que era posible cortejar. Se sugiere que la antigua acepción ‘criada’, central en las fuentes coloniales del XVI y el XVII, se empezó a desdibujar en el período estudiado y, en línea con trabajos previos, se postula una competencia entre este lexema y la palabra homófona referida a las migrantes asiáticas desde fines del XIX.Palabras clave: categorización racial de seres humanos, lexicología, norte del Perú, siglos XVIII y XIXAbstractThis paper studies the uses of the word chino, china in northern Peru in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, via historical documents and popular poetry couplets. Contrary to previous proposals, we corroborate the actual use of this term, especially in its feminine form, and we propose two possible meanings for it: the first, linked to caste terminology, refers to a type of “racial mix” between “Indian” and “African”, with a minor and variable component of “white blood”, while the second refers to a young woman, usually a peasant. We also examine the use of the word as a formulaic

  14. Literacy in Eighteenth Century Spain La alfabetización en la España del siglo XVIII

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    Jacques SOUBEYROUX

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of a team research program elaborated from 1979 to 93 in 28 different Spanish cities, and bearing on the analysis of the signatures of some 49.000 men and women at various stages of the century. It constitutes the first national research synthesis on literacy in Spain. It is subdivided into four parts: 1 An analysis of source materials (mainly legacies and other notarized acts and of the methodological problems involved. 2 Research results concerning the first and second halves of the century, and exposition of the main parameters determining the literacy level: sex (men/women dimorphism, place of residence (city/country opposition. 3 A study of the literacy rates according to socioprofessional categories. 4 The evolution of literacy through the century on a quantitative level (reduction of illiteracy and a qualitative one (improvement in the qualitative one (improvement in the quality of signatures. The conclusion reveals a profound dichotomy in XVIII th century Spain: an average literacy rate slightly lower than that of Southern France, contrasting with high rates in some major cities and other areas of excellence, sometimes even better than those of French cities.Este estudio es el resultado de un programa de un grupo de investigación elaborado desde 1979 a 1993 en 28 ciudades españolas diferentes, en el curso del cual se analizan pacientemente las firmas de aproximadamente 49.000 hombres y mujeres en diferentes momentos del siglo. Constituye la primera síntesis de una investigación nacional sobre la alfabetización en España. Se estructura en cuatro partes: 1 Análisis de las fuentes materiales (en especial testamentos y otras actas notariales y de los problemas metodológicos que se conectan con ellas. 2 Resultados de la investigación relativos a la primera y segunda mitad del siglo, y exposición de los grandes parámetros que determinan el grado de alfabetización: sexo (diformismo hombre/mujer, lugar de

  15. Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Western Canada Chapter, American Society for Information Science (Third, Banff School of Fine Arts, October 3,4,5, 1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgary Univ. (Alberta).

    The proceedings contain papers given by the members of the chapter who come from both the University and Business environments. Some operational indexing, bibliographic, SDI and Retrospective Search Systems which include CAN/SDI, Compendex, TEXT-PAC, SIS II & III, KWOC and FAMULUS are discussed. Also included are papers on two projects conducted…

  16. Operational calculus and generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelyi, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This brief monograph by a distinguished professor is based on a mathematics course offered at the California Institute of Technology. The majority of students taking this course were advanced undergraduates and graduate students of engineering. A solid background in advanced calculus is a prerequisite.Topics include elementary and convergence theories of convolution quotients, differential equations involving operator functions, and exponential functions of operators. Tools developed in the preceding chapters are then applied to problems in partial differential equations. Solutions to selected

  17. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  18. Chapter 12: the anatomical foundations of clinical neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter provides an itinerary of knowledge on nervous system anatomy as one of the pillars of clinical neurology. The journey starts from the Renaissance explosion on the approach to the human body, its functions and its diseases, dealing with the seminal contributions of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The itinerary proceeds through the contributions of the 17th century, especially by Thomas Willis and the pioneering investigations of Marcello Malpighi and Antony van Leeuwenhoek, and onto the 18th century. The itinerary thus leads to the progress from gross anatomy to the microscopic investigation of the nervous system in the 19th century: the reticular theories, the revolution of the neural doctrine and their protagonists (Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal), which initiated the modern era of the neurosciences. The chapter also includes sections on the contributions of developmental neuroanatomy to neurology, on the history of tract tracing, and on the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex. The never-ending story of the anatomical foundations of clinical neurology continues to evolve at the dawn of the 21st century, including knowledge that guides deep brain stimulation, and novel approaches to the anatomy of the living brain based on rapidly developing neuroimaging technology.

  19. El núcleo de instituciones científicas matritenses en el Paseo del Prado desde el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baratas Díaz, Luis Alfredo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout second half of 18th century was constituted a scientific institutions centre around the “Paseo del Prado” (Royal Botanical Garden, Sciences Academy, Astronomic Observatory, General Hospital,.... The development of this scientific area suffered the vicissitudes and limitations that affected to the illustrated scientific policy. In 19th century the new educational and research centers establishment was scarce and laking of clear guidelines; the various projects to build a Sciences Faculty or the Arts and Trades School limited considerably the extension of the Royal Garden. In the first third of 20th century the constructing activity would be limited to the works in the Cajal Institute (plagued by misundestanding and upsetting and some constant remodeling works in the Velasco Museum and Royal Garden.

    A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII se constituyó en torno al actual Paseo del Prado un importante núcleo de instituciones científicas (Real Jardín Botánico, Academia de Ciencias, Observatorio Astronómico, Hospital General,.... El desarrollo de este foco científico sufrió las vicisitudes y limitaciones que afectaron a la política científica ilustrada. En el siglo XIX el establecimiento de nuevos centros docentes en esta zona fue escaso y carente de una idea directriz; los diversos proyectos para edificar una Facultad de Ciencias o la Escuela de Artes y Oficios limitaron considerablemente la extensión del Real Jardín. En el primer tercio del siglo XX la actividad constructora se limitaría a las obras en el Instituto Cajal (plagadas de malentendidos y desajustes y unas constantes obras de remodelación en el Museo Velasco y el Jardín Botánico.

  20. Una colección de esquelas impresas del siglo XVIII: la correspondencia del I Duque de San Carlos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizarraga, Juan Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Biblioteca Histórica de la UCM conserva una colección epistolar que reúne en un volumen facticio casi quinientas esquelas impresas con notificaciones, invitaciones y solicitudes remitidas al I Duque de San Carlos (1722-1797. El objeto de este artículo es presentar esta colección de impresos efímeros, su destinatario y remitentes, describir sus características físicas y formales así como apuntar una tipología y clasificación temática y abordar la problemática que presenta su datación cronológica. Esta colección de esquelas ofrece una valiosa información acerca del empleo de este particular género epistolar en la España del último cuarto del siglo XVIII así como de algunas costumbres y convenciones sociales de la nobleza madrileña de la época en lo que a rituales de invitación y notificación se refiereThe Historical Library of the UCM contains a collection of correspondence that gathers in a factitious volume nearly five hundred printed notifications, invitations and requests sent to the Duke of San Carlos (1722-1797. The purpose of this paper is to present this collection of printed ephemera, its recipient and senders, describing their physical and formal characteristics as well as pointing out a typology and thematic classification and address the issues presented by their chronological dating. This collection of printed correspondence provides valuable information on the use of this particular epistolary genre in Spain in the last quarter of the eighteenth century as well as on some of the social customs and conventions of the Madrid nobility as far as the rituals of invitation and notification are concerned.

  1. Ilustración y reforma de la teología en Portugal en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina ARAÚJO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El debate sobre la racionalidad intemporal de la verdad compromete, en el siglo XVIII, la unidad del campo teológico. Al margen de la Escolástica, la renovación de esta área del saber supone valorar la Exégesis bíblica, la Historia Eclesiástica y la razón crítica.En Portugal, fray Manuel del Cenáculo Vilas Boas, Luís António Verney y los miembros de la Junta da Providência Literária, contribuyen, con sus ideas y proyectos de reforma, a modernizar la enseñanza conventual y universitaria de los estudios de Teología.En este proceso, la reforma de la Universidad de Coimbra (1772 señala también el triunfo del regalismo de la época del marqués de Pombal.ABSTRACT: In the 18th century the discussion around truth’s timeless rationality compromises the theological field’s unity. Aside scholasticism, this knowledge area’s renewing goes through biblical Exegesis, ecclesiastical history’s and critical reason’s valorization.In Portugal, Frei Manuel do Cenáculo Vilas Boas, Luis Antonio Verney and the member of the Junta da Providência Literária contribute, with their reformist ideas and projects, to the modernization of Theology’s conventual and universitarian teaching.In this process, the University of Coimbra’s reform (1772 also marks the Pombalist regalism’s triumph.

  2. Desastres naturales, rogativas públicas y santos protectores en la Nueva Granada (siglos XVIII y XIX

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    Juan Carlos Jurado Jurado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Como eran enfrentados los desastres naturales en los siglos XVIII y XIX, cuando no existían los mecanismos institucionales que hoy conocemos bajo el moderno concepto de la 'prevención de desastres', con todo su sistema de ayudas tecnológicas, médicas e institucionales? Los desastres se asemejan a las enfermedades, al ser un elemento de desorganización social y un factor de temido desarreglo para la vida cotidiana, por lo que permiten hacer visibles las articulaciones internas de una sociedad y las tensiones que la atraviesan. Son un punto privilegiado para percibir el significado de mecanismos administrativos y prácticas religiosas en torno a fenómenos que vulneran una comunidad, así como la imagen que una sociedad tiene de sí misma. A pesar de que los archivos coloniales y republicanos poseen información dispersa sobre el tema, es posible identificar la manera como se sucedían con recurrencia fuertes temporadas de invierno que obstaculizaban el comercio y la movilización de personas y mercancías. Los documentos históricos también permiten conocer la ocurrencia de tempestades, granizadas, inundaciones, largas temporadas de sequía, vendavales, erupciones volcánicas, terremotos y deslizamientos de tierra y lodo. que podían arrasar cultivos, animales del campo y poblaciones enteras. Al hecho de que sucedieran estos eventos, contribuían las acciones humanas de intervención sobre los paisajes naturales.

  3. Ascetismo en imágenes: los ermitaños del desierto del sordo en el siglo XVIII

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    De la Peña Velasco, Concepción

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pictorial portrayals of Thebais were common during the Modern Age. However, we find very few images that show hermit activities with different habits and from different places. Thus the importance of the XVIIIth century picture subject of this paper, that depicts religious forms associated to cave life which had a long tradition on the site of La Luz in Murcia. We study the locus amoenus which is symbolic but inspired on a real environment of hermit inhabited caves, whose practices were regulated by the prelate of the Diocese of Cartagena, as proven by an inscription and by historic records. We look at the uniqueness of the picture and relate it to historic and literary sources on the subject.Las representaciones pictóricas de Tebaidas fueron comunes en la Edad Moderna. Sin embargo, apenas se conocen imágenes que muestren actividad eremítica con monjes de diversa procedencia y con distintos hábitos. De ahí la importancia del cuadro analizado del siglo XVIII, que plasma formas de religiosidad, vinculadas a la vida rupestre, de larga tradición en el paraje mostrado de La Luz en Murcia. Se estudia el locus amoenus pintado, que se inspira en un lugar simbólico y en un entorno real, con las cuevas que habitaron anacoretas, cuyas prácticas fueron reglamentadas por el prelado de la Diócesis de Cartagena, como prueban una inscripción y datos de archivo. Se aborda la singularidad del lienzo, relacionándolo con fuentes documentales y literarias alusivas al tema.

  4. Valeurs bibliophiles dans la langue française presentes en Bucovine (XVII-eme-XVIII-eme siecles

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    Olimpia Mitric

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Comme on le sait, la Moldavie a été la plus réceptive des trois provinces roumaines à la culture française. Dans cette province-ci, les contacts avec le mouvement d'idées européen ont été plus puissants. La lutte d'affirmation nationale a mené à l'augmentation de la conscience politique de la société moldave et à une participation plus accentuée à la vie politique. Le goût pour la lecture a évolue, aussi, pendant que la mentalité a commencé se transformer; on sollicite et ensuite traduit les oeuvres dans lesquelles apparaissent les idées sociales politiques, l'histoire universelle, la géographie, les conquêtes de la technique ou la littérature philosophique-moralisatrice. Les plus anciennes copies en roumain des oeuvres traduites du français, qui se trouvent dans nos bibliothèques datent de la fin du XVIII-ème siècle. Celles-ci sont des traductions de Voltaire, Marmontel, Ambrosius Marlianus, Francesco Loredano, Fénélon, Johan Thuresson Oxenstiern, Gabriel Pérau, Alain Réné Lesage, André Guillaume Constant d' Orville. Le livre imprimé (inclusivement jusqu' en 1800 provient des ateliers typographiques de Paris, Londres, Genève, Regensburg, Basel et Berlin. Le plus ancien exemplaire, Le tableau de L'Europe, est imprimé à Paris, en 1651. Pour ceux qui s'y intéressent, nous avons organisé la liste de ces livres, sur catégories de détenteurs.

  5. CUANDO LAS AFRENTAS SE LAVABAN CON SANGRE: HONOR, MASCULINIDAD Y DUELOS DE ESPADAS EN EL SIGLO XVIII CHILENO

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    Verónica Undurraga Schüler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la relación entre honor y prácticas sociales en el siglo XVIII chileno, analizando la figura de los duelos o expresiones de violencia masculina formalizada. Junto con indagar en los mecanismos restitutorios del honor y su vinculación a los fundamentos de una masculinidad tradicional, reflexiona sobre las gamas de manejo social de dicho valor en el período señalado. Teóricamente se rescatan los aportes de la antropología y se hace un balance del tratamiento historiográfico del problema. Desde los registros judiciales se plantea el carácter transversal del honor en términos sociales y se aborda su "doble naturaleza" en cuanto espacio relacional y ámbito de confrontación de los individuos.This works deals with the relationship between honor and social practices in Chile's eighteenth century and analyzes formal duels or expressions of legalized masculine violence. This article explores various manifestations of the social ways used to deal with honor at that time, together with the inquiries about mechanisms used to restore honor and its links with traditional masculinity. Theoretically, this work rescues contributions made by anthropologists and provides an overview of how honor and masculinity have been examined in the historiography. Starting from judicial records, the article considers the transversal character of honor in social terms and approaches its "double significance" as both a relational space for people and as a sphere for the confrontation of individuals.

  6. Contrabando, ilegalidade e medidas políticas no Rio de Janeiro do século XVIII

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    Ernst Pijning

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo estuda o contrabando no século XVIII, em especial em relação ao Rio de Janeiro e ao Atlântico Sul. Neste artigo discuto não apenas a mecânica do contrabando e os participantes deste comércio ilegal, mas os vários fatores que ocasionaram as medidas portuguesas, metropolitanas e coloniais para impedir o comércio clandestino. Estudo particularmente como tais medidas representaram um compromisso entre diferentes interesses, tais como: o papel do monarca, a integridade ou a maleabilidade da autoridade real, a aplicação dessa legislação e os tipos de penalidades impostas aos infratores, trazendo questões sobre o que constituíam ações legais ou ilegais, assim como questões mais amplas relativas à ética e à moralidade pública no Brasil colônia.This article focuses on contraband in the eighteenth century, with special reference to Rio de Janeiro and the South Atlantic. It discusses not merely the mechanics of contraband and the participants in this illegal trade, but the many factors that contributed to Portuguese metropolitan and colonial measures to curb clandestine trade. I am particularly intrigued by the degree to which such measures represented a compromise between different interests. The role of the monarch, the integrity or malleability of royal authority, the latitude in enforcement of such legislation and the range of penalties imposed on infractors raise questions as to what constituted legal or illegal actions, as well as broader issues of ethics and public morality in colonial Brazil.

  7. La crueldad ibérica a través de los relatos de viaje franceses del siglo XVIII

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    Emma CARRÈRE-LARA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La crueldad o barbarie ibérica alimenta la Leyenda Negra antihispánica desde el siglo XVI. En el siglo XVIII, Siglo de las Luces, los viajeros franceses llegan a España con la idea de que los españoles son seres violentos, bárbaros y crueles e intentan demostrarlo, basándose en el examen de tres aspectos de la sociedad española: las corridas de toros, el tribunal de la Inquisición y los crímenes con navaja. No obstante, las reacciones no serán unánimes como se podía pensar: unos seguirán condenando a los crueles ibéricos, otros adoptarán una actitud más moderada, intentando analizar la situación con objetividad y sentido crítico.ABSTRACT: Iberian cruelty or barbarity has been fueling the anti-hispanic Black Legend since the 16th century. In the 18th century, the Age of the Enlightenment, French travellers arrived in Spain bearing in mind that the Spaniards were violent, barbarian and cruel beings and they attempted to demostrate that this was so by taking a close look at three aspects of Spanish society: bullfighting, the Inquisition and bloody murders. However, the reactions were not as identical as one might think: some relentlessly condemned the cruel Spaniards, while others adopted a more moderate attitude, trying to analyse the situation objectively and critically.

  8. Diálogos con la Reina de los Cielos. Visiones y locuciones de una monja chilena del siglo XVIII

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    Millar Carvacho, René

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses an unpublished text written by a nun in Santiago of Chile around the mid-eighteenth century. The text, written by her confessor’s command, recounts the visions and locutions that she had with the Virgin Mary, which revolved around the figure of the confessor. This makes quite a special report because the priest appears as a central character of the visions, and the one who benefits from the intercession of the nun before the heavenly beings. At the same time, the account gives evidence of the nun’s awareness of her role, her limitations as a woman and her mediator power. On the other hand, the nun’s narrative shows not only the way of living her faith, but also allows us to get nearer to the ‘religious mentality’ of her time.El artículo analiza un texto inédito escrito por una monja de Santiago de Chile, a mediados del siglo XVIII, por mandato de su confesor. En él se refieren las visiones y locuciones tuvo con la Virgen, las que giran en torno a la figura del confesor. Esto hace bastante especial el relato, pues el sacerdote aparece como un personaje central de las visiones, que se beneficia de la intercesión de la religiosa ante los seres celestiales. Pero al mismo tiempo, la narración deja en evidencia a una religiosa muy consciente de su papel, de sus limitaciones como mujer y de su poder mediador. Por otra parte, el relato de la monja muestra no sólo su manera de vivir la fe, sino también nos permite acercarnos a la mentalidad religiosa de su época.

  9. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal

    2013-04-01

    The International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Student Chapter Freiberg was founded in 2007 at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF) in Germany by national and international graduate and undergraduate students of various geoscientific as well as natural science disciplines. The major aim of the IAMG is to promote international cooperation in the application and use of Mathematics in Geosciences research and technology. The IAMG encourages all types of students and young scientists to found and maintain student chapters, which can even receive limited financial support by the IAMG. Following this encouragement, generations of students at TUBAF have build up and established a prosperous range of activities. These might be an example and an invitation for other young scientists and institutions worldwide to run similar activities. We, some of the current and former students behind the student chapter, have organised talks, membership drives, student seminars, guest lectures, several short courses and even international workshops. Some notable short courses were held by invited IAMG distinguished lecturers. The topics included "Statistical analysis in the Earth Sciences using R - a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics", "Geomathematical Natural Resource Modeling" and "Introduction to Geostatistics for Environmental Applications and Natural Resources Evaluation: Basic Concepts and Examples". Furthermore, we conducted short courses by ourselves. Here, the topics included basic introductions into MATLAB, object oriented programming concepts for geoscientists using MATLAB and an introduction to the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Most of those short courses lasted several days and provided an excellent and unprecedented teaching experience for us. We were given credit by attending students for filling gaps in our university's curriculum by providing in-depth and hands-on tutorials on topics, which were merely

  10. “Troppo vicini”. Letture della catastrofe prossima nel pensiero meridionale alla fine del XVIII secolo

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    Monica Riccio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available “Too close”. Reading nearby catastrophes in Southern Italian thought at the end of the XVIIIth century. This paper analyses the intersections between the ideas of catastrophe and revolution in Southern Italian writers at the end of the XVIIIth century, focusing on those who operated in the proximity of a natural or political upheaval. The way in which this proximity modifies the value of the concept of catastrophe is well shown by the writings of the “observers” of the 1783 earthquake in Calabria and Messina and by their effort to offer a testimony and narrate the catastrophe at present tense.

  11. La actitud económica de la burguesía en la España del siglo XVIII

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    Pere Molas Ribalta

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Conviene comenzar esta exposición con unas consideraciones sobre el concepto y divisiones de la burguesía. De ordinario se identifica burguesía con actividad mercantil, y realmente el comercio constituía, todavía en el siglo xviii, la principal base de ingresos de la burguesía. Pero debemos llamar la atención sobre la importancia de las profesiones liberales. Médicos y hombres de leyes tuvieron gran importancia en el movimiento ideológico y cultural de la centuria. Más aún el desarrollo económico de un país daba lugar al desarrollo de las profesiones y al beneficio económico de la abogacía, por ejemplo, como puede constatarse en Inglaterra. El lector se habrá encontrado con las expresiones burguesía agraria o burguesía rural en obras sobre el siglo xviii español. Se refieren a los propietarios campesinos no nobles, pero de gran importancia en los pueblos, llamados en la época «los poderosos».

  12. ¿Lealtad al estado o al monarca?: Los juramentos de fidelidad del siglo XVIII a la luz de la historia conceptual. El caso ruso

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    Claudio Sergio Ingerflom

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La inclusión del término "Estado" en algunos juramentos de lealtad al monarca ruso a principios del siglo XVIII ha sido frecuentemente interpretada como un índice de la existencia del Estado. En este artículo se estudian los textos de los juramentos, la significación de la palabra "Estado" en esa época y la concepción que el emperador se hacía de su poder y de su relación con el país. Este análisis va más allá del caso ruso: a se observa como fenómenos similares en la historia occidental y en la historia rusa desembocan sobre representaciones del poder totalmente divergentes; b se toma en cuenta la diferencia entre la palabra "Estado" y el concepto "Estado" en el cauce abierto por la historia conceptual, lo que es un requisito indispensable para toda investigación sobre el tema. Se defiende aquí la tesis de que el Imperio ruso del siglo XVIII no era un Estado

  13. Gold-metallic textile and gold-silver lace in women’s headwear of the XVIII century: results of research in the archaeological textile from Nizhniy Novgorod

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    Orfinskaya Olga V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with research results of women’s headwear, which was discovered during archaeological excavations the necropolis at Verhneposadskaya St. Nicholas Church in Nizhny Novgorod. The structure of the textile and lace, the headwear cutting, the location of lace, and the time of its creation have been determined in the course of study. Most attention has been given to the gold-metallic threads. Technological classification of goldmetallic archaeological threads from different historical periods is considered in the article. The headwear was made of gold brocade of tinsel thread. It can be attributed to the mid or low value for the price. At the same time the good quality threads were used in the silver lace. According to the analysis of types and kinds of women’s headgear in Western fashion the time of creation a cap under study is determined as the middle or second half of the XVIII century. Dating is supported by results of the lace research. It is a typical XVIII century fan-shaped agramant named «vilyushka». Overall research results became a possible reconstruction of headdress. It is a small cap decorated with metallic lace along a bottom edge and the axis of symmetry of the forehead to the nape of the neck.

  14. Chapter 3 – VPPD-Lab: The Chemical Product Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    as property calculations and property model consistency tests) for specific product property prediction, design, and/or analysis tasks. The application of VPPD-Lab is highlighted through case studies involving solvent mixture stability check, lubricant blend design, jet fuel blend design, and insect repellent......Computer-aided methods and tools for current and future product–process design and development need to manage problems requiring efficient handling of models, data, and knowledge from different sources and at different times and size scales. In this chapter, a systematic model-based framework...... for computer-aided chemical product design and evaluation, implemented in the software called VPPD-Lab, is presented. In the same way a typical process simulator works, the VPPD-Lab allows users to: (1) analyze chemical-based products by performing virtual experiments (product property and performance...

  15. Structural equation modeling: building and evaluating causal models: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Scheiner, Samuel M.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists frequently wish to study hypotheses about causal relationships, rather than just statistical associations. This chapter addresses the question of how scientists might approach this ambitious task. Here we describe structural equation modeling (SEM), a general modeling framework for the study of causal hypotheses. Our goals are to (a) concisely describe the methodology, (b) illustrate its utility for investigating ecological systems, and (c) provide guidance for its application. Throughout our presentation, we rely on a study of the effects of human activities on wetland ecosystems to make our description of methodology more tangible. We begin by presenting the fundamental principles of SEM, including both its distinguishing characteristics and the requirements for modeling hypotheses about causal networks. We then illustrate SEM procedures and offer guidelines for conducting SEM analyses. Our focus in this presentation is on basic modeling objectives and core techniques. Pointers to additional modeling options are also given.

  16. Introduction to physical properties and elasticity models: Chapter 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, Jack; Helgerud, Michael B.; Waite, William F.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Nur, Amos

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the in situ methane hydrate volume from seismic surveys requires knowledge of the rock physics relations between wave speeds and elastic moduli in hydrate/sediment mixtures. The elastic moduli of hydrate/sediment mixtures depend on the elastic properties of the individual sedimentary particles and the manner in which they are arranged. In this chapter, we present some rock physics data currently available from literature. The unreferenced values in Table I were not measured directly, but were derived from other values in Tables I and II using standard relationships between elastic properties for homogeneous, isotropic material. These derivations allow us to extend the list of physical property estimates, but at the expense of introducing uncertainties due to combining property values measured under different physical conditions. This is most apparent in the case of structure II (sII) hydrate for which very few physical properties have been measured under identical conditions.

  17. Chapter 10.3: Reliability and Durability of PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2017-01-07

    Each year the world invests tens of billions of dollars or euros in PV systems with the expectation that these systems will last approximately 25 years. Although the disciplines of reliability, quality, and service life prediction have been well established for numerous products, a full understanding of these is currently challenging for PV modules because the desired service lifetimes are decades, preventing direct verification of lifetime predictions. A number of excellent reviews can be found in the literature summarizing the types of failures that are commonly observed for PV modules. This chapter discusses key failure/degradation mechanisms selected to highlight how the kinetics of failure rates can and cannot be confidently predicted. For EVA-encapsulated modules, corrosion is observed to follow delamination, which then allows water droplets to directly contact the metallization. Extended test protocols such as Qualification Plus were created to address the known problems while standards groups update standard tests through the consensus process.

  18. Chapter 5: Network biology approach to complex diseases.

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    Dong-Yeon Cho

    Full Text Available Complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Uncovering the molecular pathways through which genetic factors affect a phenotype is always difficult, but in the case of complex diseases this is further complicated since genetic factors in affected individuals might be different. In recent years, systems biology approaches and, more specifically, network based approaches emerged as powerful tools for studying complex diseases. These approaches are often built on the knowledge of physical or functional interactions between molecules which are usually represented as an interaction network. An interaction network not only reports the binary relationships between individual nodes but also encodes hidden higher level organization of cellular communication. Computational biologists were challenged with the task of uncovering this organization and utilizing it for the understanding of disease complexity, which prompted rich and diverse algorithmic approaches to be proposed. We start this chapter with a description of the general characteristics of complex diseases followed by a brief introduction to physical and functional networks. Next we will show how these networks are used to leverage genotype, gene expression, and other types of data to identify dysregulated pathways, infer the relationships between genotype and phenotype, and explain disease heterogeneity. We group the methods by common underlying principles and first provide a high level description of the principles followed by more specific examples. We hope that this chapter will give readers an appreciation for the wealth of algorithmic techniques that have been developed for the purpose of studying complex diseases as well as insight into their strengths and limitations.

  19. Los caballeros del punto fijo: ciencia, política y aventura en la expedición geodésica hispanofrancesa al virreinato del Perú en el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente, Antonio; Mazuecos, Antonio

    1987-01-01

    256 páginas.-- 1ª edición, Barcelona : Ediciones del Serbal ; Madrid : CSIC, 1987.-- Traducción al inglés, "Gentlemen of the Fixed Point: Science, Politics and Adventure in the Geodesic Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru in the XVIII Century" disponible en: http://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/15737

  20. Puestas en escena del teatro clásico español del Siglo de Oro y del Siglo XVIII en Jerez de la Frontera (1852-1900)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Reconstrucción de la cartelera teatral de Jerez de la Frontera entre 1852 y 1900, centrada en el teatro clásico español del Siglo de Oro y del siglo XVIII, atendiendo a las obras y autores representados, compañías y recepción crítica.

  1. Alimentación, ocio y cultura en el pazo de Goiáns en el siglo XVIII

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    José M. Vázquez Lijó

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En esta comunicación se analizan algunos aspectos del micro cosmos cultural de un pazo gallego, el de Goiáns, cuya excepcional ubicación a orillas de la ría de Arousa dota de alto valor añadido a este solar con espacios singulares como pesquera y embarcadero. Los inventarios de bienes de la casa informan de varios indicadores culturales de las elites (libros, juegos, obras artísticas, instrumentos musicales y otros, como la alimentación, pueden estudiarse gracias a la documentación contable. El breve esplendor material del pazo parece datarse a mediados del siglo XVIII coincidiendo con la exitosa promoción social de los señores de Goiáns y sus hijos consecuencia de un cúmulo de factores (relaciones familiares, poder económico, bodas ventajosas, educación privilegiada…. La carrera militar de los sucesivos dueños les obligó a residir allí donde ejercían estos empleos y Goiáns pasó a ser una segunda residencia, cada vez más vacía de vida y de muebles, convirtiéndose a partir de la década de 1820 en un simple centro de administración de rentas.This report analyzes some relevant points about the cultural microcosm of a Galician Pazo (that of Goians. Its ideal situation, on the banks of the Ría de Arousa, provides an added value to this land with unique spaces such as a fisherie and a pier. Inventories of the household goods give a number of cultural indicators of the elite (books, games, artwork, musical instruments and other factors, such as meals, can be studied thanks to accounting documentation. The Pazo reached its peak in the mid-eighteenth century coinciding with the successful social promotion of the lords of Goians and their children due to a combination of factors (family relations, wealth, marriages of convenience, a privileged education. The military careers of the subsequent owners forced them to move away and live wherever they exercised their jobs. This way Goians became a second residence, increasingly

  2. UNIFORMIDAD FISCAL VERSUS TERRITORIOS PRIVILEGIADOS EN LA ESPAÑA DEL SIGLO XVIII: LOS CASOS DE NAVARRA Y CANARIAS

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    Sergio Solbes Ferri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se organiza desde una doble reflexión. Por un lado, el éxito o el fracaso en la aplicación de los proyectos de reforma fiscal diseñados para su imposición en el conjunto de la Monarquía española en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII. Por otro lado, el éxito o el fracaso en la defensa de los privilegios fiscales de Navarra y de Canarias, territorios en los que Felipe V no pudo, ni quiso, imponer el derecho de conquista tras la guerra de Sucesión. Analizamos estas especificidades con la intención de conocer aquellos aspectos que perduran en el tiempo y aquellos que desaparecen. Finalmente, tratamos de reflexionar sobre si el resultado final es la consecuencia necesaria de un proyecto de reforma preconcebido o de una simple adaptación a las circunstancias propias del devenir histórico. Apostamos por la primera solución, así que tratamos en integrar los cambios implementados con el pensamiento y los programas de reforma diseñados por Alberoni y Patiño.AbstractThis study is organized from a double perspective. Firstly, the success or failure in the implementation of projects designed to reform taxation in the whole Spanish monarchy during the first half of the eighteenth century. On the other hand, the success or failure in defending the fiscal privileges of Navarra and Canarias, territories in which Philip V could not impose the right of conquest after the War of Succession. We analyse these specificities with the intention of meeting those aspects that remain and those that disappear. Lastly, we try to reflect if the final status is the result of a preconceived reform project or a simple adaptation to the circumstances of the historical development. We focus on the first solution, so we try to relate the implemented changes with the Alberoni and Patiño reform programs.

  3. Baluartes, mosquetes y reclutas: cuestiones en torno a la historiografía militar modernista (siglos XVI-XVIII

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    Salas Almela, Luis

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We have selected some questions of military historiography from XVIth to XVIIIth century according to their influence on the global comprehension of the early modern history. From this subject we have evaluated dificulties and goals in the last decades. We have specially paid attention to the British and French historiographycal traditions because of their development and significance on the Spanish way of facing the military history. In conclution, we suggest that the main methodological and conceptual contributions of the special field that concerns us in this article have to be related to the last years. This matched with the moment in which these historians have changed their attempt to focus the most important changes in the early modern period from their specialism. Best results have been achieved when they have recognized a more modest status for the military history.

    Dentro del campo de la historiografía militar —en un sentido amplio— de los siglos XVI al XVIII, se han seleccionado algunas cuestiones que por su influencia e innovación conceptual han supuesto mayores aportaciones a la comprensión general del período moderno en su conjunto. A partir de ellas, se ha tratado de valorar los principales logros y los escollos más enconados que los historiadores de la especialidad han ido ofreciendo y encontrando en las últimas décadas. Las escuelas historiográficas de lo militar que, en función precisamente de su desarrollo, han encontrado mayor cabida en estas páginas son la británica y, en menor medida, la francesa. Ambas, por otro lado, son las que más han influido en los historiadores españoles. Como conclusión, el autor sugiere que las principales aportaciones metodológicas y conceptuales de la historiografía militar modernista se han producido precisamente en el momento en el que se ha abandonado la pretensión de hacer de lo específicamente militar el factor clave en el desarrollo histórico de las sociedades

  4. Guide to good practices for operations turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Turnover, Chapter XII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing operations turnover programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Turnover is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a formal operations turnover program to promote safe and efficient operations.

  5. Transistor electronics use of semiconductor components in switching operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rumpf, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Transistor Electronics: Use of Semiconductor Components in Switching Operations presents the semiconductor components as well as their elementary circuits. This book discusses the scope of application of electronic devices to increase productivity. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general equation for the representation of integer positive numbers. This text then examines the properties and characteristics of basic electronic components, which relates to an understanding of the operation of semiconductors. Other chapters consider the electronic circuit ar

  6. Chapter 4: neurology in the Bible and the Talmud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsod, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The Bible, a major pillar of Western Civilization consists of Hebrew Scriptures, assembled over a millennium and accepted as of divine origin. The Talmud is a compendium of Jewish laws, covering every possible aspect of life, analyzed in depth from 200 BCE to 600 CE, becoming the foundation of Jewish existence. The all-encompassing character of the books provides numerous medical problems and observations that appear in various connotations. When in need to clarify various legal dilemmas, the Talmudic sages displayed astoundingly accurate anatomical knowledge and were pioneers in clinical-pathological correlations. The descriptions of "neurological" events in the Bible are very precise but show no evidence of neurological knowledge. Those reported in the various tractates of the Talmud are evidence of a substantial medical knowledge, marked by Hellenistic influence. Subjects such as head and spinal injuries, epilepsy, handedness neuralgias aphasia tinnitus and tremor were discussed in depth. This chapter is an updated collection of the studies, extracting observations and discussions of neurological manifestations from the ancient texts.

  7. Chapter 20: neurological illustration from photography to cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores iconography in neurology from the birth of photography up to the early medical applications of cinematography before 1914. The important visual part of neurological diagnosis explains why these techniques were adopted very early by neurologists. Duchenne published the first medical book illustrated with photographs of patients. The first and most famous photographic laboratory was created in Charcot's department, at the Salpêtrière in Paris, under the direction of Albert Londe. Londe published the first book dedicated to medical photography. The physiologist Marey and the photographer Muybridge, in association with neurologists, played key roles in the development of chronophotography and cinematography. Germany was the first country to welcome cinematography in a neurology department. Independently, neurologists began to film patients in other countries in Europe and in America. In 1905, Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, began systematically to film neurologic patients, with the intention of building up a complete neurological iconographic collection. This collection has survived and has been restored in the laboratory of the Royal Belgian Film Archive where the films are now safely stored in their vaults.

  8. CHAPTER 6. Biomimetic Materials for Efficient Atmospheric Water Collection

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    Water scarcity is a severe problem in semi-arid desert regions, land-scarce countries and in countries with high levels of economic activity. In these regions, the collection of atmospheric water - for example, fog - is recognized as an important method of providing water. In nature, through millions of year evolution, some animals and plants in many of the arid regions have developed unique and highly efficient systems with delicate microstructures and composition for the purpose of fog collection to survive the harsh conditions. With the unique ability of fog collection, these creatures could readily cope with insufficient access to fresh water or lack of precipitation. These natural examples have inspired the design and fabrication of artificial fog collection materials and devices. In this chapter, we will first introduce some natural examples for their unique fog collection capability, and then give some examples of the bioinspired materials and devices that are fabricated artificially to mimic these natural creatures for the purpose of fog collection. We believe that the biomimetic strategy is one of the most promising routes for the design and fabrication of functional materials and devices for the solution of the global water crisis.

  9. California spotted owls: Chapter 5 in Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Suzanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) are habitat specialists that are strongly associated with late-successional forests. For nesting and roosting, they require large trees and snags embedded in a stand with a complex forest structure (Blakesley et al. 2005, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, Verner et al. 1992b). In mixedconifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California spotted owls typically nest and roost in stands with high canopy closure (≥75 percent) [Note: when citing studies, we use terminology consistent with Jennings et al. (1999), however, not all studies properly distinguish between canopy cover and closure and often use the terms interchangeably (see chapter 14 for clarification)] and an abundance of large trees (>24 in (60 cm) diameter at breast height [d.b.h.]) (Bias and Gutiérrez 1992, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, LaHaye et al. 1997, Moen and Gutiérrez 1997, Verner et al. 1992a). The California spotted owl guidelines (Verner et al. 1992b) effectively summarized much of the information about nesting and roosting habitat. Since that report, research on the California spotted owl has continued with much of the new information concentrated in five areas: population trends, barred owl (Strix varia) invasion, climate effects, foraging habitat, and owl response to fire.

  10. THE HISTORY AND THE PRESENT OF THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE XVI – XVIII CENTURIES ON THE TERRITORY OF DNIPROPETROVSK IN THE EYES OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYSENKO G. I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Statement of the problem. With the enactment of the Law of Ukraine "About the condemnation of the Communist and national socialist (Nazi totalitarian regimes in Ukraine and the prohibition of propaganda of their symbolism", by minimum historical counting, about 800 localities of which at least 24 cities including Dnipropetrovs’k need to be renamed. But the views of residents of the city are divided: some support to keep the old name of the city, changing its semantic load, and there are a lot of people willing to rename the city in Sicheslav, Dniproslav, Kodak and the like. Now it is important to know the opinion of young people in the city and region who create their future and that of their children. The analysis of the research. The history of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on the territory of the future Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k became the subject of study of many scientists since the nineteenth century. In the years of independence more and more historians declare the necessity of the revision of the chronology of the history of our city, taking into account the earlier settlements, which undoubtedly influenced both the development of the region and the future provincial city. The purpose of this article is to determine the degree of influence of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on later (including modern history of Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k in the minds of the youth of the city. Conclusion. The analysis of the settlements of the XVI-XVIII centuries testifies to the active urban processes that took place in our region in the Cossack-Hetman days. This important stage in the history of our city enriches us, its current inhabitants, with facts about the distant past which we should not only remember and pass on to our descendants, but also recover through the reconstruction of the defining architectural features. The results of a survey among students to determine their views regarding the

  11. Chinese Biogas Digester. A Potential Model for Small-Scale, Rural Applications. (A Manual for Construction and Operation). Reprint No. R-51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Charles H.; Honquilada, Q. L.

    This book provides the basic knowledge and guides for the construction and operation of a small-scale, family-size biogas unit. The first chapter discusses the benefits of biogas production and the Chinese biogas model. The second chapter shows the components, design formulas, and sizing units of the biogas model. Chapter 3 describes actual…

  12. PREFACE: XVIII International Scientific Symposium in Honour of Academician M. A. Usov: Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    XVIII International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development'' (for students and young scientists) was organized under the guidance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Being one of the oldest technical higher education institutions which trains specialists who contribute to scientific research in geosciences, The Institute of Natural Resources of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU INR) was chosen to hold the symposium. In 2014 The Institute of Natural Resources celebrated its 113th anniversary. It was founded in 1901 by V.A. Obruchev, the first geologist in Siberia, member of USSR Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, and the first Laureate of the Lenin Prize. He was recognized all over the world as a prominent scientist in the area of geology. INR is the first institute of geological education and geosciences in the Asian part of Russia. Siberian Mining and Geological Schola, established by V.A. Obruchev and M.A. Usov, has been retaining its significance for discovery, exploration and development of mineral resources not only in Siberia, in the Far East and North-East of the country, but also in Central Asia. There are a lot of outstanding scientists, engineers and manufacturers among alumni of The Institute of Natural Resources. The institute is proud of M.A. Usov, the student and first postgraduate of V.A. Obruchev, first professor and academician in Siberia, whose name is associated with the development of the mining industry in Siberia; Academician K.I. Satpaev, the founder and first president of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan; Professor N.N. Urvantsev, the discoverer of the unique Norilsk ore deposits in the north of East Siberia and Professor M.K. Korovin, who considered West Siberia deposits to be prospective for oil-gas exploration. There are over 35 000 graduates of the institute and

  13. The Role of Safety in IVHM - Chapter 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — When we address safety in a book on the business case for IVHM, the question arises whether safety isn’t inherently in conflict with the need of operators to run...

  14. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first geological observations in Chile can be traced to Juan Ignacio Molina, a Jesuit priest who was born in 1740 in Chile and died in 1829 in Bologna, Italy. He received a scholarship education with a strong leaning towards philosophy, the humanities and the sciences at the Jesuit College in Concepcion. In 1767, when all the Jesuits were expelled from Chile and the spanish colonies, he took refuge in Italy, first in Imola and then in Bologna where he taught Greek at the University and later natural sciences at the Archiginnasio. During his stay in Bologna at the end of the 18th century, the Jesuit community continued to play an important role in the teaching of the sciences in spite of the Napoleonic occupation. In Bologna, as early as the 16th century, Ulisse Aldrovandi was developing new concepts in geology with his study and systematic collection of fossils. At the beginning of the 18th century, the naturalist and oceanographer L.F. Marsili and one of the fathers of paleontology, G. Monti, built of Aldrovandi's work and contributed to the growth of the Science Institute and the Natural History Museum in the city. It was in this cultural context that in 1782 Molina published in Italian language the Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile. The book was divided into four chapters, the first two of which dealt with the earth sciences. In this work Molina repeatedly compares the north-south stretched landscapes, the volcanic activity and the geology of Italy and Chile. His next work, Memorie di storia naturale, was published in 1821 and was based on several lectures given by him at the Bologna Academy of Sciences. It contained fourteen Memoria -lectures- referred to different aspects of the natural sciences and six covered geological topics. In 1815, one of Molina's lectures -later Memoria XIV-, was published under the title Less noticed analogies in three kingdom of nature. In this lecture Molina discussed the similarities between minerals

  15. El regalismo borbónico frente al poder Vaticano: acerca del estado de la iglesia en el Perú durante el primer tercio del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Cebrián, Alfredo

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This article studies some aspects of the difficult relations betwen Philip V and the Papacy through a double analysis: verifying the credibility of certain affirmations in a document previous to the «Noticias Secretas de América» as regards the irregular life of the Peruvian colonial clergy, and contextualizing both the author and contents of the said document in the early 18th Century.

    La comprobación de la verosimilitud de las afirmaciones contenidas en un documento anterior a las Noticias Secretas de América sobre el desorden en que vivía el clero colonial peruano, así como la contextualización de este testimonio y de su autor en el primer tercio del XVIII, sirven para analizar las dificultades que marcaron las difíciles relaciones entre Felipe V y el Papado.

  16. El ambulantaje en imágenes : una historia de representaciones de la venta callejera en la Ciudad de México (siglos XVIII-XX)

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud Exbalin; Georgina Rodríguez; Martha de Alba

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo es un análisis de las representaciones del ambulantaje (comercio ambulante, trabajo en la vía pública) en la Ciudad de México, a través de la pintura de castas del siglo XVIII, la fotografía de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX y la fotografía de prensa de finales del siglo XX. Este ensayo observa las transformaciones que esta actividad ha tenido en las diferentes épocas de desarrollo de la ciudad de México, a través del análisis de los productores de la imagen y del imag...

  17. El ambulantaje en imágenes : una historia de representaciones de la venta callejera en la Ciudad de México (siglos XVIII-XX)1

    OpenAIRE

    De Alba, Martha; Exbalin, Arnaud; Rodríguez, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo es un análisis de las representaciones del ambulantaje (comercio ambulante, trabajo en la vía pública) en la Ciudad de México, a través de la pintura de castas del siglo XVIII, la fotografía de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX y la fotografía de prensa de finales del siglo XX. Este ensayo observa las transformaciones que esta actividad ha tenido en las diferentes épocas de desarrollo de la ciudad de México, a través del análisis de los productores de la imagen y del imag...

  18. Acomodar, ordenar y leer. La disposición de los libros en acervos novohispanos durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Suárez Rivera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El articulo representa un primer acercamiento a la forma en que los novohispanos acomodaban sus libros en los estantes, tanto de bibliotecas particulares como de librerías durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. A partir de una serie de inventarios levantados por el control que llevaba el Santo Oficio, estudio brevemente algunos casos concretos en donde se revela la forma en la que estaban dispuestos los volúmenes; en un primer momento me refiero a bibliotecas particulares y después algunas librerías. Luego del análisis, es claro que el tamaño de los libros fue el criterio predominante en el acomodo, seguidos de una laxa clasificación temática y, en algunos casos, el estado físico de los libros.

  19. El estudio de las armas en el siglo XVIII: La Real Academia de la Historia y el hallazgo de una espada renacentista en Peñafiel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soler del Campo, Álvaro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1751 the king Fernando VI ordered to the Real Academia de la Historia a report on the fortuitous finding of a renaissance sword in Peñafiel (Valladolid. This report allows an approach to arms studies in the eighteenth century, when legendary arguments coexisted with a modern reasoning personalized by Ignacio de Luzán. It is also important an enclosed drawing as its accurate record.

    En 1751 el rey Fernando VI solicitó a la Real Academia de la Historia un informe sobre el hallazgo fortuito de una espada renacentista en Peñafiel (Valladolid. Este informe permite aproximarnos al estudio de las armas durante el siglo XVIII, en el que las explicaciones legendarias conviven con planteamientos modernos personalizados por Ignacio de Luzán. Destaca igualmente por la incorporación de una detallada documentación gráfica de dicha espada.

  20. A técnica chin-off: técnicas interpretativas do violino nos séculos XVII e XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Pámpano López, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Mediante duas linhas de investigação, uma teórica e outra prática, realizou-se um estudo sobre a técnica hoje conhecida como chin-off, utilizada na execução do violino barroco. Através de uma revisão das fontes primárias da época conheceram-se os diferentes modos de segurar o violino existentes nos séculos XVII e XVIII. A realização de dois recitais feitos em paralelo à linha teórica permitiu a colocação em prática da técnica chin-off e dos conhecimentos adquiridos nas disciplinas do mestrado...

  1. LOS GRUPOS ÉTNICOS Y SUS TERRITORIOS EN LAS FRONTERAS DEL RÍO SALADO DE BUENOS AIRES (SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIA R. NACUZZI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos las interrelaciones de los funcionarios hispanocriollos con caci-ques y grupos étnicos que circulaban y se asentaban en las cercanías de losfuertes localizados desde mediados del siglo XVIII en las inmediaciones delrío Salado para conformar la frontera sur. El corpus documental conservadobajo el rótulo “Comandancia de Fronteras” brinda datos sobre las localiza-ciones habituales de los caciques y los parajes que controlaban, sus circuitosde abastecimiento y transacciones comerciales, las negociaciones que encara-ban con diversos agentes del estado, las afinidades y los conflictos con otroscaciques/grupos. El análisis de estas cuestiones nos permite avanzar en ladiscusión sobre las territorialidades y la etnicidad de los grupos indígenasde la Pampa.

  2. La “economía espiritual” en Antioquia. Las funciones de las capellanías entre los siglos XVII-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastian Marulanda Restrepo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de los documentos de escribanos del período colonial, este trabajo presenta el desarrollo y la influencia de las capellanías en la Provincia de Antioquia durante los siglos XVII y XVIII. Las capellanías fueron instituciones piadosas al servicio de las almas de sus fundadores y beneficiaron a familiares y clérigos allegados. A partir de las inquietudes escatológicas sobre el más allá, las capellanías cumplieron funciones terrenales como la educativa, la rentista y la crediticia, en el marco de una “economía espiritual”, y consolidaron las redes familiares y políticas del poder. Por otra parte, los bienes de las capellanías contribuyeron al crecimiento económico regional a través de la inversión en actividades productivas.

  3. El poder y la gloria: élites y asientos militares en el astillero de La Habana durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel SERRANO ÁLVAREZ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El astillero de la Habana reflejaba muy bien a lo largo del siglo XvIII las luchas de intereses entre las élites locales y las necesidades imperiales de España en el Caribe. El poder, asociado al dinero, y la gloria, vinculada a la posición social, fueron los grandes caballos de batalla de la poderosa élite habanera en su colaboración con las autoridades políticomilitares enviadas desde España. los asientos militares fueron uno de los canales para alcanzar ambos objetivos, y provocaron una continua lucha en torno al vital arsenal militar, fuente de riqueza, poder e intrigas permanentes. Este trabajo dibuja un panorama de una cooperación tan necesaria como forzosa.

  4. O património edificado em Vila Viçosa no século XVIII: encomenda, financiamento e construção

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe, Carlos Joaquim Campino

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em História Moderna e Contemporânea, especialidade em Cidades e Património Ao longo do século XVIII, Vila Viçosa voltou a conhecer um novo ciclo de intervenções no conjunto do seu património arquitectónico, provavelmente o mais importante depois do período áureo quinhentista. As intervenções enquadraram-se no conjunto de obras iniciadas na casa Ducal, pelo monarca D. João V, que vieram a ter a continuidade no reinado de seu filho, D. José I. Promovem-se, na segunda metade daque...

  5. Pedro Gutiérrez Bueno (1743-1822) y las relaciones entre la química y la farmacia durante el último tercio del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Bertomeu Sánchez, José Ramón; García Belmar, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    El presente trabajo se enmarca en un proyecto de investigación sobre la farmacología en la sociedad española del siglo XIX, en particular, acerca del papel de las prácticas y los conocimientos químicos en la transición de la materia médica a la farmacología experimental. Dentro de ese esquema general, el objeto principal de este trabajo es uno de los principales autores españoles de libros de texto de química del último tercio del siglo XVIII: Pedro Gutiérrez Bueno (1745-1822). En un trabajo ...

  6. Contextos cotidianos para el arte. Cuadros y objetos de arte para el adorno doméstico madrileño a mediados del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega, Jesusa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Around the middle of the 18th century, Madrid experienced a change of taste in domestic interiors. This change was clearly reflected on the pages of the Diario de Madrid. Advertisements in this newspaper were also used to buy or sell paintings and other works of art. By drawing from this source, the author seeks to reconstruct the context of these commercial activities, especially those that concerned paintings.A mediados del siglo XVIII tuvo lugar en Madrid un cambio de gusto en el adorno doméstico, que se vio claramente reflejado en las páginas del Diario de Madrid. La venta de cuadros y objetos de arte se hizo, en parte, a través de los anuncios en este periódico. Teniendo esta información como base, se ha tratado de reconstruir el contexto en el que se desarrollaba esta actividad, con especial referencia a la pintura.

  7. Repensando las clasificaciones socio-étnicas del siglo XVIII. Indios, mestizos y españoles al sur del valle Calchaquí (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena B. Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del análisis de la composición poblacional del valle de Santa María (noroeste argentino durante el siglo XVIII, el objetivo de este artículo es repensar el problema de las clasificaciones socio-étnicas. En ese sentido, a la vez que centramos nuestra propuesta en un debate teórico-metodológico acerca del tipo de fuentes que utilizamos o la forma como lo hacemos o lo hicieron otros investigadores, pretendemos historizar y contextualizar el uso de algunas categorías como indio, español y mestizo para evidenciar que "más allá de los intereses de la Corona o de las élites locales" las mismas resultaron ser muy móviles y flexibles, y que fueron cambiando y entretejiendo nuevos sentidos a la luz de múltiples factores.

  8. Memorias del paisaje cordillerano: la travesía de los Andes en la Gobernación de Chile durante el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vega Palma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analizan diferentes escritos del siglo XVIII para relevar la herencia multisecular de un imaginario asociado a los peligros del cruce cordillerano, que atraviesa transformaciones políticas y culturales de envergadu-ra. La noción de peligro, y el temor asociado al mismo, se despliega en los textos que informan o describen la travesía de la cordillera en el Reino de Chile, apelando a las amenazas de caer en el abismo o de congelarse de frío. Los ecos de estas marcas, establecidas tempranamente en la cultura colonial de Chile, se pueden rastrear también en los llamados escritos ilustrados, en que estos tópicos se funden con los de la montaña sublime.

  9. Casamientos católicos secretos de funcionarios y militares en Buenos Aires e Hispanoamérica. Siglos XVIII-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Siegrist

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es dar a conocer los casamientos secretos efectuados por la Iglesia Católica a espaldas del Rey y las autoridades virreinales en Buenos Aires; especialmente, de funcionarios y oficiales de las fuerzas terrestres y navales de la monarquía en el siglo XVIII. Los análisis se basan en el Derecho Canónico y lo establecido en el Concilio de Trento (1545-1563. Una variada bibliografía relacionada con la constitución de las familias en Europa e Hispanoamérica permitió explorar un marco desconocido de lo ocurrido con estos matrimonios secretos también llamados de conciencia u ocultos. Se explicitan las características de este tipo de nupcias y la casuística encontrada resultado del análisis hermenéutico de las Actas parroquiales porteñas.

  10. História da educação no século XVIII: Educação e Fisiocracia

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo, Laurice de Fátima Gobbi; Oliveira, Terezinha

    2010-01-01

    A proposta, nesta comunicação, é analisar algumas obras de François Quesnay à luz da economia do século XVIII e do contexto sociopolítico traçado pelo Estado da França. Serão verificadas quais foram as medidas ou práticas econômicas e políticas públicas que ele propôs em suas obras, na expectativa de que elas afetassem a educação. Destaca-se, assim, o papel que ele atribuiu à educação para a formação do pensamento, para a divisão da força de trabalho e para a transformação social no período. ...

  11. ‘VALENTONES’, ‘ALCALDES DE BARRIO’ AND PARADIGMS OF CIVILITY.CONFLICTS AND ACCOMODATIONS IN SANTIAGO OF CHILE, XVIII CENTURY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Undurraga Schüler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the polisemous universe of the practices and the speeches of violence, civility and social control that circulated in the city of Santiago throughout XVIII century. When analyzing plots of meaning of the narrations of interpersonal violence, related to the construction of a hegemonic masculinity and protected in speeches of honour, the study explores the survival of old practices of private revenge. Also, it examines the tensions and negotiations established between these and the strategies of social control undertaken by the Bourbons’ state and exerted through a microphysics of daily control, incarnated as much in the functions of the ‘Alcaldes de barrio’ like in the socialization of a civility paradigm. The latest allows putting under evaluation the fissures and the strengths of the foundations of the Bourbon’s administration.

  12. Engenho e temperamentos nos catálogos e no pensamento da Companhia de Jesus nos séculos XVII e XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Massimi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa entender as relações entre a potência psíquica do "engenho", algumas qualidades temperamentais específicas e as funções a serem exercidas pelo indivíduo possuidor destas características delineadas nos Catálogos da Companhia de Jesus ao longo dos séculos XVII e XVIII. Evidencia a presença destas associações como lugar-comum na literatura jesuítica da época, a importância do engenho como qualidade exigida para exercer ministérios relevantes na Ordem, e necessidade do indivíduo possuir uma complexão física adequada a estas exigências.

  13. La Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos y el ejercicio de la agrimensura en la Valencia del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faus Prieto, Alfredo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 18th century the land surveying knew in Spain an unfinished process of institutionalizacion that laid the foundations of its further development. This process, which began in the ancient Reign of Valencia, provoked the successive aparition of local employment and the academic title of land-surveyor. The present work is focused on the circumstances wich took place in this process, as well as its limitations.

    En el siglo XVIII la agrimensura conoció, en España, un proceso inacabado de institucionalización que sentó las bases para su posterior desarrollo. Este proceso se inició en el antiguo Reino de Valencia y provocó la aparición sucesiva del empleo municipal y el título académico de agrimensor. En este trabajo se estudian las circunstancias que concurrieron en dicho proceso, así como sus limitaciones.

  14. Engenho e temperamentos nos catálogos e no pensamento da Companhia de Jesus nos séculos XVII e XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    O artigo visa entender as relações entre a potência psíquica do "engenho", algumas qualidades temperamentais específicas e as funções a serem exercidas pelo indivíduo possuidor destas características delineadas nos Catálogos da Companhia de Jesus ao longo dos séculos XVII e XVIII. Evidencia a presença destas associações como lugar-comum na literatura jesuítica da época, a importância do engenho como qualidade exigida para exercer ministérios relevantes na Ordem, e necessidade do indivíduo pos...

  15. La administración del cuerpo infantil en el s. XVIII: una lectura sobre el inicio de la ortopedia infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Yutzis, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    A partir de la lectura de una fuente primaria, el texto de Andry L’orthopédie ou l’art de prevenir et corriger dans les enfans, les difformités du corps el trabajo se centra en una lectura histórico-política del inicio de la ortopedia infantil en Francia del siglo XVIII. Esta investigación en el recorrido de las pedagogías de la postura aborda el ajuste de la arquitectura corporal de la anatomía del cuerpo que recorre estéticas y políticas que mantienen el interés por la rectitud corporal. El...

  16. La prensa y la divulgación del conocimiento ilustrado en el virreinato de Nueva España en el Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio E. de Pedro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea como tema central, el papel que desempeño, por la prensa durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, en el espacio colonial americano, específicamente en Nueva España. Y como constituyó un instrumento esencial para la divulgación de los conocimientos científicos tanto desde el continente europeo, como desde la propia tradición colonial americana. Asimismo, se destaca el papel de los criollos como José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez al frente de publicaciones que se preocuparon por el atraso en que se encontraban sus territorios, contribuyendo con sus artículos y ensayos a la educación no formal de las elites criollas y a su concientización como precursoras de una identidad nacional.

  17. Chapter 11. Fuel Economy: The Case for Market Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; German, John [Environmental and Energy Analysis; Delucchi, Mark A [University of California, Davis

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of energy using durable goods, from automobiles to home air conditioners, is not only a key determinant of economy-wide energy use but also of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change and energy insecurity. Energy analysts have long noted that consumers appear to have high implicit discount rates for future fuel savings when choosing among energy using durable goods (Howarth and Sanstad, 1995). In modeling consumers choices of appliances, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has used discount rates of 30 percent for heating systems, 69 percent for choice of refrigerator and up to 111 percent for choice of water heater (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1996). Several explanations have been offered for this widespread phenomenon, including asymmetric information, bounded rationality and transaction costs. This chapter argues that uncertainty combined with loss aversion by consumers is sufficient to explain the failure to adopt cost effective energy efficiency improvements in the market for automotive fuel economy, although other market failures appear to be present as well. Understanding how markets for energy efficiency function is crucial to formulating effective energy policies (see Pizer, 2006). Fischer et al., (2004), for example, demonstrated that if consumers fully value the discounted present value of future fuel savings, fuel economy standards are largely redundant and produce small welfare losses. However, if consumers value only the first three years of fuel savings, then fuel economy standards can significantly increase consumer welfare. The nature of any market failure that might be present in the market for energy efficiency would also affect the relative efficacy of energy taxes versus regulatory standards (CBO, 2003). If markets function efficiently, energy taxes would generally be more efficient than regulatory standards in increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy use. If markets are decidedly inefficient, standards would likely be

  18. Chapter 1. Impacts of the oceans on climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Philip C; Fischer, Astrid C; Lewis-Brown, Emily; Meredith, Michael P; Sparrow, Mike; Andersson, Andreas J; Antia, Avan; Bates, Nicholas R; Bathmann, Ulrich; Beaugrand, Gregory; Brix, Holger; Dye, Stephen; Edwards, Martin; Furevik, Tore; Gangstø, Reidun; Hátún, Hjálmar; Hopcroft, Russell R; Kendall, Mike; Kasten, Sabine; Keeling, Ralph; Le Quéré, Corinne; Mackenzie, Fred T; Malin, Gill; Mauritzen, Cecilie; Olafsson, Jón; Paull, Charlie; Rignot, Eric; Shimada, Koji; Vogt, Meike; Wallace, Craig; Wang, Zhaomin; Washington, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The oceans play a key role in climate regulation especially in part buffering (neutralising) the effects of increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and rising global temperatures. This chapter examines how the regulatory processes performed by the oceans alter as a response to climate change and assesses the extent to which positive feedbacks from the ocean may exacerbate climate change. There is clear evidence for rapid change in the oceans. As the main heat store for the world there has been an accelerating change in sea temperatures over the last few decades, which has contributed to rising sea-level. The oceans are also the main store of carbon dioxide (CO2), and are estimated to have taken up approximately 40% of anthropogenic-sourced CO2 from the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial revolution. A proportion of the carbon uptake is exported via the four ocean 'carbon pumps' (Solubility, Biological, Continental Shelf and Carbonate Counter) to the deep ocean reservoir. Increases in sea temperature and changing planktonic systems and ocean currents may lead to a reduction in the uptake of CO2 by the ocean; some evidence suggests a suppression of parts of the marine carbon sink is already underway. While the oceans have buffered climate change through the uptake of CO2 produced by fossil fuel burning this has already had an impact on ocean chemistry through ocean acidification and will continue to do so. Feedbacks to climate change from acidification may result from expected impacts on marine organisms (especially corals and calcareous plankton), ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. The polar regions of the world are showing the most rapid responses to climate change. As a result of a strong ice-ocean influence, small changes in temperature, salinity and ice cover may trigger large and sudden changes in regional climate with potential downstream feedbacks to the climate of the rest of the world. A warming Arctic Ocean may lead to

  19. Volcanism on the Red Planet: Mars. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Bridges, Nathan T.; Crown, David A.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Zimbelman, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Of all the planets in the Solar System, Mars is the most Earthlike in its geological characteristics. Like Earth, it has been subjected to exogenic processes, such as impact cratesing and erosion by wind and water, as well as endogenic processes, including tectonic deformation of the crust and volcanism. The effects of these processes are amply demonstrated by the great variety of surface features, including impact craters, landslides, former river channels, sand dunes, and the largest volcanoes in the Solar System. Some of these features suggest substantial changes in Mars' environment during its history. For example, as reviewed by Carr, today Mars is a cold, dry desert with an average atmospheric pressure of only 5.6 mbar which does not allow liquid water to exist on the surface. To some planetary scientists, the presence of the channels bespeaks a time when Mars was warmer and wetter. However, others have argued that these features might have formed under current conditions and that there might not have been a shift in climate. Could the morphology of volcanoes and related features provide clues to past Martian environments? What role is played by atmospheric density in the styles of eruptions on Mars and resulting landforms? If these and related questions can be answered, then we may have a means for assessing the conditions on Mars' surface in the past and comparing the results with models of Martian evolution. In this chapter, we outline the sources of information available for volcanism on Mars, explore the influence of the Martian environment on volcanic processes, and describe the principal volcanic features and their implications for understanding the general evolution of the Martian surface.

  20. Chapter 13: Mining electronic health records in the genomics era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Denny

    individuals. This chapter reviews several examples of phenotype extraction and their application to genetic research, demonstrating a viable future for genomic discovery using EHR-linked data.

  1. 47 CFR 1.83 - Applications for radio operator licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this chapter. (b) Application filing procedures for commercial radio operator licenses are set forth in... file applications for commercial radio operator licenses is contained in the bulletin “Commercial Radio... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for radio operator licenses....

  2. El tráfico norteamericano en Tenerife a finales del siglo XVIII a través de los informes consulares franceses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Santana Pérez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende hacer un estudio de la navegación de Tenerofe a finales del siglo XVIII, en concreto durante las décadas de los 80 v 90 de esa centuria, centrado en uno de sus aspectos: los tratos que mantenía esta isla con Norteamérica. Para ello hemos manejado fundamentalmente las fuentes consulares francesas que hoy en día se encuentran en los Archivos Nacionales Franceses. Es por eso que analizamos las entradas de embarcaciones de esta nacionalidad, comparándolas con las de otros Estados, cuáles eran las mercancías que se traían y cuáles las que se exportaba, su importancia como transportistas, los puertos con los que se comerciaba, el valor de las mercancías, la tipología y el tonelaje de las naves, etc. En definitiva, la pretensión de este artículo, es ayudar a un mejor conocimiento de unos de los principales mercados canarios a final del siglo XVIII: los Estados Unidos.In this article we have tried to study the navigation of the island of Tenerife at the end of the eighteenth century; to be precise during the decades of the eighties and nineties. We concentrate on the trade between this island and North America, including Canada, and especially with the United States, after its recent independence. With this aim, we have consulted the National French Archives, and the news of their consuls at the Canary Islands. For this reason we study the ships' arrivals, tonnage, typology, merchandise transported and their value, the role of their maritime calls, what were their exports, the ports with which they traded, and their importance as intermediaries with other regions. Finally, we want to have more knowledge about one of the principal Canarian markets at the end of the eighteenth century.

  3. Forasteros y transeuntes en América, siglo XVIII. El caso de Francisco Fernández de la Fuente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado Jurado, Juan Carlos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the demographic characteristics of the Spanish emigration to America between 16th and 18th Centuries, and the way in which the Spanish Crown controlled people traffic in order to prevent the transit of marginal and unsettled population to the New World. The author shows the case of an 18th Century Spanish emigration through the examination of the legal proceedings opened by the authorities in the Antioquia Province, Nueva Granada. The social aspects of the migration process to America are shown in literary form, including the social integration of the newcomers in the colonial neighbourhoods, their personal perfomance with regard to laws and norms, the social conflicts inherent to their situation as travellers who were little integrated in the communities, and aspects of the local life of the time.

    En el artículo se exponen las características demográficas de la emigración española hacia América, entre los siglos XVI al XVIII, y la forma como la Corona española ejerció controles sobre el tráfico de personas, para evitar el traslado de la población flotante y marginal al Nuevo Mundo. Se narra el caso de un emigrante español en el siglo XVIII, de acuerdo al expediente judicial que le abrieron las autoridades en la Provincia de Antioquia en la Nueva Granada. De manera literaria, el autor muestra facetas de gran contenido social del proceso de la emigración hacia América: las formas de integración social de los recién llegados a los vecindarios coloniales, su desempeño personal respecto a las leyes y normas, los conflictos sociales inherentes a su situación de viajeros poco integrados a las comunidades y aspectos de la vida local de la época.

  4. História da educação no século XVIII: Educação e Fisiocracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurice de Fátima Gobbi Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A proposta, nesta comunicação, é analisar algumas obras de François Quesnay à luz da economia do século XVIII e do contexto sociopolítico traçado pelo Estado da França. Serão verificadas quais foram as medidas ou práticas econômicas e políticas públicas que ele propôs em suas obras, na expectativa de que elas afetassem a educação. Destaca-se, assim, o papel que ele atribuiu à educação para a formação do pensamento, para a divisão da força de trabalho e para a transformação social no período. Com base em autores contemporâneos que se dedicaram a levantar e analisar fatos ocorridos no século XVIII se intentará situá-lo em seu tempo, contextualizar sua participação no processo educativo do homem na sociedade francesa e averiguar se as medidas políticas, econômicas, públicas e educacionais que ele propôs estavam em consonância com esse processo. Em termos mais amplos, procura-se identificar no espaço da história o papel que o homem comum desempenhou ao estabelecimento da política econômica e do processo educativo na França, na época da fisiocracia, uma vez que ele era o responsável pela produção da riqueza nacional.

  5. THE BEGINNING OF ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE IN THE LANDS OF THE BLACK SEA COSSACK ARMY IN THE LATE XVIII AND EARLY XIX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. GOROZHANINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of one of hot topics studying of spiritual culture of the Cossacks is. In work one of the low-studied of the questions connected with the organization of church management in Chernomoriya is considered. Long time researchers bypassed this problem, focusing attention to the post-reform period, as a result the church history of Kuban during the pre-reform period has generated few matters of argument. In work an attempt to light a row from them is made. For the first time on the basis of the source study analysis the reasons of disagreements among researchers in determination of number of temples at the Black Sea Cossacks in are considered to XVIII centuries In article the major factors which have exerted impact on rates of church construction are allocated, local specifics of the organization of church management are designated. The special place is allocated to reconstruction of milestone events in church history of Kuban of the end XVIII centuries – the beginnings of the XIX centuries, the list of the first Cossack huts in which in 1799 is provided. Church service was conducted. In this article the important role of the famous figures of the Black Sea Cossack army in church construction is shown. Works of the wax judge A.A. Golovaty in a church field are lit, the contribution of army archpriests R. Porokhni and K.V. Rossinsky in forming of local clergy is shown, and the attention to its specifics is also specificity.

  6. ANÁLISIS DE OBRAS MUSICALES VENEZOLANAS Y EUROPEAS DE LOS SIGLOS XVIII, XIX Y XX REFERENTES AL REINO ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naudy Trujillo Muscia

    2012-09-01

    venezolanos y europeos de los siglos XVIII, XIX y XX. Los resultados indican a las aves silvestres como las más tratadas en piezas musicales tanto en Europa como en Venezuela; manifiestan también una proporción mayor de piezas musicales que tratan los animales de producción versus animales domésticos en Venezuela, mostrándose lo contrario en el continente europeo. Se concluye, en primer lugar, que tanto en Venezuela como en Europa, la cultura humana busca enaltecer la fauna silvestre, ya sea de forma naturalista o romántica; se confirma el fuerte arraigo de la mentalidad agropecuaria venezolana y su importancia en el desarrollo de la cultura nacional a la par que en Europa; los resultados reflejan el poco contacto con áreas verdes abiertas y sistemas de producción agropecuarios que poseían los compositores y público académico de la época. Esta investigación fomenta la interdisciplinariedad en la sociedad científica venezolana, haciendo aportes científicos al desarrollo de la cultura, además de servir a docentes, terapeutas musicales, historiadores y la sociedad en general en sus investigaciones y ocupaciones al generar nuevas preguntas en el campo científico de la psiquis humana dentro de la relación hombre/animal y brindar nuevos conocimientos a la ciencia histórica de la Medicina Veterinaria y la Música Universal.

  7. A POPULARIZAÇÃO NA CIÊNCIA: A ÓPTICA DE NEWTON NO SÉCULO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniek Silva Venceslau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As atuais aulas de ciências, geralmente, não apresentam discussões referentes à aspectos da natureza da ciência, por exemplo, como uma teoria se desenvolve com o tempo e a influência de fatores não-racionais na sua construção. Tais aspectos são relevantes na hora do aluno desenvolver uma visão mais adequada na sua compreensão de como uma teoria ou modelo é construído. Além disso, as abordagens mais tradicionais, também, já não garantem a aprendizagem de teorias físicas. Com a inserção de discussões, que envolvam a História e a Filosofia da Ciência (HFC, os alunos poderão vivenciar o desenvolvimentos de teorias físicas e, também, realizar estudos sobre a natureza da ciência, colocando em evidência aspectos não abordados nas práticas mais tradiconais. Este estudo é baseado em uma pesquisa bibliográfica, que contempla a história da óptica, e, em especial, a controvérsia existente em relação a natureza da luz com destaque a influência newtoniana para a aceitação da teoria corpuscular no século XVIII. Neste trabalho problematizaremos uma visão ingênua do desenvolvimento histórico da ciência, onde, geralmente, ela é vista de forma contínua e fatores não-racionais são excluídos da construção de teorias físicas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: história e filosofia da ciência, popularização na ciência, Isaac Newton. THE POPULARIZATION IN SCIENCE: THE NEWTON APPROACH IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY ABSTRACT The current science classes generally do not have discussions concerning aspects of the nature of science, for example, as a theory developed over time, the influence of non-rational factors in its construction. These aspects are relevant at the time of the student developing a more appropriate method in their understanding of how a theory or model is built. In addition to more traditional approaches, too, no longer guaranteeing the physical theories of learning. With the insertion of discussions, involving

  8. Orchidaceae novae Malayenses XVIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1945-01-01

    Planta parva. Caules erecti, tenues, basi tantum ramosi, basi radicantes, c. 23 cm longi, inferne vaginati, superne 3—4-foliati. Folia erecto-patentia, lanceolata, acuminata, acutissima, basi acuta, nervis 5 majoribus sicco subtus et etiam supra prominentibus pluribusque tenuibus, sicco membranacea,

  9. 38 CFR 21.380 - Establishment of qualifications for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... qualifications for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31. 21.380 Section 21.380 Pensions, Bonuses, and....380 Establishment of qualifications for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31. (a) General... consider qualification standards established for comparable personnel under the Rehabilitation Act of...

  10. 5 CFR Appendix A to 5 Cfr Chapter... - Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions A Appendix A to 5 CFR Chapter XIV Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY.... A Appendix A to 5 CFR Chapter XIV—Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions (a) The...

  11. Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Pi Chapter: African American Male Identity and Fraternity Culture, 1923-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Edwin T.

    2009-01-01

    Pi Chapter of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. at Morgan State University made a significant contribution to the identity construction of college-educated African American men in the state of Maryland. The initiates of Pi Chapter constructed identities that allowed the members to see themselves as participants in mainstream American society as…

  12. Global Operations Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of global operations and operations strategy. This summative volume utilises the rich and diverse empirical foundation generated during the project activities in Denmark, Sweden and Finland. Chapters of the book are based on quantitative data and multiple case studies which the project partners have been......In the current context of global economic liberalisation and technological advancements, industrial companies are less likely to generate value in the traditional vertically integrated chain. Instead, they are doing so by means of elaborate cross-border and cross-organisational networks. As a rule......, these networks are configured on a global basis and consist of diverse and interdependent affiliates (linked both through ownership and non-equity relationships), which are engaged in an exchange of goods, services and information. The Scandinavian context is no exception to this trend. Nevertheless...

  13. Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control. Chapter 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Envia, Edmane

    2004-01-01

    . An example of this type of engine is shown in Figure IC, which is a schematic of the Honeywell T55 engine that powers the CH-47 Chinook helicopter. Since the noise from the propellers or helicopter rotors is usually dominant for turbo-shaft engines, less attention has been paid to these engines in so far as community noise considerations are concerned. This chapter will concentrate mostly on turbofan engine noise and will highlight common methods for their noise prediction and reduction.

  14. Pseudo-differential operators groups, geometry and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    This volume consists of papers inspired by the special session on pseudo-differential operators at the 10th ISAAC Congress held at the University of Macau, August 3-8, 2015 and the mini-symposium on pseudo-differential operators in industries and technologies at the 8th ICIAM held at the National Convention Center in Beijing, August 10-14, 2015. The twelve papers included present cutting-edge trends in pseudo-differential operators and applications from the perspectives of Lie groups (Chapters 1-2), geometry (Chapters 3-5) and applications (Chapters 6-12). Many contributions cover applications in probability, differential equations and time-frequency analysis. A focus on the synergies of pseudo-differential operators with applications, especially real-life applications, enhances understanding of the analysis and the usefulness of these operators.

  15. Calibration of of Sun Photometers and Sky Radiance Sensors. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Christophe; Miller, Mark; Frouin, Robert; Eck, Tom; Holben, Brent; Marketon, John

    2001-01-01

    The main source of error in retrieving aerosol optical thicknesses using sun photometry comes from the determination of the TOA voltages. The degradation of interference filters is the most important source of the long-term changes in the cross-calibrations. Although major improvements have been made in the design of the filters (interference filters fabricated using ion-assisted deposition), the filters remain the principal factor limiting performance of the sun photometers. Degradation of filters necessitates frequent calibration of sun photometers and frequent measurements of the filter transmission or the relative system response. The degradation of the filters mounted on the CIMEL sun photometers have been monitored since 1993 by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) project. The decay reported by Holben et al. for the first two years of a CIMEL#s operation is between 1 and 5%. Nevertheless, the filters mounted on CIMEL instruments are regularly replaced after two years of use. The cross-calibration technique consists of taking measurements concurrently with the uncalibrated and the reference sun photometers. While analyzing measurements, the quality of the calibration has to be checked, using the following considerations: (1) any cirrus clouds suspected to be masking the sun, during the calibration period, need to be reported and the corresponding data set removed; and (2) the stability of the day needs to be checked. This chapter will describe calibration techniques, facilities, and protocols used for calibrating sun photometers and sky radiometers.

  16. IDOLATRÍAS, EXTIRPACIONES Y RESISTENCIAS EN LA IMAGINERÍA RELIGIOSA DE LOS ANDES. SIGLOS XVII Y XVIII. ANÁLISIS ICONOGRÁFICO DE UNA PIEDRA DE HUAMANGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Guti\\u00E9rrez De Angelis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las persistencias, estrategias y transformaciones iconográficas desplegadas en los Andes durante los siglos XVII y XVIII, a través de una piedra tallada y policromada de Huamanga que se encuentra en el Museo de Arte Hispanoamericano Isaac Fernández Blanco, en Buenos Aires. La pieza anónima, de principios del siglo XVIII, forma parte de la fusión operada sobre las manifestaciones artísticas, entre la potencia unificadora de la evangelización europea y la supervivencia de los imaginarios propios de las culturas prehispánicas. El análisis de las imágenes nos permite acceder a los modos de construcción de lo que podemos denominar visualidades de la época, entendidas como imágenes y conjuntos de imágenes que se escenifican y encarnan en las expresiones visuales.

  17. Stable approximate evaluation of unbounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Groetsch, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    Spectral theory of bounded linear operators teams up with von Neumann’s theory of unbounded operators in this monograph to provide a general framework for the study of stable methods for the evaluation of unbounded operators. An introductory chapter provides numerous illustrations of unbounded linear operators that arise in various inverse problems of mathematical physics. Before the general theory of stabilization methods is developed, an extensive exposition of the necessary background material from the theory of operators on Hilbert space is provided. Several specific stabilization methods are studied in detail, with particular attention to the Tikhonov-Morozov method and its iterated version.

  18. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. FM 34-1 CHAPTER 1 I N T E L L I G E N C E A N D E L E C T R O N I...improves as HUMINT refocuses its efforts on the AO. Interrogation and document exploitation are examples of HUMINT operations. HUMINT collection may also...and CA support for rear operations. MDCI personnel and interrogators provide HUMINT to identify and help neutralize enemy agents, sympathizers, and

  19. A valorização total do espaço: capitalismo e geografia em Civilisation Matérielle, Économie et capitalisme - XV-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ribeiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a relação entre espaço e economia em Civilisation Matérielle, Économie et Capitalisme - XV-XVIII (1979 do historiador francês Fernand Braudel (1902-1985. A partir do conceito de economia-mundo, podemos observar o papel crucial do espaço em sua original interpretação sobre o desenvolvimento do capitalismo.

  20. Student chapters: effective dissemination networks for informal optics and photonics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Dirk; Vermeulen, Nathalie; Van Overmeire, Sara

    2009-06-01

    Professional societies sponsor student chapters in order to foster scholarship and training in photonics at the college and graduate level, but they are also an excellent resource for disseminating photonics knowledge to pre-college students and teachers. Starting in 2006, we tracked the involvement of SPIE student chapter volunteers in informal pre-college education settings. Chapter students reached 2800, 4900 and 11800 pre-college students respectively from 2006-2008 with some form of informal instruction in optics and photonics. As a case study, the EduKit, a self-contained instruction module featuring refractive and diffractive micro-optics developed by the European Network of Excellence on Micro-Optics (NEMO), was disseminated through student chapters in Argentina, Belgium, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Latvia, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, and the United States. We tracked the movement of this material through the network, up to the student-teacher feedback stage. The student chapter network provided rapid dissemination of the material, translation of the material into the local language, and leveraged existing chapter contacts in schools to provide an audience. We describe the student chapter network and its impact on the development of the EduKit teaching module.

  1. Advances of evolutionary computation methods and operators

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Erik; Oliva Navarro, Diego Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this book is to present advances that discuss alternative Evolutionary Computation (EC) developments and non-conventional operators which have proved to be effective in the solution of several complex problems. The book has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently from the others. The book contains nine chapters with the following themes: 1) Introduction, 2) the Social Spider Optimization (SSO), 3) the States of Matter Search (SMS), 4) the collective animal behavior (CAB) algorithm, 5) the Allostatic Optimization (AO) method, 6) the Locust Search (LS) algorithm, 7) the Adaptive Population with Reduced Evaluations (APRE) method, 8) the multimodal CAB, 9) the constrained SSO method.

  2. As metamorfoses do império e os problemas da monarquia portuguesa na primeira metade do século XVIII The empire’s metamorphoses and the problems of the Portuguese monarchy in the first half of 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante a primeira metade do século XVIII, em diversas dimensões do mundo português, operou-se um significativo processo de metamorfose, tanto no âmbito interno do reino quanto na própria configuração mais geral do Império. Lisboa, consolidada como caput regne, começou a viver significativa transformação. No pensamento de diversos personagens ligados à administração da monarquia havia a certeza de que o eixo do Império situava-se definitivamente no complexo atlântico, nas duas margens do oceano. Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir algumas questões relativas a esses fenômenos.During the first half of the 18th century, in various dimensions of the Portuguese world, operated a significant process of metamorphosis, both within the kingdom itself as the more general setting of the Empire. Lisbon, consolidated as caput regne, began to live a significant transformation. In the mind of several characters related to the administration of the monarchy was not certain that the axis of the Empire was located permanently in the complex Atlantic, on both sides of the ocean. This article aims to discuss some issues related to this phenomenon.

  3. Pavlovian, Skinner, and Other Behaviourists' Contributions to AI. Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Withold; Zaczek-Chrzanowska, Dominika

    2007-01-01

    A version of the definition of intelligent behaviour will be supplied in the context of real and artificial systems. Short presentation of principles of learning, starting with Pavlovian s classical conditioning through reinforced response and operant conditioning of Thorndike and Skinner and finishing with cognitive learning of Tolman and Bandura will be given. The most important figures within behaviourism, especially those with contribution to AI, will be described. Some tools of artificial intelligence that act according to those principles will be presented. An attempt will be made to show when some simple rules for behaviour modifications can lead to a complex intelligent behaviour.

  4. Applied math for wastewater plant operators

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Joanne K

    1998-01-01

    With many worked examples, this book provides step-by-step instruction for all calculations required for wastewater treatment. Pertinent calculations are conveniently summarized in each chapter. The text covers all the fundamental math concepts and skills needed for daily wastewater treatment plant operations. The workbook for this book can be purchased separately or together in the Applied Math for Wastewater Plant Operators Set (ISBN: 9781566769891).

  5. DIMENSIUNILE ECONOMICĂ ŞI SOCIALĂ ALE PROCESULUI DE MODERNIZARE A ŢĂRII MOLDOVEI ÎN A DOUA JUMĂTATE A SEC.XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin ARAPU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problema dimensiunilor economică şi socială ale procesului de modernizare a Ţării Moldovei în a doua jumătate a sec. XVIII este actuală prin prisma abordărilor ştiinţifice interdisciplinare. Transformările din societate sunt reflectate prin investigaţiile de ordin istoric, economic, social, demografic, sociologic şi juridic. Tema este cercetată pe dimensiu-nile didactică, economică şi socială. Pe dimensiunea didactică este elucidat conceptul de modernizare, fiind relevate principalele scheme de periodizare a epocii moderne în plan universal şi naţional. Aspectul modernizării pe dimensiunea economică este reflectat prin accentuarea rolului exercitat de centrele urbane în economia ţării şi al atelierelor noi de producţie în cadrul cărora procesul de muncă era organizat după modelul manufacturilor descentralizate. Majoritatea manufacturilor au fost înfiinţate de către domnitori, marii boieri sau la porunca nemijlocită a sultanilor. Dimensiunea socială a procesului de modernizare este relevantă prin sporirea rolului şi a ponderii exercitate de către viitoarea pătură burgheză, reprezentată de negustori, meseriaşi, intelectuali, funcţionari, proprietari de manufacturi şi de mici instalaţii industriale, cămătari, arendaşi de moşii şi de un număr însemnat de alogeni înstăriţi, care, prin activităţile lor, contribuiau la dezvoltarea relaţiilor pre-capitaliste.ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF THE MODERNIYATION PROCCES OF MOLDAVIAN PRINCIPALITY IN SECOND HALF OF XVIII CENTURY The problem of economic and social dimensions of the modernization of Moldavian Principality in the second half of XVIII century is actual through the interdisciplinary scientific approaches. The changes in society are reflected in historical, economic, social, demographic, sociological and judicial investigations. This theme is researched on didactic, economic and social dimensions. On the didactic dimension is

  6. Pseudo-differential operators on manifolds with singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, B-W

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of differential equations in domains and on manifolds with singularities belongs to the main streams of recent developments in applied and pure mathematics. The applications and concrete models from engineering and physics are often classical but the modern structure calculus was only possible since the achievements of pseudo-differential operators. This led to deep connections with index theory, topology and mathematical physics. The present book is devoted to elliptic partial differential equations in the framework of pseudo-differential operators. The first chapter contains the Mellin pseudo-differential calculus on R+ and the functional analysis of weighted Sobolev spaces with discrete and continuous asymptotics. Chapter 2 is devoted to the analogous theory on manifolds with conical singularities, Chapter 3 to manifolds with edges. Employed are pseudo-differential operators along edges with cone-operator-valued symbols.

  7. Mapping Citation Patterns of Book Chapters in the Book Citation Index

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Salinas, Daniel; Robinson-Garcia, Nicolas; Fdez-Valdivia, J; García, J A; 10.1016/j.joi.2013.01.004

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide the reader with a visual representation of relationships among the impact of book chapters indexed in the Book Citation Index using information gain values and published by different academic publishers in specific disciplines. The impact of book chapters can be characterized statistically by citations histograms. For instance, we can compute the probability of occurrence of book chapters with a number of citations in different intervals for each academic publisher. We predict the similarity between two citation histograms based on the amount of relative information between such characterizations. We observe that the citation patterns of book chapters follow a Lotkaian distribution. This paper describes the structure of the Book Citation Index using 'heliocentric clockwise maps' which allow the reader not only to determine the grade of similarity of a given academic publisher indexed in the Book Citation Index with a specific discipline according to their citation distribution, but al...

  8. Algorithms and their Impact on Integrated Vehicle Health Management - Chapter 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter discussed some of the algorithmic choices one encounters when designing an IVHM system. While it would be generally desirable to be able to pick a...

  9. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  10. La contradanza en España en el siglo XVIII: Ferriol y Boxeraus, Minget e Yrol y los bailes públicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Osés, Clara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The country-dance arrived to Spain through the France border during the fi rst half of the 18th century and it was codifi ed in Spanish language by the French dance treatises authors (Ferriol and Minguet. Both described two basic categories of countrydance: the English and the French, and they choreographed several examples following the pattern of treatises created by authors such as Feuillet (1706 and De la Cuisse (1762. During the second half of the century country-dance became essential in public balls, proof of which are the numerous English and French country-dance compilations in performed within those balls. The present study aims to explore the evolution of country-dance in Spain during the 18th century: Is it possible to establish certain particular characteristics? Were Spanish choreographers and composers able to write their own choreographies? To what extent were the French notation systems assimilated by Spanish authors?

    La contradanza llegó a España, a través de Francia, durante la primera mitad del siglo XVIII y fue codifi cada por los autores de tratados de danza francesa en español (Ferriol y Minguet. Ambos describen dos tipos básicos de contradanza: la inglesa y la francesa y coreografían varios ejemplos siguiendo los modelos de tratadistas franceses como Feuillet (1706 o De la Cuisse (1762. Durante la segunda mitad de siglo, las contradanzas se convierten en la esencia de los bailes públicos; prueba de ello son los numerosos recopilatorios de contradanzas, inglesas y francesas, que se interpretaban en dichos bailes. Este estudio se propone explorar la evolución de la contradanza en España en el siglo XVIII: ¿Es posible establecer unas características propias?, ¿Fueron los compositores y coreógrafos españoles capaces de escribir sus propias coreografías?, ¿Hasta qué punto fueron asimilados los sistemas franceses de notación?.

  11. Modelos socioeconómicos en la provincia de León: la Montaña y Tierra de Campos en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José PÉREZ ÁLVAREZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Analizando la provincia de León bajo criterios ecológicos, cabe diferenciar diez grandes comarca naturales, con mayores o menores similitudes. De éstas, nosotros hemos seleccionado dos totalmente contrapuestas para conocer el modelo socioeconómico que rigió en el siglo XVIII. Se trata de la Montaña Noroccidental o Montaña de Luna y Sahagún. Contraponer Montaña y Sahagún nos lleva, instintivamente, a visualizar dos paisajes totalmente diferentes: la escabrosidad del norte y la suavidad de las riberas bajas del Cea y Campos. Estas diferencias, tan evidentes en la forma lógicamente, y a priori, nos conducirán a desigualdades en el fondo. Es decir, el paisaje agrario tendrá una organización totalmente diferente, lo cual influirá sobre una serie de variables más o menos determinantes a la hora de configurar la estructura socio-económica imperante. Esta estructura permitiría a cada una de estas comunidades disponer su espacio agrícola y ganadero, de tal forma que los rendimientos les permitan alcanzar la viabilidad necesaria para garantizar la reproducción social.ABSTRACT: Analysing the province of León with ecologic criteria, we distinguish between ten large natural región, with major or minors differences. We have selected two of them, set against, to know the socioeconomic model that rules in the XVIII Century. They are Northwest Mountain or «Montaña de Luna» and Sahagún. Comparing these two territories carries us, instinctively, to visualize two totally different landscapes: The scabrousity of the North and the smothery of the lower banks of the Cea and Campos. These differences, so evident in the shape, will drive us to inequalities in the background. In other words, the agrarian landscape will have a totally different organization, which will influence over a number of variables when we are configuring the socio-economic structure. This structure will permit to these communities to dispose the agricultural and

  12. Compensatory Education: Chapter 1's Comparability of Services Provision. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Secretary of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    Chapter 1 was created from its predecessor, Title 1, in order to give more flexibility to states and local school districts. Many of the requirements and criteria of Title 1 were relaxed in 1981 when Chapter 1 began. Districts are now required to submit written plans of their new Chapter 1 organization assuring the comparability of services…

  13. A move-step analysis of the concluding chapters in computer science PhD theses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Soler-Monreal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how computer science doctoral writers construct the closing chapters of their PhD theses. The data are drawn from the chapters playing a concluding role of 48 PhD theses defended at the University of Glasgow from 2008 to 2014. The analysis applied a qualitative-quantitative approach. The titles of the concluding chapters of the theses were first examined and also their divisions into sections and sub-sections. Then the chapters were subjected to a move-step analysis: Move 1 (M1 “Revisiting the study”; Move 2 (M2 “Consolidating research space”; Move 3 (M3 “Proposing practical applications and implications”, Move 4 (M4 “Recommending future work” and Move 5 (M5 “Recapitulating the study”. The results revealed that most of the computer science PhD theses have one final concluding chapter with three main moves: M1, M2 and M4. The most frequent steps are “reviewing the work carried out” and “summarizing the specific work reported in every thesis chapter” in M1, “presenting results and contributions”, “answering the initial research questions or hypotheses”, and “making claims” in M2, and “acknowledging limitations” and “suggesting further research” in M4. Movestep patterns appear in recurrent cycles throughout the concluding chapters. Several suggestions for pedagogical purposes are provided.

  14. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  15. Agricultural Safety. FMO: Fundamentals of Machine Operation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual is intended to provide students with basic information on the safe operation of farm machinery. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: safe farm machinery operation (the importance of safety, the role of communication in safety, and types of farm accidents); human factors (human limitations and capabilities;…

  16. Beginning a new chapter in the characterization of directly imaged exoplanets: the science of MIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielski, Camilla; Baudino, Jean-Loup; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Boccaletti, Anthony; Bézard, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    The next major space facility to characterize the atmosphere of exoplanets will be the JWST. Among its instruments the Mid-Infrared instrument (MIRI) will perform the first ever characterization of young giant exoplanets observed by direct imaging in the 5 -28 microns wavelength range.Retrieving the precise set of parameters of these objects, such as luminosity, temperature, surface gravity, mass, and age is extremely important as it supplies information about the initial entropy of the planets and hence it allows us to shed light on their formation mechanism.The new extreme adaptive optic cameras (e.g. SPHERE, GPI) are already providing excellent constraints on these parameters, but the spectral window in which they are operating is limited to near IR so that the uncertainties are still significant. Therefore, since observations taken on a longer wavelength range are mandatory for reducing them, MIRI will be playing a key role in this new chapter of exoplanetary characterization.Furthermore, MIRI will give us the opportunity to probe for the first time the presence of ammonia in the atmosphere of the coldest known young giants (T indicator of equilibrium and temperature in the planetary atmosphere.In this work we have used the Exoplanet Radiative-convective Equilibrium Model (Exo-REM), developed by Baudino et al. (2015) and tailored for directly imaged exoplanets, to quantify the constraints on the planetary parameters that MIRI will bring.We simulated the MIRI coronographic and Low-resolution spectrometer observations for a set of 13 known directly imaged exoplanetary systems. Subsequently, taking into account various source of noise and the photometric precision, we show to which accuracy the exoplanetary parameters (temperature, gravity, chemical composition) can be determined when adding MIRI observations, and we provide the significance of the ammonia detection.

  17. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, John

    2013-01-01

    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  18. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE, SQUIRREL-I, and SQUIRREL-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation conducted during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended. Because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place, results may be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  19. Fractal Characterization of Multitemporal Remote Sensing Data. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngam; Qiu, Hong-Lie

    2001-01-01

    Scale is an 'innate' concept in geographical information systems (GIS). It is recognized as something that is intrinsic to the capture, storage, manipulation, analysis, modelling, and output of space and time data within a GIS purview, yet the relative meaning and ramifications of scaling spatial and temporal data from this perspective remain enigmatic. As GIS becomes more sophisticated as a product of more robust software and more powerful computer systems, there is an urgent need to examine the issue of scale, and its relationship to the whole body of spatiotemporal data, as imparted in GIS. Scale is fundamental to the characterization of geo-spatial data as represented in GIS, but we have relatively little insight on how to measure the effects of scale in representing data that are acquired in different formats and exist in varying spatial, temporal and radiometric configurations. Moreover, the complexities associated with the integration of multi-scaled data sets in a multitude of formats are exacerbated by the confusion of what the term 'scale' means from a multidisciplinary perspective. 'Scale' takes on significantly different meanings depending upon one's disciplinary background and spatial perspective, which can lead to substantial confusion in the input, manipulation, analysis, and output operations. Hence, we must begin to look at the universality of scale and begin to develop the theory, methods and techniques necessary to advance knowledge on the 'Science of scale' across all disciplines that use GIS.

  20. Hilbert Space Operators in Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Jiří; Havlíček, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    The second edition of this course-tested book provides a detailed and in-depth discussion of the foundations of quantum theory as well as its applications to various systems. The exposition is self-contained; in the first part the reader finds the mathematical background in chapters about functional analysis, operators on Hilbert spaces and their spectral theory, as well as operator sets and algebras. This material is used in the second part to a systematic explanation of the foundations, in particular, states and observables, properties of canonical variables, time evolution, symmetries and various axiomatic approaches. In the third part, specific physical systems and situations are discussed. Two chapters analyze Schrödinger operators and scattering, two others added in the second edition are devoted to new important topics, quantum waveguides and quantum graphs. Some praise for the previous edition: "I really enjoyed reading this work. It is very well written, by three real experts in the field. It stands...

  1. Hilar, teñir y tejer. El trabajo femenino en las misiones jesuíticas del Chaco (siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitar, Beatriz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to present some advances in the study of the economic role of women in missions Chaco frontier in the eighteenth century. For this purpose, are analyzed the features of the productive life of hunter-gatherers —in some cases also small-scale growers—, the Jesuit conception of women and their roles within the missionary economy and its impact on the female population and their some responses to the rearrangement of community production.Este trabajo presenta algunos avances en el estudio del papel económico de las mujeres en las misiones de las fronteras del Chaco en el siglo XVIII. Para ello, se analizan los rasgos de la vida productiva de los cazadores recolectores —en ciertos casos también cultivadores en pequeña escala—, la concepción jesuítica de las mujeres, de sus funciones dentro de la economía reduccional y su impacto en la población femenina, así como algunas de sus respuestas frente al reordenamiento de la producción comunitaria.

  2. LA LIBERTÀ E LE IMMAGINI: UNA DRAMMATURGIA A STAZIONI PER IL CONTROLLO DELL’AMORE. LETTURA DI PURGATORIO XVIII-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottavio Brigandì

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro si propone come lettura dei canti XVIII e XIX del Purgatorio, dove il centrale discorso di Virgilio sull’amore come fondamento dell’agire umano trova esemplificazione nella doppia forma dell’incontro con le anime accidiose e del sogno (la celebre «femminabalba». Che sia in dialogo col maestro o nella descrizione dei purganti o per esperienza onirica, la scoperta della forza del desiderio è seguita, rassicurazione e monito insieme, dalla certezza che il libero arbitrio può trattenerci dalle azioni ree, riconducendo il potere appetitivoa quello conoscitivo e dunque trasformando il “moto” d’amore nella feconda stasi della riflessione. Fra gli espedienti che sortiscono l’effetto di porre il lettore sullo stesso piano del Viator, si segnalano l’impianto teatrale del discorso, fitto di stazioni narrative e tematiche, e lo stile ricco di figurazioni, allusivo a un impiego della facoltà immaginativa per un fine poetico che intende mostrarsi utile all’educazione umana e davvero “libero” dal giogo amoroso.

  3. Rendición de Cuentas de los Administradores del Obispado en Sede Vacante en España, Siglos XVIII-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Calvo Cruz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La relevancia adquirida por la Colecturía general de Espolios y Vacantes durante casi un siglo, como consecuencia de la labor desarrollada para recaudar y administrar las rentas de los obispados, cuando sus sedes se encontraban vacantes, dio lugar a una importante documentación contable. En este trabajo abordamos la organización administrativa de la diócesis, el método contable aplicado, y el proceso contable seguido en la formación de las cuentas que debían elaborar los administradores de las rentas del obispado, cuando dicho cargo quedaba vacante. Palabras clave: historia de la contabilidad, contabilidad privada, siglos XVIII y XIX.The importance acquired by the Colecturía general de Espolios y Vacantes for almost a century, as consequence of the work developed for collection and administration of bishoprics incomes when its sees were vacant, gave rise to an important account documentation. In this investigation, we tackle the administrative organization of the dioceses, the account method applied, and the account process followed in the formation of accounts that administrators of bishoprics incomes had to work out, when such office remained vacant.

  4. Toros y sociedad en el siglo XVIII. Génesis y desarrollo de un espectáculo convertido en seña de identidad nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Álvarez-Insúa, Alberto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coinciding with the change of dinasty, during the beginning of the XVIIIth Century two simultaneous processes took place in Spain: a deep crisis of a nationall identity and the appearance of a new show: the bull fights as we know it today. Originally a royal function of the Austrias, due to the multilclass characteristics and the dialogical and identification processes between the audience and the bullfighter, it became a national identity sign which lasts to our days.Coincidiendo con el cambio dinástico, en el inicio mismo del siglo XVIII, tienen lugar en España dos procesos simultáneos: una profunda crisis de identidad nacional y la aparición de un nuevo espectáculo, la fiesta de toros, tal como la conocemos en la actualidad. Espectáculo derivado de la función real de los Austrias, pero cuyas características multiclasistas y el proceso dialógico y de identificación entre el espectador y el lidiador le llevan a convertirse en una seña de identidad nacional que perdura hasta nuestros días.

  5. Los Cinco Gremios Mayores y el Abastecimiento de Víveres al Ejército Español en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael TORRES SÁNCHEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La actividad de los Cinco Gremios Mayores en el suministro de víveres al ejército español durante el siglo XVIII es conocida, pero no se ha estudiado. Nuestro objetivo ha sido analizar cómo se desarrolló su participación en esta actividad, las fases y el contenido de los asientos de provisión firmados con el Estado. Concluimos que los Gremios aprovecharon este negocio para articular su propia expansión como compañía. Hemos descubierto que la entrada y evolución de los Gremios en el negocio del abastecimiento de víveres tuvo mucho que ver con los cambios políticos y la proximidad al poder. La cercanía a la Familia Real, las transformaciones en las políticas de suministros militares o el crédito del Estado actuaron como factores clave para entender esa evolución. Al final, los Gremios lograron una posición de monopolio y privilegio, que el Estado sostuvo en la gestión ordinaria del suministro con un marcado trato de favor. El éxito de los Gremios en este negocio les llevó a una dependencia mayor del poder y a unir su suerte a la del Estado.

  6. The Incorporation of Bunchukovogo Partnership in Part of Service and Social Elite of the Russian Empire in the last third of the XVIII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina I. Kryvosheia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the highest stratum of сossack neuryadovoy officership of Left-Bank Ukraine – bunchukovym comrades. The special attention is given to the process of incorporation of bunchukovogo partnership in the service and social elite of the Russian Empire. During the last decades of the Cossack statehood bunchukovye comrades gradually turned into military and civilian high-level officials. In the 1780th they got the rights of the Russian nobility. The paper also presents data on the number of bunchukovyh comrades in the Cossack regiments in the early 1780s and indicated how many of them were in the civil state service in Kyiv, Chernihiv and Novgorod-Siversky governorships (namestnichestva in 1782–1796. The authors concluded that social and official status of bunchukovoe comrades in the XVIII century was very high. This is recognized even by representatives of the Russian administration in the Ukrainian lands. This contributed to the fact that for bunchukovymi comrades were enshrined rights of the nobility of the Russian Empire, and in the public service they occupied mid-level positions. They received in this case ranks of collegiate assessor.

  7. Formación, desarrollo y configuración socio-étnica de una ciudad colonial: Cuenca, siglos XVI-XVIII

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    Simard, Jacques P.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El artículo aborda el crecimiento físico y la organización social de la ciudad de Cuenca (Audiencia de Quito. Interesándose fundamentalmente en la urbanización de la población indígena, y basándose en los datos de los contratos de compra-venta de tierras, distingue varias áreas de poblamiento: el centro de la ciudad, los suburbios o áreas periurbanas, y las periferias semi-rurales y trata de medir el crecimiento de Cuenca. Plantea tres modelos sucesivos de organización: primero, el intento inicial de la segregación étnica entre españoles e indios; segundo, la jerarquización socio-étnica de los barrios y lugares de residencia urbanos y periurbanos; tercero, el mestizaje y la constitución de barrios “populares”. El trabajo cuenta con cuatro propuestas cartográficas de la ciudad: en 1557, 1600, 1700 y 1780, y con un mapa del valle de Cuenca a fines del siglo XVIII.

  8. Las salamancas mestizas: de las religiones indígenas a la hechicería colonial. Santiago del Estero, siglo XVIII

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    Judith Farberman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de los folcloristas ha coincidido en el origen hispano del estereotipo de escuela de magia conocida como salamanca, de amplia difusión en el noroeste argentino. Este trabajo postula la configuración mestiza del mismo y su desarrollo a partir de la hibridación de elementos religiosos y culturales entre los siglos XVI y XVIII. Como fuentes principales me he valido de dos procesos civiles contra hechiceras sustanciados en Santiago del Estero y, secundariamente, de materiales como Cartas Anuas jesuíticas, catecismos y confesionarios de indios.In general folklore studies agreed upon the Spanish origins of the magic school known as Salamanca, widely spread in the northwest of Argentina. Based on the existence of hybrid elements, found in culture and religion, this article poses the existence of a mestizo influence in its development in Santiago del Estero during the XVI and XVII centuries. The main sources analyzed were judicial processes held against witches in the area under study, and secondarily some material such us the Jesuits' Cartas Anuas, and Indian catechisms and confessionaries.

  9. Las cuentas de la Real Hacienda y la Política Fiscal en el Nuevo Reino de Granada: materiales para un estudio, a fines del siglo XVIII

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    Gilma Lucia Mora de Tovar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Universidad Nacional de Colombia 12.00 Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Es probable que sean muchos los estudios realizados sobre el desarrollo económico de la Nueva Granada en el siglo XVIII pero pocos de ellos han intentado introducir los fenómenos del aparato fiscal en la configuración de la economía y la sociedad neogranadinas.  Igualmente la relación reforma fiscal  protesta social ha sido un tema descuidado por la historia colonial que ha dedicado notables esfuerzos al conocimiento de los elementos articuladores del sector agrario y del sector minero.  Pero sabemos que el análisis de tales sectores queda incompleto si no se une a su comprensión el estudio de las rentas estancadas que fueron básicas en la constitución de los ingresos reales y de hecho en el sostenimiento de todo el aparato burocrático.

  10. La Provincia de Maracaibo a fines del siglo XVIII: la visión de Francisco de Saavedra y José Domingo Rus

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    Zulimar Maldonado Vitoria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es reconstruir los rasgos geográficos y socioeconómicos que caracterizaron a la Provincia de Maracaibo a fines del siglo XVIII y principios del XIX. Se sustenta en el análisis comparativo de los datos y descripciones aportados por los informes de Francisco de Saavedra, Intendente de Caracas (1783- 1787 y José Domingo Rus, diputado del Real Consulado de Caracas (1796-1798 y de las Cortes de Cádiz (1812-1814. Se infiere que ambos personajes, debido a los cargos desempeñados en la administración monárquica, lograron hacerse de amplios conocimientos sobre la Provincia de Maracaibo y ofrecer una visión de unidad sociopolítica y económica de ese vasto espacio a fin de procurar para el mismo su fomento económico y progreso moral como pregonaban los principios ilustrados de la época.

  11. El terremoto de Lisboa en el contexto del catastrofismo natural en la España de la primera mitad del siglo XVIII

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    Armando ALBEROLA ROMÁ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El conocido como terremoto de Lisboa, acaecido el día primero de noviembre de 1755, constituyó una de las mayores tragedias de la historia europea por los terribles efectos que provocó. Sin embargo no fue la única catástrofe natural a la que hubieron de hacer frente las gentes de la centuria ilustrada. El presente artículo analiza la acción de los agentes meteorológicos —sequías, inundaciones, etc.— y naturales —erupciones volcánicas, terremotos—, así como las consecuencias que provocaron en la España de la primera mitad del siglo XVIII.ABSTRACT: The Famous Lisbon Earthquake of 1 November, 1755 was one of the biggest tragedies in European history because of its dreadful effects. However, it was not the only natural tragedy that had to be faced during this century of Enlightenment. This article anlyses the action of metereological (droughts, floods, etc. and natural (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes agents, as well as their consequences for Spain in the first half of the 18th Century.

  12. Verónica Undurraga Schüler. Los rostros del honor. Normas culturales y estrategias de promoción social en Chile colonial, siglo XVIII

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    Mabel Paola López Jerez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “Soy un pobre artesano, pero tengo honor”. Esta frase expresada por el sastre Diego Escobar, cargada de sentido, pero también de aparentes contradicciones, fue uno de los indicios que luego de un juicioso análisis, realizado durante siete años con más de doscientos expedientes judiciales por injurias, calumnias, lesiones, homicidios, heridas y disensos matrimoniales, extraídos del Archivo Nacional Histórico de Chile, además de registros de escribanos y documentación parroquial, le permitieron a Verónica Undurraga señalar que “durante el siglo XVIII en Santiago de Chile el honor dejó de ser un código cultural monolítico y patrimonio exclusivo de las élites y se desgajó en múltiples capas, se cercenó en diversos horizontes, prestando sus representaciones polisémicas a sujetos de los más variados lugares sociales” (p. 26.

  13. Artefatos e práticas sociais em torno das refeições (São Paulo, séculos XVIII e XIX

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    Maria Aparecida de Menezes Borrego

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Em 1923, ingressava no Museu Paulista, por vontade testamentária de D. Francisca Miquelina de Paula de Souza Queiroz, um conjunto de duas cadeiras, canapé e mesa que havia pertencido a seu avô, o Brigadeiro Luis Antonio de Souza Queiroz, uma das maiores fortunas da primeira metade do século XIX paulista, falecido em 1819.Seus atributos físicos são testemunhos das transformações socioeconômicas e incitam à reflexão sobre o significado da posse de objetos, as relações pessoais por eles mediadas e o papel conformador de práticas sociais desempenhado pelos artefatos. A partir do estudo desses móveis e dos bens descritos em inventários de habitantes da cidade de São Paulo, o artigo analisa a dimensão material da vida social, nos séculos XVIII e inícios do XIX, focalizando as práticas sociais em torno das refeições no espaço doméstico, num contexto marcado pela gradual interiorização das sociabilidades.

  14. Los Wayúu y los cocina: dos caras diferentes de una misma moneda en la resistencia indígena en la Guajira, siglo XVIII

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    José Polo Acuña

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de conquista y colonización de América por los españoles generó conflictos sociales entre éstos y los aborígenes americanos. Buena parte de estos conflictos descansó en la resistencia que desplegaron los indios frente a las formas de dominación hispana; la resistencia iba desde los actos más simples de la vida cotidiana hasta los movimientos armados de grandes dimensiones. Algunos grupos indígenas lograron mantenerse por las estrategias que adoptaron frente a las políticas de dominación, otros estuvieron condenados a su a desaparecer. En cuanto a los primeros Serge Gruzinski destaca el proceso de resistencia desplegado por los indios de México entre los siglos XVIy XVIII,analizando rigurosamente las fuentes con ayuda de disciplinas como la pictografía y la semiótica, tratando en lo posible de mostrar la visión india del conflicto.

  15. Entre lo íntimo y lo público. La vestimenta en la ciudad de Córdoba a fines del siglo XVIII

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    Cecilia Moreyra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se inscribe dentro del campo de estudio de la cultura material y parte de la idea de que los objetos cotidianos constituyen una puerta de entrada para la comprensión de diferentes dinámicas y relaciones sociales. En este sentido, observamos, describimos y analizamos la vestimenta como un aspecto de la vida material en la ciudad de Córdoba, a fines del siglo XVIII. Observada la indumentaria, inserta dentro de las prácticas y relaciones sociales de las que formaba parte, hay una aproximación a cuestiones como la representatividad social de la vestimenta, la circulación intergeneracional de las prendas de vestir, elementos vinculados al vestido e higiene y la indumentaria como claro indicador de género. A lo largo del artículo se puede advertir que los objetos de uso cotidiano no sólo tenían efectos físicos, sino significados sociales y simbólicos que acercan a la compresión de la sociedad en general.

  16. Transgresión y legalidad en el cortejo del siglo XVIII: el secuestro de mujeres en la diócesis de Zaragoza

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    Daniel BALDELLOU MONCLÚS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la conflictividad generada en las familias españolas del siglo XVIII a raíz del proceso de secuestro. El «secuestro» se trataba de un recurso legal dependiente del tribunal eclesiástico que permitía a las jóvenes comprometidas ser extraídas de su hogar en caso de que su familia les impidiese el matrimonio planeado. En el caso de la diócesis de Zaragoza, este recurso de secuestro venía acompañado también por los procesos de Manifestación, dependientes de los fueros aragoneses y cuyo funcionamiento permitía este mismo proceso con distintos resultados. Secuestros y manifestaciones constituían una herramienta de presión que las parejas utilizaban frente a una autoridad paterna que era considerada natural pero, no por ello, ilimitada. A lo largo del artículo desglosamos el proceso legal del secuestro y de la manifestación, además de analizar cuál era el impacto emocional que tenía en la familia y la comunidad la salida de una hija soltera de la autoridad paterna.na.

  17. Transformación del espacio doméstico en el Madrid del siglo XVIII: del oratorio y el estrado al gabinete

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    Vega, Jesusa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The change that took place in Spain in the 18th century in interior decoration started in the royal palaces and among the gentry; from there it spread to the rest of the population. Trade in works of art grew as a result, as reflected in the ads of Diario de Madrid. With the Information furnished by this magazine one can know better the tastes in decoration for home interiors, especially that of the cabinet. The author here focuses on sculpture, the themes of which were mostly religious.

    El cambio que tuvo lugar en la decoración de interiores a mediados del siglo XVIII en España se inició en los palacios reales y de la nobleza pero progresivamente se fue extendiendo al resto de la población. Como consecuencia de ello creció la actividad comercial de obras de arte que claramente quedó reflejada en los anuncios que se insertaron en el Diario de Madrid. A partir de la información que suministra este periódico se puede llegar a conocer mejor el gusto en el adorno de los interiores domésticos, especialmente del oratorio y el gabinete, centrándonos en esta ocasión de manera particular en la escultura cuya temática era mayoritariamente religiosa.

  18. Las misiones de los capuchinos en el valle del río cesar en la primera mitad del siglo xviii

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    Hugues R. Sánchez Mejía

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de controlar y evangelizar a la población indígena de la gobernación de Santa Marta y la península de la Guajira permitió un tipo de poblamiento que se denominó en la época como congregaciones.1 Estas congregaciones estuvieron a cargo de lo frailes de la orden de los capuchinos. Estos, iniciaron hacía el año de 1716 un proceso que permitiría la congregación de un número importante de indígenas de  diversas etnias en cercanías a las ciudades de Valledupar y Riohacha. Este proceso se relaciona fuertemente con el nacimiento de sitios o poblados que para finales delsiglo XVIII aparecen como parroquias de libres y cercanos a hatos ganaderos. Se podrían ubicar las congregaciones hechas por los capuchinos como un antecedente de las campañas "pobladoras» que se originan a partir de 1740 por parte de Fernando de Mier y Guerra.

  19. Reuniones académicas en el siglo XVIII: la literaria función valenciana de los Condes de Parcent en 1763

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    Jesús CAÑAS MURILLO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Edición paleográfica, con introducción y notas textuales, de la Relación, que hace un amigo a otro, de la cèlebre Literaria Función, que en el día 7. de Abril del pre?ente año 1763. huvo en la Ciudad de Valencia, en la Casa de los excelenti simos Señores Condes de Parcent, executada por sus Excelentisimos Hijos Don Joseph, y Doña Cayetana de La-Cerda, y Cernecio, obra en la que se describe una reunión literaria que tuvo lugar en Valencia, en casa de los condes de Parcent, en el año 1763. Palabras clave: historia intelectural, academias, reuniones literarias, textos, siglo XVIII.ABSTRACT: Paleografic edition, with an Introduction and textual notes, of Relación, que hace un amigo a otro, de la cèlebre Literaria Función, que en el día 7. de Abril del presente año 1763. huvo en la Ciudad de Valencia, en la Casa de los excelentisimos Señores Condes de Parcent, executada por sus Excelentisimos Hijos Don Joseph, y Doña Cayetana de La-Cerda, y Cernecio, literary work in which a literary meeting celebrated in Valencia, at the condes de Parcent home, in the year 1763, is described.

  20. Difusão, produção e consumo das imagens visuais: o caso dos ex-votos mineiros do século XVIII

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    Jean Luiz Neves Abreu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre os meios visuais mostram que a análise da arte não deve se prender aos seus aspectos formais. A história cultural tem procurado enfocar as condições sociais e culturais de produção e recepção das imagens. Essas questões são endereçadas no presente artigo aos ex-votos mineiros. Produzidos com a finalidade de agradecer um milagre alcançado, e relacionados ao universo da religiosidade popular, esses objetos permitem abordar aspectos da produção e do consumo de arte na sociedade do século XVIII.Studies about visual means show that the analysis of art should not be based only on formal aspects. Cultural historyhas ought to focus on the social and cultural conditions of production and reception of images. These questions are addressed to the ex-votos from Minas Gerais in the present article. These ex-votos are produced to give thanks to a miracle that had been granted, and they are related to the universe of religiosity of popular culture. These objects allow the approach to the aspects of production and consumption of art in the society of the eighteenth-century.

  1. Dispensas y libros secretos de matrimonios en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX en actuales territorios argentinos

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    Nora Siegrist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizan fuentes en archivos y obras de la bibliografía europea e Hispanoamericana vinculados al Derecho Canónico en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX. Los Libros Secretos de Matrimonios, escasa - mente conocidos, revelan la existencia de una realidad justamente secreta, de allí que pocos tuvieron acceso a un material guardado a través del tiempo por la Iglesia Católica. Motivaciones disímiles como consanguinidad directa, primer grado de afinidad en línea recta, disparidad de linaje, de religión, falta de permisos por parte de las autoridades a funcionarios de la administración en Indias y a oficiales militares para que pudieran casar, como el hecho de que algunos Cargadores de Cádiz quisieron ser considerados como solteros ante la sociedad, fueron motivo de que ciertas nupcias se guardaran de incógnito en las Cámaras Episcopales, en libros bajo llave. Se da cuenta de ejemplos ubicados en Buenos Aires, Córdoba y Mendo - za, con extensión a antecedentes existentes en otras regiones geográficas.

  2. Aproximación a los problemas en la vista y el uso de anteojos en el burgos de mediados del XVIII

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    Francisco J. Sanz de la Higuera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Burgos de mediados del siglo XVIII, la posesión de «anteojos» estaba circunscrita a un reducido número de hogares. Únicamente en el 5.7 % de los inventarios post-mortem se mencionan dichos pertrechos oculares, porcentaje que se eleva hasta el 16.9 % en las viviendas de los clérigos y a un 10.3 % en las casas de los nobles rentistas. La posesión de «anteojos» era en el Antiguo Régimen un acontecimiento excepcional, un producto de lujo, y aún exótico, aunque sus módicos precios, la oferta existente en las tiendas de la ciudad y el dinero líquido atesorado en las casas de la ciudad, los hacía relativamente asequibles. Empero, y por contraste, el Catastro de Ensenada nos brinda el conocimiento de múltiples casos de ceguera y graves disfunciones oculares, patologías de las que estaban aquejados, en su inmensa mayoría, hogares de hilanderas, pobres de solemnidad, jornaleros, labradores y artesanos, es decir, las categorías socio-profesionales más analfabetas, paupérrimas y alojadas en la estrechez, para las cuales, en ningún caso, hemos encontrado, en sus inventarios post-mortem, ningún anteojo por modesto que fuera.

  3. Dispensas y libros secretos de matrimonios en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX en actuales territorios argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Siegrist

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizan fuentes en archivos y obras de la bibliografía europea e Hispanoamericana vinculados al Derecho Canónico en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y la primera del XIX. Los Libros Secretos de Matrimonios, escasamente conocidos, revelan la existencia de una realidad justamente secreta, de allí que pocos tuvieron acceso a un material guardado a través del tiempo por la Iglesia Católica. Motivaciones disímiles como consanguinidad directa, primer grado de afinidad en línea recta, disparidad de linaje, de religión, falta de permisos por parte de las autoridades a funcionarios de la administración en Indias y a oficiales militares para que pudieran casar, como el hecho de que algunos Cargadores de Cádiz quisieron ser considerados como solteros ante la sociedad, fueron motivo de que ciertas nupcias se guardaran de incógnito en las Cámaras Episcopales, en libros bajo llave. Se da cuenta de ejemplos ubicados en Buenos Aires, Córdoba y Mendoza, con extensión a antecedentes existentes en otras regiones geográficas.

  4. Innovative electronic publication in plant systematics: PhytoKeys and the changes to the “Botanical Code” accepted at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne

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    W. John Kress

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available PhytoKeys was established less than a year ago in response to four main publication challenges of our time: (1 the appearance of electronic publications as amendments or even alternatives to paper publications; (2 Open Access (OA as a new publishing model; (3 the linkage of electronic registers, indices, and aggregators, which summarize information on biological species through taxonomic names or their persistent identifiers; and (4 Web 2.0 technologies, which permit the semantic markup of, and semantic enhancements to, published biological texts. The appearance of the journal was concomitant with lively discussions on the validity of nomenclatural acts published electronically (Knapp and Wright 2010, Knapp et al. 2010, Penev et al. 2010, Chapman et al. 2010. At the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in July 2011 (IBC 2011 these discussions culminated in the decision to amend the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature to allow electronic-only publishing of new taxa. Even before the end of the Congress and formal acceptance of the changes PhytoKeys was able to publish a report on the main outcomes of the Nomenclature Section on electronic publishing (Miller et al. 2011.

  5. “Más ganados que frutos”. La evolución de la tenencia de la tierra en Hatoviejo (Bello, Antioquia, siglos XVII a XVIII

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    Rodrigo de Jesús García Estrada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una aproximación histórica a la evolución en la tenencia de la tierra en Hatoviejo (Bello, Antioquia, Colombia durante los siglos XVII y XVIII. En él se estudia el proceso de fragmentación de la merced de tierras entregada por el cabildo de la ciudad de Antioquia al conquistador Gaspar de Rodas en el siglo XVI, quien lo cedió a sus hijos. Brevemente se muestra como aquellas inmensas propiedades se subdividieron hasta conformar varios hatos y estancias donde se producían muchos de los alimentos que se consumían en la provincia. A partir de los protocolos notariales se reconstruye el proceso subsiguiente de fragmentación de aquellas haciendas hasta la aparición de pequeñas y medianas propiedades en manos de mestizos, indígenas y pardos libres, para concluir con el análisis de la estructura tenencial de la tierra al final del periodo estudiado.

  6. “Más ganados que frutos”. La evolución de la tenencia de la tierra en Hatoviejo (Bello, Antioquia, siglos XVII a XVIII

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    Rodrigo de Jesús García Estrada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una aproximación histórica a la evolución en la tenencia de la tierra en Hatoviejo (Bello, Antioquia, Colombia durante los siglos XVII y XVIII. En él se estudia el proceso de fragmentación de la merced de tierras entregada por el cabildo de la ciudad de Antioquia al conquistador Gaspar de Rodas en el siglo XVI, quien lo cedió a sus hijos. Brevemente se muestra como aquellas inmensas propiedades se subdividieron hasta conformar varios hatos y estancias donde se producían muchos de los alimentos que se consumían en la provincia. A partir de los protocolos notariales se reconstruye el proceso subsiguiente de fragmentación de aquellas haciendas hasta la aparición de pequeñas y medianas propiedades en manos de mestizos, indígenas y pardos libres, para concluir con el análisis de la estructura tenencial de la tierra al final del periodo estudiado.

  7. Aerojet - Attitude Control Engines. Chapter 3, Appendix E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Gerald R.

    2009-01-01

    wasn't too big a deal. We really did only make small, red clouds. In all the hundreds of thousands of tests and probably well over one million firings that I was around that place for, in all that thirty-something years, we had a total of one serious injury associated with rocket engine testing and propellants. Because we were trying to figure out what propellants would really be good, we tried all of the fun stuff like the carbon tetrafluoride, chlorine pentafluoride, and pure fluorine. The materials knowledge wasn't all that great at the time. On one test, the fluorine we had didn't react well with the copper they were using for tubing, and it managed to cause another unscheduled disassembly of the facility. It was very serious. It's like one of those Korean War stories. The technician happened to be walking past the test facility when it decided to blow itself up. A piece of copper tubing pierced one cheek and came out the other. That was the only serious accident in all of the engines handled in all those years. Now, we did have a problem with the EPA later because they figured out what the brown clouds were about. We built a whole bunch of exhaust mitigation scrubbers to take care of engine testing in the daytime. In general, we operated the big shuttle (RCS) engine, the 870- pounder at nominal conditions; they scrubbed the effluents pretty well. If you operated that same 870-pound force engine at a level where you get a lot of excess oxidizer, yeah, there s a brown cloud. But, you know, it doesn't show up well in the dark. They did do some of that. But, that s gone; it was addressed one way or another. RELEASED -

  8. The evolution of seismic monitoring systems at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: Chapter 2 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Paul G.; Nakata, Jennifer S.; Koyanagi, Robert Y.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    In the century since the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) put its first seismographs into operation at the edge of Kīlauea Volcano’s summit caldera, seismic monitoring at HVO (now administered by the U.S. Geological Survey [USGS]) has evolved considerably. The HVO seismic network extends across the entire Island of Hawai‘i and is complemented by stations installed and operated by monitoring partners in both the USGS and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The seismic data stream that is available to HVO for its monitoring of volcanic and seismic activity in Hawai‘i, therefore, is built from hundreds of data channels from a diverse collection of instruments that can accurately record the ground motions of earthquakes ranging in magnitude from <1 to ≥8. In this chapter we describe the growth of HVO’s seismic monitoring systems throughout its first hundred years of operation. Although other references provide specific details of the changes in instrumentation and data handling over time, we recount here, in more general terms, the evolution of HVO’s seismic network. We focus not only on equipment but also on interpretative products and results that were enabled by the new instrumentation and by improvements in HVO’s seismic monitoring, analytical, and interpretative capabilities implemented during the past century. As HVO enters its next hundred years of seismological studies, it is well situated to further improve upon insights into seismic and volcanic processes by using contemporary seismological tools.

  9. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  10. A guidebook for the operation and maintenance of HANARO seismic monitoring analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung; Kim, Hyung Kyoo

    2003-09-01

    Systems and structures related to HANARO safety are classified as seismic category I. Since 1995, the seismic monitoring system has been utilized for monitoring an earthquake at the HANARO site. The existing seismic monitoring system consists of field sensors and monitoring panel. The analog-type monitoring system with magnetic tape recorder is out-of-date model. In addition, the disadvantage of the existing system is that it does not include signal-analyzing equipment. Therefore, we have improved the analog seismic monitoring system into a new digital Seismic Monitoring Analysis System(SMAS) that can offer precise and detail information of the earthquake signals. This newly developed SMAS is operating at the HANARO instrument room to acquire and analyze the signal of an earthquake. This document is a guidebook for the operation and maintenance of the SMAS. The first chapter gives an outline of the SMAS. The second chapter describes functional capability and specification of the hardware. Chapters 3 and 4 describe starting procedure of the SMAS and how to operate the seismic monitoring program, respectively. Chapter 5 illustrates the seismic analysis algorithm used in the SMAS. The way of operating the seismic analysis program is described in chapter 6. Chapter 7 illustrates the calibration procedure for data acquisition module. Chapter 8 describes the symptoms of common malfunctions and its countermeasure suited to the occasions.

  11. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  12. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  13. Operations methods waiting line applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this book is to help business practitioners and students expand their knowledge of how waiting line analysis can be used to address situations beyond the simple examples they were presented in basic operations courses. Throughout the book, practical examples are given and worked out to aid in understanding the material presented. Some emphasis is given to the caveats in applying waiting line theory and the importance of being aware of the assumptions used in developing that theory. The first chapters begin with a review of those simple examples and the terminology used for wai

  14. Chapter 5. Assessing the Need for High Impact Technology Research, Development & Deployment for Mitigating Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Auston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is a centrally important component of all strategies to mitigate climate change. As such, it encompasses a multi-dimensional space that is far too large to be fully addressed in this brief chapter. Consequently, we have elected to focus on a subset of topics that we believe have the potential for substantial impact. As researchers, we have also narrowed our focus to address applied research, development and deployment issues and omit basic research topics that have a longer-term impact. This handful of topics also omits technologies that we deem to be relatively mature, such as solar photovoltaics and wind turbines, even though we acknowledge that additional research could further reduce costs and enhance performance. These and other mature technologies such as transportation are discussed in Chapter 6. This report and the related Summit Conference are an outgrowth of the University of California President’s Carbon Neutrality Initiative, and consequently we are strongly motivated by the special demands of this ambitious goal, as we are also motivated by the corresponding goals for the State of California, the nation and the world. The unique feature of the UC Carbon Neutrality Initiative is the quest to achieve zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 at all ten 10 campuses. It should be emphasized that a zero emission target is enormously demanding and requires careful strategic planning to arrive at a mix of technologies, policies, and behavioral measures, as well as highly effective communication – all of which are far more challenging than reducing emissions by some 40% or even 80%. Each campus has a unique set of requirements based on its current energy and emissions. Factors such as a local climate, dependence on cogeneration, access to wholesale electricity markets, and whether a medical school is included shape the specific challenges of the campuses, each of which is a “living laboratory” setting a model for others to

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XVIII, ALTERNATOR AND REGULATOR SERVICING AND TESTING, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTOR REGULATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED AS A REVIEW OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND SERVICING PROCEDURES FOR GENERATORS AND AS AN INTRODUCTION TO TRANSISTOR CONTROLLED VOLTAGE REGULATION FOR GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF GENERATOR PRINCIPLES, AC AND DC, (2) SERVICING AND TESTING ALTERNATORS, AND (3)…

  16. Packaging and transportation manual. Chapter on the packaging and transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes.

  17. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  18. Microbial air-sampling equipment, part 1: meeting United States pharmacopeia chapter 797 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastango, Eric S

    2008-01-01

    The most recent changes to Chapter 797 of the United States Pharmcopeia-National Formulary initiated an intense controversy about the frequency of cleanroom air sampling that is required to prevent the contamination of sterile preparations. For compounders who must purchase an air sampler to use in the cleanroom, choices abound. Included in this article are a review of United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary requirements that pertain to air sampling, a discussion of how recent revision to Chapter 797 affect air sampling and patient safety, and, for easy reference, a table that features specifications for various models of microbial air samplers.

  19. Chapter A10. Lakes and reservoirs: Guidelines for study design and sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William R.; Robertson, Dale M.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2015-09-29

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual, NFM) is an online report with separately published chapters that provides the protocols and guidelines by which U.S. Geological Survey personnel obtain the data used to assess the quality of the Nation’s surface-water and groundwater resources. Chapter 10 reviews limnological principles, describes the characteristics that distinguish lakes from reservoirs, and provides guidance for developing temporal and spatial sampling strategies and data-collection approaches to be used in lake and reservoir environmental investigations.

  20. La construcción de un puente en el siglo XVIII : puente de Neuilly Jean-Rodolphe Perronet = der bau einer brücke im 18. Jahrhundert : die brücke von Neuilly, Jean-Rodolphe Perronet

    OpenAIRE

    León Gonzalez, Francisco Javier; Bauder, Eve; Perronet, Jean-Rodolphe

    1999-01-01

    A comienzos de diciembre de 1996, Javier León, uno de los autores, impartió una conferencia en esta Escuela ante una inesperadamente grande e interesada audiencia de profesores y alumnos de todos los cursos. El tema central de aquella intervención era La construcción de un puente en el siglo XVIII, basado en el trabajo de J.R. Perronet, fundador de la Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées de Paris, precedente inmediato de nuestra Escuela de Caminos y Canales que fundara Agustín de Bediencourt en 1802....

  1. Os “verdadeiros conservadores” do Estado do Maranhão: poder local, redes de clientela e cultura política na Amazônia colonial (primeira metade do século XVIII)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Na primeira metade do século XVIII, duas revoltas sacudiram as capitanias do Pará e do Maranhão. A primeira delas teve como protagonista o procurador das câmaras de São Luís e Belém, Paulo da Silva Nunes que, no espaço de quinze anos, “acumulando documentos e renovando queixas” apresentou um dos mais contundentes esboços de acusações contra os jesuítas, documento esse mais tarde utilizado por Pombal em sua campanha contra os regulares da Companhia. Nessa revolta, discutia-se a legalidade das ...

  2. Pedro Gutiérrez Bueno (1745-1822), los libros de texto y los nuevos públicos de la química en el último tercio del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    El presente trabajo se enmarca en un proyecto de investigación acerca del papel de las prácticas y los conocimientos químicos en la transición de la materia médica a la farmacología experimental. Dentro de ese esquema general, el objeto de este artículo es el estudio de los libros de texto destinados a los estudiantes de medicina y de cirugía durante los años finales del siglo XVIII y la primera mitad del siglo XIX. En un estudio anterior, publicado en esta revista nos ocupamos de establecer ...

  3. Trabajadores, artesanos y trajinantes. La participación indígena en la economía minera del México colonial: Real del Monte en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete G., David

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia la participación de los indígenas en la minería novohispana en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. Para ello se examinan las distintas actividades económicas en las que intervino la población indígena de Real del Monte, un importante centro productor de plata del centro de México en dicha época. Hacen falta estudios sobre los sectores bajos de las sociedades mineras, en particular de la población indígena, comúnmente asociada con la figura de mano de obra no calificad...

  4. El gesto coréutico en la música hispánica de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII: una propuesta de interpretación históricamente informada del fandango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Ruiz Mayordomo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del marco que ofrece este congreso dedicado al fandango, el equipo formado por la coreóloga María José Ruiz Mayordomo y la musicóloga Aurèlia Pessarrodona quiere presentar un estudio de este género desde su gesto, un aspecto prácticamente ausente dentro de los múltiples enfoques de los que ha sido objeto. Nuestra propuesta parte de una metodología transdisciplinar (músicocoréutica y teóricopráctica que analiza la gestualidad de la obra musical misma captada a través del cuerpo danzante ideal de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, estableciendo a su vez un diálogo con el entorno coréutico de la época. Nuestro objetivo en este trabajo es restaurar un fandango de teatro del siglo XVIII. Ante la escasez de testimonios escritos, tomamos como fuentes principales fandangos coréuticos antiguos conservados en la tradición bolera, transmitida de manera ágrafa, oral, visual, corporal y artística, es decir, por aprendizaje directo entre transmisor repetidor y maestro e intérprete. En este caso partimos del baile conocido como Fandango del Siglo XVIII, cuya coreografía encaja perfectamente con la música de un fandango de teatro de finales de siglo XVIII compuesto por Bernardo Álvarez Acero. El análisis de la relación entre gestos musicales y coréuticos de ambas obras proporciona claves para entender estos y otros fandangos musicales de la época. Así pues, esta propuesta pretende acercar a teóricos e intérpretes al fenómeno del fandango de un modo más integral, de cara a restaurar e interpretar estas obras desde un punto de vista coreográfica y coreológicamente informado.

  5. Uma substituição luminosa: tributação e reforma do Antigo Regime português em D. Rodrigo de Souza Coutinho ao final do século XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    AIDAR, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    A fiscalidade constituiria um dos principais eixos do reformismo ilustrado português ao final do século XVIII. Os escritos do estadista D. Rodrigo de Souza Coutinho (1755-1812) apresentam um conjunto rico das ideias de tributação a estabelecerem novas bases de legitimidade para a extração fiscal do excedente econômico dos vassalos reinóis e americanos pelo soberano português. A partir da influência de novas ideias (o liberalismo econômico smithiano e fisiocrata) e de novas práticas do governo...

  6. "No le quieren prestar el respeto y obediencia debida a causa de ser mujer". Cacicas y prácticas judiciales en pleitos de 'pueblos de indios'. Chile Central, fines del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Cerón Sandoval

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene por objetivo relevar el rol de algunas mujeres en los ‘pueblos de indios’ de Chile Central a fines del siglo XVIII. Por medio de un estudio de casos, proponemos un análisis de las prácticas judiciales –o ‘cultura jurídica’– por parte de cacicas e ‘indios’. En estos casos particulares se realza la capacidad que tuvieron estas mujeres para poder defenderse en pleitos que las confrontaba contra sus comunidades o contra los hacendados.

  7. Um tratado de medicina inédito do século XVIII: estudo comparativo com fonte impressa e aspetos de variação na língua do Minho

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Ana João Herdeiro de Brito Alves

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Ciências da Linguagem Neste estudo, damos a conhecer um manuscrito inédito, pertencente ao Arquivo Distrital de Braga. Conforme pudemos apurar, o seu autor – um eclesiástico que assina pelo nome de “Reytor Antonio Dias” – era natural da região do Minho e terá produzido os textos presentes no códice em meados do século XVIII. De entre essa variedade de escritos, escolhemos analisar e editar semidiplomaticamente aquele que denominamos o «Tratado de M...

  8. Analysis of linear partial differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hörmander , Lars

    2005-01-01

    This volume is an expanded version of Chapters III, IV, V and VII of my 1963 book "Linear partial differential operators". In addition there is an entirely new chapter on convolution equations, one on scattering theory, and one on methods from the theory of analytic functions of several complex variables. The latter is somewhat limited in scope though since it seems superfluous to duplicate the monographs by Ehrenpreis and by Palamodov on this subject. The reader is assumed to be familiar with distribution theory as presented in Volume I. Most topics discussed here have in fact been encountered in Volume I in special cases, which should provide the necessary motivation and background for a more systematic and precise exposition. The main technical tool in this volume is the Fourier- Laplace transformation. More powerful methods for the study of operators with variable coefficients will be developed in Volume III. However, constant coefficient theory has given the guidance for all that work. Although the field...

  9. Un documento inédito del siglo XVIII. El padre jesuita Pedro Lozano y su primera carta anua, 1720-1730

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svriz Wucherer, Pedro Miguel Omar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Letters Anuas of the Jesuit Province of Paraguay are very important and historical sources necessary for the reconstruction of the cultural and evangelizing by the Company of Jesus in the territories of the River Plate. For this reason, the editing and analysis of such sources are fundamental tasks in this case we refer to the first letter Anua made by father Lozano and reporting to the father General, resident in Rome, about the context in which they developed their evangelizing work parents of the order. Besides highlighting the image of the author, father Pedro Lozano, the context in which he wrote, the role of these documents, and some of the particularities and topics that exposes the source of the first half of the eighteenth century.Las Cartas Anuas de la Provincia Jesuítica del Paraguay son fuentes históricas muy importantes e indispensables para la reconstrucción de la labor cultural y evangelizadora realizada por la Compañía de Jesús en los territorios del Río de la Plata. Por esta razón, la edición y análisis de este tipo de fuentes son tareas fundamentales, en este caso nos referiremos a la primera Carta Anua que realizó el padre Lozano y que informan al padre General, residente en Roma, acerca del contexto en los cuales desarrollaron su labor evangelizadora los padres de la orden. Además resaltaremos la figura de su autor el padre Pedro Lozano, el contexto en el cual escribió, la función que cumplieron estos documentos, y algunas de las particularidades y tópicos que expone esta fuente de la primera mitad del siglo XVIII.

  10. Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC. The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank. Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.

  11. Tipología de cúpulas tabicadas. Geometría y construcción en la Valencia del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soler-Verdú, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of tile vaults, domes are distinguished by its architectural importance and special features. The proposed constructive typology has been made from a series of tile domes where restoration works have been carried out. This fact has made it possible to define its construction detail and geometry. The results obtained situate them as extremely thin shells, with thickness close to the limits. These are representative of hundreds of domes built in the eighteenth century, focused in the city of Valencia, where experience in building tile vaults is proven since the end of the fourteenth century. However common features make the study applicable over the Hispanic area and in a wide period since the beginnings, in the sixteenth century, to the latest contemporary achievements.En el contexto de las bóvedas tabicadas, destacan las cúpulas por su protagonismo arquitectónico y particularidades constructivas. La propuesta de tipos constructivos, se ha realizado a partir de una serie de cúpulas tabicadas en las que se han llevado a cabo obras de restauración, lo que ha hecho posible conocer su composición constructiva y geometría. Los resultados obtenidos permiten encuadrarlas como cáscaras extremadamente delgadas, con espesores que alcanzan límites difícilmente superables. Son representativas de centenares de cúpulas levantadas en el siglo XVIII, que tienen como epicentro difusor a la ciudad de Valencia, de acreditada experiencia en la construcción de sistemas de abovedamientos tabicados, desde finales del trescientos. No obstante, las características comunes, hacen que el estudio sea de aplicación en un amplio ámbito hispánico y en un dilatado periodo temporal desde su inicio en el siglo XVI hasta las últimas realizaciones contemporáneas.

  12. Organización de corridas de toros en la Nueva España del siglo XVIII y primeros años del XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Hernández, Benjamín

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the bullfights organization in New Spain during the XVIIIth Century, when bullfight had changed to the infantry bullfight. Then, generally, there were two weeks seasons, with four days of bullfight each week, in the morning and in the afternoon. Authorities auctioned the ring, and they organized everything. The collected money was used to pay some public works. During whole century, there were still bullfights to celebrate royal occasions, like coronations, royal marriages and royal births. Some times, there were bullfights in theatres, cockrings and slaughterhouses.

    Se estudia cómo se organizaron las corridas de toros en Nueva España durante el siglo XVIII y los primeros años del XIX, después de que quedó establecido en el virreinato, al igual que en la Península Ibérica, el moderno toreo a pie. Se constata que la forma fundamental de la fiesta brava fue la de temporadas de una o dos semanas de duración, con cuatro días de corrida en cada una, a mañana y tarde. Las autoridades remataban la administración de la plaza, poniendo todo a punto para obtener el mayor éxito. Con los beneficios económicos se costeaban obras públicas, y finalmente los toros llegaron a ser ramo de Real Hacienda. Por lo demás, durante todo ese tiempo siguieron dándose festejos taurinos con motivo de fiestas reales: coronaciones, bodas y nacimientos reales y recibimiento de virreyes, así como en algunas celebraciones de tipo religioso. También hubo lidias informales en rastros, palenques y teatros.

  13. Weapon in houses in Burgos in the eighteenth century. Between functionality and exhibitionism Armas en las casas burgalesas del siglo XVIII. Entre la funcionalidad y el exhibicionismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In domestic interiors in Burgos in the eighteenth century, the post-mortem inventories allow a deep analysis of a rather unknown and disturbing aspect of material culture, the ownership and use of weapons among the urban population of the old Regime. Not all socio-professional and socio-economic categories have access in the same way to firearms or «white» weapons and their availability changes throughout the century. Who owned the weapons? What was their weight on the volume of their fortunes? What accounts for their presence at homes? Personal and domestic protection, professional requirements, exhibitionism in the social hierarchy and ostentation, hunting needs? How much permeability and penetration did weapons know throughout the eighteenth century?En los interiores domésticos del Burgos del siglo XVIII, los inventarios post mortem permiten un análisis intenso de un aspecto bastante desconocido e inquietante de la cultura material, la posesión y usufructo de armas entre la población urbana del Antiguo Régimen. No todas las categorías socioprofesionales y socioeconómicas tenían acceso de la misma manera a las armas de fuego o a las armas «blancas» y su disponibilidad cambia a lo largo de la centuria. ¿Quiénes eran propietarios de armas? ¿Cuál era su peso relativo sobre el volumen de sus fortunas? ¿A qué responde su aparición en las viviendas? ¿Protección personal y doméstica, exigencias profesionales, exhibicionismo en la jerarquía social y boato, necesidad cinegética? ¿Qué grado de permeabilidad y penetración conocieron las armas a lo largo del Setecientos?

  14. La economía espiritual en Antioquia. Las funciones de las capellanías entre los siglos XVII-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marulanda Restrepo Juan Sebastián

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de los documentos de escribanos del período colonial, este trabajo presenta el desarrollo y la influencia de las capellanías en la Provincia de Antioquia durante los siglos XVII y XVIII. Las capellanías fueron instituciones piadosas al servicio de las almas de sus fundadores y beneficiaron a familiares y clérigos allegados. A partir de las inquietudes escatológicas sobre el más allá, las capellanías cumplieron funciones terrenales como la educativa, la rentista y la crediticia, en el marco de una “economía espiritual”, y consolidaron las redes familiares y políticas del poder. Por otra parte, los bienes de las capellanías contribuyeron al crecimiento económico regional a través de la inversión en actividades productivas. The "economía espiritual" in Antioquia. The Functions of Chaplaincies Between 17t h and 18t h CenturiesAbstractThrough the check of affidavits from the colonial period, this work presents the development and the influence of the chaplaincies in Antioquia between 17th and 18th centuries. The chaplaincies were pious institutions that served the souls of its founders and benefited at family priests. From the afterlife beliefs, the chaplaincies had roles in education, income and credit, as part of an "economía espiritual" (spiritual economy, and they strengthed the political and family connections within the power. Furthermore, the chaplaincies contributed to economic growth in Antioquia, with the investment of its goods in profitable activities.

  15. Fundamentos históricos y principios ideológicos del intento de reforma de la censura previa en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva VELASCO MORENO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan los principios ideológicos que inspiraron el proyecto de reforma del sistema de censura previa español, a finales del siglo XVIII. Para ello me centro en el estudio de varios documentos relacionados con la cuestión: por un lado, la propuesta elaborada por el Consejo de Castilla —la llamada Idea— y, por otro, el informe que realizó la Real Academia de la Historia, en contestación a la solicitud de dicho órgano y que se basaba en trece informes de académicos. Dedicaré, no obstante, unas páginas previas a exponer el contexto histórico de clara afirmación regalista que explica, a mi juicio, por qué dicha reforma se planteó en 1770 y no antes o después.ABSTRACT: The main goal of this article is to analyze the ideological principles behind the legal attempts to reform the system of previous censorship in Spain, in 1770. In order to do so I study and use several documents and primary sources related to the issue. On one hand, the so called Idea that is the report that the Consejo de Castilla sent to the Academies asking for a reply and on the other hand, the final report that the Royal Academy of History sent to the Consejo. This report was based on thirteen reports written by the academicians. I also dedicate a section of the article to explain the key historical elements that from my point of view contribute to a better understanding of why the reform was schedule in 1770 and not before of after that year.

  16. El Tribunal de la Inquisición de Valladolid y el control de las ideas en la España del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel de PRADO MOURA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El tribunal inquisitorial de Valladolid, al igual que el resto de los tribunales que formaban el Santo Oficio español, mostró durante el siglo XVIII una especial preocupación por el control de las ideas, particularmente aquellas que quedaban reflejadas en obras manuscritas e impresas. Los inquisidores vallisoletanos se esforzaron para evitar que en su distrito penetraran las obras que tanto éxito estaban teniendo fuera de nuestras fronteras, pero la existencia de una fuerte demanda, probablemente por ubicarse en él las universidades de Valladolid y Salamanca, hizo que la censura no fuera tan eficaz como ellos hubieran querido. Tal como queda reflejado en este artículo, no se impidió, pero sí se dificultó la difusión de libros total o parcialmente prohibidos.ABSTRACT: The Tribunal of the Inquisition of Valladolid —similarly to the rest of the tribunals of the Spanish Holy Office— showed a special concern for the control of ideas, mostly those ideas expressed in manuscript and printed works. The Inquisitors of Valladolid took pains to avoid the entrance of texts that were succesful abroad, but the existence of an important demand —probably due to the foundation of the Universities of Valladolid and Salamanca— decreased the efficiency of the censorship they wanted to impose. This paper intends to show that the reading and commerce of completely or partially forbidden books was not prevented, but it was certainly hindered.

  17. No risco da faca: crimes de honra e justiça privada no termo da Vila da Fortaleza (séc. XVIII-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter de Carvalho Braga Júnior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa, através do estudo de fontes jurídicas e processos criminais do Ceará de finais do século XVIII e início do XIX, compreender a relação entre crimes e justiça privada, dando destaque aos crimes contra a honra. As conexões entre mandantes de crimes e seus agentes ficam evidentes nas fontes. Os Autos de Querella e Denúncia nos permitem visualizar todas as tramas que envolviam homens e mulheres em uma sociedade regida pela violência e onde quem tinha poder e posses tinha a justiça ao seu lado. A morosidade da justiça e a sensação de impunidade reinante levaram muitas pessoa a tomarem a justiça em suas próprias mãos, dando cabo de suas querelas cotidianas de forma violenta. Como forma de coibir a onda de violência e manter o monopólio da aplicação da justiça, o Estado tomou diversas medidas, como o aumento da vigilância sobre os indivíduos, principalmente os vadios, que estava constantemente envolvidos em crimes violentos e agiam sob a tutela de um protetor poderoso. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é entender os processos que tornaram a ação violenta a forma principal de resolução de conflitos no Ceará e como esta banalização da violência se tornou marca característica da identidade cearense.

  18. Aportes de los "intermediarios culturales" en la conformación de los paisajes fronterizos del norte de la patagonia a fines del siglo XVIII

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    Laura Aylén Enrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A fines del siglo XVIII la Corona española envió expedicionarios a reconocer el norte de la Patagonia, un territorio dominado por grupos indígenas pero de importancia estratégica para los hispanocriollos. Los funcionarios del Virreinato del Río de la Plata que llevaron a cabo dichas exploraciones registraron sus impresiones en diarios de viaje que analizamos con el objetivo de examinar los modos en que el paisaje norpatagónico fue construido simbólicamente. Consideramos que dicho paisaje se constituyó en base a las luchas desplegadas tanto por hispanocriollos como por indígenas buscando dar sentido al territorio. Sostenemos que, en este contexto, los personajes que se desempeñaban como intérpretes ejercían un rol fundamental en la configuración del territorio, dada la ambigüedad de su posición de intermediarios en las relaciones interétnicas.By late eighteen century the Spanish Crown sent expedition to recognize north Patagonia, a territory dominated by indigenous groups but also of strategic importance to the Hispanic-Creole population. River Plate Viceroyalty officials in charge of the above-mentioned explorations registered their impressions in travel diaries that are thoroughly analyzed in order to discover the ways this landscape of north Patagonia was symbolically constructed. We think this mestizo landscape was the result of struggles maintained between Hispanic-Creoles and natives searching to convey meaning to the territory. Moreover, we state that in this context, the actors who served as interpreters developed a key role in the territorial configuration, given the ambiguity of their position as intermediaries of interethnic relations.

  19. Administración o asiento. La política estatal de suministros militares en la monarquía española del siglo XVIII

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    Rafael TORRES SÁNCHEZ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los supuestos más utilizados para comprender la construcción del Estado ha sido resolver la pregunta de cómo el Estado resolvió la necesidad de movilizar recursos para la guerra: por administración o por asiento. Así, desde Thompson, se ha relacionado la decadencia del Estado de los Austrias con el tránsito de un sistema de administración a otro de asiento, del mismo modo que el fortalecimiento del Estado de los Borbones se ha vinculado a un mayor protagonismo de la administración frente a los asientos. Nuestro objetivo en este artículo es valorar la realidad histórica de este planteamiento. A partir de los estudios realizados para el siglo XvIII, concluimos que el recurso del Estado de los Borbones a los asientos estuvo más vigente de lo que tradicionalmente se ha pensado. los casos de suministros analizados muestran que no hubo ninguna evolución lineal en ningún sentido; más bien lo que aparece es una continua fluctuación entre métodos. La razón de este comportamiento es que los límites entre asientos y administración eran menores de lo que se ha sostenido y, sobre todo, que no obstaculizó el fortalecimiento del Estado y el ejercicio de su autoridad.

  20. A TRAVÉS DE LOS ANDES. ESTRATEGIAS SOCIALES Y REDES DE PODER ENTRE CÓRDOBA Y HUANCAVELICA EN EL SIGLO XVIII

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    Mar\\u00EDa Victoria M\\u00E1rquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se indaga en la participación y los usos de los espacios burocráticos y administrativos por parte de la élite colonial en el siglo XVIII. Para ello se aborda el caso de una familia de grandes tratantes del comercio interregional- los Mendiolaza- cuyos intereses se asentaron en diversos puntos de la región andina. Así se propone una mirada comparativa sobre las estrategias de un mismo entramado social o red de relaciones. El artículo hace foco en dos lugares, Córdoba y Huancavelica, en tanto se trata de ámbitos nucleares en la actividad de esta familia, pero también, de regiones contrastantes cuyas realidades escasamente podrían paragonarse: Córdoba una jurisdicción de frontera, dedicada mayormente a la ganadería mular y ubicada lejos de los principales centros del poder colonial; Huancavelica, una ciudad minera, bajo jurisdicción real por ser la única zona productora de mercurio americano y sometida a la influencia y los intereses de la corte virreinal de Lima. Se constata el establecimiento de alianzas matrimoniales, compadrazgos y amistades que configuraron estrategias de poder tan eficaces como el ejercicio mismo de un oficio en la administración colonial. Asimismo se establece, para el caso específico abordado, que el apoyo sistemático a las controvertidas medidas borbónicas- y a sus funcionarios- fue un aspecto esencial para su propia consolidación, dentro de los espacios de poder locales en los que se avecindaron.

  1. Repoblación y expansión económica en la frontera dominicana. El desarrollo de Azua en el siglo XVIII

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    Hernández González, Manuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In mid-17th Century the Dominican frontier region was practically empty, Azua being the only surviving inhabited place after the depopulation of the territory. The situation changed through the colonization process that took place during the first half of the 18th Century, by means of which two new villas were established: San Juan de la Maguana and Neiba. Our study aims at demonstrating that the Governmental mercantilistic doctrine had no influence in the Dominican frontier. There existed a tacit alliance of military people from the Capital city, internally united by blood relations, the General Captains, and the elites of the frontier towns.

    La región fronteriza dominicana era, a mediados del siglo XVII, un territorio prácticamente vacío con Azua como única localidad superviviente a la despoblación de su territorio. El panorama se modificó en la primera mitad del siglo XVIII con su colonización, de la que derivó, ya desde la década de los 30, la formación dentro de su jurisdicción de dos nuevas villas: San Juan de la Maguana y Neiba. Nuestro estudio pretende demostrar que la doctrina mercantilista gubernamental no funcionó en la frontera dominicana, sino que existió una alianza tácita entre los militares capitalinos, unidos por dilatadas relaciones de consanguinidad con los capitanes generales y las elites de los pueblos fronterizos.

  2. La "Frontera" Bonaerense en el siglo XVIII un espacio políticamente concertado: fuertes, vecinos, milicias y autoridades civiles-militares

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    Eugenia Alicia Néspolo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work's objective is to argue that the bonaerense border is defined as a politically concerted space. For this we analyse the defensive actions practiced to determine that the material building resources and the military effectives were insufficient to protect the region. By the contrary, its shown that the militia service was essential to protect the space and was constitutive of vicinity conditions that made possible that some militia-neighbours could have access to authority. Local powers that were on movement from the urban space, the Lujan village, to the border areas. To argue this we show the knowledge from the militia service and the defensive structure -web- that was organized in the jurisdiction of Buenos Aires during the first half of XVIIIth century.El trabajo se propone argumentar porqué se define la frontera bonaerense como un espacio políticamente concertado. Para esto se analizan las acciones defensivas practicadas, para determinar que los recursos materiales constructivos y los efectivos militares de carrera fueron insuficientes para proteger la región. Por el contrario, se demuestra que el servicio en las milicias resultó esencial para proteger el espacio y resultó constituyente de condiciones de vecindad que posibilitaron que algunos vecinos-milicianos pudieran acceder a instancias de autoridad. Poderes locales que se desplazaban desde el ámbito urbano, la villa de Luján, a la campaña, espacios de frontera. Para argumentar esto se exponen los conocimientos arribados sobre el servicio miliciano y la estructura -red- defensiva que se organizó en la jurisdicción de Buenos Aires durante la primera mitad del siglo XVIII.

  3. Campaign Planning for Peace Enforcement Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-17

    Security Council shall duly take account of failure to comply with such provisional measures . Article 41 The Security Council may decide what measures not...Disputes," gives the Security Council broad measures in which to encourage a peaceful settlement. 10 This chapter is the basis for UN PK operations...has been used independently (Libya, in 1986), and as a means to avoid the commitment of ground troops (Bosnia). This has its advntages , but one must

  4. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir

    1991-01-01

    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  5. Operational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Boehme, Thomas K

    1987-01-01

    Operational Calculus, Volume II is a methodical presentation of operational calculus. An outline of the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients is presented. Integral operational calculus and advanced topics in operational calculus, including locally integrable functions and convergence in the space of operators, are also discussed. Formulas and tables are included.Comprised of four sections, this volume begins with a discussion on the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients, focusing on such topics as homogeneous and non-ho

  6. Chapter 9.5: Electromagnetic induction to manage cattle feedlot waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter summarizes results of waste management research that utilized electromagnetic induction (EMI) tools for the purposes of: 1) collection of solid waste from feedlot surfaces to be utilized by crops 2) control and utilization of nutrient laden liquid runoff, and 3) feedlot surface man...

  7. The Missing Psychological Behaviorism Chapter in "A History of the Behavioral Therapies."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    "A History of the Behavioral Therapies" (O'Donohue, et al., 2001) contains no description of psychological behaviorism (PB) and the role it played as one of the foundations of behavior therapy. This article indicates some of the contributions made by PB that make the missing chapter and related phenomena a major aberration in science. (Contains 39…

  8. Synthesis Gas Demonstration Plant, Baskett, Kentucky: environmental report. [Contains chapter 4 and appendix 4A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains chapter 4 and Appendix 4A which include descriptions of use of adjacent land and water (within miles of the proposed site), baseline ecology, air quality, meteorology, noise, hydrology, water quality, geology, soils and socio-economic factors. Appendix 4A includes detailed ecological surveys made in the area including the methods used. (LTN)

  9. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  10. Chapter 3: Omics Advances of Biosynthetic Pathways of Isoprenoid Production in Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua-Michel, J.; Subramanian, Venkataramanan

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, the current status of microalgal isoprenoids and the role of omics technologies, or otherwise specified, in bioproducts optimization and applications are reviewed. Emphasis is focused in the metabolic pathways of microalgae involved in the production of commercially important products, namely, hydrocarbons and biofuels, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals.

  11. Mathematics Problem Solving: A More Advanced Skill for Chapter 1. Workshop Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Indianapolis, IN.

    This guide is designed to assist inservice providers in conducting successful workshops for teachers, administrators, and others associated with Chapter 1 mathematics programs. It contains step-by-step procedures for preparing, organizing, and presenting the workshop. Included in this guide are: (1) an advanced planner, which includes a detailed…

  12. Chapter 6: Ecotoxicology, Environmental Risk Assessment & Potential Impact on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter examines potential risks posed by pharmaceuticals present in the aquatic environment to humans and aquatic life. We begin by describing the mechanisms by which pharmaceuticals enter the vertebrate body, produce effects and leave the body. Then we describe theoretical...

  13. 15 CFR Appendix A to Chapter Xx - Administration of the Trade Agreements Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... President as to which countries should be designated as beneficiary developing countries, and as to which... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration of the Trade Agreements Program A Appendix A to Chapter XX Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign...

  14. Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. Chapter Twelve, Revised. Audiovisual Media and Special Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

    Chapter 12 of the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules has been revised to provide rules for works in the principal audiovisual media (motion pictures, filmstrips, videorecordings, slides, and transparencies) as well as instructional aids (charts, dioramas, flash cards, games, kits, microscope slides, models, and realia). The rules for main and added…

  15. Nuclear metallurgy lectures. Chapter 9, Fabrication and heat treatment of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riches, J.W.

    1955-05-12

    This chapter presents the highlights of the fabrication and heat treatment of uranium with emphasis on HAPO type core material. For pile use three properties of uranium are of prime interest; grain size, type and degree of preferred orientation, and the mechanical properties.

  16. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, J.L.; et al.

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 1 contains the Executive Summary and the summaries of the reports of the nine working groups.

  17. Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1--Background principles and methods of molecular biology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this first chapter of the series "Teaching molecular genetics," an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide (pr

  18. Classification of End-of-Chapter Questions in Senior School Chemistry Textbooks Used in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upahi, Johnson Enero; Jimoh, Mutaheer

    2016-01-01

    Textbooks are a prominent part of science teaching and learning. For science teachers and students, textbooks are the major source of information for planning and classroom practice. In addition to the content of textbooks, are end-of-chapter questions that should consolidate students learning and enhance their thinking processes. Therefore, this…

  19. Focus on Chapter 1. Focused Access to Selected Topics (FAST) Bib No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Jerry; VanLeirsburg, Peggy

    Presenting information for the improvement of instruction and services to at-risk students from elementary through beginning college levels, this ERIC "FAST Bib" focuses on recent research and strategies for Chapter 1, a federally funded program serving at-risk students since 1965. The FAST Bib presents 25 annotations of ERIC documents…

  20. Implementation of the Takeover Bids Directive in the Netherlands : Chapter 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; van Het Kaar, R.H.; Cremers, Jan; Vitols, Sigurt

    2016-01-01

    Chapter dedicated to the Dutch implementation of EU Takeover Bids Directive. The case is particularly interesting because of the strong position of works councils within Dutch companies, including in restructuring situations. Implementation of the Takeover Bids Directive in the Netherlands did not l