WorldWideScience

Sample records for chapter vi discusses

  1. On reforming chapter VI of the Euratom Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandtner, W.

    1984-01-01

    The supply of uranium to the countries of the EC has been provided for in Chapter VI of the European Treaty. An Euratom Supply Agency was created, which enjoys a monopoly. However, this arrangement was hardly ever utilized in practice. For this reason, several attempts were made in the course of time to reform Chapter VI, most recently in 1979 on the initiative of France. The EC Commission now presented a ''new nuclear power strategy'' in early 1982, which was followed by a detailed report about the proposed changes in late 1982. Its main points as outlined and discussed in this article are these: defining the range of application; the unity of the market; international relations; solidarity measures; the future role of the Supply Agency. (orig.) [de

  2. Irradiation capsules VISA-2a-f, chapter VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicevic, M.

    1962-01-01

    Irradiation capsules VISA-2a, b,c,d, and e were constructed in Saclay according to the drawings from Vinca and according to the demand of the experimentators. This chapter VI includes documentation for each type of capsule, review about each experiment within the VISA-2 project, the objective and purpose of the experiment as well as experimental device. Irradiation capsule VISA-2f was placed in the RA reactor core in September 1962. It was completely manufactured in Vinca including sample holders and leak tight shells. It will remain in the reactor core for about month in order to obtain the integral fast neutron flux [sr

  3. CHAPTER VI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHIMEREZE

    No doubt this ... Only when answers to these and other questions have been sought and found ... resolve this problem by incorporating African forms into his paintings. ... traditional and modern Nigerian art, Enwonwu‟s actions helped to chart the .... 1. JULY, 2012. 5 which literally means „great artist‟ and it is more of title ...

  4. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter VI: maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, Ken; Iida, Hiromasa; Honda, Tsutomu

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapter VI of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. In this report, we have compared two different reactor concepts, one is based on the personnel access concept where the personnel access is possible to the outside of the torus for maintenance one day after shutdown and the other where the personnel access is not necessary and maintenance is performed in full-remote manner. The results are described from various view points such as reactor configuration, tritium confinement, safety, shielding, maintenance scenario and cost. Data base assessments of maintenance equipment are also reported. (author)

  5. 2014 Annual Report of Chapter VI of the Staff Rules and Regulations (Settlement of disputes and discipline) - HR Department

    CERN Document Server

    Barbin, Lucie; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Annual Report under Chapter VI ("Settlement of Disputes and Discipline") of the Staff Rules and Regulations (SRR) serves to report cases of submission of requests for review, internal appeals, complaints with the ILOAT, and cases in which disciplinary action was taken.

  6. 2012 Annual Report of Chapter VI of the Staff Rules and Regulations (Settlement of disputes and discipline) - HR Department

    CERN Document Server

    Schepens, A; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    1013-01-01

    The 2012 Annual Report under Chapter VI (“Settlement of Disputes and Discipline”) of the Staff Rules and Regulations (SRR) serves to report cases of submission of requests for review, internal appeals, appeals to the ILOAT, and cases in which disciplinary action was taken.

  7. 2015 Annual Report of Chapter VI of the Staff Rules and Regulations (Settlement of disputes and discipline) - HR Department

    CERN Document Server

    Lalande, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Annual Report under Chapter VI (“Settlement of Disputes and Discipline”) of the Staff Rules and Regulations serves to report cases of submission of requests for review; internal appeals; complaints before the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization (ILOAT); and cases in which disciplinary action was taken.

  8. 2016 Annual Report of Chapter VI of the Staff Rules and Regulations (Settlement of disputes and discipline) - HR Department

    CERN Document Server

    Lalande, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 Annual Report under Chapter VI (“Settlement of Disputes and Discipline”) of the Staff Rules and Regulations serves to report cases of submission of requests for review; internal appeals; complaints before the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization (ILOAT); and cases in which disciplinary action was taken.

  9. 2011 Annual Report of Chapter VI of the Staff Rules and Regulations (Settlement of disputes and discipline) - HR Department

    CERN Document Server

    Schepens, A; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Annual Report under Chapter VI (“Settlement of Disputes and Discipline”) of the Staff Rules and Regulations (SRR) serves to report cases of submission of requests for review, internal appeals, appeals to the ILOAT, and cases in which disciplinary action was taken.

  10. A Comparison of Preschool Children's Discussions with Parents during Picture Book and Chapter Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Rowe, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Discussions that occur during book reading between parents and preschool children relate to children's language development, especially discussions during picture books that include extended discourse, a form of abstract language. While a recent report shows increased chapter book reading among families with preschool children, it is unknown…

  11. Technical realisation of the VISA-II Project, Phase II, Chapter X, Vol. VI; Tehnicka realizacija projekta VISA-II, II faza, Glava X, Album VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M; Nikolic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-01-15

    The second phase of the 'Project VISA-2 described in this chapter of Vol. VI includes the project specifications and technical drawings of the 'measuring system of VISA-2 for testing the VISA-2 channels outside and in the reactor'. In addition to the task objective, description of the measuring system, action plan, description of the work done it contains the definition of the task 'Leak testing' and instructions for the instrumentation personnel on duty. [Serbo-Croat] Druga faza zadatka {sup T}ehnicka realizacija projekta VISA-2' opisana u ovom poglavlju Albuma VI, sadrzi tehnicki opis i crteze 'Mernog sistema VISA-2 i ispitivanje kanala VISA-2 van reaktora i u reaktoru'. Pored definicije zadatka, opisa mernog sistema VISA-2, razrade zadatka, tekstualnog dela projekta i opisa izvedenih radova, ovo poglavlje obuhvata definiciju i razradu podzadatka 'Ispitivanje hermeticnosti' i dodatak sa instrukcijama za dezurne instrumentatore u vezi eksperimenta VISA-2.

  12. Academic style and format of doctoral theses: The case of the disappearing discussion chapter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Hewitt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes work carried out within the sphere of analysis of university academic discourse that possibly contains an intercultural comparative element. A hypothesis was put forward that when Spanish doctoral students crafted their theses, they would pass over the Discussion chapter and progress directly on to the Conclusions. The propensity for Spanish doctoral students to miss out discussion of the results in their doctoral theses was noticed by the first author, while supervising her own doctoral students’ empirical Ph.D. theses in the field of English Studies in Spain. It was thought that this oversight may indicate intercultural variation in the preferences of format for different writing cultures. The initial corpus consisted of sixteen theses from the field of English Studies. At a second stage, an additional corpus of thirty-nine theses in the field of Spanish Studies was included. Both corpora had been defended in these two areas in Spanish universities over the last 10 years and were full-text theses from a Spanish national data base: Dialnet. The results confirmed the hypothesis in both corpora with students in Spanish universities. Nevertheless, curiously, a number of further intervening variables were also found to be essential. For the theses from the area of Spanish Studies less divergence was encountered but, on the other hand, evidence was found that may even point to a lingering influence of national or educational rhetoric.

  13. Chapter 27 -- Breast Cancer Genomics, Section VI, Pathology and Biological Markers of Invasive Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spellman, Paul T.; Heiser, Laura; Gray, Joe W.

    2009-06-18

    reveal the molecular differences between cancer and normal that may be exploited to therapeutic benefit or that provide targets for molecular assays that may enable early cancer detection, and predict individual disease progression or response to treatment. This chapter reviews current and future directions in genome analysis and summarizes studies that provide insights into breast cancer pathophysiology or that suggest strategies to improve breast cancer management.

  14. Chapter 3: detailed discussion on the site selection criteria; Capitulo 3: discussao detalhada dos criterios de selecao de sitio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atala, Drausio Lima

    2009-07-01

    This chapter discusses full detail each selection criterion and their application. A certain degree of 'customization' can be necessary for each region of interest. Some criteria can be applied depending upon the situation. Some of those criteria can be modified due to the modification on the regulation, advances of the knowledge or specific conditions which can be introduced.

  15. Comments on OECD discussion draft on revisions to Chapter I of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Irene; van Herwaarden, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    These comments provide recommendations for improved transfer pricing guidance and were submitted in response to an invitation by the OECD to interested parties to submit written comments on a discussion draft regarding the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines

  16. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions

  17. On the modernist elements of ‘Ithaca’ chapter in Joyce’s Ulysses: Engaging students in class discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohollah Datli Beigi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   James Joyce's Ulysses is one of the hall-marks of modernism in the realm of the novel. In this novel, Joyce breaks away from old patterns, employs new techniques, and presents the modern state of man as well as his soul-lacking indeterminate communication with others. Freud's theories on the unique and private quality of man's mode of consciousness and the meddling of the past with present, stressed the twentieth-century man's ill-condition and his position among his fellow beings. Joyce portrays the modern man in his favorite chapter, ‘Ithaca,’ which has certain features that make the narrative structure in complete step with Joyce's themes regarding the modern man. This paper is an attempt to show how the human race is perceived by Joyce, revealing how the employed elements depict a modern picture of the modern man. This chapter contains many questions and answers that can be discussed in class and students can be engaged in novel-based dialogues and class discussion as an EFL practice.

  18. Manual of Procedures for Applying for Funding under Title VI, Part B--Education of the Handicapped Act. P.L. 91-230 as Amended by P.L. 93-320, P.L. 94-142 and P.L. 99-457. EHA, Title VI, Part B--Third Year of a Three-Year Plan, 1988-89. ECIA, Chapter 1, Handicapped Preschool Grant Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.

    The manual presents procedures for local school districts in North Carolina applying for federal funding under Title VI, Part B, Education of the Handicapped Act, as amended by Public Laws 93-320, 94-142, and 99-457. The first chapter gives instructions for submission of amendments for the third year of the 3-year plan and includes an introduction…

  19. Addition to chapter VI b (p. 2011)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1972-01-01

    Botanic Garden at the University of Malaya. A plan was submitted by Professor W.R. Stanton, head of the Botany Division, University of Malaya, K.L., to establish a new botanic garden of some 100 acres as a teaching facility and for the benefit of biological education institutes and the general

  20. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Chapter 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M. O. [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    In Chapter 14, the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance were presented, along with an introduction to image forming processes. In this chapter, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be reviewed, beginning with the hardware needed and its impact on image quality. The acquisition processes and image reconstruction will be discussed, as well as the artefacts that are possible, with discussion of the important area of safety and bioeffects completing the chapter.

  2. Forestry [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Gyde Lund; William A. Befort; James E. Brickell; William M. Ciesla; Elizabeth C. Collins; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Attilio Antonio Disperati; Robert W. Douglass; Charles W. Dull; Jerry D. Greer; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Vernon J. LaBau; Henry Lachowski; Peter A. Murtha; David J. Nowak; Marc A. Roberts; Pierre Schram; Mahadev D. Shedha; Ashbindu Singh; Kenneth C. Winterberger

    1997-01-01

    Foresters and other resource managers have used aerial photographs to help manage resources since the late 1920s. As discussed in chapter 1, however, it was not until the mid-1940s that their use became common. Obtaining photographic coverage was always a problem. For many areas of the world, reasonably complete coverage did not exist until after World War II. In...

  3. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  4. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmatz Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine, severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally ARSB gene, located in chromosome 5 (5q13-5q14. Over 130 ARSB mutations have been reported, causing absent or reduced arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase activity and interrupted dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate degradation. Diagnosis generally requires evidence of clinical phenotype, arylsulfatase B enzyme activity ®, clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided.

  5. 76 FR 60593 - Title VI; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ..., several of them related to ambiguous language in the existing Circular. The proposed Circular reorganizes... regional entity, and inclusive of public and private entities. This term is used exclusively in Chapter IV... revisions to the Title VI Circular. The section that addresses the existing requirement for a Language...

  6. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerts, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental set-up for molecular beam electric resonance (MBER) spectroscopy has been described. The production of a strong suitable molecular beam especially of a series of short-living free radicals is discussed

  7. Water resources (Chapter 5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available and relationships that inform the association between geology, shale gas and groundwater that is discussed in this Chapter. The mudstones and sandstones of the Adelaide Subgroup at the base of the Beaufort Group succession of sedimentary strata represent... migration to surface. The sedimentary rocks of the Ecca Group cover a further ~6% of the study area. In agreement with Rosewarne et al. (2013), who recognise a western, a central and an eastern subarea; this study recognises an additional southern subarea...

  8. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    It also recommends appropriate interventions in order to address the problem and discuss the implications of these findings for prevention and control programmes. The study was approved by the University of Ibadan/University. College Hospital Ethics Review Committee. This study was aimed to address the following: one,.

  9. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. Menopausal experiences and perceptions of menopausal women in Ibadan South East Local Government Area were determined. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select the LGA, wards, and participants for the study. Eight Focus Group. Discussions (FGDs) were conducted and a validated ...

  10. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, D. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Collins, L. T. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Le Heron, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility.

  11. Chapter 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    For the Aarhus School of Architecture contribution to this book on creativity, we have decided to focus on the role of the workplace. It has been striking after attending several of the Practice Research Symposia organised by ADAPT-r how often creative practice researchers examine the spatial...... organisation of their offices or workshops to form a better understanding of their practice. This has led us to investigate and discuss how the spatial context of creative practices shapes – and is shaped by – design processes. We have asked ourselves about what role the broader spatial and cultural context...

  12. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; VIth nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; Neuropathy - sixth nerve ... Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. This nerve is also called the abducens nerve. ...

  13. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  14. Infrared and millimeter waves v.15 millimeter components and techniques, pt.VI

    CERN Document Server

    Button, Kenneth J

    1986-01-01

    Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Volume 15: Millimeter Components and Techniques, Part VI is concerned with millimeter-wave guided propagation and integrated circuits. This book covers low-noise receiver technology for near-millimeter wavelengths; dielectric image-line antennas; EHF satellite communications (SATCOM) terminal antennas; and semiconductor antennas for millimeter-wave integrated circuits. A scanning airborne radiometer for 30 and 90 GHz and a self-oscillating mixer are also described. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the design of low-n

  15. Tourette Association Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com Arizona Email: info@tsa-az.org Website: http://tsa-az.org/ Arkansas Support Group of Northwest ... California/Hawaii Chapter Email: cbrackett2004@yahoo.com Website: http://www.tsanorcal-hawaii.org Southern California Chapter Phone: ...

  16. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  17. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  18. Learning the vi and Vim Editor

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold; Hannah, Elbert

    2008-01-01

    There's nothing that hard-core Unix and Linux users are more fanatical about than their text editor. Editors are the subject of adoration and worship, or of scorn and ridicule, depending upon whether the topic of discussion is your editor or someone else's. vi has been the standard editor for close to 30 years. Popular on Unix and Linux, it has a growing following on Windows systems, too. Most experienced system administrators cite vi as their tool of choice. And since 1986, this book has been the guide for vi. However, Unix systems are not what they were 30 years ago, and neither is this

  19. Chapter 8: Youth Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...... their phones as indispensable to managing their social lives. Stald observes that while being connected all the time gives youth a sense of freedom, control and autonomy, their increasing access to mobile phones is a cause anytime, anywhere access to one another is now possible with mobile phones, time...

  20. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  1. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  2. Chapter 27. Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, O.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter author deals with superconductors and superconductivity. Different chemical materials used as high-temperature superconductors are presented. Some applications of superconductivity are presented.

  3. Vi, de civiliserede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?......Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?...

  4. The Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Finnell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article discusses the creation, philosophy, and future directions of the Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter, a grassroots crowdfunding initiative incubated within Library Pipeline.

  5. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Matej, S. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process.

  6. Chapter 9: Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  7. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  8. Summary discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs

  9. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  10. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  11. Panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  12. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  13. Nursery management [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    This handbook provides an overview of the factors that go into starting and operating a native plant nursery. Management includes all aspects of working with plants in all their phases of growth as described in Chapter 3, Crop Planning and Developing Propagation Protocols. Management also includes working with the community; organizing materials and infrastructure;...

  14. Chapter 8. Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman L. McDonald; Christina D. Vojta; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest barrier between monitoring and management is data analysis. Data languish in drawers and spreadsheets because those who collect or maintain monitoring data lack training in how to effectively summarize and analyze their findings. This chapter serves as a first step to surmounting that barrier by empowering any monitoring team with the basic...

  15. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  16. Chapter 5: Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 5 presents the 1) initial training; 2) periodic training, which includes: a) periodic training for employees at lower levels of the hierarchy than that of the operator; b) period training for operators; 3) operator training; 4) record of training; 5) safety culture.

  17. Chapter 0: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter deals with the background (Gabcikovo hydro power scheme was input in October 1992), project objective, project framework, equipment, establishment of the integrated modelling system, model setup, calibration and validation, definitions of scenarios for model application and with the results of model applications

  18. Chapter 6: Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.

  19. Discussion Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    , time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present......Much research has focused on studying complex phenomena through their reflection in social media, from drawing neighborhood boundaries to inferring relationships between medicines and diseases. While it is generally recognized in the social sciences that such studies should be conditioned on gender...... a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context...

  20. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay......-out to fill in their particular results. Thus it is possible to compare the performances measured, calculated or predicted for the different houses....

  1. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  2. Research progress in the electrochemical synthesis of ferrate(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macova, Zuzana; Bouzek, Karel; Hives, Jan; Sharma, Virender K.; Terryn, Raymond J.; Baum, J. Clayton

    2009-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the +6 oxidation state of iron, ferrate (VI) (Fe VI O 4 2- ), because of its potential as a benign oxidant for organic synthesis, as a chemical in developing cleaner ('greener') technology for remediation processes, and as an alternative for environment-friendly battery cathodes. This interest has led many researchers to focus their attention on the synthesis of ferrate(VI). Of the three synthesis methods, electrochemical, wet chemical and thermal, electrochemical synthesis has received the most attention due to its ease and the high purity of the product. Moreover, electrochemical processes use an electron as a so-called clean chemical, thus avoiding the use of any harmful chemicals to oxidize iron to the +6 oxidation state. This paper reviews the development of electrochemical methods to synthesize ferrate(VI). The approaches chosen by different laboratories to overcome some of the difficulties associated with the electrochemical synthesis of ferrate(VI) are summarized. Special attention is paid to parameters such as temperature, anolyte, and anode material composition. Spectroscopic work to understand the mechanism of ferrate(VI) synthesis is included. Recent advances in two new approaches, the use of an inert electrode and molten hydroxide salts, in the synthesis of ferrate(VI) are also reviewed. Progress made in the commercialization of ferrate(VI) continuous production is briefly discussed as well

  3. ASFMRA Chapter Strategic Planning: Iowa Chapter Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trede, Larry

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the strategic planning process used by the Iowa Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers to develop a new vision, mission statement, and chapter objectives. Procedures included the use of a focus group and a quantitative survey. The results indicated a strong need for chapter member continuing education, a chapter member services program, and a strong outreach/public relations program. As a result of the strategic planning process, a new chap...

  4. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  5. Summary and conclusions [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L.. Medina

    2012-01-01

    Summaries and conclusions of each chapter are compiled here to provide a “Quick Reference” guide of major results and recommendations for the UVR. More detail can be obtained from individual chapters.

  6. Summary and discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, J; Luyten, H.; van Ravens, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter the input-process-outcomes-context framework, introduced in Chapter 1 is used for categorising and describing input indicators, process indicators, outcome indicators and context indicators. The chapter starts out with a review and further illustration of this framework and follows

  7. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  8. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  9. The status of ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussin, R.; Dunford, C.; McKnight, R.; Young, P.

    1988-01-01

    A new version of the United States evaluated nuclear data file, ENDF/B-VI, is presently under development. Major emphasis is being placed on correcting some long-standing nuclear data problems that adversely affect applied calculations for both fission and fusion reactors. The paper reviews modifications to the formats and utility codes, outlines the evaluation activities, discusses the data testing programs, and projects a date for the unrestricted release of the new library. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Quality Management. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiles, P. A. [Glan Clwyd Hospital, Bodelwyddan (United Kingdom); McLean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Christofides, S. [New Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2014-09-15

    This chapter introduces the principles and definitions of quality management systems (QMSs) for radiology facilities, to give a framework to assist in the setting up of such systems and to emphasize the role of the medical physicist in this context. While there is a diversity of terms currently in use to describe quality processes both generally and specifically within radiology, there is broad agreement that the effective management of radiation medicine services demands a quality culture that includes a systematic approach to the elements that govern the delivery of that service. Therefore, the concept of quality assurance (QA) within the radiological facility covers, in its widest sense, all those factors that affect the intended outcome, that is, a clinical diagnosis. The medical physicist has an important role in the overall QMS, especially, but not exclusively, with respect to the equipment performance. A worked example of a quality control (QC) programme is included at the end of the chapter, to demonstrate the depth of detail and involvement of the medical physicist.

  11. Extraction of uranium (VI) sulphate complexes by Adogen amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elyamani, I S; Abd Elmessieh, E N [Nuclear chemistry department, hot laboratories center, atomic energy authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The distribution of U(VI) between aqueous H{sub 2} So{sub 4} solutions and organic phases of adogen-368 has been described. The dependence of extraction on acidity, diluent type, metal and extractant concentrations was investigated. The possible extraction mechanism is discussed in the light of results obtained. The separation of U(VI) from rare earths is suggested. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-09-15

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  13. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  14. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  15. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  16. Chapter 6: Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hauer, F. Richard; F. Richard Hauer,; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Stream temperature has direct and indirect effects on stream ecology and is critical in determining both abiotic and biotic system responses across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Temperature variation is primarily driven by solar radiation, while landscape topography, geology, and stream reach scale ecosystem processes contribute to local variability. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in freshwater ecosystems influences habitat distributions, physiological functions, and phenology of all aquatic organisms. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods for monitoring stream temperature, characterization of thermal profiles, and modeling approaches to stream temperature prediction. Recent advances in temperature monitoring allow for more comprehensive studies of the underlying processes influencing annual variation of temperatures and how thermal variability may impact aquatic organisms at individual, population, and community based scales. Likewise, the development of spatially explicit predictive models provide a framework for simulating natural and anthropogenic effects on thermal regimes which is integral for sustainable management of freshwater systems.

  17. Chapter 15. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter used abbreviations and radiation safety of NPPs in Slovak Republic are presented. Results of monitoring of NPP Bohunice V-1 and V-2 as well as NPP Mochovce are presented. A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic in 2000 is presented. The collective dose is one of the fundamental indicators to assess the level of nuclear safety and safety culture. This is the total dose of both external and internal exposure of the whole of the body measured with a personal dosimeter and a calculated internal exposure over a certain period of time. Measured doses to the utility personnel, the staff of supplier organisations and official working visits are included

  18. Chapter 2: Optical Properties of the Water Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, D. A.; Collins, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    In this chapter, and in chapter 29, the basic inter-relationship between the flux of radiant energy through the water column and the fixation of carbon by the phytoplankton in the ocean through processes of photosynthesis or primary production will be discussed.

  19. The crystal chemistry of novel thorium and uranium compounds with oxo-anions from group VI of periodic table (S, Se, Te, Cr, Mo and W)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Bin

    2016-01-26

    This dissertation focus on the synthesis, phase studies and physicochemical properties of novel thorium and uranium compounds with the Group VI (S, Se, Te, Cr, Mo, W) of the Periodic Table. All the studied compounds are listed in Table 2.2 from the page 15. I subdivided all the newly synthesized compounds into several chapters according to their structural and topological differences. First, for thorium molybdates and tungstates, almost all of these compounds are based on corner-sharing of ThO{sub x} (x = 6, 8 and 9) and MoO{sub 4} or WO{sub x} (x = 4, 5, 6) polyhedra. Interestingly, all these compounds can be seen as derived from a pure thorium molybdate compound (ThMo{sub 2}O{sub 8}) which was isolated from high-temperature solid-state synthesis method. Therefore, the polymorphs of this most basic ThMo{sub 2}O{sub 8} compound is firstly introduced (see Chapter 3.1 from page 18). The thermodynamic, electronic and vibrational properties of all investigated ThMo{sub 2}O{sub 8} polymorphs were studied using ab initio calculations. Then, two subfamilies of thorium molybdates, that is, rubidium thorium molybdate and cesium thorium molybdate and their thermal and vibrational behaviors were discussed in details in Chapter 4.1 from page 37 and Chapter 4.2 from page 50, respectively. Moreover, some new insights about the complexity of thorium tungstates were also discussed (Chapter 4.3 from page 59). Some novel thorium molybdate and chromate compounds synthesized from aqueous condition are discussed in Chapter 5 from page 71. In the Chapter 8.2.4, the stereochemistry for thorium and uranium compounds are introduced, especially thorium selinites and uranyl tellurites (see Chapter 6.1 from page 82), thorium tellurites (Chapter 6.2 from page 93), and uranyl tellurites (Chapter 6.3 from page 99 for sodium uranyl tellurium and Chapter 6.4 from page 110 for potassium uranyl tellurium, respectively). In the actinide tellurium systems, additional MoO{sub 3}/WO{sub 3} were also

  20. Career development through local chapter involvement: perspectives from chapter members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R

    2013-07-01

    The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.

  1. Silicate glasses. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e. borosilicate glass. A historical overview of waste form development programs in nine countries is followed by a summary of the design criteria for borosilicate glass compositions glass compositions. In the sections on glass properties the waste form is characterized in terms of potential alterations under the influence of heat, thermal gradients, radiation, aqueous solutions and combinations thereof. The topics are phase transformations, mechanical properties, radiation effects and chemical durability. The results from studies of volcanic glasses, as natural analogues for borosilicate nuclear waste glasses in order to verify predictions obtained from short-term tests in the laboratory, have been compiled in a special section on natural analogues. A special section on advanced vitrification techniques summarizes the various actual and potential processing schemes and describes the facilities. The literature has been considered until 1985. (author). 430 refs.; 68 figs.; 29 tabs

  2. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  3. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  4. Synthesis: Chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Geiser, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Driscoll, C.T.; Goodale, C.L.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition (Galloway et al. 2003). Because of past, and, in some regions, continuing increases in emissions (Lehmann et al. 2005, Nilles and Conley 2001), this N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations and damage in many ecosystems across the United States. In some ecoregions, the impact of N deposition has been severe and has changed the biotic community structure and composition of ecosystems. In the Mediterranean California ecoregion, for example (see Chapter 13), replacement of native by exotic invasive vegetation is accelerated because exotic species are often more productive under elevated N deposition than native species in some California grasslands, coastal sage scrub, and desert scrub (Fenn et al. 2010, Rao and Allen 2010, Rao et al. 2010, Weiss 1999, Yoshida and Allen 2004). Such shifts in plant community composition and species richness can have consequences beyond changes in ecosystem structure: shifts may lead to overall losses in biodiversity and further impair particular threatened or endangered species (Stevens et al. 2004). Th e extirpation of the endangered checkerspot butterfl y (Euphydryas editha bayensis), because the host plant for the larval stage disappears in N-enriched ecosystems (Fenn et al. 2010, Weiss 1999), is just one example of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition.

  5. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Accident risk. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Following a historical introduction in which WASH-740, WASH-1400, Swedish, Finnish, Scandinavian, Netherlands and West German analyses are briefly presented, the concept of risk itself is discussed, distinguishing between objective and subjective aspects, and between voluntary and involuntary risk. Risk analysis is briefly described and an attempt made to define acceptable risk. In treating the safety philosophy of nuclear power plants the engineered safety precautions are presented. The numerical results of the analysis made for Norwegian conditions are presented and discussed. Underground siting, which has been much discussed in Norway is also treated, and emergency planning briefly discussed. The probability and consequences of core meltdown in a light water reactor are then discussed, and the possible faults leading to this, both internal, human errors and external impacts are analysed. The failure mechanisms in the containment building which could lead to the release of activity are discussed, followed by the dispersion of the activity and the health and economic consequences. The accidents at Wuergassen and Brown's Ferry are briefly described as examples. A brief discussion of nuclear insurance and nuclear law in Norway form the concluding sections. (JIW)

  7. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  8. Chapter IV: ultrafast biochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chergui, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Kjelstrup, S. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Meuwly, M. [Universitaet Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Schuler, B. [University of Zuerich (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland); Thor, J. van [Imperial College London (IC), London (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The whole report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the scientific opportunities offered by the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. In this sixth part, initial events and fluctuations in biochemical processes at the atomic scale are discussed. Sub-nanosecond processes are fundamental to biochemistry and will be accessible to the ultra-short pulses of the SwissFEL. Time and length scales of biochemical reactions are discussed, as is the photo-initiation of biochemical processes. Time-resolved measurement techniques are looked at. Fluorescence resonant energy transfer is discussed. As an example, the photo cycle of bacteriorhodopsin is examined. The dynamics of protein folding and catalytic action are also looked at. Mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics is discussed

  9. Chapters I-IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The report analyzes the risks involved in radioactive waste management of possible nuclear power plants of the capacity of 3500MWe to be installed in the Netherlands. The basis of the analysis is the fuel cycle as far as it takes place in the Netherlands. As a solution, dumping radioactive material in the ocean as well as temporary and definitive storage is discussed. For definitive storage, the use of salt deposits is proposed and some judicial and economic aspects are discussed

  10. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  11. Conclusion. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj

  12. Magnetic fusion energy. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The first chapter of this part describes briefly the DOE policy for fusion energy. Subsequent chapters include: FY 1980 overview - activities of the Office of Fusion Energy; subactivity descriptions (confinement systems, development and technology, applied plasma physics, and reactor projects); field activities (DOE laboratories, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, and commercial firms); commercialization; environmental implications; regional activities; and international programs

  13. Planetary exploration. Chapter 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Recent knowledge of the planets, particularly that gained through spacecraft missions, is discussed. Sections are headed: Mercury; Venus (atmospheric composition, surface properties, meteorology, atmospheric structure); Mars (atmospheric properties, meteorology, climate change, Phobos and Deimos); Jupiter (magnetosphere and environment, atmospheric properties, meteorology, ring properties, inner satellites). (U.K.)

  14. Electronic structure, fluorescence and photochemistry of the uranyl ion, and comparison with octahedral uranium (VI), ruthenyl (VI), rhenium (V) and osmium (VI) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, C K [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)

    1977-01-01

    The highly anisotropic uranyl complexes (with very short U-O distances and very long distances to the ligating atoms in the equatorial plane) are compared with trans-dioxo complexes of 4d/sup 2/Ru(VI) and 5d/sup 2/Re(V) and Os(VI). A major difference is the low-lying empty 5f orbitals, and the first excited state is highly oxidizing, and sufficiently long-lived to abstract hydrogen atoms from most organic molecules. It is argued that even the low concentrations of uranyl carbonate present in sea water is excited by solar radiation roughly every 10 minutes. Octahedral U(VI)O/sub 6/ in perovskites and UF/sub 6/ are also discussed, as well as trans-lawrencium chemistry.

  15. Chapter 6: The scientific basis for conserving forest carnivores: considerations for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Jack Lyon; Keith B. Aubry; William J. Zielinski; Steven W. Buskirk; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    1994-01-01

    The reviews presented in previous chapters reveal substantial gaps in our knowledge about marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine. These gaps severely constrain our ability to design reliable conservation strategies. This problem will be explored in depth in Chapter 7. In this chapter, our objective is to discuss management considerations resulting from what we currently...

  16. Superconducting machines. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the principles of superconductivity and superconductors. The properties of Nb-Ti superconductors and the method of flux stabilization are described. The basic features of superconducting d.c. machines are illustrated by the use of these machines for ship propulsion, steel-mill drives, industrial drives, aluminium production, and other d.c. power supplies. Superconducting a.c. generators and their design parameters are discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Investment in electricity for development. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services

  18. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  19. Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, M. A.; Frey, E. C. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Imaging forms an important part of nuclear medicine and a number of different imaging devices have been developed. This chapter describes the principles and technological characteristics of the main imaging devices used in nuclear medicine. The two major categories are gamma camera systems and positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The former are used to image γ rays emitted by any nuclide, while the latter exploit the directional correlation between annihilation photons emitted by positron decay. The first section of this chapter discusses the principal components of gamma cameras and how they are used to form 2-D planar images as well as 3-D tomographic images (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)). The second section describes related instrumentation that has been optimized for PET data acquisition. A major advance in nuclear medicine was achieved with the introduction of multi-modality imaging systems including SPECT/computed tomography (CT) and PET/CT. In these systems, the CT images can be used to provide an anatomical context for the functional nuclear medicine images and allow for attenuation compensation. The third section in this chapter provides a discussion of the principles of these devices.

  20. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgorsak, E. B. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Kesner, A. L. [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Soni, P. S. [Medical Cyclotron Facility, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters.

  1. Gaia DR2 documentation Chapter 3: Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Klioner, S.; Butkevich, A.; Stephenson, C.; Hernandez, J.; Lammers, U.; Bombrun, A.; Mignard, F.; Altmann, M.; Davidson, M.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Siddiqui, H.; Utrilla Molina, E.

    2018-04-01

    This chapter of the Gaia DR2 documentation describes the models and processing steps used for the astrometric core solution, namely, the Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). The inputs to this solution rely heavily on the basic observables (or astrometric elementaries) which have been pre-processed and discussed in Chapter 2, the results of which were published in Fabricius et al. (2016). The models consist of reference systems and time scales; assumed linear stellar motion and relativistic light deflection; in addition to fundamental constants and the transformation of coordinate systems. Higher level inputs such as: planetary and solar system ephemeris; Gaia tracking and orbit information; initial quasar catalogues and BAM data are all needed for the processing described here. The astrometric calibration models are outlined followed by the details processing steps which give AGIS its name. We also present a basic quality assessment and validation of the scientific results (for details, see Lindegren et al. 2018).

  2. Sorption mechanism of U(VI) on to natural soil system: a study using intra-particle diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, S.; Kumar, A.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of U(VI) adsorption onto natural soils from different parent materials has been studied experimentally using the batch adsorption method at five different initial U(VI) concentrations. The utility of Weber and Morris Interparticle diffusion model for describing the mechanism and kinetics of sorption is discussed. The study reveals that the mechanism of U(VI) sorption involves three steps such as: external surface adsorption, gradual adsorption stage which is the rate determining step and the last portion refers to the final equilibrium stage. The steps involved in sorption of U(VI) on to soil is same irrespective of soil types and initial U(VI) concentration. (author)

  3. Summary and evaluation of nuclear waste forms. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.; Ewing, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter data are compiled from the foregoing contributed chapters into tables. In a few cases additional more recent data not found in the chapters have been included in the tables. The following waste form data are summarized: physical properties, chemical durability, radiation effects and the status of processing techniques. In addition important aspects of the comparison of waste forms and the response of waste forms (glass and ceramic) to corrosion and radiation effects are discussed. (author). 119 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  4. Groundwater sampling: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingren; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael; Foster, Adam; Migliaccio, Kati W.; Li, Yuncong; Migliaccio, Kati

    2011-01-01

    About the book: As water quality becomes a leading concern for people and ecosystems worldwide, it must be properly assessed in order to protect water resources for current and future generations. Water Quality Concepts, Sampling, and Analyses supplies practical information for planning, conducting, or evaluating water quality monitoring programs. It presents the latest information and methodologies for water quality policy, regulation, monitoring, field measurement, laboratory analysis, and data analysis. The book addresses water quality issues, water quality regulatory development, monitoring and sampling techniques, best management practices, and laboratory methods related to the water quality of surface and ground waters. It also discusses basic concepts of water chemistry and hydrology related to water sampling and analysis; instrumentation; water quality data analysis; and evaluation and reporting results.

  5. cis-dioxomolybdenum(VI)-(ONO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Various ONO type Schiff base ligands L(H)2 used for the preparation of ... and derivatives.6–33 Depending on the method of prepa- ration .... HCl. Scheme 6. Synthesis of a Mo(VI) Schiff base complexe by selective inversion at C–1 carbon of a ...

  6. VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaal / Leonhard Lapin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lapin, Leonhard, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    15.-17. IX Tallinnas Niguliste kirikus toimuval VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalil esinevad inglise arhitektuurikriitik Peter Davey, šveitsi arhitekt Peter Zumthor, soome arhitekt Juha Leviskä, eesti arhitekt Vilen Künnapu, eesti kunstiajaloolane Juhan Maiste jt. Külastatakse KUMU, tutvutab autor Pekka Vapaavuori

  7. Management of Therapy Patients. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauer, L. T. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The basic principles of radiation protection and their implementation as they apply to nuclear medicine are covered in general in Chapter 3. This chapter will look at the specific case of nuclear medicine used for therapy. In addition to the standards discussed in Chapter 3, specific guidance on the release of patients after radionuclide therapy can be found in the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 63 [20.1]. When the patient is kept in hospital following radionuclide therapy, the people at risk of exposure include hospital staff whose duties may or may not directly involve the use of radiation. This can be a significant problem. However, it is generally felt that it can be effectively managed with well trained staff and appropriate facilities. On the other hand, once the patient has been released, the groups at risk include members of the patient’s family, including children, and carers; they may also include neighbours, visitors to the household, co-workers, those encountered in public places, on public transport or at public events, and finally, the general public. It is generally felt that these risks can be effectively mitigated by the radiation protection officer (RPO) with patient-specific radiation safety precaution instructions.

  8. Photophysical Properties of II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ke

    As it is well known, semiconductor nanocrystals (also called quantum dots, QDs) are being actively pursued for use in many different types of luminescent optical materials. These materials include the active media for luminescence downconversion in artificial lighting, lasers, luminescent solar concentrators and many other applications. Chapter 1 gives general introduction of QDs, which describe the basic physical properties and optical properties. Based on the experimental spectroscopic study, a semiquantitative method-effective mass model is employed to give theoretical prediction and guide. The following chapters will talks about several topics respectively. A predictive understanding of the radiative lifetimes is therefore a starting point for the understanding of the use of QDs for these applications. Absorption intensities and radiative lifetimes are fundamental properties of any luminescent material. Meantime, achievement of high efficiency with high working temperature and heterostructure fabrication with manipulation of lattice strain are not easy and need systematic investigation. To make accurate connections between extinction coefficients and radiative recombination rates, chapter 2 will consider three closely related aspects of the size dependent spectroscopy of II-VI QDs. First, it will consider the existing literature on cadmium selenide (CdSe) QD absorption spectra and extinction coefficients. From these results and fine structure considerations Boltzmann weighted radiative lifetimes are calculated. These lifetimes are compared to values measured on very high quality CdSe and CdSe coated with zinc selenide (ZnSe) shells. Second, analogous literature data are analyzed for cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystals and compared to lifetimes measured for very high quality QDs. Furthermore, studies of the absorption and excitation spectra and measured radiative lifetimes for CdTe/CdSe Type-II core/shell QDs are reported. These results are also analyzed in

  9. Fundamentals of Dosimetry. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, E. M. [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Determination of the energy imparted to matter by radiation is the subject of dosimetry. The energy deposited as radiation interacts with atoms of the material, as seen in the previous chapter. The imparted energy is responsible for the effects that radiation causes in matter, for instance, a rise in temperature, or chemical or physical changes in the material properties. Several of the changes produced in matter by radiation are proportional to the absorbed dose, giving rise to the possibility of using the material as the sensitive part of a dosimeter. Also, the biological effects of radiation depend on the absorbed dose. A set of quantities related to the radiation field is also defined within the scope of dosimetry. It will be shown in this chapter that, under special conditions, there are simple relations between dosimetric and field description quantities. Thus, the framework of dosimetry is the set of physical and operational quantities that are studied in this chapter.

  10. Radiological departments. Chapter 4.3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The book deals with the problems of health, labor and fire protection in the public health service of the GDR as a whole. A special chapter treats these items concerning the conditions in radiological departments. In this connection the main legal regulations are presented. Introducing remarks on generation and properties of ionizing radiations and on biological radiation effects are outlined. Further, the responsibilities in radiation protection, maximum permissible radiation doses and the handling of X-ray devices, sealed and unsealed radiation sources are discussed

  11. Electrochemical processes for the environmental remediation of toxic Cr(VI): A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Wei; Du, Hao; Zheng, Shili; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent advances in electrochemical technologies for practical Cr(VI) treatment applications was reviewed. • The mechanism and performance of electrocoagulation, electrochemical reduction, electrodialysis, electro-electrodialysis and electrodeionization were discussed and compared. • The remained challenges and future perspectives were commented. - Abstract: Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is extremely toxic and classified as one of the 17 chemicals posing the greatest threat to humans. Large amounts of Cr(VI) compounds are directly or indirectly discharged into the environment, therefore considerable efforts have been made to control the Cr(VI) concentration below the recommended level. It has been demonstrated that electrochemical technique is one of the most efficient and environmental benign approach for the Cr(VI) removal. This review aims at recent advances in electrochemical technology for practical Cr(VI) treatment applications. By using the “clean reagent” of electron, Cr(VI) can be completely eliminated or separated via different electrochemical techniques such as electrocoagulation, electrochemical reduction, electrodialysis, electro-electrodialysis and electrodeionization. Besides, the mechanism and performance of different strategies are commented and compared. The treatment process is largely dependent on variables such as pH, electrode materials, cell configuration and techniques integration. Furthermore, the remained limitation and challenges for the electrochemical Cr(VI) remediation are also discussed.

  12. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, J.; El Fakhri, G. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images.

  13. Chapter 3: Traceability and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 3 presents: an introduction; Traceability (measurement standard, role of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Secondary Standards Laboratories, documentary standards and traceability as process review); Uncertainty (Example 1 - Measurement, M raw (SSD), Example 2 - Calibration data, N D.w 60 Co, kQ, Example 3 - Correction factor, P TP ) and Conclusion

  14. Behavioral service substitution (Chapter 9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Bouguettaya, A.; Sheng, Q.Z.; Daniel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Service-oriented design supports system evolution and encourages reuse and modularization. A key ingredient of service orientation is the ability to substitute one service by another without reconfiguring the overall system. This chapter aims to give an overview of the state of the art and open

  15. Energy and wastes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 'Energy and wastes' it is shown the wastes generation inevitability at power production, because there are no absolutely wasteless technologies. After energy production technologies analysis the data that nuclear energy is most ecologically acceptable at maintenance related radiation safety measures

  16. Vi mangler endnu et panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Vi mangler højtuddannede værdiskabere, som transformerer gode idéer og teknologier til indtjening og velstand. Først i mødet med markedet afgøres fremtiden. Troels Lund Poulsen bør nedsætte et kommercialiseringspanel, der byder ind med løsninger, hvordan Danmark bliver et land ikke kun med gode...

  17. Spectroscopic studies of U(VI) sorption at the kaolinite-water interface. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.A.; Parks, G.A.; Brown, G.E. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Efficient use of U as a resource and safe handling, recycling and disposal of U-containing wastes require an understanding of the factors controlling the fate of U, where fate refers to the destination of U, typically expressed as an environmental medium or a process phase. The sorption process constitutes a change in elemental fate. Partitioning of an element from solution to a solid phase, or sorption, can be divided into three broad categories: adsorption, surface precipitation, and absorption. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), a type of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), offers the possibility for distinguishing among different modes of sorption by characterizing the atomic environment of the sorbing element. In this study, the authors use EXAFS to determine the structure of U(VI) sorption complexes at the kaolinite-water interface. In Chapter One, they present an overview of selected aspects of U structural chemistry as a basis for considering the structural environment of U at the solid-water interface. To evaluate the utility of XAS for characterization of the structural environment of U(VI) at the solid-water interface, they have carried out an in-depth analysis of XAS data from U(VI)-containing solid and solution model compounds, which they describe in Chapter Two. In Chapter three, they consider sorption of U by kaolinite as a means of effecting the removal of U from surface collection pond waters on the Rocky Flats Plant site in northern Colorado

  18. New energy level identifications in Kr VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauheed, A.; Pinnington, E.H.; Ansbacher, W.; Kernahan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Beam-foil delayed spectra from 89.0 to 101.0 nm are used to identify the intercombination lines connecting the 4s4p 2 4 P and 4s 2 4p 2 P levels in Kr VI. The existing analysis is extended to include the 4s 2 5s 2 S 1/2 , 4f 2 F 5/2 , 2 F 7/2 , 4p 3 2 D 3/2 , 2 D 5/2 , 2 P 3/2 , 4 S 3/2 and 4s4p 2 4 P 1/2 , 4 P 3/2 , 4 P 5/2 levels. Lifetime measurements for the 4s4p 2 4 P 1/2 , 4 P 5/2 , 4p 3 2 D 3/2 and 2 D 5/2 levels are also discussed in support of these assignments. (orig.)

  19. Discussion on the parameters and events of interest for the projections (Chapter 5 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Discusion de los parametros y eventos de interes para las proyecciones (Capitulo 5 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter it is described how it was decided to analyze the problems to 25 years. Considering that the Secretaria de Energia (SENER) through the Secretaria de Palaeocene y Desarrollo Tecnologico makes an annual exercise of the prospective to ten years for the electrical sector, the natural gas sector and the oil derivatives sector, with the last one publishing the 2004-2013 period, it was decided that the projections for year 2013 were taken as facts and that the exercise to develop a vision be limited to the 2014 - 2030 period. The assumptions used to make the numerical simulations with the LEAP system are detailed in Annex 10, with the information gathered by the approach group on the parameters to be used in this task, as well as in Annex 14, that contains the specific information used together with the results obtained in the period the 2004-2013 and in the second period of 2014-2030. [Spanish] En este capitulo se describe como se decidio analizar la problematica a 25 anos. Considerando que la Secretaria de Energia (SENER) a traves de la Subsecretaria de Planeacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico realiza un ejercicio anual de prospectiva a diez anos para el sector electrico, el sector de gas natural y el sector de petroliferos, siendo el ultimo publicado el 2004-2013, se decidio que las proyecciones al 2013 se tomaran como hechos y que el ejercicio para desarrollar una vision se concretara al periodo del 2014 al 2030. Los supuestos utilizados para realizar las simulaciones numericas con el sistema LEAP se detallan tanto en el anexo 10 con la informacion recabada del grupo de enfoque sobre los parametros a usarse en esta tarea, como en el anexo 14 que contiene la informacion especifica utilizada asi como los resultados obtenidos en los periodos 2004-2013 y el segundo periodo del 2014-2030.

  20. Discussion on the parameters and events of interest for the projections (Chapter 5 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Discusion de los parametros y eventos de interes para las proyecciones (Capitulo 5 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter it is described how it was decided to analyze the problems to 25 years. Considering that the Secretaria de Energia (SENER) through the Secretaria de Palaeocene y Desarrollo Tecnologico makes an annual exercise of the prospective to ten years for the electrical sector, the natural gas sector and the oil derivatives sector, with the last one publishing the 2004-2013 period, it was decided that the projections for year 2013 were taken as facts and that the exercise to develop a vision be limited to the 2014 - 2030 period. The assumptions used to make the numerical simulations with the LEAP system are detailed in Annex 10, with the information gathered by the approach group on the parameters to be used in this task, as well as in Annex 14, that contains the specific information used together with the results obtained in the period the 2004-2013 and in the second period of 2014-2030. [Spanish] En este capitulo se describe como se decidio analizar la problematica a 25 anos. Considerando que la Secretaria de Energia (SENER) a traves de la Subsecretaria de Planeacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico realiza un ejercicio anual de prospectiva a diez anos para el sector electrico, el sector de gas natural y el sector de petroliferos, siendo el ultimo publicado el 2004-2013, se decidio que las proyecciones al 2013 se tomaran como hechos y que el ejercicio para desarrollar una vision se concretara al periodo del 2014 al 2030. Los supuestos utilizados para realizar las simulaciones numericas con el sistema LEAP se detallan tanto en el anexo 10 con la informacion recabada del grupo de enfoque sobre los parametros a usarse en esta tarea, como en el anexo 14 que contiene la informacion especifica utilizada asi como los resultados obtenidos en los periodos 2004-2013 y el segundo periodo del 2014-2030.

  1. Environment-effect reporting. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermens, P.A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Environment-effect reporting is a tool in the resolution of one or more government bodies about activities which may have important disadvantageous impacts upon the environment. This chapter gives a treatment of environment-effect reporting as a process consisting of the preparation, draw-up, judgement and use of an environment-effect report (MER), followed by an evaluation. The contentsof an environment-effect report are indicated. The role of environment-effect reporting in relation with other procedures is discussed. Some experience with the application of environment-effect reporting is presented and a number of experiences in the application are discussed. (H.W.). 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  3. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  4. Instrumentation for Dosimetry. Chapter 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdakis, J. C. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Athens (Greece); Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Measurements of absorbed dose (or air kerma) are required in varying situations in diagnostic radiology. The radiation fields vary from plain, slit and even point projection geometry, and may be stationary or moving, including rotational. Owing to the use of low photon energies for these fields, it is important that dosimeters have a satisfactory energy response. In general, the requirements for dosimeter accuracy are less stringent than those in radiation therapy; however, the dose and dose rate measurements cover a large range. Patient dosimetry (see Chapter 22) is a primary responsibility of the medical physicist specializing in diagnostic radiology and is required by legislation in many countries. Dose data are also required in the optimization of examinations for image quality and dose. Radiation measurement is also critical for occupational and public exposure control (see Chapter 24). Dose measurements are essential in acceptance testing and quality control (see Chapter 19). Several types of dosimeter can be used, provided that they have a suitable energy response, but typically, ionization chambers of a few cubic centimetres in volume, or solid state detectors specifically designed for such measurements, are used. If dosimeters are used to make measurements during an examination, they must not interfere with the examination. These devices are also used for determination of the half value layer (HVL). Special types of ionization chamber are employed for computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional radiology dosimetry.

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (16th, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, November 5-8, 1994). Volume 1: Plenary Sessions, Technology Focus Groups, Discussion Groups and Research Papers, Oral Reports and Posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, David, Ed.

    This volume contains the full text of 2 plenary papers and 26 research reports. In addition, brief, usually one-page, reports are provided for 6 discussion groups, 10 technology focus groups, 7 symposiums, 7 oral presentations, and 17 position sessions. The two full plenary reports are: (1) "Problems of Reification: Representations and…

  6. Thermodynamic parameters and sorption of U(VI) on ACSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donat, R.; Cilgi, G.K.; Cetisli, H.; Aytas, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the sorption properties for U(VI) by alginate coated CaSO 4 x 2H 2 O sepiolite and calcined diatomite earth (Kieselguhr) (ACSD). The removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution by sorption onto ACSF in a single component system with various contact times, pH, temperatures, and initial concentrations of U(VI) was investigated. The sorption patterns of uranium on the composite adsorbent followed the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkhevic (D-R) isotherms. The Freundlich, Langmuir, and D-R models have been applied and the data correlated well with Freundlich model and that the sorption was physical in nature (sorption energy, E a = 17.05 kJ/mol). The thermodynamic parameters such as variation of enthalpy ΔH, variation of entropy ΔS and variation of Gibbs free energy ΔG were calculated from the slope and intercept of lnK 0 vs. 1/T plots. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH ads = 31.83 kJ/mol, ΔS ads = 167 J/mol x K, ΔGdeg ads (293.15 K) = -17.94 kJ/mol) showed the endothermic heat of sorption and the feasibility of the process. The thermodynamics of U(VI) ion/ACSD system indicates the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. It was noted that an increase in temperature resulted in a higher uranium loading per unit weight of the adsorbent. (author)

  7. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  8. Sorption of chromium (VI) by Mg/Fe hydrotalcite type compunds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Sosa, I., E-mail: irma.garcia@inin.gob.mx; Cabral-Prieto, A., E-mail: agustin.cabral@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Química (Mexico); Nava, N., E-mail: tnava@imp.mx; Navarrete, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (Mexico); Olguín, M. T., E-mail: teresa.olguin@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Química (Mexico); Escobar, Luis, E-mail: luis.escobar@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Física (Mexico); López-Castañares, R., E-mail: rlc@anuies.mx; Olea-Cardoso, O., E-mail: olc@anuies.mx [Universidad Autónoma del Edo. de México, Facultad de Química (Mexico)

    2015-06-15

    The synthesis by co-precipitation and characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopies of Mg-Fe-hydrotalcite compounds, and their sorption capacities for Cr(VI) in aqueous media were carried out. The average sorption capacity of Cr(VI) for the non-thermal treated samples was of 6.2 mg/g. The ferrihydrite was omnipresent in all prepared hydrotalcite samples. A brief discussion is made on the role of both the hydrotalcite and ferrihydrite for removing such amount of Cr(VI)

  9. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  10. Chapter 3: Crossing Boundaries--Foundation Degrees in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Derek

    2010-01-01

    This chapter traces the history, purposes, and distinctive features of the foundation degree, a short-cycle higher education qualification introduced in England in 2000-2001 and offered by both universities and further education colleges. The key characteristics of the foundation degree are discussed: employer involvement in curriculum development…

  11. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  12. Introducing positive discrimination in predictive models (Chapter 14)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.G.K.; Verwer, S.E.; Custers, B.H.M.; Calders, T.G.K.; Schermer, B.W.; Zarsky, T.Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we give three solutions for the discrimination-aware classification problem that are based upon Bayesian classifiers. These classifiers model the complete probability distribution by making strong independence assumptions. First we discuss the necessity of having discrimination-free

  13. Landscape ecology: Past, present, and future [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Jeffrey S. Evans; Kevin McGarigal

    2010-01-01

    In the preceding chapters we discussed the central role that spatial and temporal variability play in ecological systems, the importance of addressing these explicitly within ecological analyses and the resulting need to carefully consider spatial and temporal scale and scaling. Landscape ecology is the science of linking patterns and processes across scale in both...

  14. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  15. Chapter 4: Agriculture and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the responses of governments to the fallout, particularly with respect to the contamination of food and the effect of governmental decisions on agriculture and trade. To put the subsequent description of events in perspective, it is prefaced with a brief explanation of how permitted levels of radiation in food can be derived from radiation dose recommendations. Although much of this work was done after Chernobyl, it is one of several possible systematic calculation methods, a knowledge of which allows a better understanding of the limits adopted under the pressure of events. (orig.)

  16. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  17. Spectroscopic Studies on Complex Formation of U(VI)-thiosalicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wan Sik; Cho, Hye Ryun; Park, Kyoung Kyun; Jung, Euo Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The dynamic interaction between radionuclides and organic ligands is largely dependent on the composition of functional groups in a ligand chemical structure. Therefore, the structural mimics of natural ligands possessing specific functional groups, such as hydroxy, phenol, carboxyl, thiol and amine groups, have been studied to understand their influence on the migration of radionuclides including actinide species under geological groundwater conditions. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the fraction of hydrolyzed U(VI) species occurring in weak acidic solutions (pH {approx}4.5) is significantly influenced by the presence of salicylate (Sal) ligand due to the simultaneous participation of both phenol and carboxyl groups in the formation of U(VI)-complexes. Thiosalicylic acid (TSalH{sub 2}) is a good model compound for studying the effects of both carboxyl and thiol (-SH) groups. The fraction of di-anionic ligand form (TSal{sup 2-}) is higher at near neutral pH due to the lower pKa ({approx} 8) of the thiol group than the case of salicylic acid (pKa, {approx}13 for salicylic -OH), despite the structural similarity. In addition, the redox capability of the thiol group is expected to influence the reducible radiouclides and the chemical structures of natural ligands by creating cross-linkage (-S-S-) upon oxidation. The goal of the present study is to investigate aqueous U(VI)-TSal complexation equilibrium via laser-based spectroscopic techniques including time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). In this preliminary work, we report the results of spectroscopic studies using conventional UVVis absorbance and fluorescence (FL) measurement methods. The photo-stability of U(VI)-TSal complex or ligand itself upon exposure to a series of laser pulses is estimated by monitoring the change in their absorption bands. Additionally, TSal FL-quenching effect by U(VI) ions is discussed in comparison with that of Sal FL-quenching

  18. Tamarix, hydrology and fluvial geomorphology: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Daniel A.; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A; Quigley, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the impact of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology on the distribution and abundance of Tamarix as well as the reciprocal effects of Tamarix on hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. It examines whether flow-regime alteration favors Tamarix establishment over native species, and how Tamarix stands modify processes involved in the narrowing of river channels and the formation of floodplains. It begins with an overview of the basic geomorphic and hydrologic character of rivers in the western United States before analyzing how this setting has contributed to the regional success of Tamarix. It then considers the influence of Tamarix on the hydrogeomorphic form and function of rivers and concludes by discussing how a changing climate, vegetation management, and continued water-resource development affect the future role of Tamarix in these ecosystems.

  19. Chapter 13 - Active Rectifiers and Their Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Abdelhakim, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    This chapter investigates the control design of active rectifiers and their applications in power electronics-based power system. The harmonic emission and measures are firstly addressed as a basis of evaluating the active rectifier's effectiveness. Furthermore, the importance of new coming...... standards is highlighted. Application-oriented design of active rectifiers as a main reason behind evolvement of different topologies is discussed. Then, the main principle in designing different control schemes in single-phase and three-phase rectifiers is investigated, analyzed, and experimentally...... verified. The influence of nonideal operating conditions with possible solutions is addressed. Finally, future prospective of active rectifiers as a one of the key enabler of carbon-free power system is summarized....

  20. Når vi taler om 68

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Metz, Georg

    Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi......Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi...

  1. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  2. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  3. Econophys-Kolkata VI Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the book is to present the ideas and research findings of active researchers such as physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of “Econophysics,” who have undertaken the task of modeling and analyzing systemic risk, network dynamics and other topics. Of primary interest in these studies is the aspect of systemic risk, which has long been identified as a potential scenario in which financial institutions trigger a dangerous contagion mechanism, spreading from the financial economy to the real economy. This type of risk, long confined to the monetary market, has spread considerably in the recent past, culminating in the subprime crisis of 2008. As such, understanding and controlling systemic risk has become an extremely important societal and economic challenge. The Econophys-Kolkata VI conference proceedings are dedicated to addressing a number of key issues involved. Several leading researchers in these fields report on their recent work and al...

  4. An electrochemical study of U(VI) and Cr(VI) in molten borates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigaudeau, M.; Gregori de Pinochet, I. de

    1977-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of U(VI) and Cr(VI), in molten Na 2 B 4 O 7 at 800 deg C was studied by means of linear sweep voltammetry, and chronopotentiometry. The reduction of U(VI) to U(V) proceeded reversibly at a platinum electrode. The diffusion coefficient for the U(VI) species at 800 deg C was 4.10 -7 cm 2 .s -1 . The activation energy of diffusion was (34,8 +- 0,8) kcal. mole -1 . Electrochemical studies of Cr(VI) at 800 0 C reveal a two-step reduction process at a platinum electrode. Only the voltammogram for the first step charge transfer process was studied. Analysis indicated that Cr(VI) is reversibly reduced to Cr(III) at a platinum electrode. The diffusion coefficient for Cr(VI) at 800 0 C is 1,9.10 -7 cm 2 .s -1 [fr

  5. Mirror Lake: Past, present and future: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Winter, Thomas C.; Likens, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses the hydrological and biogeochemical characteristics of Mirror Lake and the changes that resulted from air-land-water interactions and human activities. Since the formation of Mirror Lake, both the watershed and the lake have undergone many changes, such as vegetation development and basin filling. These changes are ongoing, and Mirror Lake is continuing along an aging pathway and ultimately, it will fill with sediment and no longer be a lake. The chapter also identifies major factors that affected the hydrology and biogeochemistry of Mirror Lake: acid rain, atmospheric deposition of lead and other heavy metals, increased human settlement around the lake, the construction of an interstate highway through the watershed of the Northeast Tributary, the construction of an access road through the West and Northeast watersheds to the lake, and climate change. The chapter also offers future recommendations for management and protection of Mirror Lake.

  6. Academic Entrepreneurialism and Private Higher Education in Europe (Chapter 6)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we will focus on basic ideas and key concepts functioning in research on academic entrepreneurialism. The reference point here will be public institutions (the original focus of reflection both in Europe and the USA) and private institutions (under-researched from this particular analytical perspective both in Europe and in the USA). Apart from the discussion of the individual core elements of the “entrepreneurial university”, there will be discussions intended to see the d...

  7. Ferrate(VI) as a greener oxidant: Electrochemical generation and treatment of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuhui; Zhang, Qi; Liang, He; Ying, Li; Xiangxu, Meng; Sharma, Virender K

    2016-12-05

    Ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(VI)) is a greener oxidant in the treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The electrochemical synthesis of Fe(VI) may be considered environmentally friendly because it involves one-step process to convert Fe(0) to Fe(VI) without using harmful chemicals. Electrolysis was performed by using a sponge iron as an anode in NaOH solution at different ionic strengths. The cyclic voltammetric (CV) curves showed that the sponge iron had higher electrical activity than the grey cast iron. The optimum current density was 0.054mAcm(-2) in 10M NaOH solution, which is much lower than the electrolyte concentrations used in other electrode materials. A comparison of current efficiency and energy consumption was conducted and is briefly discussed. The generated ferrate solution was applied to degrade phenol in water at two levels (2mgL(-1) and 5mgL(-1)). The maximum removal efficiency was ∼70% and the optimum pH for phenol treatment was 9.0. Experiments on phenol removal using conventional coagulants (ferric chloride (FeCl3) and polyaluminium chloride (PAC)) were performed independently to demonstrate that removal of phenol by Fe(VI) occurred mainly by oxidative transformation. A combination of Fe(VI) and coagulant may be advantageous in enhancing removal efficiency, adjusting pH, and facilitating flocculation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The O VI Mystery: Mismatch between X-Ray and UV Column Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, S.; Nicastro, F.; Gupta, A.; Krongold, Y.; McLaughlin, B. M.; Brickhouse, N.; Pradhan, A.

    2017-12-01

    The UV spectra of Galactic and extragalactic sightlines often show O VI absorption lines at a range of redshifts, and from a variety of sources from the Galactic circumgalactic medium to active galactic nuclei (AGN) outflows. Inner shell O VI absorption is also observed in X-ray spectra (at λ =22.03 Å), but the column density inferred from the X-ray line was consistently larger than that from the UV line. Here we present a solution to this discrepancy for the z = 0 systems. The O II Kβ line {}4{S}0\\to {(}3D)3{p}4P at 562.40 eV (≡22.04 Å) is blended with the O VI Kα line in X-ray spectra. We estimate the strength of this O II line in two different ways, and show that in most cases the O II line accounts for the entire blended line. The small amount of O VI equivalent width present in some cases has column density entirely consistent with the UV value. This solution to the O VI discrepancy, however, does not apply to high column-density systems like AGN outflows. We discuss other possible causes to explain their UV/X-ray mismatch. The O VI and O II lines will be resolved by gratings on board the proposed mission Arcus and the concept mission Lynx, and would allow the detection of weak O VI lines not just at z = 0, but also at higher redshift.

  9. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VI

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Bandrauk, André D

    2010-01-01

    The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This sixth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on responses of molecules to ultrashort intense laser pulses, generation and characterization of attosecond pulses and high-order harmonics, and filamentation and laser-plasma interaction.

  10. Why Radiotherapy Works. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, S.; Nishibuchi, I.; Wondergem, J.

    2017-01-01

    The history of radiotherapy began in 1895, when Röntgen discovered X rays, and in the following year, radiation was used for medical treatment. In the early days, the development of radiotherapy was based extensively on empiricism. Radiotherapists worked closely with radiation biologists in attempting to describe and understand the phenomena produced by ionizing radiation in the clinic and in biological systems. During the ensuing 120 years, radiotherapy has been improved significantly and, in addition to radiation biology, medical physics has played an important role in the design and development of equipment, quality assurance and dosimetry. Over recent decades, advances have been made in the field of molecular biology. Currently available techniques enable us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cellular response to ionizing irradiation, and it is anticipated that the role and contributions of radiation biology in radiotherapy will remain relevant. This chapter describes the clinically important biological points, including knowledge from current molecular biology.

  11. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  12. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Robert; Debetencourt, Michel; Cregut, Andre; Grauby, Andre; Sousselier, Yves

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations [fr

  13. The northern pike, a prized native but disastrous invasive: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, David; Massengill, Robert L.; Sepulveda, Adam; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2018-01-01

    As the chapters in this book describe, the northern pike Esox lucius Linneaus, 1758 is a fascinating fish that plays an important ecological role in structuring aquatic communities (chapter 8), has the capacity to aid lake restoration efforts (chapter 11), and contributes substantially to local economies, both as a highlysought after sport fish (chapter 12) and as a commercial fishing resource (chapter 13). However, despite the magnificent attributes of this fish, there is another side to its story. Specifically, what happens when northern pike, a highly efficient predator, becomes established outside its natural range? To explore this question, this chapter will investigate observed consequences from many locations where northern pike (hereafter referred to as “pike”) have been introduced and discuss potential reasons why pike, under the right circumstances, can be considered an invasive species.

  14. Emissions of chromium (VI) from arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, William; Yun, Myoung-Jin; Chang, Daniel P Y; Green, Peter G; Halm, Chris

    2007-02-01

    The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was undertaken to expand and update Cr(VI) emission factors by conducting tests on four types of arc-welding operations: gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), fluxcore arc welding, and pulsed GMAW. Standard American Welding Society hood results were compared with a total enclosure method that permitted isokinetic sampling for particle size-cut measurement, as well as total collection of the aerosol. The fraction of Cr(VI) emitted per unit mass of Cr electrode consumed was determined. Consistent with AP-42 data, initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the total Cr in the aerosol is in the +6 oxidation state. The fraction of Cr(VI) and total aerosol mass produced by the different arc welding methods varies with the type of welding process used. Self-shielded electrodes that do not use a shield gas, for example, SMAW, produce greater amounts of Cr(VI) per unit mass of electrode consumed. The formation of Cr(VI) from standard electrode wires used for welding mild steel was below the method detection limit after eliminating an artifact in the analytical method used.

  15. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy

  16. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): Comparison of microbial community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Erika [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L{sup -1} U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  17. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): Comparison of microbial community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Monica; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio; Santos, Erika; Costa, Maria Clara

    2010-01-01

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L -1 U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L -1 Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  18. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  19. KENO-VI: A Monte Carlo Criticality Program with generalized quadratic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses KENO-VI which is a new version of the KENO monte Carlo Criticality Safety developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of KENO-VI is to provide a criticality safety code similar to KENO-V.a that possesses a more general and flexible geometry package. KENO-VI constructs and processes geometry data as sets of quadratic equations. A lengthy set of simple, easy-to-use geometric functions, similar to those provided in KENO-V.a., and the ability to build more complex geometric shapes represented by sets of quadratic equations are the heart of the geometry package in KENO-VI. The code's flexibility is increased by allowing intersecting geometry regions, hexagonal as well as cuboidal arrays, and the ability to specify an array boundary that intersects the array

  20. Extended analysis of Mo VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlen, B.; Rahimullah, K.; Tauheed, A.; Chaghtai, M.S.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the RbI-like spectrum Mo VI has been extended to include a total of some 110 classified lines and 44 energy levels belonging to the one-electron configurations 4s 2 4p 6 ( 1 S)nl with n ranging up to 9 and l up to 7. The analysis is based on recordings of vacuum spark spectra made at Lund in the region 230-2350 A, complemented by a list of lines from 2193 to 6336 A observed and identified by Romanov and Striganov in a Penning type arc discharge. The one-electron level system is partly mixed with core-excited configurations, not treated in the present paper. Especially the nf series is strongly perturbed by 4s 2 4p 5 4d 2 , and an anomalous behaviour of the ng series is explained by interaction with the 2 G term of 4s4p 6 4d 2 . The ionization limit, derived from 6h, 7i and 8k by means of the polarization formula, is found to be 555 132+-2 cm -1 . (orig.)

  1. Chapter 08: Comments on, and additional information for, wood identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    This manual has described the theory of identification (Chapter 1), the botanical basis of wood structure (Chapter 2), the use of a hand lens (Chapter 3), how to use cutting tools to prepare wood for observation with a lens (Chapter 4), and the characters used in hand lens wood identification (Chapter 5) before leading you through an identification key (Chapter 6) and...

  2. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  3. Kiintoainehäviöselvitys

    OpenAIRE

    Ylimys, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Teoriaosassa käydään läpi yleisesti pyörrepuhdistuslaitoksen toimintaa sekä kiintoainehäviöitä paperi- ja kartonkitehtailla. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia Metsä Boardin Kyröskosken tehtaan kiintoainehäviötä. Työssä selvitettiin, minkälaista kiintoainetta jätevesilaitokselle päätyy ja miksi. Selvityksen kohteena oli myös, missä kohteissa kiintoainehäviöt tarkalleen syntyvät ja kuinka paljon häviötä tapahtuu. Kahden edellä mainitun tiedon perusteella selvitettiin, kuinka palj...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allows employees to consume food or beverages at a worksite where chromium (VI) is present, the employer... effect on productivity. 2. Plating Bath Surface Tension Management and Fume Suppression • Lower surface...

  5. Chapter 2. The production units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the second chapter of this CD ROM the production units of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs: (1) Nuclear power plants (A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (History, Technological scheme, basic data are presented); V-1, V-2 Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (History 1972-1985, technological scheme; nuclear safety, radiation protection, heat supply, international co-operation and basic data are presented); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (History 1980-1998, technological scheme, construction completion, milestones of commissioning, safety and environmental protection as well as basic data are included). (2) Conventional sources of energy (Vojany fossil power plant (History 1959-1992, Technological units of power plant, Impact of operation on the environment, Plant of Vojany FPP Renewal and Reconstruction, Basic data are listed), Novaky fossil power plant (History 1949-1998, Technological scheme, current investment construction, basic data, Handlova heating plant). Kosice Combined Heat Power Plant (History 1960-1995, technological scheme, State metrology centre, acredited chemical laboratory, basic data). (3) Hydroelectric power plants (Trencin HPPs: Cierny Vah pumped storage HPP, Liptovska Mara HPP, Orava HPP, Sucany HPP, Miksova HPP, Nosice HPP, Velke Kozmalovce HPP, Gabcikovo HPP, Dubnica HPP, Nove Mesto n/V HPP, Madunice HPP, Kralova HPP) and Dobsina HPPs: (Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small HPPs) are presented

  6. Learning through Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin

    2004-01-01

    Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…

  7. Implementation of MP_Lite for the VI Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weiyi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    MP_Lite is a light weight message-passing library designed to deliver the maximum performance to applications in a portable and user friendly manner. The Virtual Interface (VI) architecture is a user-level communication protocol that bypasses the operating system to provide much better performance than traditional network architectures. By combining the high efficiency of MP_Lite and high performance of the VI architecture, they are able to implement a high performance message-passing library that has much lower latency and better throughput. The design and implementation of MP_Lite for M-VIA, which is a modular implementation of the VI architecture on Linux, is discussed in this thesis. By using the eager protocol for sending short messages, MP_Lite M-VIA has much lower latency on both Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. The handshake protocol and RDMA mechanism provides double the throughput that MPICH can deliver for long messages. MP_Lite M-VIA also has the ability to channel-bonding multiple network interface cards to increase the potential bandwidth between nodes. Using multiple Fast Ethernet cards can double or even triple the maximum throughput without increasing the cost of a PC cluster greatly.

  8. 24 CFR 971.11 - HOPE VI developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HOPE VI developments. 971.11... § 971.11 HOPE VI developments. Developments with HOPE VI implementation grants that have approved HOPE... with reasonable revitalization plans. Future HUD actions to approve or deny proposed HOPE VI...

  9. Uranium(VI) speciation by spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrath, G.

    1997-01-01

    The application of UV-Vis and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLF) spectroscopies to direct of uranium(VI) in environmental samples offers various prospects that have, however, serious limitations. While UV-Vis spectroscopy is probably not sensitive enough to detect uranium(VI) species in the majority of environmental samples, TRLFS is principially able to speciate uranium(VI) at very low concentration levels in the nanomol range. Speciation by TRLFS can be based on three parameters: excitation spectrum, emission spectrum and lifetime of the fluorescence emission process. Due to quenching effects, the lifetime may not be expected to be as characteristics as, e.g., the emission spectrum. Quenching of U(VI) fluorescence by reaction with organic substances, inorganic ions and formation of carbonate radicals is one important limiting factor in the application of U(VI) fluorescence spectroscopy. Fundamental photophysical criteria are illustrated using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra of U(VI) hydrolysis and carbonato species as examples. (author)

  10. The Chapter 1 Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose; And Others

    An overview is provided of Colorado's participation in Chapter 1, the largest federally funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students. Chapter 1 provides financial assistance to state and local education agencies to meet the special needs of educationally deprived children who reside in areas with high…

  11. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Freight forwarders and shippers may not charter, book cargo on, or otherwise deal with blocked vessels. 7. References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: [BALKANS]: Western Balkans Stabilization... the economic sanctions programs in chapter V. (Please call OFAC Compliance Programs Division for...

  12. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  13. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 1, July 2017 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction The Telemetry Standards address the here-to-date...for Federal Radio Frequency Management . Copies of that manual may be obtained from: Executive Secretary, Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee

  14. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  15. Session 1 - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  16. A critical review of ferrate(VI)-based remediation of soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar; Lee, Jechan; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Kwon, Eilhann E; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, diverse chemicals and materials such as mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles, metal oxides, and zeolites have been used for soil and groundwater remediation. Ferrate (Fe VI O 4 2- ) has been widely employed due to its high-valent iron (VI) oxo compound with high oxidation/reduction potentials. Ferrate has received attention for wide environmental applications including water purification and sewage sludge treatment. Ferrate provides great potential for diverse environmental applications without any environmental problems. Therefore, this paper provides comprehensive information on the recent progress on the use of (Fe VI O 4 2- ) as a green material for use in sustainable treatment processes, especially for soil and water remediation. We reviewed diverse synthesis recipes for ferrates (Fe VI O 4 2- ) and their associated physicochemical properties as oxidants, coagulants, and disinfectants for the elimination of a diverse range of chemical and biological species from water/wastewater samples. A summary of the eco-sustainable performance of ferrate(VI) in water remediation is also provided and the future of ferrate(VI) is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous removal of SO2, NO and Hg0 from flue gas by ferrate (VI) solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yi; Han, Yinghui; Guo, Tianxiang; Ma, Tianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneously removing SO 2 , NO and Hg 0 from flue gas was examined by ferrate (VI) solution at a bubbling reactor. The removal efficiencies of 100% for SO 2 , 64.8% for NO and 81.4% for Hg 0 were achieved respectively, under the optimum experimental conditions, in which concentration of ferrate (VI) solution was 0.25 mmol/L, solution pH was 8.0, flue gas flow rate was 1 L/min and reaction temperature was 320 K. Based on the discussions of the ferrate (VI) solution characteristics, the comparisons of the standard electrode potential (E 0 ) of ferrate (VI) solution with E 0 values of reactant, and the analysis of the reaction products, a mechanism of simultaneous removal was proposed. In the process of simultaneous removal, FeO 4 2− and HFeO 4 − as the dominant species of ferrate (VI), could rapidly oxidize SO 2 , NO, and Hg 0 into SO 4 2− , NO 3 − and Hg 2+ . - Highlights: • Prepared ferrate (VI) absorbent has excellent property of removing SO 2 , NO and Hg 0 . • 100% of SO 2 , 63.8% of NO and 83.6% of Hg 0 were simultaneously removed. • The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO 2 , NO and Hg 0 was proposed

  18. Future Prospects: Ionization Radiation Processing Technology. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau

    2017-01-01

    This final chapter concluded that the ionizing radiation processing technology was potentially used to develop new and advanced products. The new advanced products which been discussed was HBPUA, printing ink, PSA, hydrogel, bioplastic, SWA, CNT, RVNRL and others. With this new innovative technology, it will develop the country's economy and increase the productivity of manufacturing industry, medical, science and technology and also strenghten the social science field.

  19. Lectures on Antitrust Economics, Chapter 2: Price Fixing

    OpenAIRE

    Whinston, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter, we begin our discussion of antitrust economics by considering what many consider its most central element: its ban on "price fixing" - that is, agreements among competitors over the prices they will charge or the outputs they will produce. Indeed, the prohibition on price fixing is one area of antitrust law that even those generally skeptical of governmental compe- tition policy typically regard approvingly. Nevertheless, despite its current uncontroversial status, we shall s...

  20. II-VI Narrow-Bandgap Semiconductors for Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ian

    The field of narrow-gap II-VI materials is dominated by the compound semiconductor mercury cadmium telluride, (Hg1-x Cd x Te or MCT), which supports a large industry in infrared detectors, cameras and infrared systems. It is probably true to say that HgCdTe is the third most studied semiconductor after silicon and gallium arsenide. Hg1-x Cd x Te is the material most widely used in high-performance infrared detectors at present. By changing the composition x the spectral response of the detector can be made to cover the range from 1 μm to beyond 17 μm. The advantages of this system arise from a number of features, notably: close lattice matching, high optical absorption coefficient, low carrier generation rate, high electron mobility and readily available doping techniques. These advantages mean that very sensitive infrared detectors can be produced at relatively high operating temperatures. Hg1-x Cd x Te multilayers can be readily grown in vapor-phase epitaxial processes. This provides the device engineer with complex doping and composition profiles that can be used to further enhance the electro-optic performance, leading to low-cost, large-area detectors in the future. The main purpose of this chapter is to describe the applications, device physics and technology of II-VI narrow-bandgap devices, focusing on HgCdTe but also including Hg1-x Mn x Te and Hg1-x Zn x Te. It concludes with a review of the research and development programs into third-generation infrared detector technology (so-called GEN III detectors) being performed in centers around the world.

  1. Fluorescent silver nanoclusters for ultrasensitive determination of chromium(VI) in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian Rong; Zeng, Ai Lian; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fluorescent Ag nanoclusters were first applied to Cr(VI) detection. • The proposed method is simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly. • The sensor shows a wide linear range, low detection limit, and good selectivity. • The system can also be used for the indirect assay of total chromium and Cr(III). • The analyses in real water samples are satisfactory. - Abstract: In this work, a simple and sensitive Cr(VI) sensor is proposed based on fluorescent polyethyleneimine-stabilized Ag nanoclusters, which allows the determination over a wide concentration range of 0.1 nM–3.0 μM and with a detection limit as low as 0.04 nΜ and a good selectivity. The quenching mechanism was discussed in terms of the absorption and fluorescence spectra, suggesting that Cr(VI) is connected to Ag nanoclusters by hydrogen bond between the oxygen atom at the vertex of tetrahedron structure of Cr(VI) and the amino nitrogen of polyethyleneimine that surrounded Ag nanoclusters and electron transfer from Ag nanoclusters to highly electron-deficient Cr(VI) results in fluorescence quenching. Despite the failure to quench the fluorescence efficiently, Cr(III) can also be measured using the proposed Ag nanoclusters by being oxidized to Cr(VI) in alkaline solution (pH ∼9) containing H 2 O 2 . Therefore, our approach could be used to detect Cr(VI), Cr(III) and the total chromium level in aqueous solution. In addition, Cr(VI) analysis in real water samples were satisfactory, indicating this method could be practically promising for chromium measurements.

  2. Plutonium(VI) accumulation and reduction by lichen biomass: correlation with U(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Aoyagi, Hisao; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Samadfam, Mohammad; Kimura, Yasuhiko; William Purvis, O.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of plutonium(VI) and uranium(VI) by lichen biomass was studied in the foliose lichen Parmotrema tinctorum to elucidate the migration behavior of Pu and U in the terrestrial environment. Pu and U uptake by P. tinctorum averaged 0.040±0.010 and 0.055±0.015 g g dry -1 , respectively, after 96 h incubation with 4.0x10 -4 mol l -1 Pu solutions of pH 3, 4 and 5. SEM observations showed that the accumulated Pu is evenly distributed on the upper and lower surfaces of P. tinctorum, in contrast to U(VI), which accumulated in both cortical and medullary layers. UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that a fraction of Pu(VI) in the solution is reduced to Pu(V) by the organic substances released from P. tinctorum, and the accumulated Pu on the surface is reduced to Pu(IV), while U(VI) keeps the oxidation state of VI. Since the solubility of Pu(IV) hydroxides is very low, reduced Pu(VI) does not penetrate to the medullary layers, but is probably precipitated as Pu(IV) hydroxides on the cortical lichen surface. It is concluded that the uptake and reduction of Pu(VI) by lichens is important to determine the mobilization and oxidation states of Pu in the terrestrial environment

  3. Summary of group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the workshop was the interaction and exchange of ideas and information among the 40 participants. To facilitate this activity the workshop participants were divided into five discussions groups. These groups reviewed selected subjects and reported back to the main body with summaries of their considerations. Over the 3 days the 5 discussion groups were requested to focus on the following subjects: the characteristics and capabilities of 'good' organisations; how to ensure sufficient resources; how to ensure competence within the organisation; how to demonstrate organisational suitability; the regulatory oversight processes - including their strengths and weaknesses. A list of the related questions that were provided to the discussion groups can be found in Appendix 3. Also included in Appendix 3 are copies of the slides the groups prepared that summarised their considerations

  4. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  5. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  6. Function of site. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In Semipalatinsk test site's history there are two stages for nuclear tests. In first stage (1949-1962) when the nuclear tests have being conducted in atmosphere, and second one (1963-1989) when underground nuclear explosions have being carried out. There were 456 nuclear tests, from which 117 were both the surface and the atmospheric explosions and other underground ones. In the chapter general characteristics of atmospheric nuclear tests, conducted on Semipalatinsk test site in 1949-1962 (chronology of conducting, release energy and kinds of nuclear explosions) are presented in tabular form. Most powerful of explosion was test of hydro- nuclear (hydrogen) bomb - prototype of thermonuclear charge in 1955 with capacity 1.6 Mt. In 1990-1992 the target-oriented radioecological investigation of territory around Semipalatinsk test site was carried out. Specialists dividing all atmospheric explosions by rate local traces, forming out of test site into 4 groups: with very strong contamination, with strong contamination, with weak contamination, and with very weak contamination. To nuclear explosions with very strong contamination were attributed the four explosions carrying out in 29.08.1949, 24.09.1951, 12.08.1953, 24.08.1956. Estimations of radiological situation including external doses of radiation and environment contamination and content of radioactive substances in human body was given by 10 European experts in collaboration with Kazakstan scientists. Results of investigation show that during past period surface contamination, called by nuclear weapons' fissile products was subjected to considerable decay. External doses completely coincidence with natural background. Remains of long living radionuclides are insignificant as well, and in 1995 its approximately were equal to annual exposition doses. One of most damaged settlements is Chagan. On it territory 530 radioactive sources with doses capacity from 100 up to 400 μR/h. Scientists of Semipalatinsk defined

  7. Ion-exchanger ultraviolet spectrophotometry for uranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, H.; Korkisch, J.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive method based on solid-phase spectrophotometry has been developed for the microdetermination of uranium(VI) in water samples. Uranium is sorbed on the anion-exchanger QAE-Sephadex from thiocyanate solution and the absorbance of the exchanger is measured at 300 nm. This method is about 30 times more sensitive than solution spectrophotometry. Absorption spectra of various metals in the anion-exchanger phase are presented and their interferences discussed. A procedure for the cation-exchange separation of uranium from accompanying elements before spectral measurement of uranium is proposed. (author)

  8. Discussion on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)

  9. Summary of discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides summaries of the discussions occurred during the second international workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage. It concerns the second accident scenario: a fire on board of a ship transporting enriched uranium hexafluoride along the Danube River. (A.L.B.)

  10. Discussion 2: David Dobbs

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, David; Murray-Rust, Peter; Hatcher, Jordan; Pollock, Rufus

    2010-01-01

    David Dobbs writes on science, medicine and culture. He has contributed to a diversity of publications, including Scientific American, Slate magazine, Wired, Audubon, Atlantic Monthly, and the New York Times magazine. He has also authored a number of books. Other participants in this discussion were Peter Murray-Rust, Jordan Hatcher, and Rufus Pollock.

  11. Summary and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes and discusses results of the longitudinal study that comprises this monograph issue. Results concern: (1) marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships in families with single and remarried mothers; (2) the relationship between parenting style and adolescent adjustment; and (3) the relationship between marital transitions and…

  12. WORKSHOP: Discussion, debate, deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid

  13. ViA: a perceptual visualization assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Chris G.; St. Amant, Robert; Elhaddad, Mahmoud S.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes an automated visualized assistant called ViA. ViA is designed to help users construct perceptually optical visualizations to represent, explore, and analyze large, complex, multidimensional datasets. We have approached this problem by studying what is known about the control of human visual attention. By harnessing the low-level human visual system, we can support our dual goals of rapid and accurate visualization. Perceptual guidelines that we have built using psychophysical experiments form the basis for ViA. ViA uses modified mixed-initiative planning algorithms from artificial intelligence to search of perceptually optical data attribute to visual feature mappings. Our perceptual guidelines are integrated into evaluation engines that provide evaluation weights for a given data-feature mapping, and hints on how that mapping might be improved. ViA begins by asking users a set of simple questions about their dataset and the analysis tasks they want to perform. Answers to these questions are used in combination with the evaluation engines to identify and intelligently pursue promising data-feature mappings. The result is an automatically-generated set of mappings that are perceptually salient, but that also respect the context of the dataset and users' preferences about how they want to visualize their data.

  14. Geothermal Program Review VI: proceedings. Beyond goals and objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Program Review VI was comprised of six sessions, including an opening session, four technical sessions that addressed each of the major DOE research areas, and a session on special issues. The technical sessions were on Hydrothermal, Hot Dry Rock, Geopressured and Magma resources. Presenters in the technical sessions discussed their R and D activities within the context of specific GTD Programmatic Objectives for that technology, their progress toward achieving those objectives, and the value of those achievements to industry. The ''Special Issues'' presentations addressed several topics such as the interactions between government and industry on geothermal energy R and D; the origin and basis for the programmatic objectives analytical computer model; and international marketing opportunities for US geothermal equipment and services. The unique aspect of Program Review VI was that it was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's Industry Round Table on Federal R and D. The Round Table provided a forum for open and lively discussions between industry and government researchers and gave industry an opportunity to convey their needs and perspectives on DOE's research programs. These discussions also provided valuable information to DOE regarding industry's priorities and directions.

  15. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  16. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  17. Discussion with CERN Directorate

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Please note that the Discussion with CERN Directorate will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Prevessin 774-R-013 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.

  18. The reinvigorated South African GRSS Chapter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Looking ahead, the South African GRSS Chapter is investigating the possibility of organizing a meeting with local GRSS members, universities, and other remote-sensing organizations with the purpose of engaging undergraduate and early postgraduate...

  19. Chapter 8: Final thought on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter presents the objective of implementing and maintaining a good safety system: to prevent the occurrence of accidents and incidents (the abnormalities must be the exception) and if they occur their consequences should be mitigated. And make other considerations.

  20. Chapter 1. Economic aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to economic aspects of aluminium production. Therefore, the perspectives of development of aluminium production, the base components of aluminium cost and economic security of enterprise are considered in this chapter.

  1. How to write a medical book chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-01-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  2. Chapter 5: Summary of model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of the model applications described in Volume III of the Final Report. This chapter dealt with the selected water management regimes; ground water flow regimes; agriculture; ground water quality; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Danube; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the river branch system; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Hrusov reservoir and with ecology in this Danube area

  3. Chapter 10: Mining genome-wide genetic markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association study (GWAS aims to discover genetic factors underlying phenotypic traits. The large number of genetic factors poses both computational and statistical challenges. Various computational approaches have been developed for large scale GWAS. In this chapter, we will discuss several widely used computational approaches in GWAS. The following topics will be covered: (1 An introduction to the background of GWAS. (2 The existing computational approaches that are widely used in GWAS. This will cover single-locus, epistasis detection, and machine learning methods that have been recently developed in biology, statistic, and computer science communities. This part will be the main focus of this chapter. (3 The limitations of current approaches and future directions.

  4. Discussion Club "Profitable Heritage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors and participants of the project and the expert community analyze the problems related to the realization of a big-scale concept of renovation of the historical center “Irkutsk Quarters”. They discuss preservation of wooden architecture of the city, changes in social functions of the territory, inclusion of the new facilities in the fabric of the area, as well as the problems of the territory’s tourist function and preservation of the identity of Irkutsk downtown.

  5. Panel discussion: Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake

  6. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  7. Chapter 4. Radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of hydrosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of hydrosphere

  8. capital. A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  9. Results and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model

  10. The effects of chromium(VI) on the thioredoxin system: Implications for redox regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are highly redox active and have long been recognized as potent cytotoxins and carcinogens. The intracellular reduction of Cr(VI) generates reactive Cr intermediates, which are themselves strong oxidants, as well as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical. These probably contribute to the oxidative damage and effects on redox-sensitive transcription factors that have been reported. However, the identification of events that initiate these signaling changes has been elusive. More recent studies show that Cr(VI) causes irreversible inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and oxidation of thioredoxin (Trx) and peroxiredoxin (Prx). Mitochondrial Trx2/Prx3 are more sensitive to Cr(VI) treatment than cytosolic Trx1/Prx1, although both compartments show thiol oxidation with higher doses or longer treatments. Thiol redox proteomics demonstrate that Trx2, Prx3, and Trx1 are among the most sensitive proteins in cells to Cr(VI) treatment. Their oxidation could therefore represent initiating events that have widespread implications for protein thiol redox control and for multiple aspects of redox signaling. This review summarizes the effects of Cr(VI) on the TrxR/Trx system and how these events could influence a number of downstream redox signaling systems that are influenced by Cr(VI) exposure. Some of the signaling events discussed include the activation of apoptosis signal regulating kinase and MAP kinases (p38 and JNK) and the modulation of a number of redox-sensitive transcription factors including AP-1, NF-κB, p53, and Nrf2. PMID:22542445

  11. Inclusion of Indigenous Peoples in CONFINTEA VI and Follow-Up Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Sandra L.; Vaioleti, Timote M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses key issues raised by indigenous peoples during CONFINTEA VI and proposes strategies to enable them to participate in ongoing processes. Indigenous peoples are not involved in the design, implementation and monitoring of adult education programmes, and this often results in a "one-size-fits-all" model. This article…

  12. Fish remains from Miocene beds of Višnja vas near Vojnik, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Šoster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses fossil teeth of sharks (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii and porgies (Teleostei, Sparidae fromthe Miocene glauconite sandstones of Vi{nja vas near Vojnik. The remains of fish teeth, mostly tooth crowns, belongto cartilaginous fishes of the genera Notorynchus, Carcharias, Carcharoides, Isurus and Cosmopolitodus and to abony fish genus Pagrus.

  13. Reactor benchmarks and integral data testing and feedback into ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, R.D.; Williams, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The role of integral data testing and its feedback into the ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data files are reviewed. The use of the CSEWG reactor benchmarks in the data testing process is discussed and selected results based on ENDF/B Version VI data are presented. Finally, recommendations are given to improve the implementation in future integral data testing of ENDF/B

  14. Chromium(VI) bioremediation by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, Soraia; Sakita, Gabriel Z; Albuquerque, Talita R; Keller, Rogéria; Bremer-Neto, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to Cr(VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by Cr(VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganisms may lead to discoveries which will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to Cr(VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by the oral route. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Vi har selv designet naturens love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    ForskerZonenNaturlovene er universelt gyldige i de flestes øjne. De gælder altid, uanset hvad vi tænker. Men dette billede står ikke uimodsagt i videnskabsfilosofien, og der er meget, der tyder på, at det ikke er specielt empirisk korrekt...

  16. Energy balance of ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    ENDF/B-VI through Release 2 has been tested for neutron-photon energy balance using the Heater module of the NJOY nuclear data procesing system. The situation is much improved over ENDF/B-V, but there are still a number of maerials that show problems

  17. Enzymatic reduction of U(VI) in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addelouas, A.; Gong, W.; Lutze, W.; Nuttall, E.; Fritz, B.; Crovisier, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    The use of enzymatic reduction of U(VI) in remediation of groundwater contaminated with U(VI) is receiving considerable attention. Certain strains of bacteria can combine the oxidation of an organic compound to the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV), which precipitates as uraninite. In the present study, we tested the reduction of U(VI) in groundwaters with various origins and compositions. In all groundwaters u(VI) was reduced by sulfate reducing bacteria that had been activated by ethanol and tri-metaphosphate. The reduction rate of U(VI) depends on sulfate concentration in water and the abundance of bacteria in the system. This work shows that bacteria capable of U(VI) reduction are ubiquitous in nature, and suggests the possibility of a large application of the enzymatic reduction of U(VI) for in situ clean up of groundwaters contaminated with uranium. (authors)

  18. Final plenary discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federline, M.

    2004-01-01

    Rapporteur, chose to highlight other themes and issues from the seminar that appeared to be: - important for successful D and D; - worth further work in an international context; - controversial and worthy of further debate. The five main themes selected were as follows: - stakeholder involvement and communication; - strategy selection; - waste management and clearance; - funding and costs; - satisfying social demands. Various issues were identified under each one of these five themes and, in order to make best use of the time available for discussion, participants were invited to vote on the issues of most importance to them. Subsequent discussion was then focussed on the issues so identified. (author)

  19. Sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) on lead sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.

    1985-01-01

    The sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) on lead sulfide was investigated in dependence on pH, time of sorption, and on the concnetrations of sorbate and sorbent. The mechanisms of the sorption of Crsup(3+) and CrOsub(4)sup(2-) traces on lead sulfide are discussed; a difference between CrOsub(4)sup(2-) sorption on PbS and α-Fesub(2)Osub(3) was found. Sulfates and molybdates affect the removal of chromates from aqueous solutions. Lead sulfide carrier prepared in this work was also used for the preconcentration of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) from tap water. (author)

  20. Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1--Background principles and methods of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoers, Nine V A M; Monnens, Leo A H

    2006-02-01

    In this first chapter of the series "Teaching molecular genetics," an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide (protein). In addition, several basic and frequently used general molecular tools, such as restriction enzymes, Southern blotting, DNA amplification and sequencing are discussed, in order to lay the foundations for the forthcoming chapters.

  1. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  2. May 2013 Council of Chapter Representatives Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Council of Chapter Representatives met in conjunction with the ATS meeting in Philadelphia on May 18, 2012.Roll Call. The meeting was called to order at 11 AM. Representatives from Arizona, California, DC Metro, Louisiana, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island were in attendance, and by telephone from Washington.Chapter Updates. Information on chapter activities and a chapter brochure. There are currently 19 active chapters. Most are having annual meetings. Advocacy. Gary Ewart from ATS Government Relations gave a presentation on Washington activities. Highlights included activities on the SGR, a number of air pollution regulations and a letter campaign advocating regulation of cigars. ATS President 2013-14-vision for the coming year. Patrician Finn gave a summary of what she hopes to accomplish over the next year. The theme of her presidency will be health equality. ATS Executive Director-update. Steve Crane gave a positive presentation on the …

  3. 77 FR 64399 - Order of Succession for HUD Region VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Region VI AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession... its Field Offices (Region VI). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region VI. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lawrence D...

  4. ENDF-201, ENDF/B-VI summary documentation supplement 1, ENDF/HE-VI summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.

    1996-12-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) provides coordination for and serves as the secretariat to the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSWEG). CSEWG is responsible for the oversight of the ENDF/B Evaluated Nuclear Data File. All data are checked and reviewed by CSEWG, and the file is maintained at the NNDC. For a description of the ENDF/B-VI file, see the ENDF-102 Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF-6. The purpose of this addendum to the ENDF/B-VI Summary Documentation is to provide documentation of Releases 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/HE-VI evaluated nuclear data libraries. These releases contain many new and revised evaluations for the neutron, photo-atomic interaction, radioactive decay data, spontaneous fission product yield, neutron-induced fission product yield, thermal neutron scattering, proton, deuteron, and triton sublibraries. The summaries have been extracted mainly from the ENDF/B-VI File 1 comments (MT = 451), which have been checked, edited, and may also include supplementary information. Some summaries have been provided by the evaluators in electronic format, while others are extracted from reports on the evaluations. All references have been checked and corrected, or updated where appropriate. A list of the laboratories which have contributed evaluations used in ENDF/B-VI is given

  5. ENDF-201, ENDF/B-VI summary documentation supplement 1, ENDF/HE-VI summary documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, V.

    1996-12-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) provides coordination for and serves as the secretariat to the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSWEG). CSEWG is responsible for the oversight of the ENDF/B Evaluated Nuclear Data File. All data are checked and reviewed by CSEWG, and the file is maintained at the NNDC. For a description of the ENDF/B-VI file, see the ENDF-102 Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF-6. The purpose of this addendum to the ENDF/B-VI Summary Documentation is to provide documentation of Releases 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/HE-VI evaluated nuclear data libraries. These releases contain many new and revised evaluations for the neutron, photo-atomic interaction, radioactive decay data, spontaneous fission product yield, neutron-induced fission product yield, thermal neutron scattering, proton, deuteron, and triton sublibraries. The summaries have been extracted mainly from the ENDF/B-VI File 1 comments (MT = 451), which have been checked, edited, and may also include supplementary information. Some summaries have been provided by the evaluators in electronic format, while others are extracted from reports on the evaluations. All references have been checked and corrected, or updated where appropriate. A list of the laboratories which have contributed evaluations used in ENDF/B-VI is given.

  6. Enzymatic reduction of U(VI) in groundwaters; Reduction enzymatique de U(VI) dans des eaux souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addelouas, A.; Gong, W. [Center for Radioactive Waste Management, Advanced Materials Laboratory, 1001 University, Albuquerque (United States); Lutze, W.; Nuttall, E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Fritz, B.; Crovisier, J.L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Centre de Sedimentologie et Geochimie de la Surface

    1999-03-01

    The use of enzymatic reduction of U(VI) in remediation of groundwater contaminated with U(VI) is receiving considerable attention. Certain strains of bacteria can combine the oxidation of an organic compound to the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV), which precipitates as uraninite. In the present study, we tested the reduction of U(VI) in groundwaters with various origins and compositions. In all groundwaters u(VI) was reduced by sulfate reducing bacteria that had been activated by ethanol and tri-metaphosphate. The reduction rate of U(VI) depends on sulfate concentration in water and the abundance of bacteria in the system. This work shows that bacteria capable of U(VI) reduction are ubiquitous in nature, and suggests the possibility of a large application of the enzymatic reduction of U(VI) for in situ clean up of groundwaters contaminated with uranium. (authors) 12 refs.

  7. On quaternary oxotungstates(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, T.; Hoppe, R.

    1985-01-01

    For the first time, Na 6 Li 2 [W 2 O 10 ] has been prepared by annealing mixtures of WO 3 , Na 2 O and Li 2 O with W:Na:Li = 1:3:1 [closed Pt-tube in quartz-glass ampoule, 840 0 C, 60 d (single crystals)]. The colourless crystals are of squatted shape. The structure determination confirms the space group P-1 with a = 784.66(11), b = 602.53(7), c = 563.81(11) pm, α = 106.784(14) 0 , β = 114.548(14) 0 , γ = 91.082(13) 0 , Z = 2, d/sub X/ = 4.92 g x cm -3 , d/sub pyk/ = 4.58 g x cm -3 . The structure may be described as a distorted derivative of the NaCl-type. The Madelung Part of Lattice Energy, Effective Coordination Numbers, these via Mean Fictive ionic Radii are calculated and discussed. (author)

  8. Costing in Radiotherapy. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, E.; Lievens, Y.; Levin, V.C.; Van Der Merwe, D.

    2017-01-01

    represents only part of the total cost involved in running the department over a period of ten years. Training of personnel, salaries, maintenance and amortization can represent three times the initial investment in that period. But even when including all these costs, radiotherapy is a relatively inexpensive treatment modality, which can, as discussed later, be extremely cost effective.

  9. Chapter 29: Using an Existing Environment in the VO (IDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    The local environment of a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) can provide insight into the (still not understood) formation process of the BCG itself. BCGs are the most massive galaxies in the Universe, and their formation and evolution are a popular and current research topic (Linden et al. 2006, Bernardi et al. 2006, Lauer et al. 2006). They have been studied for some time (Sandage 1972, Ostriker & Tremaine 1975, White 1976, Thuan & Romanishin 1981, Merritt 1985, Postman and Lauer 1995, among many others). Our goal in this chapter is to study how the local environment can affect the physical and measurable properties of BCGs. We will conduct an exploratory research exercise. In this chapter, we will show how the Virtual Observatory (VO) can be effectively utilized for doing modern scientific research on BCGs. We identify the scientific functionalities we need, the datasets we require, and the service locations in order to discover and access those data. This chapter utilizes IDL's VOlib, which is described in Chapter 24 of this book and is available at http://www.nvo.noao.edu. IDL provides the capability to perform the entire range of astronomical scientific analyses in one environment: from image reduction and analysis to complex catalog manipulations, statistics, and publication quality figures. At the 2005 and 2006 NVO Summer Schools, user statistics show that IDL was the most commonly used programming language by the students (nearly 3-to-1 over languages like IRAF, Perl, and Python). In this chapter we show how the integration of IDL to the VO through VOlib provides even greater capabilities and possibilities for conducting science in the era of the Virtual Observatory. The reader should familiarize themselves with the VOlib libraries before attempting the examples in this tutorial. We first build a research plan. We then discover the service URLs we will need to access the data. We then apply the necessary functions and tools to these data before we can do our

  10. Chapter 12. Nullification of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with nullification of nuclear reactors. There are tree basic methods of nullification of nuclear reactors: (1) conservation, (2) safe close (wall up, embed in concrete), (3) direct dismantlement and remotion and two combined ways: (1) combination of mothball with subsequent dismantlement and remotion and (2) combination of safe close with subsequent dismantlement and remotion. Activity levels as well as volumes of radioactive wastes connected with decommissioning of nuclear reactors are reviewed

  11. Nicomachean Ethics VI.9: good deliberation and phronesis [Ética a Nicômaco VI.9: boa deliberação e phronesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Pires de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put under scrutiny the arguments put forward by Aristotle in Nicomachean Ethics (NE VI.9. The paper has two main parts. In the first, I examine the NE VI.9’s first part where Aristotle develops the concept of good deliberation, offering its definition in 1142b27-28. In the second, I examine the connection between good deliberation and phronesis, and, then, discuss the vexata quæstio about if the lines 1142b31-33 might be read as introducing the claim that phronesis provides moral ends. [Neste artigo, analiso pormenorizadamente os argumentos apresentados por Aristóteles em Ética a Nicômaco (EN VI.9. O artigo é dividido em duas partes principais. Na primeira, abordo a primeira parte de EN VI.9 onde Aristóteles desenvolve a noção de boa deliberação, culminando com a apresentação da sua definição em 1142b27-28. Na segunda, abordo a conexão entre boa deliberação e phronesis e discuto a vexata quaestio de se as linhas 1142b31-33 podem ser lidas como introduzindo a tese de que a phronesis fornece os fins morais

  12. ENDF/B-VI data for MCNP trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.; Frankle, S.C.; Court, J.D.

    1994-12-01

    Nuclear and atomic data are the foundation upon which the radiation transport codes are built. For neutron transport the international standard is the Evaluated Nuclear Data File from Brookhaven National Laboratory. The latest version, ENDF/B-VI release 2, has recently become available for use in the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code. These neutron cross-section data are designated by ZAID identifiers ending in .60c and are referred to as the ENDF60 library. The ENDF60 data library was processed from the ENDF/B-VI evaluations using the NJOY code. Fifty-two percent of the data evaluations are translations from ENDF/B-V. The remaining 48% are new evaluations which have sometimes changed significantly. The RSIC release package contains the ENDF60 neutron library, a new photon library MCPLIB02, the electron library EL1, and an updated XSDIR file. The authors report here the work done by the LANL Radiation Transport Group (X-6) in testing and validating the ENDF60 data library and in developing the necessary new sampling and detector schemes. When the ENDF60 library should be used in preference to the previous libraries, is also considered. The development of the new photon library MCPLIB02 is also discussed

  13. Adsorption behavior of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal—polyethyleneimine composite for removal of Cr(VI) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chao; Jin, Ru-Na; Ouyang, Xiao-kun, E-mail: xkouyang@zjou.edu.cn; Wang, Yang-Guang

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • A carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal-polyethyleneimine composite (CCN-PEI) was prepared. • The as-prepared CCN-PEI was characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS. • Results suggested that the reusable CCN-PEI could remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions with a high adsorption capacity. • The adsorption isotherm, thermodynamics, and kinetics of the adsorption process are also discussed. - Abstract: In this study, a composite adsorbent (CCN-PEI) composed of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (CCN) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) was prepared through an amidation reaction between the carboxyl groups of the CCN and the amine groups of the PEI. The adsorption performance of the CCN-PEI was tested by removing Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The physicochemical properties of the CCN and the Cr(VI) ion-loaded CCN-PEI were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To investigate the adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions onto this newly developed CCN-PEI, we performed experiments under different adsorption conditions, by varying the contact time, solution pH, initial Cr(VI) ion concentration, and adsorption temperature. The prepared CCN-PEI exhibited an encouraging uptake capacity of 358.42 mg × g{sup −1}. The adsorption process was fast: within the first 100 min, Cr(VI) ion adsorption onto the CCN-PEI was about 65%, and the adsorption equilibrium was reached within 250 min. Kinetics experiments indicated that the adsorption process could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, our adsorption equilibrium data fit the Langmuir isotherms well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, such as the free energy change (ΔG = −2.93 kJ × mol{sup −1}), enthalpy change (ΔH = −5.69 kJ × mol{sup −1}), and entropy change (ΔS = −9.14 kJ × mol{sup −1}), indicate that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto CCN

  14. Aerothermodynamics of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  15. Production, radiochemical processing and quality evaluation of 68Ge. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, F.; Filosofov, D.V.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the optimum chemical forms of the target material for the most relevant 68 Ge production routes are discussed. The principal methods for separation of 68 Ge (ion exchange, extraction, volatilization, precipitation, etc.) allowing high chemical separation yields of the parent radionuclide are also discussed

  16. Hvad skal vi med Trump-satire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til?......Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til?...

  17. Prospek pengembangan industri perkulitan pada pelita VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Karyadi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather industry is one of the strong competitive industry, as it comes from renewable natural resources. Therefore, the leather industry has good prospect to develop at the Pelita VI to be the industrial products export competitive. To develop leather industry and leather products should be given closed attention and well managed, especially concerning raw material supply, quality and leather waste treatment.

  18. Chapter 3. Current management situation: Flammulated owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The flammulated owl (Otus flammeolus) is a western mountain species associated mainly with ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jefferyi) forests in the United States and Canada (see Chapter 4). As a neotropical migrant, this small forest owl occurs on national forests in the United States during...

  19. Chapter 8. Current management situation: Boreal owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The range of boreal owls (Aegolius funereus) in the United States includes Alaska, the mountains of the western United States, and the northern tier states from the Atlantic to Pacific (see Chapter 9). Based on the species' documented distribution (see National Geographic Society 1987, Hayward et al. 1987, Johnsgard 1988, and others) the owl may...

  20. The Chapter I Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose

    Chapter I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is the largest federally-funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students to meet the special needs of educationally deprived students who reside in areas with high concentrations of low-income families. The 1994-95 school year is the last year of…

  1. Denmark - Chapter in Handbook of Global Bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Faber, Berit A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter about bioethics in Denmark focuses on specific Danish characteristics. These are the early start of a bioethics debate, legislation and bioethics councils; the independence of the councils and the parliamentarians voting on ethical issues; the introduction and extraordinary importance...... of laymen as a part of the bioethical debate and decisions; and the strong focus on debate and educational tools....

  2. Transfer of property inter vivos : chapter 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will give an overview of the various transfer systems for movable property and immovable property. It will focus on voluntary transfers based on a legal act between the transferor and transferee. First the difference between the unitary approach and the functional approach to passing of

  3. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  4. Adaptation strategies and approaches: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Maria Janowiak; Linda Parker; Matt St. Pierre; Leslie. Brandt

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information is available on climate change adaptation, but much of it is very broad and of limited use at the finer spatial scales most relevant to land managers. This chapter contains a "menu" of adaptation actions and provides land managers in northern Wisconsin with a range of options to help forest ecosystems adapt to climate change impacts....

  5. Explanatory chapter: introducing exogenous DNA into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently introduce DNA into cells is essential for many experiments in biology. This is an explanatory chapter providing an overview of the various methods for introducing DNA into bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  7. Chapter 10:Hardwoods for timber bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  8. Forest management practices and silviculture. Chapter 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala; Elon S. Verry

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of forest management and silviculture practices, and lessons learned, on the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The forests there are a mosaic of natural regeneration and conifer plantations. Verry (1969) described forest-plant communities in detail for the study watersheds (Sl through S6) on the MEF. The remaining area is described in...

  9. Chapter 13, Policy options: North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...

  10. Chapter 3: Status and trends of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Frank R. Thompson; Lynda L. Richards; Kyra C. Harper

    1999-01-01

    This chapter provides information about the vegetation cover of the Assessment area. The types and areal extent of vegetation in the Highlands are of interest for many reasons. Vegetation cover largely determines the availability of habitat for terrestrial animals, plants, and other organisms. Vegetation cover strongly influences what uses {e.g., timber, forage,...

  11. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  12. Radioactive wastes storage and disposal. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chapter 8 is essentially dedicated to radioactive waste management - storage and disposal. The management safety is being provided due to packages and facilities of waste disposal and storage. It is noted that at selection of sites for waste disposal it is necessary account rock properties and ways of the wastes delivery pathways

  13. Workplace innovation in the Netherlands: chapter 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Dhondt, S.; Korte, E. de; Oeij, P.; Vaas, F.

    2012-01-01

    Social innovation of work and employment is a prerequisite to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labor market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organizational level. This chapter focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  14. Science, practice, and place [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Place-oriented inquiry and practice are proposed as keys to overcoming the persistent gap between science and practice. This chapter begins by describing some of the reasons science fails to simplify conservation practice, highlighting the challenges associated with the social and ecological sciences of multi-scaled complexity. Place concepts help scientists and...

  15. Other pospiviroids infecting Solanaceous plants (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aside from potato spindle tuber viroid, the genus Pospiviroid contains several agents reported to naturally infect solanaceous crops (e.g. tomato, potato, pepper) or ornamental plants (e.g. Petunia hybrida, Solanum spp., Brugmansia spp.). The present chapter focuses on the following so-called solana...

  16. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter.

  17. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  18. Chapter 6: Accidents; Capitulo 6: Acidentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-01

    The chapter 6 talks about the accidents with radiators all over the world, specifically, the Stimos, in Italy, 1975, San Salvador, in El Salvador, 1989, Soreq, in Israel, 1990, Nesvizh, in Byelorussian, 1991, in Illinois, US, 1965, in Maryland, US, 1991, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1992, Fleurus, in Belgium, 2006. Comments on the accidents and mainly the learned lessons.

  19. Vi behøver innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2007-01-01

    -Produktion og Maskiner. Innovation og bæredygtighed er to områder som vi i Skandinavien giver meget stor opmærksomhed for at kunne vedligeholde vores globale konkurrencekraft og stærke velfærdssamfund. Gennem årene har mange brancher bidraget til skabelsen af vidensbaserede innovationer, og det faktum, at de......Analyse: Vi behøver innovation En ny miljøbølge ruller, og danske virksomheder bør ride med Af Tim McAloone, fredag 02. feb 2007 kl. 04:50 Tim McAloone Lektor og ph.d. ved Institut for mekanik, energi og konstruktion ved DTU. Tim McAloone skriver fremover jævnligt kommentarer i Ingeniøren...... skandinaviske lande er relativt små, har ledt til en interessant evne til at etablere og derefter samarbejde inden for tætte netværk, som strækker sig over både faglige og geografiske grænser. Samtidig har vi set miljøhensyn vinde og tabe samfundsmæssig og industriel opmærksomhed på en nærmest periodisk basis...

  20. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittleman, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The positive energy projection operators, just described by Prof. Sucher, convert the sick Hamiltonian, H/sub DC/, into a more robust one which can support bound states. They are however still a subject of some controversy. Prof. Grant pointed out that existing computer codes produce remarkable accuracy in numerical calculations which start from H/sub DC/ (with no projection operators) and so he questioned whether these operators were indeed necessary. In response, it was pointed out by several people in the audience that the codes implicitly limit the Dirac-Hartee-Fock wave functions to a normalizable sub-space and that this operation can be described as a projection operator which has the effect of eliminating the negative energy states which are not normalizable. This operation is however, not any of the three projection operators described by Sucher and so the question arises as to the sensitivity of the results (for the energy and wave functions) to the particular projection operators which are used. This appears to be an open question

  1. Energy Transfer between U(VI) and Eu(III) Ions Adsorbed on a Silica Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. K.; Cha, W.; Cho, H. R.; Im, H. J.; Jung, E. C.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Understanding of chemical behavior of actinide in a groundwater flow is important for assessing the possibility of their migration with water flows in a radioactive waste disposal site. Uranium is ubiquitous in the environment and a major actinide in a nuclear fuel cycle. Americium and curium having isotopes of long half life are minor actinides in a spent fuel. If a minor actinide coexists with uranium in a groundwater flow, some interactions between them could be expected such as minor actinide adsorption onto uranium precipitates and competition with each other for an adsorption to a mineral surface site. Eu(III) ion is frequently used as a chemical analogue of Am(III) and Cm(III) ions in a migration chemistry. The luminescent spectra of U(VI) and Eu(III) ions show a dependency on the coordination symmetry around them, and the changes in intensity or bandwidth of spectra can yield valuable information on their local environment. The luminescent lifetime also strongly depends on the coordination environment, and its measurement is valuable in probe studies on micro-heterogeneous systems. The excited U(VI) ion can be quenched through Stern.Volmer process, hydrolysis of excited species, exciplex formation, electron transfer or energy transfer. In case of U(VI)-Eu(III) system, the interaction between two ions can be studied by measuring the effect of Eu(III) ion on the quenching of U(VI) ion luminescence. There are only a few investigations on the interaction between an excited U(VI) ion and a lanthanide(III) ion. In perchlorate solution, the energy transfer to Eu(III) ion occurred only in solutions of pH>3.87. In this study, the quenching of U(VI) luminescence by Eu(III) on a silica surface was measured. The results will be discussed on the basis of a chemical interaction between them

  2. VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, Fernando; Masegosa, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Biological and other natural processes have always been a source of inspiration for computer science and information technology. Many emerging problem solving techniques integrate advanced evolution and cooperation strategies, encompassing a range of spatio-temporal scales for visionary conceptualization of evolutionary computation. This book is a collection of research works presented in the VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO) held in Canterbury, UK. Previous editions of NICSO were held in Granada, Spain (2006 & 2010), Acireale, Italy (2007), Tenerife, Spain (2008), and Cluj-Napoca, Romania (2011). NICSO 2013 and this book provides a place where state-of-the-art research, latest ideas and emerging areas of nature inspired cooperative strategies for problem solving are vigorously discussed and exchanged among the scientific community. The breadth and variety of articles in this book report on nature inspired methods and applications such as Swarm In...

  3. Extraction separation studies of uranium(VI) by amine oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, M.

    1975-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) by two amine oxides, 4-(5-nonyl)pyridine oxide and trioctylamine oxide has been studied. The extraction behavior of these two N-oxides is compared. The dependence of extraction on the type of amine oxide and acid, nature of organic diluent, and amine oxide concentration has been investigated. The influence of the concentration of the metal and salting-out agents is described. The possible mechanism of extraction is discussed in the light of the results of extraction isotherms, loading radiodata, and log-log plots of amine oxide concentration vs distribution ratio. The separation factors for a number of metal ions are reported, and the separation of uranium from some fission elements has also been achieved

  4. Loss and modification of habitat: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  5. Chapter 8. Activation mechanisms of chemokine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia C; Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2009-01-01

    binding. Attempts to unravel the activation mechanism of 7TM receptors have led to the conclusion that activation involves movements of the transmembrane segments VI and VII in particular, as recently gathered in the Global Toggle Switch Model. However, to understand the activation mechanism completely......, more research has to be done in this field. Chemokine receptors are interesting tools in this matter. First, the chemokine system has a high degree of promiscuity that allows several chemokines to target one receptor in different ways, as well as a single chemokine ligand to target several receptors...

  6. Revenues for Education in Metropolitan Areas. Chapter VI, Metropolitanism: Its Challenge to Education, 1968. Sixty-seventh Yearbook, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkin, Marvin C.

    For local school districts to provide equal educational opportunities throughout a metropolitan area, a school organization plan should distribute populations among districts in such a manner as to maximize the aggregate expressed demand for educational services and to provide relatively equal financial support. Consolidation of contiguous…

  7. Higher adsorption capacity of Spirulina platensis alga for Cr(VI) ions removal: parameter optimisation, equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasundari, Elumalai; Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy

    2017-04-01

    This study discusses about the biosorption of Cr(VI) ion from aqueous solution using ultrasonic assisted Spirulina platensis (UASP). The prepared UASP biosorbent was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller, scanning electron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray and thermogravimetric analyses. The optimum condition for the maximum removal of Cr(VI) ions for an initial concentration of 50 mg/l by UASP was measured as: adsorbent dose of 1 g/l, pH of 3.0, contact time of 30 min and temperature of 303 K. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Freundlich model provided the best results for the removal of Cr(VI) ions by UASP. The adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions onto UASP showed that the pseudo-first-order model was well in line with the experimental data. In the thermodynamic study, the parameters like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes were evaluated. This result explains that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto the UASP was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption of the biosorbent was done using different desorbing agents in which NaOH gave the best result. The prepared material showed higher affinity for the removal of Cr(VI) ions and this may be an alternative material to the existing commercial adsorbents.

  8. Treatment of Cr(VI)-containing wastewaters with exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria in pilot flow through and batch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colica, Giovanni; Mecarozzi, Pier Cesare; De Philippis, Roberto [Florence Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology

    2010-08-15

    Seven exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria were tested with regard to their capability to remove Cr(VI) from the wastewater of a plating industry. The cyanobacterium which showed, under lab conditions, the most promising features with regard to both Cr(VI) removal (about 12 mg of Cr(VI) removed per gram of dry biomass) and growth characteristics (highest growth rate and simplest culture medium) was Nostoc PCC7936. Furthermore, in lab experiments, it was also found that a HCl pretreatment is essential to abate the concentration of Cr(VI) in solution and that the viability of the biomass is not necessary. Subsequently, three pilot devices were tested, one batch (a dialysis cell) and two flow-through systems (a filter press and a column filled with quartz grain). The best performances were obtained with the filter press, where it was observed a sharp decrease in the concentration of Cr(VI), partly due to the adsorption of the metal by the biomass (about 50%) and partly due to its reduction to Cr(III). The results are discussed in terms of the role played by the different components (biomass and polysaccharide) of the cyanobacterial cultures in the removal of Cr(VI). (orig.)

  9. Study of the removal of mercury(II) and chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by Moroccan stevensite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhammou, A.; Yaacoubi, A.; Nibou, L.; Tanouti, B.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the adsorption of the heavy metals mercury(II) and chromium(VI), from aqueous solutions, onto Moroccan stevensite. A mineralogical and physicochemical characterization of natural stevensite was carried out. In order to improve the adsorption capacity of stevensite for Cr(VI), a preparation of stevensite was carried out. It consists in saturating the stevensite by ferrous iron Fe(II) and reducing the total Fe by Na 2 S 2 O 4 . Then, the adsorption experiments were studied in batch reactors at 25 ± 3 deg. C. The influence of the pH solution on the Cr(VI) and Hg(II) adsorption was studied in the pH range of 1.5-7.0. The optimum pH for the Cr(VI) adsorption is in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 while that of Hg(II) is at the pH values above 4.0. The adsorption kinetics were tested by a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption rate of Hg(II) is 54.35 mmol kg -1 min -1 and that of Cr(VI) is 7.21 mmol kg -1 min -1 . The adsorption equilibrium time for Hg(II) and Cr(VI) was reached within 2 and 12 h, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Dubinin-Radushkevich model. The maximal adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) increases from 13.7 (raw stevensite) to 48.86 mmol kg -1 (modified stevensite) while that of Hg(II) decreases from 205.8 to 166.9 mmol kg -1 . The mechanism of Hg(II) and Cr(VI) adsorption was discussed

  10. Chapter 13. Phonology: Stress and Vowel Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Nesset, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Where do the complex stress patterns in Modern Russian come from? And why is Москва ‘Moscow’ pronounced with an unstressed [a] in the first syllable? In this chapter, you learn about the history of two related phenomena that cause problems for learners of Russian: stress patterns and vowel reduction in unstressed syllables. Click on the links below to learn more!13.2 Akanje

  11. Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Chapter 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J. R.; Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    This chapter deals with the physics of events that occur when photons and electrons interact with matter. These are the radiations that are important for diagnostic radiology, and only those interactions that result in their attenuation, absorption and scattering are dealt with. Other interactions, such as those with nuclei, are not considered here because they only occur for radiation that is higher in energy than that used for diagnostic radiology.

  12. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P V

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  13. Chapter 1. The structure of the company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the first chapter of this CD ROM the structure of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.) in 1998 is presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The history (The origin of the SE, Plc.; Main events of 1995; Main events of 1996; Main events of 1997); (2) The bodies of SE, Plc. (General Meeting of Shareholders; Supervisory Board; Board of Directors); (3) Organizational structure of the the Company (The Headquarters of SE, Plc.; SE, Plc, Transmission System)

  14. Thick-joint welding process. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.; Terry, P.; Dickinson, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter reviews the techniques currently employed in the welding of pressure vessels, ranging from traditional manual metal arc and submerged arc processes to the more recently introduced narrow-gap and high-energy processes, e.g. electron beam and laser. The effect on the properties of the base materials being joined and the relative economics of the various processes is examined, from which guidance on the balance between joint properties and economy can be gained. (author)

  15. Hydro-Metathesis of Long-Chain Olefin (1-decene) using Well-Defined Silica-Supported Tungsten (VI), Molybdenum (VI) and Tantalum (V) Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Saidi, Aya

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, catalysis lies at the heart of economy growth mainly in the petroleum industry. Catalysis can offer real and potential solutions to the current challenges for a long-term sustainable energy, green chemistry, and environmental protection. In this context, one of the most important and future prosperity promising catalytic applications in the petrochemical field is hydrocarbons metathesis; it consists on the conversion of both renewable and non-petroleum fossil carbon sources to transportation fuels. Olefin metathesis has become one of the standard methodologies for constructing C-C bonds in many organic transformation reactions. This owed to the numerous types of metathesis reactions that have been developed, for example, enyne, ring-opening and closing, self and cross metathesis, etc. But the one step conversion of olefin to alkanes has not been studied much. Recently, only one such a work has been published for the hydro-metathesis of propylene by tantalum hydride supported on KCC-1 in dynamic reactor. With this knowledge, we thought to study the hydro-metathesis using liquid olefin (1-decene). Another aspect of using 1-decene comes from our previous experience on metathesis of n-decane where the first step is the conversion of decane to 1-decene and subsequently to different chain length alkanes with W-alkyl/alkylidene catalyst. In this way, it would be easy for us to use different catalysts and compare them with parent catalyst concerning TON. We found 100% conversion with TON of 1010 using supported WMe6 onto SiO2-700 [(≡Si-O-)WMe5] against the previous results for n-decane showing 20% conversion and TON of 153. In this work, we disclose the hydro-metathesis reaction of 1-decene using well-defined silica supported W(VI), Mo(VI) and Ta(V) alkyl catalysts in batch reactor condition. This work is divided into three major sections; first chapter contains an introduction to the field of catalysis and surface organometallic chemistry. In second chapter

  16. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  17. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 16 (2010), s. 1837-1845 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) GPP301/10/P548; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651 Program:KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * electroactive labels * osmium(VI) complexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  18. Environmental survey of Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009; Miljoeundersoekelse i Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, May-Helen; Cochrane, Sabine; Mannvik, Hans-Petter; Wasbotten, Ingar Halvorsen

    2010-07-01

    There has been an environmental investigation in Region VI Halten Bank. This report presents the results of the chemical and biological assays performed on samples from a total of 316 stations in 16 fields and 15 regional stations. A status of environmental conditions in the region is given at the end of the report. (AG)

  19. Environmental Survey in Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009. Summary report; Miljoeundersoekelse i Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009. Sammendragsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannvik, Hans-Petter; Wasbotten, Ingar Halvorsen

    2010-07-01

    An environmental survey of Region VI, Haltenbanken, has been carried out. This report presents the results from the analyses carried out on samples from a total of 316 stations at 16 fields and 15 regional stations. A status of the environmental conditions in the region is given at the end of the report. (Author)

  20. Fremtidens lavenergibyggeri - kan vi gøre som vi plejer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen

    2011-01-01

    Stramninger af kravene til energiforbruget i vores boliger medfører stor fokus på energiberegningen, men erfaringer fra lavenergiboliger opført i dag viser, at vi, for at sikre succes for fremtidens boliger, også skal inddrage dokumentation af indeklimaet og forbedre samarbejdet mellem arkitekter...

  1. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of CR(VI)-reducer basalt-inhabiting bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibakhashvili, N.Ya.; Kalabegishvili, T.L.; Murusidze, I.G.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Kirkesali, E.I.; Aksenova, N.G.; Holman, H.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) has been applied to studying elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts from the Republic of Georgia. Cr(VI)-reducing ability of the bacteria was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) demonstrating that the bacteria differ in the rates of Cr(VI) reduction. A well-pronounced correlation between the ability of the bacteria to accumulate Cr(VI) and their ability to reduce Cr(V) to Cr(III) observed in our experiments is discussed. Elemental analysis of these bacteria also revealed that basalt-inhabiting bacteria are distinguished by relative contents of essential elements such as K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co. A high rate of Cr(III) formation correlates with a high concentration of Co in the bacterium. ENAA detected some similarity in the elemental composition of the bacteria. The relatively high contents of Fe detected in the bacteria (140-340 μg/g of dry weight) indicate bacterial adaptation to the environmental conditions typical of the basalts. The concentrations of at least 12-19 different elements ranging from major- to ultratrace ones were determined in each type of bacteria simultaneously. The range of concentrations spans over 8 orders of magnitude

  2. Synthesis, characterization and oxidative behaviour of dioxoruthenium(VI) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, D.D.; Rastogi, Rachana

    1995-01-01

    Dioxoruthenium(VI) complexes are found to give low yield of epoxide but good yield of cyclohexanone. The complexes are electro active giving metal centered Ru VI /Ru V couple. Cis-stilbene gives trans epoxide and benzaldehyde. Norbornene gives exo epoxy norbornene. The selectivity for allylic oxidation is high. In the present note the synthesis of dioxoruthenium(VI) complexes and their oxidation behaviour is reported. The dioxoruthenium(VI) complexes have been stoichiometrically found to be good oxidants. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab

  3. Enzymatic U(VI) reduction by Desulfosporosinus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kelly, S.D.; Kemner, K.M.; Banfield, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Here we tested U(VI) reduction by a Desulfosporosinus species (sp.) isolate and type strain (DSM 765) in cell suspensions (pH 7) containing 1 mM U(VI) and lactate, under an atmosphere containing N 2 -CO 2 -H 2 (90: 5: 5). Although neither Desulfosporosinus species (spp.) reduced U(VI) in cell suspensions with 0.25% Na-bicarbonate or 0.85% NaCl, U(VI) was reduced in these solutions by a control strain, desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 642). However, both Desulfosporosinus strains reduced U(VI) in cell suspensions depleted in bicarbonate and NaCl. No U(VI) reduction was observed without lactate and H 2 electron donors or with heat-killed cells, indicating enzymatic U(VI) reduction. Uranium(VI) reduction by both strains was inhibited when 1 mM CuCl 2 was added to the cell suspensions. Because the Desulfosporosinus DSM 765 does not contain cytochrome c 3 used by Desulfovibrio spp. to reduce U(VI), Desulfosporosinus species reduce uranium via a different enzymatic pathway. (orig.)

  4. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 1 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” provides an introduction to the document. /meta name=DC.title content=Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

  5. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...

  6. Diagnostic and treatment strategies in mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vairo F

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Filippo Vairo,1–3 Andressa Federhen,1,3,4 Guilherme Baldo,1,2,5–7 Mariluce Riegel,1,6 Maira Burin,1 Sandra Leistner-Segal,1,8 Roberto Giugliani1,5,6,81Medical Genetics Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 2Department of Genetics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 3Clinical Research Group on Medical Genetics, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 4Post-Graduate Program in Child and Adolescent Health, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 5Gene Therapy Center, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 6Post-Graduate Program in Genetics and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 7Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 8Post-Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, BrazilAbstract: Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ARSB gene, which lead to deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme ASB. This enzyme is important for the breakdown of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which accumulate in body tissues and organs of MPS VI patients. The storage of GAGs (especially dermatan sulfate causes bone dysplasia, joint restriction, organomegaly, heart disease, and corneal clouding, among several other problems, and reduced life span. Despite the fact that most cases are severe, there is a spectrum of severity and some cases are so attenuated that diagnosis is made late in life. Although the analysis of urinary GAGs and/or the measurement of enzyme activity in dried blood spots are useful screening methods, the diagnosis is based in the demonstration of the enzyme deficiency in leucocytes or fibroblasts, and/or in the identification of pathogenic mutations in the ARSB gene

  7. Effect of uranium (VI) on the growth of yeast and influence of metabolism of yeast on adsorption of U (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozai, Naofumi; Wakai, Eiichi; Francis, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out the growth experiments of 3 strains of yeast in a medium containing uranium (VI) to elucidate the effect of U (VI) on the growth of microorganisms. Hansenula fabianii J640 grew in the liquid medium containing 0.1 mM U (VI) at lower rate than the control, but Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not grow under this condition. The H. fabianii J640 pre-cultured for 21 h in the liquid medium without U (VI) grew even after the exposure to 1 mM U (VI), but did not grow without pre-cultivation. For the pre-cultured H. fabianii J640, radioactivity of U in the medium was the same as the initial one for 110 h, and then gradually decreased. TEM-EDS analysis of H. fabianii J640 exposed to 1 mM U (VI) for 165 h showed accumulation of U (VI) on the cells. When H. fabianii J640 was not pre-cultured, radioactivity of U in the medium was lower than the initial one. These results indicated that U (VI) inhibits the growth of yeast, and that the adsorption of U (VI) by the cells depends on the metabolism of yeast. (author)

  8. Extraction of U(VI) with unsymmetrical N-methyl-N-octyl alkylamides in toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guoxin; Li Yexin; Zhang Zhenwei; Cui Yu; Shandong University, Jinan; Sun Sixiu

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of U(VI) with three new unsymmetrical monoamides, N-methyl-N-octyloctylamide (MOOA), N-methyl-N-octyldecanamide (MODA), and N-methyl-N-octyldodecanamide (MODOA), from nitric acid solution employing toluene as diluent is discussed. The effects of nitric acid, sodium nitrate and extractant concentrations and also the temperature on the distribution ratio have been investigated. The extracted species were studied by IR spectrometry. (author)

  9. Chapter 14. Radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Influence of radiation on foods; (2) Radiation sterilisation in health service

  10. Using Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle in Chapter Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Eley, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Student-led chapter presentations provide an excellent opportunity for instructors to evaluate a student's comprehension of the assigned chapter, as well as the student's ability to present and convey information in a public forum. Although several instructors realize the benefits of requiring students to complete chapter presentations either as…

  11. Promoting the APS Chapter Program by sharing its history, best practices, and how-to guide for establishing new chapters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K

    2017-03-01

    Early establishment of physiological societies in Oklahoma and Ohio demonstrated the benefits of networking physiologists and paved the way for establishing the APS Chapter Program. Designed to promote the general objectives of the APS, the Chapter Program was officially launched in 1995, with Ohio being the first recognized chapter. There are 13 active chapters regularly engaged in numerous activities designed to advance physiology education and research. In the hopes that others will recognize the important offerings of state chapters and consider organizing one, the aims for this paper are to 1) share a brief history, 2) provide rationale for chapter initiation, and 3) describe the process involved in establishing a chapter. In light of current changes in American Medical Association and Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines, the present time may be critical in promoting chapters, as they play a vital role in sustaining recognition and support for the discipline. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Chapter 14: Evaluating the Leaching of Biocides from Preservative-Treated Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Leaching of biocides is an important consideration in the long term durability and any potential for environmental impact of treated wood products. This chapter discusses factors affecting biocide leaching, as well as methods of evaluating rate and quantity of biocide released. The extent of leaching is a function of preservative formulation, treatment methods, wood...

  13. Healthy outdoor recreation: An integrated approach to linking physical activity with wellness goals. Chapter 38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; David M. Buchner

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the shared interest of the public health and leisure fields in promoting outdoor recreation. We describe how trans disciplinary integration of research efforts across these fields can lead to a better understanding of how outdoor recreation facilities and programs can help realize a full range of health and wellness benefits....

  14. Creating historical range of variation (HRV) time series using landscape modeling: Overview and issues [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2012-01-01

    Simulation modeling can be a powerful tool for generating information about historical range of variation (HRV) in landscape conditions. In this chapter, I will discuss several aspects of the use of simulation modeling to generate landscape HRV data, including (1) the advantages and disadvantages of using simulation, (2) a brief review of possible landscape models. and...

  15. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter X: nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, Ken; Iida, Hiromasa; Honda, Tsutomu

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapter X of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Data base of the nuclear technology for INTOR is assessed focusing on the four fields; Blanket, Shield, Tritium and Safty. Ongoing R and D programs in these fields are also reviewed and required new programs are discussed. (author)

  16. Implementing United States Pharmacopeia Chapter quality assurance in pharmaceutical compounding, Part 5: Outsourcing and responsible personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2012-01-01

    This final installment of a five-part series relating to United States Pharmacopeia Chapter provides the pros and cons of outsourcing, an extremely important topic because of the many drug shortages and discontinued drugs being experienced, and provides a brief discussion of the importance of having a responsible employee in charge of the quality-assurance program.

  17. Current status, future opportunities, and remaining challenges in landscape genetics [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niko Balkenhol; Samuel A. Cushman; Lisette P. Waits; Andrew Storfer

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetics has advanced the field of evolutionary ecology by providing a direct focus on relationships between landscape patterns and population processes, such as gene flow, selection, and genetic drift. This chapter discusses the current and emerging challenges and opportunities, which focus and facilitate future progress in the field. It presents ten...

  18. Opportunities and uses of biochar on forest sites in North America [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Mark D. Coleman; Sean C. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Biochar may be useful for restoring or revitalizing degraded forest soils and help with carbon sequestration, nutrient leaching losses, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, biochar is not currently widely used on forested lands across North America. This chapter provides an overview of several biochar experiments conducted in North America and discusses the...

  19. Chapter 17. Electric schema and its changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feik, K.; Kmosena, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter an electric schema and its changes of the A1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice (the Slovak Republic) are described. Three turbogenerators with power 50 MW were installed in the A1 NPP. Basic description of electrical equipment installed according authentic project and authentic conception of accidental cooling are presented in detail. New conception and equipment of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling of the A1 NPP as well as final solution of electrical part with new functions of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling are presented. Shortcomings of electrical equipment, which originated and were eliminated during construction and operation, are also described.

  20. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  1. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Shepherd, J. A. [University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  2. Gaia DR2 documentation Chapter 7: Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, L.; Guy, L.; Distefano, E.; Clementini, G.; Mowlavi, N.; Rimoldini, L.; Roelens, M.; Audard, M.; Holl, B.; Lanzafame, A.; Lebzelter, T.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; Molnár, L.; Ripepi, V.; Sarro, L.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Nienartowicz, K.; De Ridder, J.; Juhász, Á.; Molinaro, R.; Plachy, E.; Regibo, S.

    2018-04-01

    This chapter of the Gaia DR2 documentation describes the models and methods used on the 22 months of data to produce the Gaia variable star results for Gaia DR2. The variability processing and analysis was based mostly on the calibrated G and integrated BP and RP photometry. The variability analysis approach to the Gaia data has been described in Eyer et al. (2017), and the Gaia DR2 results are presented in Holl et al. (2018). Detailed methods on specific topics will be published in a number of separate articles. Variability behaviour in the colour magnitude diagram is presented in Gaia Collaboration et al. (2018c).

  3. Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1983-03-01

    This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations

  4. Comparison of decay and yield data between JNDC2 and ENDF/B-VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyamatsu, K.; Sagosaka, M.; Miyazono, T. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This work is intended to be our first step to solve disagreements of the decay heat powers between measurements and summation calculations. We examine differences between nuclear data libraries to complement our uncertainty evaluation of the decay heat summation calculations only with ENDF/B-VI. The comparison is made mainly between JNDC2 and ENDF/B-VI while JEF2.2 decay data is also discussed. In this study, we propose and use a simple method which is an analogue of the overlap integral of two wave functions in quantum mechanics. As the first step, we compare the whole input nuclear data for the summation calculations as a whole. We find a slight difference of the fission yields especially for high-energy neutron induced fissions between JNDC2 and ENDF/B-VI. As for the decay energies, JNDC2, ENDF/B-VI are quite similar while JEF2.2 is found significantly different from these two libraries. We find substantial differences in the decay constant values among the three libraries. As the second step, we calculate the decay heat powers with FPGS90 using JNDC2 and ENDF/B-VI. The total decay heat powers with the two libraries differ by more than 10% at short cooling times while they agree well on the average at cooling times longer that 100 (s). We also point out nuclides whose contributions are significantly different between the two libraries even though the total decay heats agree well. These nuclides may cause some problems in predicting aggregate spectra of {beta} and {gamma} rays as well as delayed neutrons, and are to be reviewed in the future revision of decay and yield data. (author)

  5. VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics 17-25 November 2015, Chiapas, Mexico The VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics was held at the MCTP, at the Autonomous University of Chiapas (UNACH), Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico thanks to the Science for Development ICTP-UNACH-UNESCO Regional Seminar, 17-25 November 2015 (http://mctp.mx/e-VI-School-on-Cosmic-Rays-and-Astrophysics.html). The School series started in La Paz, Bolivia in 2004 and it has been, since then, hosted by several Latin American countires: 1.- La Paz, Bolivia (August, 2004), 2.- Puebla, Mexico (September, 2006), 3.- Arequipa, Peru (September, 2008), 4.- Santo André, Brazil (September, 2010), 5.- La Paz, Bolivia (August, 2012). It aims to promote Cosmic Ray (CR) Physics and Astrophysics in the Latin American community and to provide a general overview of theoretical and experimental issues on these topics. It is directed to undergraduates, postgraduates and active researchers in the field. The lectures introduce fundamental Cosmic Ray Physics and Astrophysics with a review of standards of the field. It is expected the school continues happening during the next years following a tradition. In this edition, the list of seminars included topics such as experimental techniques of CR detection, development of CR showers and hadronic interactions, composition and energy spectrum of primary CR, Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), neutrino Astrophysics, spacecraft detectors, simulations, solar modulation, and the current state of development and results of several astroparticle physics experiments such as The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, HAWC in Mexico, KASCADE and KASCADE Grande, HESS, IceCube, JEM-EUSO, Fermi-LAT, and others. This time the school has been complemented with the ICTP-UNACH-UNESCO Seminar of theory on Particle and Astroparticle Physics. The organization was done by MCTP, the Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics. The school had 46 participants, 30 students from Honduras, Brazil

  6. Predicting chromium (VI) adsorption rate in the treatment of liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The adsorption rate of chromium (VI) on commercial activated carbon during the ... time and initial chromium (VI) ion concentration. .... model, the separation factor r, according to Calvo et al (2001) cited .... Lead (II) and nickel (II) adsorption kinetics .... heavy metal by Talaromyces helicus: a trained fungus for copper and.

  7. Procedure for plutonium determination using Pu(VI) spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Jackson, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes a simple spectrophotometric method for determining total plutonium in nitric acid solutions based on the spectrum of Pu(VI). Plutonium samples in nitric acid are oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) and the net absorbance at the 830 nm peak is measured

  8. Predicting chromium (VI) adsorption rate in the treatment of liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption rate of chromium (VI) on commercial activated carbon during the treatment of the flocculation effluent of liquid-phase oil-based drill-cuttings has been investigated in terms of contact time and initial chromium (VI) ion concentration. Homogenizing 1 g of the activated carbon with 100 ml of the flocculation ...

  9. A CMOS rail-to-rail linear VI-converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, P.P.; Vervoort, P.P.; Wassenaar, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A linear CMOS VI-converter operating in strong inversion with a common-mode input range from the negative to the positive supply rail is presented. The circuit consists of three linear VI-converters based on the difference of squares principle. Two of these perform the actual V to I conversion,

  10. Cloning and expression of a Vi mimotope of Salmonella enterica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... A recombinant His-Vi protein of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was successfully constructed and cloned into ... mainly through consumption of food or water contami- nated with .... and healthy individuals (double arrows) followed by the detection using recombinant His-Vi protein as the primary antibody ...

  11. KENO-VI Primer: A Primer for Criticality Calculations with SCALE/KENO-VI Using GeeWiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. The well-known KENO-VI three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code is one of the primary criticality safety analysis tools in SCALE. The KENO-VI primer is designed to help a new user understand and use the SCALE/KENO-VI Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with SCALE/KENO-VI in particular. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of SCALE/KENO-VI that are useful in criticality analyses. The primer is based on SCALE 6, which includes the Graphically Enhanced Editing Wizard (GeeWiz) Windows user interface. Each example uses GeeWiz to provide the framework for preparing input data and viewing output results. Starting with a Quickstart section, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for SCALE/KENO-VI input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with SCALE/KENO-VI. The sections that follow Quickstart include a list of basic objectives at the beginning that identifies the goal of the section and the individual SCALE/KENO-VI features that are covered in detail in the sample problems in that section. Upon completion of the primer, a new user should be comfortable using GeeWiz to set up criticality problems in SCALE/KENO-VI. The primer provides a starting point for the criticality safety analyst who uses SCALE/KENO-VI. Complete descriptions are provided in the SCALE/KENO-VI manual. Although the primer is self-contained, it is intended as a companion volume to the SCALE/KENO-VI documentation. (The SCALE manual is provided on the SCALE installation DVD.) The primer provides specific examples of

  12. Round Table Discussion on EASTWEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion is focused on various aspects of interrelations between East and West. Its participants discuss the problems of the increasing tourist flows from China and the specific characteristics of Chinese tourists. The future development of tourism in the Baikal region is formulated, and the peculiarities of ethno tourism and its prospects are discussed.

  13. Positron annihilation spectroscopy for chemical analysis (PASCA). Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K.L.; Jean, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter gives an up to date overview of positron annihilation spectroscopy for chemical analysis (PASCA). As an in situ technique PASCA is especially suitable for studying processes occurring at surfaces. The in situ characteristics of PASCA are treated. The principes of positron annihilation life time spectroscopy (PAL) are discussed and some important analytical applications such as, in determining of total surface areas and cavity volumes in chemical reactions, in the study of chemisorption and catalytic reactions on porous surfaces, in the analysis of bulk materials, in determining molecular association constants in biological systems, in proton and neutron activation analysis, in thin layer chromatography and in tracer technology. 28 refs.; 15 figs.; 8 tabs

  14. Chapter 16: Lignin Visualization: Advanced Microscopy Techniques for Lignin Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yining [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donohoe, Bryon S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-03

    Visualization of lignin in plant cell walls, with both spatial and chemical resolution, is emerging as an important tool to understand lignin's role in the plant cell wall's nanoscale architecture and to understand and design processes intended to modify the lignin. As such, this chapter reviews recent advances in advanced imaging methods with respect to lignin in plant cell walls. This review focuses on the importance of lignin detection and localization for studies in both plant biology and biotechnology. Challenges going forward to identify and delineate lignin from other plant cell wall components and to quantitatively analyze lignin in whole cell walls from native plant tissue and treated biomass are also discussed.

  15. Neutron-nucleus interactions and fission. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The central problem in nuclear-reactor kinetics is to predict the evolution in time of the neutron population in a multiplying medium. Point kinetics allows study of the global behaviour of the neutron population from the average properties of the medium. Before tackling, in the following chapters, the equations governing the time variation of the reactor power (proportional to the total neutron population), the properties of a neutron-multiplying medium shall be discussed briefly. After recalling a number of definitions, a qualitative description shall be given of the principal nuclear reactions at play in a self-sustaining chain reaction, with emphasis on the source of fission neutrons. Since delayed neutrons play a crucial role in reactor kinetics, their production in a reactor shall be described in greater detail. (author)

  16. Chapter 54: the discovery of neurotransmitters, and applications to neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourkes, Theodore L

    2010-01-01

    The theory of chemical transmission has proved to be a powerful tool in the analysis of many aspects of neurological function, and its implications loom large on the horizon of neurology and psychiatry. Neurotransmitters are released at neuronal endings, diffuse rapidly across the synaptic cleft, and then act upon receptor proteins embedded in the membrane of the post-synaptic neuron or gland. Drugs are evaluated for their ability to stimulate or to block specific receptors, and in that way modify activity of the postsynaptic organ in order to achieve some desirable therapeutic effect. This chapter is concerned with our knowledge of some of the principal neurotransmitters, namely the primary amines: dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin; the quaternary amine: acetylcholine; and the aminoacids: gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid and glycine. The historical background to the discovery of these molecules as physiological neurotransmitters is presented, and their relation to various clinical states is discussed.

  17. Chapter 3: Science and Pathways for Bending the Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Collins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land use are changing the radiative budget of the Earth and changing its climate. The negative impacts of this climate change on natural and human systems are already emergent. The solution is to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions altogether as soon as possible, but the rate at which these emissions can decrease is limited by human reliance on fossil fuels for energy and the infrastructural, socio-economic, and behavioral inertia of current systems around the world. In this chapter, we discuss the physical impacts as well as the many challenges and obstacles to ‘bending the curve’, and provide a framework of possible solutions.

  18. Measures of Image Quality. Chapter 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidment, A. D.A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A medical image is a pictorial representation of a measurement of an object or function of the body. This information can be acquired in one to three spatial dimensions. It can be static or dynamic, meaning that it can also be measured as a function of time. Certain fundamental properties can be associated with all of these data. Firstly, no image can exactly represent the object or function; at best, one has a measurement with an associated error equal to the difference between the true object and the measured image. Secondly, no two images will be identical, even if acquired with the same imaging system of the same anatomic region; this variability is generally referred to as noise. There are many different ways to acquire medical image data; the various mechanisms of acquisition are described in detail in the subsequent chapters. However, regardless of the method of image formation, one must be able to judge the fidelity of the image in an attempt to answer the question “How accurately does the image portray the body or the bodily function?” This judgement falls under the rubric of ‘image quality’. In this chapter, methods of quantifying image quality are described.

  19. Image Perception and Assessment. Chapter 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, I. [University of Chicago, Chicago (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The main purpose of a medical image is to provide information to a human reader, such as a radiologist, so that a diagnosis can be reached — rather than to display the beauty of the human internal workings. It is important to understand how the human visual system affects the perception of contrast and spatial resolution of structures that are present in the image. If the image is not properly displayed, or the environment is not appropriate, subtle clinical signs may go unnoticed, which can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. This chapter provides an introduction to human visual perception and task based objective assessment of an imaging system. A model for the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system is presented. This model is used to derive the greyscale standard display function for medical displays. Task based assessment measures the quality of an imaging system as the ability of an observer to perform a well defined task, based on a set of images. Metrics for observer performance are introduced, as well as experimental methodologies for the measurement of human performance. The last section of the chapter describes the estimation of task performance based on mathematical observer models.

  20. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  1. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  2. WIN Chapters: Milestones and Future Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.; Pelegrí, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the WIN Chapters: milestones and future plans are presented. WIN-IAEA has rewarded-in the three last years - to Australia-2014, South-Africa-2013 and Sweden-2012. WIN-Global -specially WiN IAEA- can collaborate a lot with the CTBTO presenting the content of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons actually increasing the signatory members in 2015. Historical decisions on NTP are already affecting WiN IAEA. The research reactors or high flux reactors are important in the field of medical applications and other future applications. In Australia women-scientist of OPAL, can become WiN. Between the OPAL applications there is a production of silicon plates to be used in laptops/mobiles. WIN-Europe activities related with the climatic change and with the academic promotion. 2015 is also a very important year due the celebration of 20th Anniversary of WIN-Spain; plans of this Chapter and Conferences of WIN-Global are presented. In addition there are women working in ITER, in some activities in the EU, China, India, Japan, South Korea, USA and Russia both in the academic (R+D) field and into the Industry. (Author)

  3. Chapter 7: Renewable Energy Options and Considerations for Net Zero Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Samuel

    2017-03-15

    This chapter focuses on renewable energy options for military installations. It discusses typical renewable technologies, project development, and gives examples. Renewable energy can be combined with conventional energy sources to provide part or all of the energy demand at an installation. The appropriate technology mix for an installation will depend on site-specific factors such as renewable resources, energy costs, local energy policies and incentives, available land, mission compatibility, and other factors. The objective of this chapter is to provide basic background information and resources on renewable energy options for NATO leaders and energy personnel.

  4. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, John

    2013-01-01

    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  5. Testing of ENDF/B-VI data for shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Version VI of the U.S. Evaluated Nuclear Data File (END/B-VI) was released for open distribution in 1990 after an extensive multiyear, multilaboratory evaluation effort coordinated by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG). More than 75 of the 320 evaluations contained in the library are new for Version VI, including many relatively important nuclides and many with substantial changes to the cross-section data. Also, several important changes were made to the basic data formats for Version VI to permit better representation of the data and to allow additional types of data. Although these format changes yielded improved evaluations, they hindered processing of the data for use in applications codes and delayed the timely integral testing of the data. It has been only during the past year that significant integral testing of END/B-VI data has been achieved. The results and conclusions from some of these efforts are summarized in the following paragraphs

  6. Factors affecting the adsorption of chromium (VI) on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, R.; Orbak, I.; Karatepe, N. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the adsorption behavior of chromium (VI) on two different activated carbon samples produced from Tuncbilek lignite. The effects of the initial chromium (VI) concentration (250-1000 mg/L), temperature (297-323 K) and pH (2.0-9.5) on adsorption were investigated systematically. The effectiveness of the parameters on chromium adsorption was found to be in the order of pH, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and the temperature. Increasing the pH from 2.0 to 9.5 caused a decrease in adsorption. However, the adsorption was increased by increasing the initial Cr(VI) concentration and temperature. The multilinear mathematical model was also developed to predict the Cr(VI) adsorption on activated carbon samples within the experimental conditions.

  7. Spectrophotometry of Comet West 1976 VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenbush, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra obtained for the coma, nuclear fragments A and D, and tail of Comet West 1976 VI on April 1, 2 and 7, 1976 are noted to encompass coma spectra which differed from those of the nuclear fragments, which exhibited a strong continuum with superimposed emissions that included a stronger CO(+)-band system than that of the coma. A detailed comparison between fragment spectra has revealed great differences in both quasi-simultaneously obtained and five-day-separated cases. The relative intensities of different CO(+) bands are compared to the theoretical ones, and the abundances of CO(+) ions corresponding to different vibrational transitions are determined relative to that of CN. 24 references

  8. Cranial nerves III, IV and VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, I.J.; Smoker, W.R.; Kuta, A.J.; Felton, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Because of advances in CT and MR imaging, accurate identification and evaluation of cranial nerve lesions is now possible. Cranial nerves III, IV, and VI, providing motor and sensory control of the eye, can be evaluated as a unit. In this paper, the authors present an overview of the anatomy and pathology of these cranial nerves. We first illustrate their normal anatomic pathways from the brain stem to the orbit. This is followed by clinical examples of patients with a variety of isolated and complex palsies of these three cranial nerves. This is accomplished by inclusion of ocular photographs, correlative imaging studies, and the use of diagrams. Knowledge of the gross and imaging anatomy and the ophthalmologic manifestations of pathology affecting these three cranial nerves permits a tailored approach to their evaluation

  9. Proposal of a Self-baking Single-wall Design for the VI Section of the ATLAS Beam Pipe

    CERN Document Server

    Marco Olcese, MO

    2002-01-01

    A single-wall design for the VI section of the ATLAS beam vacuum chamber is presented. This design would allow for a major cost saving with respect to the current double-wall baseline. All the thermal implications and impact on the B-layer mudules are discussed.

  10. Spectrum and energy levels of Y VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, W.; Reader, J.

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of the five-times-ionized yttrium atom (Y VI), excited in a sliding-spark discharge, was studied in the 160--2500 A-circle range. About 900 Y VI lines were classified as transitions between 101 odd and 69 even energy levels.The energy-level system established includes almost all levels of the 4s 2 4p 4 , 4s4p 5 , 4s 2 4p 3 4d, 5d, 5s, 6s, and 5p configurations and a number of levels of the 7s, 4f, and 4s4p 4 4d configurations. The observed level system has been theoretically interpreted by means of Hartree--Fock calculations and least-squares parametric fits. Strong configuration mixings are found between the 4s4p 5 and 4s 2 4p 3 4d configurations, between the 4s 2 4p 3 5p and 4s4p 4 4d configurations, and between the 4s 2 4p 3 4f and 4s4p 4 4d configurations. From the optimized energy-level values, a system of Ritz-type wavelength standards with accuracies varying from 0.0003 to 0.003 A-circle in the range 179--500 A-circle has been determined. The ionization energy as determined from 4s 2 4p 3 ns levels (n = 5-7) is 737 110 +- 200 cm/sup -1/ (91.390 +- 0.025 eV)

  11. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi, S. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasiri, M., E-mail: mnasiri@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mesbahi, A. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khani, M.H. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, 14395-836 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The adsorbent (polypyrrole) was synthesized by a chemical method using PEG, DBSNa and CTAB as the surfactant. • The solution pH was one of the most important parameters affecting the adsorption of uranium. • The CTAB provided higher removal percentage compared with the other surfactants. • The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm was 87.72 mg/g. • The pseudo second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic of polypyrrole to uranium. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7 min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0} showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous.

  12. Kinetic investigations of quinoline oxidation by ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiyong; Li, Xueming; Zhai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Quinoline is considered as one of the most toxic and carcinogenic compounds and is commonly found in industrial wastewaters, which require treatment before being discharged. Removal of quinoline by the use of an environmentally friendly oxidant, potassium ferrate(VI) (K2FeO4), was assessed by studying the kinetics of the oxidation of quinoline by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) as a function of pH (8.53-10.53) and temperature (21-36°C) in this work. The reaction of quinoline with Fe(VI) was found to be first order in Fe(VI), half order in quinoline, and 1.5 order overall. The observed rate constant at 28°C decreased non-linearly from 0.5334 to 0.2365 M(-0.5) min(-1) with an increase in pH from 8.53 to 10.03. Considering the equilibria of Fe(VI) and quinoline, the reaction between quinoline and Fe(VI) contained two parallel reactions under the given pH conditions. The individual rate constants of these two reactions were determined. The results indicate that the protonated species of Fe(VI) reacts more quickly with quinoline than the deprotonated form of Fe(VI). The reaction activation energy Ea was obtained to be 51.44 kJ·mol(-1), and it was slightly lower than that of conventional chemical reaction. It reveals that the oxidation of quinoline by Fe(VI) is feasible in the routine water treatment.

  13. Technology-derived storage solutions for stabilizing insulin in extreme weather conditions I: the ViViCap-1 device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Pesach, Gidi; Nagar, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Injectable life-saving drugs should not be exposed to temperatures 30°C/86°F. Frequently, weather conditions exceed these temperature thresholds in many countries. Insulin is to be kept at 4-8°C/~ 39-47°F until use and once opened, is supposed to be stable for up to 31 days at room temperature (exception: 42 days for insulin levemir). Extremely hot or cold external temperature can lead to insulin degradation in a very short time with loss of its glucose-lowering efficacy. Combined chemical and engineering solutions for heat protection are employed in ViViCap-1 for disposable insulin pens. The device works based on vacuum insulation and heat consumption by phase-change material. Laboratory studies with exposure of ViViCap-1 to hot outside conditions were performed to evaluate the device performance. ViViCap-1 keeps insulin at an internal temperature phase-change process and 'recharges' the device for further use. ViViCap-1 performed within its specifications. The small and convenient device maintains the efficacy and safety of using insulin even when carried under hot weather conditions.

  14. U(VI) sorption on kaolinite. Effects of pH, U(VI) concentration and oxyanions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Gao; Ziqian Yang; Keliang Shi; Xuefeng Wang; Zhijun Guo; Wangsuo Wu

    2010-01-01

    U(VI) sorption on kaolinite was studied as functions of contact time, pH, U(VI) concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio (m/V) by using a batch experimental method. The effects of sulfate and phosphate on U(VI) sorption were also investigated. It was found that the sorption kinetics of U(VI) can be described by a pseudo-second-order model. Potentiometric titrations at variable ionic strengths indicated that the titration curves of kaolinite were not sensitive to ionic strength, and that the pH of the zero net proton charge (pH PZNPC ) was at 6.9. The sorption of U(VI) on kaolinite increased with pH up to 6.5 and reached a plateau at pH >6.5. The presence of phosphate strongly increased U(VI) sorption especially at pH <5.5, which may be due to formation of ternary surface complexes involving phosphate. In contrast, the presence of sulfate did not cause any apparent effect on U(VI) sorption. A double layer model was used to interpret both results of potentiometric titrations and U(VI) sorption on kaolinite. (author)

  15. The reduction of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) by organic chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Aase, S.B.; Banaszak, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The reduction of NpO 2+ and PuO 2 2+ by oxalate. citrate, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was investigated in low ionic strength media and brines. This was done to help establish the stability of the An(VI) oxidation state in the presence of organic complexants. The stability of the An(VI) oxidation state depended on the pH and relative strength of the various oxidation state-specific complexes. At low ionic strength and pH 6, NpO 2 O 2+ was rapidly reduced to form NpO 2 + organic complexes. At longer times, Np(IV) organic complexes were observed in the presence of citrate. PuO 2 2+ was predominantly reduced to Pu 4+ , resulting in the formation of organic complexes or polymeric/hydrolytic precipitates. The relative rates of reduction to the An(V) complex were EDTA > citrate > oxalate. Subsequent reduction to An(IV) complexes, however, occurred in the following order: citrate > EDTA > oxalate because of the stability of the An(V)-EDTA complex. The presence of organic complexants led to the rapid reduction of NpO 2 2+ and PuO 2 P 2+ in G-seep brine at pHs 5 and 7. At pHs 8 and 10 in ERDA-6 brine, carbonate and hydrolytic complexes predominated and slowed down or prevented the reduction of An(VI) by the organics present

  16. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal

    2013-04-01

    mentioned in regular lectures. To date, the major highlights of our activity are two international workshops: MatGeoS 2008 & 2009. During our second workshop, over thirty scientists representing government agencies, academia and non-profit research organizations worldwide participated. A number of interdisciplinary topics were intensively discussed. After the workshop, the decision was made to create a book based on the presented scientific work, which should be edited by the us, the students of the student chapter. Eventually, we called for papers, organized a full-scale peer-review and edited the book. It is scheduled to be published in the first quarter of 2013 and is entitled "Mathematical Geosciences: Theory, Methods and Applications". The whole organizing process proved to be another excellent lesson to us, as it interfered with our overwhelming studying and research activities. It was necessary to learn how to organize and handle the mandatory communication and editing, while pursuing our regular duties. We consider the activities of the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg as an example of what a group of enthusiastic and dedicated young professionals can achieve. Therefore, we encourage every similar group of students or "scientists in training" to just try to do something beyond the requirements and learn, while doing it. We proved that this is possible.

  17. Interaction of uranium(VI) with bioligands present in human biological fluids. The case study of urea and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.A.A.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.

    2013-01-01

    The complexation of uranium(VI) with bioligands found in human biological fluids, viz, urea and uric acid in aqueous solutions, has been investigated using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) at room temperature, I = 0.1 M (NaClO4) and pH (3 for uric acid; 4 for urea). In both complex systems a static quench effect with increasing ligand concentration and no peaks shift upon complexation were observed. With uranium(VI) both ligands formed a fairly weak 1:1 complex with average stability constants of log β 110 = 4.67 ± 0.29 for uric acid and log β 110 = 3.79 ± 0.15 and 2.12 ± 0.18 for relatively low and relatively high urea concentrations, respectively. Application of the newly generated data on the U(VI) speciation modelling in biofluids, e.g., human urine was also discussed.

  18. Interaction of uranium(VI) with bioligands present in human biological fluids. The case study of urea and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, A.A.A.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2013-05-01

    The complexation of uranium(VI) with bioligands found in human biological fluids, viz, urea and uric acid in aqueous solutions, has been investigated using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) at room temperature, I = 0.1 M (NaClO4) and pH (3 for uric acid; 4 for urea). In both complex systems a static quench effect with increasing ligand concentration and no peaks shift upon complexation were observed. With uranium(VI) both ligands formed a fairly weak 1:1 complex with average stability constants of log {beta}{sub 110} = 4.67 {+-} 0.29 for uric acid and log {beta}{sub 110} = 3.79 {+-} 0.15 and 2.12 {+-} 0.18 for relatively low and relatively high urea concentrations, respectively. Application of the newly generated data on the U(VI) speciation modelling in biofluids, e.g., human urine was also discussed.

  19. Preparation and characterizations of new U(IV) and U(VI) complexes with carboxylate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbrignadello, G; Tomat, G; Battiston, G; Vigato, P A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi

    1978-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of some uranyl(VI) complexes containing glycolate (gly = CH/sub 2/OHCOO/sup -/) and methoxyacetate (MeOAc = CH/sub 3/OCH/sub 2/COO/sup -/) ligands with metal:ligand ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 are reported. In addition, new stable uranium(IV) complexes containing the same ligands, or the oxydiacetate (oda = /sup -/OOCCH/sub 2/OCH/sub 2/COO/sup -/) anion, have been prepared by photolysing aqueous solutions of uranyl(VI) nitrate in the presence of an excess of ligand. The possible structures of these complexes are discussed on the basis of IR results. The photoproduction mechanism of U(IV) complexes is proposed from electronic and spectrofluorimetric spectra and quantum yield data.

  20. Discussion on Papers 11 - 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, E.; Matthews, M.E.; Wilson, E.M.; Charles-Jones, S.; Allen, R.F.; Young, R.M.; O'Connor, B.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion covered the following topics: the nature of boulder clay for foundations; navigation through the barrage; the construction of sluice caissons; government subsidies for construction costs; the effect of wave action on river banks; allowances for reflected energy in hydrodynamic models; water quality in impounded pools; sediment deposition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  1. Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Jensen, Marina B.

    2013-01-01

    mm in 2 h) and extreme (100 mm in 3 h) rain events. The objectives were to understand the behaviour of the anionic and toxic Cr(VI) in soil at neutral pH and to asses treatment efficiency towards Cr(VI). During normal rain events Cr(VI) was largely retained (more than 50, even though pH was neutral......The ability of stormwater infiltration systems to retain Cr(VI) was tested by applying a synthetic stormwater runoff solution with a neutral pH and high Cr(VI) concentrations to four intact soil columns excavated from two roadside infiltration swales in Germany. Inlet flow rates mimicked normal (10......, while under extreme rain events approximately 20% of Cr(VI) was retained. In both cases effluent concentrations of Cr(VI) would exceed the threshold value of 3.4 mu g/L if the infiltrated water were introduced to freshwater environments. More knowledge on the composition of the stormwater runoff...

  2. Electrochemical alkaline Fe(VI) water purification and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stuart; Yu, Xingwen

    2005-10-15

    Fe(VI) is an unusual and strongly oxidizing form of iron, which provides a potentially less hazardous water-purifying agent than chlorine. A novel on-line electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification methodology is introduced. Fe(VI) addition had been a barrier to its effective use in water remediation, because solid Fe(VI) salts require complex (costly) syntheses steps and solutions of Fe(VI) decompose. Online electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification avoids these limitations, in which Fe(VI) is directly prepared in solution from an iron anode as the FeO42- ion, and is added to the contaminant stream. Added FeO42- decomposes, by oxidizing a wide range of water contaminants including sulfides (demonstrated in this study) and other sulfur-containing compounds, cyanides (demonstrated in this study), arsenic (demonstrated in this study), ammonia and other nitrogen-containing compounds (previously demonstrated), a wide range of organics (phenol demonstrated in this study), algae, and viruses (each previously demonstrated).

  3. Emotional discussions reduce memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleti, Emanuela; Wright, Daniel B; Curci, Antonietta

    2017-05-01

    People often discuss events they have seen and these discussions can influence later recollections. We investigated the effects of factual, emotional, and free retelling discussion on memory recollections of individuals who have witnessed an event. Participants were shown a video, made an initial individual recall, participated in one of the three retelling conditions (emotional versus factual versus free) or a control condition, and then recalled the event individually again. Participants in the factual and free retelling conditions reported more items not previously recalled than participants in the control condition did, while the emotional condition did not show the same advantage. Participants in all three retelling conditions failed to report more previously recalled items as compared with the control condition. Finally, a memory conformity effect was observed for all three retelling conditions. These findings suggest that eyewitnesses' discussions may influence the accuracy of subsequent memory reports, especially when these discussions are focused on emotional details and thoughts.

  4. Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi) II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the second iteration of the Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi), a set theoretical visual analytics dashboard of big social data. In order to further demonstrate its usefulness in large-scale visual analytics tasks of individual and collective behavior of actors in social networks......, the current iteration of the Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi) in version II builds on recent advancements in visualizing set intersections. The development of the SoSeVi dashboard involved cutting-edge open source visual analytics libraries (D3.js) and creation of new visualizations such as of actor mobility...

  5. Wavelengths and energy levels of I V and I VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, V.; Sugar, J.; Joshi, Y.N.

    1988-01-01

    The spectra of iodine were photographed in the 139--1500-Aat;O region on various spectrographs. Earlier analyses of I V and I VI were revised and extended. For I V 26 lines were classified, and for I VI 35 lines were classified. Ionization energies have been estimated to be 415 510 atm≅ 300 cm -1 (51.52 atm≅ 0.04 eV) and 599 800 atm≅ 3 000 cm -1 (74.37 atm≅ 0.37 eV) for I V and I VI, respectively

  6. Electronics Related to Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, R. J. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Stephenson, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Nuclear medicine imaging is generally based on the detection of X rays and γ rays emitted by radionuclides injected into a patient. In the previous chapter, the methods used to detect these photons were described, based most commonly on a scintillation counter although there are imaging devices that use either gas filled ionization detectors or semiconductors. Whatever device is used, nuclear medicine images are produced from a very limited number of photons, due mainly to the level of radioactivity that can be safely injected into a patient. Hence, nuclear medicine images are usually made from many orders of magnitude fewer photons than X ray computed tomography (CT) images, for example. However, as the information produced is essentially functional in nature compared to the anatomical detail of CT, the apparently poorer image quality is overcome by the nature of the information produced. The low levels of photons detected in nuclear medicine means that photon counting can be performed. Here each photon is detected and analysed individually, which is especially valuable, for example, in enabling scattered photons to be rejected. This is in contrast to X ray imaging where images are produced by integrating the flux entering the detectors. Photon counting, however, places a heavy burden on the electronics used for nuclear medicine imaging in terms of electronic noise and stability. This chapter will discuss how the signals produced in the primary photon detection process can be converted into pulses providing spatial, energy and timing information, and how this information is used to produce both qualitative and quantitative images.

  7. Cinética e equilíbrio de adsorção dos oxiânions Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI pelo sal de amônio quaternário de quitosana Kinetics and equilibrium of adsorption of oxyanions Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI by quaternary ammonium chitosan salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane A. Spinelli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O sal quaternário de quitosana foi sintetizado com cloreto de glicidil trimetil amônio. A modificação química foi caracterizada por espectrometria no IV, RMN de 13C e ¹H, e mmol/g de grupos quaternários presentes na matriz polimérica por condutimetria. A remoção de Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI, em meio aquoso, foi investigada em processo de batelada. A adsorção mostrou ser dependente do pH para o Cr (VI e Se (VI, com um pH ótimo de adsorção, entre 4,0 a 6,0. Para o Mo (VI a adsorção manteve-se quase constante no intervalo de pH entre 4,0 e 11,5. O modelo de isoterma de Langmuir descreveu melhor os dados de equilíbrio na faixa de concentração investigada. No presente estudo, um grama do sal quaternário de quitosana reticulado com glutaraldeído adsorveu 68,3 mg de Cr, 63,4 mg de Mo e 90,0 mg de Se. A velocidade de adsorção, no processo, segue a equação cinética de pseudo segunda-ordem, sendo que o equilíbrio para os três íons foi alcançado próximo aos 200 minutos. A análise dispersiva de raios-X para o Cr (VI mostrou que o principal mecanismo de adsorção é a troca iônica entre os íons Cl- da superfície do polímero pelos oxiânions. O trocador aniônico apresentou a seguinte ordem de seletividade: Cr (VI > Mo (VI > Se (VI.Quaternary chitosan salt was synthesized in the presence of glycidyl trimetyl ammonium chloride. The polymer was characterized by spectroscopic techniques: infrared, 13C and ¹H NMR, while the amount of quaternary ammonium groups was obtained by condutimetry. The removal of Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI from aqueous solutions was carried out in batch adsorption processes. The process seemed to be pH dependent for Cr (VI and Se (VI with an optimum pH ranging from 4.0 to 6.0; while for Mo (VI the adsorption remained almost constant within the range between 4.0 and 11.5. The Langmuir isotherm model provided the best fit of the equilibrium data over the whole concentration investigated. In the experiment

  8. Animating Geometry Discussions with Flexigons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities with 10- and 4-straw flexigons, an object created by stringing together lengths of plastic drinking straws with nylon fishing line. Discusses several geometric theorems that can be demonstrated with flexigons. (MKR)

  9. Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    chantal Taylor

    Page 1. Description: Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming. Date: 2017-02-10. Attendees: 2 (IDRC 1). Location: Ottawa. Total: $79.92. Comments: 2016-2017 Hospitality Expense. Reports for Jean Lebel, President.

  10. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  11. Discussion on Papers 5 - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongman, C.P.; Jones, R.; Moorhead, H.

    1992-01-01

    The topics raised in discussion included: the performance of the generator sets; the movement of sediments and the effect on beach levels; monitoring near-bed sediments; the erosion of barrage materials by suspended solids; sediment transport models; the accuracy of hydrographic and other surveys; the relative ornithological importance of the estuary with respect to others in the United Kingdom. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  12. Open Education Week Panel Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, Peter; Hart, Heath; Hartman, Greg; Seyam, Mohammed; Walz, Anita R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction by Julie Speer, Associate Dean for Research & Informatics. Open remarks by Anita Walz, Assessment, Open Education & Online Learning Environments Librarian. Mohammed Seyam discusses the value of openly licensed material as a student, research, and graduate assistant. Heath Hart reflects on his adoption of an open educational resource and a (subscribed) online textbook in, “A Rousing Success and an Unmitigated Disaster.” Greg Hartman discusses his experiences authoring open-source ...

  13. Wind tunnel test of musi VI bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permata, Robby; Andika, Matza Gusto; Syariefatunnisa, Risdhiawan, Eri; Hermawan, Budi; Noordiana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Musi VI Bridge is planned to cross the Musi River in Palembang City, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The main span is a steel arch type with 200 m length and side span length is 75 m. Finite element analysis results showed that the bridge has frequency ratio for torsional and heaving mode (torsional frequency/heaving frequency)=1.14. This close to unity value rises concern about aerodynamic behaviour and stability of the bridge deck under wind loading. Sectional static and free vibration wind tunnel test were performed to clarify this phenomena in B2TA3 facility in Serpong, Indonesia. The test followed the draft of Guide of Wind Tunnel Test for Bridges developed by Indonesian Ministry of Public Works. Results from wind tunnel testing show that the bridge is safe from flutter instability and no coupled motion vibration observed. Therefore, low value of frequency ratio has no effect to aerodynamic behaviour of the bridge deck. Vortex-induced vibration in heaving mode occurred in relatively low wind velocity with permissible maximum amplitude value.

  14. Separation of Rhenium (VII) from Tungsten (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, J.; Lukic, D.; Stoiljkovic, M.; Milosevic, M.; Orlic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Examined were the conditions for an effective separation of tungsten (VI) and rhenium (VII) on alumina if the solution of 0.20 mol dm -3 NaCl, ph=2.6 is used as the aqueous phase. Under the given experimental conditions alumina was found to be much better adsorbent for tungsten than for rhenium. The breakthrough and saturation capacities of alumina at pH=2 are 24 and 78 mg W/g Al 2 O 3 , respectively. With the increase of pH these values decrease. So, at pH=6 they are only 4 and 13 mg W/g Al 2 O 3 respectively. The elution volume for rhenium for the given column dimensions and quantity of the adsorbent is about 16 ml. These results were confirmed by the experiments of the radiological separations. Tungsten-187 remains firmly bound to the alumina. The radionuclide purity of the eluted 186'188 Re at pH=2 is very high. (authors)

  15. VIM: Initial ENDF/B-VI experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    The VIM Monte Carlo particle transport code uses detailed continuous-energy cross sections produced from ENDF/B data by a set of specialized codes developed or adapted for use at Argonne National Laboratory. ENDF/B-IV data were used until about 1979, and Version V data since then. These VIM libraries were extensively benchmarked against the MC 2 -2 code and against ZPR and ZPPR criticals for fast spectrum calculations, as well as other fast and thermal experiments and calculations. Recently, the cross section processing codes have been upgraded to accommodate ENDF/B-VI files, and a small library has been tested. Several fundamental tasks comprise the construction of a faithful representation of ENDF data for VIM calculations: (1) The resolved resonance parameters are converted to Doppler-broadened continuous-energy cross sections with energy grids suitable for linear-linear interpolation. (2) The unresolved resonance parameter distributions are sampled to produce many (40-400) resonance ladders in each energy band. These are converted to Doppler-broadened continuous energy resonance cross sections that are then binned by cross section, accumulating ladders until statistical convergence, the result being probability tables of total cross sections and conditional mean scattering and fission cross sections. VIM samples these tables at run time, and File 3 back ground cross sections are added. (3) Anisotropic angular distribution data are converted to angular probability tables. All other ENDF data are unmodified, except for format

  16. The Students’ misconceptions profile on chapter gas kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhariyah, M. N. R.; Suprapto, N.; Suliyanah; Admoko, S.; Setyarsih, W.; Harizah, Z.; Zulfa, I.

    2018-03-01

    Students have conception and misconceptions in the learning process. Misconceptions are caused by the teacher, students, and learning source. In the previous study, the researcher developed a misconception diagnosis instrument using three-tier on chapter gas kinetic theory. There are 14 items including 5 sub-chapters on gas kinetic theory. The profile of students’ misconceptions shows that students have misconceptions in each sub-chapter. The cause of misconceptions came from preconceptions, associative thinking, reasoning, intuition, and false negative. The highest cause of misconception in this chapter is student’s humanistic thinking.

  17. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  18. Mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Ana M. Rosa da [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica do Algarve, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, DQF, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Matos, Antonio Pedro [Servico de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Curry Cabral, Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    The mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial consortia, recovered from an uncontaminated site (consortium A) and other from an uranium mine (consortium U), was investigated. The highest efficiency of U (VI) removal by both consortia (97%) occurred at room temperature and at pH 7.2. Furthermore, it was found that U (VI) removal by consortium A occurred by enzymatic reduction and bioaccumulation, while the enzymatic process was the only mechanism involved in metal removal by consortium U. FTIR analysis suggested that after U (VI) reduction, U (IV) could be bound to carboxyl, phosphate and amide groups of bacterial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that community A was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Sporotalea genus and Rhodocyclaceae family, while community U was mainly composed by bacteria related to Clostridium genus and Rhodocyclaceae family.

  19. Extraction behavior of uranium(VI) with polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingchia Huang; Donghwang Chen; Muchang Shieh; Chingtsven Huang

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution with polyether-based polyurethane (PU) foam was studied. The effects of the kinds and concentrations of nitrate salts, uranium(VI) concentration, temperature, nitric acid concentration, pH, the content of poly(ethylene oxide) in the polyurethane foam, and the ratio of PU foam weight and solution volume on the extraction of uranium(VI) were investigated. The interferences of fluoride and carbonate ions on the extraction of uranium(VI) were also examined, and methods to overcome both interferences were suggested. It was found that no uranium was extracted in the absence of a nitrate salting-out agent, and the extraction behaviors of uranium(IV) with polyurethane foam could be explained in terms of an etherlike solvent extraction mechanism. In addition, the percentage extraction of a multiple stage was also estimated theoretically

  20. BEHA VI OUR OF TOPI IN A SHADELESS ENVIRONMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BEHA VI OUR OF TOPI IN A SHADELESS ENVIRONMENT ... one population for signs of behavioural adaptiveness in the species' environmental relation- .... The major change is obviously in the proportion of topi which had their heads up, as.

  1. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-02-21

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel and the UO{sub 2+x}, in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO{sub 2+x}, to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements.

  2. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-01-01

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO 2 in spent nuclear fuel and the UO 2+x , in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO 2 2+ polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO 2+x , to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements

  3. Mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Monica; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Costa, Ana M. Rosa da; Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio; Matos, Antonio Pedro; Costa, Maria Clara

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial consortia, recovered from an uncontaminated site (consortium A) and other from an uranium mine (consortium U), was investigated. The highest efficiency of U (VI) removal by both consortia (97%) occurred at room temperature and at pH 7.2. Furthermore, it was found that U (VI) removal by consortium A occurred by enzymatic reduction and bioaccumulation, while the enzymatic process was the only mechanism involved in metal removal by consortium U. FTIR analysis suggested that after U (VI) reduction, U (IV) could be bound to carboxyl, phosphate and amide groups of bacterial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that community A was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Sporotalea genus and Rhodocyclaceae family, while community U was mainly composed by bacteria related to Clostridium genus and Rhodocyclaceae family.

  4. Polarography of uranium(VI)-salicylic acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, El-Maraghy B.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium(VI)-salicylic acid system has been studied polarographically in perchloric acid medium. Varying concentrations of HClO 4 and salicylic acid have been used. The nature of the polarographic waves is irreversible. (author)

  5. Polarography of uranium(VI)-salicylic acid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, E M.B. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Education

    1980-08-01

    Uranium(VI)-salicylic acid system has been studied polarographically in perchloric acid medium. Varying concentrations of HClO/sub 4/ and salicylic acid have been used. The nature of the polarographic waves is irreversible.

  6. Potentiometric studies on quaternary complexes of dioxouranium(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Vinod; Chaturvedi, G K [Agra Coll., (India). Chemical Laboratories

    1979-10-01

    The formation of quaternary complexes of dioxouranium(VI) with three different organic acids (OX, MALN and SA, SSA, TAR or TMA) has been inferred from the potentiometric studies. The formation constants for the resulting triligand complexes have been evaluated.

  7. Chapter 4: neurology in the Bible and the Talmud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsod, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The Bible, a major pillar of Western Civilization consists of Hebrew Scriptures, assembled over a millennium and accepted as of divine origin. The Talmud is a compendium of Jewish laws, covering every possible aspect of life, analyzed in depth from 200 BCE to 600 CE, becoming the foundation of Jewish existence. The all-encompassing character of the books provides numerous medical problems and observations that appear in various connotations. When in need to clarify various legal dilemmas, the Talmudic sages displayed astoundingly accurate anatomical knowledge and were pioneers in clinical-pathological correlations. The descriptions of "neurological" events in the Bible are very precise but show no evidence of neurological knowledge. Those reported in the various tractates of the Talmud are evidence of a substantial medical knowledge, marked by Hellenistic influence. Subjects such as head and spinal injuries, epilepsy, handedness neuralgias aphasia tinnitus and tremor were discussed in depth. This chapter is an updated collection of the studies, extracting observations and discussions of neurological manifestations from the ancient texts.

  8. Nuclear power and deregulation in the United Kingdom. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2001-01-01

    This article (Chapter Three) reviews the development of the British nuclear industry and the country's experience with privatised and liberalized electricity markets - an experience that is much earlier than Canada's. The U.K. industry is of special interest because a British firm, British Energy, has leased the Bruce A and B nuclear stations until 2018. This article tries to explain how the economic transformation of nuclear power has been achieved, and why nuclear power and a competitive electricity market are so hard to reconcile. The article gives a brief history of nuclear power in Britain up to 1987; a summary of the main events relating to nuclear power; a discussion of why nuclear power could not be privatised in 1990, but could be in 1996; examines the improvements in cost and competitiveness since 1990; a discussion of the issues surrounding the discharge of nuclear liabilities; the future for British Energy, Britain's leading nuclear company, and nuclear power in Britain; and finally, changes to other nuclear companies in Britain

  9. Nuclear power and atomic weapons. Chapter 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Following a brief historical introduction the concept of proliferation, vertical horizontal and subnational, is presented, and its relationship to nuclear power discussed. The risk of nuclear weapon proliferation, based on political decision, motivation and costs, is related to access to enriched uranium, plutonium and uranium 233. The possibilities for diversion and theft from nuclear facilities are discussed. International measures to prevent proliferation, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)and the IAEA safeguards system, are described and discussed. Measures which may be enacted against countries which break the NPT are discussed. Restrictions on international nuclear trude, both multilateral and unilateral, are also discussed, especially those at present, or shortly to be, enforced by USA, Canada and Australia. The International Nuclear Feel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) is briefly presented. The physical protection of nuclear materials is also discussed. Finally the basc principles of nuclear weapons are briefly presented. (JIW)

  10. Nuclear power and atomic weapons. Chapter 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Following a brief historical introduction the concept of proliferation, vertical and horizontal and subnational, is presented, and its relationship to nuclear power discussed. The risk of nuclear weapon proliferation, based on political decision motivation and costs, is related to access to enriched uranium, plutonium and uranium 233. The possibilities for diversion and theft from nuclear facilities are discussed. International measures to prevent proliferation, the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the IAEA safeguards system, are described and discussed. Measures which may be enacted against countries which break the NPT are discussed. Restrictions on international nuclear trade, both multilateral and unilateral, are also discussed, especially those at present, or shortly to be, enforced by USA, Canada and Australia. The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) is briefly presented. The physical protection of nuclear materials is also discussed. Finally the basic principles of nuclear weapons are briefly presented. (JIW)

  11. strong>Hvad skal vi med en hjerne?strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Judy

    2009-01-01

    neurologen Antonio Damasio, at sikre vores overlevelse og velbefindende (i nævnte rækkefølge). Vi ved, at der findes såkaldte belønningsstrukturer i hjernen på både dyr og mennesker, som aktiverer følelser af velbehag, når vi gør "det rigtige", dvs. noget der er godt for os. Men hvordan de mere konkret...

  12. Gaia DR1 documentation Chapter 6: Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, L.; Rimoldini, L.; Guy, L.; Holl, B.; Clementini, G.; Cuypers, J.; Mowlavi, N.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; De Ridder, J.; Charnas, J.; Nienartowicz, K.

    2017-12-01

    This chapter describes the photometric variability processing of the Gaia DR1 data. Coordination Unit 7 is responsible for the variability analysis of over a billion celestial sources. In particular the definition, design, development, validation and provision of a software package for the data processing of photometrically variable objects. Data Processing Centre Geneva (DPCG) responsibilities cover all issues related to the computational part of the CU7 analysis. These span: hardware provisioning, including selection, deployment and optimisation of suitable hardware, choosing and developing software architecture, defining data and scientific workflows as well as operational activities such as configuration management, data import, time series reconstruction, storage and processing handling, visualisation and data export. CU7/DPCG is also responsible for interaction with other DPCs and CUs, software and programming training for the CU7 members, scientific software quality control and management of software and data lifecycle. Details about the specific data treatment steps of the Gaia DR1 data products are found in Eyer et al. (2017) and are not repeated here. The variability content of the Gaia DR1 focusses on a subsample of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars around the South ecliptic pole, showcasing the performance of the Gaia photometry with respect to variable objects.

  13. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  14. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  15. Moving forward with imperfect information: chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Brekke, Levi D.; Kaatz, Laurna; Welling, Leigh; Hartge, Eric H.; Iseman, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarized the scope of what is known and not known about climate in the Southwestern United States. There is now more evidence and more agreement among climate scientists about the physical climate and related impacts in the Southwest compared with that represented in the 2009 National Climate Assessment (Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009). However, there remain uncertainties about the climate system, the complexities within climate models, the related impacts to the biophysical environment, and the use of climate information on decision making. Uncertainty is introduced in each step of the climate planning-an-response process--in the scenarios used to drive the climate models, the information used to construct the models, and the interpretation and use of the model' data for planning and decision making (Figure 19.1). There are server key challenge, drawn from recommendations of the authors of this report, that contribute to these uncertainties in the Southwest: - There is a dearth of climate observations at high elevations and on the lands of Native nations.

  16. Chapter 15--chew before you swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, James P

    2011-01-01

    The main text of this chapter, written by James P. Lund, summarizes most of the work related to the neural control of mastication that he conducted with his collaborators throughout the years. From his early PhD work showing that mastication is centrally patterned to his latest work related to the interaction between pain and movement, Lund will have addressed many essential questions regarding the organization and functioning of the masticatory central pattern generator (CPG). His earliest studies examined how the CPG modulates reflexes and the excitability of primary afferents, interneurons, and motoneurons forming their circuitry. He then tackled the question of how the CPG itself was modulated by different types of sensory and cortical inputs. Another series of studies focused on the organization of the subpopulations of neurons forming the CPG, their intrinsic and network properties. Shortly before his untimely passing, he had turned his attention to the potential contribution of muscle spindle afferents to the patterning of mastication as well as to the development of chronic muscle pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Uranium(VI) and ruthenium extraction by dialkyldithio-phosphoric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, R.; Musikas, C.

    1980-01-01

    Oxygen donors like dialkylphosphoric acids are good extractants for actinide ions, but little is known about their sulfur homologs. Investigations of U(VI) and Ru extraction from various aqueous media are reported. This includes extraction of U(VI) from nitric, perchloric, and phosphoric acids by solutions of dialkyldithiophosphoric acids in dodecane or benzene. Extraction of U(VI) by synergistic mixtures, of which at least one of the components is a sulfur donor, has been investigated. The extracted species have been identified, and a comparison with the complexes obtained by extraction with the homologous oxygen donors is made. The sulfur-actinide bond is weaker than the oxygen-actinide one, but in some synergistic extractions the dialkyldithiophosphonates are more efficient than the oxygen donors. In addition to size effects, this behavior could be attributed to the weakness of the hydrogen bonds of the SH groups, which allows a greater variety of the ligands to enter the coordination sphere of the metal. Ruthenium, like the d-transition elements, gives strong bonds with the sulfur donors. However, its extraction from nitric acid is slow. We investigated the influence of several parameters on the distribution coefficients and found that the presence of a reagent which destroys nitrous ions is necessary to achieve quantitative extraction. The role of RuNO groups is also discussed

  18. Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian; Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth. L.

    2008-06-10

    The dissolution of synthetic boehmite (?-AlOOH) by 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) was examined in a series of batch adsorption/dissolution experiments. Additionally, the leaching behavior of {sup 233}U(VI) from boehmite was examined as a function of pH and HEDPA concentration. The results are discussed in terms of sludge washing procedures that may be utilized during underground tank waste remediation. In the pH range 4 to 10, complexation of Al(III) by HEDPA significantly enhanced dissolution of boehmite. This phenomenon was especially pronounced in the neutral pH region where the solubility of aluminum, in the absence of complexants, is limited by the formation of sparsely soluble aluminum hydroxides. At pH higher than 10, dissolution of synthetic boehmite was inhibited by HEDPA, likely due to sorption of Al(III):HEDPA complexes. Addition of HEDPA to equilibrated U(VI)-synthetic boehmite suspensions yielded an increase in the aqueous phase uranium concentration. Partitioning of uranium between the solid and aqueous phase is described in terms of U(VI):HEDPA speciation and dissolution of the boehmite solid phase.

  19. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (ENAA) of Cr(VI)-reducer Basalt-inhabiting Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tsibakhashvili, N Ya; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G; Kalabegishvili, T L; Murusidze, I G; Mosulishvili, L M; Holman, H Y N

    2005-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) has been applied to studying elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts from the Republic of Georgia. Cr(VI)-reducing ability of the bacteria was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) demonstrating that the bacteria differ in the rates of Cr(VI) reduction. A well-pronounced correlation between the ability of the bacteria to accumulate Cr(V) and their ability to reduce Cr(V) to Cr(III) observed in our experiments is discussed. Elemental analysis of these bacteria also revealed that basalt-inhabiting bacteria are distinguished by relative contents of essential elements such as K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co. A high rate of Cr(III) formation correlates with a high concentration of Co in the bacterium. ENAA detected some similarity in the elemental composition of the bacteria. The relatively high contents of Fe detected in the bacteria (140-340 $\\mu $g/g of dry weight) indicate bacterial adaptation to the environmental condition...

  20. Extraction mechanism of U(VI) ions by N,N-dialkylamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descouls, N.; Musikas, C.

    1985-09-01

    N,N dialkylamides are good extractants of UO 2 2+ ions from the nitric solutions obtained on dissolution of nuclear irradiated fuels. The extraction mechanism of U(VI) ions proved to be rather complex. Two species were identified by spectrophotometry in the organic phase: UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 L 2 (1) and UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 HL (2), L standing for the amide molecule. The complex (1) is typical for neutral molecules extractants. However, when log D(U(VI)) is plotted against log C (amide), the slope of the straight line obtained is greater than 2, which suggests that amide (1) interactions take place in the 2sup(nd) coordination sphere of U(VI) ions. The crystal structure of (1) where L is the N,N-di-n-butyldodecanamide show that Van der Waals interactions occur between the dodecyl chains of two (1) molecules. The complex (2) is characteristic for anionic extractants. For the amide molecules studied, it takes place in very acidic media. In order to investigate the nature of the UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 HL complex, the infra-red shift of νc=0 vibration were compared in the following compounds: free amide, HNO 3 - L, phenol L, UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 HL. The results are discussed. 14 refs [fr

  1. Profile disparity of Raman-scattered O VI in symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee-Won

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are wide binary systems consisting of a hot compact star (usually a white dwarf) and a mass losing giant. Symbiotic activities are believed to occur through gravitational capture of a fraction of the slow stellar wind from the giant. Raman scattered features of O VI resonance doublet 1032 and 1038 appearing at around 6825 Å and 7082 Å are a unique spectroscopic diagnostic tool to probe the mass transfer process in symbiotic stars. The Raman O VI features often exhibit multiple peak structures and in many cases the blue peak of 7082 features is relatively more suppressed than that of 6825 features. We propose that the disparity of the two profiles is attributed to the local variation of optical depths of O VI, implying that the accretion flow is convergent in the red emission region and divergent in the blue emission region. It is argued in this presentation that Raman scattering by atomic hydrogen is a natural mirror to provide an edge-on view of the accretion disk and a lateral view of the bipolar outflow in symbiotic stars. We discuss the spectropolarimetric implications of this interpretation. (paper)

  2. Discussion on Papers 8 - 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.; Wilson, E.A.; Gibson, P.

    1992-01-01

    Questions raised in the discussion are reported. These concerned: the Treasury discount rate for the construction of such a project; the CO 2 benefits of tidal schemes in developing countries; the criteria for deciding the total installed capacity of the scheme; the Government review of the cost-benefit analysis; the benefit arising from the elimination of nitrogen and sulphur oxides; security of supply; carbon tax projections. The only response reported is on the question of criteria for deciding the total installed capacity. Separate abstracts have been prepared on the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  3. Vi-da: vitiligo diagnostic assistance mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, G. A.; Nurhudatiana, A.; Bahana, R.

    2018-03-01

    Vitiligo is a skin disorder in which white patches of depigmentation appear on different parts of the body. Usually, patients come to hospitals or clinics to have their vitiligo conditions assessed. This can be very tiring to the patients, as vitiligo treatments usually take a relatively long period of time, which can range from months to years. To address this challenge, we present in this paper a prototype of an Android-based mobile application called Vi-DA, which stands for Vitiligo Diagnostic Assistance. Vi-DA consists of three subsystems, which are user sign-up subsystem, camera and image analysis subsystem, and progress report subsystem. The mobile application was developed in Java programming language and uses MySQL as the database system. Vi-DA adopts a vitiligo segmentation algorithm to segment input image into normal skin area, vitiligo skin area, and non-skin area. Results showed that Vi-DA gave comparable results to the previous system implemented in Matlab. User acceptance testing results also showed that all respondents agreed on the usefulness of the system and agreed to use Vi-DA again in the future. Vi-DA benefits both dermatologists and patients as not only a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool but also as a smart application that can be used for self-assessment at home.

  4. Recovery of uranium (VI) from low level aqueous radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshrestha, Mukul

    1996-01-01

    Investigation was undertaken to evaluate the uranium (VI) removal and recovery potential of a naturally occurring, nonviable macrofungus, Ganoderma Lucidum from the simulated low level aqueous nuclear waste. These low level waste waters discharged from nuclear mine tailings and nuclear power reactors have a typical U(VI) concentration of 10-100 mg/L. It is possible to recover this uranium economically with the advent of biosorption as a viable technology. Extensive laboratory studies have revealed Ganoderma Lucidum to be a potential biosorbent with a specific uptake of 2.75 mg/g at an equilibrium U(VI) concentration of 10 mg/L at pH 4.5. To recover the sorbed U(VI), the studies indicated 0.2N Na 2 CO 3 to be an effective elutant. The kinetics of U(VI) desorption from loaded Ganoderma Lucidum with 0.2N Na 2 CO 3 as elutant, was found to be rapid with more than 75% recovery occurring in the first five minutes, the specific metal release rate being 0.102 mg/g/min. The equilibrium data fitted to a linearised Freundlich plot and exhibited a near 100% recovery of sorbed U(VI), clearly revealing a cost-effective method of recovery of precious uranium from low level wastewater. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. U(VI) extraction by 8-hydroxyquinoline. A comparison study in ionic liquid and in dichloromethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Li-Yong; Shi, Wei-Qun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; Liao, Xiang-Hong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang (China). School of Nuclear Engineering and Geophysics; Liu, Zhi-Rong [East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang (China). School of Nuclear Engineering and Geophysics; Chai, Zhi-Fang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). School of Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine

    2017-08-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) represent a recent new class of solvents with potential application in liquid/liquid extraction based nuclear fuel reprocessing due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The work herein provides a comparison of U(VI) extraction by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HOX) in a commonly used RTIL, i.e. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]) and in conventional solvent, i.e. dichloromethane (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). The effect of HOX concentration, solution acidity and nitrate ions on the extraction were discussed in detail, and the speciation analyses of the extracted U(VI) were performed. One of the main emphasis of this work is the extraction mechanism of U(VI) extracted from aqueous phase into RTILs and conventional solvent. In CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, the extraction occurs through a combination of ion change and neutral complexation, and the extracted complex is proposed as UO{sub 2}(OX){sub 2}HOX. In [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}], although a cation-change mechanism as previously reported for RTILs-based system was involved, the extracted complex of UO{sub 2}(OX){sub 1.5}(HOX){sub 1.5}(PF6){sub 0.5} gave a clear indication that the usage of HOX as an acidic extractant markedly inhibited the solubility loss of [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] during the extraction by leaching H{sup +} to aqueous phase. Moreover, the extracted U(VI) in [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] can be easily stripped by using 0.01 M nitric acid, which provides a simple way of the ionic liquid recycling.

  6. The reduction of U(VI) on corroded iron under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, D.; Spahiu, K.

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion of iron and the interaction between corroded iron and U(VI) in anoxic conditions were investigated. The anoxic conditions were obtained by flushing an 99.97% Ar-0.03% CO 2 gas mixture through the test vessel, in which an oxygen trap and six reaction bottles containing synthetic groundwater (10 mM NaCl and 2 mM HCO 3 - .) were placed. The dark-green coloured corrosion product, formed on iron surface after three months corrosion in synthetic groundwater solutions, was identified by powder X-ray diffraction to be carbonate green rust, Fe 4 II Fe 2 III (OH) 12 CO 3 . The iron foil that reacted in a solution (10 ppm U(VI), 10 mM NaCl and 2 mM HCO 3 - ) for three months was analysed by SEM-EDS. The result shows that: (i) an uneven layer of carbonate green rust (1-5 μm thick) formed on the metallic iron; (ii) a thin (0.3 μm) uranium-rich layer deposited on top of the carbonate green rust layer; and (iii) some UO 2 crystals (3-5 μm sized) on the thin uranium layer. The experimental results proved that the U(VI) removal capacity of metal iron is not hindered by formation of a layer of carbonate green rust on the iron. Tests with cast iron and pure iron indicate that they have similar U(VI) removal capacities. At the end of experiment, U concentrations in solution approached the solubility of UO 2 (s), 10 -8 M. The stability of the carbonate green rust at the experimental conditions, pH, E h , [Fe 2+ ] and [HCO 3 - ], is discussed. (orig.)

  7. ASA conference on radiation and health, Coolfont VI: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The 1986 ASA Conference on Radiation and Health (Coolfont VI) continued the procedure established in 1981 of holding forenoon and evening sessions, leaving afternoons free for discussion and relaxation. One exception was made this year in that Michael and Marie Stoline were invited to discuss the Chernobyl Disaster on Monday afternoon. The program consisted of the following topics: a general overview of radiation and health problems; cytogenetics and radiation (human and animal studies and statistical analysis of dose-response curves); uranium and health effects, including continuing emphasis on radon, which has attracted considerable national interest lately; epidemiologic studies of workers at nuclear power plants and an uranium processing plant; the latest assessment of atomic bomb dosimetry. These Coolfont Conferences provide an excellent environment for an interchange of ideas and information in an assemblage of scientists from a variety of disciplines. Unfortunately there is one important factor which limits this interchange: language. In order to overcome the difficulty of statisticians understanding nuclear scientists and nuclear scientists understanding statisticians, I suggested one of two procedures: each group prepare a set of commonly used terms with definitions which would be understood by the other group(s); have an introductory session in which each group attempts to explain its language to the other group(s). This problem of communication is even more serious when scientists attempt to explain their research efforts to the general public. The Coolfont Conferences on Radiation and Health should be ideal forums for development of a language which could be understood by the general public as well as different scientific groups. This document contains the abstracts of 12 presented papers

  8. Editorial das organizadoras do VI ENANCIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Arruda Café

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL A história das idéias, em um determinado campo do conhecimento, se faz por meio de seus cientistas e de suas instituições. Ela torna visível a produção intelectual deste campo, construída por seus atores individuais e coletivos. Neste sentido, o ENANCIB é um elemento-chave neste processo de construção, o momento por excelência da disseminação do conhecimento nesta área. Ele permite a continuidade da história, o desenvolvimento da Ciência da Informação que se faz no Brasil e a coesão de sua comunidade. Por meio de debates, da troca de idéias e de experiências, promovem a construção da identidade deste campo científico, sua visibilidade, a delimitação de suas fronteiras e sua interrelação com outras áreas do conhecimento. O ENANCIB permite, além disso, a construção de novas parcerias científicas e a consolidação dos grupos de trabalho existentes. Este evento vem se estabelecendo, desde 1994, como fundamental para a consolidação e estruturação da área da Ciência da Informação brasileira, influenciando o desenvolvimento dos cursos de pós-graduação do país. Um campo se constrói somente se compreender as especificidades dos processos que atravessam o seu caminho. Em sua evolução, a Ciência da Informação, nos últimos 50 anos, tem se caracterizado pela diversidade de suas abordagens buscando definir a sua essência, por diferentes estudos e teorias. Nestes estudos, inúmeros aportes conceituais vêm sendo apresentados por diferentes pensadores por meio da visão particular de cada um deles. Na realidade, cada um adota uma forma distinta de observar, representar e explicitar a realidade com base na sua visão de mundo. Alguns autores enfatizam os aspectos comunicacionais da Ciência da Informação; outros destacam sua função social; outros, ainda, ressaltam sua forte ligação com as tecnologias. Este número da revista Encontros Bibli traz quatorze artigos apresentados no VI ENANCIB

  9. Vi har intet lært - hvornår lærer vi det?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2016-01-01

    WHO anså fra i går ikke længere ebola for at være en trussel mod global folkesundhed, så fra i dag er kameraerne slukket i Vestafrika og vi er tilbage hvor vi startede. SDG målene skal have et dansk udtryk, men hvad er de danske kompetencer på globalt plan når sundhed ikke længere er en kerneakti......WHO anså fra i går ikke længere ebola for at være en trussel mod global folkesundhed, så fra i dag er kameraerne slukket i Vestafrika og vi er tilbage hvor vi startede. SDG målene skal have et dansk udtryk, men hvad er de danske kompetencer på globalt plan når sundhed ikke længere er en...

  10. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Abbasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation for learning. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher did not give the students ready knowledge, but pointed out the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught them to gain knowledge. This demands from the philologist the choice of effective forms of working with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this connection a special attention should be paid to the lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used during the Russian language lessons. The specificity of using this method in class for teaching Russian as a foreign language, its basic functions (teaching, developing, educating are considered. The key rules for conducting a discussion at the Russian language classes, the main and additional functions-roles of the teacher, the participants, the minute-taker are analyzed. The advantages of the discussion in Russian in comparison to the discussion in the students’ native language are summarized.

  11. General discussion of feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calori, F.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals, objectives and parameters of feasibility studies in the field of nuclear power project planning are discussed in a general way. Technical and economic problems to be considered are pointed out. In special cases, IAEA offers its aid and support. (UA) [de

  12. Helping Students Discuss Race Openly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    One way teachers can disrupt inequities is by doing the work to foster discussions in which students talk about race--and racism--honestly together. Teachers also need to be ready to talk with students sensitively when the subject of race comes up spontaneously--in a student's work, connected to events outside school, or in response to a…

  13. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  14. Learning through synchronous electronic discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective

  15. Choice Orientations, Discussions, and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raywid, Mary Anne

    1992-01-01

    Examining the contemporary school choice debate yields arguments that are education, economics, governance, and policy driven. To "break the exclusive franchise," school districts are increasingly sponsoring school operation and education services supplied by multiple sources, and states are discussing sponsorship of schools by entities…

  16. Magnetic chitosan for removal of uranium (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopa, Luiz Claudio Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    The chitosan, an aminopolysaccharide formed for repeated units of D-glucosamine, is a deacetylation product of chitin. It presents favorable ionic properties acting as chelant, being considered a removing ionic of contaminants from water effluents. It has ample bioactivity, that is, is biocompatible, biodegradable, bioadhesive and biosorbent. The chitosan interacts for crosslinked by means of its active groups with other substances, can still coat superparamagnetic materials as magnetite nanoparticles producing one conjugated polymer-magnetite. Superparamagnetic materials are susceptible for the magnetic field, thus these particles can be attracted and grouped by a magnetic field and as they do not hold back the magnetization, they can be disagrouped and reused in processes for removal of contaminants from industrial effluents and waste water. The present work consisted of preparing coated magnetic magnetite particles with chitosan (PMQ). The PMQ powder has showed a magnetic response of intense attraction in the presence of a magnetic field without however becoming magnetic, a typical behavior of superparamagnetic material. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and measurements of magnetization. Its performance of Uranium (VI) adsorption as uranyl species, U0 2 2+ , was evaluated with regard to the influence of adsorbent dose, speed of agitation, pH, the contact time and had studied the isotherms of adsorption as well as the behavior of desorption using ions of carbonate and oxalate. The optimal pH to the best removal occurred in pH 5 and that the increase of the dose increases the removal, becoming constant above of 20 g.L -1 . In the kinetic study the equilibrium was achieved after 20 minutes. The results of equilibrium isotherm agreed well with the Langmuir model, being the maximum adsorption capacity equal 41.7 mg.g -1 . In the desorption studies were verified 94% of U0 2 2+ recovered with carbonate ion and 49.9% with oxalate ion

  17. Diverse anaerobic Cr(VI) tolerant bacteria from Cr(VI)-contaminated 100H site at Hanford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, R.; Phan, R.; Lam, S.; Leung, C.; Brodie, E. L.; Hazen, T. C.

    2007-12-01

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and ground water. Cr(VI) is more soluble, toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic compared to its reduced form Cr(III). In order to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Cr(VI), a poly-lactate compound HRC was injected into the chromium contaminated aquifers at site 100H at Hanford. Based on the results of the bacterial community composition using high-density DNA microarray analysis of 16S rRNA gene products, we recently investigated the diversity of the dominant anaerobic culturable microbial population present at this site and their role in Cr(VI) reduction. Positive enrichments set up at 30°C using specific defined anaerobic media resulted in the isolation of an iron reducing isolate strain HAF, a sulfate reducing isolate strain HBLS and a nitrate reducing isolate, strain HLN among several others. Preliminary 16S rDNA sequence analysis identifies strain HAF as Geobacter metallireducens, strain HLN as Pseudomonas stutzeri and strain HBLS as a member of Desulfovibrio species. Strain HAF isolated with acetate as the electron donor utilized propionate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Growth was optimal at 37°C, pH of 6.5 and 0% salinity. Strain HLN isolated with lactate as electron donor utilized acetate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Optimal growth was observed at 37°C, at a pH of 7.5 and 0.3% salinity. Anaerobic active washed cell suspension of strain HLN reduced almost 95 micromolar Cr(VI) within 4 hours relative to controls. Further, with 100 micromolar Cr(VI) as the sole electron acceptor, cells of strain HLN grew to cell numbers of 4.05X 107/ml over a period of 24hrs after an initial lag, demonstrating direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction by this species. 10mM lactate served as the sole electron donor. These results demonstrate that Cr(VI

  18. Chapter 7: Transport and load of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Related to the topic, the chapter 7 presents: 1) import License; 2) transport; 3) loading the irradiator. The information presented in this chapter is based on the Brazilian legislation, but said legislation is based on international guidelines; therefore there will be several common and different points from country to country.

  19. Synthesis, structure and properties of oxo- and dioxochloride complexes of molybdenum(VI) and tungsten(VI) with 8-oxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, V.L.; Sergienko, V.S.; Egorova, O.A.

    2005-01-01

    Complexes of oxo- and dioxochlorides of molybdenum(VI) and tungsten(VI) with 8-oxyquinoline of molecular and intracomplex type are synthesized and studied by the method of IR spectroscopy. The complexes have octahedral structure. It is proposed that 8-oxyquinoline in molecular complexes is coordinated by central atom through nitrogen atom of heterocycle, but in intracomplex compounds - through heterocyclic nitrogen atom and oxygen atom of deprotonated OH-group. Thermal stability of the complexes is studied [ru

  20. Education and Training of Radiotherapists. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, M.

    2017-01-01

    The radiotherapist (RTT) is a member of the multidisciplinary team responsible for the preparation and delivery of a course of radiotherapy to cancer patients. The roles and responsibilities of the RTT vary significantly among countries and, in some instances, within countries. They are a reflection of both the local or broader national factors and the available resources, but must always incorporate accurate and safe practice. Irrespective of the scope of practice, roles and responsibilities, any educational programme developed for this professional group must not only prepare the RTTs for current practice, but enable them to adapt to future developments and challenges. Quality and equality of care for all patients receiving radiotherapy are the ultimate goals. To achieve these goals, educational programmes must include the subjects underpinning accurate and safe practice and must integrate academic and clinical components. Health care is undergoing reform in many countries, with a much stronger emphasis on patient centred care. However, reform of the delivery and quality of health care cannot be achieved without the parallel reform in health professional education. This need for reform is emphasized in the report on health professions education issued by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, wherein it is stated that “all health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team, emphasizing evidence-based practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics” [17.1]. This chapter deals with health care education in the United States of America, but the sentiment is equally applicable to the delivery of high quality health care for cancer patients throughout the world.

  1. Discussion on Papers 14 - 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles-Jones, S.; Muirhead, S.; Wilson, E.A.; Jefferson, M.; Binnie, C.J.A.; O'Connor, B.A.; Rothwell, P.; Cowie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Further observations were made on the great potential for tidal power developments in NW Australia. Discussion on the Severn Barrage paper and environmental effects of tidal power plants centred mainly around the impact on bird populations. The topics covered were: the adaptability of birds to changes in their environment with particular reference to the importance of inter-tidal areas for wildfowl and wading birds in the United Kingdom; the creation of mudflats as replacement feeding areas for wading birds; whether there is a danger that pressure from the construction industry might result in a barrage being built before the uncertainties in the environmental impact assessment are removed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  2. Summary of presentations and discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence discussed its theme entitled 'Link between research, development and demonstration (RD and D) and stakeholder confidence'. It was remarked that regulators need a technical demonstration to aid in evaluating the safety case. Local stakeholders appreciate the opportunity to visualise technological arrangements. In both cases, demonstration adds to confidence in the feasibility of solutions. Some believe there is an important role for analogues in communication with stakeholders, if handled with integrity. To explore and benchmark current practices, it was decided to hold a topical session at the 9. regular meeting of the FSC on 4 June 2008 regarding the use of analogues for confidence building. The session opened with an introductory presentation by the session rapporteur. This incorporated input provided for the purpose by FSC members in cooperation with their country's representative to the NEA RWMC 'Integration Group on the Safety Case'. Three speakers then presented the various uses of analogues by implementers, regulators and scientists to build their own confidence; a fourth speaker dealt with the experience of using natural analogues in public information. The presentations addressed the use of analogues in the field of geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate level (ILW-LL) radioactive waste. Then the FSC participants split into two working groups for discussion. The outcome of these discussions was reported in plenary on 6 June 2008 and it was agreed to publish proceedings of the session. The present summary, prepared by the session rapporteur with input from the NEA Secretariat, captures the main points heard in the course of the event. It combines data from the formal presentations and remarks made in discussion. The latter represent viewpoints expressed by a group whose primary focus is not natural analogues but rather stakeholder interests. The summary and viewpoints

  3. Qualitative discussion of quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Motz, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Since radiography yields an image that can be easily related to the tested object, it is superior to many nondestructive testing techniques in revealing the size, shape, and location of certain types of discontinuities. The discussion is limited to a description of the radiographic process, examination of some of the quantitative aspects of radiography, and an outline of some of the new ideas emerging in radiography. The advantages of monoenergetic x-ray radiography and neutron radiography are noted

  4. Radioactive waste and transport. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A brief definition of the nature of radioactive waste is followed by a more detailed discussion of high level waste, its composition the amounts involved, storage in liquid and in solid form and the storage of non-reprocessed spent fuel. The final disposal of high level waste in deep geological structures is then described, based on the Swedish KBS study. The effectiveness of the artificial and natural barriers in preventing the radioactive substances from reaching the biosphere is discussed. American and Swedish risk analyses are briefly discussed, and practical experience presented. Low and medium level wastes are thereafter treated in a similar, though briefer manner. Transport of radioactive materials, fresh fuel, spent fuel and waste is then dealt with. Regulations for the containers and their tests are briefly presented and the risk of accidents, theft and sabotage during transport are discussed. (JIW)

  5. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 8: Instrumentation Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarteau, M; Lipton, R; Nicholson, H; Shipsey, I; Akerib, D; Albayrak-Yetkin, A; Alexander, J; Anderson, J; Artuso, M; Asner, D; Ball, R; Battaglia, M; Bebek, C; Beene, J; Benhammou, Y; Bentefour, E; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bilki, B; Blucher, E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Bowden, N; Brooijmans, G; Byrum, K; Cabrera, B; Cancelo, G; Carlstrom, J; Casey, B; Chang, C; Chapman, J; Chen, CH; Childres, I; Christian, D; Convery, M; Corso, WCJ; Cumalat, J; Cushman, P; Via, CD; Dazeley, S; Debbins, P; Deptuch, G; Dhawan, S; Benedetto, VD; DiGiovene, B; Djurcic, Z; Dye, S; Elagin, A; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Etzion, E; Fast, J; Ferretti, C; Fisher, P; Fleming, B; Francis, K; Friedman, P; Frisch, H; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gatto, C; Geronim, G; Gilchriese, G; Golwala, S; Grant, C; Grillo, A; Grünendahl, E; Gorham, P; Guan, L; Gutierrez, G; Haber, C; Hall, J; Haller, G; Hast, C; Heintz, U; Hemmick, T; Hitlin, DG; Hogan, C; Hohlmann, M; Hoppe, E; Hsu, L; Huffer, M; Irwin, K; Izraelevitch, F; Jennings, G; Johnson, M; Jung, A; Kagan, H; Kenney, C; Kettell, S; Khanna, R; Khristenko, V; Krennrich, F; Kuehn, K; Kutschke, R; Learned, J; Lee, AT; Levin, D; Liu, T; Liu, ATK; Lissauer, D; Love, J; Lynn, D; MacFarlane, D; Magill, S; Majewski, S; Mans, J; Maricic, J; Marleau, P; Mazzacane, A; McKinsey, D; Mehl, J; Mestvirisvilli, A; Meyer, S; Mokhov, N; Moshe, M; Mukherjee, A; Murat, P; Nahn, S; Narain, M; Nadel-Turonski, P; Newcomer, M; Nishimura, K; Nygren, D; Oberla, E; Onel, Y; Oreglia, M; Orrell, J; Paley, J; Para, A; Parker, S; Polychronakos, V; Pordes, S; Privitera, P; Prosser, A; Pyle, M; Raaf, J; Ramberg, E; Rameika, R; Rebel, B; Repond, J; Reyna, D; Ristori, L; Rivera, R; Ronzhin, A; Rusack, R; Russ, J; Ryd, A; Sadrozinski, H; Sahoo, H; Sanchez, MC; Sanzeni, C; Schnetzer, S; Seidel, S; Seiden, A; Schmidt, I; Shenai, A; Shutt, T; Silver, Y; Smith, W; Snowden-Ifft, D; Sonnenschein, A; Southwick, D; Spiegel, L; Stanitzki, M; Striganov, S; Su, D; Sumner, R; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Talaga, R; Tayloe, R; Tentindo, S; Terentiev, N; Thom-Levy, J; Thorn, C; Tiffenberg, J; Trischuk, W; Tschirhart, R; Turner, M; Underwood, D; Uplegger, L; Urheim, J; Vagins, M; Bibber, KV; Varner, G; Varner, R; Va' vra, J; Lippe, HVD; Wagner, R; Wagner, S; Weaverdyck, C; Wenzel, H; Weinstein, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wigman, R; Wilson, P; Winn, D; Winter, P; Woody, C; Xia, L; Xie, JQ; Ye, Z; Yeh, MF; Yetkin, T; Yoo, JH; Yu, J; Yu, JM; Zeller, S; Zhang, JL; Zhu, JJ; Zhou, B; Zhu, RY; Zitzer, B

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 8, on the Instrumentation Frontier, discusses the instrumentation needs of future experiments in the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers, promising new technologies for particle physics research, and issues of gathering resources for long-term research in this area.

  6. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 4: Cosmic Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J. L. [MIT, LNS; Ritz, S. [UC, Santa Cruz; Beatty, J. J. [Ohio State U.; Buckley, J. [Washington U., Seattle; Cowen, D. F. [Penn State U.; Cushman, P. [Minnesota U.; Dodelson, S. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Galbiati, C. [PNPI, CSTD; Honscheid, K. [Ohio State U.; Hooper, D. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Kaplinghat, M. [UC, Irvine; Kusenko, A. [Unlisted; Matchev, K. [Florida U.; McKinsey, D. [Yale U.; Nelson, A. E. [Washington U., Seattle; Olinto, A. [Chicago U., EFI; Profumo, S. [UC, Santa Cruz; Robertson, H. [Washington U., Seattle; Rosenberg, L. [Unlisted; Sinnis, G. [Los Alamos; Tait, T. M.P. [UCLA

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 4, on the Cosmic Frontier, discusses the program of research relevant to cosmology and the early universe. This area includes the study of dark matter and the search for its particle nature, the study of dark energy and inflation, and cosmic probes of fundamental symmetries.

  7. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 3: Energy Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, R.; et al.

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 3, on the Energy Frontier, discusses the program of research with high-energy colliders. This area includes experiments on the Higgs boson, the electroweak and strong interactions, and the top quark. It also encompasses direct searches for new particles and interactions at high energy.

  8. Chapter 24: the coming of molecular biology and its impact on clinical neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    Although the chemical study of the nervous system dates back well into the 19th century, molecular biology and especially molecular neurobiology only began to be established in the second half of the 20th century. This chapter reviews their impact on clinical neuroscience during the 50 years since Watson and Crick published their seminal paper. After a short review of the part played by F.O. Schmitt in establishing molecular neuroscience the chapter outlines work that led to a detailed understanding of the biochemical structure and function of nerve cell membranes and their embedded channel proteins, receptors, and other molecules. The chapter then turns to the numerous pathologies that result from disorders of these elements: the various channel and gap-junction pathologies. The chapter continues with a discussion of some of the diseases caused by defective DNA, especially the trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases (TREDs) and ends with a short account of the development of molecular approaches to prion diseases, myasthenia gravis, and the neurodegenerative diseases of old age. Francis Bacon said long ago that "knowledge is power." The hope is that increasing molecular knowledge will help cure some of the human suffering seen in the neurological ward and clinic.

  9. Chapter 6: Perception of a secondhand reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchi, B.; Tessarin, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl event is described as a 'secondhand reality', shaped and framed by the mass media. Methodological problems are then discussed. Finally, the main issues of public concern that came to the fore in connection with the Chernobyl accident are identified and discussed. These include the decision-making procedures, competence and reliability of decision makers, and ultimately the credibility of democratic institutions. (orig./DG)

  10. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  11. Inhibition of bacterial U(VI) reduction by calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Scott C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Carroll, S. L.; Kennedy, David W.; Zachara, John M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Fendorf, S.

    2003-01-01

    The rapid kinetics of bacterial U(VI) reduction and low solubility of uraninite (UO2,cr) make this process an attractive option for removing uranium from groundwater. Nevertheless, conditions that may promote or inhibit U(VI) reduction are not well-defined. Recent descriptions of Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes indicate that these species may dominate the aqueous speciation of U(VI) in many environments. We monitored the bacterial reduction of U(VI) in bicarbonate-buffered solution in the presence and absence of Ca. XAFS measurements confirmed the presence of a Ca-U(VI)-CO3 complex in the initial solutions containing calcium. Calcium, at millimolar concentrations (0.45-5 mM), caused a significant decrease in the rate and extent of bacterial U(VI) reduction. Both facultative (Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32) and obligate (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Geobacter sulfurreducens) anaerobic bacteria were affected by the presence of calcium. Reduction of U(VI) ceased when the calculated system Eh re ached -0.046+/- 0.001 V, based on the Ca2UO2(CO3)(3) -- > UO2,cr couple. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that U is a less energetically favorable electron acceptor when the Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes are present. The results do not support Ca inhibition caused by direct interactions with the cells or with the electron donor as the reduction of fumarate or Tc(VII)O-4(-) under identical conditions was unaffected by the presence of Ca

  12. Earth Summit Science, policy discussed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.

  13. Axelrod model: accepting or discussing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartlomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-10-01

    Agents building social systems are characterized by complex states, and interactions among individuals can align their opinions. The Axelrod model describes how local interactions can result in emergence of cultural domains. We propose two variants of the Axelrod model where local consensus is reached either by listening and accepting one of neighbors' opinion or two agents discuss their opinion and achieve an agreement with mixed opinions. We show that the local agreement rule affects the character of the transition between the single culture and the multiculture regimes.

  14. First use of a HyViSI H4RG for Astronomical Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, Lance M.; /SLAC; Figer, Donald F.; Hanold, Brandon J.; Kerr, Daniel J.; /Rochester Imaging Lab.; Gilmore, D.Kirk; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC,

    2007-09-25

    We present the first astronomical results from a 4K2 Hybrid Visible Silicon PIN array detector (HyViSI) read out with the Teledyne Scientific and Imaging SIDECAR ASIC. These results include observations of astronomical standards and photometric measurements using the 2.1m KPNO telescope. We also report results from a test program in the Rochester Imaging Detector Laboratory (RIDL), including: read noise, dark current, linearity, gain, well depth, quantum efficiency, and substrate voltage effects. Lastly, we highlight results from operation of the detector in window read out mode and discuss its potential role for focusing, image correction, and use as a telescope guide camera.

  15. Thermoelectric conversion efficiency in IV-VI semiconductors with reduced thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ishida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mid-temperature thermoelectric conversion efficiencies of the IV-VI materials were calculated under the Boltzmann transport theory of carriers, taking the Seebeck, Peltier, and Thomson effects into account. The conversion efficiency was discussed with respect to the lattice thermal conductivity, keeping other parameters such as Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity to the same values. If room temperature lattice thermal conductivity is decreased up to 0.5W/mK, the conversion efficiency of a PbS based material becomes as high as 15% with the temperature difference of 500K between 800K and 300K.

  16. Preparation of multigroup lumped fission product cross-sections from ENDF/B-VI for FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Sridharan, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Multigroup pseudo fission product cross-sections were computed from the American evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VI, corresponding to various burnups of the proposed 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), in India. The data were derived from the cross-sections of 111 selected fission products that account for almost complete capture of fission products in an FBR. The dependence of burnup on the pseudo fission product cross-sections, and comparison with other data sets, viz. JNDC, ENDF/B-IV and ABBN, are discussed. (author)

  17. Solvent extraction of uranium(VI) with benzoylacetanilide and its nitro derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Gautam Kumar; Das, Jyotirmoy

    1984-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of uranium(VI) chelates of benzoylacetanilide and four of its mononitro derivatives, viz., benzoyl-o-nitroacetanilide, benzoyl-m-nitroacetanilide, benzoyl-p-nitro-acetanilide and p-nitrobenzoylacetanilide from aqueous solution into carbon tetrachloride has been studied. The extractions have also been carried out in the presence of pyridine, α-picoline, β-picoline and γ-picoline. The extraction constants, and the two phase formation constants of the chelates and adducts have been determined. The effects of the nitro substituent in benzoylacetanilide and formation of syngergistic adducts have been discussed. (author)

  18. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  19. Role of U(VI) adsorption in U(VI) Reduction by Geobacter species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovely, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    Previous work had suggested that Acholeplasma palmae has a higher capacity for uranium sorption than other bacteria studied. Sorption studies were performed with cells in suspension in various solutions containing uranium, and results were used to generate uranium-biosorption isotherms. Results from this study showed that the U(VI) sorption capacity of G. uraniireducens was relatively similar in simple solutions, such as sodium chloride or bicarbonate. However, this ability to sorb uranium significantly decreased in groundwater. This suggested that certain chemicals present in the groundwater were inhibiting the ability of cell components of Geobacter to adsorb uranium. It was hypothesized that uranium removal would also be diminished in the bicarbonate solution. However, this did not seem to be the case, as uranium was as easily removed in the bicarbonate solution as in the sodium chloride solution.

  20. Experiments indicating a second hydrogen ordered phase of ice VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Tobias M; Thoeny, Alexander V; Plaga, Lucie J; Köster, Karsten W; Etter, Martin; Böhmer, Roland; Loerting, Thomas

    2018-05-14

    In the last twelve years five new ice phases were experimentally prepared. Two of them are empty clathrate hydrates and three of them represent hydrogen ordered counterparts of previously known disordered ice phases. Here, we report on hydrogen ordering in ice VI samples produced by cooling at pressures up to 2.00 GPa. Based on results from calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction the existence of a second hydrogen ordered polymorph related to ice VI is suggested. Powder X-ray data show the oxygen network to be the one of ice VI. For the 1.80 GPa sample the activation energy from dielectric spectroscopy is 45 kJ mol -1 , which is much larger than for the known hydrogen ordered proxy of ice VI, ice XV. Raman spectroscopy indicates the 1.80 GPa sample to be more ordered than ice XV. It is further distinct from ice XV in that it experiences hydrogen disordering above ≈103 K which is 26 K below the ice XV to ice VI disordering transition. Consequently, below 103 K it is thermodynamically more stable than ice XV, adding a stability region to the phase diagram of water. For the time being we suggest to call this new phase ice β-XV and to relabel it ice XVIII once its crystal structure is known.

  1. Integrated Cr(VI) removal using constructed wetlands and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Mar-Yam; Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md Muktadirul Bari; Michailides, Michail K; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-01-08

    The present work was conducted to study integrated chromium removal from aqueous solutions in horizontal subsurface (HSF) constructed wetlands. Two pilot-scale HSF constructed wetlands (CWs) units were built and operated. One unit was planted with common reeds (Phragmites australis) and one was kept unplanted. Influent concentrations of Cr(VI) ranged from 0.5 to 10mg/L. The effect of temperature and hydraulic residence time (8-0.5 days) on Cr(VI) removal were studied. Temperature was proved to affect Cr(VI) removal in both units. In the planted unit maximum Cr(VI) removal efficiencies of 100% were recorded at HRT's of 1 day with Cr(VI) concentrations of 5, 2.5 and 1mg/L, while a significantly lower removal rate was recorded in the unplanted unit. Harvested reed biomass from the CWs was co-composted with olive mill wastes. The final product had excellent physicochemical characteristics (C/N: 14.1-14.7, germination index (GI): 145-157%, Cr: 8-10mg/kg dry mass), fulfills EU requirements and can be used as a fertilizer in organic farming. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Adsorptive Stabilization of Soil Cr (VI) Using HDTMA Modified Montmorillonite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A series of organo-montomorillonites were prepared using Na-montomorillonite and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA). The organo-montomorillonites were then investigated for the remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soils. FT-IR, XRD, SEM and N2 -BET, CEC, Zeta potential measurement were conducted to understand the structural changes of montmorillonites as different amounts of HDTMAs were added as modifier. The characterization results indicated that the clay interlayer spacing distance increased from 1. 25 nm to 2. 13 nm, the clay surface roughness decreased, the clay surface area reduced from 38.91 m² · g⁻¹ to 0.42 m² · g⁻¹, the clay exchangeable cation amount reduced from 62 cmol · kg⁻¹ to 9.9 cmol · kg⁻¹ and the clay surface charge changed from -29.1 mV to 5.59 mV as the dosage of HDTMA in montmorillonite was increased. The TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) was used to evaluate the leachate toxicity of Cr(VI). The effects of the initial soil Cr(VI) concentration, montmorillonites dosage, reaction time and HDTMA modification amount were investigated, respectively. The results revealed that modification of montmorillonites would manifest an attenuated physical adsorptive effect and an enhanced electrostatic adsorptive effect on Cr(VI), suggesting electrostatic effect was the major force that resulted in improved Cr(VI) adsorption onto HDTMA modified montmorillonites.

  3. Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization by novel carbonaceous modified magnetic Fe_3O_4/halloysite nanohybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Xike; Wang, Weiwei; Tian, Na; Zhou, Chaoxin; Yang, Chao; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel magnetic nonohybrids (Fe_3O_4/HNTs@C) were synthesized for Cr(VI) removal. • Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) by Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles and hydroxyl groups. • Cr ions were attached on Fe_3O_4/HNTs@C by ion exchange and coordination interaction. - Abstract: In this work, a novel “Dumbbell-like” magnetic Fe_3O_4/Halloysite nanohybrid (Fe_3O_4/HNTs@C) with oxygen-containing organic group grafting on the surface of natural halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and homogeneous Fe_3O_4 nanospheres selectively aggregating at the tips of modified halloysite nanotubes was successfully synthesized. XRD, TEM, IR spectroscopy, XPS and VSM were used to characterize this newly halloysite nanohybrid and its formation mechanism was discussed. Cr(VI) ions adsorption experiments showed that the Fe_3O_4/halloysite nanohybrid exhibited higher adsorption ability with a maximum adsorption capacity of 132 mg/L at 303 K, which is about 100 times higher than that of unmodified halloysite nanotubes. More importantly, with the reduction of Fe_3O_4 and electron–donor effect of oxygen-containing organic groups, Cr(VI) ions were easily reduced into low toxicity Cr(III) and then adsorbed onto the surface of halloysite nanohybrid. In addition, appreciable magnetization was observed due to the aggregation of magnetite nanoparticles, which make adsorbent facility separated from aqueous solutions after Cr pollution adsorption.

  4. Discussing Dementia-Related Behaviors During Medical Visits for People With Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Schmidt, Karen; Lingler, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that caregivers appreciate support from primary care physicians (PCPs) regarding dementia care; however, there remains a need for studies examining the role that PCPs play in behavior management. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively characterize the discussion on dementia-related behaviors (DRBs) during PCP visits and compare findings to an independently administered assessment of DRBs exhibited within a period of 4 weeks prior to the PCP visit. Twenty-five PCP vi...

  5. ADSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY DIFFERENT ADMIXTURES – A BATCH EQUILIBRIUM TEST STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SHIVA PRASHANTH KUMAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wide variety of inorganic compounds such as nutrients and trace metals, organic chemicals, radioactive contaminants and pathogens are commonly present as contaminants in the groundwater. Migration of contaminants in soil involves important mechanisms such as molecular diffusion, dispersion under physical processes, adsorption, precipitation and oxidation - reduction under chemical processes and biodegradation under biological process. Cr (VI is a major and dangerous contaminant as per the ground water is concerned. There are numerous research work carried out with concentrated efforts by the researchers towards removal of Cr (VI contaminant from aqueous solutions. There are few studies relevant to Cr (VI removal with respect to utilization of low cost admixtures and also soil type. In the present study, different low cost admixtures like rice husk (RH, shredded tyre (ST and fly ash (FA are used to understand the performance in removal of Cr (VI from aqueous solution and also two different soil types are used along with the admixture. The results are discussed in terms of sorption capacity and performance of individual admixture and combination of admixture with soil in removal of contaminant. The fly ash, rice husk and shredded tyre admixtures are used and the results revealed that the shredded tyre showed higher performance in removal of contaminant concentration. Also, the soil which has more fine particle content (size<0.075 mm IS sieve showed reasonable reduction in concentration of contaminant at the lower levels of contaminant initial concentration. The sorption capacity results of Cr (VI contaminant, treated with various admixtures are further validated with the published work of other investigators. The shredded tyre (ST showed more adsorption capacity, i.e., 3.283 mg/g at pH of 4.8. For other admixtures, adsorption capacity value is varying in the range of 0.07 mg/g to 1.7 mg/g. Only in case of activated alumina and modified saw dust

  6. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasova, A.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language

  7. Open discussions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the first part, economic prospects in the world and in the European Community and their repercussions on energy demand are examined. Supply structure and growth scenari are outlined. Present and potential contribution of nuclear energy to energy supply is developed. The pros and cons are given. In the second part is examined how the production and use of various form of energy including nuclear energy, can affect health and the environment, with special reference to waste of all kinds. Safety problems and risk of accidents are examined in both non nuclear and nuclear sectors. Prospects for a low energy society and economic and social implications of the use of new forms of energy are also discussed

  8. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  9. COINCO Strategy 2025 - Discussion Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph

     The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on matters essential to development - ‘hard' issues such as transport infrastructure and ‘soft' issues on improving cooperation within business, administration and knowledge production. The synergy of COINCO will have to come from collaboration among businesses. Supporting cooperation between existing...... to be institutionally supported. Therefore a number of knowledge institutions have to be formed organized around the ‘triple helix'-principle - a tight collaboration between business, administration and knowledge producers, especially universities. Also new ways of collaboration have to be explored - ‘network...

  10. New generation ion-imprinted nanocarrier for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uygun, Murat; Feyzioğlu, Esra; Özçalışkan, Emir; Caka, Müşerref; Ergen, Aygen; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a novel ion-imprinted nanoparticle to remove Cr(VI) ions from waste water. For this, Cr(VI) ions were complexed with 2-methacryloylamido histidine (MAH) and then Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization technique. The templates, Cr(VI) ions, were removed from the nanoparticles using 0.1 M of HNO 3 solution. The specific surface area of the Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles was found to be 1,397.85 m 2 /g, and the particle size was calculated as 155.3 nm. These Cr(VI)-imprinted nanoparticles were used for the adsorption/desorption of Cr(VI) ions from its aqueous solutions. The effects of initial Cr(VI) concentration and medium pH on the Cr(VI) adsorption capacity were also studied. The maximum adsorbed amount of Cr(VI) on the imprinted nanoparticles was found to be 3,830.58 mg/g nanoparticle in pH 4.0. In order to investigate the selectivity of the imprinted nanoparticle, adsorption studies were repeated using Cr(III) ions. The selectivity results demonstrated that Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles showed high affinity for the Cr(VI) ions than Cr(III). The Cr(VI)-imprinted nanoparticles were used several times without decreasing their Cr(VI) adsorption capacities

  11. New generation ion-imprinted nanocarrier for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Murat; Feyzioğlu, Esra; Özçalışkan, Emir; Caka, Müşerref; Ergen, Aygen; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a novel ion-imprinted nanoparticle to remove Cr(VI) ions from waste water. For this, Cr(VI) ions were complexed with 2-methacryloylamido histidine (MAH) and then Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization technique. The templates, Cr(VI) ions, were removed from the nanoparticles using 0.1 M of HNO3 solution. The specific surface area of the Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles was found to be 1,397.85 m2/g, and the particle size was calculated as 155.3 nm. These Cr(VI)-imprinted nanoparticles were used for the adsorption/desorption of Cr(VI) ions from its aqueous solutions. The effects of initial Cr(VI) concentration and medium pH on the Cr(VI) adsorption capacity were also studied. The maximum adsorbed amount of Cr(VI) on the imprinted nanoparticles was found to be 3,830.58 mg/g nanoparticle in pH 4.0. In order to investigate the selectivity of the imprinted nanoparticle, adsorption studies were repeated using Cr(III) ions. The selectivity results demonstrated that Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles showed high affinity for the Cr(VI) ions than Cr(III). The Cr(VI)-imprinted nanoparticles were used several times without decreasing their Cr(VI) adsorption capacities.

  12. New generation ion-imprinted nanocarrier for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uygun, Murat, E-mail: muygun@adu.edu.tr [Adnan Menderes University, Kocarl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Vocational and Training School (Turkey); Feyzioglu, Esra; Oezcal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I skan, Emir; Caka, Mueserref; Ergen, Aygen; Akgoel, Sinan [Ege University, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Turkey)

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a novel ion-imprinted nanoparticle to remove Cr(VI) ions from waste water. For this, Cr(VI) ions were complexed with 2-methacryloylamido histidine (MAH) and then Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization technique. The templates, Cr(VI) ions, were removed from the nanoparticles using 0.1 M of HNO{sub 3} solution. The specific surface area of the Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles was found to be 1,397.85 m{sup 2}/g, and the particle size was calculated as 155.3 nm. These Cr(VI)-imprinted nanoparticles were used for the adsorption/desorption of Cr(VI) ions from its aqueous solutions. The effects of initial Cr(VI) concentration and medium pH on the Cr(VI) adsorption capacity were also studied. The maximum adsorbed amount of Cr(VI) on the imprinted nanoparticles was found to be 3,830.58 mg/g nanoparticle in pH 4.0. In order to investigate the selectivity of the imprinted nanoparticle, adsorption studies were repeated using Cr(III) ions. The selectivity results demonstrated that Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles showed high affinity for the Cr(VI) ions than Cr(III). The Cr(VI)-imprinted nanoparticles were used several times without decreasing their Cr(VI) adsorption capacities.

  13. Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Stolz

    2011-06-15

    A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory

  14. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  15. Temperature and ionic strength influences on actinide(VI)/(V) redox potentials for carbonate limiting complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, H.; Vitorge, P.

    1998-01-01

    Actinide behaviour was studied in two limiting aqueous solutions: acidic and carbonate. Cyclic voltametry was validated with well-known U redox system. SIT was used to account for I influence. Taylor's series expansions to the second order were used to account for T influence. Redox potentials of actinide couples had previously been measured in non complexing media. The above data treatments give standard values for redox potential E 0 , for the corresponding entropy ΔS 0 , enthalpy ΔH 0 and heat capacity ΔC p 0 changes, and also for the corresponding excess values (i.e. the variation of these thermodynamic constants with ionic strength). This methodology was here used in carbonate media to measure the potential of the redox couple PuO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- /PuO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 5- from 5 to 70 degC and from I = 0.5 to 4.5 M in Na 2 CO 3 , NaClO 4 media. Experimental details and full results are given for Pu. Only final results are given for Np. Previous and/or published data for U and Am are discussed. E and ΔS variations with T or I were enough to be measured. The values obtained for the fitted SIT coefficients Δε, and for ΔS and ΔCp are similar for U, Np and Pu redox reactions. Using this analogy for Am missing data is discussed. β 3 V /β 3 VI formation constant ratio of the carbonate limiting complexes were deduced from the potential shift from complexing to non complexing media for the Actinide(VI)/Actinide(V) redox couples. β 3 V (U and Pu) and β 3 VI (Np) were finally proposed using published β3 VI (U and Pu) and β 3 V (Np). For Am, this data treatment was used to discuss the AmO 2 2+ / AmO 2 + redox potential

  16. Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ITER Physics Expert Group on Disruptions, Control, Plasma, and MHD; ITER Physics Expert Group on Energetic Particles, Heating, Current and Drive; ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics; ITER Physics Basis Editors

    1999-12-01

    well as in plasma periphery and divertor. The planned diagnostics (Chapter 7) serve as sensors for kinetic control, while gas and pellet fuelling, auxiliary power and angular momentum input, impurity injection, and non-inductive current drive constitute the control actuators. For example, in an ignited plasma, core density controls fusion power output. Kinetic control algorithms vary according to the plasma state, e.g. H- or L-mode. Generally, present facilities have demonstrated the kinetic control methods required for a reactor scale device. Plasma initiation - breakdown, burnthrough and initial current ramp - in reactor scale tokamaks will not involve physics differing from that found in present day devices. For ITER, the induced electric field in the chamber will be ~0.3V· m-1 - comparable to that required by breakdown theory but somewhat smaller than in present devices. Thus, a start-up 3MW electron cyclotron heating system will be employed to assure burnthrough. Simulations show that plasma current ramp up and termination in a reactor scale device can follow procedures developed to avoid disruption in present devices. In particular, simulations remain in the stable area of the li-q plane. For design purposes, the resistive V·s consumed during initiation is found, by experiments, to follow the Ejima expression, 0.45μ0 RIp. Advanced tokamak control has two distinct goals. First, control of density, auxiliary power, and inductive current ramping to attain reverse shear q profiles and internal transport barriers, which persist until dissipated by magnetic flux diffusion. Such internal transport barriers can lead to transient ignition. Second, combined use poloidal field shape control with non-inductive current drive and NBI angular momentum injection to create and control steady state, high bootstrap fraction, reverse shear discharges. Active n = 1 magnetic feedback and/or driven rotation will be required to suppress resistive wall modes for steady state plasmas

  17. Polarographic behaviour of uranium (VI) in tributyl phosphate organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, C.A.; Meklati, M.

    1984-01-01

    U(VI) determination by D.C. and differential pulse polarography was studied in the organic solutions derived from tributyl phosphate - diluent extracts (after separation from nitric acid media) along with a selected aprotic solvent (i.e.: propylene carbonate and N,N-dimethylacetamide). Miscibility of the TBP-diluent (e.g. cyclohexane, n-hexane, kerosene, n-dodecane) phase with nitric acid as supporting electrolyte, either by addition or already present in the extract was larger in DMA than in PC. In the DMA organic mixture, U(VI) exhibited a DPP peak due to a one electron step, with Esub(p)=-0.4 V (position connected with H 2 O and HNO 3 concentrations). This peak which was proportionnel to the U(VI) concentration from 5x10 -6 to 10 -3 M can be used to determinate directly hexavalent uranium in the industrial organic extraction phases TBP-diluent. (orig.)

  18. Benchmark analysis of MCNP trademark ENDF/B-VI iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, J.D.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1994-12-01

    The MCNP ENDF/B-VI iron cross-section data was subjected to four benchmark studies as part of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki dose re-evaluation for the National Academy of Science and the Defense Nuclear Agency. The four benchmark studies were: (1) the iron sphere benchmarks from the Lawrence Livermore Pulsed Spheres; (2) the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fusion Reactor Shielding Benchmark; (3) a 76-cm diameter iron sphere benchmark done at the University of Illinois; (4) the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Benchmark for Neutron Transport through Iron. MCNP4A was used to model each benchmark and computational results from the ENDF/B-VI iron evaluations were compared to ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/B-V, the MCNP Recommended Data Set (which includes Los Alamos National Laboratory Group T-2 evaluations), and experimental data. The results show that the ENDF/B-VI iron evaluations are as good as, or better than, previous data sets

  19. Extraction kinetics of uranium (VI) with polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ting-Chia; Chen, Dong-Hwang; Huang, Shius-Dong; Huang, Ching-Tsven; Shieh, Mu-Chang.

    1993-01-01

    The extraction kinetics of uranium(VI) from aqueous nitrate solution with polyether-based polyurethane foam was investigated in a batch reactor with automatic squeezing. The extraction curves of uranium(VI) concentration in solution vs. extraction time exhibited a rather rapid exponential decay within the first few minutes, followed by a slower exponential decay during the remaining period. This phenomenon can be attributed to the presence of two-phase structure, hard segment domains and soft segment matrix in the polyurethane foam. A two-stage rate model expressed by a superposition of two exponential curves was proposed, according to which the experimental data were fitted by an optimization method. The extraction rate of uranium (VI) was also found to increase with increasing temperature, nitrate concentration, and hydration of the cation of nitrate salt. (author)

  20. Isolation of a star-shaped uranium(V/VI) cluster from the anaerobic photochemical reduction of uranyl(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelain, Lucile; White, Sarah; Scopelliti, Rosario; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2016-01-01

    Actinide oxo clusters are an important class of compounds due to their impact on actinide migration in the environment. The photolytic reduction of uranyl(VI) has potential application in catalysis and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, but the intermediate species involved in this reduction have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that the photolysis of partially hydrated uranyl(VI) in anaerobic conditions leads to the reduction of uranyl(VI), and to the incorporation of the resulting U V species into the stable mixed-valent star-shaped U VI /U V oxo cluster [U(UO 2 ) 5 (μ 3 -O) 5 (PhCOO) 5 (Py) 7 ]. This cluster is only the second example of a U VI /U V cluster and the first one associating uranyl groups to a non-uranyl(V) center. The U V center in 1 is stable, while the reaction of uranyl(V) iodide with potassium benzoate leads to immediate disproportionation and formation of the U 12 IV U 4 V O 24 cluster {[K(Py) 2 ] 2 [K(Py)] 2 [U 16 O 24 (PhCOO) 24 (Py) 2 ]}.

  1. Isolation of a star-shaped uranium(V/VI) cluster from the anaerobic photochemical reduction of uranyl(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelain, Lucile; White, Sarah; Scopelliti, Rosario; Mazzanti, Marinella [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland). Inst. de Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques

    2016-11-07

    Actinide oxo clusters are an important class of compounds due to their impact on actinide migration in the environment. The photolytic reduction of uranyl(VI) has potential application in catalysis and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, but the intermediate species involved in this reduction have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that the photolysis of partially hydrated uranyl(VI) in anaerobic conditions leads to the reduction of uranyl(VI), and to the incorporation of the resulting U{sup V} species into the stable mixed-valent star-shaped U{sup VI}/U{sup V} oxo cluster [U(UO{sub 2}){sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-O){sub 5}(PhCOO){sub 5}(Py){sub 7}]. This cluster is only the second example of a U{sup VI}/U{sup V} cluster and the first one associating uranyl groups to a non-uranyl(V) center. The U{sup V} center in 1 is stable, while the reaction of uranyl(V) iodide with potassium benzoate leads to immediate disproportionation and formation of the U{sub 12}{sup IV}U{sub 4}{sup V}O{sub 24} cluster {[K(Py)_2]_2[K(Py)]_2[U_1_6O_2_4(PhCOO)_2_4(Py)_2]}.

  2. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills

  3. The metal failure cases discussed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupton, P

    1978-06-05

    The metal failure cases discussed by P. Gupton (Monsanto Chem. Co.) at a joint meeting of the American Society of Metals (ASM) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Calgary Section (Calgary 1978) include a high-temperature (1775/sup 0/-1800/sup 0/F) failure in an HK 40 outside heater tube in a synthesis gas steam-methane reformer, resulting in two major fissures caused by carbonization and oxide deposits with high carbon and lead contents due to the use of remelt scrap material with high lead content; separation of a support pad from a 30 in. pipeline due to corrosion caused by molybdenum-peroxide action; oxidation of a section of 180/sup 0/ U-bend in a thermal ethylene cracking furnace due to fluxing reaction of a high sodium and calcium feed which collected in the return bed; stress corrosion cracking of an austenitic stainless cracker tube from high temperature and electrolytic attack; and other cases of metal failure caused by weld quality problems, use of contaminated material and inadequate designs, processing, and fabrication.

  4. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  5. Comet Halley - Chapter I in cometary exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newburn, R.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The information gained on the Comet Halley by the international probe studies is presented. The new information includes data on the true size and shape of the cometary nucleus and the mass of its dust grains, the chemical composition of the nucleus, and the characteristics of the bow wave of the comet. The requirements of future missions for solving the many questions that are still open are discussed

  6. The origin of the elements. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayler, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the questions: how the present chemical composition is related to the original composition of the Universe, and what was the nature of that original composition. In particular, the chemical evolution of the Galaxy is discussed. Section headings are: observations of chemical composition (stars, cosmic gases, galaxies, element abundance); theoretical considerations (nucleosynthesis); cosmological element production (the Hot Big Bang theory); galactic nucleosynthesis. (U.K.)

  7. The origin of the universe. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciama, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The observational and theoretical evidence in favour of the Big Bang origin, and the question whether an actually singular origin of the universe can be avoided, are discussed. Sections are headed: the world of galaxies (main facts about galaxies); the recession of the galaxies (red-shift, Hubble's law); the cosmic black body background (behaviour of the Universe in its hot early epochs, nuclear reactions, abundance of hydrogen, helium and deuterium). (U.K.)

  8. Seleucid, Demotic and Mediterranean mathematics versus Chapters VIII and IX of the Nine Chapters: accidental or significant similarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    Similarities of geometrical diagrams and arithmetical structures of problems have often been taken as evidence of transmission of mathematical knowledge or techniques between China and “the West”. Confronting on one hand some problems from Chapter VIII of the Nine Chapters with comparable problems...... known from Ancient Greek sources, on the other a Seleucid collection of problems about rectangles with a subset of the triangle problems from Chapter IX, it is concluded, (1) that transmission of some arithmetical riddles without method – not “from Greece” but from a transnational community of traders...

  9. Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de

    2002-01-01

    The Final Proceedings for Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting, 7 November 2001 - 9 November 2001 This is an interdisciplinary conference in human factors and ergonomics...

  10. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  11. Part I. Chapter IV. Coldness is coming from Wienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter author reviewed a political pressure of Austrian government and Austrian legislative assembly on Slovakia before fuel assembly insertion and commissioning of the Unit-1 of the Mochovce NPP. Mission of Walkdown II is described.

  12. Chapter 3: Assessing the Electric System Benefits of Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 3 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy presents detailed information about the energy system, specifically electricity benefits of clean energy, to help policy makers understand how to identify and assess these benefits based upon t

  13. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter XI: concept evolution, chapter XII: design concept, and chapter XIII: operation and test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, Ken; Fujisawa, Noboru; Iida, Hiromasa

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapters XI, XII, and XIII of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workship, Phase Two A, Part 2. In the phase Two A, Part 2 workshop, we have studied critical technical issues and have also assessed scientific and technical data bases. Based on those results, the INTOR design have been modified to upgrade the design concept. The major modification items are related to plasma beta value, plasma operation scenario, reactor size reduction, neutron fluence, tritium producing blanket, and implementation of active control coils. In those chapters, the concept evolution for the design modification and main results are described. (author)

  14. Studies on extraction of uranium (VI) with petroleum sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanzhao; Sun Sixiu; Bao Borong

    1999-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) with petroleum sulfoxides(PSO) in different diluents is studied. The extraction ability of U(VI) decreases in the following order: benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, heptane, kerosene, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. The influence of the concentrations of nitric acid, PSO, salting out agent, complexing anion and temperature on the extraction equilibrium is also investigated, and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction is obtained. The relationship between the extraction equilibrium constants K ex and the physical parameters of diluents is derived. The extraction mechanism and equilibrium are examined by measurement of IR spectrophotometry

  15. Neutron cross section standards evaluations for ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.; Poenitz, W.P.; Hale, G.M.; Peelle, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The neutron cross section standards are now being evaluated as the initial phase in the development of the new ENDF/B-VI file. These standards evaluations are following a somewhat different process compared with that used for earlier versions of ENDF. The primary effort is concentrated on a simultaneous evaluation using a generalized least squares program, R-matrix evaluations, and a procedure for combining the results of these evaluations. The ENDF/B-VI standards evaluation procedure is outlined, and preliminary simultaneous evaluation and R-matrix results are presented. 16 refs., 7 figs

  16. Thermophysical Properties of Selected II-VI Semiconducting Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Thermophysical properties are essential for the accurate predication of the crystal growth process by computational modeling. Currently, the temperature dependent thermophysical property data for the II-VI semiconductor melts are scarce. This paper reports the results of the temperature dependence of melt density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of selected II-VI compounds, including HgTe, HgCdTe and HgZnTe. The melt density was measured using a pycnometric method, and the viscosity and electrical conductivity were measured by a transient torque method. The results were compared with and showed good agreement with the existing data in the literature.

  17. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, Peter [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Allerton Building, Frederick Road, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.hogg@salford.ac.uk; Hogg, Dianne [Henwood Associates (South East) Ltd, Company Number: 513796, Registered Office: 2 Lakeview Stables, Lower St Clere, Kemsing, Kent, TN15 6NL (United Kingdom); Henwood, Suzanne [East Lancashire Primary Care Trust, Linden Business Centre, Linden Road, Colne. BB8 9BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills.

  18. Implications of climate and land use change: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jefferson S.; Murgueitio, Enrique; Calle, Zoraida; Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara; Stallard, Robert F.; Balvanera, Patricia; Hall, Jefferson S.; Kirn, Vanessa; Yanguas-Fernandez, Estrella

    2015-01-01

    This chapter relates ecosystem services to climate change and land use. The bulk of the chapter focuses on ecosystem services and steepland land use in the humid Neotropics – what is lost with land-cover changed, and what is gained with various types of restoration that are sustainable given private ownership. Many case studies are presented later in the white paper. The USGS contribution relates to climate change and the role of extreme weather events in land-use planning.

  19. Possible ways of correction and treatment of sexual disturbances at men-liquidators of accident on Chernobyl NPP. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Main aspects of sexual dysfunction treatment are discussed in the chapter. It is noted that the individual comprehensive system approach to treatment is necessary. In treatment of sexual dysfunctions it is important take into account all components of disease (neuro gumoral, mental etc)

  20. American Chemical Society Student Affiliates Chapters: More Than Just Chemistry Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Ingrid; Collazo, Carmen

    2003-10-01

    Chemistry educators often examine and implement various instructional techniques, such as mentoring programs, to advance learning objectives and to equip students with analytical and technical skills, as well as the skills required of chemical science professionals. Student organizations, such as an American Chemical Society Student Affiliates (SA) chapter, can create a learning environment for undergraduates by engaging them in activities that develop communication, teamwork and inquiry, analysis, and problem-solving skills within a real-world setting. The environment is student-based, has personal meaning for the learner, emphasizes a process-and-product orientation, and emphasizes evaluation. Participation in SAs enhance the traditional chemistry curriculum, complementing the learning goals and meeting learning objectives that might not otherwise be addressed in the curriculum. In this article we discuss how SA chapters enhance the educational experience of undergraduate chemical science students, help develop new chemistry professionals, and shape enthusiastic and committed future chemical science leaders.

  1. Chapter 1: Reliably Measuring the Performance of Emerging Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumbles, Garry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reese, Matthew O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marshall, Ashley [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-08

    Determining the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells, especially those from new, emerging areas of technology, is important if advances in performance are to be made. However, although precise measurements are important, it is the accuracy of these types of measurements that can cause issues. Accurate measurements not only promote the development of new technology platforms, but they also enable comparisons with established technologies and allow assessments of advancements within the same field. This chapter provides insights into how measurements can be made with reasonable accuracy using both the components of the measuring system and a good protocol to acquire good data. The chapter discusses how to measure a calibrated lamp spectrum, determine a spectral mismatch factor, identify the correct reference cell and filter, define the illuminated active area, measure J-V curves to avoid any hysteresis effects, take note of sample degradation issues and avoid the temptation to artificially enhance efficiency data.

  2. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  3. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. IV. LUPUS V AND VI OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spezzi, Loredana; Vernazza, Pierre; Merin, Bruno; Allen, Lori E.; Evans, Neal J. II; Harvey, Paul M.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Peterson, Dawn; Cieza, Lucas A.; Dunham, Michael M.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nick F. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer C ore to Disk(c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including two transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main-sequence star from previous optical, near-IR, and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; ∼79% in Lupus V and ∼87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photoevaporation due to nearby OB stars is not responsible for the high fraction of Class III objects. The gas surface densities measured for Lupus V and VI lie below the star formation threshold (A V ∼ 8.6 mag), while this is not the case for other Lupus clouds. Thus, few Myr older age for the YSOs in Lupus V and VI with respect to other Lupus clouds is the most likely explanation of the high fraction of Class III objects in these clouds, while a higher characteristic stellar mass might be a contributing factor. Better constraints on the age and binary fraction of the Lupus clouds might solve the puzzle but require further observations.

  4. Enhancement of uranium(VI) biosorption by chemically modified marine-derived mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.; Tan, N.; Long, W.; Yang, S.K.; She, Z.G.; Lin, Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium sp. ZZF51, mangrove endophytic fungus originated from South China Sea coast, was chemically modified by formaldehyde, methanol and acetic acid to enhance its affinity of uranium(VI) from waste water. The influencing factors about uranium(VI) adsorption such as contact time, solution pH, the ratio of solid/liquid (S/L) and initial uranium(VI) concentration were investigated, and the suitable adsorption isotherm and kinetic models were determined. In addition, the biosorption mechanism was also discussed by FTIR analysis. Experimental results show that the maximum biosorption capacity of formaldehyde-treated biomass for uranium(VI) at the optimized condition of pH 6.0, S/L 0.6 and equilibrium time 90 min is 318.04 mg g -1 , and those of methanol-treated and HAc-treated biomass are 311.95 and 351.67 mg g -1 at the same pH and S/L values but different equilibrium time of 60 and 90 min, respectively. Thus the maximum biosorption capacity of the three kind of modified biomass have greatly surpassed that of the raw biomass (21.42 mg g -1 ). The study of kinetic exhibits a high level of compliance with the Lagergren's pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Langumir and Freundlich models have proved to be well able to explain the sorption equilibrium with the satisfactory correlation coefficients higher than 0.96. FTIR analysis reveals that the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups on the cell wall of Fusarium sp. ZZF51 play an important role in uranium(VI) biosorption process. (author)

  5. Effect of Organic Matter on Cr(VI Removal from Groundwaters by Fe(II Reductive Precipitation for Groundwater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gröhlich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its toxicity, Cr(VI is undesirable in groundwater. Its chemical reduction to Cr(III species, followed by precipitation is the most widely practiced treatment technique for the removal of Cr(VI from polluted waters. The resulting Cr(III species present low solubility, is much less toxic, and can be subsequently removed either by precipitation, or by adsorption onto iron oxy-hydroxides and co-precipitation. The effects of several parameters, such as the pH value of water to be treated, the applied Fe(II dose, and the presence of appropriate mineral surfaces, are well investigated and understood. However, the impact of the presence of humic acids (HAs in this process has only been considered by rather few studies. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of humic substances on Fe(II reductive precipitation of Cr(VI within a pH range relevant for drinking water treatment. Jar test experiments were performed, using artificial groundwater of defined composition and initial Cr(VI concentration 100 μg/L, ferrous sulphate dosages 0.25–2 mg Fe(II/L, and pH values 6.5–8. It was found that Cr(VI and total chromium (Cr(total can be reliably removed in the absence of HAs in the tested pH range with the addition of Fe(II dosage of 1 mg Fe(II/L. Further on, the results indicated that the reduction of Cr(VI is only slightly affected by the presence of HAs. However, increased residual total Cr concentrations were found at lower Fe(II dosages and/or higher pH values. Additionally, the removal of the Cr(III species formed during Cr(VI reduction was strongly inhibited by the presence of HAs under the examined experimental conditions, since residual concentrations higher than 60 μg/L were determined. The results of this study will have implications to the ongoing discussion of a new, stricter, European Union regulation limit, regarding the presence of total chromium in drinking water.

  6. Quantifying Cr(VI) Production and Export from Serpentine Soil of the California Coast Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Cynthia N; Fendorf, Scott; Webb, Samuel M; Maher, Kate

    2017-01-03

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is generated in serpentine soils and exported to surface and groundwaters at levels above health-based drinking water standards. Although Cr(VI) concentrations are elevated in serpentine soil pore water, few studies have reported field evidence documenting Cr(VI) production rates and fluxes that govern Cr(VI) transport from soil to water sources. We report Cr speciation (i) in four serpentine soil depth profiles derived from the California Coast Range serpentinite belt and (ii) in local surface waters. Within soils, we detected Cr(VI) in the same horizons where Cr(III)-minerals are colocated with biogenic Mn(III/IV)-oxides, suggesting Cr(VI) generation through oxidation by Mn-oxides. Water-extractable Cr(VI) concentrations increase with depth constituting a 7.8 to 12 kg/km 2 reservoir of Cr(VI) in soil. Here, Cr(VI) is produced at a rate of 0.3 to 4.8 kg Cr(VI)/km 2 /yr and subsequently flushed from soil during water infiltration, exporting 0.01 to 3.9 kg Cr(VI)/km 2 /yr at concentrations ranging from 25 to 172 μg/L. Although soil-derived Cr(VI) is leached from soil at concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L, due to reduction and dilution during transport to streams, Cr(VI) levels measured in local surface waters largely remain below California's drinking water limit.

  7. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms to U(VI) immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin; Ahmed, Bulbul; Kennedy, David W; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J; Fredrickson, Jim K; Isern, Nancy G; Majors, Paul D; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to U(VI) immobilization by Shewanella sp. HRCR-1. Through comparison of U(VI) immobilization using cells with bound EPS (bEPS) and cells with minimal EPS, we show that (i) bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms contribute significantly to U(VI) immobilization, especially at low initial U(VI) concentrations, through both sorption and reduction; (ii) bEPS can be considered a functional extension of the cells for U(VI) immobilization and they likely play more important roles at lower initial U(VI) concentrations; and (iii) the U(VI) reduction efficiency is dependent upon the initial U(VI) concentration and decreases at lower concentrations. To quantify the relative contributions of sorption and reduction to U(VI) immobilization by EPS fractions, we isolated loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms grown in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor and tested their reactivity with U(VI). We found that, when reduced, the isolated cell-free EPS fractions could reduce U(VI). Polysaccharides in the EPS likely contributed to U(VI) sorption and dominated the reactivity of laEPS, while redox active components (e.g., outer membrane c-type cytochromes), especially in bEPS, possibly facilitated U(VI) reduction.

  8. Chapter 6: The policy agenda of ISPRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; von Groote, Per M; DeLisa, Joel A; Imamura, Marta; Melvin, John L; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Leonard S W; Reinhardt, Jan D

    2009-09-01

    This paper suggests a comprehensive policy agenda and first steps to be undertaken by the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) in order to realize its humanitarian, professional and scientific mandates. The general aims of ISPRM, as formulated in its guiding documents, the relations with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations system, and demands of ISPRM's constituency herein form the basis of this policy agenda. Agenda items encompass contributions to the establishment of rehabilitation services worldwide and the development of rapid rehabilitation disaster response, the enhancement of research capacity in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), and the development of PRM societies. ISPRM's possible input in general curricula in disability and rehabilitation, and in fighting discrimination against people experiencing disability are discussed. Moreover, the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in medicine, contributions to WHO guidelines relevant to disability and rehabilitation, the provision of a conceptual description of the rehabilitation strategy and the outline of a rehabilitation services matrix are seen as important agenda items of ISPRM's external policy. With regard to its constituency and internal policy, a definition of the field of competence and a conceptual description of PRM, as well as the development of a consistent and comprehensive congress topic list and congress structure appear to be crucial items. The proposed agenda items serve as a basis for future discussions.

  9. Group IB Organometallic Chemistry XXXIV: Thermal behavior and chemical reactivity of tetranuclear Me2N-substituted diarylpropenylcopper-copper anion (Vi2Cu4X2) and mixed diarylpropenyl/organocopper (Vi2Cu4R2) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Noltes, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of configurationally pure 1, 2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds Z-Vi{2}CU{4}Br{2} and Z-Vi{2}Cu{4}R{2} [Vi @? (2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4})C@?C(Me)-(C{6}H{4}Me-4), R @? 2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4} or 4-MeC{6}H{4}C@?C] predominantly results in the formation of ViH. In contrast, only dimers (ViVi) were

  10. Synthesis, characterisation and chemical reactivity of some new binuclear dioxouranium(VI) complexes derived from organic diazo compounds (Preprint No. CT-33)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujar, M.A.; Pirgonde, B.R.

    1988-02-01

    A new series of binuclear dioxouranium(VI) complexes of polydentatate diazo compounds have been synthesised and characterised adequately by analysis, physio-chemical techniques and reactivity of these complexes. The location of bonding site of ligands, stability of complexes and status of U-O bond and probable structures of these complexes have been discussed. (author). 10 refs

  11. Engineering applications of microfocal radiography. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, R.S.; Parish, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The engineering applications of microfocal radiography are reviewed in detail. After describing the terminology used, the types of application are identified where the advantages of the reduced focal spot size are utilised e.g. finer detail, dynamic radiography of temporally changing events, lower background in the film and superior depth of focus. The quality of the images obtained with microfocal techniques is also discussed in detail. Finally various types of microfocal equipment which are commercially available are described and explicit examples of the areas of application are given, e.g. non-destructive testing in the nuclear industry, microporosity in aero-engine gas turbine blades and inspection of miniaturised electronic components such as integrated circuits. (U.K.)

  12. ENDF-201: ENDF/B-VI summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.F.

    1991-10-01

    Responsibility for oversight of the ENDF/B Evaluated Nuclear Data file lies with the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), which is comprised of representatives from various governmental and industrial laboratories in the United States. Individual evaluations are provided by scientists at several US laboratories, including significant contributions by scientists from all over the world. In addition, ENDF/B-VI includes for the first time complete evaluations for three materials that were provided from laboratories outside the US. All data are checked and reviewed by CSEWG, and the data file is maintained and issued by the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The previous version of the library, ENDF/B-V, was issued in 1979, and two revisions to the data file were provided in subsequent years, the latest occurring in 1981. A total of 75 new or extensively modified neutron sublibrary evaluations are included in ENDF/B-VI, and are summarized in this document. One incident proton sublibrary is described for Fe 56 . The remaining evaluations in ENDF/B-VI have been carried over from earlier versions of ENDF, and have been updated to reflect the new formats. The release of ENDF/B-VI was carried out between January and June of 1990, with groups of materials being released on ''tapes.'' Table 1 is an index to the evaluation summaries, and includes the material identification or MAT number, the responsible laboratory, and the ''tape'' number. These evaluations have been released without restrictions on their distribution or use

  13. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Region VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report represents a detailed summation of existing workforce levels, training programs, career potential, and staffing level projections through 1981 for EPA Region VI. This region serves the Gulf fringe states of Texas, Arkansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Louisiana. The specific pollution programs considered include air, noise, pesticides,…

  14. Revolutsioonilisest ja igavikulisest VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalil / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaali idee sünnist. 1990.a. toimus esimene triennaal nimega Põhja- ja Baltimaade Arhitektuuritriennaal. Niguliste kirikus toimunud VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalist. Korraldajaks Irina Raud. Tunnuslauseks "Feeling Architecture". Triennaali avanud ja lõpetanud Peter Davey ja teiste esinejate ettekannetest. Eestlastest esinesid Juhan Maiste ja Vilen Künnapu

  15. Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type VI in Individuals from Northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Leanne; Bardai, Ghalib; Moffatt, Pierre; Al-Jallad, Hadil; Trejo, Pamela; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type VI is a recessively inherited form of OI that is caused by mutations in SERPINF1, the gene coding for pigment-epithelium derived factor (PEDF). Here, we report on two apparently unrelated children with OI type VI who had the same unusual homozygous variant in intron 6 of SERPINF1 (c.787-10C>G). This variant created a novel splice site that led to the in-frame addition of three amino acids to PEDF (p.Lys262_Ile263insLeuSerGln). Western blotting showed that skin fibroblasts with this mutation produced PEDF but failed to secrete it. Both children were treated with intravenous bisphosphonates, but the treatment of Individual 1 was switched to subcutaneous injections of denosumab (dose 1 mg per kg body weight, repeated every 3 months). An iliac bone sample obtained after 5 denosumab injections (and 3 months after the last injection) showed no change in the increased osteoid parameters that are typical of OI type VI, but the number of osteoclasts in trabecular bone was markedly increased. This suggests that the effect of denosumab on osteoclast suppression is of shorter duration in children with OI type VI than what has previously been reported on adults with osteoporosis.

  16. Paisaje del viñedo: patrimonio y recurso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vicente Elías

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La propuesta de que el paisaje del viñedo sea el complemento a la visita a la bodega, siendo esta el eje del turismo del vino, es el objetivo de este trabajo. Repasando los conceptos variables de patrimonio, llegamos al paisaje del viñedo como recurso, formando parte del patrimonio natural. Pero este no se puede desvincular de los otros aspectos patrimoniales, por lo que la cultura tradicional es el soporte de la tipología de paisaje que queremos proponer y que va contrastar con los nuevos paisajes del viñedo que surgen de las recientes técnicas en los cultivos y de la actual vitivicultura, emparejada con una moderna “cultura del vino”. El análisis de las diversas normativas, que salvaguardan el paisaje y la comprobación del escaso valor legal del paisaje del viñedo, es otro puntal de este trabajo que trata de unir paisaje con cultura tradicional como recursos del Turismo del Vino, integrados en las Rutas del Vino.

  17. Selective removal of chromium (VI) from sulphates and other metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaching of the chromate template from the polymer particles was achieved with successive stirring of the ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) particles in 4 M HNO3 solutions to obtain leached materials, which were then ... Despite the method's very low detection limits for direct injection (below 1 μg∙ℓ-1), no Cr (VI) was obtained.

  18. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haitao

    2007-01-01

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis and application of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based on high temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has become one of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. This method is first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkers in 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and later extended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well as anisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod. This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystal synthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied by characterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and products and following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on these results, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction between the precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth of nanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theory calculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursor decomposition and monomer formation pathway. Based on the proposed reaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses water as a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSe and CdS nanorods

  19. As duas naturezas de Lévi-Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Descola

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aborda-se aqui a complexidade do status do par conceitual natureza e cultura no pensamento de Lévi-Strauss. Ao mesmo tempo ferramenta de análise, cena filosófica dos primórdios e antinomia a superar, revisita-se os diferentes usos e significados na obra de Lévi-Strauss do conceito de natureza e sua relação com o de cultura. Mostra-se como é possível reconhecer na obra de Lévi-Strauss dois conceitos de natureza: por um lado, uma natureza que se opõe à cultura num programa científico formulado em termos classicamente dualistas e, por outro, uma teoria do conhecimento decididamente monista que considera o espírito como parte e produto desse mesmo mundo. Argumenta-se que se o dualismo entre cultura e natureza fundou o pensamento estruturalista de Lévi-Strauss, é na própria obra deste que encontramos os argumentos e meios de superá-lo. A vocação do estruturalismo na antropologia de hoje, no entanto, é de ir mais longe neste caminho do que foi o próprio fundador.

  20. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haitao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-05-17

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience andnanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis andapplication of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based onhigh temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has becomeone of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidalnanocrystals. This methodis first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkersin 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and laterextended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well asanisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod.This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystalsynthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied bycharacterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and productsand following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on theseresults, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction betweenthe precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth ofnanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theorycalculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursordecomposition and monomerformation pathway. Based on the proposedreaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses wateras a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSeand CdS nanorods.

  1. Habitat et environnement urbain au Viêt-nam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Avant 1985, la construction et la gestion du logement au Viêt-nam étaient en ...... du contrôle administratif et n'ont pas été en mesure d'inciter le développement ...... et les syndicats, il est toutefois encore trop tôt pour juger de leur performance.

  2. Peroxo complexes of molybdenum(VI), tungsten(VI), uranium(VI), zirconium(IV) and thorium(IV) ions containing tridentate Schiff bases derived from salicylaldehyde and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarafder, M.T.H.; Khan, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis of peroxo complexes of molybdenum(VI), tungsten(VI), uranium(VI), zirconium(IV), thorium(IV) and their possible oxygen transfer reactions is presented. An attempt has also been made to study the size of the metal ions and the electronic effect derived from the tridentate Schiff bases on the v 1 (O-O) mode of the complexes in their IR spectra

  3. Selectivity enhancement of phosphate based functional polymeric gels towards Uranium(VI) using ion imprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappa, Sankararao; Agarwal, Chhavi; Pandey, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    The imprinting of gel containing polymer chains of ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate (EGMP) for U(VI) ions were carried out. The U(VI) imprinting has been carried out in pure EGMP and in EGMP: poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) = 1:9 composition. Complexation of the monomer with template (U(VI)) followed by polymerization have been used to imprint the U(VI) onto the polymer chains. The comparison of uptake studies of U(VI) and Pu(IV) at 3 M HNO 3 shows increased selectivity of U(VI) relative to Pu(IV) for both the gel compositions. The less uptake of U(VI) for imprinted EGMP:PEGMA gel relative to pure imprinted EGMP gel at tracer level can be possibly due to the requirement of two EGMP units in the vicinity for U(VI) complexation. (author)

  4. Brazil Geological Basic Survey Program - Lima Duarte - Sheet SF.23-X-C-VI - Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    The present report refers to the Lima Duarte sheet (SF.23-X-C-VI) systematic geological mapping, on the 1:100.000 scale. The surveyed area, localized in the Zona da Mata, Juiz de Fora micro-region, in South Minas Gerais, is dominantly composed by metamorphic rocks of the granulite and amphibolite facies and presents important diphtheritic process. An analysis of the Crustal Evolution Patterns based mostly on geological mapping, and gravimetric, air magneto metric and geochronologic data is given in the Chapter 6, Part II, of the text. Geophysical information is in the Chapter 5, Part II. Seventy two samples were analysed for oxides, trace-elements and REE, to provide litho environment and metallogenesis definition subsidies. Were studied 174 petrographic thin section, and 48 samples of quartzite and schist residual materials were analysed for heavy metals. Seven hundred and fifty outcrops were described. A geochemical survey, based on 81 pan concentrated samples and 277 stream sediments was carried out throughout the Sheet. The anomalies found in the stream sediments reflect the geochemical signature of the analysed elements for the litho types of the investigated terrains. (author)

  5. Scientific conference on inorganic chemistry and radiochemistry devoted to centenary from birthday of academician V.I. Spitsyn. Program of conference and summary of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Program and summaries of reports of the Scientific conference on inorganic chemistry and radiochemistry devoted to the centenary from the birthday of academician V.I. Spitsyn are presented. The conference took place at the Chemical department of the Moscow State University named for M.V. Lomonosov 17 - 18 April, 2002. Part of the reports was devoted to the work of academician V.I. Spitsyn, his investigations into radiochemistry and radiation chemistry. Scientific explorations in the fields of solid chemistry, inorganic and coordination chemistry, radiochemistry and chemical technology are discussed [ru

  6. Review of energy policy. Vol. 1. A discussion paper; Vol. 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986, the 1986 Annual Delegate Conference of the Institution of Professional Civil Servants set up a Working Party to review the Institution's energy policy, including safety and environmental factors. The review is presented in two volumes as the basis for discussion by the members. Volume I is the main report. Section A, the introduction, includes a summary of the detailed conclusions and recommendations of the Working Party. Section B (chapters 4-12) concerns all aspects of nuclear power including fuel reprocessing and waste management. Section C (chapters 13-16) considers the alternatives to nuclear power and Section D (chapters 17-24) looks at the economic and social aspects of energy policy. The appendices, which contain the detailed technical and source information used by the Working Party in reaching its conclusions, are printed separately in Volume II.

  7. Influence of U(VI) on the metabolism of plant cells studied by microcalorimetry and TRLFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, Susanne; Geipel, Gerhard [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry; Fahmy, Karim; Oertel, Jana [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Bok, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes

    2017-06-01

    Uranium(VI) shows a concentration-dependent influence on the metabolic activity of plant cells. With increasing U(VI) concentration, the predominant U(VI) species in medium R{sub red} changes from UO{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}(s) to (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup +}, which may affect the bioavailability of U(VI).

  8. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hart

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.

  9. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter J; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Siggins, Matthew K; Bobat, Saeeda; Kingsley, Robert A; Goulding, David A; Crump, John A; Reyburn, Hugh; Micoli, Francesca; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.

  10. Diverse functions of myosin VI elucidated by an isoform-specific α-helix domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollscheid, Hans-Peter; Biancospino, Matteo; He, Fahu; Magistrati, Elisa; Molteni, Erika; Lupia, Michela; Soffientini, Paolo; Rottner, Klemens; Cavallaro, Ugo; Pozzoli, Uberto; Mapelli, Marina; Walters, Kylie J; Polo, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Myosin VI functions in endocytosis and cell motility. Alternative splicing of myosin VI mRNA generates two distinct isoform types, myosin VI(short) and myosin VI(long), which differ in the C-terminal region. Their physiological and pathological roles remain unknown. Here we identified an isoform-specific regulatory helix, named the α2-linker, that defines specific conformations and hence determines the target selectivity of human myosin VI. The presence of the α2-linker structurally defines a new clathrin-binding domain that is unique to myosin VI(long) and masks the known RRL interaction motif. This finding is relevant to ovarian cancer, in which alternative myosin VI splicing is aberrantly regulated, and exon skipping dictates cell addiction to myosin VI(short) in tumor-cell migration. The RRL interactor optineurin contributes to this process by selectively binding myosin VI(short). Thus, the α2-linker acts like a molecular switch that assigns myosin VI to distinct endocytic (myosin VI(long)) or migratory (myosin VI(short)) functional roles.

  11. Contribution of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 Biofilms to U(VI) Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Bin; Ahmed, B.; Kennedy, David W.; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Isern, Nancy G.; Majors, Paul D.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-06-05

    The goal of this study was to quantify the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in U(VI) immobilization by Shewanella sp. HRCR-1. Through comparison of U(VI) immobilization using cells with bound EPS (bEPS) and cells without EPS, we showed that i) bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms contributed significantly to U(VI) immobilization, especially at low initial U(VI) concentrations, through both sorption and reduction; ii) bEPS could be considered as a functional extension of the cells for U(VI) immobilization and they likely play more important roles at initial U(VI) concentrations; and iii) U(VI) reduction efficiency was found to be dependent upon initial U(VI) concentration and the efficiency decreased at lower concentrations. To quantify relative contribution of sorption and reduction in U(VI) immobilization by EPS fractions, we isolated loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms grown in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor and tested their reactivity with U(V). We found that, when in reduced form, the isolated cell-free EPS fractions could reduce U(VI). Polysaccharides in the EPS likely contributed to U(VI) sorption and dominated reactivity of laEPS while redox active components (e.g., outer membrane c-type cytochromes), especially in bEPS, might facilitate U(VI) reduction.

  12. Extraction of uranium (VI) from sea water using hydrous metalic oxide binded with hydrophilic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigetomi, Yasumasa; Kojima, Takehiro; Kamba, Hideaki

    1978-01-01

    In the past five years, many researches have been made to extract U(VI) from sea water. This is a report of the extraction of U(VI) from sea water using hydrous titanium oxide binded with hydrophilic polymers, the apparatus for the adsorption and the separation of U(VI) by means of ion exchange. (author)

  13. 77 FR 16251 - Announcement of Funding Awards, HOPE VI Revitalization Grant Program, Fiscal Year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Awards, HOPE VI Revitalization Grant Program, Fiscal Year 2010 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... the Fiscal Year 2010 (FY2010) Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for the HOPE VI Revitalization... recipients under the HOPE VI Revitalization grant program. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For questions...

  14. 76 FR 18570 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; HOPE VI Public Housing Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment; HOPE VI Public Housing Programs: Funding and Program Data... responses. This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: HOPE VI program. OMB Control... (Pub. L. 105- 276, 112 Stat. 2461, approved October 21, 1998) and revised by the HOPE VI Program...

  15. 24 CFR 972.115 - Relationship between required conversions and HOPE VI developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conversions and HOPE VI developments. 972.115 Section 972.115 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Relationship between required conversions and HOPE VI developments. HUD actions to approve or deny proposed HOPE VI revitalization plans must be consistent with the requirements of this subpart. Developments...

  16. 78 FR 72056 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Class D and Class E Airspace; Christiansted, St. Croix, VI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Class E Airspace at Christiansted, St. Croix, VI, to adjust the geographic coordinates of Henry E..., Christiansted, St. Croix, VI, to bring it in concert with the FAAs aeronautical database. The coordinates would...

  17. Mechanisms of chromium (VI)-induced apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Fernanda A; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Miler, Eliana A; Cabilla, Jimena P; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2008-07-30

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is a highly toxic metal. Exposure to Cr (VI) compounds may affect reproductive functions. Due to the importance of anterior pituitary hormones on reproductive physiology we have studied the effects of Cr (VI) on anterior pituitary. We previously demonstrated that, after in vivo Cr (VI) administration, Cr accumulates in the pituitary gland and affects prolactin secretion. In vitro, Cr (VI) causes apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells due to oxidative stress generation. To better understand the mechanisms involved in Cr (VI)-induced apoptosis we studied: (a) whether Cr (VI) affects the intracellular antioxidant response and (b) which of the apoptotic factors participates in Cr (VI) effect. Our results show that Cr (VI) treatment induces a decrease in catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity but does not modify glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Cr (VI) exposure causes an increase of GSH levels. p53 and Bax mRNA are also upregulated by the metal. Pifithrin alpha, a p53 transcriptional inhibitor, increases Cr (VI) cytotoxicity, suggesting a role of p53 as a survival molecule. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) could prevent Bax mRNA increase and caspase 3 activation, confirming that Cr (VI)-induced apoptosis involves oxidative stress generation.

  18. Riparian restoration in the context of Tamarix control in the western United States: Chapter 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Merritt, David M.; Briggs, Mark K.; Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Lair, Kenneth D.; Scott, Michael L.; Sher, Anna; Sher, Anna; Quigley, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the restoration of riparian systems in the context of Tamarix control—that is, Tamarix-dominated sites are converted to a replacement vegetation type that achieves specific management goals and helps return parts of the system to a desired and more natural state or dynamic. It reviews research related to restoring native riparian vegetation following tamarix control or removal. The chapter begins with an overview of objective setting and the planning of tamarix control and proceeds by emphasizing the importance of considering site-specific factors and of context in selecting and prioritizing sites for restoration. In particular, it considers valley and bottomland geomorphology, along with river flow regime and associated fluvial disturbance, surface water and groundwater availability, and soil salinity and texture. The chapter concludes with a discussion of costs and benefits associated with active, passive, and combined ecological restoration approaches, as well as the key issues to consider in carrying out restoration projects at a range of scales.

  19. Dealing with uncertainty together. Summary of Annex VI (1996-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.

    1999-10-01

    , the preparation and validation of technological data, comparison of national assessments, and evaluation of multinational strategies for emission reduction, with the common goal of assessing and ranking technological options. Individually, some of the participants promote outreach of the ETSAP tools to other countries. In Annex VI, six issues of IEA ETSAP News were published. A World Wide Web site (http://www.ecn.nl./unit b s/etsap/) was established to broadcast ETSAP's work to a wider audience. An International Energy Agency review during Annex VI described ETSAP as 'an energy technology policy analysis instrument,' providing the IEA with 'a widely used and applied analytical tool, serving to enhance its authority in international discussion. refs

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of II-VI and III-V semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mele, A.; Di Palma, T.M.; Flamini, C.; Giardini Guidoni, A. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dep. di Chimica

    1998-12-01

    Pulsed laser irradiation of a solid target involves electronic excitation and heating, followed by expansion from the target of the elliptical gas cloud (plume) which can be eventually condensed on a suitable substrate. Pulsed laser ablation has been found to be a valuable technique to prepare II-VI and III-V thin films of semiconductor materials. Pulsed laser ablation deposition is discussed in the light of the results of an investigation on CdS, CdSe, CdTe and CdSe/CdTe multilayers and AIN, GaN and InN together with Al-Ga-In-N heterostructures. [Italiano] L`irradiazione di un target solido, mediante un fascio laser impulsato, genera una serie di processi che possono essere schematizzati come segue: riscaldamento ed eccitazione elettronica del target, da cui consegue l`espulsione di materiale sotto forma di una nube gassosa di forma ellissoidale (plume), che espande e puo` essere fatta depositare su un opportuno substrato. L`ablazione lasersi e` rivelata una tecnica valida per preparare film sottili di composti di elementi del II-VI e del III-V gruppo della tavola periodica. La deposizione via ablazione laser viene discussa alla luce dei risultati ottenuti nella preparazione di film di CdS, CdSe, CdTe e di film multistrato di CdSe/CdTe, di film di AIN, GaN, InN e di eterostrutture di Al-Ga-In-N.