The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)
The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)
Stickley, T; Wright, N
This paper is the second in a series of two which reviews the current UK evidence base for recovery in mental health. As outlined in the previous paper, over the last 4 years a vast amount has written about recovery in mental health (approximately 60% of all articles). Whereas the first review focused on the peer-reviewed evidence; this paper specifically focuses on the grey/non-peer-reviewed literature. In total, our search strategy yielded the following: 3 books, a further 11 book chapters, 12 papers, 6 policy documents and 3 publications from voluntary sector organizations. Each group of publications was analysed for content, and they are discursively presented by publication group. The findings are then presented as themes in the discussion section. The themes are: social, historical and political critique; philosophy of hope for the individual; individual identity and narrative; models and guidance for mental health practice. We conclude that there is a need for both empirical research into recovery and a clearer theoretical exposition of the concept. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.
The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review
The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review
The mobile phone is a technological device that can be used for a variety of purposes - to converse, to exchange text messages, to access the internet, to play games and so on. There has been much research on the impact of using a mobile phone while driving on driving performance - in the laboratory, on test-tracks and on real roads - and there is ample evidence that using this device while driving has adverse effects on driving performance. In this chapter, literature on the impact of mobile...
Research Reviewed: "The Adjustment of Nominal Interest Rates to Inflation: A Review of Recent Literature"; "Role of Government in a Market Economy"; "Economic Analysis and Agricultural Policy"; "Agricultural Research Policy"
Research Reviewed: "Global Modeling After Its First Decade"; "Monthly Food Price Forecasts"; "Costs of Marketing Slaughter Cattle: Computerized versus Conventional Auction Systems"; "Survival Strategies for Agricultural Cooperatives"
Serig, Dan, Ed.
This research review is dedicated to the memory of William Safire (1929-2009). A visionary leader, Safire brought other visionaries, researchers, educators, artists, and policymakers together to explore the confluence of arts education and neuroscience. He fostered the new field of neuroeducation in his work as chair of The Dana Foundation in…
In this review, the author explores an often-used process in research--the mind map. He uses this method in his own research and artwork. He also uses this extensively with students, particularly master students when they are trying to surround issues in their thesis projects. Mind maps are closely associated with brainstorming, as brainstorming…
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency research under Â§ 50.24 of this chapter. 812.47 Section 812.47 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....47 Emergency research under § 50.24 of this chapter. (a) The sponsor shall monitor the progress of...
In this review, the author focuses on the pragmatic consideration: How do artists do artistic research? Artistic research in the context of this review is about the connections and relationships among three primary domains: (1) the arts; (2) higher education; and (3) arts education. Broadly stated, all artists do research when they do art--whether…
W. J. Elliot; P. J. Edwards; R. B. Foltz
Forest roads are essential in experimental forests and rangelands (EFRs) to allow researchers and the public access to research sites and for fire suppression, timber extraction, and fuel management. Sediment from roads can adversely impact watershed health. Since the 1930s, the design and management of forest roads has addressed both access issues and watershed health...
Puccio, Ava M; Alexander, Sheila
The long-term effects and significant impact of the full spectrum of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has received increased attention in recent years. Despite increased research efforts, there has been little movement toward improving outcomes for the survivors of TBI. TBI is a heterogeneous condition with a complex biological response, and significant variability in human recovery contributes to the difficulty in identifying therapeutics that improve outcomes. Personalized medicine, identifying the best course of treatment for a given individual based on individual characteristics, has great potential to improve recovery for TBI survivors. The advances in medical genetics and genomics over the past 20 years have increased our understanding of many biological processes. A substantial amount of research has focused on the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic profiles in many health and disease states, including recovery from TBI. The focus of this review chapter is to describe the current state of the science in genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic research in the TBI population. There have been some advancements toward understanding the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic processes in humans, but much of this work remains at the preclinical stage. This current evidence does improve our understanding of TBI recovery, but also serves as an excellent platform upon which to build further study toward improved outcomes for this population.
Each chapter in this compendium focuses on a particular topic area and reviews what we have learned, identifies gaps in our present knowledge, and suggests directions for future research on military...
Jean-Luc E. Cartron; W. Scott Richardson; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper
In this chapter, we describe research needs for the conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) in Arizona. Estimates of population size, structure, and dynamics, as well as demographic data, are needed for the recovery team to formulate sound population objectives. Habitat loss due to residential development...
Lam, Wan Shun Eva
The goal of this chapter is to lay out some new conceptualizations and research directions for understanding the relation of culture and learning in the shifting terrains of globalized economies and media flows, youth cultures, and transnational migration. In a time when young people's experiences and life pathways are increasingly forged in the…
Magalhaes, Maria Cecilia Camargo
This study examines a collaborative endeavor in which a Chapter One teacher and a reseacher worked together to plan, conduct and reflect on a reading instruction designed to promote strategic reading. For eleven weeks, data were collected during conversations and reflective/planning sessions conducted by the teacher and the researcher and during instruction for a group of fourth-and fifth-gratle students. Ethnographic methods such as participant observation, interview...
The revision of Chapter 18 of NUREG 0800, Human Factors Engineering Standard Review Plan (SRP) will be based on SECY 82-111 and guidance contained in NUREG 0700, NUREG 0801 and NUREG 0835, plus other references. In conducting field reviews of control rooms, the NRC has identified technical issues which can be used to enhance the development of the revised version of NUREG 0800, and to establish priorities among the list of possible Branch Technical Positions (BTP) in NUREG 0800, Rev. 0, Table 18.0-2. This report is a compilation of comments and suggestions from the people who used NUREG 0700 in the Control Room field reviews. This information was used to establish possible BTP topic priorities so that the most important BTPs could be issued first. The comments and suggestions are included for HFEB review in conjunction with the table of priorities
The African Research Review publishes original research output in the areas of Arts, Education, Social Sciences, Pure and applied Sciences, Engineering and ... Final selection of papers for publication in the Journal will be based on paper originality, technical quality, use of language and overall contribution to knowledge.
Watts, Lynne; Nisbet, John
This book reviews the research in the field of typography as it affects children's books and sets it in the context of research on reading. The contents include five chapters: "Problems of Definition and Measurement" discusses the various measures of legibility used in research studies. "The Reading Process" examines three…
This review briefly summarizes recent Tai Chi research on physical benefits including balance and muscle strength and psychological benefits including attentiveness, sleep and anxiety. Cardiovascular changes following Tai Chi include decreased heart rate and blood pressure, increased vagal activity and decreased cholesterol. Pain syndromes that have been affected include fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmune and immune conditions recently researched and reviewed here include osteoporosis, diabetes and HIV. Methodological problems with this research include the variability in forms (series of postures) used across studies as well as the intensity of the Tai Chi schedule. Further, most of the studies are based on within group changes rather than attention control group comparisons. Nonetheless, significant clinical improvements have been noted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Macleod, J.S.; Fryer, D.R.H.
To enable the regulatory review to be effectively undertaken by the regulatory body, there is a need for it to have ready access to information generated by research activities. Certain advantages have been seen to be gained by the regulatory body itself directly allocating and controlling some portion of these activities. The princial reasons for reaching this conclusion are summarised and a brief description of the Inspectorates directly sponsored programme outlined. (author)
This paper is a review of empirical studies, review and meta-analysis publications on yoga from the last few years. The review includes demographics/prevalence of yoga as a practice, bibliometric analyses of the yoga publications and the use of yoga for physical fitness and cognitive function. Most of the studies reviewed here involve yoga effects on psychiatric and medical conditions. These include pregnancy, prenatal and postpartum depression; stress, PTSD, anxiety, and obesity; cardiovascular conditions including hypertension; pain syndromes including arthritis, headaches and low back pain; autoimmune conditions including asthma, type II diabetes and multiple sclerosis; immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer; and aging problems including balance, osteoporosis and Parkinson's. The methods and results of those studies are briefly summarized along with their limitations and suggestions for future research. Basically yoga has been more effective than control and waitlist control conditions, although not always more effective than treatment comparison groups such as other forms of exercise. More randomized controlled studies are needed in which yoga is compared to active exercise groups. Having established the physical and mental health benefits of yoga makes it ethically questionable to assign participants to inactive control groups. Shorter sessions should be investigated for cost-effectiveness and for daily practice. Multiple physical and physiological measures need to be added to the self-report research protocols and potential underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. In the interim, the studies reviewed here highlight the therapeutic effects of yoga, a practice that could come to be called yoga therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin S. McKelvey
In the first chapter of this book we identified the interdependence of method, data and theory as an important influence on the progress of science. The first several chapters focused mostly on progress in theory, in the areas of integrating spatial and temporal complexity into ecological analysis, the emergence of landscape ecology and its transformation into a multi-...
In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kropp, Jerri J.; Shupp, Mikaela M.
Research findings on the presence of a therapy dog in the classroom are summarized. The authors reviewed 30 articles, book chapters, and other sources on the topic of the various uses of dogs in classrooms, published between 2001 and 2017. Ages studied ranged from 3 years to adolescence (high school). In our analysis, three categories of…
Full Text Available Technology is a centrally important component of all strategies to mitigate climate change. As such, it encompasses a multi-dimensional space that is far too large to be fully addressed in this brief chapter. Consequently, we have elected to focus on a subset of topics that we believe have the potential for substantial impact. As researchers, we have also narrowed our focus to address applied research, development and deployment issues and omit basic research topics that have a longer-term impact. This handful of topics also omits technologies that we deem to be relatively mature, such as solar photovoltaics and wind turbines, even though we acknowledge that additional research could further reduce costs and enhance performance. These and other mature technologies such as transportation are discussed in Chapter 6. This report and the related Summit Conference are an outgrowth of the University of California President’s Carbon Neutrality Initiative, and consequently we are strongly motivated by the special demands of this ambitious goal, as we are also motivated by the corresponding goals for the State of California, the nation and the world. The unique feature of the UC Carbon Neutrality Initiative is the quest to achieve zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 at all ten 10 campuses. It should be emphasized that a zero emission target is enormously demanding and requires careful strategic planning to arrive at a mix of technologies, policies, and behavioral measures, as well as highly effective communication – all of which are far more challenging than reducing emissions by some 40% or even 80%. Each campus has a unique set of requirements based on its current energy and emissions. Factors such as a local climate, dependence on cogeneration, access to wholesale electricity markets, and whether a medical school is included shape the specific challenges of the campuses, each of which is a “living laboratory” setting a model for others to
Spheromak research from 1979 to the present is reviewed including over 160 references. Emphasis is on understanding and interpretation of results. In addition to summarizing results some new interpretations are presented. An introduction and brief history is followed by a discussion of generalized helicity and its time derivative. Formation and sustainment are discussed including five different methods, flux core, θ-pinch z-pinch, coaxial source, conical θ-pinch, and kinked z-pinch. All methods are helicity injections. Steady-state methods and rules for designing spheromak experiments are covered, followed by equilibrium and stability. Methods of stabilizing the tilt and shift modes are discussed as well as their impact on the reactor designs. Current-driven and pressure-driven instabilities as well as relaxation in general are covered. Energy confinement is discussed in terms of helicity decay time and βs limits. The confinement in high and low open-flux geometries are compared and the reactor implications discussed. (author)
Moderate pressure massage has contributed to many positive effects including increased weight gain in preterm infants, reduced pain in different syndromes including fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis, enhanced attentiveness, reduced depression and enhanced immune function (increased natural killer cells and natural killer cell activity). Surprisingly, these recent studies have not been reviewed, highlighting the need for the current review. When moderate and light pressure massage have bee...
Lisette P. Waits; Samuel A. Cushman; Steve F. Spear
Landscape genetic studies have focused on terrestrial animals more than any other taxonomic group. This chapter focuses on applications of landscape genetics for understanding connectivity of terrestrial animal populations. It starts with a general introduction covering unique characteristics and challenges of the terrestrial study system. This is followed by...
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The historically most important mechanistic theories attributed the fundamental cause of anesthesia to interactions betweeen anesthetics and proteins as early as the 1870s. According to the underlying thought, the resulting changes in the consistency of cellular protoplasm were the cause of the anesthetized state of the whole organism.These protoplasm coagulation theories, as they were collectively referred to, brought the contemporary enthusiasm for protoplasm, the rapid advances in colloid chemistry and the unified theory of narcosis proclamed by Claude Bernard under a unified mechanistic theory that reflected the Zeitgeist of the epoch.This research effort, on the intersection of the developing disciplines of cellular biology and colloid chemistry, lasted for almost a century. It involved scientists of worldwide reputation and resulted in a number of elegant theories. Contrary to widespread opinion, proteins and not lipids were recognized and investigated first as the critical molecular target of anesthetics more than a century prior to their much publicized rediscovery in 1984.The protoplasm coagulation theories of anesthesia were pursued after the First World War across ideological trenches by scientists in Europe, the Soviet Union and the United States. They united research in anesthesia with research of fundamental cell biology.In contrast to the much less fruitful lipid theories, protoplasm coagulation theories are largely forgotten without leaving a trace in contemporary discussions of the history of anesthesia. For many tyears, however, they constituted an essential part of fundamental anesthetic research and must therefore be mentioned in any historical review.
Department of Management and Accounting, .... structure, risk management and financial performance of banks still provide no agreement on ... Kern (2004) researched on UK banks and reported that principal-agents problem, which is a.
Davies, C N
Recent Advances in Aerosol Research: A Bibliographical Review presents a bibliographic review of advances in aerosol research covering the period from the beginning of 1957 to the end of 1962. Topics covered include chemical reactions, combustion, coagulation and diffusion, and adhesion of particles. References on filtration, evaporation and condensation, nucleation and growth, and laminar flow and impingement are also included. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins by citing research on acoustic, ultrasonic, and shock wave effects, along with adhesion of particles, chemical react
Laurens, Lieve M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Glasser, Melodie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Recent progress towards the implementation of renewable bioenergy production has included microalgae, which have potential to significantly contribute to a viable future bioeconomy. In a current challenging energy landscape, where an increased demand for renewable fuels is projected and accompanied by plummeting fossil fuels' prices, economical production of algae-based fuels becomes more challenging. However, in the context of mitigating carbon emissions with the potential of algae to assimilate large quantities of CO2, there is a route to drive carbon sequestration and utilization to support a sustainable and secure global energy future. This chapter places international energy policy in the context of the current and projected energy landscape. The contribution that algae can make, is summarized as both a conceptual contribution as well as an overview of the commercial infrastructure installed globally. Some of the major recent developments and crucial technology innovations are the results of global government support for the development of algae-based bioenergy, biofuels and bioproduct applications, which have been awarded as public private partnerships and are summarized in this chapter.
Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo
The main purpose of this report is to provide a state of the art of research and practice in relation to the Added Value of FM. This is done by making a critical review of research papers from FM conferences (chapter 2) and by presenting the concept of Value Adding Management (chapter 3) with res......The main purpose of this report is to provide a state of the art of research and practice in relation to the Added Value of FM. This is done by making a critical review of research papers from FM conferences (chapter 2) and by presenting the concept of Value Adding Management (chapter 3...
Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.
This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart
Kalikivayi, Lavanya; Kalikivayi, V.; Udayakumar, K.; Ganesan, A. R.
One of the important aspects of SPIE is "Community Support and Outreach Education", which should raise awareness and interest in optics and photonics among the targeted communities and school children. Hence as part of SPIE IIT Madras student chapter, we carried out SPIE SOAP, a `School Outreach Activity Program'. Two types of schools were identified, one a high socio-economic status school and the other a low socio-economic status school having a majority of poor children. Optics related scientific experiments were demonstrated in these schools followed by oral quiz session to the students to assess the level of their knowledge before and after the experiments. We also clubbed this activity with "Vision Screening" and distribution of free spectacles for those children who live below poverty line. Out of the 415 children screened, 60.84% eyes were having normal vision, while 39.16% were found to have refractive errors (Myopia 35.78% and Hyperopia 3.38%) where some of them could not even read the board. Treatable eye diseases were also found in 0.72% of the children. The entire activity is been discussed and documented in this paper.
Lindell, B. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)
The presentation reviews the history of radiation research beginning with the first findings and attempts for modelling of harmful effects of radiation, followed by the contamination of the environment, use of radiation epidemiology and concluding with the question of cancer generation. (26 refs.).
Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David
A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…
justice have long been associated with social practices such as punishment, taxation and political The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research...suspension of eligibility to receive research funding, to use investigational interventions, or to practise medicine. Unless there are persuasive reasons to do
This study reviews the current photographic tourism literature to identify what fields within tourism have been studied by researchers, the contexts, the samples used, the sampling methods employed, the photographic methods and supporting methods used, the data analysis techniques applied and the countries studied. A set of 115 relevant academic articles were selected and assessed using content analysis. The findings showed that overall publications in the field of photographic tourism increa...
Drolet, J.P.; Erickson, W.H.; Tardif, H.P.
This report presents a brief review of the DREV uranium research carried out on various aspects of the physical metallurgy of depleted uranium alloys. It includes (1) a survey of the early work on polynary alloys, (2) recent metallurgical investigations on various alloy systems and (3) miscellaneous studies on grain size refinement, grain growth, powder metallurgy, pyrophoricity and directional casting of uranium alloys. A general summary of most of the studies carried out during the last ten years is also presented
The Nuclear Safety Research Review Committee has had a fundamental difficulty because of the atmosphere that has existed since it was created. It came into existence at a time of decreasing budgets. For any Committee the easiest thing is to tell the Director what additional to do. That does not really help him a lot in this atmosphere of reduced budgets which he reviewed for you on Monday. Concurrently the research arm of Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recognized that the scope of its activity needed to be increased rather than decreased. In the last two-and-a-half-year period, human factors work was reinstated, radiation and health effects investigations were reinvigorated, research in the waste area was given significant acceleration. Further, accident management came into being, and the NRC finally got back into the TMI-2 area. So with all of those activities being added to the program at the same time that the research budget was going down, the situation has become very strained. What that leads to regarding Committee membership is a need for technically competent generalists who will be able to sit as the Division Directors come in, as the contractors come in, and sort the wheat from the chaff. The Committee needs people who are interested in and have a broad perspective on what regulatory needs are and specifically how safety research activities can contribute to them. The author summarizes the history of the Committee, the current status, and plans for the future
Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefee; Helles, Finn; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl
Economic values play a significant role in social development, whether they are made explicit or just perceived by social actors. In this chapter we introduce a comprehensive concept of resource value. Considering direct use values, indirect use values and non-use values we attempt to encompass t...... the total value of forest resources. Taking Bolivia as an example, we present a review of forest and environmental economics literature, providing an overview of the state-of-the-art of this research field in an Andean country....
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Scott H. Stoleson; Janie Agyagos; Deborah M. Finch; Tracy McCarthey; Jamie Uyehara; Mary J. Whitfield
Until the southwestern willow flycatcher was proposed for listing as an endangered species in 1993, it was subject to relatively little scientific scrutiny, in part because it is drab, prone to inhabiting dense, wet thickets, and difficult to identify and observe. Consequently, it remained one of the lesser-known of North American birds. Since that time, it has become...
Purpose: Reviews of research play a critical but underappreciated role in knowledge production and accumulation. Yet, until relatively recently, limited attention has been given to the "methodology" of conducting reviews of research. This observation also applies in educational leadership and management where reviews of research have…
The 'Safety Research Strategic Plan for Russian Nuclear Power Plants' was published in draft form at the Russian International Nuclear Safety Centre (RINSC) by a working group of fifteen senior Russian experts. The Plan consists of 12 chapters, each addressing a specific technical area and containing a number of proposed research programmes and projects to advance the state-of-knowledge in that area. In part because a strong Recommendation to undertake such a Plan was made by the 1998 OECD/NEA study, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency was asked by the Director of RINSC and the Director of USINSC to organize an international review of the Plan when the English-language version became available in October, 1998. This report represents the results of that review. (R.P.)
Leach, M. O. [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)
In Chapter 14, the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance were presented, along with an introduction to image forming processes. In this chapter, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be reviewed, beginning with the hardware needed and its impact on image quality. The acquisition processes and image reconstruction will be discussed, as well as the artefacts that are possible, with discussion of the important area of safety and bioeffects completing the chapter.
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs.
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs.
Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…
Dyck, Murray; Allen, Gary
Review boards responsible for vetting the ethical conduct of research have been criticised for their costliness, unreliability and inappropriate standards when evaluating some non-medical research, but the basic value of mandatory ethical review has not been questioned. When the standards that review boards use to evaluate research proposals are applied to review board practices, it is clear that review boards do not respect researchers or each other, lack merit and integrity, are not just and are not beneficent. The few benefits of mandatory ethical review come at a much greater, but mainly hidden, social cost. It is time that responsibility for the ethical conduct of research is clearly transferred to researchers, except possibly in that small proportion of cases where prospective research participants may be so intrinsically vulnerable that their well-being may need to be overseen.
This paper provides a comprehensive review of attitude research in physical education. The first section reviews theoretical models that are prevalent in attitude research. Then, the next section describes the methods that were used to locate the research used in the remainder of the paper. The third section discusses measurement issues in…
Deaver, Sarah P.
By having their research proposals reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), art therapists meet important ethical principles regarding responsibility to research participants. This article provides an overview of the history of human subjects protections in the United States; underlying ethical principles and their application…
... is addressing this gap, summarizing the best available primary research on digital ... Systematic reviews are used to appraise relevant research and synthesize ... The health sciences field uses them widely to inform studies and evaluate ...
This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.
Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences. Official Publication ... Review Article. The effects of .... to post-translational modification of proteins that may .... by Akt and PDK recruitment to the plasma membrane – in close proximity.
Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene
Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…
Trace, Samantha; Kolstoe, Simon Erik
Background The review of human participant research by Research Ethics Committees (RECs) or Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) is a complex multi-faceted process that cannot be reduced to an algorithm. However, this does not give RECs/ IRBs permission to be inconsistent in their specific requirements to researchers or in their final opinions. In England the Health Research Authority (HRA) coordinates 67 committees, and has adopted a consistency improvement plan including a process called “Sha...
Favre-Inhofer, A; Rafii, A; Carbonnel, M; Revaux, A; Ayoubi, J M
Uterine transplantation is the solution to treat absolute uterine fertility. In this review, we present the historical, medical, technical, psychological and ethical perspectives in human uterine transplantation research. We reviewed the PubMed database following PRISMA guidelines and added data presented by several research teams during the first international congress on uterine transplantation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Guilbert, Laure; Bernaud, Jean-Luc; Gouvernet, Brice; Rossier, Jérôme
Professional transition, employment, and reemployment are major concerns for nations facing adverse economic situations. The employability construct represents a scientific challenge in order to better understand the relationship between the job seekers' issues and the expectations of the world of work. This paper presents a review of the concept…
It also recommends appropriate interventions in order to address the problem and discuss the implications of these findings for prevention and control programmes. The study was approved by the University of Ibadan/University. College Hospital Ethics Review Committee. This study was aimed to address the following: one,.
Feb 1, 2001 ... research and financial institutions; acquiring famous faculty; multidisciplinary science replacing single disciplines; and .... patents issued for the fiscal year 2007 (Market Research ... is reducible to one of three categories –war, crises, or ..... ccismay042700.html> The Graduate School of International.
For the Aarhus School of Architecture contribution to this book on creativity, we have decided to focus on the role of the workplace. It has been striking after attending several of the Practice Research Symposia organised by ADAPT-r how often creative practice researchers examine the spatial org...
differences in behavior. Research motivated from this perspective focuses on ways to ... work serves as a case study for the way cultural psychology can provide a framework for better understanding ...... emotion, and motivation. Psychological ...
administration of 70% ethanol to induce gastric mucosal damage followed by pyloric ligation. The same procedure was ... anti-ulcer drugs has remained a field of active research ... arrythmias, impotence, gynaecomastia, nephrotoxicity, and.
resource settings showed that the use of pap smear for routine screening of women resulted in ..... Research in Mexico, Ecuador and Venezuela for Latin ... University College Hospital by Arulogun and Maxwell (2012) and contradicts a study in ...
research in Nigeria, this study identified predictors of child mortality. ... The hazard of under-five mortality was higher for children of mothers residing in the; South ..... This phenomenon can be explained ... crop residue, dung, straw and lignite.
cultured rice plants. Plant Soil 148:107-113. Ma JF, Takahashi E (2002). Soil, Fertilizer, and Plant Silicon Research in Japan. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. Ma JF, Yamaji N (2006). Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants ...
probabil- infinitesimal impedance elements cannot be dep- ity density, icted .) If PR (r. 1 is the joint probability den- sity function for r and 1, a...Dynamics. 1-5 Sept. 1986, finse Research. Medellin , Colombia. % Rosenblum, L.J., Chairperson, IEEE Computer Saks, N.S., Coorganizer and lecturer, IEEE
Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...
For the Aarhus School of Architecture contribution to this book on creativity, we have decided to focus on the role of the workplace. It has been striking after attending several of the Practice Research Symposia organised by ADAPT-r how often creative practice researchers examine the spatial...... organisation of their offices or workshops to form a better understanding of their practice. This has led us to investigate and discuss how the spatial context of creative practices shapes – and is shaped by – design processes. We have asked ourselves about what role the broader spatial and cultural context...
Khanlou, N; Peter, E
This paper addresses the distinctive nature of participatory action research (PAR) in relation to ethical review requirements. As a framework for conducting research and reducing health disparities, PAR is gaining increased attention in community and public health research. As a result, PAR researchers and members of Research Ethics Boards could benefit from an increased understanding of the array of ethical concerns that can arise. We discuss these concerns in light of commonly held ethical requirements for clinical research (social or scientific value, scientific validity, fair subject/participant selection, favourable risk-benefit ratio, independent review, informed consent, and respect for potential and enrolled participants) and refer to guidelines specifically developed for participatory research in health promotion. We draw from our community-based experiences in mental health promotion research with immigrant and culturally diverse youth to illustrate the ethical advantages and challenges of applying a PAR approach. We conclude with process suggestions for Research Ethics Boards.
Nyerhovwo J. TonukariY, *, John S. Scott-Craig and Jonathan D. Walton. Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824. Accepted 18 November 2002. The expression of four Cochliobolus carbonum endo-1,4-β-xylanase genes (XYL1, XYL2, XYL3, XYL4),.
Research article. Knowledge of Diets as A Modifiable Risk Factor of Obesity ... Frequently consumed high calorie foods included cocoa-based drinks (24.8%), .... of risky food items (fatty, junk and sugary foods) was categorized ... biological children. Details .... “constant exposure to adverts and marketing of high calorie foods ...
ABSTRACT: To determine cost of therapy to patients of Ear Nose and Throat infections in a Nigerian ... resources are being used wisely even before the global ... economic based operational researches to improve .... calculated based on time spent in the hospital and loss ..... 2005) and may be due to low level of immunity.
Bausero, María A
The First Conference of the Latin America Chapter of the Cell Stress Society International (CSSI) organized by CSSI was held in Montevideo, Uruguay, on March 11-14, 2014. The Latin America Chapter of the CSSI (LAC-CSSI) was established at the Workshop on the Molecular Biology of the Stress Response, Porto Alegre, Brazil, May 2012. The chapter's first meeting took place in the beautiful city of Montevideo and was chaired by the first (LAC-CSSI) elected president Professor María Bausero. Forty-two invited speakers presented their work to more than 100 scientists. The first day of the conference was dedicated to an introductory program for students, young investigators, and participants new to the field of molecular chaperones and the stress response. These seminars were held in the Pasteur Institute of Montevideo and the Faculty of Sciences of the University of the Republic. These institutions were carefully selected to give foreign participants a broad view of the diversity of students and institutions doing research in Uruguay, as well as an opportunity for direct interaction with our scientists and students. Invited speakers for the seminar series were Dr. Wolfgang Schumann, Dr. Cristina Bonorino, Dr. Antonio De Maio, Dr. Ian Brown, Dr. Rafael Radi, Dr. Daniel Ciocca, and Dr. Celia Quijano. The remaining days of the conference took place at the Sheraton Hotel in Montevideo, and the scientific sessions are discussed below.
Zheng Chun; Song Lingli; Ai Zihui
Radiation biology research in China during the past ten years are reviewed. It should be noticed that radiation-biology should focus on microdosimetry, microbeam application, and radiation biological mechanism. (authors)
McQuay, H. J; Kalso, Eija; Moore, R. Andrew
"Presents invited papers from the 6th IASP Research Symposium, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Pain, held in Spain in September 2006, organized by the International Collaboration on Evidence...
Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poore, III, Willis P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holbrook, Mark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Moe, Wayne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
This report proposes adaptation of the previous regulatory gap analysis in Chapter 4 (Reactor) of NUREG 0800, Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR [Light Water Reactor] Edition. The proposed adaptation would result in a Chapter 4 review plan applicable to certain advanced reactors. This report addresses two technologies: the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (mHTGR). SRP Chapter 4, which addresses reactor components, was selected for adaptation because of the possible significant differences in advanced non-light water reactor (non-LWR) technologies compared with the current LWR-based description in Chapter 4. SFR and mHTGR technologies were chosen for this gap analysis because of their diverse designs and the availability of significant historical design detail.
Full Text Available Research works in ruminant nutrition have been widely published, especially those related to the energy and protein utilization. The energy and protein requirements for maintenance and production in tropical regions may be different from those in the subtropical areas. Responses of different species of ruminants to energy and protein supplements were also observed. The synchronization of energy and protein availability has been considered as an important strategy in affecting the microbial fermentative process in the rumen and in affecting the animal performance. The inclusion of long-chained unsaturated fatty acids in the diets has been successfully affecting milk production with higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. Feedstuffs characteristics in terms of their degradability and fermentation by rumen microbial enzymes have been intensively studied; however, further experimentations are still needed to elucidate the specific fate of its nutritive components in the rumen and tissue levels.
textabstractInfatuated individuals think about their beloved a lot. The notions that these frequent thoughts resemble the obsessions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and that those patients benefit from serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), have led to the hypothesis that romantic love is associated with reduced central serotonin levels. In this chapter, the literature on this topic is reviewed and suggestions for future research are made. Previous studies have shown that roma...
Sutton, D. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Collins, L. T. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Le Heron, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility.
Hellweg, C. E.; Gerzer, R.; Reitz, G.
critical reading of scientific literature, first steps in peer review, scientific writing during preparation of their own publication, and writing of the thesis. The training of soft skills is offered as block course in cooperation with other Helmholtz Research Schools. The whole program encompasses 303 h and is organized in semester terms. The first doctoral candidates started the program in spring 2009.
Association of American Universities, 2011
An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…
Stevens, Joseph H., Jr.; Baxter, Delia H.
Indicates how various degrees of malnutrition affect children's development. Reviews research conducted in several developing countries and the United States, and describes the nutritional status of children in the United States. Implications for nutrition programs, research and policy formation are pointed out. (Author/RH)
Ryan, Gerard; Valverde, Mireia
Reviews 21 papers based on 13 separate empirical studies on waiting on the Internet, drawn from the areas of marketing, system response time, and quality of service studies. The article proposes an agenda for future research, including extending the range of research methodologies, broadening the definition of waiting on the Internet, and…
The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual journal published by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa (OSSREA). Since the publication of its maiden ... Emerging regions in Ethiopia: are they catching up with the rest of Ethiopia? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...
Urban metabolism analysis has become an important tool for the study of urban ecosystems. The problems of large metabolic throughput, low metabolic efficiency, and disordered metabolic processes are a major cause of unhealthy urban systems. In this paper, I summarize the international research on urban metabolism, and describe the progress that has been made in terms of research methodologies. I also review the methods used in accounting for and evaluating material and energy flows in urban metabolic processes, simulation of these flows using a network model, and practical applications of these methods. Based on this review of the literature, I propose directions for future research, and particularly the need to study the urban carbon metabolism because of the modern context of global climate change. Moreover, I recommend more research on the optimal regulation of urban metabolic systems. Highlights: •Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by regarding cities as superorganisms. •Urban metabolism methods include accounting, assessment, modeling, and regulation. •Research methodologies have improved greatly since this field began in 1965. •Future research should focus on carbon metabolism and optimal regulation. -- The author reviews research progress in the field of urban metabolism, and based on her literature review, proposes directions for future research
Hruby, George G.; Goswami, Usha
In this review, we lay the groundwork for an interdisciplinary conversation between literacy education research and relevant neuroscience research. We review recent neuroscience research on correlates of proposed cognitive subprocesses in text decoding and reading comprehension and analyze some of the methodological and conceptual challenges of…
Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker
In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...
Chee, K Y; Salina, A A
Research in schizophrenia has advanced tremendously. One hundred and seventy five articles related to Schizophrenia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. This project aims to examine published research articles, in local and international journals in order to provide a glimpse of the research interest in Malaysia with regards to schizophrenia. Single case study, case series report, reviews and registry reports were not included in this review. Medication trial, unless it concerned a wider scope of psychopharmacology was also excluded from this review. A total of 105 articles were included in this review. Despite numerous genetics studies conducted and published, a definitive conclusion on the aetiology or mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. The National Mental Health - Schizophrenia Registry (NMHR) proved to be an important platform for many studies and publications. Studies stemmed from NMHR have provided significant insight into the baseline characteristic of patients with schizophrenia, pathway to care, and outcomes of the illness. International and regional collaborations have also encouraged important work involving stigma and discrimination in schizophrenia. Ministry of Health's hospitals (MOH) are the main research sites in the country with regards to schizophrenia research. Numbers of schizophrenia research are still low in relation to the number of universities and hospitals in the country. Some of the weaknesses include duplication of studies, over-emphasising clinical trials and ignoring basic clinical research, and the lack of publications in international and regional journals.
Pearce, D G
This paper reviews the nature and scope of research into the environmental impact of tourism, the role such research may play in tourist development and conservation and the constraints which may be encountered. Research in this field is characterized by a wide spectrum of generally complex interrelationships and impacts. In recent years there has been a growing call from policy-makers for environmental guidelines, indicators and other research but as yet a few immediate solutions to their problems and answers to their request are to hand. The complexity of the issues involved and other difficulties have also limited the extent to which research has been fed into the decision-making process.
Timothy R. Levine
Full Text Available Trends in quantitative communication research are reviewed. A content analysis of 48 articles reporting original communication research published in 1988-1991 and 2008-2011 is reported. Survey research and self-report measurement remain common approaches to research. Null hypothesis significance testing remains the dominant approach to statistical analysis. Reporting the shapes of distributions, estimates of statistical power, and confidence intervals remain uncommon. Trends over time include the increased popularity of health communication and computer mediated communication as topics of research, and increased attention to mediator and moderator variables. The implications of these practices for scientific progress are critically discussed, and suggestions for the future are provided.
Stotzer, Rebecca L; Herman, Jody L; Hasenbush, Amira
The authors of this report reviewed 51 studies that analyze data about transgender parents. This report reviews the existing research on the prevalence and characteristics of transgender people who are parents, the quality of relationships between transgender parents and their children, outcomes for children with a transgender parent, and the reported needs of transgender parents. Overall, the authors found that substantial numbers of transgender people are parents, though at rates below the ...
Full Text Available In recent years action research has been gradually introduced into academic thought, giving impetus to contributions such as The Action Research Dissertation, specifically aimed at doing and reporting doctoral research based on this methodology. Beyond purely instrumental aspects (contributing criteria and tools for the execution of dissertations through action research, the book raises some issues that play a fundamental role in assessing action research at the university level: its epistemological bases, researchers' positionality, quality criteria, and the ways in which the process is narrated. This review essay introduces the debate (Section 1, reviews the chapters of the book (Section 2, and notes its contributions to this ongoing discussion and where it falls short, and, more generally, on the relation between universities, action research, and social practices (Section 3. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080320
Elizabeth Smythe PhD, RN, RM
Full Text Available In academia there seems to be a taken for granted assumption that there is one way to do a literature review. This paper argues that the manner of reviewing literature needs to be congruent with the particular research methodology. As an example, the authors explicate reviewing literature in hermeneutic research. The paper begins by discussing philosophical assumptions. The authors then offer personal accounts of their experiences of working with literature in ways that are congruent with hermeneutic methodology. It is argued that the key purpose of exploring literature in hermeneutic research is to provide context and provoke thinking. Literature, which can include anything that provokes thinking on the phenomenon of interest, becomes an essential dialogical partner from which scholarly thinking and new insights emerge. In conclusion distinguishing hallmarks of ways of working hermeneutically with literature are articulated
7D-i53 28 GREAT LAKES RESEARCH REVIEW 1982 PPENDICES (U) / PETROLEUM REFINERY PO INT SOURCE TASK FORCE WINDSOR (ONTARIO) NOV 82UNCLASSIFIED F/G 8...C7 U. 3 X 7 45 1 2 0. ODm C of. C.’ WC.’ L. LI 7 R-Ri53 62B GREAT LKES RESEARCH REVIEW 1982 PPENDICES (U) 2/3 PETROLEUM REFINERY POINT SOURCE TASK...NUMBER ORGANIZATION* TITLE OF PROJECT 001 A** 0300 ERL-D Acute and Early Life Stage Toxicity Testing of Priority Pollutant Chemicals 002 A 0302 ERL-D
In the Chapter 1 the experience of large accelerating facilities implementation in Kazakhstan is illuminated. In particularly the organization experience of U-150 M cyclotron and the UKP-2-1 heavy ions accelerator is described. The technical performances of these two facilities are presented. The Kazakhstan experience in a knowledge intensive technologies implementation on the base of these facilities is shown. Studies on radiation solid state physics fulfilled on the U-150 M isochronous cyclotron and the UKP-2-1 heavy ions accelerator are described. Besides the world experience of track membranes production with help of heavy ions accelerators are overviewed. A brief review of accelerators using for track membranes production and polymers modification is given. The peculiarities of production and the track membranes properties on the base of different polymers are described. Polymers modification with help heavy ions beam (non-membrane technological application) is considered as well
In the Chapter 2 the DC-60 specialized accelerator project of the Inter-disciplinary research complex in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University is described. The DC-60 cyclotron is intended for applied studies which can be accomplished on both the ion beams of the electron cyclotron resonance source with voltage up to 25 kV and the accelerated ions from carbon to xenon. The cyclotron is design on the base of compact magnet with weight about 74 tonnes, and it mean magnetic field is 1.6 T, section angle - 50 Deg. Design of the Inter-disciplinary research complex building in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University is described as well. Technical performances of the building and their parameters are given
Gerber, Lynn H; Nava, Andrew; Garfinkel, Steven; Goel, Divya; Weinstein, Ali A; Cai, Cindy
There is a need for additional strategies for performing systematic reviews (SRs) to improve translation of findings into practice and to influence health policy. SRs critically appraise research methodology and determine level of evidence of research findings. The standard type of SR identifies randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as providing the most valid data and highest level of evidence. RCTs are not among the most frequently used research design in disability and health research. RCTs usually measure impairments for the primary research outcome rather than improved function, participation or societal integration. It forces a choice between "validity" and "utility/relevance." Other approaches have effectively been used to assess the validity of alternative research designs, whose outcomes focus on function and patient-reported outcomes. We propose that utilizing existing evaluation tools that measure knowledge, dissemination and utility of findings, may help improve the translation of findings into practice and health policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trace, Samantha; Kolstoe, Simon Erik
The review of human participant research by Research Ethics Committees (RECs) or Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) is a complex multi-faceted process that cannot be reduced to an algorithm. However, this does not give RECs/ IRBs permission to be inconsistent in their specific requirements to researchers or in their final opinions. In England the Health Research Authority (HRA) coordinates 67 committees, and has adopted a consistency improvement plan including a process called "Shared Ethical Debate" (ShED) where multiple committees review the same project. Committee reviews are compared for consistency by analysing the resulting minutes. We present a description of the ShED process. We report an analysis of minutes created by research ethics committees participating in two ShED exercises, and compare them to minutes produced in a published "mystery shopper" exercise. We propose a consistency score by defining top themes for each exercise, and calculating the ratio between top themes and total themes identified by each committee for each ShED exercise. Our analysis highlights qualitative differences between the ShED 19, ShED 20 and "mystery shopper" exercises. The quantitative measure of consistency showed only one committee across the three exercises with more than half its total themes as top themes (ratio of 0.6). The average consistency scores for the three exercises were 0.23 (ShED19), 0.35 (ShED20) and 0.32 (mystery shopper). There is a statistically significant difference between the ShED 19 exercise, and the ShED 20 and mystery shopper exercises. ShED exercises are effective in identifying inconsistency between ethics committees and we describe a scoring method that could be used to quantify this. However, whilst a level of inconsistency is probably inevitable in research ethics committee reviews, studies must move beyond the ShED methodology to understand why inconsistency occurs, and what an acceptable level of inconsistency might be.
In recent years, the physical death, the related grief, and the ensuing memorials has become visible in the digital arena. As every other aspect of life is to be found online, so are death and the surrounding issues. The research into the area is not far behind, and using the approach of a timeline...... with different stakeholders, this research review offers a systematic way of keeping track. The rather simple timeline relates to the death of a person, there is before, just around, and after death, appropriately named in a dead language: Ante Mortem, Peri Mortem, and Post Mortem. This review deals exclusively...... with the digital context of the physical death of existing human beings, as opposed to, e.g., in-game death experience or memorials for fictional characters. These are no doubt interesting issues that deserve their own review, although we might need to put citation marks around "death"....
Addresses the problem of cruelty to animals from a research perspective. Studies of possible causes of childhood cruelty to animals are reviewed and common contributing environmental factors are identified. Implications for educators are discussed and directives for detection and prevention of cruelty are suggested. (ML)
Zlatanovic, Tatjana; Havnes, Anton; Mausethagen, Sølvi
The conceptions of what constitutes nursing competence and how such competence is taught and learned are changing, due to rapid changes in in the health sector. Nurse teachers' competencies for providing high-quality, up-to-date nursing education, are developing accordingly. This paper reviews the existing research on nurse teachers' competencies…
Salomons, O.W.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.
Research in feature-based design is reviewed. Feature-based design is regarded as a key factor towards CAD/CAPP integration from a process planning point of view. From a design point of view, feature-based design offers possibilities for supporting the design process better than current CAD systems
Avdi, Evrinomy; Georgaca, Eugenie
This paper is a review of studies which utilise the notion of narrative to analyse psychotherapy. Its purpose is to systematically present this diverse field of research, to highlight common themes and divergences between different strands and to further the development and integration of narrative research in psychotherapy. The paper reviews studies which employ an applied textual analysis of narratives produced in the context of psychotherapy. Criteria for inclusion of studies are, firstly, the analysis of therapeutic and therapy-related texts and, secondly, the adoption of a narrative psychological perspective. The studies were examined on the basis of the notion of narrative they employ and the aspects of client narratives they focus on, and were grouped accordingly in the review. The majority of the studies reviewed assume a constructivist approach to narrative, adopt a representational view of language, focus primarily on client micro-narratives and relate to cognitive-constructivist and process-experiential psychotherapeutic approaches. A smaller group of studies assume a social constructionist approach to narrative and a functional view of language, focus on micro-narratives, highlight the interactional and wider social aspects of narrative and relate to postmodern trends in psychotherapy. The range of conceptualisations of narrative in the studies reviewed, from a representational psychological view to a constructionist social view, reflects tensions within narrative psychology itself. Moreover, two trends can be discerned in the field reviewed, narrative analysis of therapy, which draws from narrative theory and utilises the analytic approaches of narrative research to study psychotherapy, and analyses of narrative in therapy, which study client narratives using non-narrative qualitative methods. Finally, the paper highlights the need for integration of this diverse field of research and urges for the development of narrative studies of psychotherapy
This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators
This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators.
Chapter 3 presents: an introduction; Traceability (measurement standard, role of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Secondary Standards Laboratories, documentary standards and traceability as process review); Uncertainty (Example 1 - Measurement, M raw (SSD), Example 2 - Calibration data, N D.w 60 Co, kQ, Example 3 - Correction factor, P TP ) and Conclusion
McGhee, Gerry; Marland, Glenn R; Atkinson, Jacqueline
This paper is a report of a discussion of the arguments surrounding the role of the initial literature review in grounded theory. Researchers new to grounded theory may find themselves confused about the literature review, something we ourselves experienced, pointing to the need for clarity about use of the literature in grounded theory to help guide others about to embark on similar research journeys. The arguments for and against the use of a substantial topic-related initial literature review in a grounded theory study are discussed, giving examples from our own studies. The use of theoretically sampled literature and the necessity for reflexivity are also discussed. Reflexivity is viewed as the explicit quest to limit researcher effects on the data by awareness of self, something seen as integral both to the process of data collection and the constant comparison method essential to grounded theory. A researcher who is close to the field may already be theoretically sensitized and familiar with the literature on the study topic. Use of literature or any other preknowledge should not prevent a grounded theory arising from the inductive-deductive interplay which is at the heart of this method. Reflexivity is needed to prevent prior knowledge distorting the researcher's perceptions of the data.
... com Arizona Email: email@example.com Website: http://tsa-az.org/ Arkansas Support Group of Northwest ... California/Hawaii Chapter Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.tsanorcal-hawaii.org Southern California Chapter Phone: ...
Nicholls, Stuart G.; Hayes, Tavis P.; Brehaut, Jamie C.; McDonald, Michael; Weijer, Charles; Saginur, Raphael; Fergusson, Dean
Background To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review. Methods We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction. Results Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial - randomised or otherwise – of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review. Discussion Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review. PMID:26225553
Nicholls, Stuart G; Hayes, Tavis P; Brehaut, Jamie C; McDonald, Michael; Weijer, Charles; Saginur, Raphael; Fergusson, Dean
To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review. We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction. Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial--randomised or otherwise--of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review. Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review.
Stuart G Nicholls
Full Text Available To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review.We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction.Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial--randomised or otherwise--of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review.Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review.
Elisabeth H. Ormandy
Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.
Part I of the article discusses the fundaments of family firms: the prevalence of and the agency conflicts within family firms. Part II summarizes the findings of recent U.S. family firm studies. It reviews the evidence on the family firm premium (how, which, and when family firms are associated with a valuation premium, the manifestation of the agency conflict between majority and minority shareholders in family firms, earnings quality and corporate disclosure, and the determinants of family ownership and control. Part III discusses the prevalence and characteristics of Chinese family firms and reviews the findings of related studies. The article concludes with some suggestions for future research.
Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield
This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...
Christina M. Botai
Full Text Available Water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world are of great concern, as they are closely linked to the wellbeing of humankind. Sophisticated hydrological prediction tools are required to assess climatic and hydrometeorological conditions, as they impact the sustainability of water resources as well as water availability. Research and data collection activities from multi-hydrometeorological sensors (e.g., gauges, radars, satellites form the basis for quantifying the impact of extreme episodes along the hydrologic phases that manifest in terms of the magnitude, duration and frequency of floods, droughts and other hydrometeorological hazards that affect water resources management. A number of hydrometeorological research activities have been reported in the literature by various researchers and research groups globally. This contribution presents (a a review of the hydrometeorology resource landscape in South Africa; (b an analysis of the hydrometeorology services and products in South Africa; (c a review of the hydrometeorological research that has been conducted in South Africa for the last four decades; and (d highlights on some of the challenges facing the sustained advancement of research in hydrometeorology in South Africa.
Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Butzer, Bethany
Research on the efficacy of yoga for improving mental, emotional, physical, and behavioral health characteristics in school settings is a recent but growing field of inquiry. This systematic review of research on school-based yoga interventions published in peer-reviewed journals offers a bibliometric analysis that identified 47 publications. The studies from these publications have been conducted primarily in the United States (n = 30) and India (n = 15) since 2005, with the majority of studies (n = 41) conducted from 2010 onward. About half of the publications were of studies at elementary schools; most (85%) were conducted within the school curriculum, and most (62%) also implemented a formal school-based yoga program. There was a high degree of variability in yoga intervention characteristics, including overall duration, and the number and duration of sessions. Most of these published research trials are preliminary in nature, with numerous study design limitations, including limited sample sizes (median = 74; range = 20-660) and relatively weak research designs (57% randomized controlled trials, 19% uncontrolled trials), as would be expected in an infant research field. Nevertheless, these publications suggest that yoga in the school setting is a viable and potentially efficacious strategy for improving child and adolescent health and therefore worthy of continued research. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
,; Lowenstern, J. B.
Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.
Review of: Santos Rego, M. A. (Ed.) (2016). A investigación educativa en Galicia 2002-2014. Vigo: Galaxia. 518 pp. ISBN: 978-84-9865-697-8. Depósito legal: VG 253-2016. This is a work that gathers the main contributions to educational research in Galicia between 2002 and 2014. They listed the main point made research, doctoral theses, books, chapters of books/monographs, articles published in relation to the main areas and core themes related to education as psychology and education, lear...
Murray, J B
The literature including a number of review articles was examined for answers to the questions, have distinctive personality test profiles of pathological gamblers been identified, do pathological gamblers have control over their behavior, have studies of alcoholism and addiction increased understanding of compulsive gambling, and has psychotherapy or Gamblers Anonymous been successful for them? Much more information is needed to build on what research on these questions has yielded.
Kreider, Richard B; Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem; Campbell, Bill; Almada, Anthony L; Collins, Rick; Cooke, Mathew; Earnest, Conrad P; Greenwood, Mike; Kalman, Douglas S; Kerksick, Chad M; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lopez, Hector; Lowery, Lonnie M
Abstract Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this pap...
Williams, F.; Delaware Univ., Newark
The difficulties of a comprehensive review of the broad and diverse branches of molecular and solid-state luminescence research are noted. This review is thus limited to selective topics. Some general concepts and trends are then introduced, including: luminescence excitation as a collective excitation of a many-body problem, encompassing in some cases the source and probe in its formulation; continuing trends towards extremal conditions of experiments and towards inhomogeneous and structured materials, from man-made superlattices to biological materials; and increased attention to applications of luminescence research to lamps, displays, solar devices and biological research. Representative recent and new specific research areas include: site selection spectroscopy and 'hole burning'; picosecond delayed coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering; computer simulation of dynamical processes in luminescence; electron-hole expansion from the Fermi pressure of e-h plasmas; and hot electron phenomena and hot luminescence. Finally some pending problems in luminescence research, such as reconciling the configuration coordinate model and the electronic band theory and clarifying multi-phonon non-radiative processes, are discussed. (orig.)
In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.
Mahlous, M. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique (COMENA) (Algeria); Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger (CRNA), Algiers (Algeria)
In recent years, considerable success in the modification of natural polymers by irradiation with the purpose of producing properties for specific applications has been recorded. Research groups in many countries have developed new products based on radiation-processed polysaccharides. Some developed products have already been commercialized. These include plant growth promoters and protectors for application in agriculture, wound dressing hydrogels containing radiation processed polysaccharides for the health sector, and adsorbents of metal ions and organic pollutants for the protection of the environment. In Algeria, although the commercialization stage of radiation-processed polysaccharides has not yet been reached, special attention is being given to research in this area. Several studies related to the effects of ionizing radiation on polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate have been conducted. Work activities aimed at the development of materials based on natural polymers for medical, environmental and agricultural applications have either been completed or are currently being done. The results of some of these studies are presented below. (author)
Proposed by the French Reactor Operators' Club (CER), the meeting and discussion forum for operators of French research reactors, this report first gives a brief presentation of these reactors and of their scope of application, and a summary of highlights in 2012 for each of them. Then, it proposes more detailed presentations and reviews of characteristics, activities, highlights, objectives and results for the different types of reactors: neutron beam reactors (Orphee, High flux reactor-Laue-Langevin Institute or HFR-ILL), technological irradiation reactors (Osiris and Phenix), training reactors (Isis and Azur), reactors for safety research purposes (Cabri and Phebus), reactors for neutronic studies (Caliban, Prospero, Eole, Minerve and Masurca), and new research reactors (the RES facility and the Jules Horowitz reactor or JHR)
Stald, Gitte Bang
Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...... their phones as indispensable to managing their social lives. Stald observes that while being connected all the time gives youth a sense of freedom, control and autonomy, their increasing access to mobile phones is a cause anytime, anywhere access to one another is now possible with mobile phones, time...
The role of the Research Program in Controlled Thermonuclear Research, the activities that are contained within the Research Program, and summaries of the reports prepared by the study groups that analyzed the six activity areas that make up the Research Program are described. The recommendations by an ''Overview Panel'' are given. The recommendations are based on an analysis of the individual study group reports, consultations with CTR staff and field scientists, and on independent review of CTR program plans and needs. In some cases the recommendations of the Overview Panel are identical with study group recommendations and in other cases they are not. Some recommendations by the Overview Panel take into account factors and information that go beyond that available to the study groups. The five-year budget needed to accomplish the recommended Research Program is discussed. The Overview Panel chose to normalize its budget recommendations to the actual FY 1975 Research Program budget, reflecting the fact that this is already determined. The budgets for subsequent years are then based on this starting point. The complete reports prepared by the six study groups are given. Each report is based on an analysis of the needs as dictated by the Magnetic Confinement Systems and Development and Technology Program Plans. (U.S.)
Miller, Clayton S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G
Over the past half century, wildlife research has relied on technological advances to gain additional insight into the secretive lives of animals. This revolution started in the 1960s with the development of radio telemetry and continues today with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based research techniques. In the present paper we review the history of radio telemetry from its origins with grizzly bears in Yellowstone to its early applications in tiger research and conservation in Asia. We address the different types of data that are available using radio telemetry as opposed to using other research techniques, such as behavioral observations, camera trapping, DNA analysis and scat analysis. In the late 1990s, the rapid development of GPS collar technology revolutionized wildlife research. This new technology has enabled researchers to dramatically improve their ability to gather data on animal movements and ecology. Despite the ecological and conservation benefits of radio telemetry, there have been few telemetry studies of tigers in the wild, and most have been on the Bengal or Amur subspecies. We close with an assessment of the current tiger conservation efforts using GPS technology and discuss how this new information can help to preserve tigers for future generations. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.
Larsen, Lea Lund
over two questions asked in the abstract concerning workshop C - Effects of teacher training in lifelong learning - at the current ASEM conference. At first it is asked what do we already know about teacher training effects in relation to adult learners? This will be identified by a search...... for systematic reviews in the international This will be identified by a search for systematic reviews in the international clearinghouses and afterwards by a small scale mapping done in the pedagogic databaseERIC. The second question sounds: which methods can be used to measure the effects of teacher...... training? This will be illustrated by describing a research design in progress at the National Centre of Competence Development, DK, regarding a program where teachers are taught Cooperative Learning as a pedagogical and didactical method. This appendix concerns the first question. In search for empiric results concerning: What do...
Brown, H.; Gwinner, D.; Miller, M.; Pitchford, P.
Science and technology are at the heart of everything we do at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, as we pursue innovative, robust, and sustainable ways to produce energy--and as we seek to understand and illuminate the physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering behind alternative energy technologies. This year's Research Review highlights the Lab's work in the areas of alternatives fuels and vehicles, high-performing commercial buildings, and high-efficiency inverted, semi-mismatched solar cells.
Tulis, Robert W.; Hopper, Darrel G.; Morton, David C.; Shashidhar, Ranganathan
Display research has comprised a substantial portion of the defense investment in new technology for national security for the past 13 years. These investments have been made by the separate service departments and, especially, via several Defense Research Projects Agency (DARPA) programs, known collectively as the High Definition Systems (HDS) Program (which ended in 2001) and via the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Defense Production Act (DPA) Title III Program (efforts ended in 2000). Using input from the Army, Navy, and Air Force to focus research and identify insertion opportunities, DARPA and the Title III Program Office have made investments to develop the national technology base and manufacturing infrastructure necessary to meet the twin challenge of providing affordable displays in current systems and enabling the DoD strategy of winning future conflicts by getting more information to all participants during the battle. These completed DARPA and DPA research and infrastructure programs are reviewed. Service investments have been and are being made to transition display technology; examples are described. Display science and technology (S&T) visions are documented for each service to assist the identification of areas meriting consideration for future defense research.
In this chapter author deals with superconductors and superconductivity. Different chemical materials used as high-temperature superconductors are presented. Some applications of superconductivity are presented.
Hans Thulesius, M.D., G.P., Ph.D.
Full Text Available I have participated in writing ethical approval applications for research projects in Sweden a dozen times. I am also since some years a member of the local ethics advisory board in a mostly rural area serving 180.000 people. From that position I advise on what types of local project applications will have to be sent further to the regional ethics committee, REPN in Sweden. With that background I will try to give a brief Swedish perspective on research ethics reviews in general and regarding CGT (classic grounded theory studies using qualitative data in particular.The most famous Swedish example of unethical research is the 1947-1951 Vipeholm sugar trial (Krasse, 2001. Several hundred intellectually and mentally challenged persons at the Vipeholm institution were for years given an excess amount of sugar, mostly in the shape of candy. This resulted in caries that totally ruined the teeth of 50 persons. Of course participants did not give informed consent. Yet, at the time the research was not considered unethical. At least there was no debate about it.
The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...
Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili
This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1--5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 575 refs., 84 figs., 68 tabs.
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 74 figs., 32 tabs.
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1--5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 575 refs., 84 figs., 68 tabs
Migrant Adaptation - A Cross-Cultural Problem. A Review of Research on Migration, Minority Groups and Cultural Differences, with Special Regard to Children. Educational and Psychological Interactions, No. 59.
Ekstrand, L. H.
Research pertinent to the adaptation of immigrant children is reviewed in a cross-cultural perspective. The report focuses on research that has yielded empirical data, although a number of other papers of basic importance have been included in the review. The first chapter discusses definitions and implications of various types of cross-cultural…
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Full Text Available Abstract To date, almost one and a half million cases of cancer are diagnosed every year in the US and nearly 560,000 Americans are expected to die of cancer in the current year, more than 1,500 people a day (data from the American Cancer Society at http://www.cancer.org/. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, roughly 20% of all cancers worldwide results from chronic infections; in particular, up to 15% of human cancers is characterized by a viral aetiology with higher incidence in Developing Countries. The link between viruses and cancer was one of the pivotal discoveries in cancer research during the past Century. Indeed, the infectious nature of specific tumors has important implications in terms of their prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. In the 21st Century, the research on viral oncology field continues to be vigorous, with new significant and original studies on viral oncogenesis and translational research from basic virology to treatment of cancer. This review will cover different viral oncology aspects, starting from the history of viral oncology and moving to the peculiar features of oncogenic RNA and DNA viruses, with a special focus on human pathogens.
Full Text Available Abstract Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1. how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2. general nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 3. our current understanding of the available science behind weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement supplements. Our hope is that ISSN members find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.
Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.
Full Text Available Abstract Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1. The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2. How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3. How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4. General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5. An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.
Yenni Viviana Duque Orozco
Full Text Available This paper reviews the studies on corporate social responsibility (CSR in the banking sector. It seeks to identify the main issues analyzed in this regard in scientific literature, as well as the methodologies used, through an extensive review of research articles, books and book chapters published in the Scopus and Journal Citation Index (previously ISI databases between 1998 and 2011. Results show a high interest among researchers in studying the dissemination of CSR in the banking sector using quantitative and qualitative methods; however, phenomena such as the perception of stakeholders in regards to the social and environmental performance of banks, the impact of CSR practices in the local or national development in developing countries (especially in Latin America and the sector’s responsibility in bankarization have not been addressed in depth.
Charlock, T.P.; Kondratyev, K.; Prokofyev, M.
A review of relatively recent research on the climatic effects of aerosols is presented. Most of the inferences of the climatic effects of aerosols have been obtained through assuming a certain aerosol model in conjunction with a particular climate model. The following radiative effects of aerosols are identified: The planetary albedo is generally increased due to the backscatter of solar radiation by aerosols, with the exception of aerosols situated above a highly reflecting surface. Solar radiation absorption by some aerosols can offset the cooling due to aerosol backscatter. Although aerosol effects dominate for short-wave radiation, absorption and emission of terrestrial radiation by aerosols produces a warming effect. Various climate models are used to assess the impact of aerosols on climate. A two-stream approximation to the radiation transfer equation is adequate for optically thin layers where single scattering is applicable. Improved models to include aerosol terrestrial radiation effects, important feedback mechanisms, and the prediction of globally and seasonally averaged surface and atmospheric temperatures are provided by the so-called radiative-convective models (RCM's). The basic structure of the RCM's, which is regarded as adequate for many aerosol climate applications, is described. The general circulation model (GCM) is also described briefly. A full-scale GCM incorporating realistic aerosol inputs is yet to be formulated to include regional variability of the aerosol. Moreover, detailed computer modeling associated with GCM climate models can often confuse the basic physics. Because volcanic aerosols injected into the stratosphere have long residence times, they provide a good case study of the climate response to a change in the atmospheric aerosol. The chapter gives a critique of modeling work done to establish climatic effects of stratospheric aerosols
Ahmad, Humera F; Jarman, Benjamin T; Kallies, Kara J; Shapiro, Stephen B
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires scholarly activity within general surgery residency programs. The association between in-training research presentations and postgraduation publications is unknown. We hypothesized that surgical trainee presentations at an American College of Surgeons (ACS) state chapter meeting resulted in peer-reviewed publications and future scholarly activity. The ACS Wisconsin state chapter meeting agendas from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed to identify all trainees who delivered podium presentations. A literature search was completed for subsequent publications. Program coordinators were queried and an electronic search was performed to determine practice location and type for each residency graduate. Wisconsin state chapter ACS meeting. General surgery residents, fellows, and medical students in Wisconsin. There were 288 podium presentations by trainees (76% residents, 20% medical students, and 4% fellows). Presentations were clinical (79.5%) and basic science (20.5%). There were 204 unique presenters; 25% presented at subsequent meetings. Of these unique presenters, 46% published their research and 31% published additional research after residency. Among presenters who completed residency or fellowship (N = 119), 34% practiced in a university setting, and 61% practiced in a community setting; 31% practiced in Wisconsin. When comparing clinical vs basic science presenters, there was no difference in fellowship completion (37% vs 44%; p = 0.190) or practice type (38% vs 46% in a university setting; p = 0.397). Repeat presenters were more likely to pursue a fellowship vs those presenting once (76% vs 37%; p = 0.001). Research presentations by surgical trainees at an ACS state chapter meeting frequently led to peer-reviewed publications. Presenters were likely to pursue research opportunities after residency. Repeat presenters were more likely to pursue a fellowship. ACS Wisconsin chapter meetings provide an
Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: local regional and global effects: Chapter 6 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada
Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pendleton, Burton
Species conservation has traditionally been based on individual species within the context of their requisite habitat, which is generally defined as the communities and ecosystems deemed necessary for their presence. Conservation decisions are hampered by the fact that environmental stressors that poetically threaten the persistence of species can operate at organizational levels larger than the habitat or home range of a focal species. Resource managers must therefore simultaneously consider local, regional, and/or global scale stressors for effective conservation and management of species of concern. The wide ranging effects associated with global stressors such as climate change may exceed or exacerbate the effects of local or regional stressors, they still need to understand the direct and interactive effects of global stressors and ultimately how they affect the lands they manage. Conservation of species in southern Nevada is further complication by the fact that the region includes one of the largest and fastest growing urban centers in North America. To accomplish the goal of species conservation, resource managers must identify actionable management options that mitigate the effects of local and regional stressor in the context of the effects of global stressors that are beyond their control. Species conservation is typically focused on a subset often referred to as species of conservation concern that have either demonstrated considerable decline or are naturally rare or have limited distributions. Stressors can directly and indirectly impact species in a variety of ways and through a diversity of mechanisms. Some stressors have been more intense in the past (e.g., livestock grazing) whereas other are now only emerging as new stressors (e.g., solar energy development, climate change). The primary stressors affecting southern Nevada ecosystems are listed in table 2.1 and reviewed in detail in Chapter 2. This chapter addresses Dub-goal 1.4 in the SNAP
Talja, H.; Koski, K.; Rintamaa, R.; Keskinen, R.
In the German HDR (Heissdampfreaktor, hot steam reactor) reactor safety programme, experiments and simulating numerical analyses have been undertaken since 1976 to study the integrity and safety of light water reactors under operational and faulted conditions. The last experiments of the programme were conducted in 1991. The post test analyses have been finished by March 1994 and the last final reports were obtained a few months later. The report aims to inform the utilities and the regulatory body of Finland about the contents of the lokset HDR research programme and to consider the applicability of the results to safety analyses of Finnish nuclear power plants. The report centers around the thermal shock and piping component experiments within the last or third phase of the HDR programme. Investigations into severe reactor accidents, fire safety and non-destructive testing, also conducted during the third phase, are not considered. The report presents a review of the following experiment groups: E21 (crack growth under corrosive conditions, loading due to thermal stratification), E22 (leak rate and leak detection experiments of through-cracked piping), E23 (thermal transient and stratification experiments for a pipe nozzle), E31 (vibration of cracked piping due to blow down and closure of isolation valve), E32 (seismically induced vibrations of cracked piping), E33 (condensation phenomena in horizontal piping during emergency cooling). A comprehensive list of reference reports, received by VTT and containing a VTT more detailed description, is given for each experiment group. The review is focused on the loading conditions and their theoretical modelling. A comparison of theoretical and experimental results is presented for each experiment group. The safety margins are finally assessed with special reference to leak-before-break, a well known principle for assuring the integrity of primary circuit piping of nuclear power plants. (orig.) (71 figs., 5 tabs.)
Robyn M. Gillies
Full Text Available Cooperative learning, where students work in small groups to accomplish shared goals, is widely recognized as a teaching strategy that promotes learning and socialization among students from kindergarten through college and across different subject domains. It has been used successfully to promote reading and writing achievements, understanding and conceptual development in science classes, problem-solving in mathematics, and higher-order thinking and learning to name just a few. It has been shown to enhance students' willingness to work cooperatively and productively with others with diverse learning and adjustment needs and to enhance intergroup relations with those from culturally and ethnically different backgrounds. It has also been used as a teaching strategy to assist students to manage conflict and to help students identified as bullies learn appropriate interpersonal skills. In fact, it has been argued that cooperative learning experiences are crucial to preventing and alleviating many of the social problems related to children, adolescents, and young adults. There is no doubt that the benefits attributed to cooperative learning are widespread and numerous and it is the apparent success of this approach to learning that has led to it being acclaimed as one of the greatest educational innovations of recent times. The purpose of this paper is not only to review developments in research on cooperative learning but also to examine the factors that mediate and moderate its success. In particular, the review focuses on the types of student and teacher interactions generated and the key role talk plays in developing student thinking and learning, albeit through the expression of contrasting opinions or constructed shared meaning. The intention is to provide additional insights on how teachers can effectively utilize this pedagogical approach to teaching and learning in their classrooms.
This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e. borosilicate glass. A historical overview of waste form development programs in nine countries is followed by a summary of the design criteria for borosilicate glass compositions glass compositions. In the sections on glass properties the waste form is characterized in terms of potential alterations under the influence of heat, thermal gradients, radiation, aqueous solutions and combinations thereof. The topics are phase transformations, mechanical properties, radiation effects and chemical durability. The results from studies of volcanic glasses, as natural analogues for borosilicate nuclear waste glasses in order to verify predictions obtained from short-term tests in the laboratory, have been compiled in a special section on natural analogues. A special section on advanced vitrification techniques summarizes the various actual and potential processing schemes and describes the facilities. The literature has been considered until 1985. (author). 430 refs.; 68 figs.; 29 tabs
Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.
Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....
The overview of regulations with which the review of PSRs for research reactors shall comply, the implementation of the review of PSRs for research reactors in China and its effects, the discussion on several issues about PSRs for research reactors and its review, and suggestions on reinforcing the PSRs for research reactors in China are concerned. (author)
Wee, L H; Chan, C M H; Yogarabindranath, S N
Two hundred and seventy one original published materials related to tobacco use were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to Medicine and Health in Malaysia from 1996 - 2015. A total of 147 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance and implications for future research. Findings were summarised, categorised and presented according to epidemiology, behaviour, clinical features and management of smoking. Most studies are cross-sectional with small sample sizes. Studies on smoking initiation and prevalence showed mixed findings with many small scale studies within the sub-groups. The majority of the studies were related to factors that contribute to initiation in adolescents. Nonetheless, there are limited studies on intervention strategies to curb smoking among this group. There is a lack of clinical studies to analyse tobacco use and major health problems in Malaysia. In addition, studies on the best treatment modalities on the use of pharmacotherapy and behavioural counselling have also remained unexplored. Reasons why smokers do not seek clinic help to quit smoking need further exploration. A finding on the extent of effort carried out by healthcare providers in assisting smokers to make quit attempts is not known. Studies on economic and government initiatives on policies and tobacco use focus mainly on the effects of cigarette bans, increased cigarettes taxes and the influence of the tobacco industry. Recommendations are given for the government to increase efforts in implementing smoke-free legislation, early and tailored interventions. Clinical studies in this area are lacking, as are opportunities to research on ways to reduce smoking initiation age and the most effective quit smoking strategies.
Ng, C G
Depression is a debilitating illness and has become a leading cause of morbidity globally. We aim to summarise the evidence available in regard to the prevalence, type of assessment tools used and treatment options for depression in Malaysia. Two hundred and forty seven articles related to depression were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Fifty seven articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Findings were summarised, categorised and presented according to prevalence of depression, depression in women, depression in clinical condition, assessment tools, and treatment of depression. The prevalence of depression in Malaysia was estimated to be between 8 and 12%. The figures were higher among women of low socio-economic background or those with comorbid medical condition. The common assessment tools used in Malaysia include Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). They were translated into the Malay language and their psychometric properties were established. Both pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were commonly used in Malaysia, and were highly recommended in local clinical practice guidelines. There are discrepancies in the reported rates of depression in Malaysia and this needs to be addressed. There were lack of studies looking into the depression among subgroups in Malaysia especially in the male population. There were several instruments available for assessment of depression in Malaysia but their suitability for the local setting need further research. Both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy were recommended in the local treatment guideline in Malaysia. With the emergence of generic medication, we need to compare their clinical efficacy and tolerability
Niederwieser, Tobias; Kociolek, Patrick; Klaus, David
With the continued expansion of human presence into space, typical mission durations will routinely exceed six months and extend to distances beyond the Moon. As such, sending periodic resupply vehicles, as currently provided to the International Space Station, will likely no longer be feasible. Instead, self-sustaining life support systems that recycle human waste products will become increasingly necessary, especially for planetary bases. The idea of bioregenerative life support systems using algal photobioreactors has been discussed since the beginning of the space age. In order to evaluate how such a system could be implemented, a variety of space flight studies aimed at characterizing the potential for using algae in air revitalization, water recycling, food production, and radiation shielding applications have been conducted over the years. Also, given the recent, growing interest in algal research for regenerative fuel production, food supplements, and cosmetics, many algal strains are already well documented from related terrestrial experiments. This paper reviews past algal experiments flown in space from 1960 until today. Experimental methods and results from 51 investigations utilizing either green algae (Chlorophyta), cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta), or Euglenophyta are analyzed and categorized by a variety of parameters, including size, species and duration. The collected data are summarized in a matrix that allows easy comparison between the experiments and provides important information for future life support system requirement definition and design. Similarities between experiment results are emphasized. Common problems and shortcomings are summarized and analyzed in terms of potential solutions. Finally, key research gaps, which must be closed before developing a functional life support system, are identified.
Peterson K. Ozili
Full Text Available We review the recent academic and policy literature on bank loan loss provisioning. Among other things, we observe that there exist some interaction between LLPs and existing prudential, accounting, institutional, cultural, religious, tax and fiscal frameworks which differ across countries; and we find that managerial discretion in provisioning is strongly linked to income smoothing, capital management, signalling, tax management and other objectives. We also address several issues including the ethical dimensions of income smoothing, factors influencing income smoothing, methodological issues in LLP modelling and the dynamic loan loss provisioning experiment; which opens up several avenues for further research such as: finding a balance between sufficient LLPs which regulators want versus transparent LLPs which standard setters want; the sensitivity of abnormal LLPs to changes in equity; the persistence of abnormal LLPs following CEO exit; country-specific interventions that induce LLP procyclicality in emerging countries; the impact of Basel III on banks' provisioning discretion; LLP behaviour among systemic and non-systemic financial institutions; etc. We conclude that regulators need to pay attention to how much discretion lending institutions should have in determining reported provision estimates, and this has been a long standing issue.
Magnetic (or magnetizable) particles have assumed increasing importance in medical and biological research since 1966 when the effect of a magnetic field on the movement of suspended particles was initially studied. In fields like haematology, cell biology, microbiology, biochemistry and immunoassays, they currently provide the basis for separation techniques, which previously relied on gravitational forces. The body cells (e.g., blood cells) can be made magnetic by incubating them in a medium containing several Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ particles, which are adsorbed to the membrane surfaces. Some bacteria (also called magnetostatic bacteria) respond to externally applied magnetic lines of force due to their intracellular magnetic particles. These properties are useful in the isolation of these cells/bacteria. In biochemistry magnetic particles are used to immobilize enzymes without any loss of enzyme activity. The immobilized enzymes can facilitate the separation of end products without extensive instrumentation. In immunoassays the antibodies are covalently linked to polymer coated iron oxide particles. An electromagnet is used to sediment these particles after reaction. This excludes the use of centrifuge to separate antigen-antibody complexes. In pharmacy and pharmacology the magnetic particles are important in drug transport. In techniques like ferrography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), spectroscopic studies and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the magnetic particles serve as contrast agents and give clinically important spatial resolution. Magnetic particles also find extensive applications in cancer therapy, genetic engineering, pneumology, nuclear medicine, radiology and many other fields. This article reviews these applications. (author)
Ebrahim, Nader Ale
“Research Tools” enable researchers to collect, organize, analyze, visualize and publicized research outputs. Dr. Nader has collected over 700 tools that enable students to follow the correct path in research and to ultimately produce high-quality research outputs with more accuracy and efficiency. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled “Research Tools”, which is updated periodically. “Research Tools” consists of a hierarchical set of nodes. It has four main nodes: (1)...
This chapter discusses the main research ethical concerns that arise in internet research and reviews existing research ethical guidance in the Irish context in relation to its application to internet research. The chapter begins with a brief outline of high profile cases in the early history of the internet that highlighted specific emerging…
Mueller, U.; Schulenberg, T.
For a realistic assessment of the consequence of extremely unlikely reactor accidents resulting in core degradation or core meltdown key questions are how to remove the decay heat from the reactor system and how to retain the radioactive core debris within the containment. Usually, this complex of questions is referred to as Post-Accident Heat Removal (PAHR). In this article the research work on PAHR performed by various institutions during the last decade has been reviewed. The main results have been summarized under the chapter headings ''Accident Scenarios,'' - ''Core Debris Accommodation Concepts,'' and ''PAHR Topics.'' Particular emphasis has been placed on the presentation of the following problems: characteristics and coolability of solid core debris in the vector vessel, heat removal from molten pools of core material, and core-melt interaction with structural materials. Some unresolved or insufficiently answered questions relating to special ''PAHR Topics'' have been mentioned or discussed at the end of the particular Chapter. Problem areas of major uncertainty have been identified and listed at the end of the review article. They include the following subjects: formation of debris beds and bed characteristics, post dryout behaviour of particle beds, long-term availability and proper location of heat sinks, creep rupture of structures under high thermal loads. (orig.) [de
Author Guidelines. 1. Manuscript Size The EASSRR publishes articles, book reviews and short communications. The maximum length of manuscripts to be submitted to the journal is twenty-five pages (double-spaced) for articles, and ten pages for book reviews. In exceptional cases, longer manuscripts may be considered ...
Grunig, James E.
Reviews existing knowledge on the behavior of public relations practitioners in environmental problems, public concern and media coverage of pollution and deterioation of the natural environment. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)
Katz, Douglas S; Gardner, James B; Hoffmann, Jason C; Patlas, Michael N; Bhargava, Puneet; Moshiri, Mariam; Remer, Erick M; Gould, Elaine S; Smith, Stacy
Although some research and publication practices are clearly unethical, including fraud and plagiarism, other areas of research and publication, such as informed consent and conflicts of interest, fall into grayer areas. The purposes of this article are, therefore, to review a variety of relevant ethical issues in radiology-related journalism, peer review, and research; to review the radiology literature to date that has addressed these issues; and to present position statements and potential solutions to these problems.
Full Text Available Review of: Santos Rego, M. A. (Ed. (2016. A investigación educativa en Galicia 2002-2014. Vigo: Galaxia. 518 pp. ISBN: 978-84-9865-697-8. Depósito legal: VG 253-2016. This is a work that gathers the main contributions to educational research in Galicia between 2002 and 2014. They listed the main point made research, doctoral theses, books, chapters of books/monographs, articles published in relation to the main areas and core themes related to education as psychology and education, learning disabilities, developmental disorders, educational technology, teacher training, theoretical, philosophical and sociological foundations of education; teaching, school organization and educational innovation... This is a work/book aimed at anyone interested in educational issues in different areas and with the aim of adapting education to social needs Galicia today.
Case, Donald O
The 4th edition of this popular and well-cited text is now co-authored, and includes significant changes from earlier texts. Presenting a comprehensive review of over a century of research on information behavior (IB), this book is intended for students in information studies and disciplines interested in research on information activities. The initial two chapters introduce IB as a multi-disciplinary topic, the 3rd provides a brief history of research on information seeking. Chapter four discusses what is meant by the terms 'information' and 'knowledge.' Chapter five discusses 'information needs,' and how they are addressed. The 6th chapter identifies many related concepts. Twelve models of information behavior (expanded from earlier editions) are illustrated in chapter seven. Chapter eight reviews various paradigms and theories informing IB research. Chapter nine examines research methods invoked in IB studies and a discussion of qualitative and mixed approaches. The 10th chapter gives examples of IB studie...
Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134
Qadri, N.N.; Liotta, A.; Pierre, S.
In this chapter we review various approaches for the convergence of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), identifying strengths and weaknesses, and putting things in perspective. P2P and MANETs are among the most active research topics in pervasive computing. The convergence of P2P
Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj
A Review of the Published Anatomical Research on the African Giant Rat ... of their anatomy and morphophysiology however, the scientific bases for these ... conference proceedings and unpublished research dissertations and thesis. All data ...
Kinchin, Irina; Mccalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Tsey, Komla; Lui, Felecia Watkin
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (hereafter respectfully Indigenous Australians) claim that they have been over-researched without corresponding research benefit. This claim raises two questions. The first, which has been covered to some extent in the literature, is about what type(s) of research are likely to achieve benefits for Indigenous people. The second is how researchers report the impact of their research for Indigenous people. This systematic review of Indigenous health reviews addresses the second enquiry. Fourteen electronic databases were systematically searched for Indigenous health reviews which met eligibility criteria. Two reviewers assessed their characteristics and methodological rigour using an a priori protocol. Three research hypotheses were stated and tested: (1) reviews address Indigenous health priority needs; (2) reviews adopt best practice guidelines on research conduct and reporting in respect to methodological transparency and rigour, as well as acceptability and appropriateness of research implementation to Indigenous people; and (3) reviews explicitly report the incremental impacts of the included studies and translation of research. We argue that if review authors explicitly address each of these three hypotheses, then the impact of research for Indigenous peoples' health would be explicated. Seventy-six reviews were included; comprising 55 journal articles and 21 Australian Government commissioned evidence review reports. While reviews are gaining prominence and recognition in Indigenous health research and increasing in number, breadth and complexity, there is little reporting of the impact of health research for Indigenous people. This finding raises questions about the relevance of these reviews for Indigenous people, their impact on policy and practice and how reviews have been commissioned, reported and evaluated. The findings of our study serve two main purposes. First, we have identified knowledge and
Kim M. Wilkinson
This handbook provides an overview of the factors that go into starting and operating a native plant nursery. Management includes all aspects of working with plants in all their phases of growth as described in Chapter 3, Crop Planning and Developing Propagation Protocols. Management also includes working with the community; organizing materials and infrastructure;...
Lyman L. McDonald; Christina D. Vojta; Kevin S. McKelvey
Perhaps the greatest barrier between monitoring and management is data analysis. Data languish in drawers and spreadsheets because those who collect or maintain monitoring data lack training in how to effectively summarize and analyze their findings. This chapter serves as a first step to surmounting that barrier by empowering any monitoring team with the basic...
H. Gyde Lund; William A. Befort; James E. Brickell; William M. Ciesla; Elizabeth C. Collins; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Attilio Antonio Disperati; Robert W. Douglass; Charles W. Dull; Jerry D. Greer; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Vernon J. LaBau; Henry Lachowski; Peter A. Murtha; David J. Nowak; Marc A. Roberts; Pierre Schram; Mahadev D. Shedha; Ashbindu Singh; Kenneth C. Winterberger
Foresters and other resource managers have used aerial photographs to help manage resources since the late 1920s. As discussed in chapter 1, however, it was not until the mid-1940s that their use became common. Obtaining photographic coverage was always a problem. For many areas of the world, reasonably complete coverage did not exist until after World War II. In...
Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.
Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez
In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....
The chapter 5 presents the 1) initial training; 2) periodic training, which includes: a) periodic training for employees at lower levels of the hierarchy than that of the operator; b) period training for operators; 3) operator training; 4) record of training; 5) safety culture.
This chapter deals with the background (Gabcikovo hydro power scheme was input in October 1992), project objective, project framework, equipment, establishment of the integrated modelling system, model setup, calibration and validation, definitions of scenarios for model application and with the results of model applications
Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.
Manish K. Thakur
Full Text Available The book fruitfully combines discussions on qualitative research methods with the craft of academic writing. While detailing different stages involved in qualitative research, it accords appreciable attention to the fundamental epistemological premises of different qualitative research genres. Yet, its central concern is to demonstrate ways and means to manage researcher’s subjectivity in the writing of qualitative research. The book looks at the act of writing as crucial to the twin concerns of rigor and validity in qualitative research. It privileges writing as an important methodological resource that qualitative researchers employ to make the workings of their research procedures transparent and establish their accountability in relation to specificities of a given research setting. Given this focus, the eight chapters of the book discuss at length issues such as authorial voice, the trials and tribulations of transition from data to written study, the reflexivity of the researcher as writer, and the demanding expectations of cautious detachment in reporting the people, setting, and the worlds and sensitivities that are part of any qualitative research enterprise. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090198
Convery, Ian; Cox, Diane
Internet-based research methods can include: online surveys, web page content analysis, videoconferencing for online focus groups and/or interviews, analysis of "e-conversations" through social networking sites, email, chat rooms, discussion boards and/or blogs. Over the last ten years, an upsurge in internet-based research (IBR) has led…
Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana
Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...
Lawson, Tony; Çakmak, Melek; Gündüz, Müge; Busher, Hugh
The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review research which focuses on research studies into the school practicum. In order to identify the main issues and also to provide a contemporary picture of practicum, 114 studies published on the topic are reviewed and analysed in terms of: (i) aims, (ii) main participants, (iii)…
Please note: As of 2013 the Research Review of the Institute of African Studies is now publishing under the title Contemporary Journal of African Studies. You can view the CJAS pages on AJOL here: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/contjas/index. The Research Review of the Institute of African Studies at the University of ...
van Knippenberg, D.; van Knippenberg, B.M.; Cremers, D; Hogg, M.A.
This article reviews empirical research on the role of follower self-conception in leadership effectiveness, and specifies an agenda for future research in this area. The review shows that several aspects of follower self-conception (i.e., self-construal, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and
Marieke Venselaar; Hans Warmelink
from the publisher's site: "The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of qualitative construction partnering research. Design/methodology/approach. In total, 20 qualitative peer-reviewed papers about construction partnering research are reviewed. Findings: The results show four
This commentary examines the problem of predatory journals, low-quality open-access journals that seek to earn revenue from scholarly authors without following scholarly publishing best practices. Seeking to accept as many papers as possible, they typically do not perform a standard peer review, leading to the publication of improperly vetted…
This progress report provides a brief outline of current laboratory research and development projects and their present status. Research fields covered are: uranium, radon and its daughters, radiation effects in solids and gases, x-rays and clinical dosimetry, measurement standards in radiation dosimetry, radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine, non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations, environmental radiochemistry and radiation monitoring
This progress report provides a brief outline of current laboratory research and development projects and their present status. Research fields covered are: uranium, radon and its daughters, radiation effects in solids and gases, thermoluminescence, x-rays and clinical dosimetry, measurement standards in radiation dosimetry, radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine, radionuclide metrology, non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations, environmental radiochemistry and radiation monitoring
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the thermal decomposition of nitrate - ester propellants. This is the first such data ever measured and will provide reliable input for Army...strain has been set for the actuator. The research program includes: Multiscale modeling of microstructural evolution and its affect on mechanical... Multiscale modeling and process optimization for engineered microstructural complexity” have had multiple transition interactions with the Army Research
Oh, Kju-Myeng; Shin, Dae-Soo; Ahn, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Hoon-Joo
The KINS already issued the safety review guidance for pressurized LWRs. But the safety review guidance for research and training reactors were not developed. So, the technical standard including safety review guidance for domestic research and training reactors has been applied mutates mutandis to those of nuclear power plants. It is often difficult for the staff to effectively perform the safety review of applications for the permit by the licensee, based on peculiar safety review guidance. The NRC and NSC provide the safety review guidance for test and research reactors and European countries refer to IAEA safety requirements and guides. The safety review guide (SRG) of research and training reactors was developed considering descriptions of the NUREG- 1537 Part 2, previous experiences of safety review and domestic regulations for related facilities. This study provided the safety review guidance for research and training reactors and surveyed the difference of major acceptance criteria or characteristics between the SRG of pressurized light water reactor and research and training reactors
Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.
Gail D. Caruth
Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research. A review of the literature revealed that it has been gaining acceptance among researchers, researchers have begun using mixed methods research, it ...
Hopper, Mari K
Early establishment of physiological societies in Oklahoma and Ohio demonstrated the benefits of networking physiologists and paved the way for establishing the APS Chapter Program. Designed to promote the general objectives of the APS, the Chapter Program was officially launched in 1995, with Ohio being the first recognized chapter. There are 13 active chapters regularly engaged in numerous activities designed to advance physiology education and research. In the hopes that others will recognize the important offerings of state chapters and consider organizing one, the aims for this paper are to 1) share a brief history, 2) provide rationale for chapter initiation, and 3) describe the process involved in establishing a chapter. In light of current changes in American Medical Association and Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines, the present time may be critical in promoting chapters, as they play a vital role in sustaining recognition and support for the discipline. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Dyck and Allen claim that the current model for mandatory ethical review of research involving human participants is unethical once the harms that accrue from the review process are identified. However, the assumptions upon which the authors assert that this model of research ethics governance is justified are false. In this commentary, I aim to correct these assumptions, and provide the right justificatory account of the requirement for research ethics review. This account clarifies why the subsequent arguments that Dyck and Allen make in the paper lack force, and why the 'governance problem' in research ethics that they allude to ought to be explained differently.
A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. (authors)
Dekimpe, Marnik; Deleersnyder, Barbara
Business cycles (BCs) may affect entire markets, and significantly alter many firms’ marketing activities and performance. Even though managers cannot prevent BCs from occurring, marketing research over the last 15 years has provided growing evidence that their impact on consumers, and hence on firm
In-depth articles on several NREL technologies and advances, including: aligning quantum dots and related nanoscience and nanotechnology research; using NREL's Advanced Automotive Manikin (ADAM) to help test and design ancillary automotive systems; and harvesting ocean wind to generate electricity with deep-water wind turbines. Also covered are NREL news, research updates, and awards and honors received by the Laboratory.
global atmospheric and oceano - wine, Maryland, has a 4.6-m diameter turntable graphic databases for research on-site and at in the center of a 305-i...capability has been recently Research Efforts: NRL’s Remote Sensing transitioned into operation at the Naval Oceano - Applications Branch has been designated...P.G. Wilhelm AND REQUIREMENTS SPACE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT Code 8100 R.E. Eisenhauer• Sol office * Mission Oeirelopment * Advancedi Systems
Spada, M.L.; Forman, J.I.; SLovin, K.A.
One year after a Marketing reorganization in an electric utility preparing for competition and better meeting customer needs, the newly established research team lives to tell about it. The new research function was formulated as a result of a corporate reorganization designed to better position the Company to meet the challenges occurring in today`s electric utility industry. Many senior level managers from different parts of the Company participated in this reengineering process. Their perspectives included customer services, marketing, energy services, engineering, rates and corporate communications. One of their major recommendations was to form a centralized or coordinated research function for the Company. They saw that the future of successful utility marketing and business planning would depend heavily on the success of a research and analysis function. Other major recommendations included the formulation of additional groups: market planning, product R & D, pricing, evaluation and marketing information systems. Once the senior team recommended general functions and responsibilities of each of the suggested groups mentioned above, the Company assembled one junior level team to study each group in more detail. The junior team assigned to the research function spent several months canvassing and investigating what research and data were currently available internally, who performs it and how it is used. The junior team reported not only on what is, but also on what a research function should be in the evolving electric utility industry and what steps can be taken to move towards those goals. The junior team concluded that there was a wealth of information available and much research activity taking place internally.
Rubin, Allen; Parrish, Danielle E.
This article reports on a review of the literature comparing the outcomes of social workers with those of non-social workers. The review was commissioned by NASW's Texas Chapter to examine empirical evidence regarding the comparative effectiveness of social work to possibly support efforts to educate employers and the public about the value of…
Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe
The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay......-out to fill in their particular results. Thus it is possible to compare the performances measured, calculated or predicted for the different houses....
Rafferty, Kevin D.
Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.
Full Text Available and relationships that inform the association between geology, shale gas and groundwater that is discussed in this Chapter. The mudstones and sandstones of the Adelaide Subgroup at the base of the Beaufort Group succession of sedimentary strata represent... migration to surface. The sedimentary rocks of the Ecca Group cover a further ~6% of the study area. In agreement with Rosewarne et al. (2013), who recognise a western, a central and an eastern subarea; this study recognises an additional southern subarea...
This paper summarizes the strategic planning process used by the Iowa Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers to develop a new vision, mission statement, and chapter objectives. Procedures included the use of a focus group and a quantitative survey. The results indicated a strong need for chapter member continuing education, a chapter member services program, and a strong outreach/public relations program. As a result of the strategic planning process, a new chap...
Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet
Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.
The outline of the history of radiation research in Japan is written in connection with the names of researchers. Yoshio Nishina was a pioneer, who derived the Klein-Nishina formula for the scattering of hard X-ray by free electrons. In 1935, the first nuclear experiment laboratory was constructed in the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. Two cyclotrons, 26 in and 60 in pole face diameter, and a high voltage Cockcroft-Walton type ion accelerator were installed. Irradiation of insects and plants with fast neutrons was attempted to examine the biological effect. In August, 1945, atomic bombs exploded in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In 1950, radioisotopes were available. In early March, 1954, Bikini accident occurred. One fishing vessel was contaminated by radioactive fallout, and to investigate the effect of radioactivity, a committee consisted of investigators of physics, chemistry, medicine, biology, fisheries and geophysics was organized. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was established in June, 1956. Several institutions for the peaceful use of atomic energy were established. The hybrid spark chamber to image the distribution of β-emitting isotopes on a plane surface was constructed in Nagoya University. As for the national project on food irradiation, one laboratory has played the role in irradiation techniques. Researches on radiation chemistry in universities, governmental and commercial organizations have been progressing steadily, and the machines for nanosecond to picosecond pulse radiolysis are working. (Yamashita, S.)
Hu Yanni; Tian Mei; Zhang Hong
Internet addiction (IA) is a mental illness emerged in recent years with increasing use of computer and internet. The serious consequences such as mental and physical illness and social function impairment caused by IA have attracted extensive attention of the whole society. IA affects human beings at a high prevalence all over the world which has highlighted the importance of prevention and treatment of IA. Although there is still debate about definition of IA, increasing evidences including the result from genetic research,neurobiology study and clinical manifestation show that IA may share the same mechanisms with substance addiction, and be probably classified as behavioral addiction which is represented by pathological gambling. However, since the study on IA is yet on the initial stage and neuro biological research on IA is still limited, more reliable investigations especially neuro biological research remains uppermost in this area. (authors)
The Australian Radiation Laboratory is a national laboratory whose function is to assist the users of radiation, and those who regulate its use, to ensure that wherever radiation is encountered, it is managed in the safest possible way. In performing this function the Laboratory conducts a varied program of applied research in areas which have implications for occupational or public health. This progress report provides a brief outline of current Laboratory research and development projects and their present status. The material is grouped into the following research fields: uranium, radon and its daughters; environmental radiation monitoring; radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine; X-ray and clinical dosimetry; radionuclide metrology; non-ionising electromagnetic radiations; measurement standards in radiation dosimetry; and radiation effects in solids and gases. Refs., figs., tabs
Kan, C S; Chan, K M J
Lung cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Malaysia and worldwide. This paper reviews all research and publications on lung cancer in Malaysia published between 2000-2015. 89 papers were identified, of which 64 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance to the review. The epidemiology, risk factors, cell types, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, prevention, and the social impact of lung cancer in the country are reviewed and summarized. The clinical relevance of the studies done in the country are discussed along with recommendations for future research.
This chapter will explore how to learn from working experience through the use of an educational approach called Proactive Review. From 2005 to 2012, Proactive Review was developed and implemented in a world-class IT company based in more than 40 countries across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa....... This chapter will include some of the theoretical considerations as well as the final educational design for a Proactive Review, as exemplified in a case study from the IT company. The aim of this chapter is to provide a theoretically based and proven educational design for Lessons Learned, including...... recommendations for successful Proactive Reviews. The theory section will explore theories regarding the following two topics: first, how an organization may understand the term “learning”; and second, the starting point of learning and how an organization may maintain a learning environment. The research...
mwmmmimmm^m^mmmrm. : i i 1 Faculty and Visitors Mario Barbaccl Research Associate B.S., Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria , Lima, Peru (1966...Engineer, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria , Lima, Peru (1968) Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon University (1974) Carnegie. 1969: Design Automation
School of Aviation Medicina , with an Officer in Charge and research as a department. In July 1951, the Schoo! became a separate command under a...the South China Sea. Let’s see, we had three WestPac I went to the CO of the ship, and made a recommendation that we cruises out there. Each one was
Explores research on student-produced magazines at journalism schools, including the nature of various programs and curricular structures, ethical considerations, and the role of faculty advisors. Addresses collateral sources that provide practical and philosophical foundations for the establishment and conduct of magazine production programs.…
This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area
Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L.. Medina
Summaries and conclusions of each chapter are compiled here to provide a âQuick Referenceâ guide of major results and recommendations for the UVR. More detail can be obtained from individual chapters.
Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Middel, Rick
This paper argues that in order to move the emerging construct of strategic entrepreneurship beyond a theoretically appealing one, we need to improve our theoretical and analytical frameworks in several key areas. Our analysis firstly discusses several challenges for the strategic entrepreneurshi...... of research foci are proposed, which will enhance the understanding of the integration of advantage-seeking behaviour and opportunity-seeking behaviour which composes strategic entrepreneurship...... concept, next identifies a number of emerging themes in SE, and thirdly highlights three topics, which should be on the future research agenda of SE; 1) moving beyond a singlestreamed focus on SE; 2) roles and behaviors supporting SE; and 3) SE as a dynamic inter-firm concept. For each of these a number...
Full Text Available Four decades of research into peer bullying have produced an extensive body of knowledge. This work attempts to provide an integrative theoretical framework, which includes the specific theories and observations. The main aim is to organize the available knowledge in order to guide the development of effective interventions. To that end, several psychological theories are described that have been used and/or adapted with the aim of understanding peer bullying. All of them, at different ecological levels and different stages of the process, may describe it in terms of the relational dynamics of power. It is concluded that research needs to take this integrative framework into account, that is to say to consider multi-causal and holistic approaches to bullying. For the intervention, regardless of the format or the target population, the empowerment of the individuals, and the social awareness of the use and abuse of personal power are suggested.
Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Sena Moore, Kimberly
Music therapists are challenged to present evidence on the efficacy of music therapy treatment and incorporate the best available research evidence to make informed healthcare and treatment decisions. Higher standards of evidence can come from a variety of sources including systematic reviews. To define and describe a range of research review methods using examples from music therapy and related literature, with emphasis on the systematic review. In addition, the authors provide a detailed overview of methodological processes for conducting and reporting systematic reviews in music therapy. The systematic review process is described in five steps. Step 1 identifies the research plan and operationalized research question(s). Step 2 illustrates the identification and organization of the existing literature related to the question(s). Step 3 details coding of data extracted from the literature. Step 4 explains the synthesis of coded findings and analysis to answer the research question(s). Step 5 describes the strength of evidence evaluation and results presentation for practice recommendations. Music therapists are encouraged to develop and conduct systematic reviews. This methodology contributes to review outcome credibility and can determine how information is interpreted and used by clinicians, clients or patients, and policy makers. A systematic review is a methodologically rigorous research method used to organize and evaluate extant literature related to a clinical problem. Systematic reviews can assist music therapists in managing the ever-increasing literature, making well-informed evidence based practice and research decisions, and translating existing music-based and nonmusic based literature to clinical practice and research development. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Kreider, Richard B; Almada, Anthony L; Antonio, Jose; Broeder, Craig; Earnest, Conrad; Greenwood, Mike; Incledon, Thomas; Kalman, Douglas S; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N
Abstract Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1.) how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2.) general nutritional strategies to optimize perf...
Postigo, Silvia; González, Remedios; Montoya, Inmaculada; Ordoñez, Ana
Four decades of research into peer bullying have produced an extensive body of knowledge. This work attempts to provide an integrative theoretical framework, which includes the specific theories and observations. The main aim is to organize the available knowledge in order to guide the development of effective interventions. To that end, several psychological theories are described that have been used and/or adapted with the aim of understanding peer bullying. All of them, at different ecolog...
In-depth articles on several NREL technologies and advances, including: production of hydrogen using renewable resources and technologies; use of carbon nanotubes for storing hydrogen; enzymatic reduction of cellulose to simple sugars as a platform for making fuel, chemicals, and materials; and the potential of electricity from wind energy to offset carbon dioxide emissions. Also covered are NREL news, awards and honors received by the Laboratory, and patents granted to NREL researchers.
Kiss, A.N.; Danis, W.D.; Cavusgil, S.T.
This article systematically reviews and critically examines international entrepreneurship research in emerging economies (IEEE research), and articulates its importance, timeliness and relevance in consideration of the growing influence of emerging markets in the global economy. A systematic
The energy trends of Malaysia projected for the next few decades are briefly discussed as a background to the rationale for Malaysian research into new forms of energy including plasma fusion. The planning of this research started nearly two decades ago. Today research facilities at PLUM centre on two capacitor banks, one rated at 40 kV, 48 kJ, 2 MA short circuit current and the other at 60 kV, 40 kJ, 2 MA. Other equipment includes several smaller capacitor banks, vacuum systems, oscilloscopes, diagnostic systems, a screened room, a transient digitizer, an Imacon camera and a 100 MW pulsed ruby laser for discharge initiation and diagnostics. The research devices include two plasma focus machines, one vacuum fusion spark, a shock tube and minor experiments like the glow discharge. The main focus facility, the UMDPF1, was designed and built entirely by indigenous effort, using 40 kV capacitors donated by Britain under the Colombo Plan. Difficulties were encountered especially in the need to adapt what is locally available or readily importable to all phases of the design, construction, testing and measurement. Nevertheless, the focus group has achieved the following results: measurement, in 1973, of neutrons produced in the deuterium focus; current, voltage, magnetic field and pressure measurements to interpret plasma dynamics and focus mechanism and to compare with computer simulation of plasma trajectory and configuration; soft X-ray measurements to determine electron temperature; study of the effect on the focus of rotation and multiple ionization up to Argon XVIII; and optimization of focus performance as judged from neutron yield. In 1977 PLUM acquired the Juelich DPF1 which was reassembled as a fast focus, the UMDPF2. This device has been converted to operate as a vacuum spark with the aim of demonstrating the spark as a neutron source when using a deuterided anode. We have measured temperatures of 8 keV in the dense plasma spots. Plasma research work here has
Ambarita, H.; Siregar, M. R.; Kishinami, K.; Daimaruya, M.; Kawai, H.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a numerical method that solves fluid flow and related governing equations using a computational tool. The studies on CFD, its methodology and its application as a research tool, are increasing. In this study, application of CFD by Indonesian researcher is briefly reviewed. The main objective is to explore the characteristics of CFD applications in Indonesian researchers. Considering the size and reputation, this study uses Scopus publications indexed data base. All of the documents in Scopus related to CFD which is affiliated by at least one of Indonesian researcher are collected to be reviewed. Research topics, CFD method, and simulation results are reviewed in brief. The results show that there are 260 documents found in literature indexed by Scopus. These documents divided into research articles 125 titles, conference paper 135 titles, book 1 title and review 1 title. In the research articles, only limited researchers focused on the development of CFD methodology. Almost all of the articles focus on using CFD in a particular application, as a research tool, such as aircraft application, wind power and heat exchanger. The topics of the 125 research articles can be divided into 12 specific applications and 1 miscellaneous application. The most popular application is Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning and followed by Reactor, Transportation and Heat Exchanger applications. The most popular commercial CFD code used is ANSYS Fluent and only several researchers use CFX.
This progress report provides a brief outline of current Laboratory research and development projects and their present status. The material has been grouped into the following fields: uranium, radon and its daughters; radiation effects in solids and gases; x-rays and clinical dosimetry, measurement standards in radiation dosimetry; radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine; non-ionising electromagnetic radiation; environmental radiochemistry and radiation monitoring. The last category includes residual radioactive contamination at Maralinga, Emu and the Monte Bello Islands from British nuclear weapons tests in Australia, and the public health impact of fall-out from those tests
Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs
Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.
This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with nullification of nuclear reactors. There are tree basic methods of nullification of nuclear reactors: (1) conservation, (2) safe close (wall up, embed in concrete), (3) direct dismantlement and remotion and two combined ways: (1) combination of mothball with subsequent dismantlement and remotion and (2) combination of safe close with subsequent dismantlement and remotion. Activity levels as well as volumes of radioactive wastes connected with decommissioning of nuclear reactors are reviewed
This report provides a brief review of the history and current status of fusion research in the United States. It also describes the Federally funded program aimed at the development of fusion reactors for electric power generation.
African Research Review - Vol 4, No 4 (2010) .... Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa: An X-Ray of Problems and Solutions in the .... Tradition and Art Appreciation: A Boost to Cultural Tourism in Nigeria · EMAIL FREE ...
African Research Review - Vol 5, No 1 (2011) .... Gender and Occupational Preferences among Senior High School Students in Cross River State ... Academic Achievement in Physics · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Full Text Available Political, religious, sports and business leaders across the world have been under scrutiny regarding allegedly unethical behaviors. The current study analyzes the use of responsible leadership in management research. Using a sample of 64 articles published in SSCI-indexed journals over 10 years (2006-2016, we carried out a bibliometric analysis to understand the intellectual structure of the responsible leadership literature. The results of authorship, citation and co-citation, and factor analyses reveal the most prolific authors and the most notable journals writing and publishing on responsible leadership. The most cited works are theoretical, using Western frameworks and cultures, and focus on the concept of responsible leadership; only a few empirical/case study articles appear. Also, the most prevalent links are between theoretical works and highlight the conceptualization, understanding, and roles and parameters of responsible leaders. Six distinct factors emerge, denoting the groups of studies devoted to the evolution of leadership, transformational leadership, stakeholder theory and leadership, conceptualization and understanding of the topic, and roles of responsible leaders. These various research topics show the central tenets of responsible leadership, as well as the existing gaps in the existent literature.
Full Text Available Scientific research on memory began at the end of 19th century with studies of semantic and/or long term memory. In most cases memory was interpreted as a storehouse for various data and the quality of the storehouse was usually defined by a quantity of recalled data. The research work was concentrated on specificity of the connection between memory and learning. At that time few authors developed theories which were rare, uncommon and before their time (e.g.: Bartlett, Ribot, Freud. Even after 20th century, when behavioural stimulus-response approach began to dominate, the measure of memory quality was still the quantity of memory recall. In the 1960th the rise of cognitive psychology began, the computer metaphor was born and finally the behavioural comprehension of cognitive system was surpassed. Cognitive system was understood as a computer-like interface between an organism and environment. In recent years the computer metaphor is no longer dominant. New and efficient concepts are moving forward. Quantity of data recall, as the measure of memory quality, is not so important any more – attention is focused on accuracy of memory recall.
Bracke, Marianne S.; Graveel, John G.
Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is an online tool being used in the class Introduction to Agriculture and Purdue University (AGR 10100) to integrate a writing and research component (http://cpr.molsci.ucla.edu/Home.aspx). Calibrated Peer Review combines the ability to create writing intensive assignments with an introduction to the peer-review…
This article reviews literature on the potential for understanding higher education change processes through social network analysis (SNA). In this article, the main tenets of SNA are reviewed and, in conjunction with organizational theory, are applied to higher education change to develop a set of hypotheses that can be tested in future research.
Dept. Trade & Industry
Science and Innovation Minister, Lord Sainsbury, today announced the outcome of a review of the Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils (CCLRC). The report is the second stage of a five-yearly review, which outlines ways to strengthen and promote greater value for money from the UK's investment in science (1 page).
Zurawski, Jason, W; Mace, Kathryn, P
In August 2016 The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and Colorado State University (CSU) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) located on the campus of Colorado State University. Several key findings highlighting the results from the review were discovered, with benefits to improve the overall scientific process for CIRA and CSU.
Katharina F Mueller
Full Text Available Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research.Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al.The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%, nor did they assess heterogeneity (81% or dissemination bias (87%. Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%.Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before
The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.
Beyrer, Chris; Kass, Nancy E
Although the human rights movement and the sphere of research ethics have overlapping principles and goals, there has been little attempt to incorporate external political and human rights contexts into research ethics codes or ethics reviews. Every element of a research ethics review--the balance of risks and benefits, the assurance of rights for individual participants, and the fair selection of research populations--can be affected by the political and human rights background in which a study is done. Research that at first seems to be low in risk may become high in risk if implemented in a country where the government might breach the confidentiality of study results or where results might be used to deport a refugee group. Researchers should determine whether research could or should be done by consulting human rights organisations and, when possible, a trusted colleague, to learn the background political context and human rights conditions of the settings in which they propose to do research.
Scott-Findlay, Shannon; Estabrooks, Carole A
This paper reports a critical review of nursing organizational culture research studies with the objectives of: (1) reviewing theoretical and methodological characteristics of the studies and (2) drawing inferences specific to the state of knowledge in this field. Organizational culture is regarded as significant in influencing research use in clinical practice yet it is not understood how culture shapes practitioners' behaviours. Only one review of this empirical literature in nursing has been completed. Using selected computerized databases, published nursing research studies in English that examine organizational culture were accessed. Organizational culture studies were categorized using Hatch's three perspectives on organizational culture: (1) modern, (2) symbolic-interpretive and (3) postmodern. The review was conducted in 2005. Twenty-nine studies were in the final data set. Results pointed to variations in cultural definitions and incorporation of organizational sciences theory. In classifying the studies, modern perspectives dominated (n = 22), symbolic-interpretive approaches were an emerging group (n = 6) and one study was unclassifiable. Our results expand current cultural instrument reviews by pinpointing tools that have been previously overlooked and by identifying ongoing theoretical and methodological challenges for researchers. An exclusive reliance on modernistic approaches in organizational culture research cannot yield a complete understanding of the phenomenon. Rather, the field could benefit from a variety of cultural approaches. In a similar vein, researchers need to be mindful of the terminology and the unit of analysis they use in their research, as these are the two largest research challenges.
This includes remarks made by three panel members concerning geomedia-specific repository relevant research. The scientific work in the materials area has progressed significantly. Investigators are showing a better understanding of the importance of groundwater compositions. Significant attention is being paid to the importance of colloids and complexing agents. Good planning seems to be in evidence in the Nevada program. Much cooperation and planning in the materials program is needed. Requirements concerning the performance of waste management systems were included. Other topics discussed at the symposium were interactive testing of waste forms, canister materials, and repository rock. Characterization of the chemical and physical environment in the near-field was considered by several speakers. These papers and discussions were part of the Seventh International Symposium on the Scientific Ban's for Nuclear Waste Management
John Hauser; Gerard J. Tellis; Abbie Griffin
Innovation is one of the most important issues in business research today. It has been studied in many independent research traditions. Our understanding and study of innovation can benefit from an integrative review of these research traditions. In so doing, we identify 16 topics relevant to marketing science, which we classify under five research fields: - Consumer response to innovation, including attempts to measure consumer innovativeness, models of new product growth, and recent ideas o...
Hiles, P. A. [Glan Clwyd Hospital, Bodelwyddan (United Kingdom); McLean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Christofides, S. [New Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)
This chapter introduces the principles and definitions of quality management systems (QMSs) for radiology facilities, to give a framework to assist in the setting up of such systems and to emphasize the role of the medical physicist in this context. While there is a diversity of terms currently in use to describe quality processes both generally and specifically within radiology, there is broad agreement that the effective management of radiation medicine services demands a quality culture that includes a systematic approach to the elements that govern the delivery of that service. Therefore, the concept of quality assurance (QA) within the radiological facility covers, in its widest sense, all those factors that affect the intended outcome, that is, a clinical diagnosis. The medical physicist has an important role in the overall QMS, especially, but not exclusively, with respect to the equipment performance. A worked example of a quality control (QC) programme is included at the end of the chapter, to demonstrate the depth of detail and involvement of the medical physicist.
Full Text Available The industrialization of new energy vehicles is an important way to promote the sustainable development of automobile industry, and it is also the key measure to solve the problems of energy and environment. As an important type of new energy vehicles, electric vehicles will play an important role in the future competition in the automotive industry, especially in the field of electric vehicle driven by wheel. With the advantages of compact structure, high power density, low working noise and good heat dissipation performance, the AFPM motor has gradually become the preferred object of the hub driving device. Based on the statement of the technical development and research status about AFPM motor, this paper mainly analyzes the engineering application and technical problems of AFPM motor in hub drive, especially the matching of AFPM motor with other systems and the problem of heat dissipation at high load conditions, and looks forward to the key role in the future development of the automotive industry. This paper will play a certain reference and guiding role in the application of AFPM motor in the field of new energy vehicles.
Thomas, John W.; Cohen, Marc
Despite over 50 years of research into the states of consciousness induced by various meditation practices, no clear neurophysiological signatures of these states have been found. Much of this failure can be attributed to the narrow range of variables examined in most meditation studies, with the focus being restricted to a search for correlations between neurophysiological measures and particular practices, without documenting the content and context of these practices. We contend that more meaningful results can be obtained by expanding the methodological paradigm to include multiple domains including: the cultural setting (“the place”), the life situation of the meditator (“the person”), details of the particular meditation practice (‘the practice’), and the state of consciousness of the meditator (“the phenomenology”). Inclusion of variables from all these domains will improve the ability to predict the psychophysiological variables (“the psychophysiology”) associated with specific meditation states and thus explore the mysteries of human consciousness. PMID:25071607
Knudson, Frances Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Varjabedian, Kathryn Ruth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boorman, Helen A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Heckethorn, Susan Kay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Magnoni, Dianna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016 was a year of strategy, analysis and moving forward. We launched January with a strategic planning process. Building on the Lab’s Strategic Plan and Purpose Statement, we created a process that reached out to Lab leadership, scientists & engineers, and Research Library (RL) staff. An external consultant was engaged to help drive the process and to lead a fullday staff retreat. A survey was created and administered to staff, seeking feedback on priorities and direction. A parallel survey was created for stakeholders. Stakeholder questions began with the macro – from the external climate to Lab and division priorities – to the micro concerning priorities and directions for the RL. Stakeholders were personally interviewed by teams of two that included an interviewer and a scribe. These thirty-plus interviews were collated into a spreadsheet. A sociologist provided semantic analysis for the feedback, creating an impact document of the interviews. The full day retreat provided an opportunity for staff to build on their feedback as well as stakeholder feedback. A great deal of brainstorming led to categorized priorities and scenarios. The RL Compass Team, encompassing library leadership, moved the next stage of the process forward by taking retreat feedback and creating a first draft of a plan. Two more rounds of feedback with smaller staff groups as well as the Library Advisory Board led to the final plan. The core plan is included in this report.
Loza-Murguia Manuel G.
Full Text Available In this new stage we want to improve the magazine to make it useful for readers, on the one hand we intend to maintain their accreditation project of the contents of the magazine and on the other hand, the boost in indexing websites popularity, who raise the visibility and therefore coverage to authors and readers who have honored us with their support and we receive frequent visits. Obviously all the works received will remain subject to internal assessment and peer review as usual. Your acceptance will be based on significance, originality and validity of the material presented. The journal is indexed by the time DIALNET. The half-yearly, from 2012 we intend to be a leader in information that is intended to finding solutions to the problems latent, on the other side seeks to raise awareness among professionals and researchers that the publication is a prerequisite to in order to will be clear what is being done as has research in the region. The Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society is a journal founded no more than two years, having failed to publish any number of this enormous amount of material in all this time. We are currently under evaluation by the SciELO Project, Bolivia and have the confidence to be meeting all the criteria that are required to be visible on the website of international prestige. We want to be a reference publication in the journal Public areas both in the international literature (particularly in Latin America and in Bolivia. As Director and Editor in Chief continued in front of it, I thank the Board of the Supreme Council on Science and Biotechnology Research Society Selva Andina renewed confidence in me during these early years, all the items they want be published should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. Following the usual guidelines and rules are expressed in the publication. There is an Editorial Board comprised of leading national and international professional experts who
Ang, C S; Chan, K M J
Coronary artery disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in Malaysia and worldwide. This paper reviews all research and publications on coronary artery disease in Malaysia published between 2000-2015. 508 papers were identified of which 146 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance. The epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, prevention, assessment, treatment, and outcomes of coronary artery disease in the country are reviewed and summarized. The clinical relevance of the studies done in the country are discussed along with recommendations for future research.
On the basis of the JAERI's Basic Guidelines for the Research Evaluation Methods, etc. the Ad Hoc Review Committee composed of eight experts was set up under the Research Evaluation Committee of the JAERI in order to review the research theme completed in FY1998 and those planned for five years starting in FY2000 in the Advanced Science Research Center. The Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting was held on September 17, 1999. According to the review methods including review items, points of review and review criteria, determined by the Research Evaluation Committee, the review was conducted based on the research results/plan documents submitted in advance and presentations by the Research Group Leaders. The review report was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee for further review and discussions in its meeting held on March 14, 2000. As a result, the Research Evaluation Committee acknowledged appropriateness of the review results. This report describes the review results. (author)
Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs
Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs.
Newman, Elana; Risch, Elizabeth; Kassam-Adams, Nancy
ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING ABOUT TRAUMA-RELATED STUDIES requires a flexible approach that counters assumptions and biases about victims, assures a favorable ethical cost-benefit ratio, and promotes advancement of knowledge that can benefit survivors of traumatic stress. This paper reviews several ethical issues in the field of traumatic stress: benefit and risks in trauma-related research, whether trauma-related research poses unique risks and if so what those might be, informed consent and mandatory reporting, and supervision of trauma-related research. For each topic, we review potential ethical issues, summarize the research conducted thus far to inform ethical practice, and recommend future practice, research questions and policies to advance the field so that research on trauma can continue to be a win-win situation for all stakeholders in the research enterprise.
How does one conduct, measure and record a ‘good’ ethical review of biomedical research? To what extent do ethics committees invoke professionalism in researchers and in themselves, and to what extent do they see competence as adherence to a set of standard operating procedures for ethical review......? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a ‘second-order audit’ run...... readings of ‘ethics’. I begin and end with a reflection on the ethical effects of a measurement practice that takes ethics itself as its object....
Maynard, Brandy R.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Naeger, Sandra; Dell, Nathaniel
Background: Despite an emphasis on a biopsychosocial understanding of human behavior and the relevance of biosocial research to social work practice, it is unclear whether social work is contributing to biosocial research and knowledge. Methods: Systematic review procedures were employed to locate studies that included biological variables (e.g.,…
While mentoring programmes have proven to be successful in reducing attrition and improving teaching ability in beginning teachers, there remains a lack of research delineating the key components of effective mentoring programmes in primary education. This integrative research review examines empirical studies conducted since 2000 on the nature…
... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.109 IRB review of research. (a) An... judgment the information would meaningfully add to the protection of the rights and welfare of subjects. (c...
Full Text Available Book Review Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (2nd edition By Mark Bray, Bob Adamson and Mark Mason (Eds. (2014, 453p ISBN: 978-988-17852-8-2, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre and Springer
Context/Background: Mental health is a neglected area in health care in Ghana. With few clinicians and trained researchers in the field, research has been limited both in quantity and quality. Method: A search of the available literature revealed 98 articles published between 1955 and 2009. Sixty-six are reviewed in this ...
Research on the standardization, reliability, validity, factor structure, and subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) (1945) and its revised version (1987) is reviewed. Much research relating to the WMS appears to be relevant to the revised version. Use of the instrument in Australia is discussed. (SLD)
related or social-science research involves a human participant. This ... quantitative studies, as well as review articles, were included, to enhance ... In the study by Gremillion et al., comparison was made between .... research stakeholders, who took part in interviews and focus- .... Contact persons ... Face to face.
Chou, Chien; Condron, Linda; Belland, John C.
Research indicates that maladaptive patterns of Internet use constitute behavioral addiction. This article explores the research on the social effects of Internet addiction. There are four major sections. The Introduction section overviews the field and introduces definitions, terminology, and assessments. The second section reviews research…
Jenson, Jennifer; de Castell, Suzanne
This review of gender and gameplay research over the past three decades documents a set of persistent methodological repetitions that have systematically impeded its progress since the inception of this trajectory of research. The first is, in fact, a refusal to consider gender at all: Conflating gender with sex impedes possibilities to identify…
Flege, Marius M; Thomsen, Simon F
Remuneration in paediatric research poses an ethical dilemma. Too large a sum might cause parents to enrol their children in research projects with no benefit for the child, whereas too modest a sum might hamper recruitment. The institutional review boards have the responsibility to only approve ...
Coe, Robert; Aloisi, Cesare; Higgins, Steve; Major, Lee Elliot
This report reviews over 200 pieces of research to identify the elements of teaching with the strongest evidence of improving attainment. It finds some common practices can be harmful to learning and have no grounding in research. Specific practices which are supported by good evidence of their effectiveness are also examined and six key factors…
Hane, G.J.; Williams, T.A.; Hauser, S.G.
This study attempted to systematically identify, screen and review many of the 27 remaining major studies across the end-use areas. The method used to identify and review the studies, the scope of this effort, the types of studies reviewed, and the R and D opportunities identified are discussed. The actual report reviews are included. The review format and the kinds of information sought from each report are discussed. The general categories of the material are described; the types of information presented are summarized; and gaps in the literature are discussed. A discussion of R and D needs and comments of the specific needs presented and their temporal and evolutionary characteristics are included. The findings of the review are summarized and the researchers contacted for information are listed.
Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.
This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves
Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.
This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves
Carlos Roberto Banzato
Full Text Available Strategic Leadership: Theory and Research on Executives, Top Management Teams, and Boards by Finkelstein, Hambrick and Canella Jr. (2009 is one of the most important references in strategy studies. This work is a critical review of this book and attempts to answer why organizations do what they do or play the way they play. In this paper, we review all eleven chapters that make up the book. We then suggest the implications of this theory on strategy and organizations. We also consider how this book affects the development of the field of study. The book offers considerable foundations for executives and serves as a reference for researchers who wish to understand the phenomenon related to strategic leadership, considering the CEO, Board and Top Management Team. The major contribution of this paper is that it summarizes the theory and concepts of the book in a few pages and identifies the main characteristics, antecedents and consequences of leadership in organizations.
The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng
With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.
With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.
Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hauer, F. Richard; F. Richard Hauer,; Lamberti, G.A.
Stream temperature has direct and indirect effects on stream ecology and is critical in determining both abiotic and biotic system responses across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Temperature variation is primarily driven by solar radiation, while landscape topography, geology, and stream reach scale ecosystem processes contribute to local variability. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in freshwater ecosystems influences habitat distributions, physiological functions, and phenology of all aquatic organisms. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods for monitoring stream temperature, characterization of thermal profiles, and modeling approaches to stream temperature prediction. Recent advances in temperature monitoring allow for more comprehensive studies of the underlying processes influencing annual variation of temperatures and how thermal variability may impact aquatic organisms at individual, population, and community based scales. Likewise, the development of spatially explicit predictive models provide a framework for simulating natural and anthropogenic effects on thermal regimes which is integral for sustainable management of freshwater systems.
In this chapter used abbreviations and radiation safety of NPPs in Slovak Republic are presented. Results of monitoring of NPP Bohunice V-1 and V-2 as well as NPP Mochovce are presented. A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic in 2000 is presented. The collective dose is one of the fundamental indicators to assess the level of nuclear safety and safety culture. This is the total dose of both external and internal exposure of the whole of the body measured with a personal dosimeter and a calculated internal exposure over a certain period of time. Measured doses to the utility personnel, the staff of supplier organisations and official working visits are included
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a Supplier Development (SD literature framework and identify the main focus areas in SD research. To this end, a comprehensive review of the existing SD academic literature has been undertaken, which includes 62 research papers. These papers are classified according to their research content and the research methodology employed. A comprehensive list of future research areas is also presented. Thus, this paper will also briefly explore proposed future research. The review of the SD literature presented here identifies the following main areas of focus: Supplier Development Activities, Practices and Success Factors; Direct or Indirect Supplier Development; Supplier Development as a Reactive or Strategic Process; Supplier Development in a Lean Six Sigma & SME context.
Providing readers with an accessible, in-depth look at how to synthesize research literature, Conducting Research Literature Reviews is perfect for students, researchers, marketers, planners, and policymakers who design and manage public and private agencies, conduct research studies, and prepare strategic plans and grant proposals. Bestselling author Arlene Fink shows readers how to explain the need for and significance of research, as well as how to explain a study’s findings. Offering a step-by-step approach to conducting literature reviews, the Fourth Edition features updated examples and covers: how to select databases and evaluate their quality; selecting and organizing key words and other terms in order to effectively search databases and the Web; setting standards for evaluating the quality of research and other literature; extracting and recording information from articles and studies; synthesizing what the reader finds either descriptively or via a meta-analysis; recording and storing the results ...
An NEA study on safety research needs of Russian-designed reactors, carried out in 1996, strongly recommended that a strategic plan for safety research be developed with respect to Russian nuclear power plants. Such a plan was developed at the Russian International Nuclear Safety Centre (RINSC) of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom). The Strategic Plan is designed to address high-priority safety-research needs, through a combination of domestic research, the application of appropriate foreign knowledge, and collaboration. It represents major progress toward developing a comprehensive and coherent safety-research programme for Russian nuclear power plants (NPPs). The NEA undertook its review of the Strategic Plan with the objective of providing independent verification on the scope, priority, and content of the research described in the Plan based upon the experience of the international group of experts. The principal conclusions of the review and the general comments of the NEA group are presented. (K.A.)
Full Text Available The introductory textbook "Qualitative Sozialforschung [Qualitative Research]" by PRZYBORSKI and WOHLRAB-SAHR is addressed to students and teachers alike interested in methodology and methods. The authors aim to describe the research process as a whole in all its elements. The volume therefore includes comprehensive chapters concerning methodology, sampling procedures and displaying of results, as well as chapters dealing with special forms of generating and analyzing data (e.g. grounded theory. The authors compare the approaches presented and work out their similarities rather than differences. Although this textbook offers a sound introduction to qualitative research, in stressing similarities the authors tend to neglect important methodological differences. The chapter dealing with criteria for evaluating the quality of research is one such example of this tendency. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100325
Ramírez, Valeria; Hach, Maria; López, Rodrigo
. Consequently, considerable variation in the understanding of aggressive periodontitis can be anticipated. AIM: To systematically asses, the definitions of aggressive periodontitis reported in original periodontal research. METHODS: A systematic review of original research on aggressive periodontitis published.......7% of the publications no information is provided as to how the cases were defined. Many combinations of criteria for case definition were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed significant heterogeneity in the understanding and use of the term aggressive periodontitis in original research and poor documentation...
Zhang, Rui; Simon, Gyorgy; Yu, Fang
To review the current state of science using big data to advance Alzheimer's disease (AD) research and practice. In particular, we analyzed the types of research foci addressed, corresponding methods employed and study findings reported using big data in AD. Systematic review was conducted for articles published in PubMed from January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2015. Keywords with AD and big data analytics were used for literature retrieval. Articles were reviewed and included if they met the eligibility criteria. Thirty-eight articles were included in this review. They can be categorized into seven research foci: diagnosing AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=10), predicting MCI to AD conversion (n=13), stratifying risks for AD (n=5), mining the literature for knowledge discovery (n=4), predicting AD progression (n=2), describing clinical care for persons with AD (n=3), and understanding the relationship between cognition and AD (n=3). The most commonly used datasets are AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) (n=16), electronic health records (EHR) (n=11), MEDLINE (n=3), and other research datasets (n=8). Logistic regression (n=9) and support vector machine (n=8) are the most used methods for data analysis. Big data are increasingly used to address AD-related research questions. While existing research datasets are frequently used, other datasets such as EHR data provide a unique, yet under-utilized opportunity for advancing AD research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant
James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa
This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.
2.4.5 Nutritional and Hydration Guidelines 7 3.0 Review of Militarily-Relevant Mountain Medicine Technology and 7 Research Barriers 3.1...Interventions ( nutritional , pharmaceutical) to improve troop performance and health during high altitude deployments. 3) Prepare a report that: REVIEW OF...Edema (HAPE). The signs and symptoms of AMS are headache accompanied by insomnia, unusual fatigue, dizziness, anorexia , and nausea. AMS is not
Reis, João Carlos Gonçalves dos; Amorim, Marlene Paula Castro; Melão, Nuno Filipe Rosa; Matos, Patrícia Sofia Lopes
The aim of this paper is to provide insights regarding the state of the art of Digital Transformation, and to propose avenues for future research. Using a systematic literature review of 206 peer-reviewed articles, this paper provides an overview of the literature. Among other things, the findings indicate that managers should adapt their business strategy to a new digital reality. This mainly results in the adaptation of processes and operations management. Scholars, for the other side, are ...
Reynolds, Joanna; Kizito, James; Ezumah, Nkoli; Mangesho, Peter; Allen, Elizabeth; Chandler, Clare
Increasing demand for qualitative research within global health has emerged alongside increasing demand for demonstration of quality of research, in line with the evidence-based model of medicine. In quantitative health sciences research, in particular clinical trials, there exist clear and widely-recognised guidelines for conducting quality assurance of research. However, no comparable guidelines exist for qualitative research and although there are long-standing debates on what constitutes 'quality' in qualitative research, the concept of 'quality assurance' has not been explored widely. In acknowledgement of this gap, we sought to review discourses around quality assurance of qualitative research, as a first step towards developing guidance. A range of databases, journals and grey literature sources were searched, and papers were included if they explicitly addressed quality assurance within a qualitative paradigm. A meta-narrative approach was used to review and synthesise the literature. Among the 37 papers included in the review, two dominant narratives were interpreted from the literature, reflecting contrasting approaches to quality assurance. The first focuses on demonstrating quality within research outputs; the second focuses on principles for quality practice throughout the research process. The second narrative appears to offer an approach to quality assurance that befits the values of qualitative research, emphasising the need to consider quality throughout the research process. The paper identifies the strengths of the approaches represented in each narrative and recommend these are brought together in the development of a flexible framework to help qualitative researchers to define, apply and demonstrate principles of quality in their research. © 2011 Reynolds et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Background Increasing demand for qualitative research within global health has emerged alongside increasing demand for demonstration of quality of research, in line with the evidence-based model of medicine. In quantitative health sciences research, in particular clinical trials, there exist clear and widely-recognised guidelines for conducting quality assurance of research. However, no comparable guidelines exist for qualitative research and although there are long-standing debates on what constitutes 'quality' in qualitative research, the concept of 'quality assurance' has not been explored widely. In acknowledgement of this gap, we sought to review discourses around quality assurance of qualitative research, as a first step towards developing guidance. Methods A range of databases, journals and grey literature sources were searched, and papers were included if they explicitly addressed quality assurance within a qualitative paradigm. A meta-narrative approach was used to review and synthesise the literature. Results Among the 37 papers included in the review, two dominant narratives were interpreted from the literature, reflecting contrasting approaches to quality assurance. The first focuses on demonstrating quality within research outputs; the second focuses on principles for quality practice throughout the research process. The second narrative appears to offer an approach to quality assurance that befits the values of qualitative research, emphasising the need to consider quality throughout the research process. Conclusions The paper identifies the strengths of the approaches represented in each narrative and recommend these are brought together in the development of a flexible framework to help qualitative researchers to define, apply and demonstrate principles of quality in their research. PMID:22182674
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing demand for qualitative research within global health has emerged alongside increasing demand for demonstration of quality of research, in line with the evidence-based model of medicine. In quantitative health sciences research, in particular clinical trials, there exist clear and widely-recognised guidelines for conducting quality assurance of research. However, no comparable guidelines exist for qualitative research and although there are long-standing debates on what constitutes 'quality' in qualitative research, the concept of 'quality assurance' has not been explored widely. In acknowledgement of this gap, we sought to review discourses around quality assurance of qualitative research, as a first step towards developing guidance. Methods A range of databases, journals and grey literature sources were searched, and papers were included if they explicitly addressed quality assurance within a qualitative paradigm. A meta-narrative approach was used to review and synthesise the literature. Results Among the 37 papers included in the review, two dominant narratives were interpreted from the literature, reflecting contrasting approaches to quality assurance. The first focuses on demonstrating quality within research outputs; the second focuses on principles for quality practice throughout the research process. The second narrative appears to offer an approach to quality assurance that befits the values of qualitative research, emphasising the need to consider quality throughout the research process. Conclusions The paper identifies the strengths of the approaches represented in each narrative and recommend these are brought together in the development of a flexible framework to help qualitative researchers to define, apply and demonstrate principles of quality in their research.
In this chapter author reviewed a political pressure of Austrian government and Austrian legislative assembly on Slovakia before fuel assembly insertion and commissioning of the Unit-1 of the Mochovce NPP. Mission of Walkdown II is described.
Perspectives for development of technologies, science, knowledge intensive business and personnel training on the Inter-disciplinary research complex in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University base. Chapter 3
In the Chapter 3 the problems of nano- and microstructures formation on the base on nuclear membranes are considered. The role of accelerating technique in the obtaining of nano- and microstructures is emphasized. In particular an importance of ion implantation synthesis of nano-size cluster structures (radiation defects, phase segregations) in a solid state matter volume; formation of metallic nano-structures (nano-wires and submicron tubes, nano-clusters on the solid state surfaces) with use nuclear technology on the track membranes base is noted. It is shown, that during study of the fundamental properties of radiation defects the DC-60 cyclotron allows to create in the material the cascades of atom-atom collisions. Creation and put into operation in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University the DC-60 cyclotron gives possibility to formation of experimental and laboratory research bases for it collective use by researches, academics, students and postgraduates
Researchers in the twenty-first century face a set of challenges unknown to researchers a half century ago--the need to justify the moral acceptability of their research methods through formal review processes. However, the role that moral constraints play in the development and demise of scientific theories has largely gone unappreciated. The rise of Institutional Review Boards (IRB) in the 1960s compounded the impact of moral constraints on scientific research and on the theories that develop out of such highly monitored research. To demonstrate the effects of moral constraints on scientific theory and research, this paper offers a history and analysis of the interaction between evolving moral standards and twentieth century emotion theory. Recommendations regarding IRB reform are also reviewed. The paper concludes by arguing that, while appropriate IRB reform is important, it cannot eliminate the need for careful reflection on the broader forces that shape scientific practice and understanding.
Australian research reactor review commenced in September 1992, the Review had the following Terms of Reference: Whether, on review of the benefits and costs for scientific, commercial, industrial and national interest reasons, Australia has a need for a new reactor; a review of the present reactor, HIFAR, to include: an assessment of national and commercial benefits and costs of operations, its likely remaining useful life and its eventual closure and decommissioning; if Australia has a need for a new nuclear research reactor, the Review will consider: possible locations for a new reactor, its environmental impact at alternative locations, recommend a preferred location, and evaluate matters associated with regulation of the facility and organisational arrangements for reactor-based research. From the Review findings the following recommendations were stated: keep HIFAR going; commission a PRA to ascertain HIFAR's remaining life and refurbishment possibilities; identify and establish a HLW repository; accept that neither HIFAR nor a new reactor can be completely commercial; any decision on a new neutron source must rest primarily on benefits to science and Australia's national interest; make a decision on a new neutron source in about five years' time (1998). Design Proposals for a New Reactor are specified
Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R
The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.
Minaker, Leia M; Shuh, Alanna; Olstad, Dana L; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Black, Jennifer L; Mah, Catherine L
The field of retail food environments research is relatively new in Canada. The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of retail food environments research conducted before July 2015 in Canada. Specifically, this review describes research foci and key findings, identifies knowledge gaps and suggests future directions for research. A search of published literature concerning Canadian investigations of retail food environment settings (food stores, restaurants) was conducted in July 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PsychInfo and ERIC. Studies published in English that reported qualitative or quantitative data on any aspect of the retail food environment were included, as were conceptual papers and commentaries. Eighty-eight studies were included in this review and suggest that the field of retail food environments research is rapidly expanding in Canada. While only 1 paper was published before 2005, 66 papers were published between 2010 and 2015. Canadian food environments research typically assessed either the socio-economic patterning of food environments (n = 28) or associations between retail food environments and diet, anthropometric or health outcomes (n = 33). Other papers profiled methodological research, qualitative studies, intervention research and critical commentaries (n = 27). Key gaps in the current literature include measurement inconsistency among studies and a lack of longitudinal and intervention studies. Retail food environments are a growing topic of research, policy and program development in Canada. Consistent methods (where appropriate), longitudinal and intervention research, and close partnerships between researchers and key stakeholders would greatly advance the field of retail food environments research in Canada.
Borkowski, Donna; McKinstry, Carol; Cotchett, Matthew; Williams, Cylie; Haines, Terry
Research evidence is required to guide optimal allied health practice and inform policymakers in primary health care. Factors that influence a positive research culture are not fully understood, and nor is the impact of a positive research culture on allied health professionals. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that affect allied health research culture and capacity. An extensive search of 11 databases was conducted in June 2015. Studies were included if they were published in English, had full-text availability and reported research findings relating to allied health professions. Study quality was evaluated using the McMaster Critical Review Forms. Fifteen studies were eligible for inclusion. A meta-analysis was not performed because of heterogeneity between studies. Allied health professionals perceive that their individual research skills are lower in comparison to their teams and organisation. Motivators for conducting research for allied health professionals include developing skills, increasing job satisfaction and career advancement. Barriers include a lack of time, limited research skills and other work roles taking priority. Multilayered strategies, such as collaborations with external partners and developing research leadership positions, aimed at addressing barriers and enablers, are important to enhance allied health research culture and capacity.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the academic literature available in the field of Entrepreneurial Intention (EI, and conduct a content analysis of the same for the purpose of classification and provide a comprehensive bibliography. Emerald full text, online database was searched to review the available literature on EI. The search resulted in only 118 publications where EI was mentioned as the primary research topic. The sample was further refined to only include papers with empirical research in qualitative and quantitative realms. The resultant of the refined sample was 69 research publications, which were classified in to mutually exclusive categories. The content analysis led to classification of literature on the basis of six categories viz. Publication Year, Journal, Research Area, Research Type, Base Theory and Population. The study identifies the history of research on EI and hints towards future research prospects in research in terms of industry, area of study, methodology, type of study, etc. The paper provides a list of field projects accompanied by a comprehensive bibliography that will be useful to both academicians and practitioners for studying existing research as well as for contemplating future research. This may be considered as the basic compilation and classification of available literature in the field of EI.
Cannon, Abby C; Arcara, Jennet; Graham, Laurie M; Macy, Rebecca J
Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a human rights violation with serious public health consequences. Unfortunately, assessing TIP and its health sequelae rigorously and reliably is challenging due to TIP's clandestine nature, variation in definitions of TIP, and the need to use research methods that ensure studies are ethical and feasible. To help guide practice, policy, and research to assess TIP and health, we undertook a systematic literature review of 70 peer-reviewed, published articles to (a) identify TIP and health research methods being used, (b) determine what we can learn about TIP and health from these varied methodologies, and (c) determine the gaps that exist in health-focused TIP research. Results revealed that there are various quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods being used to investigate TIP and health. Furthermore, findings show that the limitations of current methodologies affect what is known about TIP and health. In particular, varying definitions, participant recruitment strategies, ethical standards, and outcome measures all affect what is known about TIP and health. Moreover, findings demonstrate an urgent need for representative and nonpurposive recruitment strategies in future investigations of TIP and health as well as research on risk and protective factors related to TIP and health, intervention effectiveness, long-term health outcomes, and research on trafficked people beyond women trafficked for sex. We offer recommendations for research, policy, and practice based on review results.
Nuyts, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Matej, S. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process.
Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene
Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.
In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN. That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...
Pardo, L.H.; Geiser, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Driscoll, C.T.; Goodale, C.L.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K. C.
Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition (Galloway et al. 2003). Because of past, and, in some regions, continuing increases in emissions (Lehmann et al. 2005, Nilles and Conley 2001), this N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations and damage in many ecosystems across the United States. In some ecoregions, the impact of N deposition has been severe and has changed the biotic community structure and composition of ecosystems. In the Mediterranean California ecoregion, for example (see Chapter 13), replacement of native by exotic invasive vegetation is accelerated because exotic species are often more productive under elevated N deposition than native species in some California grasslands, coastal sage scrub, and desert scrub (Fenn et al. 2010, Rao and Allen 2010, Rao et al. 2010, Weiss 1999, Yoshida and Allen 2004). Such shifts in plant community composition and species richness can have consequences beyond changes in ecosystem structure: shifts may lead to overall losses in biodiversity and further impair particular threatened or endangered species (Stevens et al. 2004). Th e extirpation of the endangered checkerspot butterfl y (Euphydryas editha bayensis), because the host plant for the larval stage disappears in N-enriched ecosystems (Fenn et al. 2010, Weiss 1999), is just one example of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition.
Jauhariyah, M. N. R.; Suprapto, N.; Suliyanah; Admoko, S.; Setyarsih, W.; Harizah, Z.; Zulfa, I.
Students have conception and misconceptions in the learning process. Misconceptions are caused by the teacher, students, and learning source. In the previous study, the researcher developed a misconception diagnosis instrument using three-tier on chapter gas kinetic theory. There are 14 items including 5 sub-chapters on gas kinetic theory. The profile of students’ misconceptions shows that students have misconceptions in each sub-chapter. The cause of misconceptions came from preconceptions, associative thinking, reasoning, intuition, and false negative. The highest cause of misconception in this chapter is student’s humanistic thinking.
Full Text Available Review essay: Propositions for posthuman teaching and research: a diffractive re-view of three books Snaza, N. & Weaver, J.A. (eds. 2015. Posthumanism and Educational Research. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN: 978-1-138-78235-8. Hbk, 203 pp. Taylor, C.A. & Hughes, C. (eds. 2016. Posthuman Research Practices in Education. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN: 978-1-137-45307-5. Hbk, 272 pp. Vannini, P. (ed. 2015. Non-Representational Methodologies: Re-Envisioning Research. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415-71301-6. Hbk, 194 pp.
Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup
During the past decade ERP has attracted attention from both academic and industrial communities (Shehab, Sharp et al. 2004) and we feel that now is an opportune time for the ERP field to ask how the field has evolved and what its present state is (Chen and Hirschheim 2004). The purpose...... of this paper is to address these questions, which is done by providing an overview of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) research field regardless of research discipline, research topic and research traditions. Abstracts from 723 peer-reviewed journal publications from 2000 up till 2007 have been analyzed...... according to journal, authors and year of publication, and further categorized into research discipline, research topic and methods used. The paper demonstrates that the body of academic knowledge about ERP systems has reached a certain level of maturity and several different research disciplines have...
As one of the major factors affecting second language learners' success to their acquisition achievement, motivation has been examined in a wide variety of research papers. It is thus instructive to conduct a critical review of both theoretical and empirical developments in SLA research from over the last few decades. This approach will provide a broad, and integrated perspective onto the current understanding of the complex topic of motivation. Such an undertaking is valuable for teachers, and researchers alike, in developing useful teaching methods, and finding future avenues of SLA motivation research respectively.The following paper provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical findings, examines some of the problems and contradictions found/11 current SLA research, and gives an initial departure point for future directions of research in the area of motivation. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the implications for teachers, and possible classroom strategies that axe drawn from the current body of motivation research.
John Ernest Kratz
Full Text Available Data "publication" seeks to appropriate the prestige of authorship in the peer-reviewed literature to reward researchers who create useful and well-documented datasets. The scholarly communication community has embraced data publication as an incentive to document and share data. But, numerous new and ongoing experiments in implementation have not yet resolved what a data publication should be, when data should be peer-reviewed, or how data peer review should work. While researchers have been surveyed extensively regarding data management and sharing, their perceptions and expectations of data publication are largely unknown. To bring this important yet neglected perspective into the conversation, we surveyed ∼ 250 researchers across the sciences and social sciences- asking what expectations"data publication" raises and what features would be useful to evaluate the trustworthiness, evaluate the impact, and enhance the prestige of a data publication. We found that researcher expectations of data publication center on availability, generally through an open database or repository. Few respondents expected published data to be peer-reviewed, but peer-reviewed data enjoyed much greater trust and prestige. The importance of adequate metadata was acknowledged, in that almost all respondents expected data peer review to include evaluation of the data's documentation. Formal citation in the reference list was affirmed by most respondents as the proper way to credit dataset creators. Citation count was viewed as the most useful measure of impact, but download count was seen as nearly as valuable. These results offer practical guidance for data publishers seeking to meet researcher expectations and enhance the value of published data.
Wood, D.; Terry, P.; Dickinson, F.S.
This chapter reviews the techniques currently employed in the welding of pressure vessels, ranging from traditional manual metal arc and submerged arc processes to the more recently introduced narrow-gap and high-energy processes, e.g. electron beam and laser. The effect on the properties of the base materials being joined and the relative economics of the various processes is examined, from which guidance on the balance between joint properties and economy can be gained. (author)
Energetic neutron sources, both white and mono-energetic, are widely used In basic nuclear physics as well as various multidisciplinary research. Precise measurement of various neutron induced reaction cross-sections are crucial for the design and development of new generation of reactors, like accelerator driven subcritical systems, nuclear incinerators, etc. A review of some recent trends in neutron induced basic and applied nuclear research will be presented in this talk. (author)
丸山, 裕輔; Maruyama, Yusuke
The purpose of this study is to review research of media education in Japan. As new information technologies: digital media typified personal computer or internet, spread into homes and schools, new types of media literacy are necessary. The problem, which arises here, is what the content of this new media literacy is. This problem still remains unclear. Then the author studied research of media education in Japan using the following points. These include: 1) studies on the structure of visua...
Bo Jinhai; Wang Fei
The Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) and its research art-of -work are reviewed. A typical SBLOCA process in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and the influence of break size, break location and reactor coolant pump on the process are described. The existing papers are classified in two categories: experimental and numerical modeling, with the primary experimental apparatuses in the world listed and the research works on SBLOCA summarized
Sustainability has become a subject of increasing concern to academics and practitioners in recent years. Increasing demand for environmentally and socially responsible products and services encouraged supply chains to put increasing emphasis on sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to review research in Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) and to identify gaps in the current body of knowledge. Future research directions are also provided which may help to stimulate more intensiv...
Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan
This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.
Full Text Available Background: There is an assumption that sexual health research has great influence on the quality of human life through elevating sexual health standards, and their results will eliminate the burden of sexual health challenges on family relationships. The aim of this study was to review ethical considerations in sexual health research. Materials and Methods: This narrative review was conducted between January 1990 and December 2017 based on the five-step approach of York University. The keywords used to search for the studies included ethical issues, research, sexual health, reproductive health, and sensitive topics. The language of the literatures was English and the search process was performed on PubMed, Elsevier, Ovid, Springer, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, SAGE Publishing, ProQuest, WHO website, Kinsey Confidential, and Worldsexology. Results: After assessing the quality and eligibility of 94 articles, 13 were selected. The results of the present study showed that the most important ethical considerations were protecting the confidentiality and privacy of participants, obtaining informed consent, and paying attention to vulnerable people. Conclusions: The review of literature exhibited several considerations that sexual health researchers are faced with. In order to manage these considerations, the researcher should have sufficient understanding of them. The important matter is that strategies to manage these challenges should be completely rational and practical according to each context. These strategies can also be applied in other societies with great similarities in their context.
Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse
The purpose of the review is to investigate various relations between the concepts of competence and participation found within child and youth research with the aim of identifying differences in practical reasoning of the various kinds of child research. The search identified 260 articles, and a...... different ways of understanding means and ends in child research. The review thereby offers an understanding of how and why interdisciplinary problems sometimes occur in education and child care.......The purpose of the review is to investigate various relations between the concepts of competence and participation found within child and youth research with the aim of identifying differences in practical reasoning of the various kinds of child research. The search identified 260 articles......, and an in-depth analysis of 39 articles was conducted, elaborating the conceptual differences inherent in the different child research fields. Based on a philosophy of practice, the analysis identified 3 different causal connections between the concepts of competence and participation, indicating 3...
Fleurence, Rachael L; Forsythe, Laura P; Lauer, Michael; Rotter, Jason; Ioannidis, John P A; Beal, Anne; Frank, Lori; Selby, Joseph V
The inaugural round of merit review for the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) in November 2012 included patients and other stakeholders, as well as scientists. This article examines relationships among scores of the 3 reviewer types, changes in scoring after in-person discussion, and the effect of inclusion of patient and stakeholder reviewers on the review process. In the first phase, 363 scientists scored 480 applications. In the second phase, 59 scientists, 21 patients, and 31 stakeholders provided a "prediscussion" score and a final "postdiscussion" score after an in-person meeting for applications. Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize levels of agreement among and within reviewer types before and after discussion. Before discussion, there was little agreement among average scores given by the 4 lead scientific reviewers and patient and stakeholder reviewers. After discussion, the 4 primary reviewers showed mild convergence in their scores, and the 21-member panel came to a much stronger agreement. Of the 25 awards with the best (and lowest) scores after phase 2, only 13 had ranked in the top 25 after the phase 1 review by scientists. Five percent of the 480 proposals submitted were funded. The authors conclude that patient and stakeholder reviewers brought different perspectives to the review process but that in-person discussion led to closer agreement among reviewer types. It is not yet known whether these conclusions are generalizable to future rounds of peer review. Future work would benefit from additional data collection for evaluation purposes and from long-term evaluation of the effect on the funded research.
Drawing conclusions from the validation studies on preschool populations discussed in this chapter is difficult because of the varied study designs, the relatively small study populations, and limited number of studies on each dietary assessment method.
Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M
The goal of this review was to systematize empirical research that was published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1995 and 2015 on the prevalence, predictors, and implications of adolescents' use of pornography. This research showed that adolescents use pornography, but prevalence rates varied greatly. Adolescents who used pornography more frequently were male, at a more advanced pubertal stage, sensation seekers, and had weak or troubled family relations. Pornography use was associated with more permissive sexual attitudes and tended to be linked with stronger gender-stereotypical sexual beliefs. It also seemed to be related to the occurrence of sexual intercourse, greater experience with casual sex behavior, and more sexual aggression, both in terms of perpetration and victimization. The findings of this review need to be seen against the background of various methodological and theoretical shortcomings, as well as several biases in the literature, which currently precludes internally valid causal conclusions about effects of pornography on adolescents.
Mª Luz Rodríguez Palmero
Full Text Available This review complements another one done by the same author, in 1997, regarding the role of comprehending the concept of cell in the learning of Biology. In addition, some general papers on science education that provide a better understanding of research approaches used in the investigation of this topic have been included. The reviewed papers have been organized into categories according to the object of study, the relevance assigned to the cell concept, and the framework of analysis. The review shows that the concept of cell is very important in the biological conceptualization, however, it also shows the need of additional research on this matter, from theoretical frameworks that pay more attention to the psychological level, in order to provide some guidance to improve the teaching and learning processes of the biological content that presupose the comprehension of living beings.
A thorough review is provided on nuclear fuels for steady-state thermal research and test reactors. The review was conducted to provide a documented data base in support of recent advances in research and test reactor fuel development, manufacture, and demonstration in response to current US policy on availability of enriched uranium. The review covers current fabrication practice, fabrication development efforts, irradiation performance, and properties affecting fuel utilization, including thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, thermal expansion, corrosion, phase stability, mechanical properties, and fission-product release. The emphasis is on US activities, but major work in Europe and elsewhere is included. The standard fuel types discussed are the U-Al alloy, UZrH/sub x/, and UO 2 rod fuels. Among new fuels, those given major emphasis include H 3 Si-Al dispersion and UO 2 caramel plate fuels
Research Review of the Institute of African Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access ...
Hawkes, Denise; Yerrabati, Sridevi
Alongside the growing numbers of professional doctorate programmes being offered within universities in the past 20 years, there has been a growth in the academic literature associated with various aspects of these research degrees. This systematic literature review draws on the evidence of 193 academic papers to map out the existing academic…
Li Pengcheng; Chen Guohua; Zhang Li; Dai Licao
Human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are reviewed. The theoretical basis of human reliability analysis, human error mechanism, the key elements of HRA methods as well as the existing HRA methods are respectively introduced and assessed. Their shortcomings,the current research hotspot and difficult problems are identified. Finally, it takes a close look at the trends of human reliability analysis methods. (authors)
Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary
Recent advances in career theory have resulted in widespread acceptance of the lifespan perspective on development. However, a review of research and practice conducted during 2001 revealed that little attention has been paid to the career development of children (Whiston & Brecheisen, 2002). In response to calls for a greater concentration on…
Chen, Der-Thanq; Wang, Yu-Mei; Lee, Wei Ching
Conducting literature review is a complicated, sometimes confusing and laborious process that beginning educational researchers, especially graduate students, often find challenging. However, in the past these challenges were hardly considered, but in more recent times they have been increasingly considered by various faculties and graduate…
The purpose of this study is to present a review of Facebook as an educational environment, as research on its use within education is relatively new. The study is categorized into six sections: Facebook users; reasons people use Facebook; harmful effects of Facebook; Facebook as an educational environment; Facebook's effects on culture, language,…
... Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.109 IRB review... subjects when in the IRB's judgment the information would meaningfully add to the protection of the rights...
Chalfant, James C.; Scheffelin, Margaret A.
Research on central processing dysfunctions in children is reviewed in three major areas. The first, dysfunctions in the analysis of sensory information, includes auditory, visual, and haptic processing. The second, dysfunction in the synthesis of sensory information, covers multiple stimulus integration and short-term memory. The third area of…
Marttinen, Risto Harri Juhani; McLoughlin, Gabriella; Fredrick, Ray, III; Novak, Dario
The Common Core State Standards Initiative has placed an increased focus on mathematics and English language arts. A relationship between physical activity and academic achievement is evident, but research on integration of academic subjects with physical education is still unclear. This literature review examined databases for the years…
In this book review, Peter Neijens considers the Handbook of Research on International Advertising edited by Shintaro Okazki to be a seminal work, with contributions by top scholars from all over the world. It covers a wide range of topics relevant to the field of international advertising, in eight
Levie, W. Howard; Lentz, Richard
Reviews results of 55 experiments comparing learning from illustrated text and learning from text alone. Research in closely related fields--nonrepresentational pictures (maps, diagrams, graphic organizers), learner-produced drawings, mental imagery, and oral prose--is also examined, and guidelines for practice are offered. A 160-item reference…
Cook, G.; Epstein, K.; Brown, H.
America is making a long transition to a future in which conventional, fossil fuel technologies will be displaced by new renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This first biannual research review describes NREL's R&D in seven technology areas--biorefineries, transportation, hydrogen, solar electricity, distributed energy, energy-efficient buildings, and low-wind-speed turbines.
Burger, Dominik; Fueglistaller, Urs; Fust, Alexander
Salespersons' empathy has received recognition by scholars and sales representatives. Despite its importance, definitions and conceptualizations of salespersons' empathy are rather heterogeneous. Thus, we used the method of systematic literature review to analyze 42 empirical articles. A research agenda focusing on salespersons' empathy's measurement, antecedents and moderators as well as effects on performance and relationship outcomes is presented to advance the field.
and revised. The review will summarize the literature related to development, classification, technological processes and location of inland terminals. In the end, the paper identifies a new proposition for further research based on the current trends and developments in inland terminals as an important factor of intermodal transport.
Margolis, Robert; Popkin, Nancy
Recent evidence indicates that marijuana is more harmful than had previously been suspected. A review of research in the following areas is presented: tolerance and persistence, reproductive system, respiratory system, immune system, central nervous system, genetic and chromosomal effects, and behavioral effects. (Author)
Waitoller, Federico R.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Cheney, Douglas A.
The authors reviewed the overrepresentation research published between 1968 and 2006 to answer two questions: (a) What are the characteristics of overrepresentation studies? (b) How do studies frame the problem? Systematic procedures were used to search four international databases, and criteria were applied to identify relevant studies. Findings…
Boeren, Ellen; Lokhtina-Antoniou, Irina; Sakurai, Yusuke; Herman, Chaya; McAlpine, Lynn
This paper reviews 23 journal articles on "mentoring" in the context of Early Career Researchers, defined as those in academia with less than 10 years of experience from the start of their PhD. Achieving a better understanding of mentoring is important since within the higher education context new dynamics have created expectations…
Principal Contact. Prof. M.E. Kropp Dakubu Editor-in-Chief University of Ghana. Research Review. Institute of African Studies. P.O.Box LG73 Legon, Ghana. Phone: 211-24-4764006. Fax: 233-21-500512. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Support Contact. Dr Stephen Acheampong Phone: 211-24-4979233
Wolpert, David H.
Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.
Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)
With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.
This 2006 issue of the NREL Research Review again reveals just how vital and diverse our research portfolio has become. Our feature story looks at how our move to embrace the tenants of "translational research" is strengthening our ability to meet the nation's energy goals. By closing the gap between basic science and applied research and development (R&D)--and focusing a bright light on the valuable end uses of our work--translational research promises to shorten the time it takes to push new technology off the lab bench and into the marketplace. This issue also examines our research into fuels of the future and our computer modeling of wind power deployment, both of which point out the real-world benefits of our work.
Matopoulos, A.; Barros, A.C.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.
Purpose – The study aims to define a research agenda for creating resource-efficient supply chains (RESCs) by identifying and analysing their key characteristics as well as future research opportunities. Design/methodology/approach – We follow a systematic review method to analyse the literature and
Standard, MIL-STD-3058, Occupant-Centric Protection for Military Ground Vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Occupant Centric Platform Technology-Enabled...Capability Demonstration (OCP TECD), Occupant-centric, Occupant Protection , Underbody Blast, National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA...Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF
Jensen, Olaf Chresten
for research in this part of the world. Materials and Methods PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, Pan American Journal of Public Health, Medicina Maritima and other relevant journals in Latin America in the Spanish and English languages were searched. Results 57 peer......-reviewed articles on fishermen´s health and safety and none for the seafarers were included. Brazil counted for the main part n =39, while each of the other countries had 0-4 studies. The study objectives include occupational injuries, divers disease, skin diseases, hearing loss and other issues. The cross......Background So far the maritime health and safety research for seafarers and fishermen mainly comes from the industrial developed countries with sparse contributions from the developing countries. The aim was to give an overview of the peer reviewed research in Latin America to point out the needs...
Full Text Available Over the past decade work engagement has gained both business and academia attention. With growing number of studies and meta-analyses the concept of work engagement is one of the pillars of positive work and organizational psychology. This systematic review presents the current state of research on work engagement in Poland. Results confirmed that work-engagement studies have not yet reached the threshold to conduct meta-analysis. The review of measurement methods and synthesis of findings allows to identify strengths and gaps in Polish studies. Discussion of limitations and biases in current research is accompanied with urge to overcome them and develop thriving stream of research on work engagement.
Reiki touch therapy is a complementary biofield energy therapy that involves the use of hands to help strengthen the body's ability to heal. There is growing interest among nurses to use Reiki in patient care and as a self-care treatment, however, with little supportive empirical research and evidence to substantiate these practices. The purpose of this integrative review is to begin the systematic process of evaluating the findings of published Reiki research. Selected investigations using Reiki for effects on stress, relaxation, depression, pain, and wound healing management, among others is reviewed and summarized. A summary of Reiki studies table illustrates the study descriptions and Reiki treatment protocols specified in the investigations. Synthesis of findings for clinical practice and implications for future research are explored.
Lívia Juliana Silva Solino
Full Text Available The fast-fashion (FF is considered an approach and phenomenon of global influence that suit the requirements of a constantly changing and demanding market, since it is a business model resulting of a mixture of fast manufacturing, flexibility, low cost and agile retail approaches. Within this context, this research by a systematic literature review seeks to answer how the FF has been addressed in scientific studies published until the year 2013. Through the review, a total of 82 texts was analysed, among them articles, dissertations and theses. The research method employed is characterized as descriptive, regarding the objectives, and as qualitative and quantitative, on the approach. After conducting the classification of the material, it was possible to understand the state-of-the-art, and thus set a holistic concept and the appropriate term for the FF. As well as propose a research agenda with new approaches for future studies within the relevant topic.
Masters, Kevin S; Spielmans, Glen I
This article reviews the empirical research on prayer and health and offers a research agenda to guide future studies. Though many people practice prayer and believe it affects their health, scientific evidence is limited. In keeping with a general increase in interest in spirituality and complementary and alternative treatments, prayer has garnered attention among a growing number of behavioral scientists. The effects of distant intercessory prayer are examined by meta-analysis and it is concluded that no discernable effects can be found. The literature regarding frequency of prayer, content of prayer, and prayer as a coping strategy is subsequently reviewed. Suggestions for future research include the conduct of experimental studies based on conceptual models that include precise operationally defined constructs, longitudinal investigations with proper measure of control variables, and increased use of ecological momentary assessment techniques.
Schaps, E; Churgin, S; Palley, C S; Takata, B; Cohen, A Y
This article reviews 35 drug abuse prevention program evaluations employing drug-specific outcome measures. Many of these evaluations assessed the effects of "new generation" prevention strategies: affective, peer-oriented, and multidimensional approaches. Only 14 studies evaluated purely informational programs. Evaluations were analyzed to ascertain (1) characteristics of the programs under study, (2) characteristics of the research designs, and (3) patterns among findings. This review provides some evidence that the newer prevention strategies may produce more positive and fewer negative outcomes than did older drug information approaches. Over 70% of the programs using the newer strategies produced some positive effects; only 29% showed negative effects. In contrast, 46% of informational programs showed positive effects; 46% showed negative effects. These findings must be approached with great caution, since the research was frequently scientifically inadequate, and since rigor of research was negatively correlated with intensity and duration of program services.
van den Hoonaard, Will C; Connolly, Anita
DESPITE CLAIMS THAT RESEARCH-ETHICS review is changing or discouraging social research, there are no studies that have tested this assumption. Examining Canadian Master's theses in anthropology between 1995 and 2004, this paper explores the extent to which the theses represent a change in number, topic, or methodology in relation to formal ethicsreview guidelines that came into force in Canada in 2001. ProQuest Digital Dissertations reveals that the number of theses has increased, and that there has not been a noticeable shift from research involving humans to research based on archival data, or theoretical or review theses. However, there has been a very significant increase in research that is called ethnography, but that relies exclusively on interviews. Possible reasons for the halving of percent of ethnographic or participantobservation research are explored.
Westra, Bonnie L; Sylvia, Martha; Weinfurter, Elizabeth F; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Park, Jung In; Dodd, Dianna; Keenan, Gail M; Senk, Patricia; Richesson, Rachel L; Baukner, Vicki; Cruz, Christopher; Gao, Grace; Whittenburg, Luann; Delaney, Connie W
Big data and cutting-edge analytic methods in nursing research challenge nurse scientists to extend the data sources and analytic methods used for discovering and translating knowledge. The purpose of this study was to identify, analyze, and synthesize exemplars of big data nursing research applied to practice and disseminated in key nursing informatics, general biomedical informatics, and nursing research journals. A literature review of studies published between 2009 and 2015. There were 650 journal articles identified in 17 key nursing informatics, general biomedical informatics, and nursing research journals in the Web of Science database. After screening for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 17 studies published in 18 articles were identified as big data nursing research applied to practice. Nurses clearly are beginning to conduct big data research applied to practice. These studies represent multiple data sources and settings. Although numerous analytic methods were used, the fundamental issue remains to define the types of analyses consistent with big data analytic methods. There are needs to increase the visibility of big data and data science research conducted by nurse scientists, further examine the use of state of the science in data analytics, and continue to expand the availability and use of a variety of scientific, governmental, and industry data resources. A major implication of this literature review is whether nursing faculty and preparation of future scientists (PhD programs) are prepared for big data and data science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.
Full Text Available Writing policy that applies to First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples in Canada has become more interactive as communities and their representative organizations press for practical recognition of an Aboriginal right of self-determination. When the policy in development is aimed at supporting “respect for human dignity” as it is in the case of ethics of research involving humans, the necessity of engaging the affected population becomes central to the undertaking.
Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack
Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the
Bressan, Valentina; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Timmins, Fiona; Barisone, Michela; Bianchi, Monica; Pellegrini, Ramona; Sasso, Loredana
To review the use of mixed-methods research in nursing with a particular focus on the extent to which current practice informs nurse researchers. It also aimed to highlight gaps in current knowledge, understanding and reporting of this type of research. Mixed-methods research is becoming increasingly popular among nurses and healthcare professionals. Emergent findings from this type of research are very useful for nurses in practice. The combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a scientific base for practice but also richness from the qualitative enquiry. However, at the same time mixed-methods research is underdeveloped. This study identified mixed-methods research papers and critically evaluated their usefulness for research practice. To support the analysis, we performed a two-stage search using CINAHL to find papers with titles that included the key term 'mixed method'. An analysis of studies that used mixed-methods research revealed some inconsistencies in application and reporting. Attempts to use two distinct research methods in these studies often meant that one or both aspects had limitations. Overall methods were applied in a less rigorous way. This has implications for providing somewhat limited direction for novice researchers. There is also potential for application of evidence in healthcare practice that limited validity. This study highlights current gaps in knowledge, understanding and reporting of mixed-methods research. While these methods are useful to gain insight into clinical problems nurses lack guidance with this type of research. This study revealed that the guidance provided by current mixed-methods research is inconsistent and incomplete and this compounds the lack of available direction. There is an urgent need to develop robust guidelines for using mixed-methods research so that findings may be critically implemented in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McCann's et al. (2012) research study revealed several adverse effects that depression can have on young adults. The findings showed that depression in young adults can be life-threatening if not treated (McCann et al., 2012). One implication for evidenced-based nursing practice would be to educate family and friends on the signs of depression and how to respond to them. A suggestion for future research would be to conduct a study showing the effectiveness of different treatment methods (e.g., therapy, medications) on adolescent depression.
L. Jack Lyon; Keith B. Aubry; William J. Zielinski; Steven W. Buskirk; Leonard F. Ruggiero
The reviews presented in previous chapters reveal substantial gaps in our knowledge about marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine. These gaps severely constrain our ability to design reliable conservation strategies. This problem will be explored in depth in Chapter 7. In this chapter, our objective is to discuss management considerations resulting from what we currently...
Full Text Available Research is a scientific quest to find answers to certain questions. It makes us think with curiosity and wonderment about how to make something better. Research contributes in a major way to the development and maintenance of health and health care systems. Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomena and includes subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions, and behavior. It is especially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behavior. The critical incident technique (CIT is a well-established qualitative research tool used in many areas of health sciences including nursing, medicine, dentistry, and their respective education systems. This technique is described as consisting of “a set of procedures for collecting direct observations of human behavior in such a way as to facilitate their potential usefulness in solving practical problems.” This review gives a gist of CIT and its application in different aspects of dental research.
Lumley, Mark A; Cohen, Jay L; Borszcz, George S; Cano, Annmarie; Radcliffe, Alison M; Porter, Laura S; Schubiner, Howard; Keefe, Francis J
Research on emotion and pain has burgeoned. We review the last decade's literature, focusing on links between emotional processes and persistent pain. Neurobiological research documents the neural processes that distinguish affective from sensory pain dimensions, link emotion and pain, and generate central nervous system pain sensitization. Psychological research demonstrates that greater pain is related to emotional stress and limited emotional awareness, expression, and processing. Social research shows the potential importance of emotional communication, empathy, attachment, and rejection. Emotions are integral to the conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of persistent pain. Research should clarify when to eliminate or attenuate negative emotions, and when to access, experience, and express them. Theory and practice should integrate emotion into cognitive-behavioral models of persistent pain. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bland, C J; Ruffin, M T
What environmental factors stimulate and maintain research productivity? To answer this question, the authors conducted an extensive review of articles and books on research productivity published from the mid-1960s through 1990. This review revealed that a consistent set of 12 characteristics was found in research-conducive environments: (1) clear goals that serve a coordinating function, (2) research emphasis, (3) distinctive culture, (4) positive group climate, (5) assertive participative governance, (6) decentralized organization, (7) frequent communication, (8) accessible resources, particularly human, (9) sufficient size, age, and diversity of the research group, (10) appropriate rewards, (11) concentration on recruitment and selection, and (12) leadership with research expertise and skill in both initiating appropriate organizational structure and using participatory management practices. Some of these characteristics are not surprising, although some findings were unexpected, such as that participative governance correlated consistently with research productivity. The differential impact of each of these 12 characteristics is unclear. It is clear, however, that the leader has a disproportionate impact through his or her influence on all of the other characteristics. Yet, an overarching feature of these characteristics is their interdependency. These factors do not operate in research groups as isolated characteristics. Rather, they are like fine threads of a whole fabric: individual, yet when interwoven, providing a strong, supportive, and stimulating backdrop for the researcher. The authors conclude that while at a distance the productive research enterprise looks like a highly robust entity, upon closer inspection it is revealed to be a delicate structure highly dependent on the existence and effective working of numerous individual, organizational, and leadership characteristics.
Ngune, Irene; Jiwa, Moyez; Dadich, Ann; Lotriet, Jaco; Sriram, Deepa
Patient recruitment in primary care research is often a protracted and frustrating process, affecting project timeframes, budget and the dissemination of research findings. Yet, clear guidance on patient recruitment strategies in primary care research is limited. This paper addresses this issue through a systematic review. Articles were sourced from five academic databases - AustHealth, CINAHL, the Cochrane Methodology Group, EMBASE and PubMed/Medline; grey literature was also sourced from an academic library and the Primary Healthcare Research & Information Service (PHCRIS) website. Two reviewers independently screened the articles using the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) reported empirical research, (3) focused on interventions designed to increase patient recruitment in primary care settings, and (4) reported patient recruitment in primary care settings. Sixty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 23 specifically focused on recruitment strategies and included randomised trials (n = 7), systematic reviews (n = 8) and qualitative studies (n = 8). Of the remaining articles, 30 evaluated recruitment strategies, while 13 addressed the value of recruitment strategies using descriptive statistics and/or qualitative data. Among the 66 articles, primary care chiefly included general practice (n = 30); nursing and allied health services, multiple settings, as well as other community settings (n = 30); and pharmacy (n = 6). Effective recruitment strategies included the involvement of a discipline champion, simple patient eligibility criteria, patient incentives and organisational strategies that reduce practitioner workload. The most effective recruitment in primary care research requires practitioner involvement. The active participation of primary care practitioners in both the design and conduct of research helps to identify strategies that are congruent with the context in which patient care is delivered. This is reported to be the
Sagberg, Fridulv; Selpi; Piccinini, Giulio Francesco Bianchi; Engström, Johan
The aim of this study was to outline a conceptual framework for understanding driving style and, on this basis, review the state-of-the-art research on driving styles in relation to road safety. Previous research has indicated a relationship between the driving styles adopted by drivers and their crash involvement. However, a comprehensive literature review of driving style research is lacking. A systematic literature search was conducted, including empirical, theoretical, and methodological research, on driving styles related to road safety. A conceptual framework was proposed whereby driving styles are viewed in terms of driving habits established as a result of individual dispositions as well as social norms and cultural values. Moreover, a general scheme for categorizing and operationalizing driving styles was suggested. On this basis, existing literature on driving styles and indicators was reviewed. Links between driving styles and road safety were identified and individual and sociocultural factors influencing driving style were reviewed. Existing studies have addressed a wide variety of driving styles, and there is an acute need for a unifying conceptual framework in order to synthesize these results and make useful generalizations. There is a considerable potential for increasing road safety by means of behavior modification. Naturalistic driving observations represent particularly promising approaches to future research on driving styles. Knowledge about driving styles can be applied in programs for modifying driver behavior and in the context of usage-based insurance. It may also be used as a means for driver identification and for the development of driver assistance systems. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Ganesh, C S; Krishnan, R
A literature review of 16 papers on occupational injury research in Malaysia published during a 13-year period from 2000-2013 was carried out. The objective of this review and article selection was based on relevance to the research theme and mention of areas for future research. Most of the publications have focused on descriptive epidemiology, management practices, worker's knowledge, attitude, training, and rehabilitation services. The transportation, agriculture and construction sectors were found to be the most hazardous sectors and would benefit the most from Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) research and interventions. There is a strong need to develop a national injury surveillance system and also a mechanism to ensure adherence to the Occupational Safety & Health Act(OSHA) 1994. Detailed description and identification of risk factors for occupational injury in the environment, including machinery and equipment used was generally lacking. Future research on occupational injury should focus on surveillance to determine the magnitude of occupational injuries, determination of risk factors, identifying costeffective interventions (such as enforcement of OSHA regulations), and assessment of rehabilitation services. Relevant government agencies, universities, corporate sector and occupational safety organizations need to play a proactive role in identifying priority areas and research capacity building. Funding for occupational injury should be commensurate with the magnitude of the problem.
MacLachlan, Malcolm; Kavanagh, Bill; Kay, Alison
International maritime health has largely developed within the sphere of occupational health services and international health problems. We reviewed publications in the journal International Maritime Health from 2000 to 2010 to establish the coverage of the journal and the scope of research in maritime health. We identified six thematic categories: healthcare access, delivery and integration; telehealth; non-communicable diseases and physical health problems; communicable diseases; psychological functioning and health; and safety-related issues. We describe the research within these themes and report on their publication prominence. We also analyse the research in terms of its geographical focus, the population groups addressed and the research methodologies used. We suggest a broadening of maritime research to include randomised controlled trials, longitudinal studies and more qualitative research; more research addressing the context for non-European seafarers; and research on seafarers spouses and family supports and obligations. We also recommend more research on psychosocial and cultural issues and on telehealth, as well as the development of a stronger systems perspective for promoting maritime health.
This standard establishes guidelines for the review and approval of experiments performed at research reactor facilities. This standard identifies the major areas that shall be reviewed for each experiment to ensure that it (a) falls within the limits delineated in the technical specifications, (b) does not present an unreviewed safety question as defined in 10 CFR Section 50.59 π2-, (c) does not constitute a threat to the health and safety of any individual or group of individuals, and (d) does not constitute a hazard to the reactor facility or other equipment. In addition, this standard recommends a system for classifying experiments to establish levels of review and approval commensurate with the level of risk inherent in the experiment
Jhonatan Steeven Navarro-Loli
Full Text Available Depression in adolescents is a multicausal phenomenon and a predictor of social problems and other disorders. Thus, it is considered a public health problem. This investigation aims to systematically review the characteristics of the scientific articles about depression in Peruvian adolescents published in Peruvian and non-Peruvian journals. The search was performed in the databases of SciELO, Latindex, Redalyc, Scopus, PubMed, and through Google, using a combination of keywords related to the construct, the sample and its origin. The unit of analysis consisted of 21 articles. The reviewed articles showed inconsistency in the reporting and bibliographic support of the research designs, sampling procedures, psychometric properties of the instruments, instruments used to assess the construct which were not evaluated in our context, and cut-off points obtained in other countries’ samples. Therefore, we can state that the reviewed articles do not fully comply with the publication standards proposed by the American Psychological Association.
Wilson, Donna M; Nam, Mavis A; Murphy, Jill; Victorino, João P; Gondim, Ellen C; Low, Gail
To establish how common and impactful nursing and healthcare ageism is and whether proven interventions or prevention methods exist. Ageism has been a concern since 1969 when it was first introduced as a concept for social reform. As ageism has been linked to lower quality health services and reduced health care access, it is imperative that healthcare and nursing ageism is prevented or identified and reduced or eliminated. A qualitative narrative review of published research literature reviews using a scoping design to map all published reviews was undertaken. The EBSCO Discovery Service (providing access to articles in 271 databases, including MEDLINE and CINAHL) and Directory of Open Access Journals (providing access to over 9,000 open access journals) were used to find review articles. Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and limited by English language and peer-review publications, 12 eligible reviews were identified and information from them was systematically identified, assessed and synthesised. The 12 reviews did not provide clear and convincing information to determine how common and impactful nursing or healthcare ageism is, nor what can best be done to prevent or address it. Although each review had value since research literature was collected and discussed on nursing or healthcare ageism, the array of literature search and analysis methods, and diversity in conclusions reached about the evidence is highly problematic. Research literature reviews offering a more balanced perspective and demonstrating greater care in finding and using quality evidence are needed. At this point in time, there is no clear understanding of how widespread and impactful nursing or healthcare ageism is, and what can best be done to prevent or address it. Nurses need to be aware that ageism may be common and impactful, and guard against it. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Calver, Michael C; Bradley, J Stuart
Open access (OA) publishing, whereby authors, their institutions, or their granting bodies pay or provide a repository through which peer-reviewed work is available online for free, is championed as a model to increase the number of citations per paper and disseminate results widely, especially to researchers in developing countries. We compared the number of citations of OA and non-OA papers in six journals and four books published since 2000 to test whether OA increases number of citations overall and increases citations made by authors in developing countries. After controlling for type of paper (e.g., review or research paper), length of paper, authors' citation profiles, number of authors per paper, and whether the author or the publisher released the paper in OA, OA had no statistically significant influence on the overall number of citations per journal paper. Journal papers were cited more frequently if the authors had published highly cited papers previously, were members of large teams of authors, or published relatively long papers, but papers were not cited more frequently if they were published in an OA source. Nevertheless, author-archived OA book chapters accrued up to eight times more citations than chapters in the same book that were not available through OA, perhaps because there is no online abstracting service for book chapters. There was also little evidence that journal papers or book chapters published in OA received more citations from authors in developing countries relative to those journal papers or book chapters not published in OA. For scholarly publications in conservation biology, only book chapters had an OA citation advantage, and OA did not increase the number of citations papers or chapters received from authors in developing countries.
Silva, Maria Augusta; Stubkjær, Erik
to the acceptance of research methodologies needed for cadastral development, and thereby enhance theory in the cadastral domain. The paper reviews nine publica-tions on cadastre and identifies the methodologies used. The review focuses on the institutional, social political and economic aspects of cadastral......World-wide, much attention has been given to cadastral development. As a consequence of experiences made during the last decades, several authors have stated the need of research in the domain of cadastre and proposed methodologies to be used. The purpose of this paper is to contribute...... development, rather than on the technical aspects. The main conclusion of this paper is that the methodologies used are largely those of the social sciences. That agrees with the notion that cadastre relates as much to people and institutions, as it relates to land, and that cadastral systems are shaped...
Kim, Minjin; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Choong Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
A PSR for a research reactor became a legal requirement as the Nuclear Safety Act was amended and came into effect in 2014. This paper describes the current status and methodology of the first Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of HANARO that is being performed. The legal requirements, work plan, and process of implementing a PSR are described. Because this is the first PSR for a research reactor, it is our understating that the operating organization and regulatory body should communicate well with each other to complete the PSR in a timely manner. The first PSR of HANARO is under way. In order to achieve a successful result, activities of the operation organization such as scheduling, maintaining consistency in input data for review, and reviewing the PSR reports that will require intensive resources should be well planned. This means the operating organization needs to incorporate appropriate measures to ensure the transfer of knowledge and expertise arising from the PSR via a contractor to the operation organization. It is desirable for the Regulatory Body to be involved in all stage of the PSR to prevent any waste of resources and minimize the potential for a reworking of the PSR and the need for an additional assessment and review as recommended by foreign experts.
Righi, Angela Weber; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu; Wachs, Priscila
Resilience engineering (RE) has been advocated as a new safety management paradigm, compatible with the nature of complex socio-technical systems. This study aims to identify the research areas and to propose a research agenda for RE, based on a systematic literature review that encompasses 237 studies from 2006 to 2014. Six research areas are identified: theory of RE; identification and classification of resilience; safety management tools; analysis of accidents; risk assessment; and training. The area “theory of RE” accounted for 52% of the studies, and it indicates that research has emphasized the description of how resilient performance occurs. The proposal for a research agenda is focused on: refining key constructs; positioning RE in relation to other theories; exploring other research strategies in addition to case-based studies; investigating barriers for implementing RE; and balancing the importance on describing and understanding resilience with the emphasis on the design of resilient systems, and the evaluation of these designs. - Highlights: • Six research areas on RE are identified. • A research agenda for RE is proposed. • RE research is mostly descriptive and based on case studies. • Design science is suggested as a research strategy for RE. • Five domains account for 75% of the reviewed studies
Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...
Spaet, Julia L.Y.
Given the global concern about the status of elasmobranch fishes, the paucity of information on elasmobranchs in the Red Sea is worrisome. Management of elasmobranchs in areas other than the Red Sea has been helped by research on population ecology, reproductive biology and resource partitioning, subjects that are virtually absent in the Red Sea elasmobranch literature. This review provides the first comprehensive summary of elasmobranch biology in the Red Sea with the aim of facilitating research in a region that remains remarkably under-studied. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
The report presents a concise summary of the Programme of Radioactive Waste Management Research carried out by the Agency in the period 1996 to 2001. It not only provides information, which is relevant to the Agency's responsibilities, but also offers an input to the government's development of a policy for managing solid radioactive waste in the UK. The research projects have included laboratory and field scientific studies, reviews of existing scientific data and understanding, development of assessment methodologies, and development of technical support software and databases. The Agency has participated widely in internationally-supported projects and on jointly-funded projects amongst UK regulators, advisory bodies and industry
Zamora, Ramon [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Mississippi State University, P O Box 9571, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia); Srivastava, Anurag K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Mississippi State University, P O Box 9571, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)
The interest on microgrid has increased significantly triggered by the increasing demand of reliable, secure, efficient, clean, and sustainable electricity. More research and implementation of microgrid will be conducted in order to improve the maturity of microgrid technology. Among different aspects of microgrid, this paper focuses on controls of microgrid with energy storage. A comprehensive review on current control technology is given with a discussion on challenges of microgrid controls. Basic simulation results are also presented to enhance and support the analysis. Finally, research needs and roadmap for microgrid control are also described. (author)
The financial services sector is a huge and diverse industry comprising many different forms of organisations and product offerings. Yet, a review of past papers in the Journal of Financial Services Marketing (JFSM) reveals a heavy bias towards articles on banking, to the neglect of other equally important financial services categories. The purpose of this paper is to address this imbalance and to call for more research to be conducted in a wider range of financial services categories. In par...
Mohd Azri, M S; Adibah, H I; Haliza, G
To summarise the published research on teenage pregnancy in Malaysia, discuss the impact of the findings on clinical practice, and identify gaps in teenage pregnancy research in Malaysia. There were 31 articles related to teen pregnancy found after searching a database dedicated to indexing all original clinical research data published in Malaysia from year 2000 to 2014. Twenty-seven articles (including reports from the National Obstetrics Registry) were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. This literature review has been divided into eight sections: epidemiology, age at first marriage, adolescent fertility rate, unmarried childbearing, risk factors, maternal risks and neonatal outcome, future plan after delivery, and contraceptive use. More than 19,000 births to teenage mothers were recorded each year between 2009 and 2011. Adolescent fertility rates were recorded at 6 births per 1000 women ages 15-19 years in 2013. Many of these births were from unwed pregnancies, which accounted for 1.99% of total deliveries. A majority of young mothers were willing to take care of their baby, although some of them planned to put their baby up for adoption. Risk factors for teenage pregnancy were found to be similar to those published in studies worldwide. More research is needed to better understand the issue of teen pregnancy. For the best results, collaborative studies among nationwide hospitals and institutions should be the way forward.
Turban, Jack L; Ehrensaft, Diane
Pediatric gender identity has gained increased attention over the past several years in the popular media, political arena, and medical literature. This article reviews terminology in this evolving field, traditional models of gender identity development and their limitations, epidemiology and natural history of cross-gender identification among children and adolescents, co-occurring conditions and behaviors, research into the biological and psychosocial determinants of cross-gender identification, and research into the options regarding and benefits of clinical approaches to gender incongruent youth. Based on a critical review of the extant literature, both theoretical and empirical, that addresses the issue of pediatric gender identity, the authors synthesized what is presently known and what is in need of further research in order to elucidate the developmental trajectory and clinical needs of gender diverse youth. The field of pediatric gender identity has evolved substantially over the past several years. New research suggests that cross-gender identification is prevalent (approximately 1% of youth). These youth suffer disproportionately high rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidality. Although research into the etiology of cross-gender identification is limited, emerging data have shown that affirmative treatment protocols may improve the high rates of mental health difficulties seen among these patients. The field of pediatric gender identity has evolved dramatically. Emerging data suggest that these patients' high rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidality appear to be improved with affirmative protocols, although future longitudinal data are needed. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Goldstein, Andrew; Venker, Eric; Weng, Chunhua
Critical appraisal of clinical evidence promises to help prevent, detect, and address flaws related to study importance, ethics, validity, applicability, and reporting. These research issues are of growing concern. The purpose of this scoping review is to survey the current literature on evidence appraisal to develop a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We conducted an iterative literature search of Medline for discussion or research on the critical appraisal of clinical evidence. After title and abstract review, 121 articles were included in the analysis. We performed qualitative thematic analysis to describe the evidence appraisal architecture and its issues and opportunities. From this analysis, we derived a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We identified 68 themes in 10 categories. This analysis revealed that the practice of evidence appraisal is quite common but is rarely subjected to documentation, organization, validation, integration, or uptake. This is related to underdeveloped tools, scant incentives, and insufficient acquisition of appraisal data and transformation of the data into usable knowledge. The gaps in acquiring appraisal data, transforming the data into actionable information and knowledge, and ensuring its dissemination and adoption can be addressed with proven informatics approaches. Evidence appraisal faces several challenges, but implementing an informatics research agenda would likely help realize the potential of evidence appraisal for improving the rigor and value of clinical evidence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
The present report has been put together on behalf of KASAM and constitutes a review of social science research and literature that been produced on the nuclear waste issue in Sweden, with focus on recent research. The aim with the investigation has been to map the scope of and the direction of the independent research about nuclear waste in Sweden, in relation to the research that has been initiated and financed by the stakeholders that are participating in the decision-making process in the nuclear waste issue. Another aim has been to point out areas that have not been taken into consideration
This symposium volume gives the state of the art in the research on ant-plant interactions. A lot of new data and insights are presented. A thematic grouping of the chapters divides the book into six parts. The first part deals with antagonistic interactions, i.e., the leaf-cutter ants. It appears
Haijes, Hanneke A; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W
Meaningful child participation in medical research is seen as important. In order to facilitate further development of participatory research, we performed a systematic literature study to describe and assess the available knowledge on participatory methods in pediatric research. A search was executed in five databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Cochrane. After careful screening of relevant papers, finally 24 documents were included in our analysis. Literature on participatory methods in pediatric research appears generally to be descriptive, whereby high-quality evidence is lacking. Overall, five groups of participatory methods for children could be distinguished: observational, verbal, written, visual, and active methods. The choice for one of these methods should be based on the child's age, on social and demographic characteristics, and on the research objectives. To date, these methods are still solely used for obtaining data, yet they are suitable for conducting meaningful participation. This may result in a successful partnership between children and researchers. Researchers conducting participatory research with children can use this systematic review in order to weigh the current knowledge about the participatory methods presented.
Meredith, Steven E; Juliano, Laura M; Hughes, John R; Griffiths, Roland R
Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensive literature review, we summarize published research on the biological evidence for caffeine dependence; we provide a systematic review of the prevalence of caffeine dependence and rates of endorsement of clinically meaningful indicators of distress and functional impairment among habitual caffeine users; we discuss the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder-a condition for further study included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( 5 th ed .); and we outline a research agenda to help guide future clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations of caffeine dependence. Numerous controlled laboratory investigations reviewed in this article show that caffeine produces behavioral and physiological effects similar to other drugs of dependence. Moreover, several recent clinical studies indicate that caffeine dependence is a clinically meaningful disorder that affects a nontrivial proportion of caffeine users. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine the reliability, validity, and prevalence of this clinically important health problem.
Paula R Pullen
Full Text Available Background: Complementary and alternative medicine is a rapidly growing area of biomedical inquiry. Yoga has emerged in the forefront of holistic medical care due to its long history of linking physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. Research in yoga therapy (YT has associated improved cardiovascular and quality of life (QoL outcomes for the special needs of heart failure (HF patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to review yoga intervention studies on HF patients, discuss proposed mechanisms, and examine yoga's effect on physiological systems that have potential benefits for HF patients. Second, to recommend future research directions to find the most effective delivery methods of yoga to medically stable HF patients. Methods: The authors conducted a systematic review of the medical literature for RCTs involving HF patients as participants in yoga interventions and for studies utilizing mechanistic theories of stretch and new technologies. We examined physical intensity, mechanistic theories, and the use of the latest technologies. Conclusions: Based on the review, there is a need to further explore yoga mechanisms and research options for the delivery of YT. Software apps as exergames developed for use at home and community activity centers may minimize health disparities and increase QoL for HF patients.
It is reported, that during last fifty years the antropogenous impact conducted to degradation of vast areas of Kazakhstan forage lands. For comprehensive research of ecological situation and definition and improvement of perspectives of its or preserving it is required study on radioecological conditions on territory of former nuclear sites and in zone of influence of uranium deposits. Complex researches have been ensuring by study of radiation factor impact on all objects of nature. First objects which receive different radiation doses are plants. Its actively accumulated in itself radionuclides and specifically react on quality and quantity of received radiation
S. Karen. Dante-Wood
The Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnership (NRAP) is a science-management partnership among the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) regional offices and national forests (mostly in the Northern Region, and small portions of the Intermountain and Rocky Mountain Regions); USFS Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountain Research Stations; Glacier, Yellowstone...
Yaffe, M. J. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Maidment, A. D.A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)
Breast cancer is a major killer of women. The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over 1.38 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer internationally in 2008, with over 458 000 deaths. The causes are not currently known; however, it has been demonstrated that mortality can be significantly reduced if disease is detected at an early stage.
L.H. Pardo; C.T. Driscoll; C.L. Goodale
This publication provides a scientific synthesis of the current state of research and knowledge about the response of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to nitrogen (N) inputs (N deposition or N additions), and, where possible, identifi es critical loads for atmospheric N deposition. It also targets policy makers and resource managers who are seeking a scientific basis...
D. G. Fox; H. C. Humphries; K. F. Zeller; B. H. Connell; G. L. Wooldridge
GLEES is contained within the Snowy Range Observatory. This Observatory consists of many weather stations, precipitation monitors, and stream gages scattered throughout the Snowy Range. These sites have been operated by the Wyoming Water Research Center (WWRC) since 1968. Data from the sites are available from the WWRC and were last summarized by Wesche (1982).
Yaffe, M.J.; Maidment, A.D.A.
Breast cancer is a major killer of women. The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over 1.38 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer internationally in 2008, with over 458 000 deaths. The causes are not currently known; however, it has been demonstrated that mortality can be significantly reduced if disease is detected at an early stage
Kaptein, Ad A; van Dijk, Sandra; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Falzon, Louise; Thong, Melissa; Dekker, Friedo W
To suggest a behavioural research agenda for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) based on a concise review of seven stages of psychosocial research, a literature review, and current behavioural research in other chronic somatic diseases. Historical behavioural ESRD research was classified. The specialized register of the Cochrane Behavioral Medicine Field was also checked, and additional papers were selected by screening reference lists and related behavioural science journals, to identify promising areas for future research. The top-five topics identified via the literature search pertain to (1) psychological aspects and interventions, (2) adaptation, coping, and depression, (3) exercise, (4) counseling and education, and (5) compliance. 'Illness and treatment beliefs', 'sexuality', 'suicide', 'family support', and 'self-management interventions', were identified on the basis of research in other chronic illnesses as topics for future research. Regarding theory, the Common-Sense Model (CSM) was judged to offer useful theoretical perspectives; regarding methods, qualitative methods can be a valuable addition to quantitative research methods. Illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, and self-management behaviours are promising concepts in the assessment and clinical care of ESRD-patients. Cognitive-behavioural treatments appear to have potential and should be specified and elaborated for specific categories and problems of ESRD-patients. This research agenda is in line with moves towards patient-centred disease-management to improve the quality of medical care for ESRD-patients. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Atallah, David; Moubarak, Malak; El Kassis, Nadine; Abboud, Sara
Clinical trials conducted in Lebanon are increasing. However, little is known about the performance of research ethics committees (RECs) in charge of reviewing the research protocols. This study aimed to assess the level of adherence to the ethics surrounding the conduct of clinical trials and perceptions of team members regarding roles of the RECs during the conduct of clinical trials in Lebanon. The research question was: Are RECs adherent to the ethics surrounding the conduct of clinical trials (chapters II and IV in 'Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health-related Research with Human Participants' in Lebanon?' This was a quantitative and descriptive questionnaire-based study conducted among RECs of university hospitals in Lebanon. The questionnaire had to be completed online and included general questions in addition to items reflecting the different aspects of a REC performance and effectiveness. All the questionnaire was assigned a total score of 175 points. General information and questions assigned point values/scores were analysed using descriptive statistics: frequency and percentage, mean score ± standard deviation. Ten RECs participated in the study (52 persons: four chairs, one vice-president, 47 ordinary members). Forty-seven (90.4%) had previous experience with clinical research and 30 (57.7%) had a diploma or had done a training in research ethics. Forty-one percent confirmed that they were required to have a training in research ethics. All RECs had a policy for disclosing and managing potential conflicts of interest for its members, but 71.8% of participants reported the existence of such a policy for researchers. Thirty-three point three percent reported that the RECs had an anti-bribery policy. The questionnaire mean score was 129.6 ± 22.3/175 points reflecting thus an excellent adherence to international standards. Inadequate training of REC members and the lack of anti-bribery policies should be resolved to
João Carvalho Santos
Full Text Available A wealth of research has addressed the internationalization of firms using different theories and conceptual perspectives. This paper examines the extant research on internationalization specifically delving into seven streams of research: Market Power, Evolutionary Model, Internalization & Transaction Cost, Eclectic Paradigm, Resource-Based View, Institutional and International New Ventures & Born Global. Methodologically we conduct a bibliometric review in six leading journals recognized for publishing International Business (IB research, during a forty one year period, from 1970 to 2010. Using citations and co-citations analyses on a sample of 1,459 articles, we sought to better understand the internationalization approaches and how they are interconnected, by examining its growth over time, the most used approaches, the works that have had the greatest impact, and the intellectual interconnections among authors. We conclude that there is no dominant approach in International Business research, albeit the Evolutionary Model has been the most cited - in almost 26% of the extant research, specially the paper– “The internationalization process of the firm: A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitment”, by Johanson and Vahlne (1977. We present a broad discussion and point out limitations and directions for future research.
Williamson Paula R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised controlled trials (RCTs represent the gold standard methodological design to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention in humans but they are subject to bias, including study publication bias and outcome reporting bias. National and international organisations and charities give recommendations for good research practice in relation to RCTs but to date no review of these guidelines has been undertaken with respect to reporting bias. Methods National and international organisations and UK based charities listed on the Association for Medical Research Charities website were contacted in 2007; they were considered eligible for this review if they funded RCTs. Guidelines were obtained and assessed in relation to what was written about trial registration, protocol adherence and trial publication. It was also noted whether any monitoring against these guidelines was undertaken. This information was necessary to discover how much guidance researchers are given on the publication of results, in order to prevent study publication bias and outcome reporting bias. Results Seventeen organisations and 56 charities were eligible of 140 surveyed for this review, although there was no response from 12. Trial registration, protocol adherence, trial publication and monitoring against the guidelines were often explicitly discussed or implicitly referred too. However, only eleven of these organisations or charities mentioned the publication of negative as well as positive outcomes and just three of the organisations specifically stated that the statistical analysis plan should be strictly adhered to and all changes should be reported. Conclusion Our review indicates that there is a need to provide more detailed guidance for those conducting and reporting clinical trials to help prevent the selective reporting of results. Statements found in the guidelines generally refer to publication bias rather than outcome reporting bias
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting
Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the
Hooker, Roderick S; Kuilman, Luppo; Everett, Christine M
To examine physician assistant (PA) job satisfaction and identify factors predicting job satisfaction and identify areas of needed research. With a global PA movement underway and a half-century in development, the empirical basis for informing employers of approaches to improve job satisfaction has not received a careful review. A narrative review of empirical research was undertaken to inform stakeholders about PA employment with a goal of improved management. The a priori criteria included published studies that asked PAs about job satisfaction. Articles addressing PA job satisfaction, written in English, were reviewed and categorized according to the Job Characteristics Model. Of 68 publications reviewed, 29 met criteria and were categorized in a Job Characteristics Model. Most studies report a high degree of job satisfaction when autonomy, income, patient responsibility, physician support, and career advancement opportunities are surveyed. Age, sex, specialty, and occupational background are needed to understand the effect on job satisfaction. Quality of studies varies widely. Employers may want to examine their relationships with PAs periodically. The factors of job satisfaction may assist policymakers and health administrators in creating welcoming professional employment environments. The main limitation: no study comprehensively evaluated all the antecedents of job satisfaction. PAs seem to experience job satisfaction supported by low attrition rates and competitive wages. Contributing factors are autonomy, experienced responsibility, pay, and supportive supervising physician. A number of intrinsic rewards derived from the performance of the job within the social environment, along with extrinsic rewards, may contribute to overall job satisfaction. PA job satisfaction research is underdeveloped; investigations should include longitudinal studies, cohort analyses, and economic determinants.
Hughes, Rachel L; Damin, Catherine; Heiden-Rootes, Katie
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals experience more negative health outcomes compared with their heterosexual peers. The health disparities are often related to family and social rejection of the LGBT individuals. Integrated care, and Medical Family Therapy in particular, may aid in addressing the systemic nature of the negative health outcomes. To better understand the current state of the integrated care literature on addressing the health needs of LGBT individuals, a systematic review of the research literature was conducted from January 2000 to January 2016 for articles including integrated health care interventions for LGBT populations. Independent reviewers coded identified articles. Only 8 research articles met criteria for inclusion out of the 2,553 initially identified articles in the search. Results indicated a lack of integrated care research on health care and health needs of LGBT individuals, and none of the articles addressed the use of family or systemic-level interventions. Implications for future research and the need for better education training are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Zhang, Jie; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per
After decades of development, the gap between expectations of Environment Impact Assessments (EIA) and their practical performance remains significant. Research has been done to identify the critical factors for an effective implementation of EIA. However, this research, to a large extent, has not been cumulated and analysed comprehensively according to the stages of the EIA process. This paper contributes to the critical review of the literature on EIA implementation and effectiveness by cumulating mainly empirical findings in an implementation theoretical perspective. It focuses on the links between different critical factors and how they relate to different stages in the EIA and thus influence the decision making process. After reviewing 33 refereed journal articles published between 1999 and 2011, we identified 203 notions of critical factors. Of these, 102 related to different stages defined in our comprehensive EIA implementation model, and 101 were identified as general factors related to the whole EIA system. The number of notions of stage factors and general factors is thus about equal. An overlap between stage factors and general factors was found, which demonstrates that critical factors function differently in different cases. The function of the critical factors is complex and it is difficult to determine contingencies and causations. In the sources we examined, there is evidently an imbalance between in-depth empirical research and general knowledge, and the paper offers some suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.
Singh, Lake A.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.
This comprehensive review examines the efforts of previous researchers to develop concepts for propellant-collecting spacecraft, estimate the performance of these systems, and understand the physics involved. Rocket propulsion requires the spacecraft to expend two fundamental quantities: energy and propellant mass. A growing number of spacecraft collect the energy they need to execute propulsive maneuvers in-situ with solar panels. In contrast, every spacecraft using rocket propulsion has carried all of the propellant mass needed for the mission from the ground, which limits the range and mission capabilities. Numerous researchers have explored the concept of collecting propellant mass while in space. These concepts have varied in scale and complexity from chemical ramjets to fusion-driven interstellar vessels. Research into propellant-collecting concepts occurred in distinct eras. During the Cold War, concepts tended to be large, complex, and nuclear powered. After the Cold War, concepts transitioned to solar power sources and more effort has been devoted to detailed analysis of specific components of the propellant-collecting architecture. By detailing the major contributions and limitations of previous work, this review concisely presents the state-of-the-art and outlines five areas for continued research. These areas include air-compatible cathode technology, techniques to improve propellant utilization on atmospheric species, in-space compressor and liquefaction technology, improved hypersonic and hyperthermal free molecular flow inlet designs, and improved understanding of how design parameters affect system performance.
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission relevance, and the... Program Manager, Scientific Merit Review Board, Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research...
Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina
The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be
Grisak, G.E.; Pickens, J.F.
A review of techniques and technology pertaining to the movement of ground water, solutes/radionuclides and heat through porous and fractured media has been conducted. The theory describing each of these processes has been presented in terms of their partial differential equations. The equations serve as the basis for the identification of processes. These parameters have been discussed in detail with regards to their importance in controlling the overall transport processes. A hypothetical research program has been assembled for the purpose of illustrating the hydrogeologic methods and research techniques applicable to site characterization studies. Areas where the current state of the art is lacking have been identified and the necessary research has been recommended. 103 refs
Hilliard, Tracy M; Boulton, Matthew L
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation commissioned a systematic review of public health workforce literature in fall 2010. This paper reviews public health workforce articles published from 1985 to 2010 that support development of a public health workforce research agenda, and address four public health workforce research themes: (1) diversity; (2) recruitment, retention, separation, and retirement; (3) education, training, and credentialing; and (4) pay, promotion, performance, and job satisfaction. PubMed, ERIC, and Web of Science databases were used to search for articles; Google search engine was used to identify gray literature. The study used the following inclusion criteria: (1) articles written in English published in the U.S.; (2) the main theme(s) of the article relate to at least one of the four public health workforce research themes; and (3) the document focuses on the domestic public health workforce. The literature suggests that the U.S. public health workforce is facing several urgent priorities that should be addressed, including: (1) developing an ethnically/racially diverse membership to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse nation; (2) recruiting and retaining highly trained, well-prepared employees, and succession planning to replace retirees; (3) building public health workforce infrastructure while also confronting a major shortage in the public health workforce, through increased education, training, and credentialing; and (4) ensuring competitive salaries, opportunities for career advancement, standards for workplace performance, and fostering organizational cultures which generate high levels of job satisfaction for effective delivery of services. Additional research is needed in all four thematic areas reviewed to develop well-informed, evidence-based strategies for effectively addressing critical issues facing the public health workforce. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Gauthier, Geneviève; St-Onge, Christina; Tavares, Walter
Given the complexity of competency frameworks, associated skills and abilities, and contexts in which they are to be assessed in competency-based education (CBE), there is an increased reliance on rater judgements when considering trainee performance. This increased dependence on rater-based assessment has led to the emergence of rater cognition as a field of research in health professions education. The topic, however, is often conceptualised and ultimately investigated using many different perspectives and theoretical frameworks. Critically analysing how researchers think about, study and discuss rater cognition or the judgement processes in assessment frameworks may provide meaningful and efficient directions in how the field continues to explore the topic. We conducted a critical and integrative review of the literature to explore common conceptualisations and unified terminology associated with rater cognition research. We identified 1045 articles on rater-based assessment in health professions education using Scorpus, Medline and ERIC and 78 articles were included in our review. We propose a three-phase framework of observation, processing and integration. We situate nine specific mechanisms and sub-mechanisms described across the literature within these phases: (i) generating automatic impressions about the person; (ii) formulating high-level inferences; (iii) focusing on different dimensions of competencies; (iv) categorising through well-developed schemata based on (a) personal concept of competence, (b) comparison with various exemplars and (c) task and context specificity; (v) weighting and synthesising information differently, (vi) producing narrative judgements; and (vii) translating narrative judgements into scales. Our review has allowed us to identify common underlying conceptualisations of observed rater mechanisms and subsequently propose a comprehensive, although complex, framework for the dynamic and contextual nature of the rating process
Levy, Joshua M; Smith, Stephanie Shintani; Varshney, Rickul; Chang, Eugene H; Ramakrishnan, Vijay R; Ting, Jonathan Y; Bleier, Benjamin S
Innovation represents a core value of the American Rhinologic Society (ARS), with multiple efforts to promote research in the advancement rhinologic care. We therefore sought to identify trends in extramural sinusitis funding and underutilized sources of support to facilitate future efforts. A systematic review of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Research Portfolio Online Tools (RePORTER) database (fiscal year 1993 to 2017) was completed with the search strategy: ("chronic sinusitis" OR rhinosinusitis). All identified studies were accepted for review, with comparison to ARS membership rolls to identify studies supported by ARS investigators. Foundation awards were surveyed to identify and characterize additional sources of support. The systematic review identified 958 projects receiving NIH funding, of which 120 remain active. The percentage of sinusitis-related awards and total funding relative to all NIH awards increased over the past 10 years (2006 to 2016) from 0.06% (8 / 9128) and 0.09% ($2,151,152 / $3,358,338,602) to 0.87% (86 / 9540) and 0.90% ($37,201,095 / $4,300,145,614). Among active studies, 9 investigators maintain membership in the ARS and serve as principal investigator or project leader in 12 (10%) studies. ARS investigators received the greatest number of awards from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disrders (n = 8,66.7%), while only receiving 2.2% of awarded funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ($607,500/$26,873,022), the largest source of awards for sinusitis research. Support for sinusitis research is significantly growing, with the largest source of active funding not being fully utilized by members of the ARS. Further efforts to promote funding priorities among extramural sources is necessary to facilitate increased funding for ARS member initiatives. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.
Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…
O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Slocum, Timothy A.; Burlingame, Cheryl; Snyder, Katie; Bundock, Kaitlin
Education and related services are relying increasingly on empirically supported treatments (ESTs), which have been shown to improve student outcomes through rigorous research. Many organizations have developed review systems with guidelines for judging the quality of studies and identifying ESTs. However, little explicit attention has been paid…
Malachowski, Mitchell; Osborn, Jeffrey M.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Ambos, Elizabeth L.
This chapter reviews the evidence for the effectiveness of undergraduate research as a student, faculty, and institutional success pathway, and provides the context for the Council on Undergraduate Research's support for developing and enhancing undergraduate research in systems and consortia. The chapter also provides brief introductions to each…
Jagosh, Justin; Macaulay, Ann C; Pluye, Pierre; Salsberg, Jon; Bush, Paula L; Henderson, Jim; Sirett, Erin; Wong, Geoff; Cargo, Margaret; Herbert, Carol P; Seifer, Sarena D; Green, Lawrence W; Greenhalgh, Trisha
Participatory research (PR) is the co-construction of research through partnerships between researchers and people affected by and/or responsible for action on the issues under study. Evaluating the benefits of PR is challenging for a number of reasons: the research topics, methods, and study designs are heterogeneous; the extent of collaborative involvement may vary over the duration of a project and from one project to the next; and partnership activities may generate a complex array of both short- and long-term outcomes. Our review team consisted of a collaboration among researchers and decision makers in public health, research funding, ethics review, and community-engaged scholarship. We identified, selected, and appraised a large-variety sample of primary studies describing PR partnerships, and in each stage, two team members independently reviewed and coded the literature. We used key realist review concepts (middle-range theory, demi-regularity, and context-mechanism-outcome configurations [CMO]) to analyze and synthesize the data, using the PR partnership as the main unit of analysis. From 7,167 abstracts and 591 full-text papers, we distilled for synthesis a final sample of twenty-three PR partnerships described in 276 publications. The link between process and outcome in these partnerships was best explained using the middle-range theory of partnership synergy, which demonstrates how PR can (1) ensure culturally and logistically appropriate research, (2) enhance recruitment capacity, (3) generate professional capacity and competence in stakeholder groups, (4) result in productive conflicts followed by useful negotiation, (5) increase the quality of outputs and outcomes over time, (6) increase the sustainability of project goals beyond funded time frames and during gaps in external funding, and (7) create system changes and new unanticipated projects and activities. Negative examples illustrated why these outcomes were not a guaranteed product of PR
Lacefield, J. C. [University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)
In the conventional method of ultrasonography, images are acquired in reflection, or pulse echo, mode. An array of small piezoelectric elements transmits a focused pulse along a specified line of sight known as a scan line. Echoes returning from the tissue are received by the same array, focused via the delay-and-sum beam forming process reviewed in Section 13.2, and demodulated to obtain the magnitude, or envelope, of the echo signal. The scanner measures the arrival time of the echoes relative to the time the pulse was transmitted and maps the arrival time to the distance from the array, using an assumed speed of sound. The earliest ultrasound systems would display the result of a single pulse acquisition in 1-D A-mode (amplitude mode) format by plotting echo magnitude as a function of distance. A 2-D or 3-D B-mode (brightness mode) image is acquired by performing a large number of pulse echo acquisitions, incrementally increasing the scan line direction between each pulse echo operation, to sweep out a 2-D or 3-D field of view (FOV). The term B-mode imaging reflects the fact that the echo magnitude from each point in the FOV is mapped to the grey level, or brightness, of the corresponding pixel in the image.
Tubiana, M.; Perez, R.
In the context of a functional thyroid exploration study the physiopathology of the thyroid was reviewed on the basis of data supplied by the use of radioisotopes, especially radioiodine. It was pointed out in this respect that the functional activity of the thyroid is closely bound up with the iodine metabolism. The different stages of the iodine metabolism were therefore described in relation to the methods used for their exploration: study of iodine intake to the thyroid and uptake measurement; hormonogenesis and secretion of hormone iodine; transport and circulation of thyroid hormones; exploration of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland-thyroid axis. It was pointed out in addition that the morphological examination often complements the thyroid function exploration and is carried out whenever thyroid palpation reveals an anomaly. Data obtained by scintigraphy are given in this repect. Furthermore the remarkable capacity of hyperthyroid tissues to concentrate radioactive iodine may be used therapeutically to perform an endogenous irradiation of the thyroid. The treatment of both hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancers with radioactive iodine was studied [fr
Wölfling, K; Bühler, M; Leménager, T; Mörsen, C; Mann, K
Behavioral addictions, especially pathological gambling and internet addiction, have become a growing concern in research and health policy. Similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are currently being discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately the number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and internet addiction is still very low. The estimated prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is 0.2-0.5%. These numbers are comparable to prevalence rates reported for illegal drug dependency. About 1.5 million people, i.e. 3% of the German population, are believed to be at risk of internet addiction. Therefore, it is important to investigate in more detail the clinical and neuroscientific basis of pathological gambling and internet addiction. In this review we summarize the current status of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction and outline possible future research perspectives in the field of neuroimaging and genetics. The aim is to develop a multifactorial and explanatory model which helps to improve the quality of existing therapeutic approaches and prevention strategies. At present, parts of the research are funded by the federal states. The authors of this article, supported by scientific associations, have established a research platform called 'pathological gambling' in which research methods and strategies will be discussed which facilitate the implementation of different studies on pathological gambling.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the volume, topics, and methodological nature of the existing research literature on research data management in academic institutions.We conducted a scoping review by searching forty literature databases encompassing a broad range of disciplines from inception to April 2016. We included all study types and data extracted on study design, discipline, data collection tools, and phase of the research data lifecycle.We included 301 articles plus 10 companion reports after screening 13,002 titles and abstracts and 654 full-text articles. Most articles (85% were published from 2010 onwards and conducted within the sciences (86%. More than three-quarters of the articles (78% reported methods that included interviews, cross-sectional, or case studies. Most articles (68% included the Giving Access to Data phase of the UK Data Archive Research Data Lifecycle that examines activities such as sharing data. When studies were grouped into five dominant groupings (Stakeholder, Data, Library, Tool/Device, and Publication, data quality emerged as an integral element.Most studies relied on self-reports (interviews, surveys or accounts from an observer (case studies and we found few studies that collected empirical evidence on activities amongst data producers, particularly those examining the impact of research data management interventions. As well, fewer studies examined research data management at the early phases of research projects. The quality of all research outputs needs attention, from the application of best practices in research data management studies, to data producers depositing data in repositories for long-term use.
Vernon, Marlo M; Balas, E Andrew; Momani, Shaher
Concerns about reproducibility and impact of research urge improvement initiatives. Current university ranking systems evaluate and compare universities on measures of academic and research performance. Although often useful for marketing purposes, the value of ranking systems when examining quality and outcomes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate usefulness of ranking systems and identify opportunities to support research quality and performance improvement. A systematic review of university ranking systems was conducted to investigate research performance and academic quality measures. Eligibility requirements included: inclusion of at least 100 doctoral granting institutions, be currently produced on an ongoing basis and include both global and US universities, publish rank calculation methodology in English and independently calculate ranks. Ranking systems must also include some measures of research outcomes. Indicators were abstracted and contrasted with basic quality improvement requirements. Exploration of aggregation methods, validity of research and academic quality indicators, and suitability for quality improvement within ranking systems were also conducted. A total of 24 ranking systems were identified and 13 eligible ranking systems were evaluated. Six of the 13 rankings are 100% focused on research performance. For those reporting weighting, 76% of the total ranks are attributed to research indicators, with 24% attributed to academic or teaching quality. Seven systems rely on reputation surveys and/or faculty and alumni awards. Rankings influence academic choice yet research performance measures are the most weighted indicators. There are no generally accepted academic quality indicators in ranking systems. No single ranking system provides a comprehensive evaluation of research and academic quality. Utilizing a combined approach of the Leiden, Thomson Reuters Most Innovative Universities, and the SCImago ranking systems may provide
On the basis of the JAERI's Basic Guidelines for the Research Evaluation Methods and the Practices Manuals of the Institution Evaluation Committee, the Ad Hoc Review Committee composed of eight experts was set up under the Research Evaluation Committee of the JAERI in order to review the research themes completed in FY1999, those to be ended through FY2000, and those planned for five years starting in FY2001 in the Advanced Science Research Center. The Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting was held on July 17, 2000. According to the review methods including review items, points of review and review criteria, determined by the Research Evaluation Committee, the review was conducted based on the research result/plan documents submitted in advance and presentations by the Research Group Leaders. The review report was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee for further review and discussions in its meeting held on August 31, 2000. The Research Evaluation Committee recognized the review results as appropriate. This report describes the review results. (author)
This book review briefly summarizes the most interesting topics/chapters from the book: "Advances in Insect Physiology: Progress in mosquito Research". The book is an excellent overview of the recent advances in mosquito biology. This volume encompasses 13 chapters from 32 contributing authors who ...
Marjanovic, Sonja; Soper, Bryony; Ismail, Sharif; Reding, Anais; Ling, Tom
This article describes a review of the Biomedical Research Units (BRU) scheme, undertaken for the Department of Health. This review was a perceptions audit of senior executives involved in the scheme, and explored what impact they felt the scheme is having on the translational research landscape. More specifically, we investigated whether and how institutional relationships between NHS and academic partners, industry and other health research system players are changing because of the scheme; how the scheme is helping build critical mass in specific priority disease areas; and the effects of any changes on efforts to deliver the broader goals set out in Best Research for Best Health. The views presented are those of study informants only. The information obtained through our interviews suggests that the BRU scheme is significantly helping shape the health research system to pursue translational research and innovation, with the clear goal of realising patient benefit. The BRUs are already contributing to observable changes in institutional relationships between the NHS and academic partners: trusts and medical schools are collaborating more closely than in the past, have signed up to the same vision of translational research from bench to bedside, and are managing and governing targeted research resources more professionally and transparently than in the past. There is also a stronger emphasis on engaging industry and more strategic thinking about strengthening regional and national collaboration with other hospital trusts, PCTs, research organisations, networks and development agencies. The scheme is also transforming capacity building in the health research system. This includes (i) developing and modernising facilities and equipment for translation; (ii) building a critical mass of human resources through recruitment and training, as well as improving retention of existing expertise; and (iii) helping ensure a steady flow of funds needed to sustain research
Obokata, Reiko; Veronis, Luisa; McLeman, Robert
This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of scholarly publications that report empirical findings from studies of environmentally-related international migration. There exists a small, but growing accumulation of empirical studies that consider environmentally-linked migration that spans international borders. These studies provide useful evidence for scholars and policymakers in understanding how environmental factors interact with political, economic and social factors to influence migration behavior and outcomes that are specific to international movements of people, in highlighting promising future research directions, and in raising important considerations for international policymaking. Our review identifies countries of migrant origin and destination that have so far been the subject of empirical research, the environmental factors believed to have influenced these migrations, the interactions of environmental and non-environmental factors as well as the role of context in influencing migration behavior, and the types of methods used by researchers. In reporting our findings, we identify the strengths and challenges associated with the main empirical approaches, highlight significant gaps and future opportunities for empirical work, and contribute to advancing understanding of environmental influences on international migration more generally. Specifically, we propose an exploratory framework to take into account the role of context in shaping environmental migration across borders, including the dynamic and complex interactions between environmental and non-environmental factors at a range of scales.
Peltokoski, J; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K; Miettinen, M
This study aimed to describe the research on registered nurses' orientation processes in specialized hospital settings in order to illustrate directions for future research. The complex healthcare environment and the impact of nursing shortage and turnover make the hospital orientation process imperative. There is a growing recognition regarding research interests to meet the needs for evidence-based, effective and economically sound hospital orientation strategies. An integrative literature review was performed on publications from the period 2000 to 2013 included in the CINAHL and PubMed databases. English-language studies were included. Themes guiding the analysis were definition of the hospital orientation process, research topics, data collection and instruments and research evidence. Narrative synthesis was used. Eleven papers met the inclusion criteria. The conceptualization of orientation process reflected the complexity of the phenomenon. Less attention has been paid to designs to establish correlations or relationships between selected variables and hospital orientation process. The outcomes of hospital orientation programmes were limited primarily to retention and job satisfaction. The research evidence therefore cannot be evaluated as strong. The lack of an evidence-based approach makes it difficult to develop a comprehensive orientation process. Further research should explore interventions that will enhance the quality of hospital orientation practices to improve nurses' retention and job satisfaction. To provide a comprehensive hospital orientation process, hospital administrators have to put in place human resource development strategies along with practice implications and research efforts. Comprehensive hospital orientation benefits and outcomes should be visible to policy makers. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
first draft of quality manual was developed. Its structure was updated according to the review performed by the external organisation to follow as much as possible new ISO standard 9001:2000. Main activities diagrams were developed in unified manner to be included into quality manual as its basis and to identify necessary amendments of current internal procedures and to develop new ones. Activities on development of internal quality system are performed according to the approved plan under supervision of the special control team
Jones, A; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie
AIMS: To estimate and discuss the allocation of diabetes research funds to studies with a psychosocial focus. METHODS: Annual reports and funded-research databases from approximately the last 5 years (if available) were reviewed from the following representative funding organizations, the American...... Diabetes Association, the Canadian Diabetes Association, Diabetes Australia, Diabetes UK, the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation and the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes, in order to estimate the overall proportion of studies allocated research funding that had a psychosocial focus. RESULTS......: An estimated mean of 8% of funded studies from our sample were found to have a psychosocial focus. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of funded studies with a psychosocial focus was small, with an estimated mean ratio of 17:1 observed between funded biomedical and psychosocial studies in diabetes research. While...
In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services
Reviewed are research findings related to Japanese attitudes toward the elderly. Although several studies approaching this theme have been published in Japan since 1952, most of them are not known outside Japan because they were written in Japanese. These studies explored the presence of negative attitudes which were usually masked with rituals of respect for the elderly. People's proper use of tatemae, culturally defined normative meaning, and honne, actual feeling, in their attitudes toward the elderly is discussed as a potential source of the American idealization of aging in Japan.
de Almeida Andrade, Fabiana; Schlechta Portella, Caio Fabio
The scientific literature presents a modest amount of evidence in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). On the other hand, in practice, relevant results are common. The debates among CAM practitioners about the quality and execution of scientific research are important. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather, synthesize and describe the differentiated methodological models that encompass the complexity of therapeutic interventions. The process of bringing evidence-based medicine into clinical practice in CAM is essential for the growth and strengthening of complementary medicines worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hii, Yien Ling; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Rockl?v, Joacim
Background & Objectives Dengue is a climate-sensitive infectious disease. Climate-based dengue early warning may be a simple, low-cost, and effective tool for enhancing surveillance and control. Scientific studies on climate and dengue in local context form the basis for advancing the development of a climate-based early warning system. This study aims to review the current status of scientific studies in climate and dengue and the prospect or challenges of such research on a climate-based de...
Phinney, J S
Ethnic identity is central to the psychological functioning of members of ethnic and racial minority groups, but research on the topic is fragmentary and inconclusive. This article is a review of 70 studies of ethnic identity published in refereed journals since 1972. The author discusses the ways in which ethnic identity has been defined and conceptualized, the components that have been measured, and empirical findings. The task of understanding ethnic identity is complicated because the uniqueness that distinguishes each group makes it difficult to draw general conclusions. A focus on the common elements that apply across groups could lead to a better understanding of ethnic identity.
A review is made of irradiation experiments for water reactor safety research under way in both commercial power plants and test reactors. Such experiments are grouped in two; first, LWR fuel performance under normal and abnormal operating conditions, and second, irradiation effects on fracture toughness in LWR vessels. In the former are fuel densification, swelling, and the influence of power ramp and cycling on fuel rod, and also fuel rod behavior under accident conditions in in-reactor experiment. In the latter are the effects of neutron exposure level on the ferritic steel of pressure vessels, etc.. (auth.)
Chen, Xiao-Xia; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Xiao-Ping
To increase soil organic carbon content is critical for maintaining soil fertility and agricultural sustainable development and for mitigating increased greenhouse gases and the effects of global climate change. Soil aggregates are the main components of soil, and have significant effects on soil physical and chemical properties. The physical protection of soil organic carbon by soil aggregates is the important mechanism of soil carbon sequestration. This paper reviewed the organic carbon sequestration by soil aggregates, and introduced the classic and current methods in studying the mechanisms of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates. The main problems and further research trends in this study field were also discussed.
Wilson, Robert E; Gosling, Samuel D; Graham, Lindsay T
With over 800 million active users, Facebook is changing the way hundreds of millions of people relate to one another and share information. A rapidly growing body of research has accompanied the meteoric rise of Facebook as social scientists assess the impact of Facebook on social life. In addition, researchers have recognized the utility of Facebook as a novel tool to observe behavior in a naturalistic setting, test hypotheses, and recruit participants. However, research on Facebook emanates from a wide variety of disciplines, with results being published in a broad range of journals and conference proceedings, making it difficult to keep track of various findings. And because Facebook is a relatively recent phenomenon, uncertainty still exists about the most effective ways to do Facebook research. To address these issues, the authors conducted a comprehensive literature search, identifying 412 relevant articles, which were sorted into 5 categories: descriptive analysis of users, motivations for using Facebook, identity presentation, the role of Facebook in social interactions, and privacy and information disclosure. The literature review serves as the foundation from which to assess current findings and offer recommendations to the field for future research on Facebook and online social networks more broadly. © The Author(s) 2012.
Bottorff Joan L
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.
Yamada, Tasaburo; Mishima, Yoshitsugu; Ando, Yoshio; Miyazono, Shohachiro; Takashima, Yoichi.
The Japan Atomic Energy Commission has exerted efforts on the research of the safety of nuclear plants in Japan, and ''Nuclear plant safety research committees'' was established in August 1974, which is composed of the government and the people. The philosophy of safety research, research and development plan, the forwarding procedure of the plan, international cooperation, for example LOFT program, and the effective feed back of the experimental results concerning nuclear safety are reviewed in this paper at first. As for the safety of nuclear reactors the basic philosophy that radio active fission products are contained in fuel or reactors with multiple barriers, (defence in depth) and almost no fission product is released outside reactor plants even at the time of hypothetical accident, is kept, and the research and development history and the future plan are described in this paper with the related technical problems. The structural safety is also explained, for example, on the philosophy ''leak before break'', pipe rupture, pipe restraint and stress analysis. The release of radioactive gas and liquid is decreased as the philosophy ''ALAP''. And probability safety evaluation method, LOCA, reactivity, accident and aseismatic design in nuclear plants in Japan are described. (Nakai, Y.)
Mathie, Robert T; Hacke, Daniela; Clausen, Jürgen
Systematic review of the research evidence in veterinary homeopathy has never previously been carried out. This paper presents the search methods, together with categorised lists of retrieved records, that enable us to identify the literature that is acceptable for future systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in veterinary homeopathy. All randomised and controlled trials of homeopathic intervention (prophylaxis and/or treatment of disease, in any species except man) were appraised according to pre-specified criteria. The following databases were systematically searched from their inception up to and including March 2011: AMED; Carstens-Stiftung Homeopathic Veterinary Clinical Research (HomVetCR) database; CINAHL; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Embase; Hom-Inform; LILACS; PubMed; Science Citation Index; Scopus. One hundred and fifty records were retrieved; 38 satisfied the acceptance criteria (substantive report of a clinical treatment or prophylaxis trial in veterinary homeopathic medicine randomised and controlled and published in a peer-reviewed journal), and were thus eligible for future planned systematic review. Approximately half of the rejected records were theses. Seven species and 27 different species-specific medical conditions were represented in the 38 papers. Similar numbers of papers reported trials of treatment and prophylaxis (n=21 and n=17 respectively) and were controlled against placebo or other than placebo (n=18, n=20 respectively). Most research focused on non-individualised homeopathy (n=35 papers) compared with individualised homeopathy (n=3). The results provide a complete and clarified view of the RCT literature in veterinary homeopathy. We will systematically review the 38 substantive peer-reviewed journal articles under the main headings: treatment trials; prophylaxis trials. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoshimura, E. M. [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)
Determination of the energy imparted to matter by radiation is the subject of dosimetry. The energy deposited as radiation interacts with atoms of the material, as seen in the previous chapter. The imparted energy is responsible for the effects that radiation causes in matter, for instance, a rise in temperature, or chemical or physical changes in the material properties. Several of the changes produced in matter by radiation are proportional to the absorbed dose, giving rise to the possibility of using the material as the sensitive part of a dosimeter. Also, the biological effects of radiation depend on the absorbed dose. A set of quantities related to the radiation field is also defined within the scope of dosimetry. It will be shown in this chapter that, under special conditions, there are simple relations between dosimetric and field description quantities. Thus, the framework of dosimetry is the set of physical and operational quantities that are studied in this chapter.
Qualitative systematic reviews or qualitative evidence syntheses (QES) are increasingly recognised as a way to enhance the value of systematic reviews (SRs) of clinical trials. They can explain the mechanisms by which interventions, evaluated within trials, might achieve their effect. They can investigate differences in effects between different population groups. They can identify which outcomes are most important to patients, carers, health professionals and other stakeholders. QES can explore the impact of acceptance, feasibility, meaningfulness and implementation-related factors within a real world setting and thus contribute to the design and further refinement of future interventions. To produce valid, reliable and meaningful QES requires systematic identification of relevant qualitative evidence. Although the methodologies of QES, including methods for information retrieval, are well-documented, little empirical evidence exists to inform their conduct and reporting. This structured methodological overview examines papers on searching for qualitative research identified from the Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group Methodology Register and from citation searches of 15 key papers. A single reviewer reviewed 1299 references. Papers reporting methodological guidance, use of innovative methodologies or empirical studies of retrieval methods were categorised under eight topical headings: overviews and methodological guidance, sampling, sources, structured questions, search procedures, search strategies and filters, supplementary strategies and standards. This structured overview presents a contemporaneous view of information retrieval for qualitative research and identifies a future research agenda. This review concludes that poor empirical evidence underpins current information practice in information retrieval of qualitative research. A trend towards improved transparency of search methods and further evaluation of key search procedures offers
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400... STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Peer and Merit Review Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research...
This report reviews the major activities and accomplishments of the Organic Research Section in 1984 and presents the 1985 work program. The three major areas of the Section's research work are non-metallic materials which includes applications and uses of plastics, petroleum products, coatings and elastomers; reactor waste management; and activity transport/decontamination of nuclear systems. In 1984, 50% of the Section's resources were used on studies in support of nuclear generation, 13% on reactor waste, and 37% on general activities and work in support of utilization, transmission and distribution, and thermal and hydraulic programs. About 60% of the section's work was supported by transfer and revenue funds as a result of urgent short-term work requirements which resulted in 68% of the work falling into the technical investigation, consulting and testing categories
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 35 figs., 70 tabs
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs.
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs
This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs.
Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.
Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics II", the authors review the RCR domains of mentoring,…
Simon B Goldberg
Full Text Available Despite an exponential growth in research on mindfulness-based interventions, the body of scientific evidence supporting these treatments has been criticized for being of poor methodological quality.The current systematic review examined the extent to which mindfulness research demonstrated increased rigor over the past 16 years regarding six methodological features that have been highlighted as areas for improvement. These feature included using active control conditions, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessment, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of instructor training and intent-to-treat (ITT analyses.We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, Scopus, and Web of Science in addition to a publically available repository of mindfulness studies.Randomized clinical trials of mindfulness-based interventions for samples with a clinical disorder or elevated symptoms of a clinical disorder listed on the American Psychological Association's list of disorders with recognized evidence-based treatment.Independent raters screened 9,067 titles and abstracts, with 303 full text reviews. Of these, 171 were included, representing 142 non-overlapping samples.Across the 142 studies published between 2000 and 2016, there was no evidence for increases in any study quality indicator, although changes were generally in the direction of improved quality. When restricting the sample to those conducted in Europe and North America (continents with the longest history of scientific research in this area, an increase in reporting of ITT analyses was found. When excluding an early, high-quality study, improvements were seen in sample size, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of ITT analyses.Taken together, the findings suggest modest adoption of the recommendations for methodological improvement voiced repeatedly in the literature. Possible explanations for this and implications for interpreting this body of research and conducting future studies are
Hii, Yien Ling; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Rocklöv, Joacim
Dengue is a climate-sensitive infectious disease. Climate-based dengue early warning may be a simple, low-cost, and effective tool for enhancing surveillance and control. Scientific studies on climate and dengue in local context form the basis for advancing the development of a climate-based early warning system. This study aims to review the current status of scientific studies in climate and dengue and the prospect or challenges of such research on a climate-based dengue early warning system in a dengue-endemic country, taking Malaysia as a case study. We reviewed the relationship between climate and dengue derived from statistical modeling, laboratory tests, and field studies. We searched electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and the World Health Organization publications, and assessed climate factors and their influence on dengue cases, mosquitoes, and virus and recent development in the field of climate and dengue. Few studies in Malaysia have emphasized the relationship between climate and dengue. Climatic factors such as temperature, rainfall, and humidity are associated with dengue; however, these relationships were not consistent. Climate change projections for Malaysia show a mounting risk for dengue in the future. Scientific studies on climate and dengue enhance dengue surveillance in the long run. It is essential for institutions in Malaysia to promote research on climate and vector-borne diseases to advance the development of climate-based early warning systems. Together, effective strategies that improve existing research capacity, maximize the use of limited resources, and promote local-international partnership are crucial for sustaining research on climate and health.
SKB is preparing licence applications for a spent nuclear fuel encapsulation plant and repository which will be supported by the SR-Site safety report. A separate safety report, SR-Can, has been produced by SKB in preparation for the SR-Site report. SKI is in the process of reviewing the SR-Can safety report. In preparation for this review, and with a view to building confidence in SKB's research activities and understanding SKB's handling of data and other information, SKI has examined SKB's application of QA measures in the management and conduct of repository research and development projects that support the SR-Can safety assessment. These preliminary investigations will serve to support the preparation of more detailed quality and technical audits of SKB's repository safety assessment after the submission of a licence application. SKI's approach to this QA review is based on the consideration of quality-affecting aspects of a selection of SKB's research and development activities. As part of this review, SKI identified the need to examine quality-related aspects of some of the many experiments and investigations that form part of SKB's repository research programme. This report presents the findings of such a review, focusing on experiments concerned with the properties and performance of the engineered barrier system. First, in order to establish a broad understanding of QA requirements for repository scientific investigations, QA procedures implemented in the management of research and development activities for the low-level radioactive waste repository near Drigg in the UK and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Yucca Mountain repository projects in the US were studied. The QA procedures for experiments and tests undertaken in these projects were compared with those implemented by SKB. Key findings are: QA programmes have been implemented for each repository development programme in response to regulatory requirements. The need for regular audits of the
Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A
Research concerning Sport Education's educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students' personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model's impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students' learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students' learning, as well as teachers' and students' perceptions about student learning has shown students' improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students' learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches' preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students' learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students' learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to use research designs that
Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.
Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches’ preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students’ learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students’ learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to
To identify the characteristics of peer-reviewed literature on citizenship and disability published in English from 1985 to 2015. A scoping review was conducted using the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Several databases were searched for peer-reviewed journal articles including the terms citizenship and disability, impairment or handicap in their abstract or title; published between 1985 and 2015; in English. A total of 295 articles were included. Key findings are (1) the number of articles about disability and citizenship increased dramatically over the past three decades, (2) the meaning of citizenship is often left undiscussed, (3) citizenship is more often discussed in terms of access to social rights and less so in regards to contributions to society and participation in family life, technology and culture, (4) disabled people tend to be represented as a homogeneous category, (5) most studies are qualitative and non-participatory. To broaden knowledge about the situation, membership and participation of persons with disabilities in society, further research should develop the conceptual use of citizenship in relation to disability, explore different research designs, investigate various citizenship sectors and take into account the complexity of personal and social situations of persons with disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation The notion of citizenship is closely related to the goals of rehabilitation as it touches upon issues of membership and participation in society; Understanding the multiple dimensions of citizenship will help practitioners to design and improve rehabilitation treatments and connect these not only to social citizenship rights but also to the various social roles and contributions of persons with disabilities; A better understanding of the complex relationship between citizenship and disability on the part of practitioners is crucial since strategies and policy documents about persons with disabilities often mention citizenship.
Cairns, R.C.; Greenslade, G.K.
Th research reactors operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) comprise the 10 MW reactor HIFAR and the 100 kW reactor Moata. Although there are no power reactors in Australia the problems and issues of public concern which arise in the operation of research reactors are similar to those of power reactors although on a smaller scale. The need for independent safety surveillance has been recognized by the Australian Government and the ANSTO Act, 1987, required the Board of ANSTO to establish a Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB) with responsibility to the Minister for monitoring and reviewing the safety of nuclear plant operated by ANSTO. The Executive Director of ANSTO operates HIFAR subject to compliance with requirements and arrangements contained in a formal Authorization from the Board of ANSTO. A Ministerial Direction to the Board of ANSTO requires the NSB to report to him, on a quarterly basis, matters relating to its functions of monitoring and reviewing the safety of ANSTO's nuclear plant. Experience has shown that the Authorization provides a suitable framework for the operational requirements and arrangements to be organised in a disciplined and effective manner, and also provides a basis for audits by the NSB by which compliance with the Board's safety requirements are monitored. Examples of the way in which the NSB undertakes its monitoring and reviewing role are given. Moata, which has a much lower operating power level and fission product inventory than HIFAR, has not been subject to a formal Authorization to date but one is under preparation
Raya, Rampalli Prabhakara; Panneerselvam, Sivapragasam
Work plays an important role in one's life for many reasons. It provides us with economic, social, and personal satisfaction and accounts for a substantial percentage of our waking hours. But in today's knowledge-driven economy, organization of work has been changing at a warp speed as a consequence of economic, social and technological aspects of changes brought down by globalization and liberalization worldwide. While this situation has eliminated some risks of the earlier industrial era, it is introducing others. In such a dynamic business environment, where can business leaders and managers find competitive advantage? It lies in balancing people and performance goals. This is the line of approach for healthy organization research that examines organizational context with regard to: People, work organization, management practices, employee wellbeing and performance. The healthy organization concept proposes that along with the profits, employee's well being should also be an important goal for organizations. In this paper, the researcher undertakes an extensive review of literature in the mainstream business literature and establishes the agenda for healthy organization research among other research paradigms.
Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante
Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School
Don A Driscoll
Full Text Available Dispersal knowledge is essential for conservation management, and demand is growing. But are we accumulating dispersal knowledge at a pace that can meet the demand? To answer this question we tested for changes in dispersal data collection and use over time. Our systematic review of 655 conservation-related publications compared five topics: climate change, habitat restoration, population viability analysis, land planning (systematic conservation planning and invasive species. We analysed temporal changes in the: (i questions asked by dispersal-related research; (ii methods used to study dispersal; (iii the quality of dispersal data; (iv extent that dispersal knowledge is lacking, and; (v likely consequences of limited dispersal knowledge. Research questions have changed little over time; the same problems examined in the 1990s are still being addressed. The most common methods used to study dispersal were occupancy data, expert opinion and modelling, which often provided indirect, low quality information about dispersal. Although use of genetics for estimating dispersal has increased, new ecological and genetic methods for measuring dispersal are not yet widely adopted. Almost half of the papers identified knowledge gaps related to dispersal. Limited dispersal knowledge often made it impossible to discover ecological processes or compromised conservation outcomes. The quality of dispersal data used in climate change research has increased since the 1990s. In comparison, restoration ecology inadequately addresses large-scale process, whilst the gap between knowledge accumulation and growth in applications may be increasing in land planning. To overcome apparent stagnation in collection and use of dispersal knowledge, researchers need to: (i improve the quality of available data using new approaches; (ii understand the complementarities of different methods and; (iii define the value of different kinds of dispersal information for supporting
Driscoll, Don A; Banks, Sam C; Barton, Philip S; Ikin, Karen; Lentini, Pia; Lindenmayer, David B; Smith, Annabel L; Berry, Laurence E; Burns, Emma L; Edworthy, Amanda; Evans, Maldwyn J; Gibson, Rebecca; Heinsohn, Rob; Howland, Brett; Kay, Geoff; Munro, Nicola; Scheele, Ben C; Stirnemann, Ingrid; Stojanovic, Dejan; Sweaney, Nici; Villaseñor, Nélida R; Westgate, Martin J
Dispersal knowledge is essential for conservation management, and demand is growing. But are we accumulating dispersal knowledge at a pace that can meet the demand? To answer this question we tested for changes in dispersal data collection and use over time. Our systematic review of 655 conservation-related publications compared five topics: climate change, habitat restoration, population viability analysis, land planning (systematic conservation planning) and invasive species. We analysed temporal changes in the: (i) questions asked by dispersal-related research; (ii) methods used to study dispersal; (iii) the quality of dispersal data; (iv) extent that dispersal knowledge is lacking, and; (v) likely consequences of limited dispersal knowledge. Research questions have changed little over time; the same problems examined in the 1990s are still being addressed. The most common methods used to study dispersal were occupancy data, expert opinion and modelling, which often provided indirect, low quality information about dispersal. Although use of genetics for estimating dispersal has increased, new ecological and genetic methods for measuring dispersal are not yet widely adopted. Almost half of the papers identified knowledge gaps related to dispersal. Limited dispersal knowledge often made it impossible to discover ecological processes or compromised conservation outcomes. The quality of dispersal data used in climate change research has increased since the 1990s. In comparison, restoration ecology inadequately addresses large-scale process, whilst the gap between knowledge accumulation and growth in applications may be increasing in land planning. To overcome apparent stagnation in collection and use of dispersal knowledge, researchers need to: (i) improve the quality of available data using new approaches; (ii) understand the complementarities of different methods and; (iii) define the value of different kinds of dispersal information for supporting management
Richard P. Phelps
Full Text Available Included in these web pages are the statements—the dismissive reviews—of some prominent education policy researchers. Most of their statements are inaccurate; it is possible that all of them are. Certainly, all of them are misleading. Each linked file includes the dismissive statements, the names of the lead authors (in bold when known and co-authors, title, source, date, and, page numbers for the statement and hyperlink to the source, when available, all listed in reverse chronological order. “Dismissive review” is the general term. In the “type” column of the files, a finer distinction is made among simply “dismissive”—meaning a claim that there is no or little previous research, “denigrating”—meaning a claim that previous research exists but is so inferior it is not worth even citing, and “firstness”—a claim to be the first in the history of the world to ever conduct such a study. For the most part, I have included statements made by “serial dismissers”, researchers who dismiss repeatedly on a variety of topics. This is done to help counter the argument that they might be innocent, actually did make an effort to look for previous research, and simply could not find it. In most cases they dismiss a research literature that is hundreds or thousands of studies deep. And, when they do that repeatedly across a variety of topics, the odds that their dismissive behavior could be innocent fade to minuscule. - See more at: http://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/DismissiveList.htm#sthash.TXzlmZhZ.dpuf
Strnadová, Iva; Walmsley, Jan
Background: Inclusive research is increasingly common in intellectual disabilities research, but ways in which voice of co-researchers with intellectual disabilities is presented remain underexplored in the literature. Materials and Method: The authors conducted a literature review and analysis of peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on…
Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)
Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.
Ouyang, J.; El Fakhri, G. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)
Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images.
Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Bouguettaya, A.; Sheng, Q.Z.; Daniel, F.
Service-oriented design supports system evolution and encourages reuse and modularization. A key ingredient of service orientation is the ability to substitute one service by another without reconfiguring the overall system. This chapter aims to give an overview of the state of the art and open
In the Chapter 1 'Energy and wastes' it is shown the wastes generation inevitability at power production, because there are no absolutely wasteless technologies. After energy production technologies analysis the data that nuclear energy is most ecologically acceptable at maintenance related radiation safety measures
Boaz, Annette; Baeza, Juan; Fraser, Alec
Abstract Background The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. Findings A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing...
Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions likely pose serious threat to the stability of our environment; immediate actions are required to change the way the earth’s resources are consumed. Among the many approaches to mitigation of environmental deterioration being considered, the processes for designing, sourcing, producing and distributing products in global markets play a central role. Considerable research effort is being devoted to understanding how organisational initiatives and government policies can be structured to facilitate incorporation of sustainability into design and management of entire supply chain. In this paper, we review the current state of academic research in sustainable supply chain management, and provide a discussion of future direction and research opportunities in this field. We develop an integrative framework summarising the existing literature under four broad categories: (i strategic considerations; (ii decisions at functional interfaces; (iii regulation and government policies; and (iv integrative models and decision support tools. We aim to provide managers and industry practitioners with a nuanced understanding of issues and trade-offs involved in making decisions related to sustainable supply chain management. We conclude the paper by discussing environmental initiatives in India and the relevance of sustainability discussions in the context of the Indian economy.
Full Text Available The applications of object-based image analysis (OBIA in remote sensing studies of wetlands have been growing over recent decades, addressing tasks from detection and delineation of wetland bodies to comprehensive analyses of within-wetland cover types and their change. Compared to pixel-based approaches, OBIA offers several important benefits to wetland analyses related to smoothing of the local noise, incorporating meaningful non-spectral features for class separation and accounting for landscape hierarchy of wetland ecosystem organization and structure. However, there has been little discussion on whether unique challenges of wetland environments can be uniformly addressed by OBIA across different types of data, spatial scales and research objectives, and to what extent technical and conceptual aspects of this framework may themselves present challenges in a complex wetland setting. This review presents a synthesis of 73 studies that applied OBIA to different types of remote sensing data, spatial scale and research objectives. It summarizes the progress and scope of OBIA uses in wetlands, key benefits of this approach, factors related to accuracy and uncertainty in its applications and the main research needs and directions to expand the OBIA capacity in the future wetland studies. Growing demands for higher-accuracy wetland characterization at both regional and local scales together with advances in very high resolution remote sensing and novel tasks in wetland restoration monitoring will likely continue active exploration of the OBIA potential in these diverse and complex environments.
Full Text Available Innovation plays a vital role in a companyâ€™s development and in helping it keep up with new technologies and customersâ€™ highest expectations. A large number of publications on tourism innovation reflect the interest of many authors in this topic. In the past few years several authors have approached tourism innovation, developed models of innovation in tourism, analyzed innovation types or the factors that influence innovation in this field. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature on tourism innovation and to identify the main research tendencies in this area of interest. Therefore, we searched for keywords like â€œtourism innovationâ€, â€œhospitality innovationâ€ or â€œservice innovationâ€ in several databases such as Science Direct, Emerald, Sage Publications and The Center for Hospitality Research of Cornell University. Because this study focuses on tourism and hospitality innovation, there were analyzed 17 research papers regarding these aspects. Relevant findings such as factors that influence innovation in tourism and hospitality (hotelsâ€™ size, category and chain structure, introduction of ICTs, employee involvement and commitment, customer or guest requests etc., types of innovation implemented in this area and correlations between innovationsâ€™ success and hotel performance were highlighted.
Giin-Yu Amy Tan
Full Text Available With the impending fossil fuel crisis, the search for and development of alternative chemical/material substitutes is pivotal in reducing mankind’s dependency on fossil resources. One of the potential substitute candidates is polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA. PHA is a carbon-neutral and valuable polymer that could be produced from many renewable carbon sources by microorganisms, making it a sustainable and environmental-friendly material. At present, PHA is not cost competitive compared to fossil-derived products. Encouraging and intensifying research work on PHA is anticipated to enhance its economic viability in the future. The development of various biomolecular and chemical techniques for PHA analysis has led to the identification of many PHA-producing microbial strains, some of which are deposited in culture collections. Research work on PHA could be rapidly initiated with these ready-to-use techniques and microbial strains. This review aims to facilitate the start-up of PHA research by providing a summary of commercially available PHA-accumulating microbial cultures, PHA biosynthetic pathways, and methods for PHA detection, extraction and analysis.
Mizuno, Yuya; Wartelsteiner, Fabienne; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice
The concept of resilience is expected to be relevant in understanding the heterogeneous outcomes associated with schizophrenia. We reviewed recent developments in clinical studies focusing on the biological and psychological aspects of resilience in this population. We aimed to clarify current concepts of resilience in the field, elucidate gaps in the literature, and provide recommendations for future research. A total of 20 articles published between 2014 and 2015 were included. Six studies were neuroimaging studies, while the remaining studies used various psychological assessments. Most studies were cross-sectional except for three studies with naturalistic follow-up, one single-blind randomized controlled trial, and two published protocols of prospective studies. The following patterns of research were evident among the highly heterogeneous literature: studies focusing on protective factors and others emphasizing dynamic processes, studies investigating 'at-risk but resilient' groups (e.g. nonpsychotic siblings of patients with schizophrenia), and studies using psychological scales to measure resilience. The heterogeneity in how reports conceptualize, assess, and interpret resilience likely reflects the multidimensional nature of the concept itself and the lack of a 'gold standard' in assessing resilience in schizophrenia. Further research is needed to make recommendations on how to facilitate resilience in clinical care.
Klesges, Lisa M; Dzewaltowski, David A; Glasgow, Russell E
The translation and dissemination of prevention intervention evidence into practice is needed to address significant public health issues such as childhood obesity. Increased attention to and reporting of external validity information in research publications would allow for better understanding of generalizability issues relevant to successful translation. To demonstrate this potential, recent reports of childhood obesity prevention interventions were evaluated on the extent to which external validity dimensions were reported. Childhood obesity prevention studies that were controlled, long-term research trials published between 1980 and 2004 that reported a behavioral target of physical activity and/or healthy eating along with at least one anthropometric outcome were identified in 2005. Studies were summarized between 2005 and 2006 using review criteria developed by Green and Glasgow in 2006. Nineteen publications met selection criteria. In general, all studies lacked full reporting on potential generalizability and dissemination elements. Median reporting over all elements was 34.5%; the mode was 0% with a range of 0% to 100%. Most infrequent were reports of setting level selection criteria and representativeness, characteristics regarding intervention staff, implementation of intervention content, costs, and program sustainability. The evidence base for future prevention interventions can be improved by enhancing the reporting of contextual and generalizability elements central to translational research. Such efforts face practical hurdles but could provide additional explanation for variability in intervention outcomes, insights into successful adaptations of interventions, and help guide policy decisions.
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.
Because of the mixed research-based nature of literature reviews, it is surprising, then, that insufficient information has been provided as to how reviewers can incorporate mixed research approaches into their literature reviews. Thus, in this article, we provide a mixed methods research approach--Q methodology--for analyzing information…
Craig A. Horne
Full Text Available Dependence on information, including for some of the world’s largest organisations such as governments and multi-national corporations, has grown rapidly in recent years. However, reports of information security breaches and their associated consequences indicate that attacks are escalating on organisations conducting these information-based activities. Organisations need to formulate strategy to secure their information, however gaps exist in knowledge. Through a thematic review of academic security literature, (1 we analyse the antecedent conditions that motivate the adoption of a comprehensive information security strategy, (2 the conceptual elements of strategy and (3 the benefits that are enjoyed post-adoption. Our contributions include a definition of information security strategy that moves from an internally-focussed protection of information towards a strategic view that considers the organisation, its resources and capabilities, and its external environment. Our findings are then used to suggest future research directions.
Full Text Available Knowledge about the function and functioning of single or multiple interacting genes is of the utmost significance for understanding the organism as a whole and for accurate livestock improvement through genomic selection. This includes, but is not limited to, understanding the ontogenetic and environmentally driven regulation of gene action contributing to simple and complex traits. Genetically modified mice, in which the functions of single genes are annotated; mice with reduced genetic complexity; and simplified structured populations are tools to gain fundamental knowledge of inheritance patterns and whole system genetics and genomics. In this review, we briefly describe existing mouse resources and discuss their value for fundamental and applied research in livestock.
Lidula, N.W.A.; Rajapakse, A.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 75A Chancellor' s Circle, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 5V6 (Canada)
A microgrid is particularly a portion of the power distribution system that comprises distributed generation, energy storage and loads. To be capable of operating in parallel to the grid, as an autonomous power island and in transition modes, microgrids must be robust in controlling the local voltage and frequency, and protecting the network and equipment connected to the microgrid. It also needs to facilitate demand side management and resynchronization. This paper presents a review of existing microgrid test networks around the world (North America, Europe and Asia) and some significantly different microgrid simulation networks present in the literature. Paper is focused on the test systems and available microgrid control options. A summary table comparing and contrasting the existing test systems is presented. The paper is concluded highlighting the worthy findings and possible areas of research that would enhance practical use of microgrid facilities. (author)
Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN have different characteristics in relation to terrestrial wireless sensor networks; such as limited bandwidth capacity, high propagation delays and limited battery power. Although there has been much work completed in developing protocols and models for terrestrial networks, these are rarely applicable for underwater sensor networks. Up to today major efforts have been made for designing efficient protocols while considering the underwater communication characteristics. An important issue on this research area is the construction of an efficient clustering algorithm. Clustering in the context of UWSN is important as it contributes a great deal towards the efficient use of energy resources. This paper reviews the most significant cluster based protocols proposed for UWSN. Major performance issues of these protocols with respect to the network conditions such as packet delivery ratio, average packet delay, node mobility effect and energy consumption are examined. The advantages and disadvantages of each protocol are also pointed out.
Davis, Jullet A; Savage, Grant; Stewart, R Thomas
The use of downsizing as management's strategic response to environmental and institutional changes is prevalent in all U.S. industries, including healthcare. The popular and research literature is inundated with reports on companies undergoing various stages of restructuring, which often include one or more staff reductions. This article provides a review of downsizing literature published from 1985 to 2002. Although the findings and conclusions of these articles are generally inconsistent, the prevailing opinion is that for downsizing to be successful, effective planning must occur long before, during, and after downsizing. Additionally, a downsizing plan should be included in the strategic management plan of all organizations, regardless of whether they plan to downsize or not. By including such a plan, the organization will be better prepared to begin the staff-reduction process should it be forced to do so in response to environmental changes. Finally, providing ample support and protection for staff is key to the organization's recovery and growth. The lessons provided in this literature review should assist healthcare managers in deciding how to plan and structure potential staff reductions.
An 8 March congressional hearing about the U.S. National Science Foundation's Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (NSF MREFC) account focused on fiscal management and accountability of projects in that account and reviewed concerns raised by NSF's Office of Inspector General (OIG). NSF established the MREFC account in 1995 to better plan and manage investments in major equipment and facilities projects, which can cost from tens of millions to hundreds of millions of dollars, and the foundation has funded 17 MREFC projects since then. The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget includes funding for four MREFC projects: Advanced Laser Gravitational-Wave Observatory (AdvLIGO), Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), National Ecological Observatory (NEON), and Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI). The hearing, held by a subcommittee of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, reviewed management oversight throughout the life cycles of MREFC projects and concerns raised in recent OIG reports about the use of budget contingency funds. NSF's February 2012 manual called "Risk management guide for large facilities" states that cost contingency is "that portion of the project budget required to cover `known unknowns,'" such as planning and estimating errors and omissions, minor labor or material price fluctuations, and design developments and changes within the project scope. Committee members acknowledged measures that NSF has made to improve the MREFC oversight process, but they also urged the agency to continue to take steps to ensure better project management.
Full Text Available The purpose of this mixed research integrative review is to determine factors that influence relocation transitions for older adults who are considering a move from independent living to supervised housing, such as assisted living, using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a conceptual guide. PubMED, CINAHL, and PsychInfo databases were queried using key words: relocation, transition, older adults, and, elderly and time limited from 1992 to 2014. Sixteen articles were retained for review. The majority of articles, qualitative in design, reveal that older adults who comprehend the need to move and participate in the decision-making process of a relocation adjust to new living environments with fewer negative outcomes than older adults who experience a forced relocation. The few quantitative articles examined the elements of impending relocation using a variety of instruments but support the necessity for older adults to recognize the possibility of a future move and contribute to the relocation process. Additionally, the influence of family, friends, and health care providers provides the older adult with support and guidance throughout the process.
Full Text Available To review the existing literature on depression among elderly arising from India. Search was carried out using PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, and Medknow search engines to identify the relevant studies. Most of the literatures that are available are in terms of prevalence of depression. Community-based studies involving 70 to 7,150 elderly subjects report prevalence rate varying from 8.9% to 62.16%. Clinic-based studies involving 50 to 5,260 participants report prevalence rates ranging from 42.4% to 72%. Studies have reported depression to be more common among females. Other demographic factors that have been associated with depression among elderly include being unmarried, divorced or widowed elderly, residing in rural locality, being illiterate, increasing age, lower socioeconomic status, and unemployment. Depression has also been shown to be associated with various psychosocial factors, lifestyle and dietary factors, and presence of chronic physical illness. There are limited data on various therapeutic interventions. Available data suggest usefulness of pranayam, cognitive behavior therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. The review of data suggests that prevalence of depression among elderly in India is high. However, there is lack of data on symptom profile and limited data is available on various therapeutic interventions for the management of depression in elderly from India. There is urgent need to conduct large multicentric studies to fill this void in research.
Jaqueline Apolônio de Freitas Guimarães
Full Text Available This is an integrative review that aimed to synthesize the scientific knowledge published in national nursing journals about the prevention of cervical cancer. It was made a literature review in May 2009 in BIREME, covering the national nursing publications, from 1999 to 2009. We identified 15 articles that comprised the study sample. Of these, 11 addressed the nursing care, 6 were about prevention of cancer and 5 were about risk factors for such disease. In 4 articles the studies were accomplished in the Family Health Care Unit (UBASF which was the most prevalent place. It was found out that 6 of the articles used the qualitative method. The most studied population was formed by users of the Family Health Care Unit, in 3 studies. It was so concluded that the national research about this topic was related to the problems identified in health places, either in the effectiveness of the examination, in the knowledge of users or in conducted health education.
Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal
mentioned in regular lectures. To date, the major highlights of our activity are two international workshops: MatGeoS 2008 & 2009. During our second workshop, over thirty scientists representing government agencies, academia and non-profit research organizations worldwide participated. A number of interdisciplinary topics were intensively discussed. After the workshop, the decision was made to create a book based on the presented scientific work, which should be edited by the us, the students of the student chapter. Eventually, we called for papers, organized a full-scale peer-review and edited the book. It is scheduled to be published in the first quarter of 2013 and is entitled "Mathematical Geosciences: Theory, Methods and Applications". The whole organizing process proved to be another excellent lesson to us, as it interfered with our overwhelming studying and research activities. It was necessary to learn how to organize and handle the mandatory communication and editing, while pursuing our regular duties. We consider the activities of the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg as an example of what a group of enthusiastic and dedicated young professionals can achieve. Therefore, we encourage every similar group of students or "scientists in training" to just try to do something beyond the requirements and learn, while doing it. We proved that this is possible.
Niven, Daniel J; McCormick, T Jared; Straus, Sharon E; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Jeffs, Lianne; Barnes, Tavish R M; Stelfox, Henry T
The ability to reproduce experiments is a defining principle of science. Reproducibility of clinical research has received relatively little scientific attention. However, it is important as it may inform clinical practice, research agendas, and the design of future studies. We used scoping review methods to examine reproducibility within a cohort of randomized trials examining clinical critical care research and published in the top general medical and critical care journals. To identify relevant clinical practices, we searched the New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, and JAMA for randomized trials published up to April 2016. To identify a comprehensive set of studies for these practices, included articles informed secondary searches within other high-impact medical and specialty journals. We included late-phase randomized controlled trials examining therapeutic clinical practices in adults admitted to general medical-surgical or specialty intensive care units (ICUs). Included articles were classified using a reproducibility framework. An original study was the first to evaluate a clinical practice. A reproduction attempt re-evaluated that practice in a new set of participants. Overall, 158 practices were examined in 275 included articles. A reproduction attempt was identified for 66 practices (42%, 95% CI 33-50%). Original studies reported larger effects than reproduction attempts (primary endpoint, risk difference 16.0%, 95% CI 11.6-20.5% vs. 8.4%, 95% CI 6.0-10.8%, P = 0.003). More than half of clinical practices with a reproduction attempt demonstrated effects that were inconsistent with the original study (56%, 95% CI 42-68%), among which a large number were reported to be efficacious in the original study and to lack efficacy in the reproduction attempt (34%, 95% CI 19-52%). Two practices reported to be efficacious in the original study were found to be harmful in the reproduction attempt. A minority of critical care practices with research published
Hanneke, Rosie; Young, Sabrina K
Systematic identification of evidence in health policy can be time-consuming and challenging. This study examines three questions pertaining to systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy, in order to identify the most efficient search methods: (1) What percentage of the primary studies selected for inclusion in the reviews originated in scholarly as opposed to gray literature? (2) How much of the primary scholarly literature in this topic area is indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE? (3) Which databases index the greatest number of primary studies not indexed in PubMed, and are these databases searched consistently across systematic reviews? We identified systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy and explored their search methods and citations. We determined the percentage of scholarly vs. gray literature cited, the most frequently cited journals, and whether each primary study was indexed in PubMed. We searched 21 databases for all primary study articles not indexed in PubMed to determine which database(s) indexed the highest number of these relevant articles. In total, 21 systematic reviews were identified. Ten of the 21 systematic reviews reported searching gray literature, and 12 reviews ultimately included gray literature in their analyses. Scholarly articles accounted for 577 of the 649 total primary study papers. Of these, 495 (76%) were indexed in PubMed. Google Scholar retrieved the highest number of the remaining 82 non-PubMed scholarly articles, followed by Scopus and EconLit. The Journal of the American Dietetic Association was the most-cited journal. Researchers can maximize search efficiency by searching a small yet targeted selection of both scholarly and gray literature resources. A highly sensitive search of PubMed and those databases that index the greatest number of relevant articles not indexed in PubMed, namely multidisciplinary and economics databases, could save considerable time and effort. When combined with a gray literature search and
Quinlan, M; Mayhew, C; Bohle, P
In this review of a range of studies on the health and safety effects of precarious employment in industrialized societies published since 1984, the authors examine the overall findings and methodological issues and identify areas in need of further research. Of the 93 published journal articles and monographs/book chapters reviewed, 76 studies found precarious employment was associated with a deterioration in occupational health and safety (OHS) in terms of injury rates, disease risk, hazard exposures, or worker (and manager) knowledge of OHS and regulatory responsibilities. Of the more than 25 studies each on outsourcing and organizational restructuring/downsizing, well over 90 percent find a negative association with OHS. The evidence is fairly persuasive for temporary workers, with 14 of 24 studies finding a negative association with OHS. The evidence is less strong for small business, and a handful of studies on part-time workers found no clear association with negative OHS outcomes (in some cases the reverse). Further research is needed to more clearly link health effects to particular business practices and neoliberal policies and to explore the regulatory implications of the growth of precarious employment. The authors suggest some ways to conceptualize the association between precarious employment and occupational health.
Full Text Available Juliana Castilhos Beauvalet,1,2 Caroline Luísa Quiles,1,2 Melissa Alves Braga de Oliveira,1,2 Carlos Augusto Vieira Ilgenfritz,1 Maria Paz Loayza Hidalgo,1–3 André Comiran Tonon1 1Laboratório de Cronobiologia e Sono, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Medical School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: Even though light is considered the main cue that entrains inner biological rhythms according to circadian environmental rhythms, social organizations have the capacity to take the body “out of sync”. An emergent field of research on the topic refers to what has been described as social jetlag, the biological misalignment that arises from alternated work and free days. However, to the present moment, there is still controversial evidence on the effects of such a phenomenon to human health.Objective: The aim of this study was to identify current peer-reviewed evidence of the health and behavioral risks associated with social jetlag.Method: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on PubMed, Scopus, Embase and LILACS electronic databases using the terms “social AND (jet lag OR jetlag”. The search was finalized on August 22, 2016, resulting in 26 research articles included in the review.Results and discussion: Our results point to a variety of health and behavioral outcomes that seem to be associated with the mismatch existent between work or study days and free days. They are epilepsy, minor psychiatric symptoms, aggression and conduct problems, mood disorders, cognitive impairment (eg, work and academic performance, substance use, cardiometabolic risk and adverse endocrine profiles
Takeuchi, Takayuki; Mizuma, Mitsuo; Kimura, Itsuro.
A database of research publication was constructed for the purpose of grasping all of the research activities at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. The database named KURRIP collects all of the research publications of the Institute by not only its own staff but also visiting scientists. The publications are in the form of original papers, review papers, papers in proceedings, short notes and letters, synopses over 3 pages presented orally at scientific meeting, books and doctoral theses. At present, the KURRIP database contains the information on 6,210 items which have been published for 30 years since the Institute was established as an interuniversity research institute for joint use of a research reactor and other related large facilities in 1963. By utilizing the KURRIP database, the analyses have been done: (1) affiliation of the authors, (2) kind of publications, (3) classification of publishers, (4) research fields, and (5) experimental facilities. The KURRIP database is now stored in the Data Processing Center of Kyoto University and can be utilized through a computer center at one of the main national universities in Japan. (author)
Guo, Haitao; Li, Renping; Xu, Feng; Liu, Liyuan
Over the past 20 years, sonar imaging technology particularly for the high-technology sector has been a focus of research, in which many developed countries, especially those with coast lines, have been competing with each other. It has seen a rapid development with increasing widespread applications that has played an important and irreplaceable role in underwater exploration with great prospects for social, economic, scientific, and military benefits. The fundamental techniques underlying sonar imaging, including multi-beamforming, synthetic-aperture and inverse synthetic-aperture sonar, acoustic lensing, and acoustical holography, are described in this paper. This is followed by a comprehensive and systematic review on the advantages and disadvantages of these imaging techniques, applicability conditions, development trends, new ideas, new methods, and improvements in old methods over recent years with an emphasis on the situation in China, along with a bold and constructive prediction to some development characteristics of sonar imaging technology in the near future in China. The perspectives presented in this paper are offered with the idea of providing some degree of guidance and promotion of research on sonar imaging technology.
Dixon, Brian E; Whipple, Elizabeth C; Lajiness, John M; Murray, Michael D
To explore the ability of an integrated health information infrastructure to support outcomes research. A systematic review of articles published from 1983 to 2012 by Regenstrief Institute investigators using data from an integrated electronic health record infrastructure involving multiple provider organisations was performed. Articles were independently assessed and classified by study design, disease and other metadata including bibliometrics. A total of 190 articles were identified. Diseases included cognitive, (16) cardiovascular, (16) infectious, (15) chronic illness (14) and cancer (12). Publications grew steadily (26 in the first decade vs. 100 in the last) as did the number of investigators (from 15 in 1983 to 62 in 2012). The proportion of articles involving non-Regenstrief authors also expanded from 54% in the first decade to 72% in the last decade. During this period, the infrastructure grew from a single health system into a health information exchange network covering more than 6 million patients. Analysis of journal and article metrics reveals high impact for clinical trials and comparative effectiveness research studies that utilised data available in the integrated infrastructure. Integrated information infrastructures support growth in high quality observational studies and diverse collaboration consistent with the goals for the learning health system. More recent publications demonstrate growing external collaborations facilitated by greater access to the infrastructure and improved opportunities to study broader disease and health outcomes. Integrated information infrastructures can stimulate learning from electronic data captured during routine clinical care but require time and collaboration to reach full potential. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.
Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity
Calnan Mike W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their
David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller
In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...
Kumar, Prashant; Rafiq, Imran; Imam, Boulent
This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor…