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Sample records for chapter iv energy

  1. Chapter 3: Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, Thomas D.; Arent, Doug; de Carvalho Macedo, Isaias; Goldemberg, Jose; Hoysala, Chanakya; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Nigro, Francisco E. B.; Richard, Tom L.; Saddler, Jack; Samseth, Jon; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This chapter considers the energy security implications and impacts of bioenergy. We provide an assessment to answer the following questions: What are the implications for bioenergy and energy security within the broader policy environment that includes food and water security, development, economic productivity, and multiple foreign policy aspects? What are the conditions under which bioenergy contributes positively to energy security?

  2. European Energy Law. Report IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, U.; Roggenkamp, M.M. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    The European Energy Law Report IV presents an overview of the most important legal developments in the field of EU and national energy law as discussed at the 2006 European Energy Law Seminar. It examines recent developments in EU and National Law affecting the energy sector. This includes the increasing use of EU competition law to liberalise the energy markets, the long-awaited implementation of the 2003 Electricity and Gas Directives in Germany and an assessment of Regulation 1775/2005 and its effect on the European gas market. Besides the energy market liberalisation, the Community is increasingly paying attention to the need for a sustainable and clean energy supply. The second part of the book therefore includes chapters on legal issues resulting from the experiences on emission trading in 2005-2007, the regulatory challenges resulting from the new Commission Energy Policy, the impact of the Amsterdam and Berlin Fora on EU Energy policy, and the EU policy framework on energy efficiency. An important tool for improving energy efficiency is the introduction of white certificates. The third part of the report presents the basic principles of white certificates as well as practical experiences and policies in some member states like Italy, France, The Netherlands and the UK. The final part of the report considers several issues related to the development and use of subsea electricity interconnectors and pays special attention to the development of the NorNed cable. It raises the need for a Treaty perspective on the developments of such subsea interconnectors. Then some regulatory views on the development of the NorNed cable and market coupling through the cable are presented. Finally, the economic and regulatory distinction between regulated and merchant interconnectors is discussed.

  3. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  4. Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task III. Efficiency improvements; Task IV. Industry future. Final report, Volume IV. [Projections for year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Tasks III and IV measure the characteristics of potential research and development programs that could be applied to the maritime industry. It was necessary to identify potential operating scenarios for the maritime industry in the year 2000 and determine the energy consumption that would result given those scenarios. After the introductory chapter the operational, regulatory, and vessel-size scenarios for the year 2000 are developed in Chapter II. In Chapter III, future cargo flows and expected levels of energy use for the baseline 2000 projection are determined. In Chapter IV, the research and development programs are introduced into the future US flag fleet and the energy-savings potential associated with each is determined. The first four appendices (A through D) describe each of the generic technologies. The fifth appendix (E) contains the baseline operating and cost parameters against which 15 program areas were evaluated. (MCW)

  5. Generation-IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Harold

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear power technology has evolved through roughly three generations of system designs: a first generation of prototypes and first-of-a-kind units implemented during the period 1950 to 1970; a second generation of industrial power plants built from 1970 to the turn of the century, most of which are still in operation today; and a third generation of evolutionary advanced reactors which began being built by the turn of the 20^th century, usually called Generation III or III+, which incorporate technical lessons learned through more than 12,000 reactor-years of operation. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a cooperative international endeavor to develop advanced nuclear energy systems in response to the social, environmental and economic requirements of the 21^st century. Six Generation IV systems under development by GIF promise to enhance the future contribution and benefits of nuclear energy. All Generation IV systems aim at performance improvement, new applications of nuclear energy, and/or more sustainable approaches to the management of nuclear materials. High-temperature systems offer the possibility of efficient process heat applications and eventually hydrogen production. Enhanced sustainability is achieved primarily through adoption of a closed fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycling of plutonium, uranium and minor actinides using fast reactors. This approach provides significant reduction in waste generation and uranium resource requirements.

  6. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 3: Energy Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, R.; et al.

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 3, on the Energy Frontier, discusses the program of research with high-energy colliders. This area includes experiments on the Higgs boson, the electroweak and strong interactions, and the top quark. It also encompasses direct searches for new particles and interactions at high energy.

  7. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 3: Energy Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Brock, R; Agashe, K; Artuso, M; Campbell, J; Dawson, S; Erbacher, R; Gerber, C; Gershtein, Y; Gritsan, A; Hatakeyama, K; Huston, J; Kotwal, A; Logan, H; Luty, M; Melnikov, K; Narain, M; Papucci, M; Petriello, F; Prell, S; Qian, J; Schwienhorst, R; Tully, C; Van Kooten, R; Wackeroth, D; Wang, L; Whiteson, D

    2014-01-01

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 3, on the Energy Frontier, discusses the program of research with high-energy colliders. This area includes experiments on the Higgs boson, the electroweak and strong interactions, and the top quark. It also encompasses direct searches for new particles and interactions at high energy.

  8. Hegel the Normativist. The Priority of Practice, Self-Consciousness as a Social Achievement and Subject of Normative States in Chapter IV of the Phenomenology of Spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Assalone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The normativist conception of Hegelian self-consciousness according to the contributions of the so-called “Pittsburgh neo-Hegelians” (Robert Brandom, John McDowell is developed along with the contributions of other English-speaking scholars such as Robert Pippin, Terry Pinkard and Paul Redding. An overview is given of selfconsciousness as laid out in chapter IV of the Phenomenology of Spirit, and some of the features that can be extracted from this overview are developed according to a normativist reading of the authors mentioned.

  9. Chapter Green Nanotechnology: Development of Nanomaterials for Environmental and Energy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan, Rachel; Han, Changseok; Andersen, Joel; Pillai, Suresh; Falaras, Polycarpos; Byrne, Anthony; Dunlop, Patrick S. M.; Choi, Hyeok; Jiang, Wenjun; O’Shea, Kevin; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2013-01-01

    This book chapter discusses the syntheses of various nanomaterials, for green nanotechnology applications in detail. Special attention is given to the development of emerging areas, such as environmental as well as energy materials. Various approaches for preparing nanostructured photocatalysts, such as titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, iron oxide, and metal sulfides, different conventional methods and novel methods, including sol-gel methods, hydrothermal methods, microwave-assisted methods and ...

  10. External energy policy: Old fears and new dilemmas in a larger Union. Chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linde, C.

    2007-07-01

    This chapter attempts both to analyse the development of energy policy making in the EU and to discuss the energy security dilemmas that confront the member states in the short and medium term. The central issue here is how security of supply and a sustainable energy system can be achieved in a market environment, which is the main thrust of the Commissions proposals, while at the same time government intervention in international energy markets is on the rise. It is suggested that the mismatch between the level of government involvement and the market model in the international energy sector has become more pronounced lately and impacts upon the security of supply and demand policy toolset of consumer and producer countries. Arguably, the switch from an international oil and gas buyers' market to a sellers market has not only rekindled resource nationalism in producer countries but also stimulated a certain preference for bilateral energy relations over multilateral ones in some consumer countries in an attempt to secure supplies. Chinese energy diplomacy in Africa and elsewhere is a good example of bilateralism, while some member states also deem the Nordstream pipeline project to be an example of energy bilateralism on the part of Germany. The latter project was clearly a trigger for the current EU proposal on external energy relations, encouraging member states to 'speak with one voice'. However, it will be argued in this chapter that the asymmetry in import dependency among the member states, the preference of member states for a certain energy mix, the member state' competitive position in world markets and different foreign and security approaches, will make 'speaking with one voice' a lot harder to achieve than in climate change matters. This chapter first gives some facts and figures about European energy. It then discusses both past and current energy policy in the EU. The issue is raised whether the strategic energy

  11. Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullhusen, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear data needs for generation IV systems. Future of nuclear energy and the role of nuclear data / P. Finck. Nuclear data needs for generation IV nuclear energy systems-summary of U.S. workshop / T. A. Taiwo, H. S. Khalil. Nuclear data needs for the assessment of gen. IV systems / G. Rimpault. Nuclear data needs for generation IV-lessons from benchmarks / S. C. van der Marck, A. Hogenbirk, M. C. Duijvestijn. Core design issues of the supercritical water fast reactor / M. Mori ... [et al.]. GFR core neutronics studies at CEA / J. C. Bosq ... [et al]. Comparative study on different phonon frequency spectra of graphite in GCR / Young-Sik Cho ... [et al.]. Innovative fuel types for minor actinides transmutation / D. Haas, A. Fernandez, J. Somers. The importance of nuclear data in modeling and designing generation IV fast reactors / K. D. Weaver. The GIF and Mexico-"everything is possible" / C. Arrenondo Sánchez -- Benmarks, sensitivity calculations, uncertainties. Sensitivity of advanced reactor and fuel cycle performance parameters to nuclear data uncertainties / G. Aliberti ... [et al.]. Sensitivity and uncertainty study for thermal molten salt reactors / A. Biduad ... [et al.]. Integral reactor physics benchmarks- The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP) / J. B. Briggs, D. W. Nigg, E. Sartori. Computer model of an error propagation through micro-campaign of fast neutron gas cooled nuclear reactor / E. Ivanov. Combining differential and integral experiments on [symbol] for reducing uncertainties in nuclear data applications / T. Kawano ... [et al.]. Sensitivity of activation cross sections of the Hafnium, Tanatalum and Tungsten stable isotopes to nuclear reaction mechanisms / V. Avrigeanu ... [et al.]. Generating covariance data with nuclear models / A. J. Koning. Sensitivity of Candu-SCWR reactors physics calculations to nuclear data files / K. S

  12. Chapter 2: Sustainable and Unsustainable Developments in the U.S. Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Levine, Mark D.; Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2008-05-01

    Over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the United States developed a wealthy society on the basis of cheap and abundant fossil fuel energy. As fossil fuels have become ecologically and economically expensive in the twenty-first century, America has shown mixed progress in transitioning to a more sustainable energy system. From 2000 to 2006, energy and carbon intensity of GDP continued favorable long-term trends of decline. Energy end-use efficiency also continued to improve; for example, per-capita electricity use was 12.76 MWh per person per year in 2000 and again in 2006, despite 16 percent GDP growth over that period. Environmental costs of U.S. energy production and consumption have also been reduced, as illustrated in air quality improvements. However, increased fossil fuel consumption, stagnant efficiency standards, and expanding corn-based ethanol production have moved the energy system in the opposite direction, toward a less sustainable energy system. This chapter reviews energy system developments between 2000 and 2006 and presents policy recommendations to move the United States toward a more sustainable energy system.

  13. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1981-05-01

    The aim of the Energy Efficient Buildings Program is to conduct theoretical and experimental research on various aspects of building technology that will permit such gains in energy efficiency without decreasing occupants' comfort or adversely affecting indoor air quality. To accomplish this goal, we have developed five major research groups. The foci of these groups are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality; Building Energy Analysis; Energy Efficient Windows and Lighting; and Building Energy Data, Analysis and Demonstration.

  14. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1979-12-01

    The research reported in this volume was undertaken during FY 1979 within the Energy & Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This volume will comprise a section of the Energy & Environment Division 1979 Annual Report, to be published in the summer of 1980. Work reported relate to: thermal performance of building envelopes; building ventilation and indoor air quality; a computer program for predicting energy use in buildings; study focused specifically on inherently energy intensive hospital buildings; energy efficient windows and lighting; potential for energy conservation and savings in the buildings sector; and evaluation of energy performance standards for residential buildings.

  15. Solar Energy Program: Chapter from the Energy and EnvironmentalDivision Annual Report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environment Division

    1981-03-01

    Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), projects are in progress that span a wide range of activities, with the emphasis on research to extend the scientific basis for solar energy applications, and on preliminary development of new approaches to solar energy conversion. To assess various solar applications, it is important to quantify the solar resource. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure both direct solar radiation and circum-solar radiation, i.e., the radiation from near the sun resulting from the scattering of sunlight by small particles in the atmosphere. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs that use focusing collectors employing mirrors or lenses to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts have continued at a low level to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology by providing the San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) with technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. Also, a hot water and space-heating system has been installed on an LBL building as part of the DOE facilities Solar Demonstration Program. LBL continues to provide support for the DOE Appropriate Energy Technology grants program. Evaluations are made of the program's effectiveness by, for example, estimating the resulting potential energy savings. LBL also documents innovative features and improvements in economic feasibility as compared to existing conventional systems or applications. In the near future, we expect that LBL research will have a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. Conventional and new types of high-performance absorption air conditioners are being developed that are air

  16. Hawaii Energy Strategy Project 2: Fossil Energy Review. Task IV. Scenario development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Breazeale, K. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) Program is a seven-project effort led by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT) to investigate a wide spectrum of Hawaii energy issues. The East-West Center`s Program on Resources: Energy and Minerals, has been assigned HES Project 2, Fossil Energy Review, which focuses on fossil energy use in Hawaii and the greater regional and global markets. HES Project 2 has four parts: Task I (World and Regional Fossil Energy Dynamics) covers petroleum, natural gas, and coal in global and regional contexts, along with a discussion of energy and the environment. Task II (Fossil Energy in Hawaii) focuses more closely on fossil energy use in Hawaii: current utilization and trends, the structure of imports, possible future sources of supply, fuel substitutability, and energy security. Task III`s emphasis is Greenfield Options; that is, fossil energy sources not yet used in Hawaii. This task is divided into two sections: first, an in-depth {open_quotes}Assessment of Coal Technology Options and Implications for the State of Hawaii,{close_quotes} along with a spreadsheet analysis model, which was subcontracted to the Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division of Argonne National Laboratory; and second, a chapter on liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Asia-Pacific market and the issues surrounding possible introduction of LNG into the Hawaii market.

  17. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1980-10-01

    Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities; and at LBL projects are in progress which span that range of activities. To assess various solar applications it is important to quantify the solar resource. In one project, LBL is cooperating with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in the implementation and operation of a solar radiation data collection network in northern California. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure the solar and circumsolar (around the sun) radiation. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs which use focusing collectors (mirrors or lenses) to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts are being made to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology. DOE's San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) has been given technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. The installation of a solar hot water and space heating system on an LBL building established model techniques and procedures as part of the DOE Facilities Solar Demonstration Program. Technical support is also provided for SAN in a DOE small scale technology pilot program in which grants are awarded to individuals and organizations to develop and demonstrate solar technologies appropriate to small scale use. In the near future it is expected that research will exert a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. An absorption air conditioner is being developed that is air cooled yet suitable for use with temperatures available from flat plate collectors. With inexpensive but sophisticated micro-electronics to control their operation, the performance of many-component solar heating and cooling systems may be improved, and work is under way to develop such a

  18. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  19. Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Around the World. Annex IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whiting, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Grear, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Blake, K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Massaua, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown-Saracino, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Battey, H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This Annex IV report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment addressing the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines, the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals, and the effects of energy removal on physical systems.

  20. Hindbrain DPP-IV inhibition improves glycemic control and promotes negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; McGrath, Lauren E; Koch-Laskowski, Kieran; Krawczyk, Joanna; Pham, Tram; Lhamo, Rinzin; Reiner, David J; Hayes, Matthew R

    2017-01-22

    The beneficial glycemic and food intake-suppressive effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have made this neuroendocrine system a leading target for pharmacological approaches to the treatment of diabetes and obesity. One strategy to increase the activity of endogenous GLP-1 is to prevent the rapid degradation of the hormone by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). However, despite the expression of both DPP-IV and GLP-1 in the brain, and the clear importance of central GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling for glycemic and energy balance control, the metabolic effects of central inhibition of DPP-IV activity are unclear. To test whether hindbrain DPP-IV inhibition suppresses blood glucose, feeding, and body weight gain, the effects of 4th intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of the FDA-approved DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin were evaluated. Results indicate that hindbrain delivery of sitagliptin improves glycemic control in a GLP-1R-dependent manner, suggesting that this effect is due at least in part to increased endogenous brainstem GLP-1 activity after sitagliptin administration. Furthermore, 4th ICV injection of sitagliptin reduced 24h body weight gain and energy intake, with a selective suppression of high-fat diet, but not chow, intake. These data reveal a novel role for hindbrain GLP-1R activation in glycemic control and also demonstrate that DPP-IV inhibition in the caudal brainstem promotes negative energy balance.

  1. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IV. Country data, SG-YO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. IV, are Senegal, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Upper Volta, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  2. Control of human energy expenditure by cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Tomas A; Peleli, Maria; Sundqvist, Michaela L; Ekblom, Björn; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Larsen, Filip J

    2016-09-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) in humans shows pronounced individual variations, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) plays a key role in control of metabolic rate, and recent studies of the subunit 4 isoform 2 (COX IV-2) indicate involvement in the cellular response to hypoxia and oxidative stress. We evaluated whether the COX subunit IV isoform composition may explain the pronounced individual variations in resting metabolic rate (RMR). RMR was determined in healthy humans by indirect calorimetry and correlated to levels of COX IV-2 and COX IV-1 in vastus lateralis. Overexpression and knock down of the COX IV isoforms were performed in primary myotubes followed by evaluation of the cell respiration and production of reactive oxygen species. Here we show that COX IV-2 protein is constitutively expressed in human skeletal muscle and strongly correlated to RMR. Primary human myotubes overexpressing COX IV-2 displayed markedly (>60%) lower respiration, reduced (>50%) cellular H2O2 production, higher resistance toward both oxidative stress, and severe hypoxia compared with control cells. These results suggest an important role of isoform COX IV-2 in the control of energy expenditure, hypoxic tolerance, and mitochondrial ROS homeostasis in humans.

  3. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan Fiscal Year 2005, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-01

    As reflected in the U.S. ''National Energy Policy'', nuclear energy has a strong role to play in satisfying our nation's future energy security and environmental quality needs. The desirable environmental, economic, and sustainability attributes of nuclear energy give it a cornerstone position, not only in the U.S. energy portfolio, but also in the world's future energy portfolio. Accordingly, on September 20, 2002, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced that, ''The United States and nine other countries have agreed to develop six Generation IV nuclear energy concepts''. The Secretary also noted that the systems are expected to ''represent significant advances in economics, safety, reliability, proliferation resistance, and waste minimization''. The six systems and their broad, worldwide research and development (R&D) needs are described in ''A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'' (hereafter referred to as the Generation IV Roadmap). The first 10 years of required U.S. R&D contributions to achieve the goals described in the Generation IV Roadmap are outlined in this Program Plan.

  4. Chapter 8: Planning Tools to Simulate and Optimize Neighborhood Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhivov, Alexander Michael; Case, Michael Patrick; Jank, Reinhard; Eicker, Ursula; Booth, Samuel

    2017-03-15

    This section introduces different energy modeling tools available in Europe and the USA for community energy master planning process varying from strategic Urban Energy Planning to more detailed Local Energy Planning. Two modeling tools used for Energy Master Planning of primarily residential communities, the 3D city model with CityGML, and the Net Zero Planner tool developed for the US Department of Defense installations are described in more details.

  5. Chapter 05: energy metabolism in fasting, fed, exercise and re-feeding states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy is expended by the body to maintain electrochemical gradients, transport molecules, support biosynthetic processes, produce the mechanical work required for respiration and blood circulation, and generate muscle contraction. Most of these biological processes cannot directly harness energy fr...

  6. Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt (US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    2013-01-15

    Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions

  7. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2016-12-01

    In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume IV, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  8. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-11: Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venezuela

    2000-04-06

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Tenth Amendment anti Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Energy Agreement. This report is presented in sections (for each of the six Tasks) and each section contains one or more reports that were prepared to describe the results of the effort under each of the Tasks. A statement of each Task, taken from the Agreement Between Project Managers, is presented on the first page of each section. The Tasks are numbered 68 through 73. The first through tenth report on research performed under Annex IV Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report Number IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10 contain the results of the first 67 Tasks. These reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, March 1995, and December 1997, respectively.

  9. Contribution to the Chapter on Wind Power, in: Energy Technology Perspectives 2008, IEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    ’s electricity consumption by wind in 2030 and 35% in 2050, although on the shorter term growth is expected to take place mainly in Europe, USA and China. The market is maturing, therefore achieving more stable economies in the wind energy sector. As a result, better electrical grids suited for wind power...... are being developed and better planning tools as well as other frameworks, which benefit the market for installation of wind turbines, are being implemented across all wind energy countries. The cost of wind-generated electricity has fallen steadily for the last two decades, driven largely by technological...

  10. Contribution to the Chapter on Wind Power, in: Energy Technology Perspectives 2008, IEA

    OpenAIRE

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Hjuler Jensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 5 years the growth rate in wind energy has been as high as 30% an on average nearly 25% in all continents, and a considerable number of countries have very ambitious goals concerning their wind energy development, therefore it could be likely to cover as much as 20% of the world’s electricity consumption by wind in 2030 and 35% in 2050, although on the shorter term growth is expected to take place mainly in Europe, USA and China. The market is maturing, therefore achieving more ...

  11. Proton and Electron Threshold Energy Measurements for Extravehicular Activity Space Suits. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Construction of ISS will require more than 1000 hours of EVA. Outside of ISS during EVA, astronauts and cosmonauts are likely to be exposed to a large fluence of electrons and protons. Development of radiation protection guidelines requires the determination of the minimum energy of electrons and protons that penetrate the suits at various locations. Measurements of the water-equivalent thickness of both US. and Russian EVA suits were obtained by performing CT scans. Specific regions of interest of the suits were further evaluated using a differential range shift technique. This technique involved measuring thickness ionization curves for 6-MeV electron and 155-MeV proton beams with ionization chambers using a constant source-to-detector distance. The thicknesses were obtained by stacking polystyrene slabs immediately upstream of the detector. The thicknesses of the 50% ionizations relative to the maximum ionizations were determined. The detectors were then placed within the suit and the stack thickness adjusted until the 50% ionization was reestablished. The difference in thickness between the 50% thicknesses was then used with standard range-energy tables to determine the threshold energy for penetration. This report provides a detailed description of the experimental arrangement and results.

  12. Contribution to the chapter on wind power in: Energy technology perspectives 2008, IEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Hjuler Jensen, P.

    2009-01-15

    Over the last 5 years the growth rate in wind energy has been as high as 30% an on average nearly 25% in all continents, and a considerable number of countries have very ambitious goals concerning their wind energy development, therefore it could be likely to cover as much as 20% of the world's electricity consumption by wind in 2030 and 35% in 2050, although on the shorter term growth is expected to take place mainly in Europe, USA and China. The market is maturing, therefore achieving more stable economies in the wind energy sector. As a result, better electrical grids suited for wind power are being developed and better planning tools as well as other frameworks, which benefit the market for installation of wind turbines, are being implemented across all wind energy countries. The cost of wind-generated electricity has fallen steadily for the last two decades, driven largely by technological advances, increased production levels and the use of larger turbines. Between 1985 and 2005, production costs energy from of wind turbines decreased by nearly 100% in 2006 prices. The price rises seen in last three years due to capacity problems in the industry are expected to stop, once supply system constraints are overcome. Onshore wind is considered commercial at sites with good wind resources and grid access. Cost reductions in both turbines and infrastructure are expected to bring investment costs to 0.88 mill. Euro/MW in 2030 and 0.8 mill. Euro/MW in 2050. On the other hand, offshore wind is in pre-commercial development phase. Considerable costs improvements are expected in all areas making costs go down to 1. 4 mill. Euro/MW in 2030 and 1.3 mill. Euro/MW in 2050. Priority RD and D areas to foster continued growth in wind power are to increase the value and reduce uncertainties. This will mean further cost reductions on longer terms, enabling large-scale use by improved grid integration and storage facilities and minimizing environmental impact. (au)

  13. LASER SPECTROSCOPY AND TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various, Authors

    1981-05-01

    In order to control pollutants resulting from energy production and utilization, adequate methods are required for monitoring the level of various substances often present at low concentrations. The Energy and Environment Division Applied Research in Laser Spectroscopy & Analytical Techniques Program is directed toward meeting these needs, Emphasis is on the development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques. The advantages, now widely recognized, include ultra-high sensitivity coupled with minimal sample preparation. In some instances physical methods provide multi-parameter measurements which often provide the only means of achiev·ing the sensitivity necessary for the detection of trace contaminants. Work is reported in these areas: APPLIED PHYSICS AND LASER SPECTROSCOPY RESEARCH; MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMETER FOR TRACE METALS ANALYSIS IN WATER; THE SURVEY OF INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING; THE POSSIBLE CHRONDRITIC NATURE OF THE DANISH CRETACEOUS~TERTIARY BOUNDARY; IMPROVEMENT OF THE SENSITIVITY AND PRECISION OF NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF SOME ELEMENTS IN PLANKTON AND PLANKTONIC FISH; and SOURCES OF SOME SECONDARILY WORKED OBSIDIAN ARTIFACTS FROM TIKAL, GUATEMALA.

  14. EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1980-10-01

    Planning a rational energy future requires anticipating the environmental consequences of various technologies. This is difficult to do with precision as the effects of pollutants are often determined by interactions between and among complex physical (abiotic) and biological (biotic) systems. A given pollutant may affect human beings through direct exposure or indirectly through inducing changes to biological systems which humans need to utilize. The concentration of a toxin in the food chain or the destruction of organisms necessary for the maintenance of high quality water are examples of indirect effects. Pollutants can be transformed and/or degraded as they establish residence in various components of an ecosystem. Anticipation and amelioration of pollutant effects involves the integration of a vast range of data. This data includes: (1) physical and chemical characterization cf the pollutant as it enters the environment; (2) determining effects on the various components (biotic and abiotic) within the context of the functioning ecosystem of interest; (3) transformation in movements and/or degradation of the pollutant within that ecosystem and within specific organisms and physical components; and (4) determining a detailed biochemical and biological picture of the interactions of pollutants with particular organisms and/or their cellular components judged salient for various processes. The major programs described below are designed to answer parts of the above fundamental questions relevant to pollutants generated by energy related technologies. Their emphasis is on anticipating consequences to the biological components of various ecosystems. The work ranges from studies involving parts of a single cell (the membranes) to studies involving the whole ecosystem (in the pelagic zone of a lake). The programs take advantage of expertise and technical abilities present at LBL. Two small exploratory projects which were of brief duration and not related to

  15. A Study on the Planning of Technology Development and Research for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H. J. and others

    2005-08-15

    This study aimed at the planning the domestic technology development of the Gen IV and the formulating the international collaborative project contents and executive plan for 'A Validity Assessment and Policies of the R and D of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'. The results of the study include follows; - Survey of the technology state in the fields of the Gen IV system specific technologies and the common technologies, and the plans of the international collaborative research - Drawing up the executive research and development plan by the experts of the relevant technology field for the systems which Korean will participate in. - Formulating the effective conduction plan of the program reflecting the view of the experts from the industry, the university and the research institute. - Establishing the plan for estimation of the research fund and the manpower for the efficient utilization of the domestic available resources. This study can be useful material for evaluating the appropriateness of the Korea's participation in the international collaborative development of the Gen IV, and can be valuably utilized to establish the strategy for the effective conduction of the program. The executive plan of the research and development which was produced in this study will be used to the basic materials for the establishing the guiding direction and the strategic conduction of the program when the research and development is launched in the future.

  16. The role of water in unconventional in situ energy resource extraction technologies: Chapter 7 in Food, energy, and water: The chemistry connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Bern, Carleton R.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Global trends toward developing new energy resources from lower grade, larger tonnage deposits that are not generally accessible using “conventional” extraction methods involve variations of subsurface in situ extraction techniques including in situ oil-shale retorting, hydraulic fracturing of petroleum reservoirs, and in situ recovery (ISR) of uranium. Although these methods are economically feasible and perhaps result in a smaller above-ground land-use footprint, there remain uncertainties regarding potential subsurface impacts to groundwater. This chapter provides an overview of the role of water in these technologies and the opportunities and challenges for water reuse and recycling.

  17. Correlating DFT-calculated energy barriers to experiments in nonheme octahedral Fe(IV)O species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Bin; Kim, Eun Jeong; Seo, Mi Sook; Shaik, Sason; Nam, Wonwoo

    2012-08-13

    The experimentally measured bimolecular reaction rate constant, k(2), should in principle correlate with the theoretically calculated rate-limiting free energy barrier, ΔG(≠), through the Eyring equation, but it fails quite often to do so due to the inability of current computational methods to account in a precise manner for all the factors contributing to ΔG(≠). This is further aggravated by the exponential sensitivity of the Eyring equation to these factors. We have taken herein a pragmatic approach for C-H activation reactions of 1,4-cyclohexadiene with a variety of octahedral nonheme Fe(IV)O complexes. The approach consists of empirically determining two constants that would aid in predicting experimental k(2) values uniformly from theoretically calculated electronic energy (ΔE(≠)) values. Shown in this study is the predictive power as well as insights into energy relationships in Fe(IV)O C-H activation reactions. We also find that the difference between ΔG(≠) and ΔE(≠) converges at slow reactions, in a manner suggestive of changes in the importance of the triplet spin state weight in the overall reaction.

  18. Epidemiology chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, J H; Butaev, M K; Duysheev, A; Gabbasova, A R; Khasanov, O S; Kulakov, Yu K; Mkrtchyan, A R; Myrzabekov, A M; Nurgaziev, R Z; Tsirel'son, L E; Willer, R D; Yaraev, R G; Zheludkov, M M

    2010-10-01

    This chapter outlines the epidemiology of brucellosis in the Russian Federation and in five countries bordering Russia. Since the Soviet Union's dissolution, Russia and the newly formed independent republics have failed to maintain policies to control brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Many of these republics, due to weak animal control and prevention systems and dangerous food preparation practices, are still burdened with the human cost of brucellosis. The final summary of this section provides an example of the successful transboundary cooperative efforts between Arizona and Mexico, which could be applied to the situation between Russia and the bordering independent republics.

  19. Generation IV nuclear energy system initiative. Large GFR core subassemblydesign for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E. A.; Kulak, R. F.; Therios, I. U.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    2006-07-31

    Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) designs are being developed to meet Gen IV goals of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection as part of an International Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Research Initiative effort. Different organizations are involved in the development of a variety of GFR design concepts. The current analysis has focused on the evaluation of low-pressure drop, pin-core designs with favorable passive cooling properties. Initial evaluation of the passive cooling safety case for the GFR during depressurized decay heat removal accidents with concurrent loss of electric power have resulted in requirements for a reduction of core power density to the 100 w/cc level and a low core pressure drop of 0.5 bars. Additional design constraints and the implementation of their constraints are evaluated in this study to enhance and passive cooling properties of the reactor. Passive cooling is made easier by a flat radial distribution of the decay heat. One goal of this study was to evaluate the radial power distribution and determine to what extent it can be flattened, since the decay heat is nearly proportional to the fission power at shutdown. In line with this investigation of the radial power profile, an assessment was also made of the control rod configuration. The layout provided a large number of control rod locations with a fixed area provided for control rods. The number of control rods was consistent with other fast reactor designs. The adequacy of the available control rod locations was evaluated. Future studies will be needed to optimize the control rod designs and evaluate the shutdown system. The case for low pressure drop core can be improved by the minimization of pressure drop sources such as the number of required fuel spacers in the subassembly design and by the details of the fuel pin design. The fuel pin design is determined by a number of neutronic, thermal-hydraulic (gas dynamics

  20. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  1. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  2. Excited state potential energy surfaces and their interactions in Fe(IV)=O active sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srnec, Martin; Wong, Shaun D; Solomon, Edward I

    2014-12-21

    The non-heme ferryl active sites are of significant interest for their application in biomedical and green catalysis. These sites have been shown to have an S = 1 or S = 2 ground spin state; the latter is functional in biology. Low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (LT MCD) spectroscopy probes the nature of the excited states in these species including ligand-field (LF) states that are otherwise difficult to study by other spectroscopies. In particular, the temperature dependences of MCD features enable their unambiguous assignment and thus determination of the low-lying excited states in two prototypical S = 1 and S = 2 NHFe(IV)[double bond, length as m-dash]O complexes. Furthermore, some MCD bands exhibit vibronic structures that allow mapping of excited-state interactions and their effects on the potential energy surfaces (PESs). For the S = 2 species, there is also an unusual spectral feature in both near-infrared absorption and MCD spectra - Fano antiresonance (dip in Abs) and Fano resonance (sharp peak in MCD) that indicates the weak spin-orbit coupling of an S = 1 state with the S = 2 LF state. These experimental data are correlated with quantum-chemical calculations that are further extended to analyze the low-lying electronic states and the evolution of their multiconfigurational characters along the Fe-O PESs. These investigations show that the lowest-energy states develop oxyl Fe(III) character at distances that are relevant to the transition state (TS) for H-atom abstraction and define the frontier molecular orbitals that participate in the reactivity of S = 1 vs. S = 2 non-heme Fe(IV)[double bond, length as m-dash]O active sites. The S = 1 species has only one available channel that requires the C-H bond of a substrate to approach perpendicular to the Fe-oxo bond (the π channel). In contrast, there are three channels (one σ and two π) available for the S = 2 non-heme Fe(IV)[double bond, length as m-dash]O system allowing C-H substrate approach

  3. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 2, scenarios I to IV; Energieperspektiven 2035 -- Band 2: Szenarien I bis IV. Darstellung der Szenarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, A.

    2007-07-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the four scenarios concerning future developments in Swiss energy supply policy. The four complex scenarios include variants entitled 'business as usual', 'increased co-operation', 'new priorities' and 'on the way to a 2000-Watt society'. These scenarios deal with the development of energy demand and electricity offerings in Switzerland for the period 1990 to 2035. They are reviewed in the light of various sensitivity factors. These sensitivity factors include a high GDP, oil prices of 50 US-dollars per barrel and a warmer climate. The report presents the results of the model calculations made. First of all, the report takes a look at the motivation and aims behind the work and discusses the modelling methods, system limits and conventions used and the possibilities offered by the perspectives as well as the limits encountered. The four scenarios are then presented and discussed in detail. Implementation variants in the private, services, industrial and traffic sectors are discussed and various electricity supply variants are presented, as are the associated environmental issues involved. The scenarios are compared with each other and pricing and security of supply issues are discussed. Finally, a short synopsis of the scenarios is presented and decision criteria are discussed as are implementation instruments. Ethical dilemmas and the risks involved are noted

  4. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The electric utility companies worldwide suffer, in greater or lesser degree, electrical energy losses. A great percentage of these losses is mostly due to illegal appropriations of energy. The consumers, by means of illicit practices such as clandestine connections and alteration of the operation of electricity meters, carry out the energy robbery. In order to try to alleviate the problematic of electric energy losses, in their majority by illicit, the electric utility companies have implemented one or more actions. Among the most important are: Visual inspection of the metering facilities. Its purpose is to verify the condition of the traditional protections of the metering installations, such as the seals and safety rings. Detection Equipment: These are recorders of energy consumption and of faults in conductors and are used to detect illicit connections and deviations in the consumption patterns and to the electrical energy connection or to the secondary distribution network. Statistical analysis of consumption: Many electric facility companies have adapted their processing consumption reading systems to detect deviations in the of consumption patterns of their clients. This could correspond to abnormal situations. Since this country is not extraneous to the problematic of energy losses, in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas it was developed a System of Measurement and Detection of Losses of Electrical Energy (SIM-IV) as a result of the knowledge of the problematic obtained from the projects in the metering area and of the interaction through work meetings with personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and of Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), in which concepts of advanced technology were applied for the measurement of electrical variables. The SIM-IV is a system oriented to the metering of consumption and the detection of robberies of electrical energy caused by clandestine connections and non-allowed interventions to the energy meters. Since

  5. Planning manual for energy resource development on Indian lands. Volume IV. The environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    Many Indian tribes own rich deposits of very valuable energy resources. Existing and proposed uses of these tribal resources range from limited development of small oil and gas fields to large-scale extraction and conversion of coal, uranium, and oil shale. The adverse environmental impacts of such projects may create a conflict between a tribe's environmental policies and its economic, employment, and other long-term goals. The purpose of this volume is to provide tribal decision makers with reference documents on the mechanisms that are available to resolve such conflicts. This report focuses on the role of existing environmental laws in enabling tribes to achieve the needed balance among its objectives. Over a dozen major Federal statutes have been enacted to achieve this purpose. One law, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), provides procedures to ensure that environmental factors are included in the Federal decision-making process. Numerous other laws, such as the Clean Air Act, have been enacted to prevent or control any negative environmental impacts of actual projects. This volume documents the key provisions of the laws and regulations, and discusses their effectiveness in meeting total needs. Also, tribal options to strengthen these mechanisms are highlighted. Sections II and III report on the role of NEPA in tribal development decisions. Section IV reviews those laws and regulations that control project operations.

  6. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 1. Primary model documentation. Book 1: Chapters I, II, and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, R.E.; Herod, J.S.

    1978-06-19

    The model is designed to predict the commercial-market penetration of various energy technologies in the industrial sector out to the year 2000. The model represents the refinement and further development of the Industrial Sector Model developed for the Market Oriented Program Planning Study task force in 1977. The model assesses the comparative economic competitiveness of each technology and then uses these assessments to project each technology's anticipated market penetration. The introductory chapter provides logic and special terminology information of the model. The next sections deal with the input requirements and a discussion of the solution of the model.

  7. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The electric utility companies worldwide suffer, in greater or lesser degree, electrical energy losses. A great percentage of these losses is mostly due to illegal appropriations of energy. The consumers, by means of illicit practices such as clandestine connections and alteration of the operation of electricity meters, carry out the energy robbery. In order to try to alleviate the problematic of electric energy losses, in their majority by illicit, the electric utility companies have implemented one or more actions. Among the most important are: Visual inspection of the metering facilities. Its purpose is to verify the condition of the traditional protections of the metering installations, such as the seals and safety rings. Detection Equipment: These are recorders of energy consumption and of faults in conductors and are used to detect illicit connections and deviations in the consumption patterns and to the electrical energy connection or to the secondary distribution network. Statistical analysis of consumption: Many electric facility companies have adapted their processing consumption reading systems to detect deviations in the of consumption patterns of their clients. This could correspond to abnormal situations. Since this country is not extraneous to the problematic of energy losses, in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas it was developed a System of Measurement and Detection of Losses of Electrical Energy (SIM-IV) as a result of the knowledge of the problematic obtained from the projects in the metering area and of the interaction through work meetings with personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and of Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), in which concepts of advanced technology were applied for the measurement of electrical variables. The SIM-IV is a system oriented to the metering of consumption and the detection of robberies of electrical energy caused by clandestine connections and non-allowed interventions to the energy meters. Since

  8. Design of Radiation-Tolerant Structural Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, T.R.; Was, G.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Ukai, S.

    2005-12-28

    The objective of this program is to improve the radiation tolerance of both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys projected for use in Generation IV systems. The expected materials limitations of Generation IV components include: creep strength, dimensional stability, and corrosion/stress corrosion compatibility. The material design strategies to be tested fall into three main categories: (1) engineering grain boundaries; (2) alloying, by adding oversized elements to the matrix; and (3) microstructural/nanostructural design, such as adding matrix precipitates. These three design strategies were tested across both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloy classes

  9. Energy extension service pilot program evaluation report: the first year. Volume I: evaluation summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The evaluation report of the Energy Extension Service in the 10 pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Wyoming, Washington, Wisconsin - contains 8 chapters. Chapter II describes the methodology and Chapter III summarizes the findings. Chapters IV, V, and VI trace the progression from program operations through client impact to energy savings. Chapter VII analyzes the factors that might contribute to making some programs work more effectively than others. The service delivery programs are divided into 3 categories according to the target audience served: residential homeowners and renters, small businesses, and public institutions. Chapter VIII discusses the implications for the National EES Program. (MCW)

  10. Chapter 11 Unexpected Turns and Twists in Structure/Function of PR-Proteins that Connect Energy Metabolism and Immunity

    KAUST Repository

    Narasimhan, Meena L.

    2009-01-01

    Innate immunity in plants is manifested by a complex array of antimicrobial processes that includes induction of sets of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The availability of genomic data has made clear that each PR-protein family in a species is represented by several genes. Microarray data in public databases show that in most families, including the PR-5 family surveyed here, the expression of only few family members is defense associated. Genetic studies show that depending on their nutrient acquisition strategy, pathogens induce distinct but overlapping sets of PR genes, suggesting a connection to energy or resource allocation. PR-5 proteins have a clearly recognizable structure that is referred to as the thaumatin (THN) domain, which can be overlapped with mammalian Complement 1q-tumor necrosis factor (C1q-TNF) domains such as that of the mammalian hormone adiponectin. The occurrence of THN domain proteins is widespread. Similarities between THN domain proteins and mammalian C1q-TNF family proteins include their ligands and their subcellular locations. Osmotin (tobacco PR-5c) regulates energy balance signaling in mammalian cells by interaction with adiponectin receptors by a pathway that shares components with plant energy and stress signaling pathways. These data suggest additional roles for PR-5 proteins, as scaffolds and/or in signaling, particularly in regulating energy balance. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geothermal power plants around the world. A sourcebook on the production of electricity from geothermal energy, draft of Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1979-02-01

    This report constitutes a consolidation and a condensation of several individual topical reports dealing with the geothermal electric power stations around the world. An introduction is given to various types of energy conversion systems for use with geothermal resouces. Power plant performance and operating factors are defined and discussed. Existing geothermal plants in the following countries are covered: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United States. In each case, the geological setting is outlined, the geothermal fluid characteristics are given, the gathering system, energy conversion system, and fluid disposal method are described, and the environmental impact is discussed. In some cases the economics of power generation are also presented. Plans for future usage of geothermal energy are described for the above-mentioned countries and the following additional ones: the Azores (Portugal), Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Panama. Technical data is presented in twenty-two tables; forty-one figures, including eleven photographs, are also included to illustrate the text. A comprehensive list of references is provided for the reader who wishes to make an in-depth study of any of the topics mentioned.

  12. Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xingshuo

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of the leading concepts of the Generation IV nuclear reactor development, which is the core component of Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The major challenge in the research and development of NGNP is the performance and reliability of structure materials at high temperature. Alloy 617, with an exceptional combination of high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, has been selected as a primary candidate material for structural use, particularly in Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) which has an outlet temperature in the range of 850 to 950°C and an inner pressure from 5 to 20MPa. In order to qualify the material to be used at the operation condition for a designed service life of 60 years, a comprehensive scientific understanding of creep behavior at high temperature and low stress regime is necessary. In addition, the creep mechanism and the impact factors such as precipitates, grain size, and grain boundary characters need to be evaluated for the purpose of alloy design and development. In this study, thermomechanically processed specimens of alloy 617 with different grain sizes were fabricated, and creep tests with a systematic test matrix covering the temperatures of 850 to 1050°C and stress levels from 5 to 100MPa were conducted. Creep data was analyzed, and the creep curves were found to be unconventional without a well-defined steady-state creep. Very good linear relationships were determined for minimum creep rate versus stress levels with the stress exponents determined around 3-5 depending on the grain size and test condition. Activation energies were also calculated for different stress levels, and the values are close to 400kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion in nickel. Power law dislocation climb-glide mechanism was proposed as the dominant creep mechanism in the test condition regime. Dynamic recrystallization happening at high strain range enhanced dislocation climb and

  13. Multiscale Modeling of the Deformation of Advanced Ferritic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr M. Ghoniem; Nick Kioussis

    2009-04-18

    The objective of this project is to use the multi-scale modeling of materials (MMM) approach to develop an improved understanding of the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of high-temperature structural materials that are being developed or proposed for Gen IV applications. In particular, the research focuses on advanced ferritic/ martensitic steels to enable operation up to 650-700°C, compared to the current 550°C limit on high-temperature steels.

  14. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  15. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Vijay [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Carroll, Laura [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sham, Sam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-06

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  16. Chapter 10: CPV Multijunction Solar Cell Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, Carl R.; Siefer, Gerald

    2016-04-15

    Characterization of solar cells can be divided into two types: the first is measurement of electrooptical semiconductor device parameters, and the second is determination of electrical conversion efficiency. This chapter reviews the multijunction concepts that are necessary for understanding Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cell characterization techniques, and describes how CPV efficiency is defined and used. For any I-V measurement of a multijunction cell, the sun simulator spectrum has to be adjusted in a way that all junctions generate the same photocurrent ratios with respect to each other as under reference conditions. The chapter discusses several procedures for spectral irradiance adjustments of solar simulators, essential for multijunction measurements. It overviews the light sources and optics commonly used in simulators for CPV cells under concentration. Finally, the chapter talks about the cell area, quantum efficiency (QE), and current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements that are needed to characterize cells as a function of irradiance.

  17. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  18. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume IV: Nuclear Energy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brian; Gschwend, Beatrice [eds.

    2001-03-01

    Nuclear energy related research in Switzerland is concentrated at PSI's Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department (NES). The activities of the department are concentrated on three main domains of: Safety and related problems of operating plants; safety features of future reactor and fuel cycles; waste management. Comprehensive assessments of energy systems are carried out in cooperation with PSI's General Energy Research Department. Many of the programs are part of collaborations with universities, industry, or international organisations. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  19. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex IV: PSI nuclear energy and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchley, J.; Roesel, R.; Doesburg, R. van [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-09-01

    Nuclear energy research in Switzerland is concentrated at PSI`s Department F4. It is explicitly mentioned in the Institute`s official charter and commands about one fifth of the Institute`s federal resources. Presently, PSI invests approx. 200 py/a in nuclear energy research, one third of this being externally funded; the share of external funding in investment costs totals approx. 50%. This funding is provided by the Swiss utilities and the NAGRA, the Safety Authority (HSK) and the former National Fund for Energy Research (NEFF). PSI`s activities in nuclear research concentrate on three main areas: safety of operating plants, safety features of future reactor concepts and waste management. 7% of personnel are invested in addressing global aspects of energy. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  20. Patterns of Selection of Human Movements IV: Energy Efficiency, Mechanical Advantage, and Asynchronous Arm-Cranking

    OpenAIRE

    Hagler, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Human movements are physical processes combining the classical mechanics of the human body moving in space and the biomechanics of the muscles generating the forces acting on the body under sophisticated sensory-motor control. The characterization of the performance of human movements is a problem with important applications in clinical and sports research. One way to characterize movement performance is through measures of energy efficiency that relate the mechanical energy of the body and m...

  1. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  2. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume IV: Nuclear Energy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchley, Jon; Ringele, Ruth [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Nuclear energy related research in Switzerland is concentrated at PSI`s Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department (NES). The total effort invested in nuclear energy research in 1998 amounted to about 195 py/a and 4.5 millions CHF of investment and maintenance costs. Approximately half of the salary, investment and maintenance costs are externally funded, primarily by the Swiss Utilities, the national co-operative for the disposal of nuclear waste (NAGRA), the Federal Office of Energy (BFE) through the nuclear safety inspectorate (HSK) and the Federal Office for Science and Education (BBW) in connection with the EC Framework Programmes; an increasing part of external funding is coming from domestic and foreign industry (nuclear component and fuel suppliers). The activities of the department are concentrated on three main domains of: Safety and related problems of operating plants; safety features of future reactor and fuel cycles; waste management. 4 % of the total resources are invested in addressing more global aspects of energy. Many of the programs are part of collaborations with universities, industry, or international organisations. A list of scientific publications in 1998 is included. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  3. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1999. Volume IV: Nuclear Energy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brian; Gschwend, Beatrice [eds.

    2000-07-01

    Nuclear energy related research in Switzerland is concentrated at PSI's Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department (NES). The total effort invested in nuclear energy research in 1999 amounted to about 185 py/a and 4.7 MCHF of investment and maintenance costs. Approximately half of the salary, investment and maintenance costs are externally funded, primarily by the Swiss Utilities, the national co-operative for the disposal of nuclear waste (NAGRA), the Federal Office of Energy (BFE) through the nuclear safety inspectorate (HSK) and the Federal Office for Science and Education (BBW) in connection with the EU Framework Programmes; an increasing part of external funding is coming from domestic and foreign industry (nuclear component and fuel suppliers). The activities of the department are concentrated on three main domains of: Safety and related problems of operating plants; safety features of future reactor and fuel cycles; waste management. 4 % of the total resources are invested in addressing more global aspects of energy. Many of the programs are part of collaborations with universities, industry, or international organisations. Progress in 1999 in these topical areas is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 1999 is also provided.

  4. Chapter Four: Discursive Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the focus of attention moves from the contexts described in chapter 3 to the verbal, nonverbal, and interactional resources that participants employ in discursive practices. These resources are discussed within the frame of participation status and participation framework proposed by Goffman. Verbal resources employed by…

  5. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume IV: Nuclear Energy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.L. (ed.)

    2002-03-01

    The year 2001 was marked by the extensive audit of energy research at PSI. The audit took place on 21/22 June, and nuclear energy research was evaluated by five international experts. It was possible to present the quality and relevance of our research in a convincing way. This, together with optimal use of the available resources in our department Nuclear Energy and Safety (NES), prompted the highly welcome result that the auditors attested a high degree of scientific quality to the NES projects in general, with some of them judged to be of world-class standard. They recommended all audited projects be maintained, adequate resources to be allocated accordingly and, if necessary, an increase of public funding in nuclear energy research to be granted to achieve this. Finally, it was recommended that energy research should be explicitly mentioned in the statement of the ultimate mission of PSI. At the level of 'daily work', efforts in several directions related to the future of the Hotlab were one of the main focuses during the past year. On the one hand, the safety-related backfitting of the facility (particularly in regard to fire protection) has been continued, and was coupled with intensive planning studies, and with a thorough radiological cleaning of the labs; this invariably led to some impediment to the current research activities. Despite external burdens, which have led to some delays and additional costs, three of the four refurbishment phases have been completed, and the corresponding laboratories were brought back into operation after inspection and approval by the regulatory authority HSK. Given the size and complexity of the project, progress must be considered very satisfactory. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  6. Spectral Analysis, Synthesis, & Energy Distributions of Nearby E+A Galaxies Using SDSS-IV MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Wally, Muhammad; James, Olivia; Falcone, Julia; Liu, Allen; Wallack, Nicole; Liu, Charles; SDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) Survey (MaNGA Product Launch-4, or MPL-4), of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV), we identified nine post-starburst (E+A) systems that lie within the Green Valley transition zone. We identify the E+A galaxies by their SDSS single fiber spectrum and u-r color, then confirmed their classification as post-starburst by coding/plotting methods and spectral synthesis codes (FIREFLY and PIPE3D), as well as with their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) from 0.15 µm to 22 µm, using GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data. We produced maps of gaussian-fitted fluxes, equivalent widths, stellar velocities, metallicities and age. We also produced spectral line ratio diagrams to classify regions of stellar populations of the galaxies. We found that our sample of E+As retain their post-starburst properties across the entire galaxy, not just at their center. We detected matching a trend line in the ultraviolet and optical bands, consistent with the expected SEDs for an E+A galaxy, and also through the J, H and Ks bands, except for one object. We classified one of the nine galaxies as a luminous infrared galaxy, unusual for a post-starburst object. Our group seeks to further study stellar population properties, spectral energy distributions and quenching properties in E+A galaxies, and investigate their role in galaxy evolution as a whole. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through from National Science Foundation.

  7. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  8. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume IV

    OpenAIRE

    Neven Duić

    2016-01-01

    The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - JSDEWES is an international journal dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing them with knowledge based economy, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of devel...

  9. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  10. Astragaloside IV ameliorates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis implicating regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-Guang; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yu-Ying; Yan, Li; Wang, Ming-Xia; Fan, Jing-Yu; Mu, Hong-Na; Li, Chong; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-She; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-02-02

    Dysfunction of energy metabolism is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the potential of astragaloside IV (ASIV), an active ingredient of Radix Astragalus, to ameliorate colonic mucosal injury, with focusing on the implication of energy restoration in the underlying mechanism. Experimental colitis model was established in rats by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) through anus. After 24 hours, ASIV was administrated once daily by gavage for 6 days. On day 1 and day 7, colon tissue was collected for macroscopic and histological examination, ELISA, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. TNBS impaired colonic mucosa with an injured epithelial architecture, increased inflammatory cell infiltration, and decreased colonic blood flow. Lgr5 positive cell number in crypt and β-catenin nuclear translocation were down-regulated by TNBS treatment. TNBS induced epithelial F-actin disruption and junctional protein degradation. Furthermore, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and ATP synthase subunit β expression in the colon tissue were significantly decreased after TNBS stimulation. All of the aforementioned alterations were relieved by ASIV post-treatment. The present study revealed that ASIV promoted mucosal healing process in TNBS-induced colitis, which was most likely attributed to regulating energy metabolism.

  11. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2004. Volume IV: Nuclear Energy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.; Gschwend, B

    2005-03-01

    Highlights of the main activities during the year covered by this report are given below in the framework of the corresponding projects. They include tasks that were completed during the year, as well as certain projects still in their early stages or start-up phase. While NES is encouraging a networking of its activities, both within the Department and throughout PSI (e.g. through its involvement in the MicroXAS Beamline; the MEGAPIE project; and the collaboration with the General Energy Department, ENE, in the context of the GaBE project), most of the activities are the prime responsibilities of the distinct organisational units (Laboratories) within NES. This basis forms a well-defined, scientific focus for the projects, each of which requires particular expertise and specialised equipment or facilities. (author)

  12. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  13. Chapter 9: Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algora, Carlos; Espinet-Gonzalez, Pilar; Vazquez, Manuel; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David; Kurtz, Sarah; Rubio, Francisca; McConnell,Robert

    2016-04-15

    This chapter describes the accumulated knowledge on CPV reliability with its fundamentals and qualification. It explains the reliability of solar cells, modules (including optics) and plants. The chapter discusses the statistical distributions, namely exponential, normal and Weibull. The reliability of solar cells includes: namely the issues in accelerated aging tests in CPV solar cells, types of failure and failures in real time operation. The chapter explores the accelerated life tests, namely qualitative life tests (mainly HALT) and quantitative accelerated life tests (QALT). It examines other well proven and experienced PV cells and/or semiconductor devices, which share similar semiconductor materials, manufacturing techniques or operating conditions, namely, III-V space solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). It addresses each of the identified reliability issues and presents the current state of the art knowledge for their testing and evaluation. Finally, the chapter summarizes the CPV qualification and reliability standards.

  14. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  15. Chapter 9: Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Spieler, Helmuth G

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  16. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2002. Volume IV: Nuclear Energy and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.; Gschwend, B. (eds.)

    2003-03-01

    Highlights in research and operation Projects established in previous years have yielded relevant and first-of-a-kind results, which have gained broad attention, both nationally and internationally, and which are presented in detail in this report. A few outstanding examples are cited below:Successful first measurements with highly active samples in LWR-PROTEUS Phase II (high burn-up fuel) have shown significant dependency of reactivity on burn-up, and increasing discrepancies between calculated and measured reactivity values with burn-up. As a consequence of these findings, the Swiss utilities wish to extend this phase. On-call calculations in the framework of the STARS project have been used to modify the feedwater system of the Leibstadt NPP. The modification has been subsequently confirmed during a turbine trip. An international consortium has been established for the ARTIST project (aerosol behaviour in the case of steam generator tube rupture). First tests showed higher aerosol retention than expected. The MEGAPIE project remains ongoing, and plans for post-irradiation examination (PIE) have now been established. Investigation of the leak which occurred in the LISOR loop in the Hot Lab has positively identified the cause of failure. PSI's contribution to the China Energy Technology Programme has been completed and documented. Among other results, the programme provided evidence for lower total costs (including externalities) by using 'clean coal' technologies. In parallel, and to assure continuation of the successful collaboration with the European research programmes, NES has participated in 27 'Expressions of Interest' for Integrated Projects and Networks of Excellence within the 6th EU Framework Programme. On the operational level, the year 2002 was marked by a series of significant events: The Federal Institutes of Technology, to which PSI belongs, have drawn up strategic plans for the years 2004-2007. The proposed PSI

  17. Validation of the Monte Carlo criticality program KENO IV and the Hansen-Roach sixteen-energy-group-cross sections for high-assay uranium systems. [KENO IV criticality code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, G. R.; Masters, L. C.; Stachowiak, R. V.

    1981-04-10

    Validation of the Monte Carlo criticality code, KENO IV, and the Hansen-Roach sixteen-energy-group cross sections was accomplished by calculating the effective neutron multiplication constant, k/sub eff/, of 29 experimentally critical assemblies which had uranium enrichments of 92.6% or higher in the uranium-235 isotope. The experiments were chosen so that a large variety of geometries and of neutron energy spectra were covered. Problems, calculating the k/sub eff/ of systems with high-uranium-concentration uranyl nitrate solution that were minimally reflected or unreflected, resulted in the separate examination of five cases.

  18. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume IV. Energy conservation technology: advanced course for plan examiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This manual contains a more in-depth training in the review techniques and concepts required by the plan examiners and code officials in administering the code for conventional (buildings of 3 stories or less) construction.

  19. Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program - Part IV: Onsite review handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Onsite Review Handbook contains criteria to be used in evaluating the management systems required for initial or continued participation in the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP), verifying and calculating rates of injury experience, the Onsite Review report format, and sample questions to be used during onsite interviews. This document should be used in conjunction with the first three DOE-VPP manuals (Part I: Program Elements, Part II: Procedures Manual, and Part III: Application Guidelines). This document is intended to assist Onsite Review team members and DOE contractors in evaluating safety and health programs, and to serve as guidance for DOE-VPP participants in performing their required annual evaluation. Requests for additional information or any questions may be addressed to a DOE-VPP Coordinator in the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Policy. The term contractor used throughout this document refers to an applicant to, or a participant in, the DOE-VPP. The term subcontractor refers to any organization that is contracted by the applicant or participant to do work at the site under review. The DOE-VPP Onsite Review Criteria contained in Appendix A provide guidance for evaluating a site`s implementation of the program requirements given in Part I: Program Elements. The program requirements are in bold italicized type, followed by guidance for ensuring implementation. Part I should be consulted for a complete description of the program requirements. These criteria should be used by team members whenever possible, but are not intended to be all inclusive. Determination of adequate implementation of the DOE-VPP requirements is at the team members` discretion. Guidance for calculating recordable injury and lost workday incidence rates is contained in Appendix B. The OSHA injury/illness records review and the associated calculations should be performed by Onsite Review Team members during the pre-onsite planning visit.

  20. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  1. The energy consumption of private households 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV; Der Energieverbrauch der Privaten Haushalte, 1990 - 2035. Ergebnisse der Szenarien I bis IV und der zugehoerigen Sensitivitaeten BIP hoch, Preise hoch und Klima waermer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, P.

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in Swiss private households for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. In particular, the scenarios are examined for various sensitivities: high gross domestic product GDP, high prices and warmer climate. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report contains a large number of data-tables and graphical representations

  2. Sustainable careers: Introductory chapter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Vos, A de

    2015-01-01

    In this introductory chapter we will introduce the concept of ‘sustainable careers’ within the broader framework of contemporary careers. Departing from changes in the career context with regard to the dimensions of time, social space, agency and meaning, we advocate a fresh perspective on careers t

  3. Hurrah for Chapter Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Glenowyn L.

    This annotated bibliography contains a list of 42 recent Chapter Books. The bibliography is divided into the following topics: Adventure-Survival (3 titles); Autobiography-Biography (3 titles); Death (1 title); Easy Readers (8 titles); Good Reading (12 titles); Historical Fiction (10 titles); Mystery (3 titles); Newbery Award Winner, 2000; and…

  4. Tourette Association Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adultos Tics en público: 8 formas de manejarlos Empleo: Como conseguir trabajo y conservarlo Redes Sociales Educación ... tsanj.org Website: http://www.tsanj.org/ New Mexico New Mexico Chapter Email: info@taanm.org Website: ...

  5. Challenge theme 5: Current and future needs of energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands and the effects of their development: Chapter 7 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Ellis, Eugene G.; Page, William R.; Parker, Melanie J.; Hestbeck, Jay B.; Horak, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Exploration and extraction activities related to energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands—such as coal-fired power plants, offshore drilling, and mining—can create issues that have potentially major economic and environmental implications. Resource assessments and development projects, environmental studies, and other related evaluations help to understand some of these issues, such as power plant emissions and the erosion/denudation of abandoned mine lands. Information from predictive modeling, monitoring, and environmental assessments are necessary to understand the full effects of energy and mineral exploration, development, and utilization. The exploitation of these resources can negatively affect human health and the environment, its natural resources, and its ecological services (air, water, soil, recreation, wildlife, etc.). This chapter describes the major energy and mineral issues of the Borderlands and how geologic frameworks, integrated interdisciplinary (geobiologic) investigations, and other related studies can address the anticipated increases in demands on natural resources in the region.

  6. Brazilian Energy Balance 2016 - calendar year 2015; Balanco energetico nacional 2016 - ano base 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow. Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2015 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth. Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments and total consumption disaggregated per socioeconomic sector in the country. Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy. Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy. Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses. Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources. Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports. Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex I - Installed Capacity - shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed capacity of Itaipu hydro plant and the installed capacity for oil refining. Annex II - Self-production of Electricity - presents disaggregated data of self-production, considering sources and sectors. Annex III - World Energy Data - presents the main indicators for the production, import, export and consumption per energy source

  7. Chapter Houses, Navajo Nation, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features representing Chapter Houses in the Navajo Nation. Chapter Name is included in the Attributes. This dataset contains 111...

  8. A new family of donor-acceptor systems comprising tin(IV) porphyrin and anthracene subunits: Synthesis, spectroscopy and energy transfer studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ashok Kumar; L Giribabu; Bhaskar G Maiya

    2002-12-01

    A new family of covalently linked `Sn(IV) porphyrin-anthracene’ diad (1), triad (2) and tetrad (3) donor-acceptor (D-A) systems have been designed and synthesized in good-to-moderate yields. While diad 1 possesses one anthracene subunit at the peripheral (meso) position of the tin(IV) porphyrin scaffold, triad 2 possesses two trans axial anthracene subunits at the tin(IV) centre. On the other hand, tetrad 3 is endowed with both the peripheral and axial anthracene subunits in its architecture. These D-A systems have been fully characterised by elemental analysis, FAB-MS, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR and electrochemical methods. UV-Vis, NMR and redox data suggest the absence of intramolecular - interaction between the porphyrin and the anthracene/s in 1-3. Fluorescence from the anthracene subunit in 1 and 3 is found to be quenched in comparison with the fluorescence of free anthracene in four different solvents. This is not the case with compound 2. Excitation spectral data provides evidence for an intramolecular excitation energy transfer (EET) from the singlet anthracene to the porphyrin in 1 and 3. The energy transfer efficiency is in the order: 2 (almost negligible) < 3 (∼ 30%) < 1 (nearly quantitative), with the peripheral anthracene → porphyrin pathway being largely favoured. This orientation dependence of EET could be analysed using Forster’s dipole dipole mechanism.

  9. Chapter 1: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops–and encourages consumers and business to adopt–technologies that improve energy efficiency and increase the use of renewable energy. This report describes analysis undertaken by EERE to better understand the extent to which the technologies and market improvements funded by its FY 2004 Budget Request1 will make energy more affordable, cleaner, and more reliable.

  10. Annual Site Environmental Report, Department of Energy Operations at the Energy Technology Engineering Center – Area IV, Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazee, Brad [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hay, Scott [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wondolleck, John [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sorrels, Earl [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rutherford, Phil [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dassler, David [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jones, John [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2014 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the DOE at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The ETEC, a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  11. Chapter 6: Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hauer, F. Richard; F. Richard Hauer,; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Stream temperature has direct and indirect effects on stream ecology and is critical in determining both abiotic and biotic system responses across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Temperature variation is primarily driven by solar radiation, while landscape topography, geology, and stream reach scale ecosystem processes contribute to local variability. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in freshwater ecosystems influences habitat distributions, physiological functions, and phenology of all aquatic organisms. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods for monitoring stream temperature, characterization of thermal profiles, and modeling approaches to stream temperature prediction. Recent advances in temperature monitoring allow for more comprehensive studies of the underlying processes influencing annual variation of temperatures and how thermal variability may impact aquatic organisms at individual, population, and community based scales. Likewise, the development of spatially explicit predictive models provide a framework for simulating natural and anthropogenic effects on thermal regimes which is integral for sustainable management of freshwater systems.

  12. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  13. Chapter 5. Morphology: Pronouns

    OpenAIRE

    Nesset, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever wondered whether the so-called reflexive postfix ‑ся is related to the reflexive pronoun себя? Do you know the etymology of сейчас and сегодня? And do you know where the н in the pronoun comes from in prepositional phrases like к нему ‘to him’? Answers to these and many other questions are offered in this chapter, which explores the declension of personal pronouns (sections 5.1 and 5.2), demonstrative pronouns (section 5.3), possessive pronouns (section 5.4), вьсь ‘all’ (section...

  14. Chapter 7: Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca; Coleman, Andre; Wigmosta, Mark; Schoenung, Susan; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Langholtz, Matthew; Davis, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    This chapter of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report provides an estimate of biomass potential at given minimum selling prices. This is not a projection of actual measured biomass or a simulation of commercial projects. Biomass potential is estimated based on 30 years of hourly local climate and strain-specific biophysical characteristics using the Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT), assuming sufficient available nutrients (including CO2). As is the case for terrestrial feedstocks, important resource analysis questions for algae include not only how much of the crop may be available but also what price might be needed to procure that supply. Identifying resource co-location opportunities for algal biofuel facilities has the potential to reduce costs, utilize waste resources, and focus attention on appropriate technologies and locations for commercialization.

  15. Synthesis: Chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Geiser, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Driscoll, C.T.; Goodale, C.L.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, J. S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition (Galloway et al. 2003). Because of past, and, in some regions, continuing increases in emissions (Lehmann et al. 2005, Nilles and Conley 2001), this N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations and damage in many ecosystems across the United States. In some ecoregions, the impact of N deposition has been severe and has changed the biotic community structure and composition of ecosystems. In the Mediterranean California ecoregion, for example (see Chapter 13), replacement of native by exotic invasive vegetation is accelerated because exotic species are often more productive under elevated N deposition than native species in some California grasslands, coastal sage scrub, and desert scrub (Fenn et al. 2010, Rao and Allen 2010, Rao et al. 2010, Weiss 1999, Yoshida and Allen 2004). Such shifts in plant community composition and species richness can have consequences beyond changes in ecosystem structure: shifts may lead to overall losses in biodiversity and further impair particular threatened or endangered species (Stevens et al. 2004). Th e extirpation of the endangered checkerspot butterfl y (Euphydryas editha bayensis), because the host plant for the larval stage disappears in N-enriched ecosystems (Fenn et al. 2010, Weiss 1999), is just one example of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition.

  16. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  17. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  18. Chapter 1: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    This report describes analysis undertaken by EERE to better understand the extent to which the technologies and market improvements funded by its fiscal year (FY) 2006 Budget Request1 will make energy more affordable, cleaner, and more reliable.

  19. Chapter 59: Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M. J.

    Web services are a cornerstone of the distributed computing infrastructure that the VO is built upon yet to the newcomer, they can appear to be a black art. This perception is not helped by the miasma of technobabble that pervades the subject and the seemingly impenetrable high priesthood of actual users. In truth, however, there is nothing conceptually difficult about web services (unsurprisingly any complexities will lie in the implementation details) nor indeed anything particularly new. A web service is a piece of software available over a network with a formal description of how it is called and what it returns that a computer can understand. Note that entities such as web servers, ftp servers and database servers do not generally qualify as they lack the standardized description of their inputs and outputs. There are prior technologies, such as RMI, CORBA, and DCOM, that have employed a similar approach but the success of web services lies predominantly in its use of standardized XML to provide a language-neutral way for representing data. In fact, the standardization goes further as web services are traditionally (or as traditionally as five years will allow) tied to a specific set of technologies (WSDL and SOAP conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization). Alternative implementations are becoming increasingly common and we will cover some of these here. One important thing to remember in all of this, though, is that web services are meant for use by computers and not humans (unlike web pages) and this is why so much of it seems incomprehensible gobbledegook. In this chapter, we will start with an overview of the web services current in the VO and present a short guide on how to use and deploy a web service. We will then review the different approaches to web services, particularly REST and SOAP, and alternatives to XML as a data format. We will consider how web services can be formally described and discuss how advanced features such as security, state

  20. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1994. Annex IV: PSI nuclear energy and safety research progress report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.; Kallfelz, J.M.; Mathews, D. [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear energy research in Switzerland is concentrated at PSI. It is explicitly mentioned in the Institute`s official charter and commands about one fifth of the Institute`s federal resources. Presently, PSI invests approx. 200 py/a in nuclear energy research, one third of this being externally funded; the share of external funding in investment costs totals approx. 50%. This funding is provided by the Swiss utilities and the NAGRA, the Safety Authority (HSK) and the former National Fund for Energy Research (NEFF). PSI`s activities in nuclear research concentrate on three main areas: safety of operating plants, safety features of future reactor concepts and waste management. 7% of personnel are invested in addressing global aspects of energy. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  1. Validation of nuclear criticality safety software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.L. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); D`Aquila, D.M. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The original validation report, POEF-T-3636, was documented in August 1994. The document was based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This revision is written to clarify the margin of safety being used at Portsmouth for nuclear criticality safety calculations. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Lockheed Martin Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. For calculations of Portsmouth systems using the specified codes and systems covered by this validation, a maximum k{sub eff} including 2{sigma} of 0.9605 or lower shall be considered as subcritical to ensure a calculational margin of safety of 0.02. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  2. Chapter 14 -- Case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production and use of bioenergy have increased significantly during the past few years, motivated by the global need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, ensure energy security, and strengthen rural economies. Public policies have been created to enable bioenergy expansion by indicating to inve...

  3. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  4. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  5. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV

  6. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume IV, market penetration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This volume first describes the residential consumption of energy in each of the 11 STES regions by fuel type and end-use category. The current and projected costs and availability of fossil fuels and electricity for the STES regions are reported. Projections are made concerning residential building construction and the potential market for residential STES. The effects of STES ownership options, institutional constraints, and possible government actions on market penetration potential were considered. Capital costs for two types of STES were determined, those based on organic Rankine cycle (ORC) heat engines and those based on flat plate, water-cooled photovoltaic arrays. Both types of systems utilized parabolic trough collectors. The capital cost differential between conventional and STE systems was calculated on an incremental cost per dwelling unit for comparison with projected fuel savings in the market penetration analysis. The market penetration analysis was planned in two phases, a preliminary analysis of each of the geographical regions for each of the STE systems considered; and a final, more precise analysis of those regions and systems showing promise of significant market penetration. However, the preliminary analysis revealed no geographical regions in which any of the STES considered promised to be competitive with conventional energy systems using utility services at the prices projected for future energy supplies in the residential market. Because no promising situations were found, the analysis was directed toward an examination of the parameters involved in an effort to identify those factors which make a residential STES less attractive than similar systems in the commercial and industrial areas. Results are reported. (WHK)

  7. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  8. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  9. Intenational conference on high-energy physics. Volume 2. Sessions IV to VIII. [Geneva, June 27-July 4, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Volume 2 of the conference proceedings contains sessions on hadron physics, charged-lepton physics, the p-p-bar collider at CERN, future European accelerator possibilities, parallel discussion sessions (on high-energy) hadron-induced reactions, deep inelastic phenomena, hadron spectroscopy, weak ineractions and gauge theories, and quark confinement), and a closing session on gauge appreciation of developments in particle physics. A list of participants is also included. Three of the papers in this volume have already been cited in ERA, and can be found as reference to the entry CONF-790642-- in the Report Number Index. The remaining 36 will be processed as they are received on the Atomindex tape. (RWR)

  10. Modelling the Pan-Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies: IV The Controlling Parameters of the Starburst SED

    CERN Document Server

    Groves, B; Sutherland, R; Kewley, L; Fischera, J; Leitherer, C; Brandl, B; van Breugal, W

    2007-01-01

    We combine the the stellar spectral synthesis code Starburst99, the nebular modelling code MAPPINGSIII, and a 1-D dynamical evolution model of HII regions around massive clusters of young stars to generate improved models of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of starburst galaxies. We introduce a compactness parameter, C, which characterizes the specific intensity of the radiation field at ionization fronts in HII regions, and which controls the shape of the far-IR dust re-emission, often referred to loosely as the dust ``temperature''. We also investigate the effect of metallicity on the overall SED and in particular, on the strength of the PAH features. We provide templates for the mean emission produced by the young compact HII regions, the older (10 - 100 Myr) stars and for the wavelength-dependent attenuation produced by a foreground screen of the dust used in our model. We demonstrate that these components may be combined to produce a excellent fit to the observed SEDs of star formation dominated ga...

  11. The Blackholic energy and the canonical Gamma-Ray Burst IV: the "long", "genuine short" and "fake - disguised short" GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Remo; Bernardini, Maria Grazia; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Chardonnet, Pascal; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; De Barros, Gustavo; Guida, Roberto; Izzo, Luca; Patricelli, Barbara; Lemos, Luis Juracy Rangel; Rotondo, Michael; Hernandez, Jorge Armando Rueda; Vereshchagin, Gregory; Xue, She-Sheng; 10.1063/1.3151839

    2009-01-01

    (Shortened) [...] After recalling the basic features of the "fireshell model", we emphasize the following novel results: 1) the interpretation of the X-ray flares in GRB afterglows as due to the interaction of the optically thin fireshell with isolated clouds in the CircumBurst Medium (CBM); 2) an interpretation as "fake - disguised" short GRBs of the GRBs belonging to the class identified by Norris & Bonnell [...] consistent with an origin from the final coalescence of a binary system in the halo of their host galaxies with particularly low CBM density [...]; 3) the first attempt to study a genuine short GRB with the analysis of GRB 050509B, that reveals indeed still an open question; 4) the interpretation of the GRB-SN association in the case of GRB 060218 via the "induced gravitational collapse" process; 5) a first attempt to understand the nature of the "Amati relation", a phenomenological correlation between the isotropic-equivalent radiated energy of the prompt emission E_{iso} with the cosmological...

  12. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Daryl R.

    2016-04-15

    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  13. Metrology of Large Parts. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    As discussed in the first chapter of this book, there are many different methods to measure a part using optical technology. Chapter 2 discussed the use of machine vision to measure macroscopic features such as length and position, which was extended to the use of interferometry as a linear measurement tool in chapter 3, and laser or other trackers to find the relation of key points on large parts in chapter 4. This chapter looks at measuring large parts to optical tolerances in the sub-micron range using interferometry, ranging, and optical tools discussed in the previous chapters. The purpose of this chapter is not to discuss specific metrology tools (such as interferometers or gauges), but to describe a systems engineering approach to testing large parts. Issues such as material warpage and temperature drifts that may be insignificant when measuring a part to micron levels under a microscope, as will be discussed in later chapters, can prove to be very important when making the same measurement over a larger part. In this chapter, we will define a set of guiding principles for successfully overcoming these challenges and illustrate the application of these principles with real world examples. While these examples are drawn from specific large optical testing applications, they inform the problems associated with testing any large part to optical tolerances. Manufacturing today relies on micrometer level part performance. Fields such as energy and transportation are demanding higher tolerances to provide increased efficiencies and fuel savings. By looking at how the optics industry approaches sub-micrometer metrology, one can gain a better understanding of the metrology challenges for any larger part specified to micrometer tolerances. Testing large parts, whether optical components or precision structures, to optical tolerances is just like testing small parts, only harder. Identical with what one does for small parts, a metrologist tests large parts and optics

  14. Brazilian energy balance 2015: year 2014 - final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2015: ano base 2014 - relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Balance (BEB) contains the accounting relative to energy supply and consumption, as well the conversion processes and foreign trade. It presents in a single document the historical series of these operations and information about reserves, installed capacities and Federal States data. The BEB is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow. Chapters' content can be described as follows: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2014 and analyses the evolution of the domestic energy supply and its relationship with economic growth. Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country. Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy. Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy. Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses. Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources. Chapter 7 - Energy and Socio economics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports. Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. Relating to annexes the current structure is presented bellow: Annex I - Installed Capacity - shows the installed capacity of electricity generation, the installed

  15. The Woodlands Metro Center energy study. Case studies of project planning and design for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located near Houston, including 22,000 acres; the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center (Metro), and a Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Included within the program for each village are schools and commercial activities, as well as employment activities. The Woodlands is planned to be developed over a 26-year period (commenced in 1972) with an ultimate population of 150,000. Following a summary chapter, Chapter II presents background material on The Woodlands and results of the study are summarized. Chapter III describes the project team and its organizational structure. Chapter IV outlines and documents the methodology that was employed in developing, analyzing, and evaluating the case study. The next chapter describes and analyzes the conventional plan, documents the process by which energy-conserving methods were selected, and evaluates the application of these methods to the Metro Center Study area. Chapter VI discusses constraints to implementation and is followed by a final chapter that presents the general conclusions from the case study and suggests directions for further investigation.

  16. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  17. The energy consumption of traffic 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV; Der Energieverbrauch des Verkehrs 1990 - 2035. Ergebnisse der Szenarien I bis IV und der zugehoerigen Sensitivitaeten 'BIP hoch', 'Preise hoch' und 'Klima waermer'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in the traffic sector for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various energy levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. The areas examined include road, rail and air traffic as well as 'off-road' traffic. Infrastructure developments are commented on. The four scenarios are examined for various sensitivities including high gross domestic product GDP, high prices and warmer climate. Alternative fuels are looked at, as are further factors such as fuel tourism, pollutant emissions and costs. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report is completed with a comprehensive appendix

  18. Chapter 3: Biofuel Demand Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieving a sustainable energy future depends increasingly on renewable energy sources. At the present time renewable energy represents only about 14% of the total world energy supply, of which the largest fraction (around 9%) is traditional biomass used mainly in inefficient ways, such as wood bur...

  19. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  20. Mexico's energy sector in year 2003 and 2004-2013 prospectives (Chapter 1 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); El sector energia de Mexico en el 2003 y las prospectivas 2004-2013 (Capitulo 1 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this chapter, related to the energy sector of Mexico the following subjects are reviewed: the structure of the Mexican power sector, the energy balance, the reserves and the production of primary energy, the production and the infrastructure of the hydrocarbons sector, the infrastructure and the production of the electrical sector and, the projections to year 2013. [Spanish] En este capitulo, relacionado con el sector de energia de Mexico se tratan los siguientes temas: la estructura del sector energetico mexicano, el balance de energia, las reservas y la produccion de energeticos primarios, la produccion y la infraestructura del sector hidrocarburos, la infraestructura y la produccion del sector electrico y, las proyecciones al 2013.

  1. Beyond Chapter 4.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Lilon Gretl

    2015-12-01

    Chapter 4.7 of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research refers specifically to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. It lays out the points at which researchers working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders must consider their approach, and the engagement with individuals, communities or groups who are involved in or affected by their research. History, of Australia and of research involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, has informed this approach. The response to that history has been a rational, institutionalised, systematic demand for a different perception of what should direct research and research processes to ensure engagement with and service to the community with whom the researchers wish to do the work. This paper considers whether these principles could inform the approach to other research work.

  2. Background and introduction: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2010-01-01

    efforts.In addition to the legislative context described above, this chapter describes the geographic and environmental contexts surrounding the Act, including key terminology used in subsequent chapters of this report. Subsequent chapters synthesize the state-of-the-science on the following topics: distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar and Russian olive in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with control of saltcedar and Russian olive and associated restoration, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following control, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control. A concluding chapter includes discussion of possible long-term management strategies, areas for additional study, potentially useful field demonstrations, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  3. The energy consumption of the services and farming sectors 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV; Der Energieverbrauch der Dienstleistungen und der Landwirtschaft, 1990 - 2035. Ergebnisse der Szenarien I bis IV und der zugehoerigen Sensitivitaeten BIP hoch, Preise hoch und Klima waermer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, B.; Catenazzi, G.

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in the services sector and for farming for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. In particular, the scenarios are examined for various sensitivities: high gross domestic product GDP, CO{sub 2} levy, high prices and warmer climate. The models and methods used are examined and examples of their use are quoted. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report contains a large number of data-tables and graphical representations

  4. Description of the international scenarios and the renewable energies (Chapter 4 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Descripcion de los escenarios internacionales y las energias renovables (Capitulo 4 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter, energy scenarios made by different organizations are described, the majority foreign, and they do not represent an official version of the Secretaria de Energia of the Mexican government. 1. The IEO-2004, Projections to year 2025 of the Energy Information Agency (EIA) of the Department of Energy of the USA (DOE, USA). - it describes the world-wide energy situation with historical information (1970-2000) and projections to the future (2001-2025); 2. The WOE-2004, Projections to year 2030 of the Agency International of Energy of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (AIE-OECD) - it describes the world-wide energy situation with historical information (1971-2002) and projections to the future (2002-2030); 3. The scenarios of Shell to year 2050; 4, Scenarios to year 2025 of the Agency International of Energy oriented to a sustainable future: it is a document published in the 2003, it contains the results of an exercise to develop three exploratory scenarios and a formative scenario/projections; 5. The study of the World-wide Council of Energy on the activators of the energy sector; 6. Other scenarios for Mexico are: Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation, GEO-Mexico and the Centro de Investigacion de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. [Spanish] En este capitulo, se describen escenarios energeticos a largo plazo realizados por diferentes entidades, la mayoria extranjeras, y no representan una version oficial de la Secretaria de Energia del gobierno de Mexico. 1. El IEO-2004, Proyecciones al 2025 de la Energy Information Agency (EIA) del departamento de energia de los EUA (DOE, USA).- describe la situacion energetica mundial con informacion historica (1970-2000) y proyecciones a futuro (2001-2025); 2. El WOE-2004, Proyecciones al 2030 de la Agencia Internacional de Energia de la Organizacion para la Cooperacion y el Desarrollo Economico (AIE-OCDE).- describe la situacion energetica mundial con informacion historica

  5. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or

  6. Chapter 12: Human microbiome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xochitl C Morgan

    Full Text Available Humans are essentially sterile during gestation, but during and after birth, every body surface, including the skin, mouth, and gut, becomes host to an enormous variety of microbes, bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and viral. Under normal circumstances, these microbes help us to digest our food and to maintain our immune systems, but dysfunction of the human microbiota has been linked to conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to antibiotic-resistant infections. Modern high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic tools provide a powerful means of understanding the contribution of the human microbiome to health and its potential as a target for therapeutic interventions. This chapter will first discuss the historical origins of microbiome studies and methods for determining the ecological diversity of a microbial community. Next, it will introduce shotgun sequencing technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the computational challenges and methods associated with these data, and how they enable microbiome analysis. Finally, it will conclude with examples of the functional genomics of the human microbiome and its influences upon health and disease.

  7. Sediment transport measurements: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplas, P.; Kuhnle, R.; Gray, J.; Glysson, D.; Edwards, T.; García, Marcelo H.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment erosion, transport, and deposition in fluvial systems are complex processes that are treated in detail in other sections of this book. Development of methods suitable for the collection of data that contribute to understanding these processes is a still-evolving science. Sediment and ancillary data are fundamental requirements for the proper management of river systems, including the design of structures, the determination of aspects of stream behavior, ascertaining the probable effect of removing an existing structure, estimation of bulk erosion, transport, and sediment delivery to the oceans, ascertaining the long-term usefulness of reservoirs and other public works, tracking movement of solid-phase contaminants, restoration of degraded or otherwise modified streams, and assistance in the calibration and validation of numerical models. This chapter presents techniques for measuring bed-material properties and suspended and bed-load discharges. Well-established and relatively recent, yet adequately tested, sampling equipment and methodologies, with designs that are guided by sound physical and statistical principles, are described. Where appropriate, the theory behind the development of the equipment and guidelines for its use are presented.

  8. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  9. Chapter 16: Retrocommissioning Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Retrocommissioning (RCx) is a systematic process for optimizing energy performance in existing buildings. It specifically focuses on improving the control of energy-using equipment (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment and lighting) and typically does not involve equipment replacement. Field results have shown proper RCx can achieve energy savings ranging from 5% to 20%, with a typical payback of 2 years or less. A study conducted on behalf of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory analyzed data from 11 utilities operating RCx programs across the United States. The dataset included 122 RCx projects and more than 950 RCx measures.

  10. Volcanism on Mars. Chapter 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Crown, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft exploration has revealed abundant evidence that Mars possesses some of the most dramatic volcanic landforms found anywhere within the solar system. How did a planet half the size of Earth produce volcanoes like Olympus Mons, which is several times the size of the largest volcanoes on Earth? This question is an example of the kinds of issues currently being investigated as part of the space-age scientific endeavor called "comparative planetology." This chapter summarizes the basic information currently known about volcanism on Mars. The volcanoes on Mars appear to be broadly similar in overall morphology (although, often quite different in scale) to volcanic features on Earth, which suggests that Martian eruptive processes are not significantly different from the volcanic styles and processes on Earth. Martian volcanoes are found on terrains of different age, and Martian volcanic rocks are estimated to comprise more than 50% of the Martian surface. This is in contrast to volcanism on smaller bodies such as Earth's Moon, where volcanic activity was mainly confined to the first half of lunar history (see "Volcanism on the Moon"). Comparative planetology supports the concept that volcanism is the primary mechanism for a planetary body to get rid of its internal heat; smaller bodies tend to lose their internal heat more rapidly than larger bodies (although, Jupiter's moon Io appears to contradict this trend; Io's intense volcanic activity is powered by unique gravitational tidal forces within the Jovian system; see "Volcanism on Io"), so that volcanic activity on Mars would be expected to differ considerably from that found on Earth and the Moon.

  11. Estimation of the renewable power resource (Chapter 2 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Estimacion del recurso energetico renovable (Capitulo 2 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Most of the information in this chapter is obtained from 1, 2, 3, 6, 8 and 9 annexes. It is worthwhile to clarify that in most of the cases they are estimations of the available resources, such as: trash, geothermal, solar energy, wind energy, biomass and mini and micro-hydro-energy. In several cases punctual measurements have been made, which do not represent a generic value of a national reserve. [Spanish] La mayor parte de la informacion en este capitulo es obtenida de los anexos 1, 2, 3, 6, 8 y 9. Cabe aclarar que en la mayoria de los casos son estimaciones de los recursos disponibles, tales como: la basura, la geotermia, la energia solar, la energia eolica, la biomasa y, la mini y la micro-hidroenergia. En varios casos se han realizado mediciones puntuales, las cuales no representan un valor generico de una reserva nacional.

  12. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  13. Chapter 6: CPV Tracking and Trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Magalhaes, Pedro; Muller, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This chapter explains the functional requirements of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) sun tracker. It derives the design specifications of a CPV tracker. The chapter presents taxonomy of trackers describing the most common tracking architectures, based on the number of axes, their relative position, and the foundation and placing of tracking drives. It deals with the structural issues related to tracker design, mainly related to structural flexure and its impact on the system's acceptance angle. The chapter analyzes the auto-calibrated sun tracking control, by describing the state of the art and its development background. It explores the sun tracking accuracy measurement with a practical example. The chapter discusses tracker manufacturing and tracker field works. It reviews survey of different types of tracker designs obtained from different manufacturers. Finally, the chapter deals with IEC62817, the technical standard developed for CPV sun trackers.

  14. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.

    1998-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 18 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. This edition of the Data Book has 11 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy Chapter 3 - emissions; Chapter 4 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 5 - highway vehicles; Chapter 6 - Light vehicles; Chapter 7 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 8 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 9 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 10 - household vehicles; and Chapter 11 - nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data.

  15. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to

  16. Energy Efficient Improvements of Existing Buildings through Building Envelope Upgrade Case Study of High Rise Block of Flats on 76, Boulevard Partizanski Odredi in Karpos IV, Skopje

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This research examines the important issue of energy efficient improvements to the existing building stock through building envelope upgrade. To facilitate this, the energy performance characteristics of the existing building stock were identified with a view to establishing an existing building stock type, where building envelope upgrades can contribute to a higher level of energy efficiency improvements. The literature review along with the selected building precedents was used to esta...

  17. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  18. How to write a medical book chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-09-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills.

  19. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    Grand Prix race car be driven upside down on a ceiling? 6-1 What Is Physics? 6-2 Friction. 6-3 Properties of Friction. 6-4 The Drag Force and Terminal Speed. 6-5 Uniform Circular Motion. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 7. Kinetic Energy and Work. In an epidural procedure, what sensations clue a surgeon that the needle has reached the spinal canal? 7-1 What Is Physics? 7-2 What Is Energy? 7-3 Kinetic Energy. 7-4 Work. 7-5 Work and Kinetic Energy. 7-6 Work Done by the Gravitational Force. 7-7 Work Done by a Spring Force. 7-8 Work Done by a General Variable Force. 7-9 Power. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 8. Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy. In rock climbing, what subtle factor determines if a falling climber will snap the rope? 8-1 What Is Physics? 8-2 Work and Potential Energy. 8-3 Path Independence of Conservative Forces. 8-4 Determining Potential Energy Values. 8-5 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. 8-6 Reading a Potential Energy Curve. 8-7 Work Done on a System by an External Force. 8-8 Conservation of Energy. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 9. Center of Mass and Linear Momentum. Does the presence of a passenger reduce the fatality risk in head-on car collisions? 9-1 What Is Physics? 9-2 The Center of Mass. 9-3 Newton's Second Law for a System of Particles. 9-4 Linear Momentum. 9-5 The Linear Momentum of a System of Particles. 9-6 Collision and Impulse. 9-7 Conservation of Linear Momentum. 9-8 Momentum and Kinetic Energy in Collisions. 9-9 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension. 9-10 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension. 9-11 Collisions in Two Dimensions. 9-12 Systems with Varying Mass: A Rocket. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 10. Rotation. What causes roller-coaster headache? 10-1 What Is Physics? 10-2 The Rotational Variables. 10-3 Are Angular Quantities Vectors? 10-4 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration. 10-5 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables. 10-6 Kinetic Energy of Rotation. 10

  20. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  1. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  2. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  3. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., data centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).

  4. Cost effective energy strategies for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in the United States: Country report for ETSAP Annex IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Marcuse, J.L.W.; Goldstein, G.

    1993-02-01

    The energy system of the United States of America was analyzed using MARKAL. The time period of the study was 1990--2030. Projected energy demands over this period for a Reference Scenario were largely modeled after the US Energy Information Administration`s 1992 Annual Energy Outlook for 1990--2010 and from the National Energy Strategy for the period 2010--2030. Expectations of maximum growth rates of conservation and renewable energy technologies were based on the same sources. Reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions were achieved by setting absolute constraints on total emissions levels by year and by carbon taxes. A 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions was near the limit of technical feasibility for this scenario. This resulted in an overall cost increase of $1.1 trillion present value, but marginal costs on CO{sub 2} emissions reductions ranged up to $3300/ton. Over 70% of the CO{sub 2} emissions reduction occurred in electrical generation, partly resulting from decreases in demand for electricity. Additional scenarios were run for conditions of low economic growth and with the addition of carbon sequestering technologies.

  5. Cost effective energy strategies for the reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions in the United States: Country report for ETSAP Annex IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Marcuse, J.L.W.; Goldstein, G.

    1993-02-01

    The energy system of the United States of America was analyzed using MARKAL. The time period of the study was 1990--2030. Projected energy demands over this period for a Reference Scenario were largely modeled after the US Energy Information Administration's 1992 Annual Energy Outlook for 1990--2010 and from the National Energy Strategy for the period 2010--2030. Expectations of maximum growth rates of conservation and renewable energy technologies were based on the same sources. Reductions in CO[sub 2] emissions were achieved by setting absolute constraints on total emissions levels by year and by carbon taxes. A 10% reduction in CO[sub 2] emissions was near the limit of technical feasibility for this scenario. This resulted in an overall cost increase of $1.1 trillion present value, but marginal costs on CO[sub 2] emissions reductions ranged up to $3300/ton. Over 70% of the CO[sub 2] emissions reduction occurred in electrical generation, partly resulting from decreases in demand for electricity. Additional scenarios were run for conditions of low economic growth and with the addition of carbon sequestering technologies.

  6. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  7. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV-Development of an insolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Recognizing a need for a coordinated approach to resolve energy problems, certain members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) met in September 1974 and agreed to develop an International Energy Program. The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established within the OECD to administer, monitor and execute this International Energy Program. In July 1975, Solar Heating and Cooling was selected as one of the sixteen technology fields for multilateral cooperation. Five project areas, called tasks, were identified for cooperative activities within the IEA Program to Develop and Test Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. The objective of one task was to obtain improved basic resource information for the design and operation of solar heating and cooling systems through a better understanding of the required insolation (solar radiation) and related weather data, and through improved techniques for measurement and evaluation of such data. At the February 1976 initial experts meeting in Norrkoeping, Sweden, the participants developed the objective statement into two subtasks. (1) an insolation handbook; and (2) a portable meteorological instrument package. This handbook is the product of the first subtask. The objective of this handbook is to provide a basis for a dialogue between solar scientists and meteorologists. Introducing the solar scientist to solar radiation and related meteorological data enables him to better express his scientific and engineering needs to the meteorologist; and introducing the meteorologist to the special solar radiation and meteorological data applications of the solar scientist enables him to better meet the needs of the solar energy community.

  8. Chapter 17. Engineering cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbee, Charles V.

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1970s, life cycle costing (LCC) was adopted by the federal government. LCC is a method of evaluating all the costs associated with acquisition, construction and operation of a project. LCC was designed to minimize costs of major projects, not only in consideration of acquisition and construction, but especially to emphasize the reduction of operation and maintenance costs during the project life. Authors of engineering economics texts have been very reluctant and painfully slow to explain and deal with LCC. Many authors devote less than one page to the subject. The reason for this is that LCC has several major drawbacks. The first of these is that costs over the life of the project must be estimated based on some forecast, and forecasts have proven to be highly variable and frequently inaccurate. The second problem with LCC is that some life span must be selected over which to evaluate the project, and many projects, especially renewable energy projects, are expected to have an unlimited life (they are expected to live for ever). The longer the life cycle, the more inaccurate annual costs become because of the inability to forecast accurately.

  9. Statistical mechanics of light elements at high pressure. IV - A model free energy for the metallic phase. [for Jovian type planet interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, H. E.; Hubbard, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    A large quantity of data on the thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium metallic liquids have been obtained in extended computer calculations in which a Monte Carlo code essentially identical to that described by Hubbard (1972) was used. A model free energy for metallic hydrogen with a relatively small mass fraction of helium is discussed, taking into account the definition of variables, a procedure for choosing the free energy, values for the fitting parameters, and the evaluation of the entropy constants. Possibilities concerning a use of the obtained data in studies of the interiors of the outer planets are briefly considered.

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE III. DEMONSTRATION TESTS - PHASE IV. GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS- VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the results of a four-phase program to demonstrate that fuel cell energy recovery using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell is both environmentally sound and commercially feasible. Phase I, a conceptual design and evaluation study, addressed the technical...

  11. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  12. Magnetohydrodynamics of atmospheric transients. IV - Nonplane two-dimensional analyses of energy conversion and magnetic field evolution. [during corona following solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Nakagawa, Y.; Han, S. M.; Dryer, M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of the magnetic field and the manner of conversion of thermal energy into different forms in the corona following a solar flare are investigated by means of a nonplane magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis. All three components of magnetic field and velocity are treated in a physically self-consistent manner, with all physical variables as functions of time (t) and two spatial coordinates (r, theta). The difference arising from the initial magnetic field, either twisted (force-free) or non-twisted (potential), is demonstrated. Consideration is given to two initial field topologies (open vs. closed). The results demonstrate that the conversion of magnetic energy is faster for the case of the initially twisted (force-free) field than for the initially untwisted (potential) field. In addition, the twisted field is found to produce a complex structure of the density enhancements.

  13. A new entropy model for RNA: part IV, The Minimum Free Energy (mFE and the thermodynamically most-probable folding pathway (TMPFP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Dawson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we discuss four important questions (1 how can we be sure that the thermodynamically most-probable folding-pathway yields the minimum free energy for secondary structure using the dynamic programming algorithm (DPA approach, (2 what are its limitations, (3 how can we extend the DPA to find the minimum free energy with pseudoknots, and finally (4 what limitations can we expect to find in a DPA approach for pseudoknots. It is our supposition that some structures cannot be fit uniquely by the DPA, but may exist in real biology situations when disordered regions in the biomolecule are necessary. These regions would be identifiable by using suboptimal structure analysis. This grants us some qualitative tools to identify truly random RNA sequences, because such are likely to have greater degeneracy in their thermodynamically most-probable folding-pathway.

  14. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV. Development of an isolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The following are covered: the Sun and its radiation, solar radiation and atmospheric interaction, solar radiation measurement methods, spectral irradiance measurements of natural sources, the measurement of infrared radiation, the measurement of circumsolar radiation, some empirical properties of solar radiation and related parameters, duration of sunshine, and meteorological variables related to solar energy. Included in appendices are manufacturers and distributors of solar radiation measuring instruments and an approximate method for quality control of solar radiation instruments. (MHR)

  15. Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Cullinan Ranch Specific Plan. Chapter 11. Appendix IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Communications Carper , H.D. June 24, 1983. Director. California Department of .m .Fish and Game. Letter to the City of Vallejo regarding Draft EIR/EIS...Santa Barbara Channel is currently the northern-most breeding site (Briggs et al. 1981). Until 1959, brown pelicans nested as far north as Bird Island

  16. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  17. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  18. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  19. European waste-to-energy systems. Case study of Munich: Munich North IA and IB, Munich North II, Munich South IV and V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The city of Munich has a population of 1,315,000. Solid waste is collected by a city department and delivered to the city's own Electricity Works. The Electricity Works incinerates the waste in five incinerators in two separate locations (the North and South plants). Munich's five incinerators represent three different designs for co-generation of heat and electrical energy. All burn both waste and fossil fuel and all use Benson boilers to produce steam at 184 bars (181.5 atm) and 540/sup 0/C (1,000/sup 0/F). The Electricity Works recovers energy in the form of electricity, hot water, and steam. Ash, bulky objects, and non-incinerable waste are dumped on a ''garbage mountain'' within the city limits. The system's priority is to produce electricity for the city grid rather than to treat waste. The hot water and steam produced are used in district heating. The system is peakloaded both for electricity and for district heating, and, as a result, is operated with some diseconomy. Over 450,000 metric tons (495,700 short tons) of waste were burned in 1975. That amount represents practically all the solid waste collected in Munich. A shredder with a capacity of 30,000 metric tons (33,000 short tons) per year will be added in 1977 and this will allow for even more complete incineration in the future. Some fees for collection go towards the difference between the total costs ofincineration and the revenue earned from the sale of energy and scrap metal. The rates charged appear to be far below actual costs of incineration, which suggests that the sale of electricity is subsidizing the cost of incineration.

  20. SparseMaps—A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. IV. Linear-scaling second-order explicitly correlated energy with pair natural orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavošević, Fabijan; Pinski, Peter; Riplinger, Christoph; Neese, Frank; Valeev, Edward F.

    2016-04-01

    We present a formulation of the explicitly correlated second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2-F12) energy in which all nontrivial post-mean-field steps are formulated with linear computational complexity in system size. The two key ideas are the use of pair-natural orbitals for compact representation of wave function amplitudes and the use of domain approximation to impose the block sparsity. This development utilizes the concepts for sparse representation of tensors described in the context of the domain based local pair-natural orbital-MP2 (DLPNO-MP2) method by us recently [Pinski et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 034108 (2015)]. Novel developments reported here include the use of domains not only for the projected atomic orbitals, but also for the complementary auxiliary basis set (CABS) used to approximate the three- and four-electron integrals of the F12 theory, and a simplification of the standard B intermediate of the F12 theory that avoids computation of four-index two-electron integrals that involve two CABS indices. For quasi-1-dimensional systems (n-alkanes), the O (" separators="N ) DLPNO-MP2-F12 method becomes less expensive than the conventional O (" separators="N5 ) MP2-F12 for n between 10 and 15, for double- and triple-zeta basis sets; for the largest alkane, C200H402, in def2-TZVP basis, the observed computational complexity is N˜1.6, largely due to the cubic cost of computing the mean-field operators. The method reproduces the canonical MP2-F12 energy with high precision: 99.9% of the canonical correlation energy is recovered with the default truncation parameters. Although its cost is significantly higher than that of DLPNO-MP2 method, the cost increase is compensated by the great reduction of the basis set error due to explicit correlation.

  1. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  2. The Blackholic energy and the canonical Gamma-Ray Burst IV: the ``long,'' ``genuine short'' and ``fake-disguised short'' GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Aksenov, Alexey G.; Bernardini, Maria Grazia; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Chardonnet, Pascal; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; de Barros, Gustavo; Guida, Roberto; Izzo, Luca; Patricelli, Barbara; Lemos, Luis Juracy Rangel; Rotondo, Michael; Hernandez, Jorge Armando Rueda; Vereshchagin, Gregory; Xue, She-Sheng

    2009-05-01

    We report some recent developments in the understanding of GRBs based on the theoretical framework of the ``fireshell'' model, already presented in the last three editions of the ``Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation.'' After recalling the basic features of the ``fireshell model,'' we emphasize the following novel results: 1) the interpretation of the X-ray flares in GRB afterglows as due to the interaction of the optically thin fireshell with isolated clouds in the CircumBurst Medium (CBM) 2) an interpretation as ``fake-disguised'' short GRBs of the GRBs belonging to the class identified by Norris & Bonnell; we present two prototypes, GRB 970228 and GRB 060614; both these cases are consistent with an origin from the final coalescence of a binary system in the halo of their host galaxies with particularly low CBM density ncbm~10-3 particles/cm3 3) the first attempt to study a genuine short GRB with the analysis of GRB 050509B, that reveals indeed still an open question; 4) the interpretation of the GRB-SN association in the case of GRB 060218 via the ``induced gravitational collapse'' process; 5) a first attempt to understand the nature of the ``Amati relation,'' a phenomenological correlation between the isotropic-equivalent radiated energy of the prompt emission Eiso with the cosmological rest-frame νFν spectrum peak energy Ep,i. In addition, recent progress on the thermalization of the electron-positron plasma close to their formation phase, as well as the structure of the electrodynamics of Kerr-Newman Black Holes are presented. An outlook for possible explanation of high-energy phenomena in GRBs to be expected from the AGILE and the Fermi satellites are discussed. As an example of high energy process, the work by Enrico Fermi dealing with ultrarelativistic collisions is examined. It is clear that all the GRB physics points to the existence of overcritical electrodynamical fields. In this sense we present some progresses on a unified approach to

  3. Application of the MST clustering to the high energy gamma-ray sky. IV - Blazar candidates found as possible counterparts of photon clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, R; Bernieri, E

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a cluster search in the Fermi-LAT Pass 8 gamma-ray sky by means of the Minimum Spanning Tree algorithm, at energies higher than 10 GeV and at Galactic latitudes higher than 25 degrees. The selected clusters have a minimum number of photons higher than or equal to 5, a high degree of concentration, and are without a clear corresponding counterpart in blazar catalogues. A sample of 30 possible gamma-ray sources was obtained. These objects were verified by applying the standard Maximum Likelihood analysis on the Fermi-LAT data. A search for possible radio counterparts in a circle having a radius of 6 arcmin was performed, finding several interesting objects, the majority of them without optical spectroscopical data. These can be considered as new blazar candidates. Some of them were already noticed as possible blazars or Active Galactic Nuclei in previous surveys, but never associated with high energy emission. These possible counterparts are reported and their properties are discussed.

  4. Marketing produktu Karel IV.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikšů, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    Goal of the thesis Marketing of the product Karel IV. is to propose chanels of marketing communication and indicate possibilities of next product's development. Theoretical part is based on marketing plan and it's partition. In the practical part you can find market analysis and competing products analysis, product's evolution description and marketing research.

  5. Dibromidodimethyldipyridineplatinum(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad E. Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [PtBr2(CH32(C5H5N2], the PtIV metal centre lies on a twofold rotation axis and adopts a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The structure displays weak intramolecular C—H...Br hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  6. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  7. The BeppoSAX High Energy Large Area Survey. IV. On the soft X-ray properties of the hard X-ray-selected HELLAS sources

    CERN Document Server

    Vignali, C; Fiore, F; La Franca, F

    2001-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the soft X-ray properties of the BeppoSAX High-Energy Large Area Survey (HELLAS) sources. A large fraction (about 2/3) of the hard X-ray selected sources is detected by ROSAT. The soft X-ray colors for many of these objects, along with the 0.5-2 keV flux upper limits for those undetected in the ROSAT band, do imply the presence of absorption. The comparison with the ROSAT Deep Survey sources indicates that a larger fraction of absorbed objects among the HELLAS sources is present, in agreement with their hard X-ray selection and the predictions of the X-ray background synthesis models. Another striking result is the presence of a soft (additional) X-ray component in a significant fraction of absorbed objects.

  8. Denmark - Chapter in Handbook of Global Bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Faber, Berit A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter about bioethics in Denmark focuses on specific Danish characteristics. These are the early start of a bioethics debate, legislation and bioethics councils; the independence of the councils and the parliamentarians voting on ethical issues; the introduction and extraordinary importance...... of laymen as a part of the bioethical debate and decisions; and the strong focus on debate and educational tools....

  9. Workplace innovation in the Netherlands: chapter 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Dhondt, S.; Korte, E. de; Oeij, P.; Vaas, F.

    2012-01-01

    Social innovation of work and employment is a prerequisite to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labor market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organizational level. This chapter focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  10. Chapter 12: spatial or area repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial repellents a three-dimensional zone of protection around a host from attacks by biting arthropods. This chapter reviews current knowledge and outlines future directions for utilization of spatial repellents. Current knowledge includes the kinds of products, both active and passive devices,...

  11. Transfer of property inter vivos : chapter 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will give an overview of the various transfer systems for movable property and immovable property. It will focus on voluntary transfers based on a legal act between the transferor and transferee. First the difference between the unitary approach and the functional approach to passing of

  12. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 4. Technology appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-19

    This volume of the 4-volume ISTUM documentation gives information on the individual technology specifications. The first chapter presents a general overview of the ISTUM technology data bases. It includes an explanation of the data-base printouts and how the separate-cost building blocks are combined to derive an aggregate-technology cost. The remaining chapters document the specific-technology-cost specifications. Boiler technologies (conventional coal steam, conventional natural gas and oil in the steam-service sector, black liquor and wood boilers, and space-heat service sector) and non-boiler conventional technologies (natural gas non-boiler, oil-fired non-boiler, coal-fired non-boiler technologies and non-boiler primary system costs) are covered in Chapter II. Chapter III, Fossil Energy Technologies, covers atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, low-Btu gasification of coal, and medium-Btu gasification. Chapter IV, Cogeneration and Self-Generation Technologies, covers the steam service sector, machine-drive service sector, and electrolytic service sector. Solar and geothermal technologies (solar steam, solar space heat, and geothermal steam technologies) are covered in Chapter V, while Chapter VI covers conservation technologies. (MCW)

  13. What Is New in Rome IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmulson, Max J; Drossman, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed and classified using the Rome criteria; the criteria may change over time as new scientific data emerge. The Rome IV was released in May 2016. The aim is to review the main changes in Rome IV. FGIDs are now called disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI). Rome IV has a multicultural rather than a Western-culture focus. There are new chapters including multicultural, age-gender-women’s health, intestinal microenvironment, biopsychosocial, and centrally mediated disorders. New disorders have been included although not truly FGIDs, but fit the new definition of DGBI including opioid-induced gastrointestinal hyperalgesia, opioid-induced constipation, and cannabinoid hyperemesis. Also, new FGIDs based on available evidence including reflux hypersensitivity and centrally mediated abdominal pain syndrome. Using a normative survey to determine the frequency of normal bowel symptoms in the general population changes in the time frame for diagnosis were introduced. For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) only pain is required and discomfort was eliminated because it is non-specific, having different meanings in different languages. Pain is now related to bowel movements rather than just improving with bowel movements (ie, can get worse with bowel movement). Functional bowel disorders (functional diarrhea, functional constipation, IBS with predominant diarrhea [IBS-D], IBS with predominant constipation [IBS-C], and IBS with mixed bowel habits) are considered to be on a continuum rather than as independent entities. Clinical applications such as diagnostic algorithms and the Multidimensional Clinical Profile have been updated. The new Rome IV iteration is evidence-based, multicultural oriented and with clinical applications. As new evidence become available, future updates are expected. PMID:28274109

  14. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies. IV. Physical properties derived from spectral energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, O.; Delvecchio, I.; Smolčić, V.; Novak, M.; Aravena, M.; Karim, A.; Murphy, E. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Capak, P.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H. T.; Laigle, C.; McCracken, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the early Universe are potential antecedents of the most massive galaxies we see in the present-day Universe. An important step towards quantifying this galactic evolutionary connection is to investigate the fundamental physical properties of SMGs, such as their stellar mass content (M⋆) and star formation rate (SFR). Aims: We attempt to characterise the physical nature of a 1.1 mm selected, flux-limited, and interferometrically followed up sample of SMGs in the COSMOS field. Methods: We used the latest release of the MAGPHYS code to fit the multiwavelength (UV to radio) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 16 of the target SMGs, which lie at redshifts z ≃ 1.6-5.3. We also constructed the pure radio SEDs of our SMGs using three different radio bands (325 MHz, 1.4 GHz, and 3 GHz). Moreover, since two SMGs in our sample, AzTEC 1 and AzTEC 3, benefit from previous 12C16O line observations, we studied their properties in more detail. Results: The median and 16th-84th percentile ranges of M⋆, infrared (8-1000 μm) luminosity (LIR), SFR, dust temperature (Tdust), and dust mass (Mdust) were derived to be log (M⋆/M⊙) = 10.96+ 0.34-0.19, log (LIR/L⊙) = 12.93+ 0.09-0.19, SFR = 856+ 191-310M⊙ yr-1, Tdust = 40.6+ 7.5-8.1 K, and log (Mdust/M⊙) = 9.17+ 0.03-0.33, respectively. We found that 63% of our target SMGs lie above the galaxy main sequence by more than a factor of 3 and, hence, are starbursts. The 3 GHz radio sizes we have previously measured for the target SMGs were compared with the present M⋆ estimates, and we found that the z> 3 SMGs are fairly consistent with the mass-size relationship of z 2 compact, quiescent galaxies (cQGs). The median radio spectral index is found to be α = -0.77+ 0.28-0.42. The median IR-radio correlation parameter is found to be q = 2.27+ 0.27-0.13, which is lower than was measured locally (median q = 2.64). The gas-to-dust mass ratio for AzTEC 1 is derived to be δgdr = 90+ 23

  15. Technological Prospective (Chapter 3 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva tecnologica (Capitulo 3 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter it is described how the prospective analysis is carried on in: the trash and its transformation into energy that is made through thermal or biological processes; geothermal, where the relation with low and intermediate temperature resources will be differentiated from those of high temperature for electrical power generation; thermo-solar, that is a high temperature system for electrical power generation and low temperature systems for space heating or process heat; photovoltaic, that is the direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity; the wind energy is the advantage of the kinetic energy of the wind; the use of the biomass or its derivatives requires of transformations on the basis of processes of direct combustion; the gasification or pyrolysis to produce, either in direct form or through the production of a synthetic gas, process heat or electricity in facilities and, mini-hydro energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se describe como es llevado el analisis prospectivo en: la basura y su transformacion en energia que se realiza a traves de procesos termicos o de procesos biologicos; la geotermia donde se distinguira la relacion con los recursos de temperatura baja e intermedia y los de alta temperatura para generacion electrica; la termosolar que es un sistema de alta temperatura para generacion electrica y sistema de baja temperatura para acondicionamiento de espacios o calor de proceso; fotovoltaico que es la conversion directa de la radiacion solar a electricidad; la energia eolica es el aprovechamiento de la energia cinetica del viento; la utilizacion de la biomasa o sus derivados requiere de transformaciones en base a procesos de combustion directa; la gasificacion o pirolisis para producir, o bien en forma directa o a traves de la produccion de un gas sintetico, calor de proceso o electricidad en instalaciones y, la minihidroenergia.

  16. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  17. Global energy policy and security

    CERN Document Server

    Leal Filho, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a multidisciplinary perspective on issues about global energy policy and security. It integrates philosophical chapters with technical/modeling chapters and covers issues related to finance, economics, and environmental science.

  18. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  19. Vaccination against bacterial kidney disease: Chapter 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.; Edited by Gudding, Roar; Lillehaug, Atle; Evensen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.

  20. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P V

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  1. Chapter 2. The market orientation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to introduce the concept of market orientation presented as an alternative to the traditional marketing concept. The Internet technology is creating a dual trading arena where traditional market actors have changing roles and new actors are emerging. To cope with this increased market complexity, a distinction is made between a cultural and an instrumental definition of the Market Orientation (MO) concept. Market orientation as an organisational culture is a c...

  2. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 2 (Chapters 12-20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Chapter 12 Equilibrium and Elasticity. What injury can occur to a rock climber hanging by a crimp hold? 12-1 What Is Physics? 12-2 Equilibrium. 12-3 The Requirements of Equilibrium. 12-4 The Center of Gravity. 12-5 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium. 12-6 Indeterminate Structures. 12-7 Elasticity. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 13 Gravitation. What lies at the center of our Milky Way galaxy? 13-1 What Is Physics? 13-2 Newton's Law of Gravitation. 13-3 Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition. 13-4 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface. 13-5 Gravitation Inside Earth. 13-6 Gravitational Potential Energy. 13-7 Planets and Satellites: Kepler's Laws. 13-8 Satellites: Orbits and Energy. 13-9 Einstein and Gravitation. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 14 Fluids. What causes ground effect in race car driving? 14-1 What Is Physics? 14-2 What Is a Fluid? 14-3 Density and Pressure. 14-4 Fluids at Rest. 14-5 Measuring Pressure. 14-6 Pascal's Principle. 14-7 Archimedes' Principle. 14-8 Ideal Fluids in Motion. 14-9 The Equation of Continuity. 14-10 Bernoulli's Equation. Review & SummaryQuestionsProblems. Chapter 15 Oscillations. What is the "secret" of a skilled diver's high catapult in springboard diving? 15-1 What Is Physics? 15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-3 The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 15-6 Pendulums. 15-7 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion. 15-8 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-9 Forced Oscillations and Resonance. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 16 Waves--I. How can a submarine wreck be located by distant seismic stations? 16-1 What Is Physics? 16-2 Types of Waves. 16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves. 16-4 Wavelength and Frequency. 16-5 The Speed of a Traveling Wave. 16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String. 16-7 Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String. 16-8 The Wave Equation. 16-9 The Principle of Superposition

  3. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  4. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...

  5. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 and Later Model Year Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 and Later Model Year Vehicles IV Appendix IV to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. IV Appendix IV to Part...

  7. Columbia: The Economic Foundation of Peace. Chapters 21-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugale, Marcelo M., Ed.; Lafourcade, Olivier, Ed.; Luff, Connie, Ed.

    This document contains 8 chapters of a 35-chapter book that presents a comprehensive diagnosis of current economic, social, and educational conditions in Colombia and their importance to development prospects and the quest for peace. The eight chapters covered here are part of a section titled "Sharing the Fruits of Growth with All…

  8. Universal Sensor and Actuator Requirements. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Taylor; Webster, John; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The previous chapters have focused on the requirements for sensors and actuators for "More Intelligent Gas Turbine Engines" from the perspective of performance and operating environment. Even if a technology is available, which meets these performance requirements, there are still various hurdles to be overcome for the technology to transition into a real engine. Such requirements relate to TRL (Technology Readiness Level), durability, reliability, volume, weight, cost, etc. This chapter provides an overview of such universal requirements which any sensor or actuator technology will have to meet before it can be implemented on a product. The objective here is to help educate the researchers or technology developers on the extensive process that the technology has to go through beyond just meeting performance requirements. The hope is that such knowledge will help the technology developers as well as decision makers to prevent wasteful investment in developing solutions to performance requirements, which have no potential to meet the "universal" requirements. These "universal" requirements can be divided into 2 broad areas: 1) Technology value proposition; and 2) Technology maturation. These requirements are briefly discussed in the following.

  9. Volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. This chapter presents a summary of the sources, transport, fate, and remediation of volatile fuel hydrocarbons and fuel additives in the environment. Much research has focused on the transport and transformation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes and methyl tert‐butyl ether, in groundwater following release from underground storage tanks. Natural attenuation from biodegradation limits the movement of these contaminants and has received considerable attention as an environmental restoration option. This chapter summarizes approaches to environmental restoration, including those that rely on natural attenuation, and also engineered or enhanced remediation. Researchers are increasingly combining several microbial and molecular-based methods to give a complete picture of biodegradation potential and occurrence at contaminated field sites. New insights into the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel additives have been gained by recent advances in analytical tools and approaches, including stable isotope fractionation, analysis of metabolic intermediates, and direct microbial evidence. However, development of long-term detailed monitoring programs is required to further develop conceptual models of natural attenuation and increase our understanding of the behavior of contaminant mixtures in the subsurface.

  10. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  11. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  12. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  13. Phase IV of Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, ...

  14. Chapter 11. Fuel Economy: The Case for Market Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; German, John [Environmental and Energy Analysis; Delucchi, Mark A [University of California, Davis

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of energy using durable goods, from automobiles to home air conditioners, is not only a key determinant of economy-wide energy use but also of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change and energy insecurity. Energy analysts have long noted that consumers appear to have high implicit discount rates for future fuel savings when choosing among energy using durable goods (Howarth and Sanstad, 1995). In modeling consumers choices of appliances, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has used discount rates of 30 percent for heating systems, 69 percent for choice of refrigerator and up to 111 percent for choice of water heater (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1996). Several explanations have been offered for this widespread phenomenon, including asymmetric information, bounded rationality and transaction costs. This chapter argues that uncertainty combined with loss aversion by consumers is sufficient to explain the failure to adopt cost effective energy efficiency improvements in the market for automotive fuel economy, although other market failures appear to be present as well. Understanding how markets for energy efficiency function is crucial to formulating effective energy policies (see Pizer, 2006). Fischer et al., (2004), for example, demonstrated that if consumers fully value the discounted present value of future fuel savings, fuel economy standards are largely redundant and produce small welfare losses. However, if consumers value only the first three years of fuel savings, then fuel economy standards can significantly increase consumer welfare. The nature of any market failure that might be present in the market for energy efficiency would also affect the relative efficacy of energy taxes versus regulatory standards (CBO, 2003). If markets function efficiently, energy taxes would generally be more efficient than regulatory standards in increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy use. If markets are decidedly inefficient, standards would likely be

  15. Energy sustainability through green energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Atul

    2015-01-01

    This book shares the latest developments and advances in materials and processes involved in the energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage. Chapters are written by researchers in the energy and materials field. Topics include, but are not limited to, energy from biomass, bio-gas and bio-fuels; solar, wind, geothermal, hydro power, wave energy; energy-transmission, distribution and storage; energy-efficient lighting buildings; energy sustainability; hydrogen and fuel cells; energy policy for new and renewable energy technologies and education for sustainable energy development

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  17. Chapter 40: history of neurology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, François; Boller, François

    2010-01-01

    The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where "everything seems to happen in Paris," and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world. The chapter shows, however, that the work of Charcot was preceded by a long evolution in medical thinking, which culminated with the introduction of experimental medicine developed by Claude Bernard and François Magendie, and by the study of aphasia by Paul Broca and its localization of language in a specific area of the brain. Many of the great neurologists of France like Duchenne de Boulogne, Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski and Pierre Marie gravitated around Charcot while others like Charles-Edward Brown-Sequard and Jules Dejerine developed their talents independently. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital further illustrates this independence. It also shows the relation between neurology and psychiatry with Henri Ey, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, who collaborated with Henri Laborit in the clinical development of chlorpromazine. Sainte Anne also saw the birth of modern neuropsychology with Henry Hécaen. Jean Talairach and his group developed human stereotaxic neurosurgery and a 3-dimensional brain atlas that is used around the world. The chapter also mentions institutions (the CNRS and INSERM) that have contributed to developments partially independently from medical schools. It concludes with a presentation of schools located outside of Paris that have played a significant role in the development of neurology. Six of the most important ones are described: Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Lyon, and

  18. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  19. DSM-IV Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) will become one of most frequently used reference documents in counseling profession. Describes progress being made in development of DSM-IV, scheduled for publication in 1994. Describes revision process and proposed organizational changes and new diagnostic…

  20. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  1. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  2. Transportation Energy Data Book. Edition 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  3. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  4. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  5. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.; Diegel, Susan W.

    2002-12-04

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www.cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4 - criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 6 - highway vehicles; Chapter 7 - light vehicles; Chapter 8 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 9 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 11 - household vehicles; and Chapter 12- nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  6. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2008-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  7. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2009-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with U.S Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program and the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  8. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2003-10-24

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  9. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  10. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  11. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  12. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2005-03-08

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  13. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  14. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-03-29

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  15. Future: Solar energy. Zukunft: Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first chapter, 'Solar energy - more than just Utopia' deals with the following: Alternatives to nuclear energy problems of energy supply, solar energy use, commencement of the solar age in space, solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany, solar collectors, wind power, energy from hydrogen. The second chapter 'Solar energy - its contribution to future energy supply' discusses prospects for the future (interviews with scientists and engineers). The third and last chapter gives practical hints (solar energy use: self-construction of solar plants). (HWJ).

  16. Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribov, Y.; Humphreys, D.; Kajiwara, K.; Lazarus, E. A.; Lister, J. B.; Ozeki, T.; Portone, A.; Shimada, M.; Sips, A. C. C.; Wesley, J. C.

    2007-06-01

    The ITER plasma control system has the same functional scope as the control systems in present tokamaks. These are plasma operation scenario sequencing, plasma basic control (magnetic and kinetic), plasma advanced control (control of RWMs, NTMs, ELMs, error fields, etc) and plasma fast shutdown. This chapter considers only plasma initiation and plasma basic control. This chapter describes the progress achieved in these areas in the tokamak experiments since the ITER Physics Basis (1999 Nucl. Fusion 39 2577) was written and the results of assessment of ITER to provide the plasma initiation and basic control. This assessment was done for the present ITER design (15 MA machine) at a more detailed level than it was done for the ITER design 1998 (21 MA machine) described in the ITER Physics Basis (1999 Nucl. Fusion 39 2577). The experiments on plasma initiation performed in DIII-D and JT-60U, as well as the theoretical studies performed for ITER, have demonstrated that, within specified assumptions on the plasma confinement and the impurity influx, ITER can produce plasma initiation in a low toroidal electric field (0.3 V m-1), if it is assisted by about 2 MW of ECRF heating. The plasma basic control includes control of the plasma current, position and shape—the plasma magnetic control, as well as control of other plasma global parameters or their profiles—the plasma performance control. The magnetic control is based on more reliable and simpler models of the control objects than those available at present for the plasma kinetic control. Moreover the real time diagnostics used for the magnetic control in many cases are more precise than those used for the kinetic control. Because of these reasons, the plasma magnetic control was developed for modern tokamaks and assessed for ITER better than the kinetic control. However, significant progress has been achieved in the plasma performance control during the last few years. Although the physics basis of plasma operation

  17. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; Jones, L; Lu, S.; Menut, L.; Mulcahy, J.; Nickovic, S.; Morcrette, J.-J.; Perez, C.; Reid, J. S.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Tanaka, T.; Terradellas, E.; Westphal, D. L.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Zhou, C.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  18. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  19. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal.

  20. Moving forward with imperfect information: chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Brekke, Levi D.; Kaatz, Laurna; Welling, Leigh; Hartge, Eric H.; Iseman, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarized the scope of what is known and not known about climate in the Southwestern United States. There is now more evidence and more agreement among climate scientists about the physical climate and related impacts in the Southwest compared with that represented in the 2009 National Climate Assessment (Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009). However, there remain uncertainties about the climate system, the complexities within climate models, the related impacts to the biophysical environment, and the use of climate information on decision making. Uncertainty is introduced in each step of the climate planning-an-response process--in the scenarios used to drive the climate models, the information used to construct the models, and the interpretation and use of the model' data for planning and decision making (Figure 19.1). There are server key challenge, drawn from recommendations of the authors of this report, that contribute to these uncertainties in the Southwest: - There is a dearth of climate observations at high elevations and on the lands of Native nations.

  1. Chapter 14: Web-based Tools - WESIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krughoff, K. S.; Connolly, A. J.

    We present here the design and features of the Web Enabled Source Identifier with X-Matching (WESIX). With the proliferation of large imaging surveys, it has become increasingly apparent that tasks performed frequently by astronomers need to be made available in a web-aware manner. The reasons for this are twofold: First, it is no longer feasible to work with the complete data sets. Calculations are much more efficient if they can be carried out at the data center where large files can be transferred quickly. Second, exploratory science can be greatly facilitated by combining common tasks into integrated web services. WESIX addresses both of these issues. It is deployable to large data centers where source identification can be carried out at the data source. In addition, WESIX can transparently leverage the capabilities of Open SkyQuery to crossmatch with large catalogs. The result is a web-based service that integrates object detection with the ability to crossmatch against published catalog data. In this chapter we will discuss how WESIX is constructed, its functionality and some example usage. Section 1 will give a brief overview of the architecture of the service. Section 2 will introduce the features of the service through both the web browser and SOAP web service interfaces. Section 3 gives a detailed overview of the web service methods. Section 4 walks through the example client distributed with the software package.

  2. Tethys and Annex IV Progress Report for FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Luke A.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-09-01

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System, dubbed “Tethys” after the mythical Greek titaness of the seas, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP). Functioning as a smart database, Tethys enables its users to identify key words or terms to help gather, organize and make available information and data pertaining to the environmental effects of MHK and offshore wind (OSW) energy development. By providing and categorizing relevant publications within a simple and searchable database, Tethys acts as a dissemination channel for information and data which can be utilized by regulators, project developers and researchers to minimize the environmental risks associated with offshore renewable energy developments and attempt to streamline the permitting process. Tethys also houses a separate content-related Annex IV data base with identical functionality to the Tethys knowledge base. Annex IV is a collaborative project among member nations of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Ocean Energy Systems – Implementing Agreement (OES-IA) that examines the environmental effects of ocean energy devices and projects. The U.S. Department of Energy leads the Annex IV working with federal partners such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). While the Annex IV database contains technical reports and journal articles, it is primarily focused on the collection of project site and research study metadata forms (completed by MHK researchers and developers around the world, and collected by PNNL) which provide information on environmental studies and the current progress of the various international MHK developments in the Annex IV member nations. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the content

  3. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    This chapter presents an overview of ocean energy conversion in respect of its significance as the renewable energy resources. It deals with the thermodynamic principles relating to ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Besides, it provides an in...

  4. SEASAT III and IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    ensemble averaged spectrum TI of vertical displacement is 22 In this paper we shall use a Pierson- Moskowitz (1964) spectrum for the ambient sea: *~ -Ft...depending on pattern wavelengths and environmental conditions. %i C-33 I.’,. "REFERENCES, APPENDIX C!4 Pierson, W.J. and L. Moskowitz , A proD)sed...3E1014.4 Dr. Joel A. Snow [2] Washington, D.C. 20301 Senior Technical Advisor W Office of Energy Research Dr. Kenneth M. Watson U.S. DOE, M.S. E084 2191

  5. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  6. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2001-09-13

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  7. Transportation Energy Data Book (Edition 20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-10-09

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 20'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  8. Chapter 23: Combined Heat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, George [Itron, Davis, CA (United States); Barsun, Stephan [Itron, Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This protocol defines a combined heat and power (CHP) measure as a system that sequentially generates both electrical energy and useful thermal energy from one fuel source at a host customer's facility or residence. This protocol is aimed primarily at regulators and administrators of ratepayer-funded CHP programs; however, project developers may find the protocol useful to understand how CHP projects are evaluated.

  9. Grand-Slam Strategies: Winning Tips for Cutting Chapter Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Melinda

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for more cost-effective college alumni chapter administration include better marketing and communications, regionally tailored periodicals, planning ahead, coordinating spring volunteer training with admissions travel, encouraging faculty participation, using mentors for program development, letting chapters pay expenses, and better use…

  10. Improving the Identification of Schools for Chapter 1 Program Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Jerome

    Technical problems with norm-referenced achievement testing that can lead to the erroneous evaluation of schools for Chapter 1 Program improvement is discussed, and an alternative testing model is presented. The history of Chapter 1 testing and evaluation policies is briefly reviewed, and problems with the norm-referenced model are explored. Data…

  11. New Materials for NGNP/Gen IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Swindeman; Douglas L. Marriott

    2009-12-18

    The bounding conditions were briefly summarized for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that is the leading candidate in the Department of Energy Generation IV reactor program. Metallic materials essential to the successful development and proof of concept for the NGNP were identified. The literature bearing on the materials technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was reviewed with emphasis on the needs identified for the NGNP. Several materials were identified for a more thorough study of their databases and behavioral features relative to the requirements ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH.

  12. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  13. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  14. Nuclear Geoplosics Sourcebook. Volume IV. Part I. Empirical Analysis of Ground Motion from Above and Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    November 10, 1975. IV-1.8 Feynman , R. P., R. B. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol. II, Chapter 39, Addison Wesley, Massachusetts...Event, POR 6400, Sandia Laboratories, March 1971. IV-2.18 Preston, R. G., and V. E. Wheeler , Response of the Line-of-Sight Pipe to Ground Shock in the...Hupmobile Nuclear Effects Test, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (Unpublished). IV-2.19 Randolph, P. L., R. G. Preston, and V. E. Wheeler , Preliminary

  15. Chapter 22: Hereditary and acquired angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Mary S; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder defined by a deficiency of functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). Acquired angioedema (AAE) is caused by either consumption (type 1) or inactivation (type 2) of CI-INH. Both HAE and AAE can be life-threatening. The screening test for both conditions is complement component C4, which is low to absent at times of angioedema or during quiescent periods. A useful test to differentiate HAE from AAE is C1q protein, which is normal in HAE and low in AAE. There are three types of HAE: type 1 HAE is most common, occurring in ∼85% of patients and characterized by decreased production of C1-INH, resulting in reduced functional activity to 5-30% of normal. In type 2, which occurs in 15% of cases, C1-INH is detectable in normal or elevated quantities but is dysfunctional. Finally, type 3, which is rare and almost exclusively occurs in women, is estrogen dependent and associated with normal CI-INH and C4 levels. One-third of these patients have a gain-of-function mutation in clotting factor XII leading to kallikrein-driven bradykinin production. Although the anabolic steroid, danazol, is useful in increasing the concentration of C4 and reducing the episodes of angioedema in HAE and AAE, it has expected adverse effects. Fortunately, disease-specific therapies are available and include C1-INH enzyme for i.v. infusion either acutely or empirically, ecallantide, an inhibitor of kallikrein, and icatibant, a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, both approved for acute angioedema and administered, subcutaneously.

  16. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 15, The Real Number System, Chapter 16, Area, Volume, and Computation. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    Topics covered in the first chapter of Unit 8 of this SMSG series include square roots, operations with radicals, operations with real numbers, and the structure of the real number system. The second chapter deals with measurement of area (for rectangular regions, other polygons, and circles), volume and surface area, computation involving…

  17. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  18. Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghel, C. (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Penttilae, S. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    A network for material issues for Generation IV nuclear power has been initiated within the Nordic countries. The objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) are to put the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen IV issues, especially focussing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Other issues include reactor physics, dynamics and diagnostics, core and fuel design. The present report summarizes the work performed during the year 2009. The efforts made include identification of organisations involved in Gen IV issues in the Nordic countries, update of the forum website, http://www.studsvik.se/GenerationIV, and investigation of capabilities for research within the area of Gen IV. Within the NOMAGE4 project a seminar on Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems has been organized during 15-16th of October 2009. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. As an outcome of the NOMAGE4, a few collaboration project proposals have been prepared/planned in 2009. The network was welcomed by the European Commission and was mentioned as an exemplary network with representatives from industries, universities, power companies and research institutes. NOMAGE4 has been invited to participate to the 'European Energy Research Alliance, EERA, workshop for nuclear structural materials' http://www.eera-set.eu/index.php?index=41 as external observers. Future plans include a new Nordic application for continuation of NOMAGE4 network. (author)

  19. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  20. Chapter 21: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimetrosky, S.; Parkinson, K.; Lieb, N.

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  1. Chapter 34 - Every Moment Counts: Synchrophasors for Distribution Networks with Variable Resources

    CERN Document Server

    von Meier, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Historically, with mostly radial power distribution and one-way power flow, it was only necessary to evaluate the envelope of design conditions, e.g., peak loads or fault currents, rather than continually observe the operating state. But the growth of distributed energy resources introduces variability, uncertainty, and opportunities to recruit diverse resources for grid services. This chapter addresses how the direct measurement of voltage phase angle might enable new strategies for managing distribution networks with diverse, active components.

  2. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 4: Cosmic Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J. L. [MIT, LNS; Ritz, S. [UC, Santa Cruz; Beatty, J. J. [Ohio State U.; Buckley, J. [Washington U., Seattle; Cowen, D. F. [Penn State U.; Cushman, P. [Minnesota U.; Dodelson, S. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Galbiati, C. [PNPI, CSTD; Honscheid, K. [Ohio State U.; Hooper, D. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Kaplinghat, M. [UC, Irvine; Kusenko, A. [Unlisted; Matchev, K. [Florida U.; McKinsey, D. [Yale U.; Nelson, A. E. [Washington U., Seattle; Olinto, A. [Chicago U., EFI; Profumo, S. [UC, Santa Cruz; Robertson, H. [Washington U., Seattle; Rosenberg, L. [Unlisted; Sinnis, G. [Los Alamos; Tait, T. M.P. [UCLA

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 4, on the Cosmic Frontier, discusses the program of research relevant to cosmology and the early universe. This area includes the study of dark matter and the search for its particle nature, the study of dark energy and inflation, and cosmic probes of fundamental symmetries.

  3. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 8: Instrumentation Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarteau, M.; et al.

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 8, on the Instrumentation Frontier, discusses the instrumentation needs of future experiments in the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers, promising new technologies for particle physics research, and issues of gathering resources for long-term research in this area.

  4. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 8: Instrumentation Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Demarteau, M; Nicholson, H; Shipsey, I; Akerib, D; Albayrak-Yetkin, A; Alexander, J; Anderson, J; Artuso, M; Asner, D; Ball, R; Battaglia, M; Bebek, C; Beene, J; Benhammou, Y; Bentefour, E; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bilki, B; Blucher, E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Bowden, N; Brooijmans, G; Byrum, K; Cabrera, B; Cancelo, G; Carlstrom, J; Casey, B; Chang, C; Chapman, J; Chen, C H; Childres, I; Christian, D; Convery, M; Corso, W Cooper J; Cumalat, J; Cushman, P; Da Via, C; Dazeley, S; Debbins, P; Deptuch, G; Dhawan, S; Di Benedetto, V; DiGiovene, B; Djurcic, Z; Dye, S; Elagin, A; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Etzion, E; Fast, J; Ferretti, C; Fisher, P; Fleming, B; Francis, K; Friedman, P; Frisch, H; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gatto, C; Geronim, G; Gilchriese, G; Golwala, S; Grant, C; Grillo, A; Grünendahl, E; Gorham, P; Guan, L; Gutierrez, G; Haber, C; Hall, J; Haller, G; Hast, C; Heintz, U; Hemmick, T; Hitlin, D G; Hogan, C; Hohlmann, M; Hoppe, E; Hsu, L; Huffer, M; Irwin, K; Izraelevitch, F; Jennings, G; Johnson, M; Jung, A; Kagan, H; Kenney, C; Kettell, S; Khanna, R; Khristenko, V; Krennrich, F; Kuehn, K; Kutschke, R; Learned, J; Lee, A T; Levin, D; Liu, T; Liu, A T K; Lissauer, D; Love, J; Lynn, D; MacFarlane, D; Magill, S; Majewski, S; Mans, J; Maricic, J; Marleau, P; Mazzacane, A; McKinsey, D; Mehl, J; Mestvirisvilli, A; Meyer, S; Mokhov, N; Moshe, M; Mukherjee, A; Murat, P; Nahn, S; Narain, M; Nadel-Turonski, P; Newcomer, M; Nishimura, K; Nygren, D; Oberla, E; Onel, Y; Oreglia, M; Orrell, J; Paley, J; Para, A; Parker, S; Polychronakos, V; Pordes, S; Privitera, P; Prosser, A; Pyle, M; Raaf, J; Ramberg, E; Rameika, R; Rebel, B; Repond, J; Reyna, D; Ristori, L; Rivera, R; Ronzhin, A; Rusack, R; Russ, J; Ryd, A; Sadrozinski, H; Sahoo, H; Sanchez, M C; Sanzeni, C; Schnetzer, S; Seidel, S; Seiden, A; Schmidt, I; Shenai, A; Shutt, T; Silver, Y; Smith, W; Snowden-Ifft, D; Sonnenschein, A; Southwick, D; Spiegel, L; Stanitzki, M; Striganov, S; Su, D; Sumner, R; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Talaga, R; Tayloe, R; Tentindo, S; Terentiev, N; Thom-Levy, J; Thorn, C; Tiffenberg, J; Trischuk, W; Tschirhart, R; Turner, M; Underwood, D; Uplegger, L; Urheim, J; Vagins, M; Van Bibber, K; Varner, G; Varner, R; Va'vra, J; Von der Lippe, H; Wagner, R; Wagner, S; Weaverdyck, C; Wenzel, H; Weinstein, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wigman, R; Wilson, P; Winn, D; Winter, P; Woody, C; Xia, L; Xie, J Q; Ye, Z; Yeh, M F; Yetkin, T; Yoo, J H; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Zeller, S; Zhang, J L; Zhu, J J; Zhou, B; Zhu, R Y; Zitzer, B

    2014-01-01

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 8, on the Instrumentation Frontier, discusses the instrumentation needs of future experiments in the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers, promising new technologies for particle physics research, and issues of gathering resources for long-term research in this area.

  5. Solar neutrino measurements in Super-Kamiokande-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Marti, Ll.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Sonoda, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Takenaga, Y.; Tasaka, S.; Tomura, T.; Ueno, K.; Yokozawa, T.; Akutsu, R.; Irvine, T.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kametani, I.; Kaneyuki, K.; Lee, K. P.; Nishimura, Y.; McLachlan, T.; Okumura, K.; Richard, E.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Bays, K.; Carminati, G.; Griskevich, N. J.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Weatherly, P.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Keig, W. E.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Park, R. G.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; O'Sullivan, E.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Nakamura, T.; Jang, J. S.; Choi, K.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Nakano, Y.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Cao, S. V.; Hayashino, T.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Jiang, M.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Patel, N. D.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Wendell, R. A.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Muto, F.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Santucci, G.; Taylor, I.; Vilela, C.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Fukuda, D.; Ishino, H.; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Takeuchi, J.; Yamaguchi, R.; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Ito, K.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Suda, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Bronner, C.; Calland, R. G.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Obayashi, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Nantais, C. M.; Martin, J. F.; de Perio, P.; Tanaka, H. A.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Sui, H.; Wan, L.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Connolly, K.; Dziomba, M.; Wilkes, R. J.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Upgraded electronics, improved water system dynamics, better calibration and analysis techniques allowed Super-Kamiokande-IV to clearly observe very low-energy 8B solar neutrino interactions, with recoil electron kinetic energies as low as ˜3.5 MeV . Super-Kamiokande-IV data-taking began in September of 2008; this paper includes data until February 2014, a total livetime of 1664 days. The measured solar neutrino flux is (2.308 ±0.020 (stat)-0.040 +0.039(syst ))×1 06/(cm2 sec ) assuming no oscillations. The observed recoil electron energy spectrum is consistent with no distortions due to neutrino oscillations. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK-IV results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.6 ±1.6 (stat )±0.6 (syst ))% . The SK-IV solar neutrino data determine the solar mixing angle as sin2θ12=0.327-0.031+0.026 , all SK solar data (SK-I, SK-II, SK III and SK-IV) measures this angle to be sin2θ12=0.334-0.023+0.027 , the determined mass-squared splitting is Δ m212=4.8-0.8+1.5×10-5 eV2 .

  6. Chapter 15: Commercial New Construction Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keates, S.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol is intended to describe the recommended method when evaluating the whole-building performance of new construction projects in the commercial sector. The protocol focuses on energy conservation measures (ECMs) measures (or packages of measures) where evaluators can best analyze impacts using building simulation. These ECMs typically require the use of calibrated building simulations under Option D of the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. Examples of such measures include Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design building certification, novel and/or efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system designs, and extensive building controls systems. In general, it is best to evaluate any ECM (or set of measures) expected to significantly interact with other systems within the building and with savings sensitive to seasonal variations in weather.

  7. Chapter 20: Data Center IT Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Robert [Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Data centers use about 2% of the electricity in the United States; a typical data center has 100 to 200 times the energy use intensity of a commercial building. Data centers present tremendous opportunities--energy use can be reduced as much as 80% between inefficient and efficient data centers. Data center efficiency measures generally fall into the following categories: power infrastructure (e.g., more efficient uninterruptible power supplies, power distribution units); cooling (e.g., free cooling, variable-speed drives, temperature and humidity set points); airflow management (e.g., hot aisle/cold aisle, containment, grommets); and information technology efficiency (e.g., server virtualization, efficient servers, efficient data storage).

  8. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A; Xiaobin Zhou; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed.

  10. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV

  11. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  12. Chapter Boundaries, Navajo Nation, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features representing the Chapter Boundaries within Navajo Nation. These administrative boundaries are related to the Navajo Nation...

  13. Seleucid, Demotic and Mediterranean mathematics versus Chapters VIII and IX of the Nine Chapters: accidental or significant similarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Similarities of geometrical diagrams and arithmetical structures of problems have often been taken as evidence of transmission of mathematical knowledge or techniques between China and “the West”. Confronting on one hand some problems from Chapter VIII of the Nine Chapters with comparable problems...... known from Ancient Greek sources, on the other a Seleucid collection of problems about rectangles with a subset of the triangle problems from Chapter IX, it is concluded, (1) that transmission of some arithmetical riddles without method – not “from Greece” but from a transnational community of traders...

  14. Phase IV of Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Viraj

    2010-04-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan). Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  15. Phase IV of Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT. No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan. Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  16. VeVeRa-IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelien Eggink; Debbie Oudijk; Klarita Sadiraj

    2012-01-01

    Original title: VeVeRa-IV The Dutch population is set to age rapidly in the coming years. More and more people will also attain a very great age. This means that the need for home care and care provided in nursing or residential care homes will also increase. As part of the Long-term Care Programme

  17. Biological Systems, Energy Sources, and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, Michael; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This five-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on biological systems as energy sources and on the teaching of this subject area. Chapter 1 discusses various topics related to energy and ecology, including biomass, photosynthesis and world energy balances, energy flow through ecosystems, and others. Chapter 2…

  18. Intelligent Control and Health Monitoring. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Kumar, Aditya; Mathews, H. Kirk; Rosenfeld, Taylor; Rybarik, Pavol; Viassolo, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced model-based control architecture overcomes the limitations state-of-the-art engine control and provides the potential of virtual sensors, for example for thrust and stall margin. "Tracking filters" are used to adapt the control parameters to actual conditions and to individual engines. For health monitoring standalone monitoring units will be used for on-board analysis to determine the general engine health and detect and isolate sudden faults. Adaptive models open up the possibility of adapting the control logic to maintain desired performance in the presence of engine degradation or to accommodate any faults. Improved and new sensors are required to allow sensing at stations within the engine gas path that are currently not instrumented due in part to the harsh conditions including high operating temperatures and to allow additional monitoring of vibration, mass flows and energy properties, exhaust gas composition, and gas path debris. The environmental and performance requirements for these sensors are summarized.

  19. Bioenergetics modeling of percid fishes: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Kestemont, Patrick; Dabrowski, Konrad; Summerfelt, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    A bioenergetics model for a percid fish represents a quantitative description of the fish’s energy budget. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to identify the important factors determining growth of percids in lakes, rivers, or seas. For example, bioenergetics modeling applied to yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in the western and central basins of Lake Erie revealed that the slower growth in the western basin was attributable to limitations in suitably sized prey in western Lake Erie, rather than differences in water temperature between the two basins. Bioenergetics modeling can also be applied to a percid population to estimate the amount of food being annually consumed by the percid population. For example, bioenergetics modeling applied to the walleye (Sander vitreus) population in Lake Erie has provided fishery managers valuable insights into changes in the population’s predatory demand over time. In addition, bioenergetics modeling has been used to quantify the effect of the difference in growth between the sexes on contaminant accumulation in walleye. Field and laboratory evaluations of percid bioenergetics model performance have documented a systematic bias, such that the models overestimate consumption at low feeding rates but underestimate consumption at high feeding rates. However, more recent studies have shown that this systematic bias was due, at least in part, to an error in the energy budget balancing algorithm used in the computer software. Future research work is needed to more thoroughly assess the field and laboratory performance of percid bioenergetics models and to quantify differences in activity and standard metabolic rate between the sexes of mature percids.

  20. Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume IV. Chapters 15-19)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.

    2003-03-15

    Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.

  1. Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...meet an emerging national crisis (war), emergency (natural disaster), or major impact event (Y2K). Certain resources are generally critical to the

  2. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  3. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter nine of the final report of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi municipalities (Estonia) present extensive data relating to economic, financial and environmental calculations, fuel consumption, energy balance and prices. (ARW)

  4. Energy Management Workbook for Local Governments : Workbook 1, Electrical Energy, 1981.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    Descriptions are presented for 20 major categories of energy actions providing background information needed for communities to implement energy management programs and explaining where financial and technical help may be available. Chapter 1 provides background on the energy problem, discusses Federal, state and local roles, and outlines the planning process. Chapter 2 is a list of 20 questions to help identify a range of potential actions that could become part of the energy management plan. Chapter 3 will help evaluate each of the twenty potential activities, and chapters 4 and 5 discuss implementing and monitoring the energy management plan. (MCW)

  5. Alle har en historie, IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydegaard, Torbjørn

    Alle har en historie IV: Pædagogik med Freedom Writers lader et væld af pædagogiske facetter udspringe af den kendte skole-film Freedom Writers’ scener og handlinger. Der er både fokus på en almen tilgang til pædagogik og på Freedom Writer-metodikken, dels gennem de filmscener, der sættes til...

  6. Three essays on energy and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Nathanael David

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between energy and economic growth. Chapter Two, Three, and Four examine the interaction of energy-related measures and economic outcomes by applying different methodologies across various spatial dimensions. Chapter Two shows that increases in energy consumption are necessary for increases in state level economic growth to occur. Chapter Three estimates a simultaneous supply and demand energy market at the state level. This system allows for estimates of structural elasticities to be obtained. Findings indicate that energy supply is considerably more elastic than energy demand. Energy demand is found to be determined by responses to short run shocks rather than long run processes. Chapter Four estimates the impact of changes in various elements of governance and institutional quality impact genuine investment within an economy. Increases in democracy are predicted to decrease genuine investment in energy-rich nations. The dissertation concludes with Chapter Five.

  7. Transportation energy data book: edition 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlin, D.N. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 16 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares U.S. transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high- occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data on environmental issues relating to transportation.

  8. Solar Transition-Region Lines Observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph: Diagnostics for the O IV and Si IV Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Dzifčáková, Elena; Mason, Helen E; Golub, Leon

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the transition-region O IV and Si IV lines observable by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is investigated for both Maxwellian and non-Maxellian conditions characterized by a kappa-distribution exhibiting a high-energy tail. The \\ion{Si}{4} lines are formed at lower temperatures than the O IV lines for all kappa. In non-Maxwellian situations with lower kappa, the contribution functions are shifted to lower temperatures. Combined with the slope of the differential emission measure, it is possible for the Si IV lines to be formed at very different regions of solar transition region than the O IV lines; possibly close to solar chromosphere. Such situations might be discernible by IRIS. It is found that photoexcitation can be important for the Si IV lines, but is negligible for the O IV lines. The usefulness of the O IV ratios for density diagnostics independently of kappa is investigated and it is found that the O IV 1404.78A /1399.77A ratio provides a good density diagnostics exc...

  9. Solar Neutrino Measurements in Super-Kamiokande-IV

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Haga, Y; Hayato, Y; Ikeda, M; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Kishimoto, Y; Marti, Ll; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakajima, T; Nakayama, S; Orii, A; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Sonoda, Y; Takeda, A; Tanaka, H; Takenaga, Y; Tasaka, S; Tomura, T; Ueno, K; Yokozawa, T; Akutsu, R; Irvine, T; Kaji, H; Kajita, T; Kametani, I; Kaneyuki, K; Lee, K P; Nishimura, Y; McLachlan, T; Okumura, K; Richard, E; Labarga, L; Fernandez, P; Blaszczyk, F d M; Gustafson, J; Kachulis, C; Kearns, E; Raaf, 32 J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, 32 L R; Berkman, S; Tobayama, S; Goldhaber, M; Bays, K; Carminati, G; Griskevich, N J; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Renshaw, A; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Takhistov, V; Weatherly, P; Ganezer, K S; Hartfiel, B L; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Hong, N; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Park, R G; Akiri, T; Albert, J B; Himmel, A; Li, Z; O'Sullivan, E; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wongjirad, T; Ishizuka, T; Nakamura, T; Jang, J S; Choi, K; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S N; Friend, M; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Nakano, Y; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Yano, T; Cao, S V; Hayashino, T; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Huang, K; Ieki, K; Jiang, M; Kikawa, T; Minamino, A; Murakami, A; Nakaya, T; Patel, N D; Suzuki, K; Takahashi, S; Wendell, R A; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Muto, F; Suzuki, T; Mijakowski, P; Frankiewicz, K; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Jung, C K; Li, X; Palomino, J L; Santucci, G; Taylor, I; Vilela, C; Wilking, M J; Yanagisawa, C; Fukuda, D; Ishino, H; Kayano, T; Kibayashi, A; Koshio, Y; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Takeuchi, J; Yamaguchi, R; Kuno, Y; Tacik, R; Kim, S B; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Ito, K; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Totsuka, Y; Suda, Y; Yokoyama, M; Nantais, C M; Martin, J F; de Perio, P; Tanaka, H A; Konaka, A; Chen, S; Sui, H; Wan, L; Yang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhang, Y; Connolly, K; Dziomba, M; Wilkes, R J

    2016-01-01

    Upgraded electronics, improved water system dynamics, better calibration and analysis techniques allowed Super-Kamiokande-IV to clearly observe very low-energy 8B solar neutrino interactions, with recoil electron kinetic energies as low as 3.49 MeV. Super-Kamiokande-IV data-taking began in September of 2008; this paper includes data until February 2014, a total livetime of 1664 days. The measured solar neutrino flux is (2.308+-0.020(stat.) + 0.039-0.040(syst.)) x 106/(cm2sec) assuming no oscillations. The observed recoil electron energy spectrum is consistent with no distortions due to neutrino oscillations. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK-IV results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.6+-1.6(stat.)+-0.6(syst.))%. The SK-IV solar neutrino data determine the solar mixing angle as sin2 theta_12 = 0.327+0.026-0.031, all SK solar data (SK-I, SK-II, SK III and SKIV) measures this angle to be sin2 the...

  10. Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izequeido, Alexandor

    2001-04-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  11. Transportation energy data book: Edition 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 15 is a statistical compendium. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. Purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter I compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  12. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  13. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  14. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  15. Report on the O IV and S IV lines observed by IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The O IV intercombination lines observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) between 1397 and 1407 A provide useful density diagnostics. This document presents data that address two issues related to these lines: (1) the contribution of S IV to the O IV 1404.8 line; and (2) the range of sensitivity of the O IV 1399.8/1401.2 ratio.

  16. VTST/MT studies of the catalytic mechanism of C-H activation by transition metal complexes with [Cu2(μ-O2)], [Fe2(μ-O2)] and Fe(IV)-O cores based on DFT potential energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongho; Mai, Binh Khanh; Park, Sumin

    2017-04-01

    High-valent Cu and Fe species, which are generated from dioxygen activation in metalloenzymes, carry out the functionalization of strong C-H bonds. Understanding the atomic details of the catalytic mechanism has long been one of the main objectives of bioinorganic chemistry. Large H/D kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were observed in the C-H activation by high-valent non-heme Cu or Fe complexes in enzymes and their synthetic models. The H/D KIE depends significantly on the transition state properties, such as structure, energies, frequencies, and shape of the potential energy surface, when the tunneling effect is large. Therefore, theoretical predictions of kinetic parameters such as rate constants and KIEs can provide a reliable link between atomic-level quantum mechanical mechanisms and experiments. The accurate prediction of the tunneling effect is essential to reproduce the kinetic parameters. The rate constants and HD/KIE have been calculated using the variational transition-state theory including multidimensional tunneling based on DFT potential energy surfaces along the reaction coordinate. Excellent agreement was observed between the predicted and experimental results, which assures the validity of the DFT potential energy surfaces and, therefore, the proposed atomic-level mechanisms. The [Cu2(μ-O)2], [Fe2(μ-O)2], and Fe(IV)-oxo species were employed for C-H activation, and their role as catalysts was discussed at an atomic level.

  17. Amino acids – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Protein catabolism should be reduced and protein synthesis promoted with parenteral nutrion (PN. Amino acid (AA solutions should always be infused with PN. Standard AA solutions are generally used, whereas specially adapted AA solutions may be required in certain conditions such as severe disorders of AA utilisation or in inborn errors of AA metabolism. An AA intake of 0.8 g/kg/day is generally recommended for adult patients with a normal metabolism, which may be increased to 1.2–1.5 g/kg/day, or to 2.0 or 2.5 g/kg/day in exceptional cases. Sufficient non-nitrogen energy sources should be added in order to assure adequate utilisation of AA. A nitrogen calorie ratio of 1:130 to 1:170 (g N/kcal or 1:21 to 1:27 (g AA/kcal is recommended under normal metabolic conditions. In critically ill patients glutamine should be administered parenterally if indicated in the form of peptides, for example 0.3–0.4 g glutamine dipeptide/kg body weight/day (=0.2–0.26 g glutamine/kg body weight/day. No recommendation can be made for glutamine supplementation in PN for patients with acute pancreatitis or after bone marrow transplantation (BMT, and in newborns. The application of arginine is currently not warranted as a supplement in PN in adults. N-acetyl AA are only of limited use as alternative AA sources. There is currently no indication for use of AA solutions with an increased content of glycine, branched-chain AAs (BCAA and ornithine-α-ketoglutarate (OKG in all patients receiving PN. AA solutions with an increased proportion of BCAA are recommended in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (III–IV.

  18. Theoretical Study for High-Energy-Density Compounds Derived from Cyclophosphazene. IV. DFT Studies on 1,1-Diamino-3,3,5,5,7,7-hexaazidocyclotetraphosphazene and Its Isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a theoretical study of 1,1-diaminohexaazidocyclo-tetraphophazene (DAHA and its isomers has been performed, using quantum computational density functional theory (B3LYP and B3PW91 methods with 6-31G* and 6-31G** basis sets implemented in Gaussian 03 program suite. Molecular structure and bonding, vibrational frequencies, Milliken population analysis, and natural bond orbit (NBO have been studied. The heats of formation from atomization energies have also been calculated based on the optimized geometry. The obtained heats of formation data are compared with their homologous cyclophosphazene in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the methods, which indicate that the studied compounds might be potentially used as high energetic materials. In addition, the relative stability of five isomers have been deduced based on the total energy and the gap of frontier orbital energies.

  19. 77 FR 13318 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV, FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV, FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Filing... order of priority is as follows: 1. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV: Project No. 14185-000. 2. FFP...

  20. Energy Conserving Lifestyles: Final Report to the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seymour I.

    This report examines the broad topic of energy use and its relationship to lifestyles. The emphasis is on three energy conserving lifestyle models: (1) the rural alternative lifestyle; (2) new towns; and (3) energy conserving subdivisions in existing cities. The first chapter presents an introduction. Chapter two examines the back-to-the-land…

  1. Energy Expenditure and Intake Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The main components of total energy expenditure are energy expenditure for maintenance or basal metabolic rate, the thermic effect of food or diet-induced energy expenditure (DEE), and the energy cost of physical activity or activity-induced energy expenditure (AEE). This chapter describes methods t

  2. Body cooling, modelling & risk assessment - Immersion Hypothermia Chapter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tikuisis, P; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes a model that can be used to predict hypothermia during cold water immersion. Drowning in cold water might precede the onset of hypothermia due to cold shock, injury or incapacitation. As pointed out in Chap. 129, there are three phases of increasing incapacitation leading to l

  3. Chapter Two: Foundations for the Study of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the historical roots of contemporary Practice Theory are unearthed in the work of semioticians, philosophers, and anthropologists. Saussure's semiotic theory is contrasted with that of Peirce, and the importance of Peirce's work for understanding the context of signs is stressed. The philosophy of language in the writings of…

  4. "Preescolar Na Casa": Teaching Parents To Teach Children. Chapter 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ermitas

    This chapter describes a school readiness program that has been implemented in rural Galicia (Spain) since 1977. Data reveal that 70 percent of Galicia's population lives in rural areas, the economy remains primarily agricultural, Galicians earn less than the national average and have the largest number of public assistance recipients, and there…

  5. Chapter 13. Exploring Use of the Reserved Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Humphrey, Alan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Berzins, Martin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing

    2015-07-29

    In this chapter, we illustrate benefits of thinking in terms of thread management techniques when using a centralized scheduler model along with interoperability of MPI and PThread. This is facilitated through an exploration of thread placement strategies for an algorithm modeling radiative heat transfer with special attention to the 61st core. This algorithm plays a key role within the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) and current efforts taking place at the University of Utah to model next-generation, large-scale clean coal boilers. In such simulations, this algorithm models the dominant form of heat transfer and consumes a large portion of compute time. Exemplified by a real-world example, this chapter presents our early efforts in porting a key portion of a scalability-centric codebase to the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Specifically, this chapter presents results from our experiments profiling the native execution of a reverse Monte-Carlo ray tracing-based radiation model on a single coprocessor. These results demonstrate that our fastest run configurations utilized the 61st core and that performance was not profoundly impacted when explicitly oversubscribing the coprocessor operating system thread. Additionally, this chapter presents a portion of radiation model source code, a MIC-centric UCF cross-compilation example, and less conventional thread management technique for developers utilizing the PThreads threading model.

  6. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 6: Special Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Issues Involved With the Use of Computer-Assisted Counseling, Testing, and…

  7. 41 CFR Appendix D to Chapter 301 - Glossary of Acronyms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Standards and Technology NTE: Not to Exceed OBE: Online Self-service Booking Tool OCONUS: Outside... Appendix D to Chapter 301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System...: Automated Teller Machine CAS: Commercial Aviation Service(s) CDW: Collision Damage Waiver CFR: Code...

  8. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  9. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: biomedical and biophysical analysis (Chapter XXX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordergraaf, G.J; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Scheffer, G.J.;

    2004-01-01

    of thousands each year. This chapter will address functional aspects of CPR required for a working understanding of the biomedical aspects of CPR. It does not purport to be a CPR course, although practical aspects relevant to understanding will be addressed, but not exhaustively. The development in CPR...

  10. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1994-05-01

    Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  11. Energy security assessment framework and three case-studies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a novel framework for assessing energy security and illustrates its application by the Global Energy Assessment, the IEA Model for Short-term energy security and in several studies of long-term global energy security.

  12. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes -- highway, air, water, rail, pipeline -- is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  13. Transportation energy data book: Edition 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Morris, M.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 12 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes--highway, air, water, rail, pipeline--is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  14. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes - highway, air, water, rail, pipeline - is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  15. PREFACE: International Symposium on Vacuum Science & Technology and its Application for Accelerators (IVS 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, V. S.; Pal, Gautam

    2012-11-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970 to promote vacuum science and technology in academic, industrial and R&D institutions in India. IVS is a member society of the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Applications (IUVSTA). It has organized International and national symposia, short term courses and workshops on different aspects of Vacuum Science and Technology at regular intervals. So far 27 National symposia, 4 International Symposia and 47 courses have been organized at various locations in India. There has been an active participation from R&D establishments, universities and Indian industries during all these events. In view of the current global situation and emerging trends in vacuum technology, the executive committee of the IVS suggested to us that we organize an International Symposium at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata from 15-17 February 2012. At the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre we have a large number of high vacuum systems used in the K130 Cyclotron and K500 Superconducting Cyclotron. Also a large cryogenic system using LHe plant is in operation for cryopanels and a superconducting magnet for K-500 Cyclotron. The main areas covered at the symposium were the production and measurement of vacuums, leak detection, design and development of large vacuum systems, vacuum metallurgy, vacuum materials and the application of high vacuums in cyclotrons, LINACS and other accelerators. This symposium provided an opportunity for interaction between active researchers and technologists and allowed them to review the current situation, report recent experimental results, share the available expertise and consider the future R&D efforts needed in this area. Keeping the industrial significance of vacuum technology in mind, an exhibition of the vacuum related equipment, accessories, products etc by various suppliers and manufactures was organized alongside the symposium. Participation by a large number of exhibitors

  16. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  17. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  18. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are discussed in a general setting (chapter 7), from which a general conclusion is formulated (chapter 8). The basis of the research formed four field experiments, which were conducted at the experimental sites Ihinger Hof, Oberer Lindenhof and Goldener Acker of the University of Hohenheim, in south-western Germany. Paper I addresses the overall objective of this thesis. Selected cropping systems for this experiment were short rotation willow, miscanthus, switchgrass, energy maize and two different crop rotation systems including winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and winter triticale with either conventional tillage or no-till. The systems were cultivated with three different nitrogen fertilizer applications. An energy balance was calculated to evaluate the biomass and energy yields of the different cropping systems. Results indicate that perennial lignocellulosic crops combine high biomass and net energy yields with low input and potential ecological impacts. Switchgrass, which produced low yields

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Nanocrystalline Zirconium (IV Tungstate Semiconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline zirconium (IV tungstate is prepared by chemical coprecipitation method using ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid as the templating agent. Elemental composition is determined by EDS. The characteristic bonding position is identified using FTIR. XRD is used to find the theoritical value of size and phase identification using JCPDS. Morphology is examined using SEM and HRTEM. UV absorption at 260 nm corresponds to an energy gap of 4.48 eV, characteristic of semiconducting nanoparticles.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Nanocrystalline Zirconium (IV) Tungstate Semiconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj, S.; Beena, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zirconium (IV) tungstate is prepared by chemical coprecipitation method using ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid as the templating agent. Elemental composition is determined by EDS. The characteristic bonding position is identified using FTIR. XRD is used to find the theoritical value of size and phase identification using JCPDS. Morphology is examined using SEM and HRTEM. UV absorption at 260 nm corresponds to an energy gap of 4.48 eV, characteristic of semiconducting nanopar...

  1. Solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer-Larsen, P.; Krebs, F.C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Plaza, D.M. (Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (Spain))

    2010-11-15

    Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. In a sustainable future with an ever-increasing demand for energy, we will need to use this resource better. Solar energy technologies either convert sunlight directly into heat and electrical energy or use it to power chemical conversions which create 'solar fuels' or synthetic compounds. Solar heating technologies have developed steadily for many years and solar heating and cooling is one of the world's commonest renewable energy technologies. This chapter, however, focuses on technologies for electricity production and touches more briefly on the prospects for solar fuels. The section on Danish perspectives also discusses solar thermal heating in district heating plants. In recent decades, two technologies for converting solar energy into electrical energy have dominated: photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP). Today's silicon and thin-film PV technologies are advancing steadily, with new materials and technologies constantly being developed, and there are clear roadmaps for lowering production costs. In the discussion below we assess the maturation potential of currently emerging PV technologies within the next 40 years. Concentrating solar power is already a proven technology, and below we evaluate its potential to become a substantial part of the energy mix by 2050. Solar fuels cover a range of technologies. The chapter is to a great extent based on two recent roadmaps from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Many reports, predictions, scenarios and roadmaps for solar energy deployment exist. The IEA predictions for the penetration of solar energy in the future energy system are low relative to many of the other studies. The IEA roadmaps, however, cover most aspects of the future deployment of the technologies and reference older work. (Author)

  2. Energy management manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The Pueblo of Laguna lies in the Grants Uranium Belt. The Grants belt is the source of more than half of all uranium produced in the US. Currently the Pueblo has development agreements with Conoco and Anaconda. Only the Anaconda leasehold has been developed - an open pit mine and 2 underground mines. The Pueblo has several areas of concern in managing mineral development. These include monitoring and enforcing performance standards, and taxing severance of uranium from the land. Constraints on tribal regulation of energy development are discussed in Chapter 1. Energy management program needs of the Pueblo of Laguna are discussed in Chapter 2. Chapter three contains the energy management plan to be used by the Pueblo as it formulates and implements an energy development and management strategy. (DMC)

  3. Planning and setting objectives in field studies: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This chapter enumerates the steps required in designing and planning field studies on the ecology and conservation of reptiles, as these involve a high level of uncertainty and risk. To this end, the chapter differentiates between goals (descriptions of what one intends to accomplish) and objectives (the measurable steps required to achieve the established goals). Thus, meeting a specific goal may require many objectives. It may not be possible to define some of them until certain experiments have been conducted; often evaluations of sampling protocols are needed to increase certainty in the biological results. And if sampling locations are fixed and sampling events are repeated over time, then both study-specific covariates and sampling-specific covariates should exist. Additionally, other critical design considerations for field study include obtaining permits, as well as researching ethics and biosecurity issues.

  4. Chapter 10: Mining genome-wide genetic markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association study (GWAS aims to discover genetic factors underlying phenotypic traits. The large number of genetic factors poses both computational and statistical challenges. Various computational approaches have been developed for large scale GWAS. In this chapter, we will discuss several widely used computational approaches in GWAS. The following topics will be covered: (1 An introduction to the background of GWAS. (2 The existing computational approaches that are widely used in GWAS. This will cover single-locus, epistasis detection, and machine learning methods that have been recently developed in biology, statistic, and computer science communities. This part will be the main focus of this chapter. (3 The limitations of current approaches and future directions.

  5. Discussion on the parameters and events of interest for the projections (Chapter 5 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Discusion de los parametros y eventos de interes para las proyecciones (Capitulo 5 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter it is described how it was decided to analyze the problems to 25 years. Considering that the Secretaria de Energia (SENER) through the Secretaria de Palaeocene y Desarrollo Tecnologico makes an annual exercise of the prospective to ten years for the electrical sector, the natural gas sector and the oil derivatives sector, with the last one publishing the 2004-2013 period, it was decided that the projections for year 2013 were taken as facts and that the exercise to develop a vision be limited to the 2014 - 2030 period. The assumptions used to make the numerical simulations with the LEAP system are detailed in Annex 10, with the information gathered by the approach group on the parameters to be used in this task, as well as in Annex 14, that contains the specific information used together with the results obtained in the period the 2004-2013 and in the second period of 2014-2030. [Spanish] En este capitulo se describe como se decidio analizar la problematica a 25 anos. Considerando que la Secretaria de Energia (SENER) a traves de la Subsecretaria de Planeacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico realiza un ejercicio anual de prospectiva a diez anos para el sector electrico, el sector de gas natural y el sector de petroliferos, siendo el ultimo publicado el 2004-2013, se decidio que las proyecciones al 2013 se tomaran como hechos y que el ejercicio para desarrollar una vision se concretara al periodo del 2014 al 2030. Los supuestos utilizados para realizar las simulaciones numericas con el sistema LEAP se detallan tanto en el anexo 10 con la informacion recabada del grupo de enfoque sobre los parametros a usarse en esta tarea, como en el anexo 14 que contiene la informacion especifica utilizada asi como los resultados obtenidos en los periodos 2004-2013 y el segundo periodo del 2014-2030.

  6. HARAMEKHALA – TANTRA (THE FIRST CHAPTER ON MEDICINE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala – tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation. PMID:22557515

  7. HARAMEKHALA – TANTRA (THE FIRST CHAPTER ON MEDICINE)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, P. V.

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala – tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  8. Chapter 52: How to Build a Simple SIAP service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, B. R.

    This chapter will give an example of how to build a service around an archive of images using the Simple Image Access Protocol (SIAP). The different image service types and basic requirements for user input using a HTTP GET request will be described. The metadata requirements will be discussed. The service will return a VOTable and options for several different image formats, including FITS and JPEG.

  9. Computer modelling for ecosystem service assessment: Chapter 4.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Robert; Harrison, Paula; Bagstad, Kenneth J.

    2017-01-01

    Computer models are simplified representations of the environment that allow biophysical, ecological, and/or socio-economic characteristics to be quantified and explored. Modelling approaches differ from mapping approaches (Chapter 5) as (i) they are not forcibly spatial (although many models do produce spatial outputs); (ii) they focus on understanding and quantifying the interactions between different components of social and/or environmental systems and (iii)

  10. Chapter 1. Impacts of the oceans on climate change.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, PC; Fischer, AC; Lewis-Brown, E; Meredith, MP; Sparrow, M; Andersson, AJ; Antia, A.; Bates, NR; Bathmann, U.; Beaugrand, G.; Brix, H.; Dye, S.; Edwards, M.; Furevik, T.; R. Gangstø

    2009-01-01

    The oceans play a key role in climate regulation especially in part buffering (neutralising) the effects of increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and rising global temperatures. This chapter examines how the regulatory processes performed by the oceans alter as a response to climate change and assesses the extent to which positive feedbacks from the ocean may exacerbate climate change. There is clear evidence for rapid change in the oceans. As the main heat store for the wor...

  11. Chapter 18 - Gliadins in foods and the electronic tongue

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Ana C. A.; Luís G. Dias; Rodrigues, Lígia R.; Peres, António M.

    2016-01-01

    The commercialization of safe foods is a main concern and should be ensured throughout the entire food supply chain. So, fast, sensitive, and reliable analytical methods are needed to identify food-related specific hazards, ensuring consumers protection and avoiding health problems. This chapter is focused on the emerging (bio)sensors to detect the heat-stable allergen gliadin in gluten-free foods. A brief overview concerning gliadin and its relation to celiac disease is provided. Several wor...

  12. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  13. Chapter 29: Using an Existing Environment in the VO (IDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    The local environment of a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) can provide insight into the (still not understood) formation process of the BCG itself. BCGs are the most massive galaxies in the Universe, and their formation and evolution are a popular and current research topic (Linden et al. 2006, Bernardi et al. 2006, Lauer et al. 2006). They have been studied for some time (Sandage 1972, Ostriker & Tremaine 1975, White 1976, Thuan & Romanishin 1981, Merritt 1985, Postman and Lauer 1995, among many others). Our goal in this chapter is to study how the local environment can affect the physical and measurable properties of BCGs. We will conduct an exploratory research exercise. In this chapter, we will show how the Virtual Observatory (VO) can be effectively utilized for doing modern scientific research on BCGs. We identify the scientific functionalities we need, the datasets we require, and the service locations in order to discover and access those data. This chapter utilizes IDL's VOlib, which is described in Chapter 24 of this book and is available at http://www.nvo.noao.edu. IDL provides the capability to perform the entire range of astronomical scientific analyses in one environment: from image reduction and analysis to complex catalog manipulations, statistics, and publication quality figures. At the 2005 and 2006 NVO Summer Schools, user statistics show that IDL was the most commonly used programming language by the students (nearly 3-to-1 over languages like IRAF, Perl, and Python). In this chapter we show how the integration of IDL to the VO through VOlib provides even greater capabilities and possibilities for conducting science in the era of the Virtual Observatory. The reader should familiarize themselves with the VOlib libraries before attempting the examples in this tutorial. We first build a research plan. We then discover the service URLs we will need to access the data. We then apply the necessary functions and tools to these data before we can do our

  14. Brazilian energy balance 2011 - year 2010. Final report; Balanco energetico nacional 2011 - ano base 2010. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2010 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2010; chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, desegregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2010, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  15. New technologies of the energy 1. The renewable energies; Nouvelles technologies de l'energie 1. Les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabonnadiere, J.C

    2006-07-01

    This book, devoted to the renewable energies, is the first of three volumes taking stock on the new technologies of the energy situation. The first part presents the solar energy (thermal photovoltaic and thermodynamic), completed by a chapter on the wind energy. An important part is devoted to new hydraulic energies with the sea energies and the very little hydroelectricity and in particular the exploitation of the energy of the drinking water and wastes water pipelines. (A.L.B.)

  16. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  17. Stark broadening of B IV spectral lines

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Milan S; Simic, Zoran; Kovacevic, Andjelka; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Stark broadening parameters for 157 multiplets of helium like boron (B IV) have been calculated using the impact semiclassical perturbation formalism. Obtained results have been used to investigate the regularities within spectral series. An example of the influence of Stark broadening on B IV lines in DO white dwarfs is given.

  18. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  19. Public opinion about energy: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Weis, P.; Unseld, C.T.; Burns, B.A.

    1979-06-01

    A review and analysis of 115 surveys of the general population between 1973 and 1978 (before the Three Mile Island accident, sudden gasoline price increases, and spot gasoline shortages) are presented. The survey data are organized and analyzed according to a set of categories described in Chapter 2. The public's definition of the energy situation is the focus of Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes public opinion concerning energy conservation pertaining to transportation and domestic energy use -- whether it is efficacious, how knowledgeable people are about conservation, whether they favor it, and whether they engage in it. Findings on the solar energy alternative are described in Chapter 5. Public opinion concerning more conventional sources of energy -- oil and natural gas, coal, and nuclear energy -- are discussed in Chapter 6. In Chapter 7, a summary of analytical findings by 10 major sociodemographic characteristics is presented. Chapter 8 describes analytical findings using various social-psychological variables. A summary is presented in Chapter 9.

  20. Thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Roa, Linfeng; Weger, H.T.; Felmy, A.R. [Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State University (United States); Yui, Mikazu [Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments, and contributes to an integration of the JNC chemical thermodynamic database, JNC-TDB (previously PNC-TDB), for the performance analysis of geological isolation system for high-level radioactive wastes. Thermodynamic data for the formation of complexes or compounds with hydroxide, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate are discussed in this report. Where data for specific actinide(IV) species was lacking, the data were selected based on chemical analogy to other tetravalent actinides. In this study, the Pitzer ion-interaction model is used to extrapolate thermodynamic constants to zero ionic strength at 25degC. (author)

  1. Thermodynamics of Np(IV) complexes with gluconic acid under alkaline conditions. Sorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, H.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Sorption, Migration and Colloids Lab.; Tits, J.; Wieland, E. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Waste Management; Gaona, X. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung

    2013-05-01

    The complexation of Np(IV) with gluconic acid (GLU) under alkaline conditions was investigated in the absence of Ca by carrying out a series of sorption experiments. The decrease of Np(IV) sorption on the sorbing material at increasing concentrations of GLU was interpreted as the formation of Np(IV)-GLU aqueous complexes. The modelling of experimental data according to the Schubert method [1] confirmed the formation of a complex with a Np:GLU ratio 1: 1. The stoichiometry of the complex Np(OH){sub 4}GLU{sup -} was proposed based on the experimental observation that no proton exchange occurred during the course of the complexation reaction and that Np(OH){sub 4}(aq) was the predominant hydrolysis product in the absence of GLU. A log *{beta}{sup 0}{sub 1,4,1} = -2.92 {+-} 0.30 for the formation reaction Np{sup 4+} + 4H{sub 2}O + GLU{sup -} <=> Np(OH){sub 4}GLU{sup -} + 4H{sup +} was calculated based on the conditional stability constants determined from sorption experiments and using the Np(IV) thermodynamic data selected in the NEA reviews [2]. Linear free energy relationships (LFER) confirmed that the stoichiometry and stability of the Np(IV)-GLU complex characterized in this work are consistent with data available for Th(IV)-, U(IV)- and Pu(IV)-GLU complexes. (orig.)

  2. Band gap scaling laws in group IV nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongze; Fu, Xiaonan; Guo, Yangyang; Guo, Zhengxiao; Xia, Congxin; Jia, Yu

    2017-03-01

    By using the first-principles calculations, the band gap properties of nanotubes formed by group IV elements have been investigated systemically. Our results reveal that for armchair nanotubes, the energy gaps at K points in the Brillouin zone decrease as 1/r scaling law with the radii (r) increasing, while they are scaled by ‑1/r 2 + C at Γ points, here, C is a constant. Further studies show that such scaling law of K points is independent of both the chiral vector and the type of elements. Therefore, the band gaps of nanotubes for a given radius can be determined by these scaling laws easily. Interestingly, we also predict the existence of indirect band gap for both germanium and tin nanotubes. Our new findings provide an efficient way to determine the band gaps of group IV element nanotubes by knowing the radii, as well as to facilitate the design of functional nanodevices.

  3. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  4. Surprising Coordination Geometry Differences in Ce(IV)- and Pu(IV)-Maltol Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Szigethy, Geza; Xu, Jide; Gorden, Anne E.V.; Teat, Simon J.; Shuh, David K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-12

    As part of a study to characterize the detailed coordination behavior of Pu(IV), single crystal X-ray diffraction structures have been determined for Pu(IV) and Ce(IV) complexes with the naturally-occurring ligand maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one) and its derivative bromomaltol (5-bromo-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one). Although Ce(IV) is generally accepted as a structural analog for Pu(IV), and the maltol complexes of these two metals are isostructural, the corresponding bromomaltol complexes are strikingly different with respect to ligand orientation about the metal ion: All complexes exhibit trigonal dodecahedral coordination geometry but the Ce(IV)-bromomaltol complex displays an uncommon ligand arrangement not mirrored in the Pu(IV) complex, although the two metal species are generally accepted to be structural analogs.

  5. The 2030 Scenarios (Chapter 6 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Los escenarios a 2030 (Capitulo 6 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The quantification of the different scenarios that have been determined is an exercise that has as an aim illustrating on the interrelation between the parameters that affect the behavior of the energy system, more than having magnitudes on the size of the supply and energy demand for each type of primary energy. The credibility of the numbers is very small due to the many uncertainties in the long-term assumptions. The true value of the exercise is to understand the interrelationship of the different parameters that can affect the system and the impacts that can cause variants of the same. Also it is spoken of the obtained results with LEAP system that are related to the energy demand to year 2030 as well as the composition of the primary energy basket to be used and, the results obtained with the simplified method where, the determination of the demand in 2030 for both scenarios was made in simplified form through the determination of the values of the GIP and those of the energy intensity, being based on the rates of growth supposed for these two parameters in both periods to be considered. [Spanish] La cuantificacion de los diferentes escenarios que se han determinado es un ejercicio que tiene como fin el ilustrar sobre la interrelacion entre los parametros que afectan el comportamiento del sistema energetico, mas que el tener magnitudes sobre el tamano de la oferta y demanda energetica para cada tipo de energetico primario. La credibilidad de los numeros es muy pequena debido a las grandes incertidumbres en los supuestos a largo plazo. El verdadero valor del ejercicio es entender la interrelacion de los diferentes parametros que pueden afectar al sistema y los impactos que pueden causar variantes de los mismos. Tambien se habla de los resultados obtenidos con el sistema LEAP que se encuentran relacionados con la demanda energetica al 2030 asi como la composicion de la canasta de energeticos primarios a utilizarse y, los resultados obtenidos con el metodo

  6. Skull lichens: a curious chapter in the history of phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenesi, P

    2009-04-01

    Lichens growing on skulls were known in late medieval times as usnea or moss of a dead man's skull and were recommended as highly beneficial in various diseases. They were, in addition, the main ingredient of Unguentum armariun, a liniment used in a curious medical practice: the magnetic cure of wounds. We can place this chapter of the history of phytotherapy within the wider cultural context of the period, which saw the definition of nature become increasingly more fluid and open to a variety of novel interpretations.

  7. Reflections (Chapter 8 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Reflexiones (Capitulo 8 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The long-term vision through scenarios corresponds to different histories of how the energy sector situation could be. The numbers that are obtained are only indicative of those histories and not the quantities of a projection of the future with which businesses plans are to be developed, these quantities serve to illustrate what can happen if certain changes occur either or of geopolitical, economic, technological or social nature. Its main function is the one of making reflect the central actors of the sector on the impacts and consequences that certain events occur. In relation to the renewable energies, in the last decades these have been reducing their participation in the Mexican energy sector. Evidently the Mexican energy sector, in the subject of technology, has decided to take the function of preservative follower due in a large extent to the form in which the management of the operative organizations of the same one is made. [Spanish] La vision a largo plazo a traves de escenarios corresponde a diferentes historias de como podria ser la situacion del sector energia. Los numeros que se obtienen solo son indicativos de esas historias y no las cantidades de una proyeccion del futuro con la cual se desarrollen planes de negocios, estas cantidades sirven para ilustrar lo que puede pasar si ciertos cambios ocurren ya sea de naturaleza geopolitica, economica, tecnologica o social. Su principal funcion es la de hacer reflexionar a los actores centrales del sector sobre los impactos y consecuencias de que se den ciertos eventos. En relacion con las energias renovables, en las ultimas decadas estas han ido reduciendo su participacion en el sector energetico mexicano. Evidentemente el sector energetico mexicano, en cuestion de tecnologia ha decidido tomar la funcion de seguidor conservador debido en gran parte a la forma en que se realiza la gestion de las entidades operativas del mismo.

  8. Possible public political guidelines (Chapter 7 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Posibles lineamientos de politicas publicos (Capitulo 7 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    An exercise made through an approach group (expert in the subject) identified which were the main perceived obstacles for the penetration of the renewable energies in the Mexican energy sector. The perception of the group is that the perceived obstacles do not tend to be technical and that as of today, they depend more on political-legal aspects, administrative-institutional economic-financial. It is considered that the renewable energies, with some exceptions, were used mainly in a scheme of generating units of useful energy, either electricity or heat-cold or for process or environmental conditioning, are relatively small and therefore with a high dispersion in the national territory. This vision is equivalent to what it is known as distributed generation in the electrical sector. [Spanish] Un ejercicio realizado a traves de un grupo de enfoque (expertos en el tema) identifico cuales eran los principales obstaculos percibidos para la penetracion de las energias renovables en el sector energetico mexicano. La percepcion del grupo es que los obstaculos percibidos no tienden a ser tecnicos y que en el presente, estos dependen mas de aspectos politicos-legales, economicos-financieros y administrativos-institucionales. Se considera que las energias renovables, con algunas excepciones, se utilizaran principalmente en un esquema de unidades generadoras de energia util, ya sea electricidad o calor-frio para proceso o acondicionamiento ambiental, que son relativamente pequenas y por lo tanto con una alta dispersion en el territorio nacional. Esta vision es equivalente a lo que se conoce como generacion distribuida en el sector electrico.

  9. International energy outlook 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  10. A Summary of State Chapter 1 Participation and Achievement Information -- 1990-91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Beth; Gutmann, Babette

    This report summarizes the 1990-91 State Performance Reports for the Chapter 1 (Education Consolidation and Improvement Act) local education agency (LEA) program and the Chapter 1 State Agency Neglected or Delinquent program. Chapter 1 represents the largest investment in elementary and secondary education of the Federal government. With the…

  11. State Chapter 1 Participation and Achievement Information--1992-93. Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Beth; Gutmann, Babette

    This report summarizes the 1992-93 State Performance Reports for the Chapter 1 Local Education Agency (LEA) program and the Chapter 1 State Agency Neglected or Delinquent Program. The Neglected or Delinquent Program serves youth in state-operated correctional facilities and in facilities for neglected youth. Chapter 1 participation has steadily…

  12. Advanced-Skill Instruction in Chapter 1 Summer Programs and Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Jerome; Hiestand, Nancy

    Summer school is thought to be an effective alternative delivery mode for Chapter 1 education. The effectiveness of summer Chapter 1 programs was studied during Fall 1993 in 68 Chicago (Illinois) public schools. Students who had been in fourth grade in 1991-92 were divided into a group that had received Chapter 1 help during the school year and…

  13. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  14. Energy-Aware Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Kerstin; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of energy in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems can be wasted by software, regardless of how energy-efficient the underlying hardware is. To avoid such waste, programmers need to understand the energy consumption of programs during the development process rather......, the chapter discusses how energy analysis and modelling techniques can be incorporated in software engineering tools, including existing compilers, to assist the energy-aware programmer to optimise the energy consumption of code....

  15. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization.......In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  16. Chapter 12: the anatomical foundations of clinical neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter provides an itinerary of knowledge on nervous system anatomy as one of the pillars of clinical neurology. The journey starts from the Renaissance explosion on the approach to the human body, its functions and its diseases, dealing with the seminal contributions of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The itinerary proceeds through the contributions of the 17th century, especially by Thomas Willis and the pioneering investigations of Marcello Malpighi and Antony van Leeuwenhoek, and onto the 18th century. The itinerary thus leads to the progress from gross anatomy to the microscopic investigation of the nervous system in the 19th century: the reticular theories, the revolution of the neural doctrine and their protagonists (Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal), which initiated the modern era of the neurosciences. The chapter also includes sections on the contributions of developmental neuroanatomy to neurology, on the history of tract tracing, and on the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex. The never-ending story of the anatomical foundations of clinical neurology continues to evolve at the dawn of the 21st century, including knowledge that guides deep brain stimulation, and novel approaches to the anatomy of the living brain based on rapidly developing neuroimaging technology.

  17. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal

    2013-04-01

    The International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Student Chapter Freiberg was founded in 2007 at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF) in Germany by national and international graduate and undergraduate students of various geoscientific as well as natural science disciplines. The major aim of the IAMG is to promote international cooperation in the application and use of Mathematics in Geosciences research and technology. The IAMG encourages all types of students and young scientists to found and maintain student chapters, which can even receive limited financial support by the IAMG. Following this encouragement, generations of students at TUBAF have build up and established a prosperous range of activities. These might be an example and an invitation for other young scientists and institutions worldwide to run similar activities. We, some of the current and former students behind the student chapter, have organised talks, membership drives, student seminars, guest lectures, several short courses and even international workshops. Some notable short courses were held by invited IAMG distinguished lecturers. The topics included "Statistical analysis in the Earth Sciences using R - a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics", "Geomathematical Natural Resource Modeling" and "Introduction to Geostatistics for Environmental Applications and Natural Resources Evaluation: Basic Concepts and Examples". Furthermore, we conducted short courses by ourselves. Here, the topics included basic introductions into MATLAB, object oriented programming concepts for geoscientists using MATLAB and an introduction to the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Most of those short courses lasted several days and provided an excellent and unprecedented teaching experience for us. We were given credit by attending students for filling gaps in our university's curriculum by providing in-depth and hands-on tutorials on topics, which were merely

  18. Buildings and energy in the 1980`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Many energy programs were put into place during the 1970`s and 1980`s to lessen the dependence upon foreign oil supplies and to improve how all forms of energy are used. A significant percent of total energy consumption occurred in the residential and commercial sectors. This report concentrates on the physical makeup of the residential and commercial buildings sectors and their use of energy, and examines changes that occurred during the 1980`s. Chapter 1 presents a summary of major findings. The following three chapters focus on different aspects of the overarching theme of buildings and energy in the 1980`s. Chapter 2 discusses major characteristics of residential and commercial buildings. Chapter 3 considers the major energy sources and end uses in terms of number of buildings and floorspace. Chapter 4 focuses on energy consumption and expenditures. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 contain tables at the end of each chapter that summarize data from detailed tables that are available separately on diskette or via EIA`s Electronic Publishing System (EPUB). Following the body of the report, appendices and a glossary provide additional information on the methodologies used in this report and on the residential and commercial building consumption surveys on which this report is based. 62 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Atmosphere of Mars - Mariner IV models compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, V. R.; Fjeldbo, G.; Fjeldbo, W. C.

    1966-01-01

    Mariner IV models of three Mars atmospheric layers analogous to terrestrial E, F-1 and F-2 layers, considering relative mass densities, temperatures, carbon dioxide photodissociation and ionization profile

  20. Periodontal Disease Part IV: Periodontal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    In Part IV of this article, the author describes two periodontal infections, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth) and periodontal abscess, both acute painful conditions for which patients may seek advice from their family physician rather than their dentist.

  1. Energy intensities of food products. Energie-intensiteiten van voedingsmiddelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, R.; Biesiot, W.; Wilting, H.C.

    1993-08-01

    The energy intensity of a product is the amount of primary energy used per Dutch guilder spent on consumer goods. The energy intensity can differ for each spending and varies from household to household. The aim of this study is to calculate the energy intensities and to provide an overview of the total package of consumer goods, including sociological categories and lifestyles, and the related use of primary energy to produce these goods. Use is made of the Energy Analysis Program (EAP) to calculate the energy intensities. EAP is based on the hybrid method: both the process analysis and the input-output analysis are applied in the model. The data input of the model consists of data from the Budget Survey 1990 of the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics, which holds data of consumptions from 2767 households. In the chapters 4 to 10 energy intensities are given of the categories bread, pastry and groceries (chapter four), potatoes, vegetables and fruits (chapter five), sugary products and beverages (chapter six), oils and fats (chapter seven), meat, meat products and fish (chapter eight), dairy products (chapter nine), and other food products (chapter ten). The highest energy intensity is found for oils and fats (13.5 MJ per Dutch guilder). The energy intensities for the other products vary from 4.0 to 6.6 MJ/gld. It appears that most of the energy intensive products are products which do not use a large part of the primary energy, mainly because the consumption of these products is low. On the other hand many of the products that consume much of the primary energy (i.e. are consumed much themselves) are relatively energy extensive. The products that show a high consumption rate have relatively low energy intensities. Some of the options to shift towards a more energy extensive food package are the use of fresh products and outside grown products instead of treated products or greenhouse products and a more balanced diet. 5 figs., 18 tabs., 2 appendices, 52 refs.

  2. Comparison of Russian and IVS intensive series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdubov, S. L.

    2013-08-01

    The article presents results of first comparison the Russian National UT1-UTC estimation program Ru-U and IVS-intensive international campaign. It is shown that the Ru-U sessions are performing with good accuracy and results can be included into international VLBI data processing scheme. Comparison of different distributions shows that the problem of correlation lack between single delay formal errors and UT1 estimations are presented both in Ru-U and IVS-intensive series.

  3. 10 CFR 8.5 - Interpretation by the General Counsel of § 73.55 of this chapter; illumination and physical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... chapter; illumination and physical search requirements. 8.5 Section 8.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...; illumination and physical search requirements. (a) A request has been received to interpret 10 CFR 73.55(c)(5... protected area shall be provided with illumination sufficient for the monitoring and...

  4. Wind energy conversion. Volume IV. Drive system dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Labuszewski, T.

    1978-09-01

    The dynamics of the drive system and various approaches to power transmission are described. The effects on performance of using a constant rotor speed as opposed to a rotor speed varying with the wind speed are discussed for various rotor operating schedules and typical wind distributions. The dynamics of the combined rotor, alternator, and drive system are analyzed. Conditions which could lead to electro-dynamic instabilities and desynchronization are discussed as well as means for stabilizing the system. The dynamics of the drive system and important design conditions for various drive systems are discussed, such as location of the alternators, use of hydraulic drive systems and smoothing techniques.

  5. Monthly energy review, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This is an overview of the March 1997 energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The Contents of the report include an update on the effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on electric utilities, an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 60 tabs.

  6. Observational properties of decameter type IV bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoly; Rucker, Helmut; Konovalenko, Alexander; Briand, Carine; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Zarka, Philippe; Frantzusenko, Anatoly; Panchenko, Michael; Poedts, Stefan; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Shergelashvili, Bidzina

    2013-04-01

    Oscillations of decameter type IV bursts were registered during observations of solar radio emission by UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA in 2011-2012. Large majority of these bursts were accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which were observed by SOHO and STEREO in the visible light. Only in some cases decameter type IV bursts were not associated with CMEs. The largest periods of oscillations P were some tens of minutes. There were some modes of long periods of oscillations simultaneously. Periods of oscillations in flux and in polarization profiles were close. Detailed properties of oscillations at different frequencies were analyzed on the example of two type IV bursts. One of them was observed on April 7, 2011 when a CME happened. Another one (August 1, 2011) was registered without any CME. The 7 April type IV burst had two periods in the frames 75-85 and 35-85 minutes. Interesting feature of these oscillations is decreasing periods with time. The observed decreasing rates dP/dt equaled 0.03-0.07. Concerning type IV burst observed on August 1, 2011 the period of its oscillations increases from 17 min. at 30 MHz to 44 min. at 10 MHz. Connection of type IV burst oscillations with oscillations of magnetic arches and CMEs at corresponding altitudes are discussed. The work is fulfilled in the frame of FP7 project "SOLSPANET".

  7. Group IV direct band gap photonics: Methods, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eGeiger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of direct band gap group IV materials offers a paradigm change for Si-photonics concerning the monolithic implementation of light emitters: The idea is to integrate fully compatible group IV materials with equally favorable optical properties as the chemically incompatible group III-V-based systems. The concept involves either mechanically applied strain on Ge or alloying of Ge with Sn and permits to drastically improve the insufficient radiative efficiency of Ge. The favorable optical properties result from a modified band structure transformed from an indirect to a direct one. The first demonstration of such a direct band gap laser, accomplished in GeSn, exemplifies the capability of this new concept. These systems may permit a qualitative as well as a quantitative expansion of Si-photonics into traditional but also new areas of applications, provided they can be operated energy efficiently, under ambient conditions and integrated with current Si technologies. This review aims to discuss the challenges along this path in terms of fabrication, characterization and fundamental understanding, and will elaborate on evoking opportunities of this new class of group IV-based laser materials.

  8. Group IV direct band gap photonics: Methods, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Richard; Zabel, Thomas; Sigg, Hans

    2015-07-01

    The concept of direct band gap group IV materials offers a paradigm change for Si-photonics concerning the monolithic implementation of light emitters: The idea is to integrate fully compatible group IV materials with equally favorable optical properties as the chemically incompatible group III-V-based systems. The concept involves either mechanically applied strain on Ge or alloying of Ge with Sn and permits to drastically improve the insufficient radiative efficiency of Ge. The favorable optical properties result from a modified band structure transformed from an indirect to a direct one. The first demonstration of such a direct band gap laser, accomplished in GeSn, exemplifies the capability of this new concept. These systems may permit a qualitative as well as a quantitative expansion of Si-photonics into traditional but also new areas of applications, provided they can be operated energy efficiently, under ambient conditions and integrated with current Si technologies. This review aims to discuss the challenges along this path in terms of fabrication, characterization and fundamental understanding, and will elaborate on evoking opportunities of this new class of group IV-based laser materials.

  9. Thermal Diagrams of Thermo-Electrical Devices (Selected Chapters)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-09

    sech cach coch arc sin sind- arc Cos arc tg tan-l arc ctg cot-1 arc seC rec"I arc cosoec Coe- arc sh sinhe arc ch cosh- 1 arc th taah-1 arc ctb coth-1...arc soh sach-1 arc csch coch -i rot curl Ig log FTD-.MT-24-1778-74 iv GREEK ALPHABET Alpha A a e Nu N v Beta B 8 xi Gamma r y Omicron 0 o Delta A Pj

  10. Characterisation and thermal decomposition of zirconium (IV) soaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, R.P. [Dept. of Chemistry, D.A.V. College, Muzaffarnagar (India); Singh, H. [Meerut Univ. (India); Sharma, K.R. [Meerut Univ. (India); Goel, H. [Dept. of Chemistry, D.A.V. College, Muzaffarnagar (India)

    1997-05-01

    Zirconium (IV) soaps of butyric, valeric and stearic acid were prepared and characterised by infrared spectroscopy. Thermal decomposition was studied by dynamic thermogravimetry and differential thermometry in the temperature range of 200-800 C. The order of decomposition was found to be zero for all soaps. The activation energies {Delta}E were found to be: 8.233, 8.620 and 7.181 kJ mol{sup -1} for butyrate, valerate and stearate respectively. The frequency factor, Z, entropy change {Delta}S and free energy change {Delta}G were calculated and a probable decomposition mechanism proposed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aus Butter-, Valerian- und Stearinsaeure wurden die entsprechenden Zirconium(IV)seifen hergestellt und durch ihre Infrarotspektren charakterisiert. Ihre thermische Zersetzung wurde mittels dynamischer Thermogravimetrie und Differentialthermometrie im Bereich von 200-800 C untersucht. Die Zersetzungsreaktion war fuer alle untersuchten Seifen von nullter Ordnung. Fuer die Aktivierungsenergien, {Delta}E, wurden Werte von 8,233, 8,620 und 7,181 kJ mol{sup -1} fuer Butyrat, Valerat bzw. Stearat gefunden. Der Frequenzfaktor Z, die Entropieaenderung {Delta}S und die Aenderung der freien Energie {Delta}G werden berechnet, und es wird ein moeglicher Mechanismus fuer die Zersetzung angegeben. (orig.)

  11. Axis IV--psychosocial and environmental problems--in the DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A; Ekselius, L; Ramklint, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further explore the properties of axis IV in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). In a naturalistic cross-sectional design, a group (n = 163) of young (18-25 years old) Swedish psychiatric outpatients was assessed according to DSM-IV. Psychosocial and environmental problems/axis IV were evaluated through structured interviewing by a social worker and by self-assessment on a questionnaire. Reliability between professional assessment and self-assessment of axis IV was examined. Concurrent validity of axis IV was also examined. Reliability between professional and self-assessed axis IV was fair to almost perfect, 0.31-0.83, according to prevalence and bias-adjusted kappa. Categories of psychosocial stress and environmental problems were related to the presence of axis I disorders, co-morbidity, personality disorders and decreasing Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) values. The revised axis IV according to DSM-IV seems to have concurrent validity, but is still hampered by limited reliability.

  12. Chapter 3 – VPPD-Lab: The Chemical Product Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    as property calculations and property model consistency tests) for specific product property prediction, design, and/or analysis tasks. The application of VPPD-Lab is highlighted through case studies involving solvent mixture stability check, lubricant blend design, jet fuel blend design, and insect repellent......Computer-aided methods and tools for current and future product–process design and development need to manage problems requiring efficient handling of models, data, and knowledge from different sources and at different times and size scales. In this chapter, a systematic model-based framework...... for computer-aided chemical product design and evaluation, implemented in the software called VPPD-Lab, is presented. In the same way a typical process simulator works, the VPPD-Lab allows users to: (1) analyze chemical-based products by performing virtual experiments (product property and performance...

  13. Structural equation modeling: building and evaluating causal models: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Scheiner, Samuel M.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists frequently wish to study hypotheses about causal relationships, rather than just statistical associations. This chapter addresses the question of how scientists might approach this ambitious task. Here we describe structural equation modeling (SEM), a general modeling framework for the study of causal hypotheses. Our goals are to (a) concisely describe the methodology, (b) illustrate its utility for investigating ecological systems, and (c) provide guidance for its application. Throughout our presentation, we rely on a study of the effects of human activities on wetland ecosystems to make our description of methodology more tangible. We begin by presenting the fundamental principles of SEM, including both its distinguishing characteristics and the requirements for modeling hypotheses about causal networks. We then illustrate SEM procedures and offer guidelines for conducting SEM analyses. Our focus in this presentation is on basic modeling objectives and core techniques. Pointers to additional modeling options are also given.

  14. Introduction to physical properties and elasticity models: Chapter 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, Jack; Helgerud, Michael B.; Waite, William F.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Nur, Amos

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the in situ methane hydrate volume from seismic surveys requires knowledge of the rock physics relations between wave speeds and elastic moduli in hydrate/sediment mixtures. The elastic moduli of hydrate/sediment mixtures depend on the elastic properties of the individual sedimentary particles and the manner in which they are arranged. In this chapter, we present some rock physics data currently available from literature. The unreferenced values in Table I were not measured directly, but were derived from other values in Tables I and II using standard relationships between elastic properties for homogeneous, isotropic material. These derivations allow us to extend the list of physical property estimates, but at the expense of introducing uncertainties due to combining property values measured under different physical conditions. This is most apparent in the case of structure II (sII) hydrate for which very few physical properties have been measured under identical conditions.

  15. Chapter 10.3: Reliability and Durability of PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2017-01-07

    Each year the world invests tens of billions of dollars or euros in PV systems with the expectation that these systems will last approximately 25 years. Although the disciplines of reliability, quality, and service life prediction have been well established for numerous products, a full understanding of these is currently challenging for PV modules because the desired service lifetimes are decades, preventing direct verification of lifetime predictions. A number of excellent reviews can be found in the literature summarizing the types of failures that are commonly observed for PV modules. This chapter discusses key failure/degradation mechanisms selected to highlight how the kinetics of failure rates can and cannot be confidently predicted. For EVA-encapsulated modules, corrosion is observed to follow delamination, which then allows water droplets to directly contact the metallization. Extended test protocols such as Qualification Plus were created to address the known problems while standards groups update standard tests through the consensus process.

  16. Comparison between different reactions of group IV hydride with H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Shaolong; ZHANG; Xuqiang; ZHANG; Qinggang; ZHANG; Yici

    2006-01-01

    The four-dimensional time-dependent quantum dynamics calculations for reactions of group IV hydride with H are carried out by employing the semirigid vibrating rotor target model and the time-dependent wave packet method. The reaction possibility, cross section and rate constants for reactions (H+SiH4 and H+GeH4) in different initial vibrational and rotational states are obtained. The common feature for such kind of reaction process is summarized. The theoretical result is consistent with available measurement, which indicates the credibility of this theory and the potential energy surface.

  17. Sustainable Plus-energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    This study is an outcome of Elforsk, project number 344-060, Bæredygtige Energi-Plus huse (Sustainable plus-energy houses). The focus of this report is to document the approach and the results of different analyses concerning a plus-energy, single family house. The house was designed...... for an international student competition, Solar Decathlon Europe 2012 and after the competition it was used as a full-scale experimental facility for one year. During this period, different heating and cooling strategies were tested and the performance of the house regarding the thermal indoor environment and energy...... was monitored. This report is structured as follows. Chapter 1 presents the project and briefly explains the different phases of the project. The details of the house’s construction and its HVAC system are explained in Chapter 2, along with the energy efficiency measures and innovations. Chapter 3 introduces...

  18. Chapter 5: Network biology approach to complex diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yeon Cho

    Full Text Available Complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Uncovering the molecular pathways through which genetic factors affect a phenotype is always difficult, but in the case of complex diseases this is further complicated since genetic factors in affected individuals might be different. In recent years, systems biology approaches and, more specifically, network based approaches emerged as powerful tools for studying complex diseases. These approaches are often built on the knowledge of physical or functional interactions between molecules which are usually represented as an interaction network. An interaction network not only reports the binary relationships between individual nodes but also encodes hidden higher level organization of cellular communication. Computational biologists were challenged with the task of uncovering this organization and utilizing it for the understanding of disease complexity, which prompted rich and diverse algorithmic approaches to be proposed. We start this chapter with a description of the general characteristics of complex diseases followed by a brief introduction to physical and functional networks. Next we will show how these networks are used to leverage genotype, gene expression, and other types of data to identify dysregulated pathways, infer the relationships between genotype and phenotype, and explain disease heterogeneity. We group the methods by common underlying principles and first provide a high level description of the principles followed by more specific examples. We hope that this chapter will give readers an appreciation for the wealth of algorithmic techniques that have been developed for the purpose of studying complex diseases as well as insight into their strengths and limitations.

  19. Wind energy; Energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcus Vinicius Gusmao do; Lima, Jorge H. Greco; Francescutti, Fabio Gino; Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Silva, Patricia de Castro; Giannini, Marcio; Vianna Junior, Affonso [Centro de Pesquisa de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on energy generation from wind energy, presenting a panoramic approaching on the state-of-art of wind energy, the evolution of the technological dynamics of the sector in Brazil, description of the wind energy technology, the environment and the wind energy, analysis of the economic viability, the strategy for the development of a Brazilian wind energy technology, the estimative for the necessary financial resources, the identification of the present barriers to the penetration of the technology, the mechanisms for the viabilization of the technology introduction.

  20. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  1. Group-IV midinfrared plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Paolo; Frigerio, Jacopo; Samarelli, Antonio; Gallacher, Kevin; Baldassarre, Leonetta; Sakat, Emilie; Calandrini, Eugenio; Millar, Ross W.; Giliberti, Valeria; Isella, Giovanni; Paul, Douglas J.; Ortolani, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The use of heavily doped semiconductors to achieve plasma frequencies in the mid-IR has been recently proposed as a promising way to obtain high-quality and tunable plasmonic materials. We introduce a plasmonic platform based on epitaxial n-type Ge grown on standard Si wafers by means of low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Due to the large carrier concentration achieved with P dopants and to the compatibility with the existing CMOS technology, SiGe plasmonics hold promises for mid-IR applications in optoelectronics, IR detection, sensing, and light harvesting. As a representative example, we show simulations of mid-IR plasmonic waveguides based on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constants of the grown materials.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  3. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. The Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986: An Analysis of Air Force Implementation of Title IV and its Impact on the Air Force Officer Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    PME Outplacement to Joint Assignments .......................................... 55 Figure 6: Importance of JT Duty to AWC & ACSC War-Fighters...JPME outplacement . Last, it recommends revitalizing ‘cross-flow’ assignments between Air and Joint Staffs, and establishing a comprehensive data-base...a structure to monitor their career progression via promotions and PME outplacement . 26 Chapter 4: Promotions Title IV contains numerous joint

  5. The energy report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-23

    The Energy Report aims to be an essential source of information about the UK energy scene, setting out key elements of energy policy and the main driving forces and events, both internal and external to the UK. Chapter headings are: forward and main events of 1998/99; energy policy and related initiatives; environmental and international issues; energy demand and energy efficiency; fuel poverty; gas supply; electricity; nuclear; new and renewable sources of energy; coal; oil and gas production; and downstream oil. Papers by the Engineering Advisory Panel are included. Appendices include tables relating to the production, supply, demand and prices of energy in the United Kingdom and energy-related atmospheric emissions. The report has been formerly published as Volume 1 of the Energy Report. Purchasers also receive an 84-page booklet entitled 'UK energy sector indicators 1999' and a leaflet 'UK energy in brief' (issued separately free of charge).

  6. Intelligent energy systems. A White Paper with Danish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    This White Paper is intended as a basis for developing a partnership and a strategy on intelligent energy systems including all stakeholders: businesses, energy companies, research institutions, energy consumers and public authorities. The partnership initiative for intelligent energy systems is initiated by The Danish Energy Industries Federation together with DI ITEK (the Danish ICT and electronics federation for it, telecommunications, electronics and communication enterprises), EC Power A/S, Dong Energy A/S, Danfoss Solutions A/S, Dantherm A/S, Vestas A/S, Siemens A/S, SydEnergi Partner A/S, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Aalborg University (AAU), the network VE-net and Ea Energy Analyses A/S. The White Paper has been prepared by Ea Energy Analyses with valuable assistance from the project participants. The proposed partnership initiative is presented in the first section: 'Strategy and partnership for intelligent energy'. The remaining chapters 1-9 of the report constitute the White Paper. Chapters 1 and 2 introduce the energy system, chapter 3 discusses the markets for energy and reserves, and chapter 4 covers some of the new active elements in the system - consumers and storage. Key technologies and solutions of the intelligent energy system are outlined in chapter 5, and chapter 6 describes the strategies for smart grids pursued by the EU, the International Energy Agency and the USA. Selected Danish research, development and demonstration projects related to demand management and other smart grid solutions are briefly described in chapter 7, and chapter 8 outlines current Danish policy and initiatives working towards the intelligent energy system. A list of references is given in chapter 6, and appendix 1 contains a preliminary list of potential members of the partnership. (LN)

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Delyana I.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Schindler, Dwayne; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    New editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory scales are now available. Yet, given the significant changes in these new releases and the skepticism that has met them, independent evidence on their psychometric properties is much needed but currently lacking. We administered the WAIS-IV and the Older Adult version of the WMS-IV to 145…

  8. On the stabilization of niobium(V) solutions by zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Niobium cannot be separated from zirconium or hafnium when these elements occur together in solution with common anions such as chloride and sulphate. This is ascribed to the co-polymerization of niobium(V) and the hydrolysed ionic species of zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) to form colloidal...

  9. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  10. Offshore wind energy developments

    OpenAIRE

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kiil, Søren; Holbøll, Joachim; Piirainen, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services.

  11. Energy statistics manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Manual is written in a question-and-answer format. The points developed are introduced with a basic question, such as: What do people mean by 'fuels' and 'energy'? What units are used to express oil? How are energy data presented? Answers are given in simple terms and illustrated by graphs, charts and tables. More technical explanations are found in the annexes. The Manual contains seven chapters. The first one presents the fundamentals of energy statistics, five chapters deal with the five different fuels (electricity and heat; natural gas; oil; solid fuels and manufactured gases; renewables and waste) and the last chapter explains the energy balance. Three technical annexes and a glossary are also included. For the five chapters dedicated to the fuels, there are three levels of reading: the first one contains general information on the subject, the second one reviews issues which are specific to the joint IEA/OECD-Eurostat-UNECE questionnaires and the third one focuses on the essential elements of the subject. 43 figs., 22 tabs., 3 annexes.

  12. Seafloor earthquake measurement system, SEMS IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzbecker, M.R.; Ehasz, J.P.; Franco, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Staff of the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in support of the U.S. Interior Department Mineral Management Services (MMS), developed and deployed the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System IV (SEMS IV). The result of this development project is a series of three fully operational seafloor seismic monitor systems located at offshore platforms: Eureka, Grace, and Irene. The instrument probes are embedded from three to seven feet into the seafloor and hardwired to seismic data recorders installed top side at the offshore platforms. The probes and underwater cables were designed to survive the seafloor environment with an operation life of five years. The units have been operational for two years and have produced recordings of several minor earthquakes in that time. Sandia Labs will transfer operation of SEMS IV to MMS contractors in the coming months. 29 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. The Berkeley SETI program - SERENDIP IV instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthimer, Dan; Bowyer, Stuart; Ng, David; Donnelly, Charles; Cobb, Jeff; Lampton, Michael; Airieau, Sabine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the hardware design of SERENDIP IV, which will be deployed in early 1997 for a 21-cm sky survey at the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center's 305-m radio telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. SERENDIP IV is a 167 million channel spectrum analyzer, covering a 100-Mhz bandwidth, with 0.6-Hz resolution and a 1.7-s integration time. SERENDIP IV's modular design incorporates a bank of digital mixers and filters to separate the 100 MHz band into 40 2.5 MHz subbands. Each 2.5 MHz subband is further broken down into 0.6 Hz bins by means of a four million point fast Fourier transform. The resulting power spectra are analyzed by 40 high-speed processors. Narrowband signals having power significantly above background noise levels are recorded along with telescope coordinates, time, and frequency. The data are sent in real time to Berkeley for analysis.

  14. Oxochloroalkoxide of the Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV as oxides precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Luiz Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV oxides mixture (CeO2-3TiO2 was prepared by thermal treatment of the oxochloroisopropoxide of Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV. The chemical route utilizing the Cerium (III chloride alcoholic complex and Titanium (IV isopropoxide is presented. The compound Ce5Ti15Cl16O30 (iOPr4(OH-Et15 was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and TG/DTG. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the oxides resulting from the thermal decomposition of the precursor at 1000 degreesC for 36 h indicated the formation of cubic cerianite (a = 5.417Å and tetragonal rutile (a = 4.592Å and (c = 2.962 Å, with apparent crystallite sizes around 38 and 55nm, respectively.

  15. IV meeting of R and D in radioactive waste management; IV Jornadas de investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico en gestion de residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The present technical report gathers the summaries and abstracts presented during the conference days of IV Jornadas de I+D Tecnologico en Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos of ENRESA in Barcelona during the last month of November, 2000. The document is divided in two big chapters, the first chapter with the summaries and abstracts of the Scientific Sessions, and the second with the presented ones in the Seminars. The present document together with the volumes of the Technical Publications 9/2000 Posters Divulgativos, and 10/2000 Posters Tecnicos are a real sample of the state of the knowledge that ENRESA, and collaborators have developed so far. Likewise, the reading of this document tries to give a transparent and suitable vision of which are the needs, strategies and prior activities in the Research and Development in the field of Radioactive Waste Management. For the reader who wants to penetrate into the topics of R and D here presented, there is recommended the complementary reading of the Technical Publication X/2001 in which there are gathered in a more detailed way the papers and presentations carried out during the conference days kept in Barcelona. (Author)

  16. Polityka religijna Ptolemeusza IV Filopatora : wybrane aspekty

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Religion was very highly placed in the politics and propaganda of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Ptolemy IV Philopator belonged to the kings of Egypt who were particularly active in this field. The person of Ptolemy I Soter, who was the founder of the dynasty, was of considerable importance in his policy. Among many other things, Ptolemy IV established his eponymous cult in Ptolemais. He also invested the dynastic cult with its final form by incorporating into it the cult of Theoi Soters (Ptolemy I a...

  17. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  18. Renewable energy and climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Quaschning, Volker

    2010-01-01

    This dazzling introductory textbook encompasses the full range of today's important renewable energy technologies. Solar thermal, photovoltaic, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal energy receive balanced treatment with one exciting and informative chapter devoted to each. As well as a complete overview of these state-of-the-art technologies, the chapters provide: clear analysis on their development potentials; an evaluation of the economic aspects involved; concrete guidance for practical implementation; how to reduce your own energy waste. If we do not act now to stop climate change, the cons.

  19. Recent advances in pharmaceutical sciences IV

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Torrero López-Ibarra, Diego; Manuel Vázquez-Carrera; Estelrich i Latràs, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Like in the three previous editions, this E-book compiles a series of contributions in the multidisciplinary research arena of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The E-book has been organized in 12 chapters, whose main topics belong to the fields of pharmacology, physical chemistry, plant physiology, microbiology, physiology, preventive medicine and public health, food science, botany, clinical pharmacy and pharmacotherapy, organic chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology, and pa...

  20. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, S.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an overview of Philippines energy planning and policy and to analyze its energy resources and economic developments. Geography, population, geothermal reserves, coal, oil industry, electricity, and renewable energy are the major topics included in the report. A chapter is focused on national economy and energy policy. 40 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. 77 FR 8525 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... February 14, 2012 Part IV Department of Energy 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC07 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby...: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for......

  2. Chapter 4: neurology in the Bible and the Talmud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsod, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The Bible, a major pillar of Western Civilization consists of Hebrew Scriptures, assembled over a millennium and accepted as of divine origin. The Talmud is a compendium of Jewish laws, covering every possible aspect of life, analyzed in depth from 200 BCE to 600 CE, becoming the foundation of Jewish existence. The all-encompassing character of the books provides numerous medical problems and observations that appear in various connotations. When in need to clarify various legal dilemmas, the Talmudic sages displayed astoundingly accurate anatomical knowledge and were pioneers in clinical-pathological correlations. The descriptions of "neurological" events in the Bible are very precise but show no evidence of neurological knowledge. Those reported in the various tractates of the Talmud are evidence of a substantial medical knowledge, marked by Hellenistic influence. Subjects such as head and spinal injuries, epilepsy, handedness neuralgias aphasia tinnitus and tremor were discussed in depth. This chapter is an updated collection of the studies, extracting observations and discussions of neurological manifestations from the ancient texts.

  3. Chapter 20: neurological illustration from photography to cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores iconography in neurology from the birth of photography up to the early medical applications of cinematography before 1914. The important visual part of neurological diagnosis explains why these techniques were adopted very early by neurologists. Duchenne published the first medical book illustrated with photographs of patients. The first and most famous photographic laboratory was created in Charcot's department, at the Salpêtrière in Paris, under the direction of Albert Londe. Londe published the first book dedicated to medical photography. The physiologist Marey and the photographer Muybridge, in association with neurologists, played key roles in the development of chronophotography and cinematography. Germany was the first country to welcome cinematography in a neurology department. Independently, neurologists began to film patients in other countries in Europe and in America. In 1905, Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, began systematically to film neurologic patients, with the intention of building up a complete neurological iconographic collection. This collection has survived and has been restored in the laboratory of the Royal Belgian Film Archive where the films are now safely stored in their vaults.

  4. CHAPTER 6. Biomimetic Materials for Efficient Atmospheric Water Collection

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    Water scarcity is a severe problem in semi-arid desert regions, land-scarce countries and in countries with high levels of economic activity. In these regions, the collection of atmospheric water - for example, fog - is recognized as an important method of providing water. In nature, through millions of year evolution, some animals and plants in many of the arid regions have developed unique and highly efficient systems with delicate microstructures and composition for the purpose of fog collection to survive the harsh conditions. With the unique ability of fog collection, these creatures could readily cope with insufficient access to fresh water or lack of precipitation. These natural examples have inspired the design and fabrication of artificial fog collection materials and devices. In this chapter, we will first introduce some natural examples for their unique fog collection capability, and then give some examples of the bioinspired materials and devices that are fabricated artificially to mimic these natural creatures for the purpose of fog collection. We believe that the biomimetic strategy is one of the most promising routes for the design and fabrication of functional materials and devices for the solution of the global water crisis.

  5. Applied Space Systems Engineering. Chapter 17; Manage Technical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Effective space systems engineering (SSE) is conducted in a fully electronic manner. Competitive hardware, software, and system designs are created in a totally digital environment that enables rapid product design and manufacturing cycles, as well as a multitude of techniques such as modeling, simulation, and lean manufacturing that significantly reduce the lifecycle cost of systems. Because the SSE lifecycle depends on the digital environment, managing the enormous volumes of technical data needed to describe, build, deploy, and operate systems is a critical factor in the success of a project. This chapter presents the key aspects of Technical Data Management (TDM) within the SSE process. It is written from the perspective of the System Engineer tasked with establishing the TDM process and infrastructure for a major project. Additional perspectives are reflected from the point of view of the engineers on the project who work within the digital engineering environment established by the TDM toolset and infrastructure, and from the point of view of the contactors who interface via the TDM infrastructure. Table 17.1 lists the TDM process as it relates to SSE.

  6. California spotted owls: Chapter 5 in Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Suzanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) are habitat specialists that are strongly associated with late-successional forests. For nesting and roosting, they require large trees and snags embedded in a stand with a complex forest structure (Blakesley et al. 2005, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, Verner et al. 1992b). In mixedconifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California spotted owls typically nest and roost in stands with high canopy closure (≥75 percent) [Note: when citing studies, we use terminology consistent with Jennings et al. (1999), however, not all studies properly distinguish between canopy cover and closure and often use the terms interchangeably (see chapter 14 for clarification)] and an abundance of large trees (>24 in (60 cm) diameter at breast height [d.b.h.]) (Bias and Gutiérrez 1992, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, LaHaye et al. 1997, Moen and Gutiérrez 1997, Verner et al. 1992a). The California spotted owl guidelines (Verner et al. 1992b) effectively summarized much of the information about nesting and roosting habitat. Since that report, research on the California spotted owl has continued with much of the new information concentrated in five areas: population trends, barred owl (Strix varia) invasion, climate effects, foraging habitat, and owl response to fire.

  7. Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed....

  8. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  9. TFRC—IVS Flow Control Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEKaijian; LINYaping; YANGAng

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the TCP (Trans-mission Control Protocol) friendliness of multicast video-conferencing systems. Through the analysis and simulation experiments it is shown that the slow response to network state changes and the fixed rate adjustment process lead to TCP unfriendliness in the bandwidth sharing. Therefore,this paper proposes a new TCP friendly flow control al-gorithm called TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm for the current best-effort Internet. TFRC-IVS (TCP-Friendly Rate Control--INRIA Videoconferencing System) algo-rithm utilizes TCP friendly control function derived from complex TCP model to calculate TCP friendly sending rate.Simulation results show that TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm improves the smoothness of transmission rates and converges quickly to the stable sending rate. In addi-tion, the TCP friendly control function in TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm ensures the TCP friendliness of video flows and fair bandwidth allocation with TCP flows, which the traditional static rate adjustment algorithm lacks.

  10. Bis(4-methylpiperidinium hexachloridostannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Helliwell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, (C6H14N2[SnCl6], is built of 4-methylpiperidinium cations, occupying special positions on the mirror plane, and hexachloridostannate(IV anions on a special position of 2/m symmetry. The ions are linked via N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds into chains running along the b axis.

  11. Painlevé IV coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, David, E-mail: david.bermudez@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Fernández C, David J., E-mail: david@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.

  12. Energy: Between Physics and Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2000-01-01

    The general concept of energy is somewhat unclear as long as it is confined to physics since every chapter of it defines its own particular concept of energy. The general concept can be elucidated in terms of the hypergeneral concepts of concrete things and changeability. Concludes that physicists and philosophers can learn from one another.…

  13. Chapter 1. Impacts of the oceans on climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Philip C; Fischer, Astrid C; Lewis-Brown, Emily; Meredith, Michael P; Sparrow, Mike; Andersson, Andreas J; Antia, Avan; Bates, Nicholas R; Bathmann, Ulrich; Beaugrand, Gregory; Brix, Holger; Dye, Stephen; Edwards, Martin; Furevik, Tore; Gangstø, Reidun; Hátún, Hjálmar; Hopcroft, Russell R; Kendall, Mike; Kasten, Sabine; Keeling, Ralph; Le Quéré, Corinne; Mackenzie, Fred T; Malin, Gill; Mauritzen, Cecilie; Olafsson, Jón; Paull, Charlie; Rignot, Eric; Shimada, Koji; Vogt, Meike; Wallace, Craig; Wang, Zhaomin; Washington, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The oceans play a key role in climate regulation especially in part buffering (neutralising) the effects of increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and rising global temperatures. This chapter examines how the regulatory processes performed by the oceans alter as a response to climate change and assesses the extent to which positive feedbacks from the ocean may exacerbate climate change. There is clear evidence for rapid change in the oceans. As the main heat store for the world there has been an accelerating change in sea temperatures over the last few decades, which has contributed to rising sea-level. The oceans are also the main store of carbon dioxide (CO2), and are estimated to have taken up approximately 40% of anthropogenic-sourced CO2 from the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial revolution. A proportion of the carbon uptake is exported via the four ocean 'carbon pumps' (Solubility, Biological, Continental Shelf and Carbonate Counter) to the deep ocean reservoir. Increases in sea temperature and changing planktonic systems and ocean currents may lead to a reduction in the uptake of CO2 by the ocean; some evidence suggests a suppression of parts of the marine carbon sink is already underway. While the oceans have buffered climate change through the uptake of CO2 produced by fossil fuel burning this has already had an impact on ocean chemistry through ocean acidification and will continue to do so. Feedbacks to climate change from acidification may result from expected impacts on marine organisms (especially corals and calcareous plankton), ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. The polar regions of the world are showing the most rapid responses to climate change. As a result of a strong ice-ocean influence, small changes in temperature, salinity and ice cover may trigger large and sudden changes in regional climate with potential downstream feedbacks to the climate of the rest of the world. A warming Arctic Ocean may lead to

  14. CFD Applications in Energy and Environment Sectors: Volume 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi and Hashim R. Abdol Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Simulation and Modelling of Oxygen Coal Combustion with Flue Gas Recirculation. Chaouki Ghenai Chapter 2: The Choice of the Best Air Distribution Concept in Air-Conditioned Auditorium by Means of CFD Numerical Prediction. Barbara Lipska, Piotr Koper Chapter 3: CFD Applications in Natural Ventilation of Buildings and Air Quality Dispersion. N. Nikolopoulos, A. Nikolopoulos, I. Papadakis, K.-S. P. Nikas Chapter 4: CFD Modeling of Air Pollutant Transport and Dispersion. Labovský Juraj, Jelemenský Ľudovít Chapter 5: CFD Modeling of Multiphase Flow in Environmental Engineering. Masroor Mohajerani, Mehrab Mehrvar, Farhad Ein-Mozaffari Chapter 6: CFD Study on the Roles of Trees on Airflow and Pollutant Dispersion within Urban Street Canyons. Salim Mohamed Salim, Andrew Chan, Riccardo Buccolieri, Silvana Di Sabatino Chapter 7: Energy Efficiency and Air Quality in Hospitals Design. Essam E. Khalil Chapter 8: Application of CFD in Pulverized Fuel Combustion. M. Tayyeb Javed, Tahira Sultana Chapter 9: A Heat Transfer Model For Fluids Based on Cellular Automaton Application to an Air Conditioning of A Building. Andrés Saiz Martínez Chapter 10: CFD Application in Power Plants. Essam E. Khalil Chapter 11: Analysis and Computation of the Heat Charge/Discharge Behavior in Packed Bed Thermal Storage Systems. Pei-Wen Li, Jon Van Lew, Wafaa Karaki, Cho Lik Chan, Jake Stephens

  15. On the existence of oscillations in solar filaments observed in H alpha and C IV lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, B.; Malherbe, J. M.; Mein, P.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1986-01-01

    Time sequence observations of filaments in both the H alpha line and the 1548 A C IV line were analyzed with the Fourier transform technique in the frequency range (1 - 10 mHz). No oscillation is detected in filaments except at the footpoints where a steady velocity gradient is large. The energy is probably due to convective motions rather than pressure oscillations.

  16. Volcanism on the Red Planet: Mars. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Bridges, Nathan T.; Crown, David A.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Zimbelman, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Of all the planets in the Solar System, Mars is the most Earthlike in its geological characteristics. Like Earth, it has been subjected to exogenic processes, such as impact cratesing and erosion by wind and water, as well as endogenic processes, including tectonic deformation of the crust and volcanism. The effects of these processes are amply demonstrated by the great variety of surface features, including impact craters, landslides, former river channels, sand dunes, and the largest volcanoes in the Solar System. Some of these features suggest substantial changes in Mars' environment during its history. For example, as reviewed by Carr, today Mars is a cold, dry desert with an average atmospheric pressure of only 5.6 mbar which does not allow liquid water to exist on the surface. To some planetary scientists, the presence of the channels bespeaks a time when Mars was warmer and wetter. However, others have argued that these features might have formed under current conditions and that there might not have been a shift in climate. Could the morphology of volcanoes and related features provide clues to past Martian environments? What role is played by atmospheric density in the styles of eruptions on Mars and resulting landforms? If these and related questions can be answered, then we may have a means for assessing the conditions on Mars' surface in the past and comparing the results with models of Martian evolution. In this chapter, we outline the sources of information available for volcanism on Mars, explore the influence of the Martian environment on volcanic processes, and describe the principal volcanic features and their implications for understanding the general evolution of the Martian surface.

  17. Chapter 13: Mining electronic health records in the genomics era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Denny

    individuals. This chapter reviews several examples of phenotype extraction and their application to genetic research, demonstrating a viable future for genomic discovery using EHR-linked data.

  18. Introduction to Radiation Issues for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Saganti, P. B.; Miller, J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides significant challenges for radiation protection of the crew due to a combination of circumstances including: the extended duration of missions for many crewmembers, the exceptionally dynamic nature of the radiation environment in ISS orbit, and the necessity for numerous planned extravehicular activities (EVA) for station construction and maintenance. Radiation protection requires accurate radiation dose measurements and precise risk modeling of the transmission of high fluxes of energetic electrons and protons through the relatively thin shielding provided by the space suits worn during EVA. Experiments and analyses have been performed due to the necessity to assure complete radiation safety for the EVA crew and thereby ensure mission success. The detailed characterization described of the material and topological properties of the ISS space suits can be used as a basis for design of space suits used in future exploration missions. In radiation protection practices, risk from exposure to ionizing radiation is determined analytically by the level of exposure, the detrimental quality of the radiation field, the inherent radiosensitivity of the tissues or organs irradiated, and the age and gender of the person at the time of exposure. During low Earth orbit (LEO) EVA, the relatively high fluxes of low-energy electrons and protons lead to large variations in exposure of the skin, lens of the eye, and tissues in other shallow anatomical locations. The technical papers in this publication describe a number of ground-based experiments that precisely measure the thickness of the NASA extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and Russian Zvezda Orlan-M suits using medical computerized tomography (CT) X-ray analysis, and particle accelerator experiments that measure the minimum kinetic energy required by electrons and photons to penetrate major components of the suits. These studies provide information necessary for improving the

  19. Structure of ice IV, a metastable high-pressure phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1981-12-01

    283.3 pm, which is high relative to other ice structures except ice VII/VIII, reflects similarly the accommodation of a relatively large number (3.75 on average) of nonbonded neighbors around each molecule at relatively short distances of 310-330 pm. Bond bending in ice IV, as measured by deviation of the OṡṡṡOṡṡṡO bond angles from 109.5°, is relatively low compared to most other dense ice structures. All H bonds in ice IV except O(1)ṡṡṡO(1') are required to be proton-disordered by constraints of space-group symmetry. The x-ray structure-factor data indicate that O(1)ṡṡṡO(1') is probably also proton-disordered. Ice IV is the only ice phase other than ice I and Ic to remain proton-disordered on quenching to 77 K. The increased internal energy of ice IV relative to ice V, amounting to about 0.23 kJ mole-1, which underlies the metastability of ice IV in relation to ice V, can be explained structurally as a result of extra overlap and bond-stretching energy in ice IV, partially compensated by extra bond-bending energy in ice V. The structural relation between ice IV and ice I offers a possible explanation for the reduced barrier to nucleation of ice IV, as compared to ice V, in crystallizing from liquid water.

  20. 38 CFR 21.380 - Establishment of qualifications for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... qualifications for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31. 21.380 Section 21.380 Pensions, Bonuses, and....380 Establishment of qualifications for personnel providing assistance under Chapter 31. (a) General... consider qualification standards established for comparable personnel under the Rehabilitation Act of...

  1. 5 CFR Appendix A to 5 Cfr Chapter... - Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions A Appendix A to 5 CFR Chapter XIV Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY.... A Appendix A to 5 CFR Chapter XIV—Current Addresses and Geographic Jurisdictions (a) The...

  2. Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Pi Chapter: African American Male Identity and Fraternity Culture, 1923-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Edwin T.

    2009-01-01

    Pi Chapter of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. at Morgan State University made a significant contribution to the identity construction of college-educated African American men in the state of Maryland. The initiates of Pi Chapter constructed identities that allowed the members to see themselves as participants in mainstream American society as…

  3. A Summary of State Chapter 1 Participation and Achievement Information--1989-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Beth; Gutmann, Babette

    This report summarizes the 1989-90 State Performance Reports for the Chapter 1 Basic Grants to Local Educational Agencies (LEAs) and the Chapter 1 State Agency Neglected or Delinquent Program. The Neglected or Delinquent Program served youths in state-operated adult and juvenile correctional facilities and facilities for neglected children. The…

  4. Group IV nanotube transistors for next generation ubiquitous computing

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2014-06-04

    Evolution in transistor technology from increasingly large power consuming single gate planar devices to energy efficient multiple gate non-planar ultra-narrow (< 20 nm) fins has enhanced the scaling trend to facilitate doubling performance. However, this performance gain happens at the expense of arraying multiple devices (fins) per operation bit, due to their ultra-narrow dimensions (width) originated limited number of charges to induce appreciable amount of drive current. Additionally arraying degrades device off-state leakage and increases short channel characteristics, resulting in reduced chip level energy-efficiency. In this paper, a novel nanotube device (NTFET) topology based on conventional group IV (Si, SiGe) channel materials is discussed. This device utilizes a core/shell dual gate strategy to capitalize on the volume-inversion properties of an ultra-thin (< 10 nm) group IV nanotube channel to minimize leakage and short channel effects while maximizing performance in an area-efficient manner. It is also shown that the NTFET is capable of providing a higher output drive performance per unit chip area than an array of gate-all-around nanowires, while maintaining the leakage and short channel characteristics similar to that of a single gate-all-around nanowire, the latter being the most superior in terms of electrostatic gate control. In the age of big data and the multitude of devices contributing to the internet of things, the NTFET offers a new transistor topology alternative with maximum benefits from performance-energy efficiency-functionality perspective. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  5. Annotations on Mexico's WISC-IV: a validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Anthony D; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Hollingworth, Liz

    2012-01-01

    This project seeks to provide evidence on the internal structure of the Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Niños-IV (EWIN-IV; Wechsler, 2007a ) through a confirmatory factor analysis and intercorrelational study. Also provided is information on the adaptation process and other sources of validity evidence in support of the EWIN-IV norms. The standardization data for the EWIN-IV were used for all analyses. The factor loadings and correlational patterns found on the EWIN-IV are comparable to those seen in the American versions of the test. The proposed factor and scoring structure of the EWIN-IV was supported.

  6. Airborne wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This reference offers an overview of the field of airborne wind energy. As the first book of its kind, it provides a consistent compilation of the fundamental theories, a compendium of current research and development activities as well as economic and regulatory aspects. In five parts, the book demonstrates the relevance of Airborne Wind Energy and the role that this emerging field of technology can play for the transition towards a renewable energy economy. Part I on 'Fundamentals' contains seven general chapters explaining the principles of airborne wind energy and its different variants, o

  7. Human Security and Energy Security: A Sustainable Energy System as a Public Good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Jollands, N.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the concept of human security and its link to energy and energy governance, particularly global energy governance. Through this focus emerges the need to look at the links between the concept of public goods and energy. Our starting argument is that conventional notions

  8. American Security and the International Energy Situation. Volume 2. World Energy and the Security of Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-15

    DEPENDABILITY. 1975-,905 VI THE OUTLOOK FOR WORLD ENERGY INTERDEPENDENCE ,„ Supply, Demand, OPEC and Prices Energy Interdependence...the outlook of the world energy market is speculated upon in Chapter Vi and the resulting patterns of interdependence are subse...theme of this study is the relationship of Interdepen- dence which characterizes the world energy system. From the standpoint of the international

  9. Surveys in differential-algebraic equations IV

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Timo

    2017-01-01

    The present volume comprises survey articles on various fields of Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAEs) which have widespread applications in controlled dynamical systems, especially in mechanical and electrical engineering and a strong relation to (ordinary) differential equations. The individual chapters provide reviews, presentations of the current state of research and new concepts in - History of DAEs - DAE aspects of mechanical multibody systems - Model reduction of DAEs - Observability for DAEs - Numerical Analysis for DAEs The results are presented in an accessible style, making this book suitable not only for active researchers but also for graduate students (with a good knowledge of the basic principles of DAEs) for self-study.

  10. Jet Engine Noise Generation, Prediction and Control. Chapter 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Envia, Edmane

    2004-01-01

    . An example of this type of engine is shown in Figure IC, which is a schematic of the Honeywell T55 engine that powers the CH-47 Chinook helicopter. Since the noise from the propellers or helicopter rotors is usually dominant for turbo-shaft engines, less attention has been paid to these engines in so far as community noise considerations are concerned. This chapter will concentrate mostly on turbofan engine noise and will highlight common methods for their noise prediction and reduction.

  11. [Fe IV] Emission in Ionized Nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un análisis de la emisión en [Fe IV] en varias nebulosas ionizadas, basado en nuevas identificaciones y medidas anteriores de líneas de [Fe IV]. Las abundancias de Fe obtenidas al sumar las abundancias de los iones relevantes (principalmente Fe++ y Fe3+ resultan ser menores, por factores en el rango 2.6-5.9, que las abundancias implicadas por las líneas de [Fe III] y un factor de corrección por la ionizacion obtenido con modelos de ionizacion. Se discuten las posibles razones de esta discrepancia así como las implicaciones que tiene para nuestro entendimiento tanto de la evolución del polvo en nebulosas ionizadas como de la historia química de galaxias de baja metalicidad.

  12. Fluctuations in type IV pilus retraction

    CERN Document Server

    Linden, M; Jonsson, A B; Wallin, M; Linden, Martin; Johansson, Emil; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Wallin, Mats

    2005-01-01

    The type IV pilus retraction motor is found in many important bacterial pathogens. It is the strongest known linear motor protein and is required for bacterial infectivity. We characterize the dynamics of type IV pilus retraction in terms of a stochastic chemical reaction model. We find that a two state model can describe the experimental force velocity relation and qualitative dependence of ATP concentration. The results indicate that the dynamics is limited by an ATP-dependent step at low load and a force-dependent step at high load, and that at least one step is effectively irreversible in the measured range of forces. The irreversible nature of the sub-step(s) lead to interesting predictions for future experiments: We find different parameterizations with mathematically identical force velocity relations but different fluctuations (diffusion constant). We also find a longer elementary step compared to an earlier analysis, which agrees better with known facts about the structure of the pilus filament and e...

  13. Synthesis, molecular structure and magnetic properties of a rhenium(IV) compound with catechol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, A.; Geis, L.; Pintos, V.; Chiozzone, R.; Sanchíz, J.; Hummert, M.; Schumann, H.; Kremer, C.

    2009-03-01

    A novel Re(IV) complex containing catechol as ligand has been prepared and characterized. The crystal structure of (HNEt 3)(NBu 4)[ReCl 4(cat)]·H 2cat was determined. The rhenium ion presents a distorted octahedral geometry, being bonded to a bidentate catecholate group and four chloride anions. The magnetic properties of the complex were studied, a /2 D/ (the energy gap between ±3/2 and ±1/2 Kramers doublets) value of 190(10) cm -1. This is the largest /2 D/ value reported for Re(IV) up to now.

  14. Soome-ugri IV maailmakongressi kunstiprogramm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Soome-ugri IV maailmakongressi kultuuriprogrammi raames toimub Sagadis Tiiu Kirsipuu kureeritud puuskulptuuri sümpoosion "Ilmapuu". 8. augustist on soome-ugri kunstnikud Anatoli Stepanov, Nikolai Bõkov, Marja-Liisa Mäki-Penttilä, Jakov Jakovlev, Reino Saijets, Jozsef Lukacs, Anatoli Punegov, Pjotr Rjabov, Elo Liiv ja Urmas Rauba teinud puuskulptuure, mida eksponeeritakse kongressi toimumise ajal Tallinnas. Urmas Sisaski kontsert mõisapargis

  15. Dipyridinium tribromidochloridobis(4-chlorophenylstannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Mun Lo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The tin atom in the substituted ammonium stannate(IV, (C5H6N2[SnBr3(C6H4Cl2Cl], lies on a center of symmetry in a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Each independent halogen site is occupied by bromine and chlorine anions in an approximate 3:1 ratio. The pyridinium cation forms a hydrogen bond to only one of the halogen atoms.

  16. Examining Computational Assumptions For Godiva IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkland, Alexander Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaegers, Peter James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Over the course of summer 2016, the effects of several computational modeling assumptions with respect to the Godiva IV reactor were examined. The majority of these assumptions pertained to modeling errors existing in the control rods and burst rod. The Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MCNP, was used to investigate these modeling changes, primarily by comparing them to that of the original input deck specifications.

  17. DNA ligase IV syndrome; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Thomas; Gennery, Andrew R

    2016-10-07

    DNA ligase IV deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency, LIG4 syndrome, often associated with other systemic features. DNA ligase IV is part of the non-homologous end joining mechanism, required to repair DNA double stranded breaks. Ubiquitously expressed, it is required to prevent mutagenesis and apoptosis, which can result from DNA double strand breakage caused by intracellular events such as DNA replication and meiosis or extracellular events including damage by reactive oxygen species and ionising radiation.Within developing lymphocytes, DNA ligase IV is required to repair programmed DNA double stranded breaks induced during lymphocyte receptor development.Patients with hypomorphic mutations in LIG4 present with a range of phenotypes, from normal to severe combined immunodeficiency. All, however, manifest sensitivity to ionising radiation. Commonly associated features include primordial growth failure with severe microcephaly and a spectrum of learning difficulties, marrow hypoplasia and a predisposition to lymphoid malignancy. Diagnostic investigations include immunophenotyping, and testing for radiosensitivity. Some patients present with microcephaly as a predominant feature, but seemingly normal immunity. Treatment is mainly supportive, although haematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used in a few cases.

  18. Sounds energetic: the radio producer's energy minibook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Minibook will be expanded into the final Radio Producer's Energy Sourcebook. Radio producers and broadcasters are asked to contribute ideas for presenting energy knowledge to the public and to be included in the Sourcebook. Chapter One presents a case study suggesting programming and promotion ideas and sample scripts for a radio campaign that revolves around no-cost or low-cost steps listeners can take to increase their home energy efficiency and save money. A variety of other energy topics and suggestions on ways to approach them are addressed in Chapter Two. Chapter Three contains energy directories for Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, and Washington, DC. The directories will be expanded in the Sourcebook and will consist of a selection of local public and private sector energy-related organizations and list local experts and organizations and the best Federal, state, and local government programs that can provide consumers and citizens groups with information, technical assistance, and financial support. (MCW)

  19. Planning a Kinetic and Mechanistic Study with Cerium (IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Samir B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Presents a kinetic study that utilizes a method for varying the concentrations of the possible Ce(IV) species and computing the concentration distribution of the sulfato and hydroxo species of Ce(IV). (MLH)

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of artificial antigens for astragaloside IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-lan Yu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce artificial antigens for astragaloside IV that could be used to prepare antibodies against astragaloside IV screened in Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch Bunge, Fabaceae and its preparations, using an indirect ELISA. Astragaloside IV was coupled to carrier proteins, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin using the sodium periodate method and was then evaluated using SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and animal immunizations. The coupling ratio of astragaloside IV to bovine serum albumin ratio was determined to be thirteen, and the indirect ELISA demonstrated that three groups of mice immunized with astragaloside IV-bovine serum albumin produced anti-astragaloside IV- bovine serum albumin-specific antibody, with a minimum serum titer of 1:9600. A method for synthesizing highly immunogenic astragaloside IV artificial antigens was successfully developed thus indicating its feasibility in the establishment of a fast immunoassay for astragaloside IV content determination in Radix astragali and its products.

  1. Density diagnostics derived from the O iv and S iv intercombination lines observed by IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, V.; Del Zanna, G.; Dudík, J.; Mason, H. E.; Giunta, A.; Reeves, K. K.

    2016-10-01

    The intensity of the O iv 2s2 2p 2P-2s2p24P and S iv 3 s2 3p 2P-3s 3p24 P intercombination lines around 1400 Å observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provide a useful tool to diagnose the electron number density (Ne) in the solar transition region plasma. We measure the electron number density in a variety of solar features observed by IRIS, including an active region (AR) loop, plage and brightening, and the ribbon of the 22-June-2015 M 6.5 class flare. By using the emissivity ratios of O iv and S iv lines, we find that our observations are consistent with the emitting plasma being near isothermal (logT[K] ≈ 5) and iso-density (Ne ≈ 1010.6 cm-3) in the AR loop. Moreover, high electron number densities (Ne ≈ 1013 cm-3) are obtained during the impulsive phase of the flare by using the S iv line ratio. We note that the S iv lines provide a higher range of density sensitivity than the O iv lines. Finally, we investigate the effects of high densities (Ne ≳ 1011 cm-3) on the ionization balance. In particular, the fractional ion abundances are found to be shifted towards lower temperatures for high densities compared to the low density case. We also explored the effects of a non-Maxwellian electron distribution on our diagnostic method. The movie associated to Fig. 3 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Chapter 9: Model Systems for Formation and Dissolution of Calcium Phosphate Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, C A; Giocondi, J L

    2006-07-29

    Calcium phosphates are the mineral component of bones and teeth. As such there is great interest in understanding the physical mechanisms that underlie their growth, dissolution, and phase stability. Control is often achieved at the cellular level by the manipulation of solution states and the use of crystal growth modulators such as peptides or other organic molecules. This chapter begins with a discussion of solution speciation in body fluids and relates this to important crystal growth parameters such as the supersaturation, pH, ionic strength and the ratio of calcium to phosphate activities. We then discuss the use of scanning probe microscopy as a tool to measure surface kinetics of mineral surfaces evolving in simplified solutions. The two primary themes that we will touch on are the use of microenvironments that temporally evolve the solution state to control growth and dissolution; and the use of various growth modifiers that interact with the solution species or with mineral surfaces to shift growth away from the lowest energy facetted forms. The study of synthetic minerals in simplified solution lays the foundation for understand mineralization process in more complex environments found in the body.

  3. 77 FR 9231 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing... No. 14185-000 and FFP Project 55, LLC for Project No. 14196-000. \\1\\ Under the Commission's Rules...

  4. 77 FR 12281 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund IV; FFP Project 55, LLC; Notice Announcing.... 14185-000 and FFP Project 55, LLC for Project No. 14196-000. \\1\\ Under the Commission's Rules...

  5. Thorium nanochemistry: the solution structure of the Th(IV)-hydroxo pentamer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Clemens; Rothe, Jörg; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Fuss, Markus [Karlsruher

    2012-10-10

    Tetravalent thorium exhibits a strong tendency towards hydrolysis and subsequent polymerization. Polymeric species play a crucial role in understanding thorium solution chemistry, since their presence causes apparent solubility several orders of magnitude higher than predicted by thermodynamic data bases. Although electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI MS) identifies Th(IV) dimers and pentamers unequivocally as dominant species close to the solubility limit, the molecular structure of Th5(OH)y polymers was hitherto unknown. In the present study, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, high energy X-ray scattering (HEXS) measurements, and quantum chemical calculations are combined to solve the pentamer structure. The most favourable structure is represented by two Th(IV) dimers linked by a central Th(IV) cation through hydroxide bridges.

  6. Thorium nanochemistry: the solution structure of the Th(IV)-hydroxo pentamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Clemens; Rothe, Jörg; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Fuss, Markus

    2012-08-28

    Tetravalent thorium exhibits a strong tendency towards hydrolysis and subsequent polymerization. Polymeric species play a crucial role in understanding thorium solution chemistry, since their presence causes apparent solubility several orders of magnitude higher than predicted by thermodynamic data bases. Although electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI MS) identifies Th(IV) dimers and pentamers unequivocally as dominant species close to the solubility limit, the molecular structure of Th(5)(OH)(y) polymers was hitherto unknown. In the present study, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, high energy X-ray scattering (HEXS) measurements, and quantum chemical calculations are combined to solve the pentamer structure. The most favourable structure is represented by two Th(IV) dimers linked by a central Th(IV) cation through hydroxide bridges.

  7. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Halsey, William [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hayner, George [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.

  8. Student chapters: effective dissemination networks for informal optics and photonics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Dirk; Vermeulen, Nathalie; Van Overmeire, Sara

    2009-06-01

    Professional societies sponsor student chapters in order to foster scholarship and training in photonics at the college and graduate level, but they are also an excellent resource for disseminating photonics knowledge to pre-college students and teachers. Starting in 2006, we tracked the involvement of SPIE student chapter volunteers in informal pre-college education settings. Chapter students reached 2800, 4900 and 11800 pre-college students respectively from 2006-2008 with some form of informal instruction in optics and photonics. As a case study, the EduKit, a self-contained instruction module featuring refractive and diffractive micro-optics developed by the European Network of Excellence on Micro-Optics (NEMO), was disseminated through student chapters in Argentina, Belgium, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Latvia, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, and the United States. We tracked the movement of this material through the network, up to the student-teacher feedback stage. The student chapter network provided rapid dissemination of the material, translation of the material into the local language, and leveraged existing chapter contacts in schools to provide an audience. We describe the student chapter network and its impact on the development of the EduKit teaching module.

  9. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter IV. Part III. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    are cow-calf and ewe- lamb. Marketed animals usually go to other states for additional fattening on rangelands, pasture, and/or feedlots. The limited...frequent valleys, except for Gambel’s quail and Chukar’s partridge in winter. Impacts to these species are expected to be minimal. Waterfowl in the...agriculture could negatively impact bobwhite quail , but would probably have a reciprocal effect on scaled quail and lesser prairie chickens if the areas were

  10. Focus on therapy of the Chapter IV headaches provoked by exertional factors: primary cough headache, primary exertional headache and primary headache associated with sexual activity

    OpenAIRE

    Allena, Marta; Rossi, Paolo; Tassorelli, Cristina; Ferrante, Enrico; Lisotto, Carlo; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Primary cough headache, primary exertional headache and primary headache associated with sexual activity are distinct entities, even though they share several features: acute onset, the absence of structural brain disease and exertional factors as precipitating events. In this short review, we illustrate the possible treatment strategies on the basis of information collected from a systematic analysis of the international literature.

  11. A Comprehensive Study of the Tocks Island Lake Project and Alternatives. Part A. Chapters IV, V, VI. Analysis of Service Areas and Resource Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    061N0 -A8KG 0*391 -LE[NS -1%0 - INSe -IS IING -$as &Is SHOWN -06, GO9 lam$$ MY TOTAL PASft cIPAN1S 1979 9170403 8169660 9041691 9318380 b4*210* 3550995...34 me&. fly COUNTY .mue-011.. 0IN 16411M 4ACli 9811 "i9 8 I h*S81 #A$& 9986 PICNIC PLEAS dicic @"I? FISH NMI9 CAR inse NCCL 10a41 assa VIAll -WING -096...seems unlikely. V-49 Magnetohydrodynamics MID is a direct conversion method for producing electricity. High tem- perature gases formed by the combustion

  12. 40 CFR 144.23 - Class IV wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class IV wells. 144.23 Section 144.23... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.23 Class IV wells. (a) Injection into existing Class IV wells is authorized for up to six months after approval or promulgation...

  13. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  14. 29 CFR 4022.63 - Estimated title IV benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated title IV benefit. 4022.63 Section 4022.63 Labor... PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.63 Estimated... administrator shall determine each participant's estimated title IV benefit. The estimated title IV...

  15. Surgical decision making for stage IV adult acquired flatfoot disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kyle S; Hyer, Christopher F

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition affecting the lower extremity. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is the primary etiology for the development of a flatfoot deformity in an adult. PTTD is classified into 4 stages (with stage IV subdivided into stage IV-A and IV-B). This classification is described in detail in this article.

  16. What energies for tomorrow?; Quelles energies pour demain?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botte, J.M.; Canal, P.; Chaouch, A.; Chevallier, B.; Lesne, C.; Roth, P.; Salomon, A.; Susbielles, G.; Wiltz, B.; Le Brun, S.; Delmonico, C.; Gombart, G. [Association des techniciens et professionnels du petrole - AFTP, 45 rue Louis Blanc, 92400 Courbevoie (France)

    2012-07-01

    This book focusses on fossil fuels but treats of energies in general. It makes a status of the present day situation and presents some future perspectives. Many international and national oil companies are progressively becoming multi-energy companies, like many companies of the para-petroleum industry. In a similar manner, the energy subject can be discussed only from the point of view of the energy mix, i.e. the various usable energy sources. The book comprises four main parts: 1 - the worldwide aspects of the energy sector: markets, prices, companies constraints and strategies; 2 - the petroleum industry, from the front end to the back end; 3 - the other energy sources: coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies; 4 - energies and society. The energy production is approached only from its technical and economical aspects. The energy saving is only briefly presented in the 'energy and society' and 'energy and transports' chapters. Electricity is mainly presented in the part devoted to nuclear energy, while the other power generation means are presented in the chapters about primary energy use and consumption. Hydrogen is approached in a very concise way because of its secondary aspects and its low use. (J.S.)

  17. On the role of Mn(IV) vacancies in the photoreductive dissolution of hexagonal birnessite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.D.; Refson, K.; Sposito, G.

    2009-06-01

    Photoreductive dissolution of layer type Mn(IV) oxides (birnessite) under sunlight illumination to form soluble Mn(II) has been observed in both field and laboratory settings, leading to a consensus that this process is a key driver of the biogeochemical cycling of Mn in the euphotic zones of marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms for the process remain unknown, although they have been linked to the semiconducting characteristics of hexagonal birnessite, the ubiquitous Mn(IV) oxide produced mainly by bacterial oxidation of soluble Mn(II). One of the universal properties of this biogenic mineral is the presence of Mn(IV) vacancies, long-identified as strong adsorption sites for metal cations. In this paper, the possible role of Mn vacancies in photoreductive dissolution is investigated theoretically using quantum mechanical calculations based on spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT). Our DFT study demonstrates unequivocally that Mn vacancies significantly reduce the band-gap energy for hexagonal birnessite relative to a hypothetical vacancy-free MnO{sub 2} and thus would increase the concentration of photo-induced electrons available for Mn(IV) reduction upon illumination of the mineral by sunlight. Calculations of the charge distribution in the presence of vacancies, although not fully conclusive, show a clear separation of photo-induced electrons and holes, implying a slow recombination of these charge-carriers that facilitates the two-electron reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(II).

  18. Expanding the Ecological Validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV With the Texas Functional Living Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Cullum, C. Munro

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale–Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The relationships between TFLS and WAIS-IV and WMS-IV were examined in both normally developing and clinical samples. In general, the highest correlati...

  19. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  20. Revisiting Case IV: a reassessment of bias and standard errors of Case IV under range restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Dustin A; Mendoza, Jorge L; Terry, Robert

    2013-11-01

    In 2004, Hunter and Schmidt proposed a correction (called Case IV) that seeks to estimate disattenuated correlations when selection is made on an unmeasured variable. Although Case IV is an important theoretical development in the range restriction literature, it makes an untestable assumption, namely that the partial correlation between the unobserved selection variable and the performance measure is zero. We show in this paper why this assumption may be difficult to meet and why previous simulations have failed to detect the full extent of bias. We use meta-analytic literature to investigate the plausible range of bias. We also show how Case IV performs in terms of standard errors. Finally, we give practical recommendations about how the contributions of Hunter and Schmidt (2004) can be extended without making such stringent assumptions.

  1. Topological characterisation and identification of critical domains within glucosyltransferase IV (GtrIV of Shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Anesh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The three bacteriophage genes gtrA, gtrB and gtr(type are responsible for O-antigen glucosylation in Shigella flexneri. Both gtrA and gtrB have been demonstrated to be highly conserved and interchangeable among serotypes while gtr(type was found to be specific to each serotype, leading to the hypothesis that the Gtr(type proteins are responsible for attaching glucosyl groups to the O-antigen in a site- and serotype- specific manner. Based on the confirmed topologies of GtrI, GtrII and GtrV, such interaction and attachment of the glucosyl groups to the O-antigen has been postulated to occur in the periplasm. Results In this study, the topology of GtrIV was experimentally determined by creating different fusions between GtrIV and a dual-reporter protein, PhoA/LacZ. This study shows that GtrIV consists of 8 transmembrane helices, 2 large periplasmic loops, 2 small cytoplasmic N- and C- terminal ends and a re-entrant loop that occurs between transmembrane helices III and IV. Though this topology differs from that of GtrI, GtrII, GtrV and GtrX, it is very similar to that of GtrIc. Furthermore, both the N-terminal periplasmic and the C-terminal periplasmic loops are important for GtrIV function as shown via a series of loop deletion experiments and the creation of chimeric proteins between GtrIV and its closest structural homologue, GtrIc. Conclusion The current study provides the basis for elucidating the structure and mechanism of action of this important O-antigen modifying glucosyltransferase.

  2. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 38. Pro-poor Energy Strategy in Yogyakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosyidi Sri Atmaja P.; Lesmana, Surya Budi Lesmana [Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2011-12-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Chapter 2 provides a review of the national, regional and local policy and programs on energy access for poor communities that have been implemented in Yogyakarta region. However, the two villages, i.e., Dusun Srumbung, Segoroyoso village, Pleret District, Bantul Regency and Dusun Wirokerten, Botokenceng Village, Banguntapan District, Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta Region, selected as locations for energy need assessments in this project have not received any support from the energy programs mentioned in this section. Chapter 3 gives the criteria used to select the locations. Chapter 4 provides the results and analysis of the participatory rural appraisal used for the energy needs assessments which have been carried out in the selected locations. Chapter presents the renewable energy potentials in the study area. Chapter 6 gives the results of a stakeholder analysis for implementing the proposed programmes and roadmap. Chapter 7 is the roadmap for RE project implementation for poor community and provincial budget analysis.

  3. Research in collegiate mathematics education IV

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinsky, Ed; Kaput, Jim

    2001-01-01

    This fourth volume of Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education (RCME IV) reflects the themes of student learning and calculus. Included are overviews of calculus reform in France and in the U.S. and large-scale and small-scale longitudinal comparisons of students enrolled in first-year reform courses and in traditional courses. The work continues with detailed studies relating students' understanding of calculus and associated topics. Direct focus is then placed on instruction and student comprehension of courses other than calculus, namely abstract algebra and number theory. The volume co

  4. Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

  5. Stable kagome lattices from group IV elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaerts, O.; Schoeters, B.; Partoens, B.

    2015-03-01

    A thorough investigation of three-dimensional kagome lattices of group IV elements is performed with first-principles calculations. The investigated kagome lattices of silicon and germanium are found to be of similar stability as the recently proposed carbon kagome lattice. Carbon and silicon kagome lattices are both direct-gap semiconductors but they have qualitatively different electronic band structures. While direct optical transitions between the valence and conduction bands are allowed in the carbon case, no such transitions can be observed for silicon. The kagome lattice of germanium exhibits semimetallic behavior but can be transformed into a semiconductor after compression.

  6. Dual (type IV left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdil Baskan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital coronary artery anomalies are uncommon. Dual left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD is defined as the presence of two LADs within the anterior interventricular sulcus (AIVS, and is classified into four types. Type IV is a rarely reported subtype and differs from the others, with a long LAD originating from the right coronary artery (RCA. Dual LAD is a benign coronary artery anomaly, but should be recognised especially before interventional procedures. With the increasing use of multidedector computed tomography (MDCT, it is essential for radiologists to be aware of this entity and the cross-sectional findings.

  7. Benzylchloridobis(quinolin-8-olatotin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibao Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Sn(C7H7(C9H6NO2Cl], the SnIV ion is in a distorted octahedral coordination environment formed by the O and N atoms of two bis-chelating quinolin-8-olate ligands, a Cl atom and a C atom from a benzyl ligand. The axial sites are occupied by an N atom of a quinolinate ligand and the C atom of the benzyl ligand. The axial Sn—N bond is slightly shorter than the equatorial Sn—N bond.

  8. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  9. Mapping Citation Patterns of Book Chapters in the Book Citation Index

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Salinas, Daniel; Robinson-Garcia, Nicolas; Fdez-Valdivia, J; García, J A; 10.1016/j.joi.2013.01.004

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide the reader with a visual representation of relationships among the impact of book chapters indexed in the Book Citation Index using information gain values and published by different academic publishers in specific disciplines. The impact of book chapters can be characterized statistically by citations histograms. For instance, we can compute the probability of occurrence of book chapters with a number of citations in different intervals for each academic publisher. We predict the similarity between two citation histograms based on the amount of relative information between such characterizations. We observe that the citation patterns of book chapters follow a Lotkaian distribution. This paper describes the structure of the Book Citation Index using 'heliocentric clockwise maps' which allow the reader not only to determine the grade of similarity of a given academic publisher indexed in the Book Citation Index with a specific discipline according to their citation distribution, but al...

  10. Algorithms and their Impact on Integrated Vehicle Health Management - Chapter 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter discussed some of the algorithmic choices one encounters when designing an IVHM system. While it would be generally desirable to be able to pick a...

  11. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  12. Neonatology/Paediatrics – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusch, C.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available There are special challenges in implementing parenteral nutrition (PN in paediatric patients, which arises from the wide range of patients, ranging from extremely premature infants up to teenagers weighing up to and over 100 kg, and their varying substrate requirements. Age and maturity-related changes of the metabolism and fluid and nutrient requirements must be taken into consideration along with the clinical situation during which PN is applied. The indication, the procedure as well as the intake of fluid and substrates are very different to that known in PN-practice in adult patients, e.g. the fluid, nutrient and energy needs of premature infants and newborns per kg body weight are markedly higher than of older paediatric and adult patients. Premature infants <35 weeks of pregnancy and most sick term infants usually require full or partial PN. In neonates the actual amount of PN administered must be calculated (not estimated. Enteral nutrition should be gradually introduced and should replace PN as quickly as possible in order to minimise any side-effects from exposure to PN. Inadequate substrate intake in early infancy can cause long-term detrimental effects in terms of metabolic programming of the risk of illness in later life. If energy and nutrient demands in children and adolescents cannot be met through enteral nutrition, partial or total PN should be considered within 7 days or less depending on the nutritional state and clinical conditions.

  13. Z{prime} phenomenology: Constraints from low-energy measurements, and detailed study at TeV-scale lepton and hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austern, M.H.

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, I discuss the phenomenology of new massive neutral gauge bosons, or Z{prime} bosons, concentrating on experimental tests by which the properties of a Z{prime} boson could be determined. In Chapter I, I briefly review the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, and discuss the motivation for extending it. I review some of the extensions to the Standard Model that predict the existence of Z{prime} bosons, and present a general, model-independent parameterization of the Z{prime}s properties, as well as a simpler parameterization that applies to the most important class of models. In Chapter II, I discuss present-day limits on the existence of Z{prime} bosons, both from direct searches, and from indirect higher-order tests. In Chapter III, I discuss the production and discovery of a Z{prime} at a future hadron collider, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Discovery of a Z{prime} at the LHC may be possible if its mass is less than 5 TeV. I also discuss the experimental tests of its properties that could be performed at such a collider, emphasizing the measurement of leptonic asymmetries. Finally, the Chapter IV, I discuss the experimental tests that could be performed at an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider with {radical}s = M{sub Z{prime}}. I include several higher-order effects, such as initial-state radiation and beamstrahlung, whose inclusion is necesary for a realistic description of the experimental environment at a very high energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider. The combination of leptonic and hadronic experiments permits the measurement of all of the parameters.

  14. Z' phenomenology: Constraints from low-energy measurements, and detailed study at TeV-scale lepton and hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austern, Matthew Harold [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, I discuss the phenomenology of new massive neutral gauge bosons, or Z' bosons, concentrating on experimental tests by which the properties of a Z' boson could be determined. In Chapter I, I briefly review the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, and discuss the motivation for extending it. I review some of the extensions to the Standard Model that predict the existence of Z' bosons, and present a general, model-independent parameterization of the Z's properties, as well as a simpler parameterization that applies to the most important class of models. In Chapter II, I discuss present-day limits on the existence of Z' bosons, both from direct searches, and from indirect higher-order tests. In Chapter III, I discuss the production and discovery of a Z' at a future hadron collider, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Discovery of a Z' at the LHC may be possible if its mass is less than 5 TeV. I also discuss the experimental tests of its properties that could be performed at such a collider, emphasizing the measurement of leptonic asymmetries. Finally, the Chapter IV, I discuss the experimental tests that could be performed at an e+ e- collider with √s = MZ'. I include several higher-order effects, such as initial-state radiation and beamstrahlung, whose inclusion is necesary for a realistic description of the experimental environment at a very high energy e+ e- collider. The combination of leptonic and hadronic experiments permits the measurement of all of the parameters.

  15. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are discussed in a general setting (chapter 7), from which a general conclusion is formulated (chapter 8). The basis of the research formed four field experiments, which were conducted at the experimental sites Ihinger Hof, Oberer Lindenhof and Goldener Acker of the University of Hohenheim, in south-western Germany. Paper I addresses the overall objective of this thesis. Selected cropping systems for this experiment were short rotation willow, miscanthus, switchgrass, energy maize and two different crop rotation systems including winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and winter triticale with either conventional tillage or no-till. The systems were cultivated with three different nitrogen fertilizer applications. An energy balance was calculated to evaluate the biomass and energy yields of the different cropping systems. Results indicate that perennial lignocellulosic crops combine high biomass and net energy yields with low input and potential ecological impacts. Switchgrass, which produced low yields

  16. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Rutherford, Phil [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Lenox, Art [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Blair, Lori [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Amar, Ravnesh [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Costa, Paul [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Galvez, Lydia [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Jameson, Blythe [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Galvez, Lydia [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company

    2008-09-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2007 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. In May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV were suspended until DOE completes the SSFL Area IV Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The environmental monitoring programs were continued throughout the year. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2007 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste disposal. No liquid radioactive wastes were released into the environment in 2007.

  17. Correcting C IV-based virial black hole masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2017-02-01

    The C IVλλ1498,1501 broad emission line is visible in optical spectra to redshifts exceeding z ˜ 5. C IV has long been known to exhibit significant displacements to the blue and these `blueshifts' almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows. As a consequence, single-epoch virial black hole (BH) mass estimates derived from C IV velocity widths are known to be systematically biased compared to masses from the hydrogen Balmer lines. Using a large sample of 230 high-luminosity (LBol = 1045.5-1048 erg s-1), redshift 1.5 < z < 4.0 quasars with both C IV and Balmer line spectra, we have quantified the bias in C IV BH masses as a function of the C IV blueshift. C IV BH masses are shown to be a factor of 5 larger than the corresponding Balmer-line masses at C IV blueshifts of 3000 km s-1and are overestimated by almost an order of magnitude at the most extreme blueshifts, ≳5000 km s-1. Using the monotonically increasing relationship between the C IV blueshift and the mass ratio BH(C IV)/BH(Hα), we derive an empirical correction to all C IV BH masses. The scatter between the corrected C IV masses and the Balmer masses is 0.24 dex at low C IV blueshifts (˜0 km s-1) and just 0.10 dex at high blueshifts (˜3000 km s-1), compared to 0.40 dex before the correction. The correction depends only on the C IV line properties - i.e. full width at half-maximum and blueshift - and can therefore be applied to all quasars where C IV emission line properties have been measured, enabling the derivation of unbiased virial BH-mass estimates for the majority of high-luminosity, high-redshift, spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the literature.

  18. Compensatory Education: Chapter 1's Comparability of Services Provision. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Secretary of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    Chapter 1 was created from its predecessor, Title 1, in order to give more flexibility to states and local school districts. Many of the requirements and criteria of Title 1 were relaxed in 1981 when Chapter 1 began. Districts are now required to submit written plans of their new Chapter 1 organization assuring the comparability of services…

  19. A move-step analysis of the concluding chapters in computer science PhD theses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Soler-Monreal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how computer science doctoral writers construct the closing chapters of their PhD theses. The data are drawn from the chapters playing a concluding role of 48 PhD theses defended at the University of Glasgow from 2008 to 2014. The analysis applied a qualitative-quantitative approach. The titles of the concluding chapters of the theses were first examined and also their divisions into sections and sub-sections. Then the chapters were subjected to a move-step analysis: Move 1 (M1 “Revisiting the study”; Move 2 (M2 “Consolidating research space”; Move 3 (M3 “Proposing practical applications and implications”, Move 4 (M4 “Recommending future work” and Move 5 (M5 “Recapitulating the study”. The results revealed that most of the computer science PhD theses have one final concluding chapter with three main moves: M1, M2 and M4. The most frequent steps are “reviewing the work carried out” and “summarizing the specific work reported in every thesis chapter” in M1, “presenting results and contributions”, “answering the initial research questions or hypotheses”, and “making claims” in M2, and “acknowledging limitations” and “suggesting further research” in M4. Movestep patterns appear in recurrent cycles throughout the concluding chapters. Several suggestions for pedagogical purposes are provided.

  20. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  1. Dirac R-matrix calculations of photoionization cross-sections of Ca IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, R. T.; Bari, M. A.; Sardar, S.; Bilal, M.; Salahuddin, M.; Nasim, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper total photoionization cross-sections in the ground (^2P^o_{3/2}) and two meta-stable states (^2P^o_{1/2},^2S_{1/2}) of Ca IV are reported using the relativistic Dirac Atomic R-matrix Codes (DARC) in the photon energy range 67-122 eV. The target wavefunctions are constructed with fully relativistic atomic structure GRASP package. A total of lowest lying 48 fine-structure levels arising from the four main configuration (3s23p4, 3s3p5 3s23p33d, 3p6) are considered for the target wavefunctions expansion. Our calculated eigenvalues of the core ion Ca V show reasonable agreement with available experimental and theoretical results. It is found that present ionization threshold energies of first three levels of Ca IV are in excellent agreement with NIST energies and experimental measurements. The photoionization cross-sections of Ca IV are calculated with an appropriate energy step (0.1 × 10-3 eV) to describe the resonance structures in vivid details. A comparison for the statistically weighted mixture of states (^2P^o_{3/2},^2P^o_{1/2}) with other experimental measurements including term-resolved ground state theoretical calculations is presented. Our computed photoionization cross-sections agree better with the measured cross-sections than the other theoretical approaches and are potentially more accurate.

  2. Global energy perspectives with an emphasis on wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Mischke, Peggy; Miketa, Asami;

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current status of wind power globally and the growth in installed wind capacity over the last decade. It reviews global projections of wind power growth in scenarios from various energy system models, and draws conclusions about the necessary conditions...

  3. Determining the Optimal Capacities of Renewable-Energy-Based Energy Conversion Systems for Meeting the Demands of Low-Energy District Heating, Electricity, and District Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents a method for determining the optimal capacity of a renewable-energy-based energy conversion system for meeting the energy requirements of a given district as considered on a monthly basis, with use of a low-energy district heating system operating at a low temperature, as lo...

  4. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  5. Gastroenterology – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, R. J.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis parenteral nutrition (PN is indicated when enteral nutrition is not possible or should be avoided for medical reasons. In Crohn's patients PN is indicated when there are signs/symptoms of ileus or subileus in the small intestine, scars or intestinal fistulae. PN requires no specific compounding for chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. In both diseases it should be composed of 55–60% carbohydrates, 25–30% lipids and 10–15% amino acids. PN helps in the correction of malnutrition, particularly the intake of energy, minerals, trace elements, deficiency of calcium, vitamin D, folic acid, vitamin B12, and zinc. Enteral nutrition is clearly superior to PN in severe, acute pancreatitis. An intolerance to enteral nutrition results in an indication for total PN in complications such as pseudocysts, intestinal and pancreatic fistulae, and pancreatic abscesses or pancreatic ascites. If enteral nutrition is not possible, PN is recommended, at the earliest, 5 days after admission to the hospital. TPN should not be routinely administered in mild acute pancreatitis or nil by moth status <7 days, due to high costs and an increased risk of infection. The energy requirements are between 25 and 35 kcal/kg body weight/day. A standard solution including lipids (monitoring triglyceride levels! can be administered in acute pancreatitis. Glucose (max. 4–5 g/kg body weight/day and amino acids (about 1.2–1.5 g/kg body weight/day should be administered and the additional enrichment of TPN with glutamine should be considered in severe, progressive forms of pancreatitis.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) corrole complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ashleigh L; Buckley, Heather L; Lukens, Wayne W; Arnold, John

    2013-09-18

    The first examples of actinide complexes incorporating corrole ligands are presented. Thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) macrocycles of Mes2(p-OMePh)corrole were synthesized via salt metathesis with the corresponding lithium corrole in remarkably high yields (93% and 83%, respectively). Characterization by single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed both complexes to be dimeric, having two metal centers bridged via bis(μ-chlorido) linkages. In each case, the corrole ring showed a large distortion from planarity, with the Th(IV) and U(IV) ions residing unusually far (1.403 and 1.330 Å, respectively) from the N4 plane of the ligand. (1)H NMR spectroscopy of both the Th and U dimers revealed dynamic solution behavior. In the case of the diamagnetic thorium corrole, variable-temperature, DOSY (diffusion-ordered) and EXSY (exhange) (1)H NMR spectroscopy was employed and supported that this behavior was due to an intrinsic pseudorotational mode of the corrole ring about the M-M axis. Additionally, the electronic structure of the actinide corroles was assessed using UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility. This novel class of macrocyclic complexes provides a rich platform in an underdeveloped area for the study of nonaqueous actinide bonding and reactivity.

  7. The Design of the IGE Evaluation Project Phase IV Comparative Studies. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This paper outlines the design of two Comparative Studies of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) Evaluation Project. More than 2,000 elementary schools in 25 states use the IGE system. The Evaluation Project was designed to gain a comprehensive view of the system's operation and effectiveness. Phase IV investigated pupil outcomes,…

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2002; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2002/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  9. Swiss energy statistics 2003; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2003/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  10. Swiss energy statistics 2004; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2004/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  11. Swiss energy statistics 2005; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2005/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  12. Swiss energy statistics 2006; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2006/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  13. Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the state-of-the-arts developments of renewable energy are reviewed in respect to the installed power and market share, where wind power and photovoltaic power generation are the main focuses due to the fast growing speed and large share of installed capacity. Some basic principles...

  14. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, John

    2013-01-01

    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  15. Essays on energy policy; Ensaios sobre politica energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bicalho, Ronaldo Goulart; Almeida, Edmar Luiz Fagundes de; Pinto Junior, Helder Queiroz; Iootty, Mariana

    2007-07-01

    This book is divided into four chapters covering the following aspects. Chapter one - two great themes interrelated are treated; energy policy and regulation. Chapter two - analysis is performed on the changes occurred in the petroleum industry and market during the last years, emphasizing three dimensions: the oil price, the derivative prices; and the reformulation of the brazilian petroleum industry. Chapter three - the articles discuss the difficulties faced in the implantation of the brazilian gas industry. Chapter four - the presented articles discuss the institutional changes running in the brazilian electric sector, initiated at decade of 90's. The conclusion, which tries to identify the basic premises for the elaboration of a Brazilian energy policy.

  16. Effects of titanium(iv) ions on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Erwin Ph; Mhawi, Amir; Clode, Peta; Saunders, Martin; Filgueira, Luis

    2009-03-01

    Orthopaedic metal implants composed of titanium are routinely used in bone fracture repair and for joint replacement therapies. A considerable fraction of implant recipients are unable to benefit due to implant failure resulting from aseptic loosening, while others may experience cutaneous sensitivity to titanium after implantation. An adaptive immune reactivity towards titanium ions, originating from the biocorrosion of the implants, could play a role. As an initiator of the adaptive immune response, dendritic cells (DC) were studied for uptake and characteristics after titanium exposure. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy showed uptake of titanium(iv) (Ti(iv)) ions by DCs in vitro and co-localisation with phosphorus-rich cell structures of the DC membranes (phospholipids), cytoplasm (ribosomes and phosphorylated proteins) and the nucleus (DNA). DC maturation and function were investigated by measuring cell surface marker expression by flow cytometry. After exposure, DCs showed a decrease in MHC class II (HLA-DR), co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 & CD86) and chemokine receptors (CCR) 6 and CCR7 but an increase in CCR4 after Ti(iv) treatment. However, Ti(iv) treated DCs had an increased stimulatory capacity towards allogenic lymphocytes. A Ti(iv) concentration dependant increase of IL-12p70 was observed amidst decrease of the other measured cytokines (TGF-β1 and TGF-β2). Hence, Ti(iv) alters DC properties, resulting in an enhanced T lymphocyte reactivity and deviation towards a Th1 type immune response. This effect may be responsible for the inflammatory side effects of titanium implants seen in patients.

  17. Chapter 5. Assessing the Need for High Impact Technology Research, Development & Deployment for Mitigating Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Auston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is a centrally important component of all strategies to mitigate climate change. As such, it encompasses a multi-dimensional space that is far too large to be fully addressed in this brief chapter. Consequently, we have elected to focus on a subset of topics that we believe have the potential for substantial impact. As researchers, we have also narrowed our focus to address applied research, development and deployment issues and omit basic research topics that have a longer-term impact. This handful of topics also omits technologies that we deem to be relatively mature, such as solar photovoltaics and wind turbines, even though we acknowledge that additional research could further reduce costs and enhance performance. These and other mature technologies such as transportation are discussed in Chapter 6. This report and the related Summit Conference are an outgrowth of the University of California President’s Carbon Neutrality Initiative, and consequently we are strongly motivated by the special demands of this ambitious goal, as we are also motivated by the corresponding goals for the State of California, the nation and the world. The unique feature of the UC Carbon Neutrality Initiative is the quest to achieve zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 at all ten 10 campuses. It should be emphasized that a zero emission target is enormously demanding and requires careful strategic planning to arrive at a mix of technologies, policies, and behavioral measures, as well as highly effective communication – all of which are far more challenging than reducing emissions by some 40% or even 80%. Each campus has a unique set of requirements based on its current energy and emissions. Factors such as a local climate, dependence on cogeneration, access to wholesale electricity markets, and whether a medical school is included shape the specific challenges of the campuses, each of which is a “living laboratory” setting a model for others to

  18. Two-dimensional multiferroics in monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Qian, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Low-dimensional multiferroic materials hold great promises in miniaturized device applications such as nanoscale transducers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and nonvolatile memories. Here, using first-principles theory we predict that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer group IV monochalcogenides including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe are a class of 2D semiconducting multiferroics with giant strongly-coupled in-plane spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous ferroelastic lattice strain that are thermodynamically stable at room temperature and beyond, and can be effectively modulated by elastic strain engineering. Their optical absorption spectra exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy with visible-spectrum excitonic gaps and sizable exciton binding energies, rendering the unique characteristics of low-dimensional semiconductors. More importantly, the predicted low domain wall energy and small migration barrier together with the coupled multiferroic order and anisotropic electronic structures suggest their great potentials for tunable multiferroic functional devices by manipulating external electrical, mechanical, and optical field to control the internal responses, and enable the development of four device concepts including 2D ferroelectric memory, 2D ferroelastic memory, and 2D ferroelastoelectric nonvolatile photonic memory as well as 2D ferroelectric excitonic photovoltaics.

  19. An Economic Analysis of Generation IV Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J S; Lamont, A D; Rothwell, G S; Smith, C F; Greenspan, E; Brown, N; Barak, A

    2002-03-01

    This report examines some conditions necessary for Generation IV Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) to be competitive in the world energy market. The key areas that make nuclear reactors an attractive choice for investors are reviewed, and a cost model based on the ideal conditions is developed. Recommendations are then made based on the output of the cost model and on conditions and tactics that have proven successful in other industries. The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS), a specific SMR design concept, is used to develop the cost model and complete the analysis because information about the ENHS design is readily available from the University of California at Berkeley Nuclear Engineering Department. However, the cost model can be used to analyze any of the current SMR designs being considered. On the basis of our analysis, we determined that the nuclear power industry can benefit from and SMRs can become competitive in the world energy market if a combination of standardization and simplification of orders, configuration, and production are implemented. This would require wholesale changes in the way SMRs are produced, manufactured and regulated, but nothing that other industries have not implemented and proven successful.

  20. Occurrence and abundance of ants, reptiles, and mammals: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)- associated wildlife are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation and by impacts associated with anthropogenic disturbances, including energy development. Understanding how species of concern as well as other wildlife including insects, reptiles, and mammals respond to type and spatial scale of disturbance is critical to managing future land uses and identifying sites that are important for conservation. We developed statistical models to describe species occurrence or abundance, based on area searches in 7.29-ha survey blocks, across the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA) area for six shrub steppe-associated species: harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex spp.), thatch ant (Formica spp.), short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma hernandesi), white-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii), cottontail (Sylvilagus spp.) and least chipmunk (Tamius minimus). We modeled patterns in occupancy or abundance relative to multi-scale measures of vegetation type and pattern, abiotic site characteristics, and anthropogenic disturbance factors. Sagebrush habitat was a strong predictor of occurrence for shorthorned lizards and white-tailed jackrabbits, but weak for the other four species. Vegetation and abiotic characteristics were strong determinants of species occurrence, although the scale of response was not consistent among species. All species, with the exception of the short-horned lizard, responded to anthropogenic disturbance, although responses again varied as a function of scale and direction (negative and positive influences). Our results improve our understanding of how environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species distributions across the WBEA area and facilitate a multi-species approach to management of this sagebrush ecosystem.

  1. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  2. Energy Challenges for ICT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagas, Giorgos; Gallagher, John Patrick; Gammaitoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The energy consumption from the expanding use of information and communications technology (ICT) is unsustainable with present drivers, and it will impact heavily on the future climate change. However, ICT devices have the potential to contribute significantly to the reduction of CO2 emission...... the energy sustainability of ICT and capture the full potential of ICT in resource efficiency, a multidisciplinary ICT-energy community needs to be brought together covering devices, microarchitectures, ultra large-scale integration (ULSI), high-performance computing (HPC), energy harvesting, energy storage......, system design, embedded systems, efficient electronics, static analysis, and computation. In this chapter, we introduce challenges and opportunities in this emerging field and a common framework to strive towards energy-sustainable ICT....

  3. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  4. Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Martínez Carmenate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo está extraído de la obra inédita de Urbano Martínez Carmenate, Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV. Ofrece una mirada sobre los primeros años de la trayectoria profesional de Alejo Carpentier. Se muestra cómo, durante la década de 1920, se inicia como periodista y cronista teatral. A la vez, comienzan sus conexiones con el Grupo Minorista, que desempeña un papel destacado en la etapa republicana en Cuba. También se contempla su viaje a México en 1926, que constituye su primer contacto directo con la naturaleza y la cultura americanas.

  5. Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Martínez Carmenate

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo está extraído de la obra inédita de Urbano Martínez Carmenate, Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV. Ofrece una mirada sobre los primeros años de la trayectoria profesional de Alejo Carpentier. Se muestra cómo, durante la década de 1920, se inicia como periodista y cronista teatral. A la vez, comienzan sus conexiones con el Grupo Minorista, que desempeña un papel destacado en la etapa republicana en Cuba. También se contempla su viaje a México en 1926, que constituye su primer contacto directo con la naturaleza y la cultura americanas.

  6. [Vaughan Williams class IV antiarrhythmic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, M; Washizuka, T; Ikeguchi, S; Sasayama, S

    1996-08-01

    Vaughan Williams class IV antiarrhythmic drugs have Ca-channel blocking actions. Since L-type Ca-channels play key roles in regulating pulse conduction in atrioventricular node as well as in pathologically-depolarized myocardium, Ca-channel blockers known to modulate this type of Ca-channel (ICa,L) are used as antiarrhythmic agents. ICa,L channels have relatively high threshold potential (-40 mV) to activate and long-opening properties, and are enhanced by beta-adrenergic stimulation. Among three major ICa,L blockers, dihydropyridines such as nifedipine were found to bind to the channel from extracellular side. In contrast, verapamil and diltiazem interact with the channel from the cytoplasmic side, thereby causing rate-dependent block of ICa,L channels. This sideness of pharmacological action of the Ca-channel blockers determines an important therapeutic modality and their indication for tachyarrhythmias.

  7. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V.

  8. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S2CNR'R″]2 (R= Ph, CH3, R' = CH3, C2H5, C7H7 and R″ = C2H5, C6H11, iC3H7, C7H7). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444-1519, 954-1098 and 318-349 cm-1 respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 - 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The 13C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N13CS2) in the range of 196.8 - 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S2CN(Et)(i-Pr)]2, MeSnCl[S2CN(Me)(Cy)]2 and MeSnCl[S2CN(i-Pr)(CH2Ph)]2. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS4 donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  9. Denmark's Energy Cooperation with Emerging Powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Schvartzman, Yonatan; Jørgensen, Knud Erik

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses the energy cooperation between Denmark and South Africa, China and other emerging economic powers. It conducts an empirical analysis departing from the theoretical concept of multi-level energy governance, inquiring the way international transactions within the realm...... and vectors. The following section covers the international dimension of the energy policy pursued by Denmark by exploring the way it cooperates with Emerging Powers. Afterwards, the chapter addresses the role played by the EU in these dynamics, in the context of EU’s proclaimed preference for multilateral...

  10. Neutron applications in materials for energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kearley, Gordon J

    2015-01-01

    Neutron Applications in Materials for Energy collects results and conclusions of recent neutron-based investigations of materials that are important in the development of sustainable energy. Chapters are authored by leading scientists with hands-on experience in the field, providing overviews, recent highlights, and case-studies to illustrate the applicability of one or more neutron-based techniques of analysis. The theme follows energy production, storage, and use, but each chapter, or section, can also be read independently, with basic theory and instrumentation for neutron scattering being

  11. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  12. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  13. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  14. Collagen IV in normal skin and in pathological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu-Velez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Type IV collagen is a type of collagen found primarily in the skin within the basement membrane zone. The type IV collagen C4 domain at the C-terminus is not removed in post-translational processing, and the fibers are thus link head-to-head, rather than in a parallel fashion. Also, type IV collagen lacks a glycine in every third amino-acid residue necessary for the tight collagen helix. Thus, the overall collagen-IV conformation is structurally more pliable and kinked, relative to other collagen subtypes. These structural features allow collagen IV to form sheets, which is the primary structural form found in the cutaneous basal lamina. There are six human genes associated with collagen IV, specifically COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3, COL4A4, COL4A5 and COL4A6. The aim of this review is to highlight the significance of this protein in normal skin, and in selected diseases. Results: The alpha 3 protein constituent of type IV collagen is thought to be the antigen implicated in Goodpasture′s syndrome, wherein the immune system attacks the basement membranes of the renal glomeruli and pulmonary alveoli. In addition, mutations to the genes coding for type IV collagen lead to the Alport syndrome. Furthermore, autoantibodies directed against denatured human type IV collagen have been described in rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and SLE. Structural studies of collagen IV have been utilized to differentiate between subepidermal blistering diseases, including bullous pemphigoid, acquired epidermolysis bullosa, anti-epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid, and bullous lupus erythematosus. Collagen IV is also of importance in wound healing and in embryogenesis. Conclusions: Pathological studies have demonstrated that minor structural differences in collagen IV can lead to distinct, clinically different diseases.

  15. Commodities, energy and environmental finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ludkovski, Michael; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This volume is a collection of chapters covering the latest developments in applications of financial mathematics and statistics to topics in energy, commodity financial markets and environmental economics. The research presented is based on the presentations and discussions that took place during the Fields Institute Focus Program on Commodities, Energy and Environmental Finance in August 2013. The authors include applied mathematicians, economists and industry practitioners, providing for a multi-disciplinary spectrum of perspectives on the subject. The volume consists of four sections: Electricity Markets; Real Options; Trading in Commodity Markets; and Oligopolistic Models for Energy Production. Taken together, the chapters give a comprehensive summary of the current state of the art in quantitative analysis of commodities and energy finance. The topics covered include structural models of electricity markets, financialization of commodities, valuation of commodity real options, game-theory analysis of ...

  16. Cosmic evolution of the C IV in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tescari, E.; Viel, M.; D'Odorico, V.; Cristiani, S.; Calura, F.; Borgani, S.; Tornatore, L.

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the properties of triply ionized carbon (C IV) in the intergalactic medium (IGM) using a set of high resolution and large box size cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of a Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. We rely on a modification of the publicly available TreeSPH code GADGET-2 that self-consistently follows the metal enrichment mechanism by means of a detailed chemical evolution model. We focus on several numerical implementations of galactic feedback: galactic winds in the energy-driven and momentum-driven prescriptions, galactic winds hydrodynamically coupled to the surrounding gas and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) powered by gas accretion on to massive black holes. Furthermore, our results are compared to a run in which galactic feedback is not present and we also explore different initial stellar mass function. After having addressed some global properties of the simulated volume like the impact on the star formation rate and the content in carbon and C IV, we extract mock IGM transmission spectra in neutral hydrogen (H I) and C IV and perform Voigt profile fitting. The results are then compared with high-resolution quasar (QSO) spectra obtained with the Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph (HIRES) at Keck. We find that feedback has little impact on statistics related to the neutral hydrogen, while C IV is more affected by galactic winds and/or AGN feedback. The feedback schemes investigated have a different strength and redshift evolution with a general tendency for AGN feedback to be more effective at lower redshift than galactic winds. When the same analysis is performed over observed and simulated C IV lines, we find a reasonably good agreement between data and simulations over the column density range NC IV= 1012.5-15 cm-2. Also the C IV linewidth distribution appears to be in agreement with the observed values, while the H I Doppler parameters, bH I

  17. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  18. IV therapy and infection control in patients in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Ray

    Universal precautions and general infection control measures need to be considered when undertaking any clinical procedure, but when administering intravenous (IV) therapy (medicines and/or maintenance fluids), specific measures need to be considered. This is especially important for vulnerable patients or if administering IV therapy in the home environment. There are many reasons why patients may need to receive IV therapy in the community, and these will all present nurses with specific problems. This article discusses some of the infection control procedures one must undertake when administering IV therapy to patients in the community.

  19. DNA Ligase IV regulates XRCC4 nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dailia B; Kozlov, Mikhail; Chavez, Jose; Chu, Jennifer; Malu, Shruti; Hanna, Mary; Cortes, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    DNA Ligase IV, along with its interacting partner XRCC4, are essential for repairing DNA double strand breaks by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Together, they complete the final ligation step resolving the DNA break. Ligase IV is regulated by XRCC4 and XLF. However, the mechanism(s) by which Ligase IV control the NHEJ reaction and other NHEJ factor(s) remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a C-terminal region of Ligase IV (aa 620-800), which encompasses a NLS, the BRCT I, and the XRCC4 interacting region (XIR), is essential for nuclear localization of its co-factor XRCC4. In Ligase IV deficient cells, XRCC4 showed deregulated localization remaining in the cytosol even after induction of DNA double strand breaks. DNA Ligase IV was also required for efficient localization of XLF into the nucleus. Additionally, human fibroblasts that harbor hypomorphic mutations within the Ligase IV gene displayed decreased levels of XRCC4 protein, implicating that DNA Ligase IV is also regulating XRCC4 stability. Our results provide evidence for a role of DNA Ligase IV in controlling the cellular localization and protein levels of XRCC4.

  20. Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto,Noriaki

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Type IV collagen-degrading enzyme activity was detected in human serum. Serum was preincubated with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and trypsin to activate the enzyme prior to assay. Type IV collagen, purified from human placentas and radiolabeled with [1-14C] acetic anhydride, was used as the substrate. The enzyme activity was measured at pH 7.5 and inhibited by treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or heat. The assay of type IV collagen-degrading enzyme in human serum might be useful for estimating the degradation of type IV collagen.