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Sample records for chant acari phytoseidae

  1. Variações morfológicas intra e interpopulacionais de Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma e Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari, Phytoseiidae Intra and interpopulational morphological variations of Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma and Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari, Phytoseiidae

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    Aloyséia Cristina da Silva Noronha

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of morphologic variability within and between populations of phytoseiid mites is important for the precise species identification. Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970 and Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959 are phytoseiids commonly found on different crops in Brazil and other South American countries. The morphologic characterization of populations preliminarily identified as E. citrifolius and E. concordis was done through examination of 10 adult females and 10 adult males of each population and of 2 to 10 adult females and males resulting from crosses between those populations. The plant substrate and collection site of each population were: E. citrijolius: Bauhinia sp. in Arroio do Meio, Rio Grande do Sul, Coffea arabica Linnaeus in Campinas, São Paulo and Terminalia catappa Linnaeus in Petrolina, Pernambuco. E. concordis: Passiflora edulis Sims. i.flavicarpa Deg. in Arroio do Meio, Manihot esculenta (Crantz in Jaguariúna, São Paulo, Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in Pontes e Lacerda, Mato Grosso, T. catappa in Petrolina and C arabica in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. A comparison of the measurements of different structures of individuals of each population and of type specimens of E. citrifolius and E. concordis confirmed the preliminary identification of the populations. Significant relationships were observed between mean setal lengths and the respective ranges within each population. Females and males of E. citrifolius from Petrolina and E. concordis from Jaguariúna had some of the setae generally shorter than those of other populations of the same species. Measurements of males resulting from heterogamic crosses indicated that E. citrifolius and E. concordis reproduce by pseudo-arrhenotoky.

  2. Oviposição dos ácaros predadores Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, Euseius concordis (Chant e Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker (Acari em resposta a diferentes tipos de alimento

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    Ferla Noeli Juarez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiidae and Sigmaeidae are the most common predatory mites on rubber tree leaves in the State of Mato Grosso, associated with phytophagous mites of the families Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of different kinds of food, including different species of mites commonly found on the rubber tree in Mato Grosso, and one kind of pollen, on the oviposition of the predators Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, 1965 (Stigmaeidae, Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959 and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965, both Phytoseiidae. Those predators are common on rubber tree leaves in Mato Grosso. For the tests with A. floridanus, discs of 2 cm in diameter of rubber tree leaves were used as substrate. Food provided to the predators were the mites Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992, Oligonychus gossypii (Zacher, 1921, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 and Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor, 1950, and pollen of Typha angustifolia L. Agistemus floridanus accepted a larger variety of foodthan other predators. This was the only predator with high oviposition rate when fed C. heveae and T. heveae, the phytophagous mites considered most important on rubber trees. Euseius concordis and A. floridanus had nearly the same oviposition rates when fed pollen of T. angustifolia (ca. one egg per female per day. Neoseiulus anonymus had the highest oviposition rate than other predators when fed O. gossypii and T. mexicanus. Polyphagotarsonemus latus was the least suitable food for the predators studied.

  3. The status of chanting codices in the Serbian chant tradition

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    Peno Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of chanting codices, which is directly associated with the phenomenon of musical literacy, is examined in this paper by means of the examples of a few scarce neumed manuscripts that represent a primary source for the reconstruction of the Serbian music past. The following reasons have been stated in the Serbian musicological literature as an explanation for the lack of a larger number of preserved neumed books: 1 melodies were transmitted orally, 2 an intensive liturgical practice, in which chanting had a primary place and 3 historical circumstances due to which manuscripts were exposed to decay. For the sake of an objective evaluation of the probable level of chanting skill in the Middle ages in Serbia, the aforementioned reasons have been reconsidered and revised.

  4. Dominican Chant and Dominican Identity

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    Innocent Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Order of Preachers possesses a venerable chant tradition that dates back to the thirteenth century. This essay describes Dominican chant, showing how it developed as a consequence of the attitudes to the liturgy expressed in the Ancient Constitutions of the Order of Preachers. These constitutions stressed that the liturgy was to be performed with careful attention to bodily posture, with a succinctness and brevity that would allow time for study and preaching, and with gradations of solemnity that would express the inner hierarchy of parts of the liturgy and of the liturgical year. After the initial development of the repertoire, Dominican chant has gone through periods of decline and revival, which are briefly traced in this article together with a consideration of the place of the chant in the contemporary practice of the Order. Throughout the last eight centuries, the chant of the Order of Preachers has played an important role in the inculcation and preservation of Dominican identity within the Order and in the lives of individual friars and sisters.

  5. Chants of the Tikuna Female Initiation Ritual

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Angarita; Roberto Vento; Javier José; Marcelino Manduca; Ramos, Hugo A.

    2010-01-01

    Seven ritual chants of the Tikuna female initiation ritual, recorded in the Amazon Trapezium in 2008. The chants are transcribed in Tikuna with a Spanish translation.TO LISTEN THE MP3 FILES WITH THE CHANTS, SELECT "Supplementary Files" IN THE MENU ON THE RIGHT

  6. Life Table Parameters and Consumption Rate of Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt on Avocado Red Mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae Parámetros de Tabla de Vida y Tasa de Consumo de Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant y Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt, sobre la Arañita Roja del Palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae

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    Tommy Rioja S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The avocado red mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor is the major leaf pest in Chile’s avocado orchards. Itaffects leaf physiology and makes it necessary to seek new natural enemies to interact with low population densities of O. yothersi. The potentiality of three predator mites: Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt was evaluated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 1.93ºC, 87 ± 3.61% H.R. and 16:8 (L:D photoperiod on avocado leaf disks Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5 cm by separately feeding eggs, immature, and adult females of O. yothersi, and registering postembryonic development, consumption, as well as life table parameters. The postembryonic development of C. picanus was significantly lower (5.46 days compared to both A. graminis (7.33 days and G. occidentalis (8.69 days which were fed with immature O. yothersi. The life table parameters of C. picanus were net reproductive rate R0 = 25.41, finite rate of increase λ = 1.29, and Mean Generation Time T = 12.46. The Net Intrinsic Rate of Increase (r m was significantly higher for C. picanus (r m = 0.25 in contrast with G. occidentalis (r m = 0.19, while A. graminis showed r m = -0.06 indicating that its population didn’t have descendants. Under laboratory conditions, r m registered by C. picanus is an indicator of its predatory potential to control O. Yothersi. It can be assumed that the pest population reduction pattern could be maintained under field conditions.En Chile la arañita roja del palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor es la plaga más importante a nivel foliar en huertos comerciales afectando la fisiología de la hoja, siendo necesario la búsqueda de nuevos enemigos naturales que interactúen a bajas densidades poblacionales de O. yothersi. Se evaluó en condiciones de laboratorio (27±1,93ºC, 87±3,61 % H.R. y un fotoperíodo de 16:8 (L:O sobre discos de hojas de palto Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5

  7. Transcription of Byzantine Chant - Problems, Possibilities, Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Discusses the problems and possibilities for transsription of Byzantine chant on the basis of medieval musical manuscripts. A relatively 'neutral' style of transcription is suggested for musicological purposes.......Discusses the problems and possibilities for transsription of Byzantine chant on the basis of medieval musical manuscripts. A relatively 'neutral' style of transcription is suggested for musicological purposes....

  8. Zer sanr 'spirit guardians' chanted by pirma Gavq Lavq

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    A .wav recording of the third chant performed when carrying out a funeral rite and its accompanying text translated and glossed into contemporary Akha and English. This is a sample of collection of recordings, videos, and texts related to Akha Zanr, the indigenous religion of the Akha (ahk) of northern Mainland Southeast Asia. It includes over ten hours of .wav recordings of Pirma Gavq, an Akha Shaman, reciting the religious text ?Buffalo Knowledge One?. This amounts 6,500 verses of religious...

  9. Gee Jm 'the ancestor alter' chanted by Pirma Gavq Lavq

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    A .wav recording of the second chant performed when carrying out a funeral rite and its accompanying text translated and glossed into contemporary Akha and English. This is a sample of collection of recordings, videos, and texts related to Akha Zanr, the indigenous religion of the Akha (ahk) of northern Mainland Southeast Asia. It includes over ten hours of .wav recordings of Pirma Gavq, an Akha Shaman, reciting the religious text ?Buffalo Knowledge One?. This amounts 6,500 verses of religiou...

  10. "I'd Rather Wear a Turban than a Rose": A Case Study of the Ethics of Chanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carwyn; Fleming, Scott

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we explore the moral status of a chant overheard during the Wales versus England (men's) rugby union international match in February, 2005. The specific chant, sung by Welsh supporters at their English counterparts, was: "I'd rather wear a turban than a rose." Specifically, we examine: whether the chant is offensive; whether the…

  11. A Comparison of Foreign Language Teaching Methods: Total Physical Response versus Song/Chants with Kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Deena Rae

    Several teaching methods aid young children in learning foreign languages, all of which include continuous repetition and review of learned information. The two methods used in this study were Total Physical Response (TPR) and songs/chants. The TPR method used a gesture for each vocabulary card, and the songs/chants method incorporated Spanish…

  12. Neurohemodynamic correlates of ′OM′ chanting: A pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging study

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    Bangalore G Kalyani

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The neurohemodynamic correlates of ′OM′ chanting indicate limbic deactivation. As similar observations have been recorded with vagus nerve stimulation treatment used in depression and epilepsy, the study findings argue for a potential role of this ′OM′ chanting in clinical practice.

  13. Theoretical feasibility of suppressing offensive sports chants by means of delayed feedback of sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Balken, J.A. van

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach for disrupting offensive chants at sporting events is proposed, based on attacking synchronization between individuals. Since timing is crucial for coordination between chanters, disruption of timing is expected to be effective against undesired chants. Delayed auditory feedback is

  14. Acari uit Ambon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudemans, A.C.

    1927-01-01

    Prof. Dr. E. D. VAN OORT, Directeur van 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden, was zoo vriendelijk, het materiaal aan Acari, door den Gouvernements-Arts Dr. PH. F. KOPSTEIN, thans te Weltevreden bij Batavia, gedurende zijn verblijf op Ambon 1922 en 1923 verzameld, mij ter determineering

  15. Restauration de Sapho ou Le Chant de Raoul Verlet

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    Lucie Courtiade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L'étude de Sapho ou Le Chant, modèle de fonderie en plâtre élaboré par Raoul Verlet et conservé au Musée d'Angoulême depuis 1926, a permis d'aborder un sujet courant, celui des plâtres fracturés par l'expansion de la corrosion d'armatures internes causée par l'humidité. La principale intervention s'est axée sur le remontage des fragments nécessitant la conception d'une structure de remontage en acier inoxydable. Les interventions  structurelles ont été complétées par des collages simples ou renforcés des fragments de grandes dimensions.The study of Sapho ou Le Chant, a plaster cast foundry created by Raoul Verlet and preserved in the Angoulême Museum since 1926, has allowed to approach a common problematic, that one of split plaster cast by the expansion of steel reinforcements corrosion, caused by high humidity conservation conditions. The main intervention concerned the fragments reconstruction requiring the design and the execution of a stainless steel pedestal. The structural interventions was completed with simple and reinforced stickings of the larger fragments.

  16. The state of research on church chant in medieval Serbia

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    Peno Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Byzantine-musicological studies in Serbia during the last few decades have been at an unsatisfactory level. The fact that Serbian musicologists have not exhibited much interest in exploring this research area could be somewhat justified by the fact that its scope for new studies might seem limited. The efforts aimed towards reconstructing and ‘resounding’ the medieval liturgical melodies based on the anagogic sources (the primary sources - notated manuscripts are very deficient seems, at first glance, discouraging, even futile. Nevertheless, the conditions for systematic research do exist, all the more because the current knowledge on music paleography, rhythmic and scale characteristics of Byzantine church chant has considerably changed the previous inquiry that had been limited to a few, although very precious musical pieces of only three known Serbian fifteenth-century composers - Ishaia, Nikola and Stefan. After a brief account on the topics and issues that have, until now, been in the scholarlyfocus, I draw attention to what has been done and what is currently underway in the research on Serbian medieval chant, while also indicating the areas that could be of greater interest for future explorations. I pay special critical attention to certain conclusions and methodological methods applied to the notated manuscripts that deal with liturgical music practice in medieval Serbia. According to some new findings in the field of Byzantine musicology, a new critical reading of available sources is necessary. Becoming acquainted with the earlier false approaches and conclusions made in haste and without particular evidence could be of significant help and serve as an important impulse for young researchers to get involved with explorations of Serbian music past. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  17. Stamping, Clapping and Chanting: An Ancient Learning Pathway?

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    Marion M. Long

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review I explore the effect of temporal integration as a means of improving learning in schoolchildren. I focus first on theorists that have linked physical activity with a positive effect on children’s learning and second to psychological studies that have established the existence of innate temporal patterns. These findings are related to a model of temporal integration that I have developed from Croce’s writings on aesthetics (1900. From philosophy to neurology, I discuss recent neurological findings relating to timing and conclude that an organ of temporal integration, regulation and coordination operates in the brain with respect to physical, intuitive and higher cognitive function. I link recent findings in neurophysiology to notably similar findings in recent biomusicological studies. The finding that humans have an involuntary physical response to loud, low-frequency sounds are attributed to an innate legacy of proto-music and proto-dance behaviour among hominids. I develop the model of temporal integration further by examining the literature on stamping and clapping patterns of ancient traditional dances in relation to Husserl’s writings on theoretical succession. From philosophy to pedagogy, I summarise the review by proposing stamping, clapping and chanting as a means of achieving improved temporal integration.

  18. Pen-chant: Acoustic emissions of handwriting and drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniuk, Andrew G.

    The sounds generated by a writing instrument ('pen-chant') provide a rich and underutilized source of information for pattern recognition. We examine the feasibility of recognition of handwritten cursive text, exclusively through an analysis of acoustic emissions. We design and implement a family of recognizers using a template matching approach, with templates and similarity measures derived variously from: smoothed amplitude signal with fixed resolution, discrete sequence of magnitudes obtained from peaks in the smoothed amplitude signal, and ordered tree obtained from a scale space signal representation. Test results are presented for recognition of isolated lowercase cursive characters and for whole words. We also present qualitative results for recognizing gestures such as circling, scratch-out, check-marks, and hatching. Our first set of results, using samples provided by the author, yield recognition rates of over 70% (alphabet) and 90% (26 words), with a confidence of +/-8%, based solely on acoustic emissions. Our second set of results uses data gathered from nine writers. These results demonstrate that acoustic emissions are a rich source of information, usable---on their own or in conjunction with image-based features---to solve pattern recognition problems. In future work, this approach can be applied to writer identification, handwriting and gesture-based computer input technology, emotion recognition, and temporal analysis of sketches.

  19. Sensitivity of the space-based CHerenkov from Astrophysical Neutrinos Telescope (CHANT)

    CERN Document Server

    Neronov, A; Anchordoqui, L A; Adams, J; Olinto, A V

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies in the PeV to EeV range produce upgoing extensive air showers when they interact underground close enough to the surface of the Earth. We study the possibility for detection of such showers with a system of very wide field-of-view imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, named CHANT for CHerenkov from Astrophysical Neutrinos Telescope, pointing down to a strip below the Earth's horizon from space. We find that CHANT provides sufficient sensitivity for the study of the astrophysical neutrino flux in a wide energy range, from 10~PeV to 10~EeV. A space-based CHANT system can discover and study in detail the cosmogenic neutrino flux originating from interactions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the intergalactic medium.

  20. L’arme du chant collectif au cœur du conflit biafrais

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Si des auteurs comme Basden, Leith-Ross et Nwando Achebe ont mentionné dans leurs écrits la puissance du chant dans la culture igbo, le rôle des chants nés du conflit biafrais et les raisons de leur diffusion sont des questions qui n’ont jamais encore été vraiment abordées - ce sera donc le but de cet article. Partant d’un disque de seize chants en igbo (6), anglais (8) et ijo (2) enregistrés pendant la guerre civile nigériane à 15km du front, juste avant la chute d’Umuahia, capitale provisoi...

  1. A Byzantine chant collection from Sicily: a collaboration between Copenhagen and Piana degli Albanesi (Palermo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfratello, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an account of the collaboration between a collector of the Byzantine chant tradition of Piana degli Albanesi (Palermo) in Sicily, namely fr. Bartolomeo Di Salvo, and the editorial board of the Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, i.e. an institution under the aegis......, Collections, Ethnomusicology, Critical edition, Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae (MMB)...

  2. Using Chants and Songs for English Language Teaching (ELT) in Primary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban González, Almudena

    2015-01-01

    Many educators have repeatedly written on the benefits of songs in an English Language Teaching setting. In this Undergraduate Dissertation, we will tackle the main grounds why we share this opinion. We also intend to analyse why the use of chants and songs in an ELT classroom can help learners to communicate more effectively in this language. This use complies with the parameters of the Communicative Language Approach that goes beyond the more conventional mastery of grammar rules, struc...

  3. Acute effects of 3G mobile phone radiations on frontal haemodynamics during a cognitive task in teenagers and possible protective value of Om chanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; N K, Manjunath; Varambally, Shivarama; Mooventhan, A; Bista, Suman; Singh, Deepeshwar; Chhabra, Harleen; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; T M, Srinivasan; H R, Nagendra

    2016-06-01

    Mobile phone induced electromagnetic field (MPEMF) as well as chanting of Vedic mantra 'OM' has been shown to affect cognition and brain haemodynamics, but findings are still inconclusive. Twenty right-handed healthy teenagers (eight males and 12 females) in the age range of 18.25 ± 0.44 years were randomly divided into four groups: (1) MPONOM (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'OM' chanting); (2) MPOFOM (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'OM' chanting); (3) MPONSS (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'SS' chanting); and (4) MPOFSS (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'SS' chanting). Brain haemodynamics during Stroop task were recorded using a 64-channel fNIRS device at three points of time: (1) baseline, (2) after 30 min of MPON/OF exposure, and (3) after 5 min of OM/SS chanting. RM-ANOVA was applied to perform within- and between-group comparisons, respectively. Between-group analysis revealed that total scores on incongruent Stroop task were significantly better after OM as compared to SS chanting (MPOFOM vs MPOFSS), pre-frontal activation was significantly lesser after OM as compared to SS chanting in channel 13. There was no significant difference between MPON and MPOF conditions for Stroop performance, as well as brain haemodynamics. These findings need confirmation through a larger trial in future.

  4. Fabrication patrimoniale et imaginaires identitaires. Autour des chants et musiques en Algérie

    OpenAIRE

    Miliani, Hadj

    2013-01-01

    Après avoir présenté la complexité des acceptions concernant les notions de patrimoine, de tradition et de mémoire collective, cet article examine, à travers un parcours historique, les différentes modalités qui ont marqué la configuration du patrimoine musical et chanté en Algérie depuis environ un siècle. Initiatives individuelles, processus techniques, instances associatives et appareils culturels participent, en fonction de données historiques, idéologiques et sociales, à fonder ce qui se...

  5. 从Jazz Chants 到 China Chants——Jazz Chants教学法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐金马; 韩天霖

    2005-01-01

    @@ 约30年前,纽约大学Carolyn Graham教授创建了英语作为第二语言和外语(ESL/EFL)的教学方法:Jazz Chants.①自1978年以来,Graham出版了多本以Jazz Chants教学法为指导而编写的教材,她的chants还出现在其他许多著名英语教材和词典里.

  6. Félix Arnaudin : Chants Populaires de la Grande Lande

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Ces deux recueils forment les volumes III et IV de l’ensemble des huit volumes des œuvres complètes de Félix Arnaudin, dont le Parc Régional des Landes de Gascogne a entrepris l’édition. Au magnifique album de photos (quelque trois mille plaques de verre), aux Contes (I), aux Proverbes, Dictons, Devinettes, Formulettes, Prières (II), viennent donc s’ajouter ces deux recueils de chants. Doivent suivre le Dictionnaire de la Grande-Lande, également en deux volumes, dont la parution a été retardé...

  7. Chant in a Heroic but Mournful Tone Style Formation%慷慨悲歌风格的形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛兰霞; 杨玉生

    2011-01-01

    在中国传统文化中,燕文化以慷慨悲歌著称于世,几千年来深刻地影响着中国人的思想方式和生活方式。慷慨悲歌精神风格的形成不是偶然的,它是燕地气候、地理条件以及战争等因素共同作用的结果。其中燕地地理位置是慷慨悲歌形成的重要因素。民族融合、燕地经常不断的战争对慷慨悲歌的形成具有重要的作用,侠士以及由此形成的侠义之风是慷慨悲歌形成的最终因素。%In traditional Chinese culture,Yan Culture is famous for its chant in a heroic but mournful tone in the world,which deeply influenced the Chinese way of thinking and way of life thousands of years.Chant in a heroic but mournful tone spirit style is not accidental,it is the result of Yan climate,geographical conditions and the war and other factors.Among these,geographical position is significant factor of the formation of the chant in a heroic but mournful tone.Ethnic fusion,Yan of constant war to chant in a heroic but mournful tone which plays an important role,and the formation of chivalrous wind is the chant in a heroic but mournful tone forming the final factor.

  8. L’idéologie dans les chants de l’EPON

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    Joëlle Dalègre

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available L’idéologie de l’EPON, (organisation de jeunesse de la résistance grecque vue à travers ses chants, l’une de ses armes favorites de propagande.Cette communication se propose, à travers quelques chants, de montrer les grandes thèmes idéologiques de l’EPON, tout en la replaçant dans le cadre spécifique grec. Créée par le mouvement de résistance de masse du pays, l’EAM, l’EPON se propose d’encadrer les jeunes de tous âges, de les faire participer à la résistance, civile et parfois armée et de les conduire vers la construction de l’avenir radieux qui leur est promis à la fin de la guerre. Le chant fait partie des nombreux moyens de propagande utilisés par l’EPON (et précédemment par l’EON mais aussi d’un réel travail d’éducation entrepris en tous lieux par les cadres de l’organisation, souvent des enseignants. Justice, travail, école, prospérité, égalité homme/femme, des réalités inconnues dans la Grèce de l’avant-guerre qui ne peuvent que provoquer enthousiasme et espérance dans une génération prête à se sacrifier généreusement.Based on a number of songs, this communication summarizes the great ideological themes of EPON, while at the same time placing them in the specifically Greek context. Created by EAM, the national resistance movement, EPON set out to recruit the young of all ages, to make them participate in the civil and armed resistance against the occupiers, and to help them build the brilliant future they were promised at the end of the war. Song was one of the many forms of propaganda used by EPON, but also a real form of education undertaken everywhere by the heads of the organisation, who were often teachers. Justice, work, school, prosperity, equality between men and women, unknown realities in pre-war Greece that could only inspire enthusiasm and hope in a generation prepared to make any sacrifice.

  9. A computational comparison of theory and practice of scale intonation in Byzantine chant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panteli, Maria; Purwins, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Byzantine Chant performance practice is quantitatively compared to the Chrysanthine theory. The intonation of scale degrees is quantified, based on pitch class profiles. An analysis procedure is introduced that consists of the following steps: 1) Pitch class histograms are calculated via non-parametric...... kernel smoothing. 2) Histogram peaks are detected. 3) Phrase ending analysis aids the finding of the tonic to align histogram peaks. 4) The theoretical scale degrees are mapped to the practical ones. 5) A schema of statistical tests detects significant deviations of theoretical scale tuning from...... the estimated ones in performance practice. The analysis of 94 echoi shows a tendency of the singer to level theoretic particularities of the echos that stand out of the general norm in the octoechos: theoretically extremely large scale steps are diminished in performance....

  10. Chanting of the inner space: on symphonic and concertante works by Milorad Marinković

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković-Beguš Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The opus of contemporary Serbian composer Milorad Marinković (b. 1976, which encompasses works of choral, chamber, concertante and symphony music, leans towards classical forms of artistic music, Serbian folklore music, and Serbian Orthodox church chant. This paper deals with pieces composed for larger instrumental ensembles: Herojska uvertira (Heroic Overture for symphony orchestra, Psalmodija (Psalmody for symphony orchestra, Koncert za klavir i orkestar (Piano concerto and Mala opera (Little Opera for chamber ensemble (septet with prominent soloist parts of flute and clarinet. Special attention is placed on different procedures used by Marinković to accomplish wholeness and integration of the musical tissue. This paper observes these pieces as examples of religious music, having in mind the composer’s own understanding of the notion. Among common characteristics of the observed works that justify this point of view are specific single movement forms and the prominent role of main thematic materials, a cyclic principle, and programmatic elements. References to Serbian church chant observed in Marinković’s instrumental works are also discussed, especially in parallel with the analogue procedures used by Ljubica Marić (1909- 2003, one of the composer’s role models. Although Marinković’s works for instrumental ensembles do not fall into the category of spiritual music in its narrow sense (as defined by the composer himself, in this paper they are nevertheless considered as “spiritual” in a broader sense, as an expression of the composer’s desire to spiritualize his entire artistic output.

  11. Atlas van de Nederlandse watermijten (Acari: Hydrachnidia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Hammen, van der H.

    2000-01-01

    Atlas of the Dutch water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) Few biogeographic studies have been published on water mites. Only Lundblad (1962) has published an atlas of the Swedish water mites. So far, there are no complete publications on the distribution of Dutch water mites. Acarologists who worked on D

  12. Israël : chants judéo-espagnols de la Méditerranée orientale

    OpenAIRE

    Shiloah, Amnon

    2011-01-01

    L’anthologie Chants judéo-espagnols de la Méditerranée orientale comprend vingt-cinq chants monodiques appartenant à cinq genres représentatifs de cette tradition. Ils sont interprétés à tour de rôle en solo et sans aucun accompagnement, par deux chanteuses vivant en Israël : Bienvenida « Berta » Aguado, originaire de Turquie, et Loretta « Dora » Gerassi, de Bulgarie. Le choix de restreindre l’anthologie à une région stylistique définie du riche patrimoine vocal judéo-espagnol qui survit dans...

  13. À propos du compte rendu des deux volumes de Chants populaires de la Grande Lande, de Félix Arnaudin

    OpenAIRE

    Mabru, Lothaire

    2010-01-01

    Dans le précédent volume des Cahiers de musiques traditionnelles, Eliane Gauzit et Pierre Bec ont produit un compte rendu concernant les deux tomes des Chants populaires de la Grande Lande de Félix Arnaudin, auxquels j’avais participé. Dans ce texte ils m’accusent de manque de rigueur scientifique et de négligence dans mon travail d’édition des chants collectés par Arnaudin. Ce n’est pas la première fois qu’ils s’en prennent à moi à ce sujet, puisqu’ils ont publiquement émis leurs critiques à...

  14. The Characteristics of the Lines for Boatman's Chant in the Ba Canal%巴渠船工号子的歌词艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥必海

    2012-01-01

    巴渠船工号子是巴渠船工伴随划船、拉纤的劳动而产生和发展的艺术形式,其歌词内容生动的表现了巴渠船工的劳动场景、生活状况和内心情感。巴渠船工号子的歌词一般是表现巴渠各地风情、历史传说、男女之情、船工生活等方面的内容,具有大俗至雅、多种修辞手法并用、行文格式自由、衬词使用频繁和多种文化互为交融的特征。%The boatman's chant in the Ba canal is a kind of art formed through accompanying the boatman's rowing and towing the boat. The lines of the chant express the boatman's vivid working image, living condition, and their emotion. The chants are usually varied in accordance with the speed of the water, direction, and the situation of the course. The chants are of nervous rhythms and aspiring tunes with simple lines, or even chants without lines when the course is dangerous; the chants are of relaxing rhythms and gentle tunes with rich lines. The boatman's chants also express the local cultures, history, love, and the boatman's own life through various rhetorical devices, free forms, and frequent hner terms.

  15. BIOLOGIA E TABELA DE VIDA DO ÁCARO PREDADOR Euseius concordis (CHANT, 1959 (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM PINHÃO-MANSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLECIA DE CARVALHO MARQUES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and the intrinsic growth rate (rm of Euseius concordis on Tetranychus bastosi on physic nut (Jatropha curcas. The experiment was conducted in incubator BOD at 25 ° C and 70 % RH, with 12h photoperiod environment. The evaluations were performed twice daily for the biology of the mite, and once to the reproductive parameters. The average life cycle of fe-males was 6.3 ± 0.14 days and the males of 6.22 ± 0.14 days. The sex ratio was 0.64, and the average longevi-ty of females was 22.6 ± 2.22 days with an average production of 7,42 eggs per female. The parameters of the life table were obtained : net reproductive rate (Ro, 54,9 individuals ; average length of generations (T , 7,77 days; intrinsic growth rate (rm, 0,22 female per female per day; finite rate of increase (λ, 1,24 female per fe-male; and in population doubling time (TD, 3,16 days. The E. concordis mite has developed satisfactorily when created with T. diet bastosi, with the short development cycle.

  16. Chants of the Byzantine Rite: the Italo-Albanian Tradition in Sicily / Canti Ecclesiastici della Tradizione Italo-Albanese in Sicilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian; Garofalo, Girolamo

    and related documents were found by the editors in archives in Copenhagen, Grottaferrata, and Rome. Di Salvo was born in Piana degli Albanesi, the biggest of the villages where the tradition is still practiced. Girolamo Garofalo delivers an introduction to the repertory and the actual state of research......, including an account of the few written documents that have been identified (the oldest dating from 1899); while Christian Troelsgård offers an essay on the importance of this ‘Arbëresh’ chant repertory in the broader perspective of Byzantine chant studies. This collection testifies to the continuation...... and development of Byzantine chant on the fringe of the historical Byzantine Empire, and invites further studies into orality and musical identities....

  17. Patrones de búsqueda y respuesta funcional del acaro phytoseiidae neoseiulus anonymus (chant & baker), depredando a tetranychus urticae (koch)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Mauricio; Páramo, Gabriel; Corredor, Darío

    2011-01-01

    Las respuestas de hembras adultas de Tetrenychus urtieae (Koch) a condiciones variables de luz y topografía (reportadasen publicación anterior por los mismos autores). fueron comparadas con los patrones de búsqueda desarrollados por Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker) bajo las mismas condiciones experimentales. Mediante la medida de tales patrones se determinó la velocidad de búsqueda y se multiplicó por el campo de percepción con el fin de  determinar el área total de búsqueda del depred...

  18. SERENA FACCI - GABRIELLA SANTINI, Chants d’Italie. Pour chanter ensemble de 8 à 14 ans, Paris, Cité de la musique, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Cimardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizzato nell’ambito del progetto «Traditions chantées» della Cité de la musique, Chants d’Italie si struttura in due parti: un’introduzione al contesto storico-linguistico italiano e una sezione in cui sono analizzati ed elaborati didatticamente dieci canti della tradizione popolare italiana. Corredato di un CD audio, il volume di Facci e Santini fornisce dunque dei modelli di percorsi didattici sui canti del folklore italiano per studenti di scuola primaria e media francesi.

  19. Les chants des oiseaux. Musiques, pratiques sociales et représentations du XIe au XVIIIe siècle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Beck

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Le thème du chant des oiseaux a particulièrement été bien traité par les musicologues. L’objectif de ce projet consiste à reprendre cette thématique en l’élargissant à d’autres disciplines a priori éloignées, dont les problématiques centrales touchent essentiellement aux notions de nature, de langage et de mémoire. Jamais encore un projet autour d’un thème aussi étendu n’a été réalisé. L’ambition de ces rencontres interdisciplinaires et internationales vise alors à réunir les nombreux cherche...

  20. 藏传佛教寺院诵经音乐初论%Elementary Theory for the chanting music in Tibetan Buddhism temples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才让措

    2012-01-01

      In the music o f Tibetan Buddhism,the tone of Buddhists chanting sutras is the very produc-tion filled with Tibetan culture accumulation . Of course,its coming into being must have follo wed certain foundation and laws . T he tone o f chanting sutras in Tibetan Buddhism shares the feature of recitative, closely near to the tone o f languages . When coming to the tone of chanting sutras in Tibetan Buddhism, we will find that the most representative part is brought scribes . T hey would lead the Lamas to recite and chant the scriptures together . T he brought scribes often adopt the way of subw oofer chanting to make themselves heard by thousand of people wherever in the hall . In this way they should pronounce loudly, but the pitch of voice must be low and deep,to express a feeling of solemn and respectful,dignified and holy .%  在藏传佛教音乐里寺院僧人诵经的音调是极赋有藏族文化积淀的产物,它的产生必定有其遵循的基础和规律。藏传佛教音乐诵经音调具有宣叙性,接近于语言的音调,最具代表性的当属寺院的领经师由他带领众喇嘛集体吟诵、唱诵相关的经文。领诵经文的经师常采用超低音的唱法,声调发音宏亮、低沉、穿透力强,并能产生一种肃穆、庄严浓厚、神圣的感觉,坐满几千人的大经堂每个角落都能清楚地听到领经师的声音。

  1. Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a potential biological control agent for spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Virginia vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Jessica A.

    2001-01-01

    Outbreaks of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in vineyards have been increasing with the expansion of the industry in Virginia. Only three effective acaricides are registered on grapes and as resistance begins to occur, control options are limited. Biological control of spider mites by inoculative or inundative releases of predatory mites has been tried on a wide range of crops including grapes. This project examined the feasibility of using Neoseiulus fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as ...

  2. A new genus and species Mangalaus krishianusandhanus (Acari: Eriophyidae) from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....

  3. Primeiro registro de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) em mudas de teca no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre dos Santos; Vagner Aniceto Teixeira; Otávio Peres Filho; Milson Evaldo Serafin; Marçal Pedro Neto; Carlos Alberto da Cunha Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    O ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae (Kock, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) foi relatado e suas injúrias caracterizadas pela primeira vez em viveiro de produção mudas de teca (Tectona grandis) no Brasil.

  4. Temperature-dependent development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Haque, Md. Ahsanul; Nachman, Gösta;

    2012-01-01

    Development and reproductive traits of Tetranychus macfarlanei Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated on kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., at eleven constant temperatures. Tetranychus macfarlanei was able to develop and complete its life cycle at temperatures ranging from 17...

  5. Exus e Pombas-Giras: o masculino e o feminino nos pontos cantados da umbanda "Exus" and "Pombas-Giras": the male and female in umbanda chants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Roberto Afonso do Nascimento

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo a caracterização dos Exus e Pombas-Giras, através dos pontos cantados da Umbanda, considerando aspectos que remetem a uma configuração mais ampla de componentes do imaginário social brasileiro. Foram submetidas à Análise de Conteúdo 221 letras de pontos de Exu e Pomba-Gira. Os pontos de Exu contêm maior freqüência de menções relacionadas à descrição de poder e funções atribuídas a essa entidade (31,6% das respostas e à sua identificação e saudação (22,4%. Os pontos de Pomba-Gira apresentam mais freqüentemente a descrição de poder/funções atribuídas (30,23% das respostas e a caracterização da entidade (30,23%. Os resultados possibilitam relacionar as características das entidades aos papéis socialmente esperados de homens e mulheres. Exu é representado pela liberdade, força e, principalmente, pelo trabalho. Pomba-Gira é representada através de atributos considerados típicos do sexo feminino, como beleza e sensualidade, e também pelo trabalho. Os dados remetem a uma análise que procura a articulação entre fatores raciais e de classe social presentes na sociedade brasileira e as características definidoras das entidades, identificadas nos pontos.The aim of the present paper is the characterization of the Exus (male entities, loosely associated with the devil and Pombas-Giras (female entities, the counterparts of the Exus in the singing chants of the Umbanda religion, focusing on aspects, which relate to a broader configuration of components of the Brazilian social imagery. Two hundred and twenty one lyrics of Exu and Pomba-Gira chants were subjected to Content Analysis. Exu chants have a higher frequency of citations related to the description of power and functions attributed to this entity (31.6% of the answers and to identification and greeting (22.4%. Pomba-Gira chants present most frequently the description of attributed power/functions (30.23% of the responses

  6. 以赋为诗:“白战体”对《雪赋》写作方法的规避与继承%Evasion and Inheritance of "Baizhan Style" in Chant of Snow from the Perspective of Writing Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹逸梅

    2011-01-01

    Snow chant is an important theme among all the chants of objects. XIE Huilian's Chant of Snow and the "Baizhan Style" by OUYANG Xiu and SUShi in Song Dynasty are remarkable works in the history of snow chants. After sorting the development of snow chants, the article finds that the creativity in "Baizhan Style" lies in its inheritance of the undeveloped writing skills from Chant of Snow. By comparison, we can get an impression of writing poems in the form of chants among Song poetry.%咏雪是咏物作品中分量极重的题材,而谢惠连的《雪赋》和宋代欧阳修、苏轼的“白战体”都是咏雪诗发展史上的标志性作品。通过梳理咏雪诗的写作技巧的发展,可以发现“白战体”写作技巧的创新性正在于对《雪赋》中一些未得到发展的写作方法的继承,这也可以视为宋诗“以赋为诗”之一端。

  7. Eupalopsellus prasadi Bagheri and Khanjani 2009 (Acari: Prostigmata, Eupalopsellidae), a New record for the Turkish acaro fauna

    OpenAIRE

    KASAP, İsmail; Çobanoğlu, Sultan; PEHLİVAN, SERKAN; KÖK, Şahin

    2013-01-01

    Females of Eupalopsellus prasadi Bagheri and Khanjani 2009, (Acari: Eupalopsellidae) were collected from the colony of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) which are harmful on grown apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)) in Bigalı village at Eceabat, Çanakkale. This is a new record for the Turkish fauna.

  8. Teratological Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) From Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Scott R; Paskewitz, Susan M

    2016-03-01

    Abnormalities of physiological development (teratological forms) in ticks are rare. The occurrence of gigantism, dwarfism, gynandromorphs, missing legs, extra legs, and asymmetries is most often reported from lab-reared specimens, but has been observed in field-collected specimens. All morphologically anomalous ticks (besides gynandromorphy) described to date are from species other than Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae). Here we describe four teratological I. scapularis nymphs collected while dragging vegetation in Wisconsin in 2015, including two asymmetrical ticks, one with a missing leg, and one with an extra leg. PMID:26681790

  9. Le chant du monde

    OpenAIRE

    Roger, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Jean Grémillon emploie la voix dans ses films de manière très différente de ses collègues. C’est l’ensemble du sonore – bruits, voix et musique – qu’il imagine de façon originale. Son traitement s’inscrit dans une vision du monde : Grémillon conçoit le cinématographe comme un biographe, une écriture de la vie. Cette vie est comprise sur deux plans : celui de l’homme et celui de l’univers. La voix selon Grémillon serait le reflet dans l’homme d’un macrocosme perçu comme énigme (le bruit) ou ré...

  10. A Quantitative Comparison of Chrysanthine Theory and Performance Practice of Scale Tuning, Steps, and Prominence of the Octoechos in Byzantine Chant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panteli, Maria; Purwins, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    degrees are mapped to the empirical ones. 6) A schema of statistical tests detects significant deviations of theoretical scale tuning and steps from the estimated ones in performance practice. 7) The ranked histogram peak amplitudes are compared to the theoretic prominence of particular scale degrees......Byzantine Chant performance practice is computationally compared to the Chrysanthine theory of the eight Byzantine Tones (octoechos). Intonation, steps, and prominence of scale degrees are quantified, based on pitch class profiles. The novel procedure introduced here comprises the following...... analysis steps: 1) The pitch trajectory is extracted and post processed with music-specific filters. 2) Pitch class histograms are calculated by kernel smoothing. 3) Histogram peaks are detected. 4) Phrase ending analysis aids the finding of the tonic to align pitch histograms. 5) The theoretical scale...

  11. Mites and ticks (Acari. Chapter 7.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Navajas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The inventory of the alien Acari of Europe includes 96 species alien to Europe and 5 cryptogenic species. Among the alien species, 87 are mites and 9 tick species. Besides ticks which are obligate ectoparasites, 14 mite species belong to the parasitic/predator regime. Among these species, some invaded Europe with rodents (8 spp. and others are parasitic to birds (2 spp. The remaining 77 mite species are all phytophagous and among these 40% belong to the Eriophyidae (37 spp. and 29% to the Tetranychidae (27 spp. families. These two families include the most significant agricultural pest. The rate of introductions has exponentially increased within the 20th century, the amplification of plant trade and agricultural commodities movements being the major invasion pathways. Most of the alien mite species (52% are from North America, Asia (25%, and Central and South America (10%. Half of the ticks (4 spp. alien to Europe originated from Africa. Most of the mite species are inconspicuous and data regarding invasive species and distribution range is only partially available. More research is needed for a better understanding of the ecological and economic effects of introduced Acari.

  12. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-11-19

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided.

  13. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives. PMID:27775606

  14. Phytocystatins: Defense Proteins against Phytophagous Insects and Acari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martinez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-Song; Jin, Peng-Yu; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a typical circular DNA with length of 13,089 bp (GenBank accession number: KM111296). The genome contains all 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), an A + T-rich region, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes. The A + T content of the mitochondrial genome is 84.5%. The AT-skew is positive (0.032) while the GC-skew is negative (-0.058). The gene arrangement is conserved in T. urticae, Panonychus citri and P. ulmi which are in the same family (Tetranychidae). The A + T-rich region is only 43 bp in length with high A + T content (97.7%). All the PCGs start with typical ATD codons. Eight PCGs have complete TAA stop codons, while five PCGs have an incomplete stop codon (T). PMID:25162745

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi (Arthropoda: Arachnida) provides insights into Acari phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Liu, Tian-Yu; Yang, Guang-You; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited available sequence information has greatly impeded population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics studies in the subclass Acari (mites and ticks). Mitochondrial (mt) DNA is well known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mt genomic data have been lacking for many Acari species. Herein, we present the complete mt genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Methods P. cuniculi was collected from a naturally infected New Zealand white ...

  17. The Poetic Creation of Historical Culture——On the Aesthetic Achievements of Chanting in My Study Yuanzhai%历史的诗意抒写

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    轩小杨

    2011-01-01

    捧读仲元先生的《缘斋吟稿》,一曲《辽海行吟》咏罢,一种别样的诗情与诗韵随之荡漾开来,有一份厚重的历史感如鸣钟般在心头回响,余音不绝。%The classical poem collection Chanting in My Study Yuanzhai by Mr.Li Zhongyuan portrays historical figures,writes about scenic spots and appreciates famous works with the blending feelings of both a historian and a poet.The poet presents free thoughts and feelings in the historical contexts,making the historical facts affective,scenery imagic,and poetry accords with the rules of classical poems,and the book gets wide praises after its publication.Therefore,our magazine solicits contributions from 8 authors,elaborates the aesthetic connotations and the artistic characteristics of the poem collection so as to advance and revitalize the rules and laws of classical poems belonging to the glorious Chinese literature for further promotion and development.

  18. Recovery of some of the missing wrappers of Berlese's Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1986-01-01

    Reproductions are given of the original wrappers of A. Berlese's Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones, fasc. II, IV, VI, VII and XIV. These wrappers (on some of which the first descriptions of new species are published) could not be included in the 1979 reprint edition of the work, as no extant copies of

  19. A new pomegranate pest for Turkey; Pomegranate false spidermite, Tenuipalpus punicae Pirtchard and Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    OpenAIRE

    DÖKER, İsmail; KAZAK, Cengiz; KARUT, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the pomegranate false spider mite Tenuipalpus punicae Pirtchard and Baker (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) collected from pomegranate growing areas of Adana province is determined for the first record for Turkish mite fauna. Some information related to world distribution, damage, biology and control of this pest are presented in the paper.

  20. Primeiro registro de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae em mudas de teca no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae (Kock, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae foi relatado e suas injúrias caracterizadas pela primeira vez em viveiro de produção mudas de teca (Tectona grandis no Brasil.

  1. Stigmaeus ceylani, a new species of the genus Stigmaeus Koch (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uluçay, İsmail

    2015-01-01

    In this study a new species of Stigmaeus Koch (Acari: Stigmaeidae), Stigmaeus ceylani sp. nov., is described and illustrated. Specimens have been collected from the soil and litter under Punica granatum, 2014, İskenderun, Hatay, Turkey. Besides, the male, female, deutonymph, protonymph and larva of the species are illustrated in this article.  

  2. Sexual selection and mating behavior in spider mites of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2014-01-01

    As sexual selection is a coevolutionary process between males and females, various morphological and behavioral traits have evolved in each sex. In the tetranychid mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and T. kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), males can mate repeatedly, whereas females normally accep

  3. Investigations of Gamasina mites in natural and man-affected soils in Latvia (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmane, I.

    2003-01-01

    Investigations of Gamasina mites in natural and man-affected soils in Latvia (Acari: Mesostigmata) A short overview is presented on Gamasina material collected in 22 natural and man-disturbed habitats in Latvia. Species diversity, average density and species dominance were investigated. Altogether 1

  4. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from bar

  5. Evaluation of four bed bug traps for surveillances of brown dog ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...

  6. Garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae) asociadas a perros en diferentes ambientes de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of dogs in different environments of the Corrientes Province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    V.N. Debárbora; E.B. Oscherov; A.A. Guglielmone; Nava, S.

    2011-01-01

    Se estudiaron las garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae) de perros en ambientes urbanos, periurbanos y rurales de la provincia de Corrientes por medio de colecciones mensuales durante un año en siete sitios diferentes. De los 138 perros examinados, en 87 (63,04%) se determinaron tres especies de garrapatas: Amblyomma tigrinum (n=35), Amblyomma ovale (n=2) y Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=523). Las mayores prevalencias para A. tigrinum y R. sanguineus s.l. fueron halladas en ambientes rurales. E...

  7. Analysis of Chanting Application in Vocational Chinese Contemporary Poetry Teaching%浅析诵读法在中职语文现当代诗歌教学中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳

    2015-01-01

    As a compulsory public basic course ,Chinese course plays an important role in human‐istic cultivation and literacy improvement in secondary vocational schools ,and in which poetry educa‐tion assumes the most significant function in competence -oriented education .Starting with analyzing the current status of contemporary poetry teaching ,this paper interpretates the chanting status in con‐temporary poetry teaching ,and analyzes the applying skills and function of chanting in contemporary poetry teaching by combining vocational Chinese teaching practice . Chanting could help students to change the boring formal written language into verbal language ,thus the essence of contemporary poetry could be better appreciated .%作为一门必修公共基础课,语文课程在中等职业学校承担着重要的人文培育与素养提高的意义,而诗歌教学在其中承担着最为显著的素质教育功能。文章从分析现当代诗歌的教学现状入手,解读诵读法在现当代诗歌教学中的地位,并结合中职语文教学实践,剖析了诵读法在现当代诗歌教学中的运动技巧及作用。诵读能够帮助学生把枯燥的书面语言转化成有声语言,进而领略现当代诗歌文学的精华风采。

  8. Molecular analysis of Boophilus spp. (Acari: Ixodidae) tick strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, J; García-García, J C; González, D M; Izquierdo, G; Ochagavia, M E

    2000-10-01

    Boophilus spp. (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitize cattle and other farm and wild animals in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Ticks belonging to the genus Boophilus have undergone evolutionary processes associated with habitat adaptation following biogeographical separation, resulting in strains with marked morphological differences. We have characterized at the molecular level B. microplus strains from Latin America and Australia, employing sequences derived from the bm86 coding region, an intron located within the bm86 gene, and DNA short tandem repeats (STR). A B. annulatus strain was employed for comparison. The results indicated that variation within the bm86 coding region is higher between B. microplus strains than between some B. microplus strains and B. annulatus. The sequence of the intron was not informative for phylogenetic analysis, varying among individuals of the same strain. Two STRs were identified in B. microplus (STRs BmM1 and BmM2) and one in B. annulatus (STR Ba1). Southern hybridization experiments with STRs BmM1 and BmM2 as a probe revealed the prevalence of dispersed moderately repeated DNA in the genome of B. microplus. The analysis of polymorphism at STR locus BmM1 evidenced differences within and between populations of B. microplus. These results support at the molecular level the existing differences between B. microplus strains and suggest tools to characterize these populations. PMID:10962158

  9. A large parasitengonid mite (Acari, Erythraeoidea from the Early Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A new large, fossil mite (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., is described from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian Crato Formation from Ceará State, Brazil. It is assigned to the Cohort Parasitengona and the superfamily Erythraeoidea, some extant members of which can reach up to seven millimetres in body length. Given that doubts have been raised about the identity of putative Crato feather mite eggs, this new fossil represents the first unequivocal record of Acari from the Crato Formation, the first non-amber record of an erythraeoid mite and the oldest named example of this superfamily. Fossil erythraeoids from Mesozoic and Tertiary ambers are briefly reviewed – including a widely overlooked Late Cretaceous species – with comments on Mesozoic mites in general. Thirteen Baltic amber erythraeoids have been formally described, but much unstudied material from various amber sources remains. Ein neues großes Milbenfossil (Arachnida: Acari, Pararainbowia martilli n. gen. n. sp., wird aus der Crato Formation (Unterkreide, Aptium des Ceará Gebietes in Brasilien beschrieben. Es wird der Kohorte Parasitengona und der Überfamilie Erythraeoidea zugeordnet; die modernen Vertreter erreichen eine Körperlänge bis zu sieben mm. Weil die Identität von Federmilbeneiern aus der Crato Formation in Frage gestellt wurde, ist dieser Neufund der erste klare Hinweis von Acari aus der Crato Formation. Es ist die erste erythraeoide Milbe, die nicht aus dem Bernstein stammt sowie das älteste genannte Beispiel dieser Überfamilie. Fossile erythraeoide Milben aus dem Bernstein des Mesozoikum und des Tertiärs werden kurz zusammengefasst – u. a. eine weitgehend übersehene Art aus der Oberkreide – mit allgemeinen Anmerkungen zu den mesozoischen Milben. Dreizehn erythraeoide Milbenarten sind aus dem baltischen Bernstein genannt und beschrieben worden, aber weiteres unbearbeitetes Material von verschiedenen Bernstein-Fundpunkten liegt noch vor

  10. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    OpenAIRE

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from bark and under the ‘loose’ bark fragments at a height of 160-175 cm from the ground. Algae, mosses and fungi are important resources for the corticolous fauna. Crevices in the tree trunk and loose bar...

  11. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (ACARI: IXODIDAE) BITING A HUMAN BEING IN PORTOALEGRE CITY, RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329

  12. Development and reproduction of spider mites Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae) under water deficit condition in soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Ivelina Nikolova; Natalia Georgieva; Jordanka Naydenova

    2014-01-01

    One of the major pests of soybeans in Bulgaria is the spider mite Tetranychus turkestani Ug et Nik (Acari: Tetranychidae) and different results have been reported about the impact of water stress on its development and reproduction. Soybean plants exposed to natural infestation by spider mites, water deficit and treatment with imidacloprid were examined under greenhouse conditions at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria, over the period 2011-2012...

  13. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani-Samani Amir; Madreseh-Ghahfarokhi Samin; Dehghani-Samani Azam; Pirali-Kheirabadi Khodadad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Mesostigmata) is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobac...

  14. Description of a new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Zarir; Nemati, Alireza; Khalili-Moghadam, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae), Gaeolaelaps izajiensis sp. n. is described based on the morphological characters of adult females which were collected from soil sample in the Izeh and Ghaletol regions of the Khuzestan province, Iran. It can be distinguished from the other members of the genus by some morphological characteristics of dorsal shield, form and reticulation of epigynal shield, the exopodal plates, and the peritremes. PMID:27667922

  15. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pesic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae): high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Dou Wei; Wang Bao-Jun; Wei Dan-Dan; Yuan Ming-Long; Wang Jin-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mit...

  17. Development of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on pollen or mite diets and predation on Aculops pelekassi (Keifer) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Raul T; Childers, Carl C

    2007-02-01

    Development and reproduction of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) were evaluated on single food diets of pollen (Malephora crocea Jacquin [ice plant] or Quercus sp. [oak]), spider mites, [Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) or Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae)], or the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber at 28 degrees +/- 1 degrees C, 14:10 (L:D) daylength, and 45% RH. I. quadripilis completed development and laid viable eggs that subsequently hatched on diets of either ice plant or oak pollen or eggs and motile stages of E. banksi. P. citri was acceptable as prey, but survival of larvae to adults was only 36%, whereas survival on E. banksi, ice plant pollen, and oak pollen was 48, 60, and 68%, respectively. The webbing produced by P. citri seemed to inhibit foraging behavior of I. quadripilis larvae and nymphs. Larvae of I. quadripilis developed only to the second nymphal instar on a diet of P. oleivora alone or water alone. Starved I. quadripilis females and deutonymphs were observed preying on the pink citrus rust mite, Aculops pelekassi (Keifer) (Eriophyidae). During 4-min observation trials, two series of I. quadripilis fed on 1.8 +/- 0.47 and 3.5 +/- 0.45 A. pelekassi motile stages after being starved for 6 and 24 h, respectively. I. quadripilis females did not prey on P. oleivora in arenas containing both rust mite species. PMID:17349110

  18. Des voix des aïeules à Sylvie Vartan : paroles et chants de femmes dans l’Afrique contemporaine dans La mémoire amputée de Werewere Liking

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    La connivence entre la femme et la parole a toujours été reconnue, et l’écriture féminine paraît également marquée par une grande présence de l’oralité. Dans le roman, le discours prime souvent sur le récit, et l’abondance des dialogues instaure également une interaction avec le lecteur, finalisée à un changement des mentalités. Werewere Liking, artiste polyvalente, enrichit ces mécanismes, et les acquis du féminisme, en les inscrivant dans une tradition multiséculaire. Elle crée des chants-r...

  19. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1

  20. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  1. A novel disease affecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae): evidence for the involvement of bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütte, C.; Poitevin, O.J.L.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of a laboratory population show drastic changes in foraging behavior, anatomy and life history compared to typical laboratory populations. We demonstrated earlier that the set of characteristic symptoms, called non-responding

  2. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  3. Two new Meitingsunes species (Acari: Syringophilidae) from Indonesian doves (Columbiformes: Columbidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszewska, Katarzyna; Skoracki, Maciej; Kavetska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We describe two new quill mite species of the genus Meitingsunes Glowska and Skoracki, 2010 (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) parasitizing columbiform birds (Columbiformes: Columbidae): M. chalcophaps sp. nov. collected from the Emerald Dove, Chalcophaps indica (Linnaeus) and M. turacoenas sp. nov. from the White-faced Cuckoo Dove, Turacoena manadensis (Quoy and Gaimard) (type host) and the Black Cuckoo-Dove, Turacoena modesta (Temminck). All host species were collected in Indonesia. These represent two new genus-level host records for Meitingsunes. In addition, we summarize the diversity of Meitingsunes and present a key to species in this genus. PMID:27394880

  4. A rare finding of mites (Arachnida: Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) parasitising a whip spider (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A

    2014-04-01

    Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.

  5. New species, new records and re-description of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from Karnataka state, south India. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from India and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from India viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively. PMID:27394311

  6. L’apport d’exercices en voix chantée pour la correction phonétique en langue étrangère : le cas du français langue étrangère appliqué à des apprenants italiens d’âge adulte

    OpenAIRE

    CORNAZ, Sandra; Henrich, Nathalie; Vallée, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Divers travaux ont établi que la musique favorise le processus acquisitionnel. En didactique des langues, le rôle positif de la chanson sur la perception des éléments prosodiques est bien connu et il a d’ailleurs été récemment montré que la reconnaissance syllabique d’une langue étrangère est facilitée par le chant. Des investigations de terrain menées en 2006 à l’Université Stendhal de Grenoble ont révélé l’efficacité de la voix chantée pour la correction phonético-phonologique du français l...

  7. The interaction of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with Cry protein production and predation by Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) in Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shi, Wang-Peng; Dong, Xue-Hui; Romeis, Jörg; Naranjo, Steven E; Hellmich, Richard L; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-02-01

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control services, are required to be addressed in an environmental risk assessment. Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a cosmopolitan predator of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), a significant pest of cotton and maize. Tri-trophic studies were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize on life history parameters (survival rate, development time, fecundity and egg hatching rate) of A. andersoni. We confirmed that these Bt crops have no effects on the biology of T. urticae and, in turn, that there were no differences in any of the life history parameters of A. andersoni when it fed on T. urticae feeding on Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab or non-Bt cotton and Cry1F or non-Bt maize. Use of a susceptible insect assay demonstrated that T. urticae contained biologically active Cry proteins. Cry proteins concentrations declined greatly as they moved from plants to herbivores to predators and protein concentration did not appear to be related to mite density. Free-choice experiments revealed that A. andersoni had no preference for Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton or Cry1F maize-reared T. urticae compared with those reared on non-Bt cotton or maize. Collectively these results provide strong evidence that these crops can complement other integrated pest management tactics including biological control.

  8. Canto Gregoriano: redutor de ansiedade de mães com filhos hospitalizados El Canto Gregoriano: reductor de la ansiedad de madres con hijos hospitalizados Gregorian chant: reducing anxiety of mothers with hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a presença de alteração do estado de ansiedade das mães de crianças hospitalizadas com a audição de canto Gregoriano. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa descritiva, exploratória, correlacional com análise quantitativa, quase experimental. A coleta dos dados foi realizada no período de julho de 2009 a fevereiro de 2010. A amostra inicial foi de 71 mães e destas 28 concluíram todas as etapas da pesquisa. RESULTADOS: O uso do canto Gregoriano diminuiu o estado de ansiedade das mães de crianças hospitalizadas em um hospital pediátrico de atenção quaternária acomodadas em quartos individuais. CONCLUSÃO: É necessário investigar os possíveis efeitos do canto Gregoriano em outros ambientes do hospital e em outras formas de acomodação do cliente.OBJETIVO: Verificar la presencia de alteración del estado de ansiedad de las madres de niños hospitalizados con la audición del canto Gregoriano. MÉTODOS: Investigación descriptiva, exploratoria, correlacional con análisis cuantitativa, cuasi experimental. La recolección de los datos se realizó en el período de julio del 2009 a febrero del 2010. La muestra inicial fue de 71 madres y de éstas 28 concluyeron todas las etapas de la investigación. RESULTADOS: El uso del canto Gregoriano disminuyó el estado de ansiedad de las madres de niños hospitalizados en un hospital pediátrico de atención cuaternaria ubicados en cuartos individuales. CONCLUSIÓN: Es necesario investigar los posibles efectos del canto Gregoriano en otros ambientes del hospital y en otras formas de acomodación del cliente.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Gregorian chant changes the state of anxiety of mothers with hospitalized children. METHODS: This study was descriptive, exploratory, and correlational with quasi-experimental, quantitative analysis. Data collection was completed during the period of July 2009 to February 2010. RESULTS: Seventy-one mothers were investigated, with 28 mothers meeting all of

  9. La moisson des Argonautiques et la poétique d’Apollonios dans le chant III Harvesting in Argonautica and Apollonios' poetics in book III La mietitura delle Argonautiche e la poetica di Apollonio nel canto III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Létoublon

    2013-05-01

    to correspond to no Homeric scheme, as if narrating this untold ordeal had the result of freeing Apollonius more and more from his dependance to Homer.Un examen détaillé des comparaisons du chant III des Argonautiques par rapport aux comparaisons homériques montre qu’Apollonios s’inspire très fortement de ses modèles, dans la forme et dans le lexique en particulier. La plupart du temps pourtant, il détourne les comparaisons homériques de leur contexte d’origine pour les remodeler à son dessein personnel. Dans la première partie du chant III, les comparaisons servent une volonté commune de montrer les troubles que l’amour apporte dans l’âme et le comportement de Médée. Dans la seconde, les épreuves de Jason donnent lieu de manière surprenante à des images guerrières pour décrire les préparatifs, mais ensuite, Apollonios a recours à un registre artisanal et agricole pour évoquer des tâches qui effectivement consistent en un attelage, un labour, un semis et une moisson. Le plus remarquable est que plusieurs comparaisons groupées vers la fin du chant ne semblent répondre à aucun modèle homérique, comme si le récit de cette épreuve inédite avait peu à peu libéré Apollonios de sa dépendance par rapport à Homère.

  10. Phytoseiid mites of the Canary Islands (Acari, Phytoseiidae. II. Tenerife and La Gomera Islands

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    Ferragut, F.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiid mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae inhabiting plants in natural ecosystems from Tenerife and La Gomera islands (Canary Islands have been studied. Surveys were conducted from 1997 to 2002. Eleven species were collected, one of them being reported for the first time from the Canary Islands and six of them reported for the first time from Tenerife and La Gomera islands. Euseius machadoi n. sp. collected from woody plants in the Canarian laurisilva is proposed as a new species.

    En muestreos realizados desde 1997 hasta 2002 se ha estudiado la fauna de ácaros fitoseidos (Acari, Phytoseiidae asociada a plantas de ecosistemas naturales de las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera (Islas Canarias. Se han recolectado un total de 11 especies, siendo una de ellas citada por vez primera en las islas Canarias y seis de ellas citadas por primera vez en las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera. Euseius machadoi n. sp., recolectado en plantas leñosas de la laurisilva canaria, se propone como una nueva especie.

  11. Pyrethroid resistance in Phytoseiulus macropilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae): cross-resistance, stability and effect of synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Cristina Vitelli; Sato, Mario Eidi

    2016-01-01

    Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective predator of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). The objectives of this research were to study the stability of fenpropathrin resistance and the cross-resistance relationships with different pyrethroids, and also to evaluate the effect of synergists [piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF)] on fenpropathrin resistant and susceptible strains of this predaceous mite. The stability of fenpropathrin resistance was studied under laboratory conditions, using P. macropilis populations with initial frequencies of 75 and 50% of resistant mites. The percentages of fenpropathrin resistant mites were evaluated monthly for a period of up to 12 months. A trend toward decreased resistance frequencies was observed only during the first 3-4 months. After this initial decrease, the fenpropathrin resistance was shown to be stable, maintaining constant resistance frequencies (around 30%) until the end of the evaluation period. Toxicity tests carried out using fenpropathrin resistant and susceptible strains of P. macropilis indicated strong positive cross-resistance between fenpropathrin and the pyrethroids bifenthrin and deltamethrin. Bioassays with the synergists DEM, DEF and PBO were also performed. The maximum synergism ratio (SR = LC50 without synergist/LC50 with synergist) detected for the three evaluated synergists (PBO, DEM, DEF) was 5.86 (for DEF), indicating low influence of enzyme detoxification processes in fenpropathrin resistance. PMID:26530989

  12. Beklemishevia hispaniola n. sp., nuevo representante de la Cohorte Palaeosomata (Acari, Oribatei en España

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    Pérez-Iñigo, C.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of oribatid mite (Acari, Oribatei belonging to the family Ctenacaridae (Cohors Palaeosomata is described; this species was recorded several times in Spain as Beklemishevia galeodula Zachvatkin, 1945. The new species is easily distinguishable from the mentioned one because of the presence of three claws in every leg, a noticeable pigidial neotrichy and the absence of short, almost spiniform, setae on the pygidium.Se describe una nueva especie de oribátido (Acari, Oribatei perteneciente a la familia Ctenacaridae (Cohorte Palaeosomata que habia sido citada varias veces en España como Beklemishevia galeodula Zachvatkin, 1945, y de la que se diferencia por presentar tres uñas en todas las patas, una acentuada neotriquia pigidial y carecer de setas cortas espiniformes en el pigidio.

  13. A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-04-29

    A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.

  14. A review of Amblypalpus and Priscapalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae), including two new species of Amblypalpus from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Sadegh; Asadi, Mahdieh; Ueckermann, Edward A; Seeman, Owen D; Beard, Jennifer J

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Amblypalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) are described from Iran: Amblypalpus iraniensis sp. nov., from Wild Almond, Amygdalus scoparia (Rosaceae), and Amblypalpus thymus sp. nov., from Common Thyme, Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae). The new species are classified tentatively in Amblypalpus. The species Priscapalpus thomissus Meyer, 1979 is transferred to Amblypalpus and the genus concept of Priscapalpus is narrowed and therefore redefined. Similarly, we present an expanded concept of Amblypalpus. A key to brevipalpine genera and Amblypalpus species is provided. PMID:26106764

  15. The Poetic Creation of Historical Culture——On the Aesthetic Achievements of Chanting in My Study Yuanzhai%对主体情思的审美解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎丽杰

    2011-01-01

    The classical poem collection Chanting in My Study Yuanzhai by Mr.Li Zhongyuan portrays historical figures,writes about scenic spots and appreciates famous works with the blending feelings of both a historian and a poet.The poet presents free thoughts and feelings in the historical contexts,making the historical facts affective,scenery imagic,and poetry accords with the rules of classical poems,and the book gets wide praises after its publication.Therefore,our magazine solicits contributions from 8 authors,elaborates the aesthetic connotations and the artistic characteristics of the poem collection so as to advance and revitalize the rules and laws of classical poems belonging to the glorious Chinese literature for further promotion and development.%李仲元先生的《缘斋吟稿》以学识与情思赋予文本以丰富的历史文化意蕴,使人在欣赏美的诗文的同时,获得美的认知,美的享受,美的熏陶。

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae: high genome rearrangement and extremely truncated tRNAs

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    Dou Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks. Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae, a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs, a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%, which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03. The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp, lacking

  17. Garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae asociadas a perros en diferentes ambientes de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of dogs in different environments of the Corrientes Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Debárbora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae de perros en ambientes urbanos, periurbanos y rurales de la provincia de Corrientes por medio de colecciones mensuales durante un año en siete sitios diferentes. De los 138 perros examinados, en 87 (63,04% se determinaron tres especies de garrapatas: Amblyomma tigrinum (n=35, Amblyomma ovale (n=2 y Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=523. Las mayores prevalencias para A. tigrinum y R. sanguineus s.l. fueron halladas en ambientes rurales. Especímenes de R. sanguineus s.l. fueron detectados a lo largo de todo el año, con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano, A. tigrinum fue encontrada en otoño, invierno y primavera con un pico en esta última estación, mientras que A. ovale fue colectada sólo en primavera. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. y A. tigrinum fueron halladas en todos los ambientes muestreados, pero el primer taxón fue siempre el más abundante. Teniendo en cuenta que las especies del complejo R. sanguineus son potenciales vectores de microorganismos patógenos para los perros y humanos, y debido a la alta prevalencia registrada en este estudio, queda en evidencia la relevancia de aplicar métodos para su control en las áreas incluidas en este estudio.Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of dogs in urban, peri-urban and rural areas from the Corrientes Province, Argentina, were studied. They were monthly collected during one year at 7 different sites. A total of 138 dogs were examined, and 87 (63.04% of them were infested; and three species were determined: Amblyomma tigrinum (n=35, Amblyomma ovale (n=2 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=523. Both A. tigrinum and R. sanguineus s.l. had the highest prevalence in rural areas. Specimens of R. sanguineus s.l. were collected in the four seasons, but the peaks of abundance were detected in spring and summer. Amblyomma tigrinum was found in autumn, winter and spring, with the peak of abundance in spring, and the two specimens of A. ovale were

  18. A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed.

  19. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra

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    Sandro Marques

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-preguiça" (sloth's giant tick is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae, Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae. Based on the material examined, the states of Rondônia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  20. Description of a new species of bat-associated argasid tick (Acari: Argasidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Venzal, José M; Bernardi, Leopoldo F O; Ferreira, Rodrigo L; Onofrio, Valéria C; Marcili, Arlei; Bermúdez, Sergio E; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2012-02-01

    A new species of argasid tick (Acari: Argasidae) is described from immature and adult specimens collected from several localities in Brazil. A complete morphological account is provided for all postembryonic life stages, i.e., larva, nymph, female, and male. Ornithodoros cavernicolous n. sp. is the 113(th) in the genus. Morphologically, the new species shares common features, e.g., presence of well-developed cheeks and legs with micromammillate cuticle, with other bat-associated argasid ticks included in the subgenus Alectorobius. In particular, the new species is morphologically related to Ornithodoros azteci Matheson, with which it forms a species group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences supports the placement of the new species within a large clade that includes other New World bat-associated argasids. However, the new species seems to represent an independent lineage within the genus Ornithodoros. PMID:21955330

  1. Arthropod colonization of land--linking molecules and fossils in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ina; Norton, Roy A; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2010-10-01

    Terrestrial fossils that document the early colonization of land are scarce for >100 my after the Cambrian explosion. This raises the question whether life on land did not exist or just did not fossilize. With a molecular dating technique, we analyzed the origin of terrestrial chelicerate microarthropods (Acari, Oribatida) which have a fossil record since the Middle Devonian that is exceptional among soil animals. Our results suggest that oribatid mites originated in the Precambrian (571+/-37 mya) and that the radiation of basal groups coincides with the gap in the terrestrial fossil record between the Cambrian explosion and the earliest fossilized records of continental ecosystems. Further, they suggest that the colonization of land started via the interstitial, approximately 150 my earlier than the oldest fossils of terrestrial ecosystems. Overall, the results imply that omnivorous and detritivorous arthropods formed a major component in early terrestrial food webs, thereby facilitating the invasion of terrestrial habitats by later colonizers of higher trophic levels. PMID:20420932

  2. Benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari extracts in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma

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    Olimpio Rodríguez-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The records of patients from the Allergology Service in the Previsora Policlinic, Camagüey were revised to evaluate benefits and risks of the subcutaneous immunotherapy (ITSC with extracts of acari. The study was observational, analytic and retrospective of cases and controls in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma. A total of 160 subjects, older than 18 years old, were chosen. Eighty out of them had already received ITSC with dose increase during 13 weeks and maintenance with monthly injections during 18 months. A total of 80 patients who only received prevention measures and medications during the crises were paired. Questionnaires were applied for quality of rhinoconjunctivitis life and asthma, about the consumption of medications and the frequency of the crises. The adverse events were measured, as they were local and systemic to the cutaneous tests, to the ITSC and the different pharmacological treatments. There was a significant increase of the punctuation of life quality questionnaires, (p=0.011. The consumption of medications decreased in both the cases and the controls, without significant differences (p=0.083. The frequency of the rhinitis and asthma crises decrease in the group of ITSC (p=0.029. Slight local and systemic reactions were reported in both groups with Odds ratio (OR=2.029 in the ITSC group, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.114–3.967 (p=0.019. The results show that the subcutaneous immunotherapy with acari offers benefits and few risks to patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma.

  3. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

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    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre a fauna de ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae em ambientes naturais brasileiros adjacentes a agroecossistemas cafeeiros (Coffea spp. ou sobre a influência que essa vegetação exerce como reservatório de ácaros predadores. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade destes organismos em cafeeiros e fragmentos florestais adjacentes. Coletaram-se amostras das espécies Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart. (Rutaceae, Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae e Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae, em oito fragmentos florestais, de 5 a 51 ha, e cafezais adjacentes, nos meses de junho (final período chuvoso e outubro (final período seco nos anos 2004 e 2005, na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Ácaros foram extraídos das folhas, utilizando o método de lavagem e, em seguida, montados em lâminas de microscopia em meio de Hoyer, para identificação específica. No total foram identificados 2.348 fitoseídeos, sendo 2.090 nos fragmentos florestais e 258 espécimes nos cafezais adjacentes, pertencentes a 38 espécies. Servindo-se de análise faunística, a espécie Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972 apresentou os melhores índices no agroecossistema cafeeiro, sendo muito frequente e constante nas épocas estudadas. Nos fragmentos florestais Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 e Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 foram dominantes, muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes nas épocas estudadas. Podemos concluir que a vegetação nativa abriga ácaros predadores, inimigos naturais de ácaros-praga, que ocorrem na cultura cafeeira, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo ecológico com áreas de vegetação natural e agroecossistemas cafeeiros adjacentes.There is little information about the fauna of predatory mites

  4. 古希腊的音乐神话传说及中世纪的"格里戈利圣咏"%The Greek Music Myths and the "Gregorian Chant" in Medieval Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智强

    2010-01-01

    西方文明的摇篮是古希腊文化.古希腊有关音乐的神话很多,在苏梅尔、巴比尔、埃及等古老地区发现的遗迹中有许多反映艺术繁荣、音乐昌盛的神话典故.不能说这些神话是无意义的无稽之谈.它至少可以说明古希腊人的音乐观是高尚而精深的,把音乐与大自然紧密地连在一起,把音乐与宗教,与人的意志--真善美连在了一起.古希腊音乐是以诗与乐,或诗、乐、舞三位一体为主的音乐艺术.其中,诗的地位在乐之上.罗马教皇--格里戈利一世,以非凡的组织才能重整各地宗教礼仪和机构,使罗马成为中世纪教会的中心,他主持制定的圣咏(Gregorian chant)成为中世纪音乐中一部经典性文献.格里戈利圣咏深深地扎根于人们的精神生活中,是宗教音乐的珍品.

  5. Two new families (Acari: Alicorhagiidae and Platyhelminthes: Prorhynchidae) reported for the Hungarian fauna From leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Pfliegler, W.P.; Bolton, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Two new members of the Hungarian fauna are reported, both of them were collected in beech forest leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains, North-East Hungary: Alicorhagia fragilis Berlese, 1910 (Arthropoda: Arachnida: Acari: Sarcopti-formes: Endeostigmata: Alicorhagiidae) and Geocentrophora baltica (Kennel, 1883) (Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora: Trepaxonemata: Amplimatricata: 'Lecithoepitheliata': Prorhynchida: Prorhynchidae). The families Alicorhagiidae and Prorhynchidae both represent...

  6. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  7. Progress in the complete mitochondrial genomes of the Acari%蜱螨线粒体基因组研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁明龙; 王进军

    2012-01-01

    Acari, including ticks and mites, is one of the most diverse group of arthropods. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress in the 28 sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes of acari species. These mitochondrial genomes have several marked features; (1) There is significant variation in the size of mitochondrial genomes among the 28 acari species, and the mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (13 077 bp) is the smallest among all sequenced arthropods; (2) The base composition of all acari mitochondrial genomes are biased toward A and T, with six species harboring reverse GC-skew values (positive value) ; (3) The base composition and the position, length, copy number of the A +T-rich regions vary greatly among the 28 acari species, of which four tetranychid species harbor the highest A +T content within acari and the shortest A +T-rich region (44-57 bp) among arthropods; (4) High gene rearrangements are found in acari mitochondrial genomes, especially in those of Acariformes, but the rearrangements are not correlated to high taxonomic ranks; (5) The tRNA genes in some species of Acariformes are extremely truncated, presenting atypical cloverleaf structures. We suggest that it is necessary to sequence more acari mitochondrial genomes aiming to investigate whether these tRNA genes lacking both D- and T-arms are functional or not, to analyze the molecular mechanisms of evolution in acari mitochondrial genomes, and to carry out the acari mitochondrial transcriptome studies.%蜱螨亚纲包括蜱类和螨类,是节肢动物中物种多样性最高的类群之一.本文综述了当前已测序的28种蜱螨线粒体基因组的研究成果.概括起来,蜱螨线粒体基因组具有以下特点:(1)大小变异显著,其中柑橘全爪螨Panonychus citri线粒体基因组在目前已测节肢动物中最小(13077 bp);(2)一般碱基组成偏向A和T,但6种蜱螨具有相反的GC-偏斜(正值);(3)基因组的碱基组成及A+T富集区的位置、长度和

  8. L’apport d’exercices en voix chantée pour la correction phonétique en langue étrangère : le cas du français langue étrangère appliqué à des apprenants italiens d’âge adulte Using singing exercises as a tool for improving phonetic correction in foreign language teaching and learning: the case of French as a foreign language for native adult speakers of Italian

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Vallée; Nathalie Henrich; Sandra Cornaz

    2012-01-01

    Divers travaux ont établi que la musique favorise le processus acquisitionnel. En didactique des langues, le rôle positif de la chanson sur la perception des éléments prosodiques est bien connu et il a d’ailleurs été récemment montré que la reconnaissance syllabique d’une langue étrangère est facilitée par le chant. Des investigations de terrain menées en 2006 à l’Université Stendhal de Grenoble ont révélé l’efficacité de la voix chantée pour la correction phonético-phonologique du français l...

  9. Primeiro registro de Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae em Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden no Brasil First record of Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae on Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Fagundes Pereira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a infestação de um ácaro-vermelho em mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, mantidas em casa de vegetação no município de Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais. O ácaro foi observado na parte superior das folhas que exibiam sinais de sucção de seiva e bronzeamento. Essas injúrias causaram desenvolvimento anormal e morte de plantas. O ácaro foi identificado como Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, e isso representa o primeiro registro dessa espécie em mudas clonais de E. grandis no Brasil.An infestation of the red spider mite was reported in clone seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden under greenhouse conditions, in the municipality of Martinho Campos, Minas Gerais State. The spider mite was found on the leaf upper faces with signs of sap suction and bronzing. Such injuries caused abnormal development and plant death. The spider mite was identified as Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. This is the first record of O. yothersi on E. grandis seedlings in Brazil.

  10. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

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    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  11. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

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    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of the mesofauna organisms was low, especially collembolan families.O impacto de quatro sistemas de cultivo sobre a fauna de solo foram estudados, utilizando-se como bioindicadores os acari Oribatida e Gamasida e os Collembola. A pesquisa foi conduzida em campos experimentais, localizados na EMBRAPA - CPAO no município de Dourados, MS, no período de julho de 1997 à dezembro de 1999. O sistema de pastagem contínua apresentou menor impacto sobre a fauna de solo seguido da rotação agricultura pecuária e do sistema de plantio direto. Nas sucessões do plantio convencional, a densidade populacional dos organismos da mesofauna foi baixa, em especial as famílias de colembolos.

  12. Deoxidant-induced anoxia as a physical measure for controlling spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Wang, Chih-Hung; Gotoh, Tetsuo; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    Tiny agricultural pests such as spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) attached to seedlings grown outdoors often invade greenhouses, thereby triggering pest outbreaks. To solve the problem, we examined whether differences in anoxia tolerance between animals and plants would permit the application of an anoxic environment to control spider mites without the aid of acaricides. Under an anoxic environment created by using a commercial deoxidant at 25 °C, the time for 50 % mortality of eggs, non-diapausing adults (summer form), and diapausing adults (winter form) were 6.1, 5.5, and 23.6 h, respectively, for Tetranychus urticae Koch and 5.4, 3.9, and 23.2 h, respectively, for Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. With anoxia for 12 h, no eggs and non-diapausing adults survived in either species, whereas most diapausing adults (98 % for T. urticae and 88 % for T. kanzawai) survived. Under this treatment, host Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings showed serious physiological disorders in their primary leaves and apical buds, and unusual lateral buds developed in the cotyledon axils. The spider mites acquire anoxia tolerance during diapause, but anoxia can potentially control them during the summer if no negative effects are observed in the treated seedlings.

  13. Development and reproduction of spider mites Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae under water deficit condition in soybeans

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    Ivelina Nikolova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the major pests of soybeans in Bulgaria is the spider mite Tetranychus turkestani Ug et Nik (Acari: Tetranychidae and different results have been reported about the impact of water stress on its development and reproduction. Soybean plants exposed to natural infestation by spider mites, water deficit and treatment with imidacloprid were examined under greenhouse conditions at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria, over the period 2011-2012. The development of mites and their eggs was faster when plants were exposed to water deficit, which created favorable conditions for high density and reproduction of T. turkestani. There was a vertical distribution of protonymphs, deutonymphs and adults as their numbers and egg counts were significantly higher under conditions of water deficit on the upper and middle plant parts, compared with their bottom parts, and imidacloprid treatment had a stronger and more prolonged activity against mites, compared to its influence on well-watered plants. Spider mites on water-stressed plants caused a 24.8% reduction in the contents of plastid pigments, and carotenoids, and 21.5% decrease on well-watered plants.

  14. Practical sampling plans for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies and apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M

    2010-08-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.

  15. Comparing oxalic acid and sucrocide treatments for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) control under desert conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammataro, D; Finley, J; Underwood, R

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of oxalic acid (OA) and Sucrocide (S) (AVA Chemical Ventures, L.L.C., Portsmouth, NH) in reducing populations of the varroa mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was measured under the desert conditions of Arizona, USA. OA and S were applied three times 7 d apart. A 3.2% solution of OA was applied in sugar syrup via a large volume syringe, trickling 5 ml per space between frames in the colony. S was applied at a concentration of 0.625% (mixed with water), according to the label directions, using a compressed air Chapin sprayer at 20 psi to apply 59 ml per frame space. Varroa mites, collected on a sticky board before, during, and after the treatments, were counted to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. This study showed that a desert climate zone did not confer any positive or negative results on the acaricidal properties of OA. Even with brood present in colonies, significant varroa mite mortality occurred in the OA colonies. In contrast, we found that Sucrocide was not effective as a mite control technique. Despite its ability to increase mite mortality in the short-term, varroa mite populations measured posttreatment were not affected any more by Sucrocide than by no treatment at all.

  16. Distribution of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) within Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nests: implications for population management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Matthew I; Park, Yong-Lak

    2013-06-01

    Chaetodactylus krombeini (Baker) (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) is a cleptoparasitic mite that negatively affects propagation of Osmia spp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for orchard pollination in the USA. This study was conducted to determine the effect of C. krombeini on mortality of male and female Osmia cornifrons, the Japanese hornfaced bee. A total of 107 O. cornifrons nests were examined to determine within-nest distribution of C. krombeini with regression analyses. A total of 30 mite-free O. cornifrons nests were observed and within-nest distribution of male and female O. cornifrons was determined with non-linear regression analyses. In addition, cocoons from 20 mite-infested O. cornifrons cells were examined to determine whether C. krombeini could be found inside cocoons of O. cornifrons. The results of this study showed that female O. cornifrons and C. krombeini were found more frequently in the inner part of the nest, and male O. cornifrons were found mostly in the center of the nest. No C. krombeini were found inside O. cornifrons cocoons. These results indicate that C. krombeini have a greater negative impact on mortality in the egg and larval stages of female O. cornifrons than in male O. cornifrons. Implications for management of C. krombeini and O. cornifrons populations for orchard pollination are discussed in this article. PMID:23100109

  17. Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis.

  18. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting birds in an Atlantic rain forest region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Pacheco, Richard C; Uezu, Alexandre; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-09-01

    Brazil has the third richest bird diversity of the world; however, there are few data concerning ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parazitizing birds. The aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds from an Atlantic rain forest region of Brazil. During 2 yr, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in 12 forest sites. A total of 1,725 birds were captured representing 80 species from 24 families. In total, 223 (13%) birds were found infested by immature stages of Amblyomma ticks: 1,800 larvae and 539 nymphs. The prevalence of ticks was higher among birds from the families Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, and Momotidae. The most common tick parasitizing birds was Amblyomma nodosum Koch. Other tick species, Amblyomma coelebs Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense (F.), Amblyomma ovale Koch, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, and Amblyomma naponense (Packard), were found sporadically. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense was the most common, followed by A. coelebs, A. naponense, Amblyomma brasilense Aragão, and Hemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley. PMID:19769058

  19. Historical review of the genus Dermanyssus Dugès, 1834 (Acari: Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae

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    Roy L.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic review of the historical systematics of Dermanyssus Dugès, 1834 (Acari: Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae is provided. The classification at the specific level in this early genus has not really been clarified during more than a century despite its economic impact, and the history of the genus is complex and includes various stages. Moreover, Dermanyssus currently includes 23 species, whereas the last review took only 18 species into account. Changes in the species status and position in the genus Dermanyssus from 1834 until today are presented. The evolution of the generic definition is explored and compared with other genera of the group. How the discrimination between the different species evolved in the genus is also examined. Some difficulties in the specific definitions are discussed. A current diagnosis of the genus Dermanyssus is given. A table of the species included in this genus since its first description along with their respective current positions, a list of the currently included species in Dermanyssus with their hosts, and a world map presenting their geographic distribution are provided.

  20. Hot-spot application of biocontrol agents to replace pesticides in large scale commercial rose farms in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gacheri, Catherine; Kigen, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) is the most important ornamental crop in Kenya, with huge investments in pest management. We provide the first full-scale, replicated experiment comparing cost and yield of conventional two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control with hot-spot applications...... blanket-treated with an acaricide to decrease infestations. Roses subjected to the hot-spot treatment had significantly lower T. urticae infestations compared with conventionally treated roses. In addition, significantly fewer high spider mite infestations were recorded in roses with the hot...... of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseidae) in large commercial rose greenhouses. Hot-spot treatments replaced acaricides except at high infestations and the two treatments were applied in seven greenhouses each. With the conventional treatment, acaricides were applied when T. urticae...

  1. Jazz Chants Born in a Piano Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When I first arrived in New York in the late sixties, I began teaching ESL at New York University. I didn`t really think of teaching as a profession for me. I just thought it would pay the rent so I could do what I really wanted to do which was to sing and play ragtime piano in the piano bars. When I got my first piano job in an Irish Bar it was uptown, far away from NYU so I didn`t feel it was necessary to mention this night job to my boss.

  2. Acaricidal and Ovicidal Effects of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) (Lamiaceae) Extracts on Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel YORULMAZ SALMAN; Sarıtaş, Semiha; KARA, Nimet; Ay, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a harmful pest for crops such as vegetables, fruits, and ornamental and industrial plants. The usage of plant extracts for pest control is seen as an alternative to synthetic pesticides. The effect of methanolic extracts obtained from sage (S. officinalis) and rosemary (R. officinalis) plants from the Lamiaceae family on T. urticae was researched in an effort to create an alternative to synthetic pesticides. The spray tower-leaf disk method w...

  3. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae to Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

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    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays with five isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv. Vuillemin were conducted under laboratory conditions with a goal to estimate their virulence to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. (Acari: Tetranychidae. Common bean plants with mites were treated by spraying conidial suspensions of isolates at concentrations of 106, 107 and 108 conidia/ml. Lethal effects of the fungal isolates wereevaluated as percentages of cumulative daily mortality due to mycoses, corrected for mortality in the control variant. Virulence of the isolates was estimated based on values of the median lethal time (LT50 calculated by probit analysis for the variants treated with conidial suspensions at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml.The two-spotted spider mite was found susceptible to the examined isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana. Mycosis caused to T. urticae by the B. bassiana isolates 444 Bb and 445 Bb had fast lethal effect after treatment with conidial suspensions even at the concentration of 106 conidia/ml. The mean mortality values of host individuals were 83.78 ± 3.62% and 68.49 ± 4.28% on the first day, respectively, and up to 100% in both variants on the fourth day.The isolates 426 Bb, 444 Bb and 445 Bb of B. bassiana were highly virulent to two-spotted spider mites with values of the median lethal time varied within overlapped narrow confidence intervals from 0.122 to 1.084 days (average value 0.162 days, from 0.117 to 1.398 days (average value 0.146 days and from 0.106 to 1.162 days (average value 0.131 days,respectively. Significant differences regarding virulence of the three isolates at p-level < 0.05 could not been proved. The other two examined isolates were distinctly less virulent to T. urticae than these three B. bassiana isolates.

  4. Seasonal changes in the cold hardiness of the two-spotted spider mite females (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari, S; Colinet, H; Moharramipour, S; Renault, D

    2013-12-01

    The twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important agricultural pest. Population dynamics and pest outbreaks highly depend on the overwintering success of the mite specimens; therefore, it is necessary to assess winter survival dynamics of this pest. Seasonal changes in supercooling point (SCP) and acute cold tolerance (2-h exposure at -5, -10, -15, -20, -23, or -25°C) were assessed in field-collected females during the winter in 2010-2011 in Iran. The SCP values varied from a minimum of -30.5°C (January 2011) to a maximum of -12.6°C (April 2011). Significant differences were recorded in the SCP distribution patterns between autumn- and winter-sampled females, depicting the acquisition of cold hardiness over the winter. The mean ambient air temperature was the lowest in January (4°C), when the females showed the highest supercooling ability. Correlated patterns between monthly temperatures and acute cold tolerance also were found. At -20°C, the survival of the mites was very low (10%) when they were sampled in October 2010; whereas it was high (97.5%) in January 2011, before decreasing to 5% in April 2011. The present data show that T. urticae females are chill tolerant and capable of adjusting their cold tolerance over the winter season. Acute cold tolerance (-15 and -20°C) and SCP represent valuable metrics that can be used for predicting the seasonal changes of the cold hardiness of T. urticae females.

  5. Description of a new argasid tick (Acari: Ixodida) from bat caves in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Venzal, Jose M; Terassini, Flavio A; Mangold, Atilio J; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2010-12-01

    Nothoaspis amazoniensis n. sp. (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae) is described from adult and immature ticks (nymph II, nymph I, larva) collected from bat caves in the Brazilian Amazon. Also, 16S rDNA sequences are provided. The diagnostic characters for adults are the presence of false shield or nothoaspis, an anteriorly projecting hood covering the capitulum, a medial extension of palpal article I (flaps), genital plate extending from coxa I to IV, absence of 2 setae on the internal margin of the flaps, a minute hypostome without denticles, presence of a central pore in the base of hypostome, and a reticulate surface pattern on the posterior half of the nothoaspis in males. The nymph II stage is characterized by a hood that is small in relation to the capitulum, short coxal setae, palpal flaps lacking setae on the internal margin, long hypostome, pointed with dentition 4/4 apically, and the anterior half of the body is covered by a cell-like configuration. Nymph I stage is characterized by a hood, small in relation to the capitulum, dorsum of the body covered by a cell-like configuration, venter integument covered by a cell-like configuration, and hypostome dentition 4/4 with apices that are "V"-shaped. Diagnostic characters of the larvae are the number and size of dorsal setae, and the shape of scutum and hypostome. The new species appears to have a life cycle with a larva that feeds on bats, a non-feeding nymphal stage (nymph I), a feeding nymphal stage (nymph II), and adults that probably represent non-feeding stages. PMID:21158616

  6. Effect of Pollen from Different Plant Species on Development of Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae Efecto del Polen de Diferentes Especies Vegetales sobre el Desarrollo de Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae

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    Paulina Bermúdez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a phytoseiid mite with a high potential in controlling the false Chilean mite (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different plant species pollen as a complementary food in the development of T. pyri when its prey is in low levels of availability. Mites were individually placed on black plastic boxes with pollen and maintained at a temperature of 26 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L:D. Postembryonic development of T. pyri was studied in 11 pollen species, as well as in a mixed diet of Hirschfeldia incana (L. and B. chilensis. Results show that H. incana was the only pollen in which there was no mortality (P > 0.05 along with the control (Oxalis pes-caprae L.. Mean duration from egg to adult with H. incana was 8.70 ± 1.66 d, protonymph 3.27 ± 0.21 d, and deutonymph 2.90 ± 1.45 d (P > 0.05. The mix feeding of T. pyri did not show any significant differences neither in the mean time from egg to adult, nor in mortality by feeding only with B. chilensis. Survival curves of T. pyri fed only with H. incana pollen, combined with B. chilensis, and only with B. chilensis are higher in the first 14 d of life. The sex ratio was not significantly affected by being fed only with H. incana pollen, B. chilensis, or by a combination of both.Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un ácaro que presenta un alto potencial de uso para el control de la falsa arañita roja de la vid (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del polen de diferentes especies vegetales como alimento complementario para T. pyri cuando escasea su presa. Los parámetros post-embrionarios de T. pyri se estudiaron en 11 especies de polen, en una dieta mixta de polen de Hirschfeldia incana (L. y B. chilensis. Los ácaros se colocaron individualmente sobre

  7. Primer registro del hongo Neozygites sp. (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales, patógeno de Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae en la República Argentina First record of Neozygites sp. (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales, pathogen of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae in Argentina

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    Ana C. Scorsetti

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se cita por primera vez para la Argentina la presencia del hongo entomopatógeno Neozygites cf. floridana (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales como patógeno de la «arañuela roja», Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, importante plaga de cultivos hortícolas en la región. Los muestreos fueron realizados en el cinturón hortícola del Gran La Plata sobre cultivos de tomate, pimiento, berenjena, y otras hortalizas. El material de herbario, como preparaciones microscópicas y ácaros infectados fue depositado en el Herbario del Instituto de Botánica C. Spegazzini y en el herbario micológico del CEPAVE. Este trabajo contribuye a ampliar la distribución y el espectro de hospedadores de Neozygites , así como ampliar la información de los hongos entomopatógenos en la Argentina.In this paper, the presence of the fungi Neozygites cf. floridana (Zygomycota: Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales, as pathogen of the mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, is recorded for first time in Argentina. Samplings were carried out in La Plata , on tomato, pepper, egg-plant, and other horticultural crops. Microscopic slides and mites infected were placed in the Herbarium of the Institute of Botany C. Spegazzini and in the Herbarium of CEPAVE. This work contributes to further expand the distribution and the host range of Neozygites as well as the information of entomopathogenic fungi in Argentina.

  8. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS A Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM MACIEIRA, NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL AGROCHEMICAL SELECTIVITY TO Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE ON APPLE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINO BITTENCOURT MONTEIRO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes para determinar os efeitos de agroquímicos homologados para macieira foram realizados em laboratório sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os indivíduos testados foram coletados de um pomar comercial da Agriflor Ltda, em Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, após várias liberações inoculativas. Os inseticidas utilizados foram os tradicionalmente recomendados para o controle de pragas, principalmente mosca-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. A oviposição e a mortalidade dos ácaros foram avaliadas 12; 24; 48 e 96 horas após a pulverização, cujos produtos foram classificados em quatro classes de toxicidade (IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion provocaram 100% de mortalidade, sendo que dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon foram levemente nocivos (classe 2. Malation foi considerado neutro para esta população.The side-effects of agrochemical to Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae were studied in laboratory. The mites were collected in commercial apple orchard of Agropastoril Rincão das Flores, in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, after successive inoculative releases. The insecticids used were recommended to control of same pest, as Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. The reproduction effect and mortality were evalued 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after pulverization, while the agrochemical were ranked in toxicity classes, according to IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion were harmful with ca. 100% of mortality in 24 hours, dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon were slightly harmful (class 2. Malation was harmless.

  9. TAMBO VIEJO: UN ASENTAMIENTO FORTIFICADO EN EL VALLE DE ACARÍ, PERÚ (Tambo Viejo: A Fortified Settlement in the Acari Valley, Peru

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    Lidio M. Valdez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de los asentamientos fortificados y el origen del conflicto violento son temas poco discutidos en el contexto de la arqueología peruana. Considero que es oportuno investigar y determinar cuándo y por qué surgieron los primeros asentamientos fortificados. El propósito central de este artículo está precisamente orientado a responder tales interrogantes y discutir el tema del conflicto violento en el valle de Acarí y, por extensión, en la costa sur del Perú. Las evidencias arqueológicas disponibles señalan que, durante el periodo Intermedio Temprano, Tambo Viejo fue un asentamiento defendido por varias estructuras perimétricas. Otros sitios contemporáneos de Tambo Viejo en Acarí también fueron fortificados. Además, existe en el mismo valle evidencia tangible de violencia en la forma de prisioneros que posteriormente fueron decapitados. En contraste a la evidencia proveniente de Acarí, no existen asentamientos del periodo Intermedio Temprano identificables como fortificaciones, lo que hace de los sitios de Acarí los primeros asentamientos fortificados de toda la costa sur. ENGLISH: The emergence of violent conflict and of fortified settlements is a subject little studied within Peruvian archaeology. However, I consider it vital to investigate and determine the time and the reasons under which fortified settlements were first established. The central aim of this paper is to discuss when and why fortified settlements emerged first in the Acari Valley and, by extension, in the south coast of Peru. Available archaeological evidence indicates that during the Early Intermediate Period, Tambo Viejo was a fortified settlement protected by several massive walls. Other neighbouring sites in Acari were also fortified. Furthermore, in Acari there is conclusive evidence for violence in the form of decapitated individuals. In contrast to evidence coming from Acari, not a single Early Intermediate Period settlement from other

  10. A new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazil, with ontogeny and a key to the known species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Elizeu B; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Ochoa, Ronald; Bauchan, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome, and is considered to be a "hotspot" due the great concentration of endemic species and high rate of deforestation. Surveys of the mite fauna present in this biome have revealed a great number of new species. In this paper, we describe Tenuipalpus spinosaurus sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), a new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto, from adult females, deutonymphs, protonymphs, larvae and eggs, collected on Terminalia argentea (Combretaceae), from the Cerrado in Brazil. Females of this new species bear a prominent longitudinal crest on the opisthosoma. The ontogenetic changes in the idiosoma and leg chaetotaxy of all stages are presented. A key to the world species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto is provided. PMID:27394345

  11. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Ting; Yang, Kun; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts. Co-infections of unrelated bacteria, especially double infections of Wolbachia and Cardinium within the same individuals were common. Spiroplasma and Rickettsia infections were specific to particular host species, respectively. Further, the evolutionary histories of these endosymbionts were inferred by comparing the phylogenies of them and their hosts. These findings can help to clarify the interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods.

  12. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp. PMID:26865230

  13. The biology and fecundity of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) at different temperatures under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    KASAP, İsmail

    2009-01-01

    The developmental time and fecundity of Panonychus citri (McGregor 1916) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Washington navel sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) leaves were determined at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH, and a 16:8-h (L:D) photoperiod under laboratory conditions. Total development time of P. citri females was 37.2, 16.6, 12.2, 9.8, and 9.0 days at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C, respectively. Total and daily egg production levels of P. citri were highest at 25 °C (25.6 an...

  14. Diagnosis of amitraz resistance in Brazilian populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) with larval immersion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Elisa Cimitan; Mendes, Márcia Cristina; Sato, Mário Eidi

    2013-11-01

    Among the ectoparasites of cattle, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae) remains a major cause of economic losses to livestock. The chemical control with acaricides is still the most efficient method available to control ticks. The aims of this study were to diagnose resistance to amitraz in 16 tick populations from the States of São Paulo (14) and Paraná (2), using the larval immersion technique (LIT), and evaluate the effect of synergists [piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM), triphenyl phosphate (TPP)] on amitraz resistant and susceptible strains of cattle tick. Most of the evaluated populations (68.7 %) showed to be resistant to amitraz, with resistance ratios ranging from 2.14 to 132. The results suggest that the test procedure by LIT is sensitive and adequate for detection and monitoring of amitraz resistance in cattle tick. No synergistic effect was observed for the synergists PBO, DEM and TPP, on the amitraz resistant (Poa) strain of cattle tick, indicating that increased detoxification metabolism was not involved in this resistance. PMID:23620418

  15. Screening of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) for reproductive endosymbionts reveals links between co-infection and evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Ting; Yang, Kun; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts. Co-infections of unrelated bacteria, especially double infections of Wolbachia and Cardinium within the same individuals were common. Spiroplasma and Rickettsia infections were specific to particular host species, respectively. Further, the evolutionary histories of these endosymbionts were inferred by comparing the phylogenies of them and their hosts. These findings can help to clarify the interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods. PMID:27291078

  16. SELECTION OF MODELS FOR SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING OF THE TAN-MITE Dichopelmus notus KEIFER (ACARI, ERIOPHYIDAE IN MATE-TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vieira Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research established models for the construction of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-miteDichopelmus notus Keifer (Acari, Eriophyidae in mate-tea orchards. The study was carried out in a ten years old orchard, locatedin Chapecó, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. In three areas of approximately 2,500 m2, 30 plants had been selected randomly. Fortnightly,from January to December, 2004, infestation of D. notus in 18 mature leaves of ten plants in each area were evaluated. Theevaluations were executed directly in the orchard, using lenses (10x and 1 cm2 of fixed field. The lines of the sequential plans wereconstructed using the methodology based on the confidence interval of Iwao (1975, considering the models of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity, Normal Approach of Blyth (1986, Approach of Hall (1982 modified by Blyth (1986, Normal Approach ofMolenaar (1973, Normal Approach of Pratt (1968 and Leemis & Trivedi (1996 methodology. The models were evaluatedconsidering amplitude analysis of the confidence intervals. The results had evidenced that the Model of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity must preferentiably be used in the elaboration of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-mite inmate-tea orchards.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867 (Acari: Tetranychidae, and Its Response to β-Sitosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunya Bu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes—including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C—were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes—such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin—may also play important roles in mites’ response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol.

  18. New Miticides for Integrated Pest Management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Honey Bee Colonies on the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M

    2014-12-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems. PMID:26470066

  19. Relative contribution of biotic and abiotic factors to the population density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A

    2013-08-01

    The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities.

  20. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains. PMID:21915683

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Its Response to β-Sitosterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Chunya; Li, Jinling; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Shi, Guanglu; Peng, Bo; Han, Jingyu; Gao, Pin; Wang, Younian

    2015-01-01

    Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes-including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C-were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes-such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin-may also play important roles in mites' response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol.

  2. Precopulatory mate guarding influences the development of quiescent deutonymph females in the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Individuals of some organisms have a specific stage sensitive to environmental cues that initiate developmental plasticity which subsequently influences their entire development. Females may use male behaviour such as precopulatory mate guarding as an environmental cue to change their developmental rate. In the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), only the first insemination results in fertilization and males guard quiescent deutonymph females. As quiescent individuals take on a silvery appearance before moulting, the period of the quiescent stage can be divided into two parts: from entering the quiescent stage to becoming silvery (1st period) and from becoming silvery to moulting (2nd period). Females may be sensitive to precopulatory mate guarding immediately before moulting (i.e. 2nd period). Thus, I examined whether precopulatory mate guarding during either period affects the total developmental duration of quiescent deutonymph females. When guarded by a male, the whole developmental duration of the quiescent deutonymph females became significantly shorter (by 3-5%) than that of solitary ones, regardless whether the guarding occurred during the 1st period, the 2nd period or both periods. In conclusion, quiescent deutonymph T. urticae females use precopulatory mate guarding by conspecific males as an environmental cue for their developmental rate, although they are sensitive to the mate guarding not only immediately before moulting.

  3. The red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acari: Tetranychidae): its status, biology, ecology and management in tea plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda

    2014-08-01

    Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), the red spider mite (RSM), is a major pest of tea (Camellia sinensis) in most tea-producing countries. Nymphs and adults of RSM lacerate cells, producing minute characteristic reddish brown marks on the upper surface of mature leaves, which turn red in severe cases of infestation, resulting in crop loss. The pest is present on tea all the year round, although numbers vary depending on season. Their number increases as the weather warms up and decreases markedly once rains set in. Under optimal conditions there may be 22 overlapping generations in a year. Parthenogenesis is known to occur; consequently, all mite stages can be found at a given time. Their infestation is mainly confined to the upper surface of the mature leaves and could readily be identified by the bronzing of the leaf. There are several naturally occurring insect predators, such as coccinellid and staphylinid larvae, lacewing larvae, and mite predators, most importantly species of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae. Integrated management has been adopted to control this mite pest, involving cultural, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical methods. This review collates the most important works carried out on biology, ecology and management of O. coffeae. Also the scope of future studies for better management of this regular mite pest of tea is discussed.

  4. New Miticides for Integrated Pest Management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Honey Bee Colonies on the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M

    2014-12-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems.

  5. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  6. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  7. Preliminary assays for efficiency avaliation of neem oil for control of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae) /
    Ensaios preliminares para avaliação da eficiência de óleo de neem no controle de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Renato C. Oliveira; Sandra M. J. Capelo; Amarildo Pasini

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a commercial formulation of the neem oil (azadirachtina) was evaluated in different stages of the biological cycle of the red mite of the paraguay tea Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae). The formulation was shown efficient in the adults control, as well as it affected the fecundity of the females of the mite, however it didn’t inhabited oviposition, when the leaves were treated with the product.Avaliou-se o efeito de uma formulação comercial a base de neem (azadirachtin...

  8. Experimental infestation with the immatures of Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae on Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae and Oryctolagus cuniculus Infestação experimental com as fases imaturas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Tropidurus torquatus (Lacertilia: Iguanidae e Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.T. Freitas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas provenientes de duas fêmeas de Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, naturalmente ingurgitadas em uma iguana (Iguana iguana e provenientes do Estado do Mato Grosso, foram utilizadas na infestação experimental de lagartos da espécie Tropidurus torquatus e coelhos domésticos. As larvas alimentadas em ambos os hospedeiros realizaram ecdise para ninfas. As ninfas apenas ingurgitaram no lagarto e mudaram para machos e fêmeas. Este é o primeiro registro do parasitismo de larvas e ninfas de A. dissimile em T. torquatus e de larvas em coelhos.

  9. Ocorrência do ácaro fitófago Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae em cultivares de milho Bt Occurrence of the phytophagous mite Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae on Bt corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Matiello Fadini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência do microácaro-da-face-inferior-das-folhas-de-milho Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae em cultivares transgênicas de milho, contendo as proteínas Cry1F e Cry 1 A(b e milho não Bt. Durante o período de junho de 2010 a janeiro de 2011, foram coletadas, quinzenalmente, cinco amostras aleatórias de quatro folhas em talhões de milho Bt, contendo a proteína Cry 1F e Cry 1 A(b, e de milho não Bt em áreas experimentais da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, em Sete Lagoas, MG. As amostras de folhas foram vistoriadas por 15 minutos na região da nervura central, em busca de adultos de C. tricholaenae. Foram registrados 2.930 indivíduos de C. tricholaenae, sendo que 1.114 no milho Bt Cry 1F, 753 em Cry 1 A(b e 1063 indivíduos em folhas das cultivares não Bt. As maiores abundâncias populacionais médias ocorreram nos meses de novembro e dezembro. Os fatores estágio fenológico das plantas e precipitação afetaram positivamente a abundância de C. tricholaenae. A abundância média do período de coleta de C. tricholaenae foi reduzida pela cultivar de milho contendo a proteína Cry 1 A(b. Esse é o primeiro registro de ácaros sobre cultivares de milho transgênico no Brasil.The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of "microácaro-da-face-inferior-das-folhas-de-milho" Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae on transgenic cultivars of corn containing proteins Cry1F and Cry 1 A (b and non-Bt corn. During the period from June 2010 to January 2011 were collected, every two weeks, five random samples of four leaves in plots of Bt corn containing the protein Cry 1F and Cry 1 A (b and non-Bt corn in the experimental area of Embrapa Corn and Sorghum, Sete Lagoas, MG. The leaf samples were examined for 15 minutes in the central region of leaf in search of adult C. tricholaenae. We recorded 2930 individuals of C. tricholaenae, 1114 on Bt Cry 1F, 752 on Cry 1 A

  10. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na cultura da macieira a Neoseiulus Californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae1 Pesticide selectivity used in apple crops Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine de Andrade Meyer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos secundários dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em macieira sobre adultos e imaturos de Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os testes foram conduzidos em laboratório, utilizando as doses dos produtos recomendadas para a cultura e o método de contato e residual com pulverização em superfície de folha. Foram testados tebufenozida, fosmete, metidationa, clorpirifós, abamectina, fenpiroximato, piridabem, captana, mancozebe (duas dosagens e ditianona. Para o cálculo do efeito total (E% sobre os adultos, avaliaram-se a mortalidade, a oviposição e a viabilidade dos ovos, e para os imaturos, somente a mortalidade. Os resultados do E% foram avaliados 96 horas após a pulverização. Os produtos foram classificados quanto ao efeito total (E% de toxicidade proposta pela IOBC/WPRS. Fosmete, tebufenozida e metidationa foram inócuos; abamectina, fenpiroximato, clorpirifós, captana, mancozebe (nas duas dosagens testadas e ditianona foram levemente nocivos, e piridabem foi moderadamente nocivo aos adultos de N. californicus. O fungicida mancozebe, na maior dosagem (320g,i.a./100L, foi o que mais afetou o ácaro predador. Quanto à seletividade dos agrotóxicos aos imaturos, constatouse que abamectina e piridabem foram moderadamente nocivos, e os demais foram inócuos. Nenhum produto foi classificado como nocivo, evidenciando a tolerância de N. californicus a estes agrotóxicos. Estes resultados permitem uma escolha e manejo mais adequado para os agrotóxicos utilizados nos pomares comerciais de macieira, de forma que a presença deste ácaro predador exerça pressão de controle do ácaro-vermelho.The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of the main pesticides used in adult and immature Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. The tests were carried out in the laboratory by using the contact and residual spraying method on the leaf surface. It was tested

  11. From The Plum Blossom of Hermits to That of a Country:on One of the Plum-chanting Modes of LI Gong s Collection of Poems on Plum Blossom%从隐士之梅到家国之梅--论李龏《梅花衲》集句咏梅模式之一

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福清

    2014-01-01

    LI Gong�s Collection of Poems on Plum Blossom includes 8 plum poem lines from LIN Bu and 10 plum poem lines from SU Shi, which reflects the trend of value in plum-chanting poems from LIN Bu to SU Shi, and the representativeness of the poems of LIN Bu. The work attaches a rich image to plum blossom. It highlights the purity and faithfulness of plum blossom and places on it a feeling of drift. From the qualities of the flower, to the aspiration of life and the apprehension on the country, all the poems together pose a line for the development of feelings.%李龏《梅花衲》所集林逋咏梅诗8句,集苏轼咏梅诗10句,从中可以看出从林逋到苏轼咏梅诗的价值走向经典,尤其是体现了林逋咏梅诗意象的经典化;《梅花衲》还多方面刻画了梅的立体形象,凸显了梅花之冰雪精神与高洁品性,以梅花来寄托漂泊不定的身世之感,寄寓无限感伤之情;厘清了从梅之精神到人生志趣、家国之恨的梅花诗的发展脉络。

  12. 以传统吟诵为核心的古诗教学新方法初探--从《登鹳雀楼》说开去%A New Method of Classical Poetry Teaching Centering on the Traditional Chanting-Taking Stepping upon the Stork Tower for Instance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎瑞萍; 叶会昌

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of 20th century,traditional private school education was forced to withdraw from the historical stage because of popularizing vernacular by the authorities.Since then,a lot of changes have been taken place in both reading and learning methods of Chinese.Consequently,ancient poetry teaching has changed mainly from syllabic rhyme and rhythm to textual interpretation.And the traditional reading method of introducing the background,explaining words,summarizing and reciting the poems has nearly been forgotten.In fact,modern reciting method is not enough to help people learn and appreciate ancient Chinese poems and prose,and obviously the traditional chanting is more suitable for the interpreta-tion of ancient Chinese poetry.%20世纪初,随着官方对白话文的普及,传统的私塾教育被迫退出历史舞台,中国人的读书方法、学习方法也发生了很大的改变。古代诗歌教学也因此一改前人重视音韵的教学模式,以主要解读文字为主,介绍背景、解释词语、总结大意、背诵诗歌,“吟诵”这一沿袭了几千年的读书方式也随之被遗忘。事实上,中国古代诗文用现代朗诵的方式来接受学习,有着很大的不足,而“吟诵”显然更适合解读中国古典诗歌。

  13. To Explore Ethnic Culture's Code Mingled with Myth and Real Life--Discussing Fang Qi’s Nevol The Last Shaman's Chant%在神话和现实的交织中探秘民族文化的密码--论方棋小说《最后的巫歌》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶淑媛

    2014-01-01

    方棋的《最后的巫歌》展示了20世纪三峡原住民的社会生活和历史进程。小说一方面以现实主义的笔法描述三峡原住民的现实生活故事,同时又将久远的古文化信息和先祖神话穿插其中,以神话思维去解释和言说现实生活,来阐释和探秘民族文化的密码。小说还以宏阔的视野,将巫文化作为解读中国文化的一条途径进行文化寻根,完成了一个宏大叙事,并为这个已经消逝的文化形态留下了诗性的民族志记载。%Fang Qi’s The Last Shaman's Chant describes social life and historical process of the aborigines who lived in the areas of the Three Gorges in the 20th century. The novel describes people’ real life stories with a realistic writing style while a great deal of information about the ancient civilization and ancestral myths is inserted in it. The mythical thinking is used to explain the real life, and explore the code of national culture. With far-reaching vision, the novel takes witchery culture as a way to search for Chinese cultural roots, so it completed a grand narrative, and left a poetic ethnographic record.

  14. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.

  15. The invasive spider mite Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) alters community composition and host-plant use of native relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Francisco; Garzón-Luque, Eva; Pekas, Apostolos

    2013-07-01

    The tomato spider mite Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a worldwide pest of solanaceous crops that has recently invaded many parts of the world. In the present study we examined the ecological impact of its arrival in the Mediterranean region. The spider mite and phytoseiid mite assemblages in various crop and non-crop plants in three areas of Valencia (Spain) were studied a few months before and 10 years after the invasion of T. evansi. According to rarefaction analyses, the invasion of T. evansi did not affect neither the total number of species in the mite community examined (spider mite and phytoseiid species) nor the number of species when the two communities were examined separately. However, after the invasion, the absolute and relative abundance of the native Tetranychus species was significantly reduced. Before the invasion, T. urticae and T. turkestani were the most abundant spider mites, accounting for 62.9 and 22.8 % of the specimens. After the invasion, T. evansi became the most abundant species, representing 60 % of the total spider mites recorded, whereas the abundance of T. urticae was significantly reduced (23 %). This reduction took place principally on non-crop plants, where native species were replaced by the invader. Null model analyses provided evidence for competition structuring the spider mite community on non-crop plants after the invasion of T. evansi. Resistance to acaricides, the absence of efficient native natural enemies, manipulation of the plant defenses and the web type produced by T. evansi are discussed as possible causes for the competitive displacement.

  16. Seasonal variation of North American form of Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis (Acari: Laelapidae) on marsh rice rat in southern coastal Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Joseph A; Strauss, Richard E; McIntyre, Nancy E

    2007-01-01

    The ectoparasites of a small mammal community within an intertidal zone in the upper Gulf coast region of Texas were studied to assess the seasonal variation in abundances of the mite Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis (Fonseca) (Acari: Laelapidae) on the marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan). Further study into the ecology and dynamics of this parasite-host relationship was deemed to be necessary to expand the understanding of these potential participants in the ecology of Bayou Hantavirus, an important causative agent of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of five predictor variables on mite abundance: prevalences of hosts, relative humidity, precipitation, temperature, and length of daylight. Mite abundance was modeled as a function of the five variables with analyses of variance and multiple regressions; however, because the predictor variables pertain to the sampling period rather than to the individual rodent host, the effective sample size was small and thus the sums of squares and cross products matrix was singular. We therefore developed and used a new method for estimating regression coefficients based on the "noise-addition method" (random residual variation) combined with a bootstrap step converting the reduced rank data to full rank, providing realistic estimates of confidence intervals for the regression statistics. The population abundances of mites fluctuated significantly across collecting periods. Humidity and precipitation were the most influential variables in explaining the variation in abundances of mites. Model interpretation suggests that G. mattogrossensis is a nidicolous parasite. These results provide a baseline understanding of the seasonal interactions between parasite and host. PMID:17294924

  17. Removal of drone brood from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and retain adult drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R

    2009-12-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population. PMID:20069828

  18. Amblyomma hadanii n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), a tick from northwestern Argentina previously confused with Amblyomma coelebs Neumann, 1899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Mangold, Atilio J; Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-07-01

    All stages of Amblyomma hadanii n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae) are described from northwestern Argentina. The diagnostic characters for males are a combination of the pattern of scutal ornamentation, basis capituli dorsally rectangular with cornua, coxa I with two subequal spurs (the internal wider, the external longer), coxae II-III with a single spur, coxa IV with a single spur not reaching level of anus, ventral plates irregular in shape (larger and sometimes with a small incision on festoons 4, 5 and 6) and hypostome spatulate with dental formula 3/3 in 7-8 rows. The diagnostic characters for the females are a combination of scutal ornamentation, postero-lateral margins of scutum slightly convex, coxa I with two subequal spurs (the internal wider, the external longer), basis capituli dorsally rectangular, porose areas rounded, genital aperture U-shaped, and hypostome spatulate with dental formula 3/3 in 7-8 rows. Diagnosis of nymphs can be performed by a combination of basis capituli rectangular, scutum with large punctations in the lateral fields and small punctations in the central field, and cervical groove short and ending as a small shallow depression at the eye level. Larvae are diagnosed by the shape of basis capituli, scutum with with posterior margin slightly convex, and legs with coxa I with 2 triangular spur (the external longer than the internal), and with coxae II and III each with 1 triangular spur. The hosts recorded for this new tick species are Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus), horse, cattle, dog and humans. Analyses of a 410 bp fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and the complete sequence of the nuclear 18S rRNA gene supported the description of A. hadanii as a new species. PMID:24935128

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae), in China based on mitochondrial COI gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Wei, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Kun; Gao, Yu-Zhen; Liu, Yong-Hua; Wang, Bao-Jun; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-12-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is regarded as one of the most important citrus pests in many countries, such as Japan, Spain, and China. In this study, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene was used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of 15 P. citri populations collected from three citrus (Citrus spp.) planting regions of China. Our analysis found that these populations had relatively low genetic diversities. Bayesian tree and haplotype network showed that the 22 haplotypes of P. citri formed two lineages with low Bayesian posterior probabilities (0.55 and 0.63), and haplotypes in a sample were scattered throughout the Bayesian tree, indicating that there may be no significant genealogical structure among populations. However, when Yuxi and Danjiangkou populations (both without H7 haplotype) were excluded from the analysis, analysis of molecular variance found a weak, but significant, geographic structuring. Mantel test indicated a significant and positive correlation between genetic and geographical distances, reflecting certain degree of isolation by distance. The genetic differentiation based on pairwise F(ST) was not significant between most populations, and some F(ST) were even negative, indicating remarkable gene flow among these populations. The weak population structure of P. citri in this study was probably influenced by high gene flow between some populations due to long-distance dispersal of this species, which may be largely relied on the movement of plants between populations. The mismatch distribution analysis showed that no signal of population growth, but the Fu's F(S) value was significantly negative for total populations and the star-like shape of haplotype network, suggesting a history of population expansion of P. citri in China. PMID:21309245

  20. Indoor winter fumigation with formic acid for control of Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and nosema disease, Nosema sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Robyn M; Currie, Robert W

    2009-10-01

    Indoor fumigation of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., with formic acid to control varroa mites, Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, allows simultaneous fumigation of multiple colonies with little labor input and good efficacy. Several experiments were designed to test the efficacy of formic acid as a treatment for honey bee mites, Acarapis woodi (Rennie) (Acari: Tarsonemidae), and nosema disease, Nosema sp., indoors in winter. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the efficacy of formic acid fumigation for honey bee mite control by using both the thoracic slice and live dissection methods and (2) to determine whether indoor fumigation can reliably prevent the buildup of nosema disease in overwintering honey bee colonies. Indoor winter fumigation of honey bee colonies with formic acid was effective in killing a high percentage of honey bee mites but did not significantly reduce the proportion of bees with infested tracheae over the duration of the experiments. Thus, the method used to determine the efficacy of the treatment affected the results. Under conditions of relatively low or decreasing levels of nosema, fumigation tended to suppress the mean abundance of nosema spores relative to the controls. In three separate fumigation experiments using a range of formic acid concentrations, there was no statistical difference between the buildup or maintenance of nosema spore mean abundance over the winter in bees from formic acid fumigated colonies compared with untreated controls. However, fumigation with formic acid during winter at a low concentration for extended periods significantly suppressed spore buildup of mixed populations of nosema (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae) in 1 yr. PMID:19886435

  1. Plantas de ocorrência espontânea como substratos alternativos para fitoseídeos (Acari, Phytoseiidae em cultivos de seringueira Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae Weeds as alternative substrates to phytoseiids (Acari, Phytoseiidae in rubber tree Hevea brasilienis, Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Bellini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de plantas espontâneas em áreas de cultivo de seringueira que poderiam servir com reservatório de ácaros predadores. O trabalho foi conduzido em Olímpia, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em dois cultivos de seringueira. A cada três meses, cerca de 1.000 cm³ de folhas de cada uma das cinco espécies de plantas espontâneas dominantes em cada cultivo foi tomada para determinar os fitoseídeos. Como as plantas espontâneas dominantes variaram durante o estudo, um total de 20 espécies foi verificado. Somente Cecropia sp. foi dominante em todo estudo, em ambos os cultivos. Um total de 336 fitoseídeos pertencentes às seguintes espécies foi encontrado: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 e N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 espécimes e N. tunus (138 espécimes foram os mais abundantes. A maior abundância (231espécimes e diversidade (5 espécies foram observadas sobre Cecropia sp. Sobre esta planta foi encontrado o maior número de ácaros por amostra (29 espécimes, seguida por Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 e Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius tem sido determinado como um dos ácaros predadores mais abundantes sobre seringueiras cultivadas na região onde este trabalho foi conduzido. Cecropia sp. parece ser uma das plantas espontâneas mais importantes consideradas como reservatório de E. citrifolius porque está continuamente presente nos cultivos. Estudos complementares poderiam indicar a viabilidade de se manejar esta planta nas áreas de cultivo de seringueira para permitir o controle biológico dos ácaros-praga desta cultura.The objective of this study was to determine weed species of rubber tree cultivation areas that could serve as reservoirs of predatory mites. The work was conducted in Ol

  2. Seletividade de acaricidas e inseticidas a ácaros predadores (Acari: Phytoseiidae encontrados em seringueira no centro-oeste do Brasil Side-effect of acaricides and insecticides to predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae found in rubber-trees in mid-west Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Euseius concordis (Chant e Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker são ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae comumente encontrados em seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. em Mato Grosso, região centro-oeste do Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado para verificar o efeito de acaricidas e inseticidas-acaricidas empregados em plantações de seringueira, e outros que teriam potencial para serem empregados contra insetos e ácaros considerados pragas dessa cultura, sobre E. concordis e N. anonymus. Utilizou-se o método residual de pulverização em superfície, recomendado como padrão pelo Grupo de Trabalho "Pesticidas e Artrópodes Benéficos", da Organização Internacional de Controle Biológico e Integrado de Plantas e Animais Nocivos/Seção Regional do Paleártico Oeste. Duas concentrações de cada um dos seguintes ingredientes ativos foram utilizadas: acefato, dicofol, endosulfan, formetanate, metomil, monocrotofós, óxido de fenbutatin e propargite. Uma das concentrações utilizadas foi uma média daquelas sugeridas pelos fabricantes para o controle de ácaros e insetos fitófagos presentes em outras culturas, uma vez que nenhum dos produtos testados tem registro para o uso em seringueira e a outra correspondeu à cerca de um terço da primeira. Endosulfan a 320ppm, dicofol a 100ppm e óxido de fenbutatin a 100 e 320ppm foram inócuos a E. concordis, enquanto que endosulfan a 320ppm e dicofol a 100ppm foram inócuos a N. anonymus. Acefato, formetanate e monocrotofós, nas concentrações testadas, foram nocivos às duas espécies.Euseius concordis (Chant and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker are predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae commonly found on rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in the State of Mato Grosso, in the mid-west Brazil. This work was conducted to verify the effect of acaricides and insecticides-acaricides occasionally used in rubber tree plantations, and other products that could be used against

  3. First description of the nymph and larva of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae), parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent reexamination of collection lots stored in the United States National Tick Collection revealed adult specimens of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae) reared from field-collected nymphs, which allowed us to associate field-collected unidentified nymphs and larvae with this species. Nymphs of D. compactus can be easily distinguished from those of other congeneric species by the shape of the scutum and spiracular plate, the hypostome dentition, and the size of the spurs on the coxae. Larvae of this species can be distinguished by the shape and sculpture of the scutum, the shape of basis capituli, the absence of auriculae, and the size of the spurs on coxae II and III. Both nymphs and larvae feed mostly on various species of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae). Considerably fewer nymphs and larvae were found on murid rodents (Rodentia: Muridae), domestic dogs (Carnivora: Canidae), and a snake (Squamata: Colubridae). PMID:27095664

  4. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.

  5. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM CITROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIS PAULO REBELLES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae, associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, conforme metodologia da IOBC. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado por meio de pulverização direta sobre os ovos dos ácaros predadores, também em superfície de vidro. A persistência dos produtos foi avaliada em laboratório, em arenas confeccionadas com folhas de laranjeira pulverizadas no campo, aos 0; 5; 15 e 30 dias após a aplicação. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que chlorfenapyr foi nocivo ao I. zuluagai e E. alatus e o fenbutatin-oxide foi levemente nocivo a E. alatus e inócuo a I. zuluagai. Nenhum dos produtos apresentou efeito ovicida. Fenbutatin-oxide apresentou baixa persistência para ambas as espécies de ácaros predadores, e chlorfenapyr, na dosagem de 31,3 ml, foi de baixa persistência, enquanto, na dosagem de 62,5 ml, foi moderadamente persistente. O fenbutatin-oxide apresentou-se inócuo e levemente nocivo aos ácaros predadores I. zuluagai e E. alatus, respectivamente, e de baixa persistência para ambas as espécies

  6. L’apport d’exercices en voix chantée pour la correction phonétique en langue étrangère : le cas du français langue étrangère appliqué à des apprenants italiens d’âge adulte Using singing exercises as a tool for improving phonetic correction in foreign language teaching and learning: the case of French as a foreign language for native adult speakers of Italian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Vallée

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Divers travaux ont établi que la musique favorise le processus acquisitionnel. En didactique des langues, le rôle positif de la chanson sur la perception des éléments prosodiques est bien connu et il a d’ailleurs été récemment montré que la reconnaissance syllabique d’une langue étrangère est facilitée par le chant. Des investigations de terrain menées en 2006 à l’Université Stendhal de Grenoble ont révélé l’efficacité de la voix chantée pour la correction phonético-phonologique du français langue étrangère. Ces résultats prometteurs ont été confirmés par une étude en laboratoire en 2008. Les apprenants formés à la phonétique du français langue étrangère avec des exercices en voix chantée, ajoutés à ceux d’une méthode traditionnelle, progressent plus rapidement que les sujets formés avec la seule méthode traditionnelle sur une durée équivalente. Suite à ces résultats préliminaires et à ceux d’une série d’expériences en cours, nous élaborons avec le soutien d’enseignants de langue, d’orthophonistes et de chanteurs, une méthode innovante pour l’enseignement/apprentissage et l’évalua-tion de la correction phonétique en langue étrangère.Music has a positive impact on learning processes. In linguistics, the positive role of music in the perception of prosodic features has been pointed out, and a recent study has shown that the segmentation of words in a foreign language is facilitated by sung sequences. A fieldwork carried out in 2006 at the Université Stendhal of Grenoble showed that singing-voice tasks could help to improve the learning of French phonology and phonetics. Those positive results were supported by a laboratory study in 2008. Learners who were taught with additional singing-voice tasks learned faster than those taught only with a standard phonetic method, for an equivalent length of time. Based on these preliminary results and those of several ongoing

  7. Identification and characterization of microRNAs by deep-sequencing in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jin; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Wang, Hui

    2015-06-15

    Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a. anatolicum) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks are globally distributed ectoparasites with veterinary and medical importance. These ticks not only weaken animals by sucking their blood but also transmit different species of parasitic protozoans. Multiple factors influence these parasitic infections including miRNAs, which are non-coding, small regulatory RNA molecules essential for the complex life cycle of parasites. To identify and characterize miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing, bioinformatics and real-time PCR analysis. Here we report the use of this approach to identify miRNA expression, family distribution, and nucleotide characteristics, and discovered novel miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum. The result showed that miR-1-3p, miR-275-3p, and miR-92a were expressed abundantly. There was a strong bias on miRNA, family members, and nucleotide compositions at certain positions in H.a. anatolicum miRNA. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 6, 16, and 18, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle, and end of conserved miRNAs. Analysis of the conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum were concentrated along three diverse phylogenetic branches of bilaterians, insects and coelomates. Two possible roles for the use of miRNA in H.a. anatolicum could be presumed based on its parasitic life cycle: to maintain a large category of miRNA families of different animals, and/or to preserve stringent conserved seed regions with active changes in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end regions. These might help the parasite to undergo its complex life style in different hosts and adapt more readily to the host changes. The present study represents the first large scale characterization of H.a. anatolicum miRNAs, which could further the understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as initiate miRNA studies

  8. Effects of Temperature on Development and Voltinism of Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae): Implications for Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong Joon; Son, Youngsoo; He, Yaqian; Lee, Eungul; Park, Yong-Lak

    2016-01-01

    Temperature plays an important role in the growth and development of arthropods, and thus the current trend of climate change will alter their biology and species distribution. We used Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae), a cleptoparasitic mite associated with Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), as a model organism to investigate how temperature affects the development and voltinism of C. krombeini in the eastern United States. The effects of temperature on the stage-specific development of C. krombeini were determined at seven constant temperatures (16.1, 20.2, 24.1, 27.5, 30.0, 32.4 and 37.8°C). Parameters for stage-specific development, such as threshold temperatures and thermal constant, were determined by using empirical models. Results of this study showed that C. krombeini eggs developed successfully to adult at all temperatures tested except 37.8°C. The nonlinear and linear empirical models were applied to describe quantitatively the relationship between temperature and development of each C. krombeini stage. The nonlinear Lactin model estimated optimal temperatures as 31.4, 32.9, 32.6 and 32.5°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. In the linear model, the lower threshold temperatures were estimated to be 9.9, 14.7, 13.0 and 12.4°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. The thermal constant for each stage completion were 61.5, 28.1, 64.8 and 171.1 degree days for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. Under the future climate scenarios, the number of generations (i.e., voltinism) would increase more likely by 1.5 to 2.0 times by the year of 2100 according to simulation. The findings herein firstly provided comprehensive data on thermal development of C. krombeini and implications for the management of C. krombeini populations under global warming were discussed. *Scientific Article No. 3278 of the West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Morgantown, West Virginia. PMID

  9. Ocorrência de Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888 (Acari: Macronyssidae em filhotes de Megascops choliba (corujinha-do-mato e Pitangus sulphuratus (bem-te-vi, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Ocurrence of Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888 (Acari: Macronyssidae on Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl and Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee nestlings in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina S. Mascarenhas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre e Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Federal de Pelotas - RS atendeu dois filhotes de Megascops choliba (corujinha-do-mato (Strigiformes - Strigidae e dois de Pitangus sulphuratus (bem-te-vi (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae intensamente parasitados por ácaros, em maio de 2005 e dezembro de 2006, respectivamente. Os filhotes e o ninho de P. sulphuratus foram recolhidos na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas - RS após forte temporal. Os ácaros foram removidos, colocados em álcool 70% e levados ao laboratório de parasitologia para identificação. Os espécimes foram clarificados em lactofenol, montados em meio de Hoyer e identificados como Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae. Registra-se Megascops choliba e Pitangus sulphuratus como hospedeiros de Ornithonyssus bursa, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The Center for Rehabilitation of Wildlife and Center for Selection of Wild Animal of the Federal University of Pelotas has attended two nestlings of Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl (Strigiformes - Strigidae and two of Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae heavily parasitized by mites, in May 2005 and December 2006, respectively. The nestlings and the nest of P. sulphuratus were collected in the Pelotas urban area after severe storms. The mites were removed, clarified in lactofenol, permanently mounted in Hoyer's medium and identified as Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae. Megascops choliba and Pitangus sulphuratus are reported as host of Ornithonyssus bursa in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  10. Biologia e flutuação populacional de Mononychellus Planki (Mc Gregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) em cultivares de soja Glycine Max (L.) Merr. e impacto do imidacloprido em aspectos biológicos do adulto.

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Visando buscar cultivares de soja Glycine max (L.) Merr. com fatores de resistência ao ácaro verde Mononychellus planki (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) foram realizados estudos sobre a biologia em laboratório, flutuação populacional em diferentes cultivares durante duas safras e possíveis ações de agrotóxicos no crescimento populacional. Inicialmente foram realizados estudos de biologia de imaturos em dez cultivares BRS 133, BRS 134, BRS 282, BRS 284, BRS 245 RR, BMX Titan RR, IAC 1...

  11. Biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets of three rubber tree clones Ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae em folíolos de três clones de seringueira

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    Reinaldo José Fazzio Feres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets from three rubber tree clones. The biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, a potential rubber tree pest mite, was studied by the observation of individuals reared on leaflets of the clones GT 1, PB 235 and RRIM 600, in controlled environmental conditions. Three daily observations were done of 60 eggs on leaflets from each clone in order to verify the development of immature stages and the female oviposition. The fertility life table was constructed based in the collected data. Mites reared on PB 235 had faster rate of development, requiring less time in days, to double its population in number (TD, and had the highest values for egg production, female longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and finite rate of increase (λ. Lower reproductive values and the longest time necessary to reach adult stage were recorded for the mites on GT 1. In all studied clones, the deutonymphal phase had the highest viability, while the larval phase had the lowest, highlighted by the survivorship curve that indicated high mortality during this life stage. The clone PB 235 allowed the most suitable conditions for the development of T. heveae, followed by RRIM 600, while GT 1 was the less suitable substratum to rear this mite species.O ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, um potencial ácaro-praga da seringueira, foi estudado a partir de indivíduos criados sobre folíolos destacados dos clones GT 1, PB 235 e RRIM 600, em condições controladas. Três observações diárias foram realizadas, acompanhando-se o desenvolvimento de 60 ovos e de sua prole em folíolos de cada um dos clones, para verificação da oviposição das fêmeas e dos estágios de desenvolvimento. A partir dos dados obtidos, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os ácaros criados sobre folíolos de PB 235 apresentaram r

  12. Stamping, Clapping and Chanting: An Ancient Learning Pathway?

    OpenAIRE

    Marion M. Long

    2006-01-01

    In this review I explore the effect of temporal integration as a means of improving learning in schoolchildren. I focus first on theorists that have linked physical activity with a positive effect on children’s learning and second to psychological studies that have established the existence of innate temporal patterns. These findings are related to a model of temporal integration that I have developed from Croce’s writings on aesthetics (1900). From philosophy to neurology, I discuss recent n...

  13. The Ifugao Alim: Chanted Narrated Dramatic Discourse in Ritual

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    Rosario Bona de Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, by way of introducing the little-known Ifugao alim, gives the readers an idea of what has been written about it by Ifugao and non-Ifugao writers and scholars, and recounts my own discovery and study of it. It will focus on the Piwong alim, which was the topic of my dissertation (Rosario de Santos del Rosario 2003, and which I recorded during a live performance in 1975 in Piwong, Hingyon, during the ritual called hongan di tagu—a prestige ritual of the kadangyan, for the welfare of a sick woman. In particular, the paper discusses the Piwong alim’s significance, structure, content and voice, and presents illustrations, through excerpts, which give the reader an insight into its ideological direction and unique aesthetics. The Piwong alim uses a mix of ritual genres, external and internal narration and dramatic character dialogues and monologues.The alim has been considered, by varied Ifugaos, as the crown jewel of its elaborate ritual; a sociological charter; and a magical myth that brings wellbeing.

  14. Candy Bar Chants, Mozart Maps: Creativity in Your Choral Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on how music teachers can make choral rehearsals more interesting for students by incorporating creative lessons and activities. Explores what it means to be creative and includes examples of creative lessons that can be used in the choral rehearsal. (CMK)

  15. INDE. Le chant du Mohini Attam, danse classique du Kerala

    OpenAIRE

    Contri, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Voici un objet fort précieux, dans le meilleur sens du terme, comme ces guirlandes de joyaux dont sont ornées, en Inde, les divinités que ne cesse de célébrer le Mōhiniyāṭṭam ou « danse de l’Enchanteresse ». La dévotion avec tout l’élan de l’être – l’intellect, l’esprit, sans omettre le corps –, c’est bien un aspect essentiel de cette forme d’expression, ô combien subtile ; c’est également ce qui anime, avec ferveur, la danse et la musique indiennes. Ce nouveau Cd, de la très belle collection...

  16. Lavq khoer mr 'inner ceremony' chanted by Pirma Gavqlavq

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    Documentation of Archaic Akha, the register of the Akha shaman / Jacob A. Terrell.This is a sample of collection of recordings, videos, and texts related to Akha Zanr, the indigenous religion of the Akha (ahk) of northern Mainland Southeast Asia. It includes over ten hours of .wav recordings of Pirma Gavq, an Akha Shaman, reciting the religious text ?Buffalo Knowledge One?. This amounts 6,500 verses of religious prose; all have been transcribed using the Akha orthography, and around seventy p...

  17. Dinâmica populacional de Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa (Acari: eriophyidae em cultivares de videira na região da campanha do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Paulo Ricardo Ebert Siqueira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Na Região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, o ácaro-da-ferrugem-da-videira, Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa (Acari: Eriophyidae, é encontrado com frequência em vinhedos de cultivares europeias, desde a safra de 2004/2005, causando bronzeamento nas folhas. A dinâmica populacional de C. vitis nas cultivares Chardonnay e Merlot foi avaliada em vinhedo comercial localizado no município de Dom Pedrito, na região da Campanha, durante os anos agrícolas de 2005/2006 e 2006/2007, por meio de amostragem realizada em folhas das posições basal, intermediária e apical de ramos de produção. O pico populacional de C. vitis ocorre entre o final de fevereiro e o início de março, sendo seguido de forte declínio populacional. A infestação variou de intensidade entre as cultivares de acordo com o ano, sendo a cultivar Chardonnay mais infestada no primeiro ano, e Merlot, no segundo. Folhas na posição basal, mediana e apical apresentam níveis similares de infestação. Uma correlação positiva foi encontrada entre o número de C. vitis na face abaxial das folhas e o percentual de folhas com infestação.

  18. Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar and the predator Euseius ho (DeLeon (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae

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    Evila C. Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa and the predator Euseius ho (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae. Cassava is attacked by several pests, among which the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are major natural enemies of pestmites and are naturally found inhabiting cassava plants in the field. We evaluated the temporal variation of the developmental stages of M. tanajoa and the most abundant predatory mite in cassava fields in the study region, the phytoseiid Euseius ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were low during the rainy season, increasing over the cultivation cycle of cassava and peaking in the dry season. Overall, the larval stage of M. tanajoa presented the lowest densities throughout time. Densities of all developmental stages of E. ho were low and remained constant throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. The number of eggs, nymphs and adults of M. tanajoa was higher in comparison to the larval stage whereas there were no differences in densities of the stages of E. ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were negatively correlated with precipitation. Densities of the stages of egg, nymph and adult of M. tanajoa were positively related while the stage of larva was negatively related to temperature. We conclude that it is important to consider the population structure in studies of population dynamics of arthropods as each developmental stage experiences and responds uniquely to the local environment over time.

  19. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry. PMID:26359641

  20. Repellency of oils of lemon eucalyptus, geranium, and lavender and the mosquito repellent MyggA natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Garboui, Samira; Palsson, Katinka

    2006-07-01

    MyggA Natural (Bioglan, Lund, Sweden) is a commercially available repellent against blood-feeding arthropods. It contains 30% of lemon-scented eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson (Myrtaceae), oil with a minimum of 50% p-menthane-3,8-diol. MyggA Natural also contains small amounts of the essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae), and geranium, Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. (Geraniaceae). In laboratory bioassays, MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil exhibited 100% repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). Lavender oil and geranium oil, when diluted to 1% in 1,2-propanediol, had weak repellent activities on I. ricinus nymphs, but when diluted to 30% in 1,2-propanediol had 100% repellencies. 1,2-Propanediol (100%) had no significant repellent activity in comparison with that of the control. In field tests in tick-infested areas in central Sweden, tick repellency of MyggA Natural and C. citriodora oil was tested by the blanket-dragging technique for 4 d during a 6-d period. The repellencies (74 and 85%, respectively) on day 1 are similar (89%) to that of blankets treated in a similar manner with 19% diethyl-methyl-benzamide, based on previous work. Repellencies declined significantly from day 1 to day 6 (74 to 45% for MyggA Natural; 85 to 42% for C. citriodora oil). PMID:16892632

  1. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

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    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  2. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry.

  3. Toxicidade diferencial de produtos à base de abamectina ao ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae em citros Differential toxicity of abamectin based products over Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Júnior de Andrade

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis é uma das principais pragas dos citros por ser vetor do "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV, agente causal da leprose, uma das mais graves doenças da citricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito tóxico de produtos à base de abamectina sobre o ácaro B. phoenicis. Foram realizados um experimento de ação direta e três de ação residual no Laboratório de Acarologia do Departamento de Proteção de Plantas (Fitossanidade da FCAV - UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento adotado nos bioensaios foi o inteiramente casualizado, onde 10 tratamentos foram repetidos 7 vezes, sendo cada repetição composta por um fruto de laranja. Os tratamentos estudados (mL p.c./100 L de água foram: Acaramik a 20; 30; 40 e 50 mL; Vertimec a 30 e 40 mL; Abamectin Nortox a 30 e 40 mL; Tricofol a 77 mL e uma testemunha sem aplicação. Utilizaram-se frutos com presença de verrugose, que foram lavados e parcialmente parafinados, deixando-se uma área sem parafina, que foi circundada com cola entomológica para contenção dos ácaros. Transferiram-se 20 ácaros adultos B. phoenicis para cada fruto. No bioensaio de ação direta, a transferência foi realizada antes das aplicações e, nos bioensaios de ação residual, aos 5; 10 e 15 dias após a aplicação dos produtos. A aplicação dos produtos sobre os frutos foi realizada em Torre de Potter. Os resultados obtidos nos bioensaios evidenciaram que os melhores tratamentos foram: Tricofol a 77 mL, Acaramik a 40 e 50 mL e Vertimec a 40 mL. De forma geral, os produtos testados podem ser utilizados no controle do ácaro B. phoenicis.The mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae is one of the most important pests in Brazil citrus plantation, because it is the virus "Citrus Leprosis Virus" (CiLV vector, one of the most serious citrus plantation diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the toxical effect of abamectin in the mite B. phoenicis. It was performed

  4. ‘Corrandescola’: del cant a la improvisació poètica / ‘Corrandescola’: Du chant à l’improvisation poétique Corrandescola’: From song to poetic improvisation ‘Corrandescola’: del canto a la improvisación poética

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    Albert Casals

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Glosa o cançó improvisada és el nom d’una activitat comunicativa que es dóna en el si d’una comunitat i que es vehicula a través de versos improvisats que es canten sobre melodies d’arrel tradicional. En la primera part de l’article s’aborda la configuració textual, musical i escènica d’aquest gènere poèticomusical per presentar a continuació el projecte Corrandescola. Es mostra com aquest projecte ha desenvolupat una proposta didàctica que s’ha dut a terme en diverses escoles de Catalunya i que es fonamenta en les possibilitats educatives de la cançó improvisada. A l’última part de l’article es plantegen les oportunitats i limitacions de la proposta en relació al descobriment poètic per part de l’alumnat de cicle superior de Primària. Una de les conclusions que se n’extreu és que la cançó improvisada pot esdevenir una forma eficaç d’acostament a la poesia gràcies al fet que es basa en un paradigma comunicatiu altament significatiu i motivador des de la perspectiva de l’alumnat participant. ____________________________________________________ La glosa ou chanson improvisée est une activité communicative qui se produit au sein d'une communauté et qui consiste à l’interprétation chantée de vers improvisés dont les mélodies sont de racine traditionnelle. La première partie de cet article présente la configuration textuelle, musicale et théâtrale de ce genre poétique-musical puis continue avec la présentation du projet Corrandescola. Nous montrons comment autour de ce projet s’est développé une proposition didactique qui a été mise en place dans plusieurs écoles de la Catalogne. Cette approche est basée sur le potentiel éducatif de la chanson improvisée. Dans la dernière partie de l'article nous discutons les possibilités et les limites de l’approche didactique par rapport à la découverte de la poésie par les élèves de l'école primaire. Une des conclusions que nous

  5. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosso de Ferradás, B.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Checklist and catalog publications demonstrate a clear connection between basic taxonomy and biodiversity issues. According to some estimates, only 10-30% of all global species have been named. As in other fields, catalogs provide an important source of information concerning species diversity in freshwater ecology.

    South America is a continent dominated by freshwater ecosystems. The tremendous habitat diversity created by this landscape supports a high number of arthropods, including water mites, which belong to the hyperdiverse group Acari. South America has a substantial task ahead in cataloging its biodiversity.

    Much has been published on water mites in South America. In fact, according to Besch, water mites were the most studied with the exception of Europe up until the 1960’s. Most of the collections were conducted by two acarologists (Lundblad and Karl Viets during the 1940’s. Today, the collection, identification and description process of water mites is slower. In the 1980’s, the north-american acarologist D. R. Cook produced two lengthy papers about neotropical water mites in four regions of South America. Recently, several Argentine acarologists have published papers on water mites from diverse habitats and regions in South America.

    The catalog presented here includes information regarding 6 superfamilies, including 23 families in 118 genera of true water mites (Hydrachnidia, Parasitengona, Acari. It also includes the references concerning the species, distribution in various regions of South America and –as far as known– habitat.

    At present, there are 916 species from several authors cataloged in 11 countries in South America. The degree of knowledge varies greatly from country to country, with numerous entries for Brazil and none for French Guiana.

    Las publicaciones de catálogos y listados de especies determinan una clara conexión entre taxonomía básica y temas

  6. Responses of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae) and Menacanthus stramineus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) to gradients of temperature, light, and humidity, with comments on microhabitat selection on chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbritter, D A; Mullens, B A

    2011-03-01

    Responses of the northern fowl mite (NFM), Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), and the chicken body louse (CBL), Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), to variation in temperature, light, and humidity were assessed in bioassays. The location on a continuous thermal gradient at which each ectoparasite arrested was recorded and analyzed. NFM adults arrested at an average temperature of 30.09 +/- 0.34 degrees C. Adult CBL and first-instar CBL nymphs arrested at 33.69 +/- 0.20 degrees C and 34.99 +/- 0.26 degrees C, respectively. Groups of each ectoparasite were placed into clear glass vials (n = 10/vial) with one half shaded, and vials were exposed to three light levels, as follows: high (200 micromolm(-2)s(-1)), low (4 micromolm(-2)s(-1)), and nearly no light (0 micromolm(-2)s(-1)). The vial cap edges provided an opportunity to assess the interactive effect of light with harborage. NFM avoided light and sought harborage. In low light, the harborage preference overrode the tendency to avoid light. CBL avoided the harborage and showed a minimal preference for light. A four-level humidity gradient was established in two separate experimental arenas for NFM and CBL. Trials were run in ambient light (4 micromolm(-2)s(-1)) for the NFM and in nearly no light for the CBL. The NFM gradient used 38 +/- 2%, 54 +/- 7%, 73 +/- 3%, and 90 +/- 4% RH, whereas the CBL gradient used 42 +/- 5%, 48 +/- 7%, 63 +/- 4%, and 73 +/- 5% RH. NFM showed no humidity response in the walking bioassay, but the CBL settled at the lowest humidity level. Temperature and humidity on different hen body regions were related to the bioassay results and observed on-host ectoparasite distributions. PMID:21485360

  7. Suppression of host-seeking Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs after dual applications of plant-derived acaricides in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert A; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Schulze, Terry L

    2011-04-01

    We evaluated the ability of dual applications of natural, plant-derived acaricides to suppress nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey. An aqueous formulation of 2% nootkatone provided >90% control of I. scapularis through 7 d. Control declined to 80.9% at 14 d, and a second application was made that provided >95% control through the remaining 4 wk of the nymphal season. Nootkatone provided >90% control of A. americanum through 35 d postapplication. Applications of 2% carvacrol and EcoTrol T&O resulted in rapid knockdown of both tick species, but control declined significantly to 76.7 and 73.7%, respectively, after 14 d when a second application was made that extended control of both tick species to between 86.2 and 94.8% at 21 d. Subsequently, control declined steadily in all plots by 42 d postapplication except for I. scapularis in carvacrol-treated plots, where levels of control >90% were observed through 35 d. Of the three compounds tested, 2% nootkatone provided the most consistent results, with 96.5 and 91.9% control of I. scapularis and A. americanum through 42 and 35 d, respectively. The ability of plant-derived natural products to quickly suppress and maintain significant control of populations of these medically important ticks may represent a future alternative to the use of conventional synthetic acaricides. In addition, the demonstrated efficacy of properly-timed backpack sprayer application may enable homeowner access to these minimal-risk acaricides. PMID:21510219

  8. A sustained release gel formulation of doramectin for control of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, K H; Miller, J A; Pound, J M; Klavons, J A

    2009-04-01

    A gel formulation formed by incorporating technical doramectin into a 10% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose aqueous solution was used to subcutaneously inject steers at varying dosages. Doramectin serum concentration of steers receiving 600 microg (AI)/kg body weight declined from 21.9 ppb at 0.5 wk to below detectable at 8 wk postinjection. The 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injection resulted in serum concentrations of 29.1 ppb at 0.5 wk and declined to 0.5 ppb at 8 wk postinjection. Both the 600 and 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injections provided 100% inhibition of index of fecundity (IF) in adult lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum L. (Acari: Ixodidae) through week 8, after which inhibition declined to 79.4 and 45.3%, respectively, during the 12th week posttreatment. For steers treated at 600 microg (AI)/kg, mortality of adult horn flies, Hematobia irritans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), declined from 16.9% during week 2 to 3.1% during week 7 postinjection. The blood from steers treated at 1,200 microg (AI)/kg resulted in a similar decline in mortality of blood fed adult horn flies from 29.4% during week 1 to 4.0% during week 7. The 600 microg (AI)/kg treatment provided complete control of larval horn flies in the manure for 9 wk, whereas the 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injection gave complete control for 14 wk posttreatment. The doramectin gel formulation provided long-lasting delivery of doramectin to cattle and extended control of lone star ticks and larval horn flies. Such a simple and inexpensive formulation could be useful in tick eradication programs by reducing the frequency of gathering cattle. PMID:19449664

  9. Sampling method evaluation and empirical model fitting for count data to estimate densities of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on 'Hass' avocado leaves in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesús R; Saremi, Naseem T; Castillo, Martin J; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important foliar spider mite pest of 'Hass' avocados in several commercial production areas of the world. In California (USA), O. perseae densities in orchards can exceed more than 100 mites per leaf and this makes enumerative counting prohibitive for field sampling. In this study, partial enumerative mite counts along half a vein on an avocado leaf, an industry recommended practice known as the "half-vein method", was evaluated for accuracy using four data sets with a combined total of more than 485,913 motile O. perseae counted on 3849 leaves. Sampling simulations indicated that the half-vein method underestimated mite densities in a range of 15-60 %. This problem may adversely affect management of this pest in orchards and potentially compromise the results of field research requiring accurate mite density estimation. To address this limitation, four negative binomial regression models were fit to count data in an attempt to rescue the half-vein method for estimating mite densities. These models were incorporated into sampling plans and evaluated for their ability to estimate mite densities on whole leaves within 30-tree blocks of avocados. Model 3, a revised version of the original half-vein model, showed improvement in providing reliable estimates of O. perseae densities for making assessments of general leaf infestation densities across orchards in southern California. The implications of these results for customizing the revised half-vein method as a potential field sampling tool and for experimental research in avocado production in California are discussed.

  10. Sampling method evaluation and empirical model fitting for count data to estimate densities of Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on 'Hass' avocado leaves in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesús R; Saremi, Naseem T; Castillo, Martin J; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important foliar spider mite pest of 'Hass' avocados in several commercial production areas of the world. In California (USA), O. perseae densities in orchards can exceed more than 100 mites per leaf and this makes enumerative counting prohibitive for field sampling. In this study, partial enumerative mite counts along half a vein on an avocado leaf, an industry recommended practice known as the "half-vein method", was evaluated for accuracy using four data sets with a combined total of more than 485,913 motile O. perseae counted on 3849 leaves. Sampling simulations indicated that the half-vein method underestimated mite densities in a range of 15-60 %. This problem may adversely affect management of this pest in orchards and potentially compromise the results of field research requiring accurate mite density estimation. To address this limitation, four negative binomial regression models were fit to count data in an attempt to rescue the half-vein method for estimating mite densities. These models were incorporated into sampling plans and evaluated for their ability to estimate mite densities on whole leaves within 30-tree blocks of avocados. Model 3, a revised version of the original half-vein model, showed improvement in providing reliable estimates of O. perseae densities for making assessments of general leaf infestation densities across orchards in southern California. The implications of these results for customizing the revised half-vein method as a potential field sampling tool and for experimental research in avocado production in California are discussed. PMID:26861068

  11. Controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 E Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae em cafeeiro e o impacto sobre ácaros benéficos: I - abamectin e emamectin Control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 and Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae in coffee plants and the impact on beneficial mites: I - Abamectin and emamectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rebelles Reis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae é importante em cafeeiro (Coffea spp., por ser o vetor do vírus da mancha-anular, responsável por queda de folhas e má qualidade da bebida do café, e o ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tetranychidae, por reduzir a área foliar de fotossíntese. Alguns ácaros da família Phytoseiidae são eficientes predadores associados aos ácaros-praga. Com este trabalho teve-se como objetivo estudar o controle dos ácaros-praga e o impacto do abamectin e emamectin sobre fitoseídeos. Em laboratório, foram estudados os efeitos ovicida, tópico, residual, tópico mais residual aos ácaros-praga e a seletividade fisiológica aos fitoseídeos. Em semicampo, foi estudada a persistência dos produtos no controle dos ácaros-praga. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado em ovos no início e fim de incubação; os efeitos residual, tópico e tópico mais residual foram avaliados pela mortalidade de larvas, ninfas e adultos após 48 horas da aplicação, enquanto a persistência foi avaliada pela mortalidade até 30 dias após a pulverização. A seletividade aos ácaros fitoseídeos foi avaliada pelo efeito total às fêmeas adultas, em teste residual em superfície de vidro. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que abamectin e emamectin não possuem ação ovicida, para ambas as espécies de ácaros-praga estudadas. Considerando o efeito tópico mais residual, o abamectin e emamectin foram altamente eficientes no controle de larvas, ninfas e adultos de B. phoenicis; apenas abamectin foi eficiente no controle de O. ilicis. Abamectin foi levemente a moderadamente nocivo e emamectin mostrou-se inócuo a levemente nocivo aos fitoseídeos. Devido à eficiência de controle e seletividade a fitoseídeos, conclui-se que abamectin e emamectin podem ser utilizados em programas de manejo integrado do ácaro B. phoenicis, e abamectin para o manejo de B. phoenicis e O. ilicis em cafeeiro

  12. Biology of three species of Agistemus (Acari: Stigmaeidae): life table parameters using eggs of Panonychus citri or pollen of Malephora crocea as food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldarazena, Arturo; Aguilar, Hugo; Kutuk, Halil; Childers, Carl C

    2004-01-01

    The biology and life table parameters of Agistemus industani Gonzalez, A. cyprius Gonzalez, and A. floridanus Gonzalez (Acari: Stigmaeidae) were studied under laboratory conditions using two food sources: Panonychus citri (McGregor) eggs or ice plant, Malephora crocea (Jacquin) Schwantes pollen at 25 degrees C. The larval, protonymph, deutonymph, and adult stages of A. industani fed on citrus red mite eggs. All active stages of A. industani, except the larva, fed on all P. citri stages and the larval stage could not feed on P. citri adults. All immature stages of A. industani fed on M. crocea pollen. Agistemus cyprius larvae fed on P. citri eggs and larvae or ice plant pollen. The nymphal stages fed on P. citri eggs, larvae, and protonymphs but not deutonymphs or adults while A. cyprius deutonymphs and adults fed on all P. citri stages. Adult and nymphal stages of A. cyprius fed on ice plant pollen and successfully completed their development while A. floridanus did not. Agistemus floridanus larvae fed only on P. citri eggs, while the other stages fed on P. citri eggs, larvae, and protonymphs. The developmental times from egg to adult for A. industani and A. cyprius when fed M. crocea pollen were 11.3 and 13.4 days, respectively. Agistemus floridanus was unable to complete its life cycle on a diet of only M. crocea pollen. Agistemus industani, A. cyprius, and A. floridanus completed development from egg to adult in 11.7, 13.8, and 10.8 days, respectively, when fed P. citri eggs. The intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)) values for A. cyprius and A. industani were 0.0311 and 0.1201 per day on the pollen diet. The net reproductive rate (Ro) was 3.58 for A. cyprius and 10.07 for A. industani with generation times (T) of 45.2 and 35.1 days, respectively, on the ice plant pollen diet. The r(m) values for A. cyprius, A. floridanus, and A. industani on the P. citri egg only diet were: 0.0562, 0.1001, and 0.1031 per day, respectively. The Ro values for each species fed P

  13. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade, detecção e monitoramento da resistência de Tetranychus urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir Selections for resistance and susceptibility, detection and monitoring of resistance to the acaricide chlorfenapyr in Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Eidi Sato; Marcos Zatti da Silva; Katia Gigliola Cangani; Adalton Raga

    2007-01-01

    Problemas com resistência de ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), a acaricidas têm sido registrados em diversos países, inclusive no Brasil. O estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a resistência de T. urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir e avaliar a freqüência de resistência a esse composto em áreas comerciais de seis culturas no Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade a clorfenapir foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de...

  14. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae infesting humans in Northwestern Córdoba province, Argentina Garrapatas infestando humanos en el noroeste de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Santiago

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ticks infesting humans were collected from September 2004 to August 2005 in Northwestern Córdoba in an area with a southern limit in the locality of Dean Funes (30°25´S 64°20´W and San José de las Salinas (30°00´S 64°37´W in the North. The collections consisted in ticks found attached on man obtained from three sources: 1 specimens fixed on two workers during two successive days per month of field work in the northern part of the area which belongs to Western Chaco district of the phytogeographical Chaco domain, 2 ticks attached to a man working in a farm close to Dean Funes in the Chaco Serrano district of the Chaco domain and, 3 ticks collected from a collaborator visiting daily a suburban property with dogsin the vicinities of Dean Funes. Most ticks collected were larvae, nymphs and adults of Amblyomma neumanni from the Chaco Serrano district where a nymph of Otobius megnini was also found on man. Adults of Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma tigrinum were detected feeding on humans in the Western Chaco district and in the property close to Dean Funes, respectively. Amblyomma neumanni was absent on man from December to April while most specimens of A. parvum and A. tigrinum were collected during summer. Their role as potential vector of ticktransmitted diseases in the area is unknown.Se recolectaron garrapatas (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae infestando humanos entre septiembre de 2004 y agosto de 2005 en un área del noroeste de Córdoba cuyo límite al sur es la localidad Deán Funes (30º25´S 64°20´W y el límite al norte es la localidad de San José de las Salinas (30°00´S 64°37´W. Las colecciones consistieron en garrapatas fijadas a humanos obtenidas de tres fuentes: 1 garrapatas fijadas sobre dos trabajadores durante dos días sucesivos por mes de trabajo de campo en la parte norte del área, la cual pertenece al distrito chaqueño occidental del dominio fitogeográfico del Chaco, 2 garrapatas fijadas a un trabajador en

  15. KURU MEYVE AKARI Carpoglyphus Lactis (L.) (Acari :Carpoglyphidae)’ İN FARKLI SICAKLIK VE NEM ORTAMLARINDAKİ GELİŞMESİ ÜZERİNE ARAŞTIRMALAR

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLDALI, Begül

    2007-01-01

    Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Bitki Koruma bölümünde yürütülen bu çalışmada Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) (Acari :Carpoglyphidae)’ in 18°C , 23°C ve 28 °C sıcaklık değerlerinde ve %65 ve % 80 orantılı nem değeri kombinasyonlarında biyolojik özellikleri incelenmiştir. Akarın gelişme süresi 5- 12 gün arasında değişmektedir. Sıcaklık ve orantılı nem artışıyla birlikte gelişme süresi kısalmıştır. Ergin ömür uzunluğu 11-68 gün arasında değişim göstermiştir. en uzun ergin ömrü 18°C ve % 65 ...

  16. Influence de l'âge de la feuille sur les paramètres biologiques et les populations de l'acarien vert du manioc Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: tetranychidae

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    Badegana, AM.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Leaf Age on the Cassava Green Mite Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae Biological Parameters and Population Growth Rates. The study of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf age effect on Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar biological parameters and population growth rates was studied in laboratory (T= 24-26 °C; RH= 70-90%. The local Dschang cultivar was used and the study concerned the 15, 40, 65, 90 and 115 days old leaves. The results obtained show that the egg incubation duration was the longest (6.4 days and that of the deutonymph stage the shortest one (1.9 days. The hatching rate was very high (98%. There was no significant difference (p= 0.05 between the developmental stages of M. tanajoa reared on the leaves of different ages. On the contrary fecundity whatever it is daily or total was high on young leaves and small on the old ones. The correlation coefficient between the leaf age and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm was -0.896 and that obtained between the net reproduction rate (Ro and the leaf age -0.966. These coefficients are negative and in absolute value near to one; which shows that the more the leaf is old, the more the M. tanajoa population growth is little. The M. tanajoa population growth is therefore fast on young leaves and slow on the old ones.

  17. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

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    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  18. In vitro activity of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis and ecdysis of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick.

  19. Detection of protozoans Babesia microti and [i]Toxoplasma gondii[/i] and their co-existence in ticks (Acari: Ixodida collected in Tarnogórski district (Upper Silesia, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Asman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida are vectors of many pathogens i. a: [i]Babesia microti [/i][Bm] and [i]Toxoplasma gondii[/i] [Tg]. In Poland, Ixodes ricinus [Ir] is the main vector of both pathogens. This tick species and pathogens transmitted by them are a significant threat to human and animal health. objectives of the study. Detection of the protozoans Bm and Tg in ticks collected in the Tarnogórski district area. [b]Material and methods[/b]. The ticks were collected from vegetation and pets in the spring period of their activity on the territory of the Tarnogórski district. The parasites were preserved in 70% ethanol. DNA was isolated by ammonia method. Bm was detected by nested-PCR using specific primers for the 18S rRNA sequence. To detect the Tg a commercial kit was used. The PCR products were separated on 2% ethidium bromide stained agarose gels and visualised under UV light. [b]Results[/b]. It was showed that all collected ticks belonged to the species Ir. Bm was detected in 50.87% and Tg in 64.91% of all examined ticks. Co-existence of these both protozoans in 36.84% of total examined ticks was noted. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The study showed a high risk of exposure to Bm and Tg in the studied area. Ticks Ir play an important role in the transmission of Bm in this region. Demonstrating a high percentage of ticks collected from animals infected with Tg may indicate their important role in the transmission of this pathogen, but it requires a further studies.

  20. Influence de l'usage préventif des pesticides sur les acariens Tetranychus urticae et Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari : Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae présents en cultures de fraisiers du Nord du Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagziri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of previous pesticide use on Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae from strawberry crops in the north of Morocco. Description of the subject. Effects of recommended doses of five common pesticides in the strawberries of Loukkos area (Morocco were tested on the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and its predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Laboratory study assessed the contact toxicity of one avermectin miticide (abamectin, two pyrethrinoid insecticide-acaricides (bifenthrin and lambda-cyalothrin, and two fungicides: firstly, mancozeb, which belongs to the dithiocarbamates family of chemicals and secondly, hexaconazole, of the triazole family. Objectives. The aim of the present study was to test in laboratory conditions the effect of five pesticides on the two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae and its predatory mite, P. persimilis. The five pesticides tested were those most frequently applied for at least two years on strawberries at the experimental site. Method. Bioassays were performed with populations of mites originating from different plots with various crop protection backgrounds. The first group of plots had been repeatedly treated with the five tested pesticides during a two-year period, the second group had been moderately treated, and the third had been treated once with the tested pesticides. Results. Our results showed that the tested pesticides provided effective control of T. urticae but that they were not compatible with use on the predatory mite P. persimilis, as these particular mites did not usually come into contact with these products. On the other hand, in plots where pesticides had been used for a long time, the susceptibility of P. persimilis populations to these products was significantly reduced. Conclusions. If the tested pesticides are to be considered for integrated pest control programs in plots where they have been used for a long time and where P

  1. Sensibilité à Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari : Tetranychidae de quelques cultivars de manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz et incidence des attaques sur le rendement, dans la région des hauts plateaux de l'Ouest Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensibility to Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar (Acari : Tetranychidae of some Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Cultivars and Effect of Damage on Yield Loss in the Cameroonian Western High-lands. The study of the sensibility towards the green mite Mononychellus tanajoa Bondar of some cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivars and the assessment of the effect of damage on the yield losses was carried out in the Western highlands of Cameroon. Four cassava cultivars were used : two local (Dschang and Njombe and two improved varieties (IITA 8017 and IITA 82516. The results obtained showed that the density (mites number/cm2 of leaf area was low during the rainy season and high during the dry season, which means that rains reduce the mite population by washing or lead the mites to death. The highest mean density (3.40 mites/cm2 of leaf area was obtained on the local Njombe cultivar which is consequently the most sensitive. On the contrary, the local Dschang cultivar, with the lowest mite density (1.40 mites/cm2 of leaf area was the most resistant followed by the IITA 8017 cultivar (1.74 mites/cm2. The IITA82516 cultivar had a mean density of2.65 mites/cm2. Yield losses ranged from 36.90 % for IITA 8017 (1.74 mites/cm2 and damages level of 2.75 to 58.70 % for local Dschang (3.40 mites/cm2 and damages level of 3.84. Local Dschang cultivar (1.40 mites/cm2 and damage level of 2.96 and IITA 82516 (2.65 mites/cm2 and damage level of 2.96 had a yield losse of38.10 % and 41.80 %. The results showed that higher the mite density and damage level are, higher is the yield loss, unless the cultivar is tolerant.

  2. Effects of Tobacco Bacterial Wilt on the Abundance of Acari and Collembola in Tobacco Rhizosphere Soil%烟草青枯病危害对烟株根际土壤螨类和弹尾虫发生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白耀宇; 庞帅; 李石力; 丁伟

    2015-01-01

    为了明确烟草青枯病的危害对烟株根际土壤螨类和弹尾虫发生的影响,于2013年7-9月在重庆市彭水县烟区青枯病发病典型试验地进行了调查,共捕获土壤动物27169头,其中螨类和弹尾虫共占86%~99%.研究结果表明,在发病初期,发病烟株(3级以下)根际土中螨类和弹尾虫的数量与健康植株相比差异均不具有统计学意义(p>0.05);在发病中期,仅3级以下烟株0~10 cm根际土中的螨类和弹尾虫数量显著高于5~7级和9级(p<0.05);但在发病后期,无论是0~10 cm还是10~20 cm的3级以下烟株的螨类数量均显著高于5~7级和9级( p<0.05),而9级的弹尾虫数量显著高于3级以下和5~7级(p<0.05);随着发病时间的推移,根际土中螨类和弹尾虫的比值随着青枯病危害程度的加剧而显著降低(p<0.05).青枯病危害强烈影响根际土壤螨类和弹尾虫的发生.%During July‐September ,2013 ,field studies were conducted at Pengshui County in Chongqing , China ,to assess the potential effects of tobacco bacterial wilt on abundance of Acari and Collembola in to‐bacco rhizosphere soil .A total of 27 ,169 soil animals were collected ,86 -99% of which was Acari and Collembola .The results showed that the abundance of Acari or Collembola in tobacco rhizosphere soil did not significantly increased in the disease plants than its control at the early stage of the diseased ( p >0.05) .The abundance of Acari and Collembola in 0-10 cm rhizosphere soil of the 9 level of damage in the disease plants significantly increased than those of the below 3 level and 5-7 level of damage at the mid‐term of the diseased (p<0.05) .At the later period of the diseased ,the abundance of Acari in 0-10 cm or 10-20 cm rhizosphere soil of the below 3 level of damage in the diseased both significantly increased than those of the 5-7 level and the 9 level of damage ;while those of

  3. 论格里高利圣咏%On the Music Shape of Gregorian Chant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波

    2012-01-01

    格里高利圣咏一直是西方音乐的核心与重要资源,在其形成的悠久历史过程中,格里高利圣咏不仅为西方众多作曲家们提供了丰富的写作素材,同时也给他们带来无数创作灵感.本文试图通过分析格里高利圣咏的记谱、调武、旋律线条、终止式与结构形态等等,比较格里高利圣咏四方形记谱与现代五线谱记谱之间的利与弊,阐释圣咏谱面背后的神秘艺术思维,阐明其独特的音乐风格,为高等音乐院校研究西方音乐,提供重要的参考信息.

  4. 如何在语音教学中使用Jazz Chants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈娜; 孟燕只

    2009-01-01

    Jazz Chants因其节奏活泼明快,内容贴近生活,又反映了一些语音朗读技巧,因此可以应用在语音教学中.它不仅可以活跃课堂气氛,还可以让学生更有效的掌握相关语音知识.

  5. Edward Burne-Jones’ Art and Music: A Chant of Love

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    Liana De Girolami Cheney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines Edward Burne-Jones’ (August 28, 1833–June 17, 1898 artistic concepts of ut pictura poesis (as is painting, so is poetry and ut pictura musica (as is painting so is music, a comparison of poetry, music, and painting depicted in his imagery of the Female Musician of 1866 (at the Whitworth Art Gallery in Manchester, UK, Fig. 1, and Music of 1877 (at the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, UK, Fig. 2.  The comparison or paragone between music and art is viewed here in two ways: 1 in a natural realm as an expression of love for a muse, Maria Cassavetti Zambaco; and 2 in a metaphysical realm as a vehicle of artist expression for depicting beauty. Painting and music are then poetical guidance for Burne-Jones’ manifestation of love. Maria is Burne-Jones’ model, muse, and sorceress. His paintings are depictions of musical scenes that capture a poetical world of ardent and endless love, as well the world of the senses, a physical realm, and the world of aesthetics, a metaphysical realm.

  6. "The Tools of Your Chants and Spells": Stories of Madwomen and Indian Practical Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    A longstanding trope in Indian psychiatry, and in popular representations of it, involves the efficacy of incantations and exorcism in healing afflictions of the mind, notably hysteria. In many accounts, from nineteenth century medical journals to twenty-first century popular films, a medicine deemed at once 'Western' and universal is granted the ability to diagnose neurotic afflictions, but rendered incapable of curing them, while bodily techniques referred to as 'Indian' are granted efficacy. In this article, I explore the subtleties and implications of this recurrent knowledge paradigm. I argue that a particular arrangement-one in which difference is established through equivalence-undergirds the terms by which medicine comes to be viewed as a cultural encounter. As these progressive formulations are often founded on stories about women's madness, I ask, what are the implications of an arguably pragmatic ethos founded on an uneven-and deeply gendered-resolution to postcolonial knowledge problems? PMID:26263046

  7. THE RELATION BETWEEN CHANT AND MYTY ON THE AIKEWÁRA RITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Matta da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the group of tradicional knowledges that include the most varied fields of the knowledge of the indigenous people the song (music doesn't present a status differentiated as it happens in our society, but it is associated to other practices as the construction of the musical instruments, the narration of the myths, the performance of the dances and rituals. Based in the oral tradition of Aikewára the article emphases the relationship between song and myth to analize the integration and interaction and the Sapurahái of Karuára.

  8. A Study of Post-colonialism in the Identity Recreation of The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱伟

    2012-01-01

    Facing with the dominant western culture,the once being colonized people begin to doubt their identity belonging.Suffering a wide spread loss of identity belonging,they are eager to set and recreate their personal identity.

  9. Localisation, caractérisation et reconnaissance de voix chantées

    OpenAIRE

    Regnier, Lise

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the problem of describing the singing voice within the audio signal of a song. This work is motivated by the fact that the lead vocal is the element that attracts the attention of most listeners. For this reason it is common for music listeners to organize and browse music collections using information related to the singing voice such as the singer name. Our research concentrates on the three major problems of music information retrieval: the localization ...

  10. Chants des minorités des Hauts Plateaux du Nord Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Trân Quang Hai,

    2012-01-01

    Jusqu’à présent on peut trouver plusieurs disques sur la musique de cour, la musique de chambre et la musique de théâtre du Viêt Nam, principalement produits, en tant que collecteurs ou interprètes, par Trân Van Khê et l’auteur de ces lignes. Un disque sur la musique des Mnong Gar, montagnards du Centre Viêt Nam, a jadis été édité par Ocora à partir d’enregistrements de Georges Condominas, mais c’est à ma connaissance la première fois qu’un disque sur la musique des minorités du Nord Viêt Nam...

  11. When did the practice of eunuch singers in Byzantine chant begin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Forfattereren fremfører argumenter for, at den 'tilbagedatering' af kastrat-sang i de byzantinske kirker til 300-tallet, som i gennem nogle år har været ret udbredt i forskningslitteraturen, er meget problematisk....

  12. A comparative study of the dynamics of Wolbachia infection in different populations of Tetranychus urticae (Acari : Tetranychidae)%共生菌Wolbachia在中国二斑叶螨种群中的扩散规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢蓉蓉; 陈小琳; 孙荆涛; 洪晓月

    2013-01-01

    共生菌Wolbachia在中国二斑叶螨Tetranychus urticae Koch中分布广泛,所有的地理种群中均感染Wolbachia.以二斑叶螨湖南长沙(HN),辽宁兴城(LN)和江苏徐州(JS)3个地理种群为实验材料,经筛选获得100%感染和不感染Wolbachia的品系后,人工设置Wolbachia感染率为50%的品系,通过PCR技术检测二斑叶螨连续世代Wolbachia感染率动态变化,研究Wolbachia在二斑叶螨种群中的扩散规律.结果表明:3个地理种群的垂直传播效率都为100%;HN种群Wolbachia感染率上升速度最快,F7代达到100%感染;LN种群F12达到100%感染;而JS地理种群中Wolbachia感染率速度上升最慢,在F20代达到100%感染,其后感染率均能稳定在100%.LN种群Wolbachia通过诱导胞质不亲和的策略,JS种群的Wolbachia通过提高寄主适合度的策略,而HN种群Wolbachia则通过诱导胞质不亲和与提高寄主适合度两者相结合的策略,最终达到在二斑叶螨中维持感染状态并扩散传播的目的.本研究结果为今后利用Wolbachia的扩散规律控制有害生物及疾病传播提供了基础.%Maternally inherited Wolbachia bacteria are widely distributed in Chinese populations of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari; Tetranychidae). All populations were found to be infected with Wolbachia. Using the Hunan ( HN) , Liaoning ( LN ) and Jiangsu ( JS) populations of T. urticae as experimental subjects, 100% Wolbachia-infected and 100% uninfected spider mite lines were obtained by screening. This study investigated the dynamics of Wolbachia spread in the two-spotted spider mite. Infection frequencies of Wolbachia among the progenies of the artificial populations, initiated with 50% infected and 50% uninfected female adults, were monitored by PCR. The results show 100% maternal transmission in all three populations. The rate of spread was fastest in the HN population in which the infection rate reached 100% by the F7

  13. Caracterização de um vírus baciliforme isolado de Solanum violaefolium transmitido pelos ácaros Brevipalpus phoenicis e Brevipalpus obovatus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae Characterization of a bacilliform virus isolated from Solanum violaefolium transmitted by the tenuipalpid mites Brevipalpus phoenicis and Brevipalpus obovatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Oliveira Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Solano-violeta (Solanum violaefolium é uma planta ornamental rasteira usada para cobrir solos de áreas sombreadas. Um vírus que induz manchas anelares nas folhas desta planta, tentativamente designado Solanum violaefolium ringspot virus - SvRSV, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae foi encontrado em Piracicaba, SP. Trata-se de um vírus baciliforme que se assemelha a outros vírus do tipo citoplasmático transmitidos por Brevipalpus sp. Este trabalho teve como objetivo relatar propriedades biológicas e estabelecer uma caracterização molecular parcial do SvRSV. O vírus pode ser transmitido mecanicamente a várias outras espécies botânicas, causando lesões localizadas. Entre as espécies avaliadas, Datura stramonium mostrou-se a melhor hospedeira experimental. Observou-se também a manifestação de sintomas nestas plantas após infestação das mesmas por B. obovatus previamente alimentado em lesões de SvRSV, confirmando esta outra espécie de ácaro como vetor do vírus. Suas propriedades físicas in vitro foram: temperatura de inativação 40-45 ºC; ponto final de diluição 10-3-10-4; longevidade in vitro 12 dias. Em secções ultrafinas, as partículas do SvRSV mostraram-se levemente mais delgadas e mais longas que as de outros vírus do mesmo grupo. A partir do dsRNA do SvRSV foi construída uma biblioteca de cDNA e foram identificadas duas possíveis regiões codificadoras das proteínas de movimento e replicase viral. Baseado nestas regiões foram desenhados "primers" para amplificação do RNA do SvRSV por RT-PCR. Sondas baseadas nas seqüências obtidas hibridizaram com ss- e dsRNA de D. stramonium infectadas pelo vírus. Ensaios preliminares de RT-PCR e hibridização não resultaram em reação com o vírus da leprose dos citros, tipo citoplasmático (CiLV-C.Solanum violaefolium is an ornamental plant, with prostrate, trailing growth habit and is cultivated in shaded areas. A virus that causes

  14. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade, detecção e monitoramento da resistência de Tetranychus urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir Selections for resistance and susceptibility, detection and monitoring of resistance to the acaricide chlorfenapyr in Tetranychus urticae koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Eidi Sato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Problemas com resistência de ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, a acaricidas têm sido registrados em diversos países, inclusive no Brasil. O estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a resistência de T. urticae ao acaricida clorfenapir e avaliar a freqüência de resistência a esse composto em áreas comerciais de seis culturas no Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência e suscetibilidade a clorfenapir foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de T. urticae coletada em 2002 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Holambra (SP. Após seis seleções para resistência e cinco seleções para suscetibilidade, foram obtidas as linhagens suscetível (S e resistente (R de T. urticae a clorfenapir. A razão de resistência (CL50 R/ CL50 S obtida alcançou valores de 571 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 37,4 mg L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a. para o monitoramento da resistência de T. urticae a clorfenapir. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 21 populações de ácaros em áreas comerciais de diferentes culturas (mamão, morango, feijão, tomate, crisântemo, rosa, em vários municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Arenas confeccionadas com folha de feijão foram infestadas com ácaros T. urticae e pulverizadas com clorfenapir, na sua concentração discriminatória, em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram grande variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a clorfenapir. Foram observadas populações com freqüências de resistência entre 0,0 e 65,4%. As maiores freqüências de resistência foram observadas para populações coletadas de crisântemo em Holambra (SP.Problems associated with acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae Koch have been recorded in several countries including Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize the resistance of T. urticae to the acaricide chlorfenapyr and to evaluate the resistance

  15. 二斑叶螨两种群中Wolbachia诱导的胞质不亲和作用的影响因子比较研究%A comparative study of factors influencing the expression of Wolbachiainduced cytoplasmic incompatibility in two populations of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch ( Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆明红; 谢蓉蓉; 赵臻君; 于明志; 薛晓峰; 洪晓月

    2011-01-01

    The cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common effect of Wolbachia on the reproduction of its arthropod hosts, and the expression of CI differs greatly among different populations. Using the Jiangsu (JS) and Liaoning (LN) populations of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) , as experimental materials, 100% infected and uninfected Wolbachia lines were obtained by screening. The present study tried to evaluate some factors influencing the expression of CI in the spider mite by crossing experiment and Real-time quantitative PCR. These factors include age of host, temperature, host genes and Wolbachia density. The 1, 3, 5, 7-day-old virgin males were used to investigate the influence of host age on Wolbachia-induced CI. The results showed no effect of age on CI, suggesting that host age does not reduce the sperm modification induced by Wolbachia. The effect of temperatures (20℃, 25℃ and 30℃ ) on the CI induced by Wolbachia was also checked. Neither high nor low temperatures influenced the expression of CI. Wolbachia density in males of the JS population, as measured by quantitative PCR using the wsp (surface protein of Wolbachia) gene, was significantly higher than that in the LN population. In addition, in both the JS and LN populations, Wolbachia density increased with the age of male hosts. Wolbachia density also showed no effect on CI. We estimated the variability of CI expression between the JS and LN population of T. Urticae was due to the interaction between Wolbachia and host genotypes. The results might provide foundation for understanding the mechanisms of reproductive manipulation induced by Wolbachia.%Wolbachia诱导胞质不亲和(cytoplasmic incompatibility,CI)是对寄主的生殖调控中最常见的一种方式,在不同种群中CI表达的差异较大.以二斑叶螨Tetranychus urticae辽宁兴城(LN)和江苏徐州(JS)两个地理种群为实验材料,经筛选获得100%感染Wolbachia和不感

  16. Hidden traditional and contemporary vocal articulations in singing voice : Articulations vocales cachées dans la voix chantée traditionnelle et contemporaine

    OpenAIRE

    Pillot-Loiseau, Claire; Crevier-Buchman, Lise

    2013-01-01

    International audience Classical singing is known to be defined with a scholarly tradition. This vocal technique is primarily written transmitted, while modern singing variety is essentially composed by oral tradition and transmission. Traditional singing contained various popular cultures: its transmission is essentially spontaneous and oral. Contemporary music, initially music for only ”expert” people, and with written transmission, often borrows from other technical characteristics, par...

  17. Application of Jazz Chants in English Phonetic Training%Jazz Chants在英语语音训练中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元春

    2011-01-01

    语音技能是非英语专业学生亟待解决的问题.在多元智能理论理指导下,将Jazz Chants用于自主语音训练.通过对比实验发现:与传统语音训练形式相比Jazz Chants在语音语调、语音节奏能力提高方面具有比较大的优势,而在单词正音方面的作用不明显;教师要根据学生语音实际状况,把Jazz Chants与传统的语音训练形式有效结合,切实提高学生的英语语音能力.

  18. Joaquín Nin y su legado: Valoración crítica y perspectivas de estudio en torno a Vingt chants populaires espagnols (1923)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Alejo, Liz Mary

    2015-01-01

    La producción artística e intelectual de Joaquín Nin (La Habana, 1879-1949) comprende música para diversos formatos—piano, voz y piano, voz y conjunto instrumental, violín y piano, violoncello y piano, entre otras combinaciones instrumentales—, ensayos estéticos, artículos de interés musicológico y ediciones críticas de obras para tecla del siglo XVIII. El hecho de que su legado se halle disperso en bibliotecas de distintos países, distantes entre sí, ha impedido el estudio sistémico de su pe...

  19. La portée de la voix parlée et chantée : aspects scientifiques et rééducatifs

    OpenAIRE

    Pillot-Loiseau, Claire; Vaissière, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    ISBN 978-2-914121-91-0 This study illustrates how research can clarify the vocal therapy practice in the field of the spoken and sung voice carrying power. The vocal effectiveness means a voice: 1) which carries 2) without effort. It's a very frequent demand of the patients with spoken and sung voice disorders coming by the voice therapist. It is a question of " making the effort not to take it " (Rameau, 1760). 1) "Make the effort" means a specific vocal gesture: a laryngeal lowering is i...

  20. Un chant déraciné ? La poésie bourguignonne d’expression française face à Charles Quint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Doudet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avec le départ de Charles Quint pour l’Espagne, la littérature de cour bourguignonne entre dans une double crise : le prince est désormais absent ; les écrivains ne possèdent plus le prestigieux statut d’historien et de poète officiel dont ont joui leurs prédécesseurs. À l’occasion de la victoire de Pavie en 1525, Julien Fossetier rédige De la glorieuse victoire divinement obtenue devant Pavie par l’empereur Charles Quint et Nicaise Ladam le Memoire de l’Aigle et de la Salamandre. Une étude comparée de ces deux œuvres permet d’interroger les stratégies d’adresses des poètes à leur lointain destinataire, les récritures par lesquelles ils travaillent l’héritage encomiastique bourguignon et se confrontent à la littérature contemporaine venue de France. Chanter Charles en héritier bourguignon, le rêver en monarque universel donne à la langue française sa place dans la culture littéraire impériale, celle d’un terrain d’affrontements avec les écrivains du royaume voisin. Il s’y dessine une culture francophone aujourd’hui méconnue.Con la partida de Carlos V para España, la literatura de la corte borgoñona entra en una doble crisis: el príncipe se ha vuelto ausente; los escritores ya no ostentan el prestigioso estatus de historiador y de poeta oficial del que gozaron sus predecesores. Con la victoria de Pavía, en 1525, Julien Fossetier compone De la glorieuse victoire divinement obtenue devant Pavie par l’empereur Charles Quint y Nicaise Ladam el Memoire de l’Aigle et de la Salamandre. Un careo de ambas obras permite analizar las estrategias de los poetas al dirigirse a su lejano destinatario, las rescrituras a las que someten la herencia encomiástica borgoñona y el modo en que rivalizan con la literatura contemporánea que les viene de Francia. Cantar a Carlos como heredero de Borgoña, soñarle como monarca universal, confiere a la lengua francesa su lugar en la cultura literaria imperial, que constituye un terreno de enfrentamiento con los escritores del reino vecino. Se dibuja, así, una cultura francófona hoy día desconocida.

  1. Can exotic phytoseiids be considered 'benevolent invaders' in perennial cropping systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palevsky, Eric; Gerson, Uri; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-02-01

    Numerous natural enemies were adopted worldwide for the control of major pests, including exotic phytoseiid species (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) that had been moved from continent to continent in protected and perennial agricultural systems. However, relatively fewer successes were recorded in perennial agricultural systems. In this manuscript we focus on the question: Can and will exotic phytoseiids provide better pest control than indigenous species in perennial agricultural systems? To answer this question, we review the efficacy of biological control efforts with phytoseiids in several case studies, where exotic and indigenous species were used against pests on indigenous host plants and some crops that were historically or recently introduced. Related factors affecting predator establishment, such as intraguild predation and pesticide effects are discussed, as well as the potential negative effects of exotic species releases on biological control and their impact on the indigenous natural fauna. On citrus, apple, grape and cassava exotic phytoseiids have enhanced biological control without negatively affecting indigenous species of natural enemies, except for the case of Euseius stipulatus (Athias-Henriot) on citrus that displaced Euseius hibisci (Chant) in a limited region of coastal California, USA, the latter considered to be an inferior biocontrol agent of Panonychus citri Koch. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot on gorse, an invasive weed, is perhaps the only recorded case of a negative effect of an established exotic phytoseiid on biological control. PMID:22669275

  2. Hypopi (Acari: Hypoderatidae) of the wood stork (Aves: Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Danny B.; Thomas, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    A new species is described and additional host records are presented for 2 other species of deutonymphs of the family Hypoderatidae from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. Phalacrodectes (Phalacrodectes) mycteria n. sp. appears to share affinities with species from both pelicaniform and ciconiiform hosts, but it most closely resembles P. (P.) punctatissimus (Černý) Pence & Courtney from pelicans in idiosomal chaetotaxy, cutdcular sclerotization, and posteriorly divergent, widely separated genital openings. The new species differs from this and other species of the genus by its small size, the degree of separation of the genital openings with papillae, no secondary sclerotization in the perigenital area or surrounding the genital openings, and the long filiform setae s and w on genu III. There was a mixed infection of Neottialges kutzeri Fain and N. mycteriae Pence in all of 7 wood storks examined from Florida and Georgia; P. (P) mycteria was found in 4 of these hosts. This is the 7th species described as a deutonymph in the genus Phalacrodectes. The apparent close affinity of P. (P.) mycteria with P. (P.) punctatissimus and allied species from pelicaniform versus ciconiiform birds appears to be inconsistent with the established host-parasite relationships based on classical avian taxonomic relationships. However, this apparent affinity may be more reflective of the close relationships between the families of pelicans, ibises and spoonbills, and storks as recently proposed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies.

  3. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  4. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubala, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.skubala@us.edu.pl [Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zaleski, Tomasz [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Agricultural University in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K{sub av}, P{sub av}, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  5. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, S; Lareschi, M; Rebollo, C; Benítez Usher, C; Beati, L; Robbins, R G; Durden, L A; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A

    2007-04-01

    The ticks reported in Paraguay, which are here reviewed, can be categorized as 'endemic or established' (Argas persicus or a sibling species, Ornithodoros hasei, O. rostratus, O. rudis, O. talaje/O. puertoricensis, Amblyomma aureolatum, Am. auricularium, Am. brasiliense, Am. cajennense, Am. calcaratum, Am. coelebs, Am. dissimile, Am. dubitatum, Am. incisum, Am. longirostre, Am. nodosum, Am. ovale, Am. pacae, Am. parvum, Am. pseudoconcolor, Am. rotundatum, Am. scutatum, Am. tigrinum, Am. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, Ixodes loricatus, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Rh. sanguineus), 'probably endemic or established' (Ar. miniatus, Ar. monachus, Am. argentinae, Am. humerale, Am. naponense, Am. oblongoguttatum, Am. pseudoparvum, I. aragaoi/I. pararicinus, I. auritulus, I. luciae), or 'erroneously reported from Paraguay' (O. coriaceus, Am. americanum and Am. maculatum). Most Paraguayan tick collections have been made in the Chaco phyto-geographical domain, in the central part of the country. Argas persicus or a related species, Am. cajennense, D. nitens, Rh. microplus and Rh. sanguineus are important parasites of domestic animals. Ornithodoros rudis, Am. aureolatum, Am. brasiliense, Am. cajennense, Am. coelebs, Am. incisum, Am. ovale and Am. tigrinum have all been collected from humans. In terms of public health, the collections of Am. cajennense and Am. triste from humans may be particularly significant, as these species are potential vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Ri. parkeri, respectively.

  6. Three new rotundabaloghid mites (Acari, Uropodina from Sabah (Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenő Kontschán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the family Rotundabaloghiidae are discovered and described from Sabah, Malaysia. The unusual Angulobaloghia rutra sp. n. differs from the other known Angulobaloghia Hirschmann, 1979 species in the long anterior process of the female’s genital shield. Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia tobiasi sp. n. has very long and apically pilose dorsal setae and two pairs of bulbiform setae, which are unique in the subgenus Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia Hirschmann, 1975. The long, serrate and curved setae in the big ventral cavity of Depressorotunda (Depressorotunda serrata sp. n. is a so far unknown character in the subgenus Depressorotunda (Depressorotunda Kontschán, 2010.

  7. Global diversity of water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia; Arachnida) in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Di Sabatino; H. Smit; R. Gerecke; T. Goldschmidt; N. Matsumoto; B. Cicolani

    2008-01-01

    The Hydrachnidia (water mites) represent the most important group of the Arachnida in fresh water. Over 6,000 species have been described worldwide, representing 57 families, 81 subfamilies and more than 400 genera. The article analyzes extant water mite diversity and biogeography. Data on distribut

  8. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:26336223

  9. Reproductive morphology of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, J M; Oliver, J H

    1976-06-01

    The male reproductive system consists of paired tests, vasa deferentia and dark-staining lateral accessory glands, single ventromedial spongy accessory gland, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory apparatus, and gonopore. The female system consists of paired rami sacculi, sacculus foemineus, ovary (lyriform and medial portions), oviduct, vagina, and paired vaginal glands. PMID:932922

  10. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (Kav, Pav, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals — the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: ► Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. ► Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. ► Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. ► Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  11. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  12. Ixodid Ticks (Acari, Ixodidae in Urban Landscapes. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov I. А.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 % can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.

  13. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed. PMID:26250248

  14. Life Cycle of Amblyomma romitii (Acari: Ixodidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, G A; Luz, H R; Sampaio, J S; Faccini, J L H; Barros-Battesti, D M

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1939 is reported for the first time, using rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for larvae and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) for nymphs and adults, as experimental hosts. Developmental periods of free-living stages were observed in an incubator at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% relative humidity (RH), and 24-h darkness. The life cycle of A. romitii in the laboratory could be completed in an average period of 216.4 d. The overall sex ratio (M:F) was 1:1.4. The results showed that rabbits are quite suitable as experimental hosts for the larval stages of A. romitii, while capybaras are suitable experimental hosts for nymphs and adults. PMID:26487244

  15. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) associated with Compositae in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; Khanjani, Mohamad; Moghadam, Mohamad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Five species of eriophyoid mites were identified during surveys of mite fauna associated with plant species of the family Compositae from Southwest of East Azerbaijan province during 2010 and 2011. Two of them, Aceria virgatae n. sp. from Centaurea virgata Lam. and Aceria xeranthenzis n. sp. from Xeranthemumn squarrosum Boiss., were found to be new to science. No damage symptoms were observed on their host plants. Aceria xeranthemis n. sp. is the first eriophyoid collected from the plant genus Xeranthenun. Aculops centaureae (Farkas, 1960) from Centaurea albonitens Turrill and Aceria cichorii Petanović et al. 2000 from Cichorium intybus L. are new records for Iranian mite fauna. The deutogyne female of Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa) was recorded for the first time in Iran, too. A key to the species collected on Compositae in Iran is given. PMID:26266306

  16. Zetorchestes-Arten aus Neuguinea und Japan (Acari: Oribatida: Zetorchestidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krisper, G.

    1987-01-01

    A redescription of Zetorchestes saltator Oudemans, 1915 is given. In addition to that, two new Zetorchestes-species from New Guinea (Z. novaguineanus spec. nov., Z. vanderhammeni spec. nov.) and one new species from Japan (Z. aokii spec. nov.) are described in this paper. These four and some other s

  17. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?; Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Area de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: mguedes@depa.ufrpe.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  18. Life cycle of Ornithodoros mimon (Acari: Argasidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Pevidor, Luisa Vianna; Dos Santos Sampaio, Janio; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2012-09-01

    Ornithodoros mimon Kohls et al. is an argasid tick, originally described from larvae collected on bats from Bolivia and Uruguay. In Brazil the species is aggressive to humans and animals. Nymphs and adults of O. mimon were collected from the roof of a residence in Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, whose residents were bitten by ticks. Once in the laboratory, they were fed on rabbits and maintained in biological oxygen demand incubator at 27 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 10 % relative humidity. The females, after mating, laid eggs that resulted in larvae that were identified by the original description and also by the paratypes examination (RML 50271-50274) deposited at the United State National Tick Collection, Georgia, GA, USA. The life cycle of this species was obtained through the acquisition of two generations of ticks (F1 and F2) in the laboratory using rodents and rabbits as hosts. The biological parameters of larva, nymph and adult stages of both generations were recorded from infestations of the laboratory hosts. Larvae showed a profile of feeding for days on the host, whereas the nymphs and adults fed only for few minutes. First nymphal instar (N1) molted to second nymphal instar (N2) without blood meal. The species life cycle was elucidated for the first time. PMID:22570058

  19. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants. PMID:27395681

  20. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.

  1. Biological studies of Oligonychus punicae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on grapevine cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; Aponte, Orlando; Morales, José; Sanabria, María E; García, Grisaly

    2008-06-01

    Life cycle, fecundity and longevity of the avocado brown mite, Oligonychus punicae (Hirst), were studied on six grapevine cultivars (Tucupita, Villanueva, Red Globe, Sirah, Sauvignon and Chenin Blanc), under laboratory conditions at 27 +/- 2 degrees C, 80 +/- 10% RH, and L12:D12 photoperiod. Mite-infested leaves were collected from vineyards, placed in paper bags and taken to the laboratory. A laboratory mite culture was established using the grape cultivar Criolla Negra as host plant. To elucidate potential effects on avocado brown mite parameters, we assessed levels of secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and polyphenols, of leaves of the six grape cultivars, as well as the thickness of the adaxial cuticle-epidermis. The life cycle of O. punicae differed among cultivars with average values ranging between 8.2 days on Tucupita leaves and 9.1 days on Sirah. Relatively high fecundity was found on Tucupita leaves (2.8 eggs/female/day) during 11.4 oviposition days, while low fecundity values occurred on Sirah and Villanueva leaves, with 0.9 and 1.8 eggs/female/day during 7.9 and 6.7 days, respectively. Average longevity of O. punicae females ranged from 8.1 to 17.5 days on Sirah and Sauvignon leaves, respectively. Intrinsic rate of increase (r (m)) was highest on Sauvignon (0.292) and Tucupita (0.261), and lowest on Sirah (0.146) and Villanueva (0.135). Although significant differences in cuticle-epidermis thickness were detected among the six cultivars, it seemed not to affect mite parameters. Secondary metabolite content also varied between the cultivars. Generally, increasing flavonoid content coincided with decreasing reproductive parameters. The natural plant resistance observed in this study could be useful in the development of an integrated pest management program for mite pests in grape production. PMID:18483791

  2. Listado de oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida de Túnez

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    Subías, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The oribatid mites of several Tunisian soil samples were studied. 113 species were obtained, 95 of which are recorded for the first time from Tunisia. A systematic check-list with the 136 species known up to now is included, and their geographical distribution is given. Most of them, 77 (56%, have a typical Mediterranean distribution and 16 are recorded for the first time from North Africa.Se han estudiado los ácaros oribátidos de una serie de muestras de suelo de Túnez y se han identificado 113 especies, 95 de las cuales se citan por primera vez en Túnez. Se ha elaborado un listado sistemático en el que se incluyen las 136 especies conocidas hasta el momento y su distribución geográfica. La mayoría, 77 (56 %, presentan características típicamente mediterráneas, y 16 se citan por primera vez en el norte de África.

  3. Redefinition of the genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 (Acari: Actinedida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 is redefined from the study of the type-species, T. triophthalmus (Oudemans, 1929). The genus Metatriophtydeus André, 1980 is a junior synonym of Triophtydeus. Species belonging or likely to belong to the genus Triophtydeus are listed and generic and specific charac

  4. Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum (Shaw, 1794) (= Ch. venustissima) (Acari, Cheyletidae) on Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyndhoven, van G.L.

    1964-01-01

    As long ago as 1839 C. L. KOCH described and pictured a mite which he found on several occasions in stables and hay-barns. As he was impressed by the beauty of the animal, he gave it the name Cheyletus venustissimus. But KOCH overlooked the fact that already in 1794 a description of the same mite ha

  5. Artengliederung und Verbreitung der Gattung Zetorchestes in Europa (Acari, Oribatida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krisper, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a description of Zetorchestes grandjeani spec. nov.; it is identical with those animals which are called "l'espèce de Pise" by Grandjean (1951). Ζ. grandjeani differs from Ζ. flabrarius Grandjean, 1951 and from Z. falzonii Coggi, 1898 in showing a reduction of hairs in the posterior

  6. A supplementary description of Brevipalpus californicus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae

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    Mohammad Raissi Ardali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The false spider mite Brevipalpus californicus from the family Tenuipalpidae was collected from Caucasian alnus, White willow, Persian raspberry and a wild Chrysanthemum bush in Mazandaran province. This species is reported as a new record to the false spider mites-fauna of Iran here. Reviewing literatures revealed that it was briefly described in the original paper without any measures. So, a completed description is presented based on the Iranian specimens and different body segments are drawn for B. californicus. In addition, the above plants are new host records for B. californicus.

  7. Oribátidos (Acari, Oribatei de Fuerteventura (islas Canarias

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    Pérez-Iñigo, C.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The oribatid fauna from Fuerteventura (Canary Islands is studied for the first time; 86 species are recorded, from which 18 are new to the Science and two are new subspecies. Two new genera are erected: Passalobates n. gen. (Family Passalozetidae and Fuerteventuria n. gen. (Family Protoribatidae. Two species belonging to Ethiopic genera are described: Scutoverticosus insperatus n. sp. and Ethiovertex elisae n. sp. These genera contained until now the type species only.

    Se estudian por primera vez los ácaros oribátidos de Fuerteventura, y se citan 86 especies de las que 18 son nuevas para la Ciencia y dos son nuevas subespecies, y se establecen dos géneros nuevos: Passalobates n. gen. (Familia Passalozetidae y Fuerteventuria n. gen. (Familia Protoribatidae. Se describen dos especies de géneros etiópicos: Scutoverticosus insperatus n. sp. y Ethiovertex elisae n. sp., géneros que, hasta ahora, solo contaban con la especie tipo.

  8. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants.

  9. Primer registro de Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae) para México First record of Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Griselda Montiel-Parra; Helxine Fuentes-Moreno; Margarita Vargas

    2007-01-01

    En este estudio se aportan los primeros datos de la garrapata Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 en México. Un macho, 7 larvas y 15 ninfas se recolectaron en los estados de Nuevo León y Veracruz. Además, se registra al cacomixtle Bassariscus astutus como un nuevo huésped.The presence of Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 is documented for the first time in Mexico, based on one male, 7 larvae and 15 nymphs collected in Veracruz and Nuevo Leon. Additionally, cacomixtle (Bassariscus astutus) is presented as a...

  10. Primer registro de Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae para México First record of Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae in Mexico

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    Griselda Montiel-Parra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se aportan los primeros datos de la garrapata Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 en México. Un macho, 7 larvas y 15 ninfas se recolectaron en los estados de Nuevo León y Veracruz. Además, se registra al cacomixtle Bassariscus astutus como un nuevo huésped.The presence of Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 is documented for the first time in Mexico, based on one male, 7 larvae and 15 nymphs collected in Veracruz and Nuevo Leon. Additionally, cacomixtle (Bassariscus astutus is presented as a new host record.

  11. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  12. Ocorrência de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae Occurrence of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks (Acari, Tarsonemidae on leaves of I. cairica (Linnaeus Sweet (Solanales, Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozana M. de A. Maia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de três espécies acarinas fitófagas é relatada pela primeira vez sobre folhas de Ipomoea cairica. As espécies Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch e Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, foram coletadas sobre folhas de I. cairica nas imediações da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, em 20 de janeiro de 2005.The first occurrence of three phytophagus mites on Ipomoea cairica, is reported. The species Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, Tetranychus urticae (Koch and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks were caught on leaves of I. cairica, around Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, in January 20th, 2005.

  13. Toxicidade diferencial de agrotóxicos utilizados em citros para Neoseiulus californicus, Euseius concordis e Brevipalpus phoenicis

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    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae é considerada uma das principais pragas em citros no Brasil, devido à transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros e à necessidade de frequentes aplicações de acaricidas para seu controle. Assim, objetivou-se comparar a toxicidade dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros no Brasil, sobre populações de B. phoenicis e de ácaros predadores das espécies Neoseiuluscalifornicus (McGregor e Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Foram avaliadas duas populações de E. concordis: uma procedente de Jaboticabal (SP e outra de Descalvado (SP. Arenas de folhas (para fitoseídeos ou frutos (para B. phoenicis de Citrus sinensis Osbeck (L. cv. Pera, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de cada espécie foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. As avaliações de mortalidade foram realizadas 72 horas após a aplicação. Foram utilizadas 4 a 6 concentrações de cada produto (abamectina, acefato, azociclotina, bifentrina, clorfenapir, dicofol, dinocape, óxido de fembutatina, propargito e piridabem para a obtenção das curvas de concentração-resposta. Abamectina, azociclotina, clorfenapir, dicofol, dinocape, óxido de fembutatin, propargito e piridabem foram altamente tóxicos a B. phoenicis, com valores de CL90 iguais ou inferiores aos das concentrações recomendadas desses produtos. N. californicus foi mais tolerante a bifentrina, propargito, óxido de fembutatina e dinocape que B. phoenicis e E. concordis (ambas as populações. Esses acaricidas tiveram baixa toxicidade aos adultos de N. californicus, para o qual as CL50 foram pelo menos seis vezes maiores que suas concentrações recomendadas. Acefato foi extremamente tóxico a E. concordis, mas inócuo a adultos de N. californicus. A população de E. concordis de Jaboticabal foi mais resistente que a de Descalvado a azociclotina, bifentrina, clorfenapir, dicofol e propargito.

  14. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros com exceção dos macacos-pregos. A maior abundancia de infestação foi aquela em tamanduás-bandeira com média de 53 carrapatos∕animal. No ambiente foram capturados 166 carrapatos, todos da espécie A. cajennense. As espécies de carrapatos em animais domésticos (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens e A. cajennense foram aquelas características nestes hospedeiros no Brasil. De forma geral a espécie de carrapato A. cajennense foi a mais prevalente sendo encontrada em animais domésticos e selvagens bem como no ambiente. Portanto, esta é a principal espécie de vetor a estabelecer uma ponte para bioagentes patogênicos entre animais domésticos e selvagens.

  15. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae, the brown dog tick, parasitizing humans in Brazil Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae, o carrapato vermelho do cão, parasitando humanos no Brasil

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    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe four cases of human parasitism by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle in Brazil. During an investigation regarding the species of ectoparasites of domestic dogs from the metropolitan region of Recife, Pernambuco state, four dog owners were found to be parasitized by ticks. The ticks were collected from these individuals and their dogs. All the ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus . These are, to our knowledge, the first four cases of human parasitism by this tick species in Brazil. The possible implications of this finding are discussed here.O objetivo deste artigo é descrever quatro casos de parasitismo humano por Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle no Brasil. Durante uma investigação sobre as espécies de ectoparasitas de cães domésticos provenientes da Região Metropolitana de Recife, Pernambuco, quatro proprietários de cães foram encontrados parasitados por carrapatos. Foram coletados carrapatos dos indivíduos e de seus cães. Todos os carrapatos foram identificados como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, sendo, portanto, descritos os primeiros quatro casos de parasitismo humano por esta espécie de carrapato, no Brasil. Neste trabalho, são discutidas as possíveis implicações epidemiológicas deste achado.

  16. Typhlodromus pyri and Euseius finlandicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as potential biocontrol agents against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) inhabiting willows: laboratory studies on predator development and reproduction on four diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalska, Ewa K; Kozak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Euseius finlandicus (Oudemans) are important predators of phytophagous mites. The present laboratory study aimed to determine whether both species can develop and reach maturity feeding on spider mites occurring on willows, i.e., Schizotetranychus schizopus (Zacher), Schizotetranychus garmani Pritchard & Baker, and Tetranychus urticae Koch, and on Brassica napus L. pollen. The predators' development, reproduction and demographic parameters were significantly affected by diet. The data suggest that rape pollen can be useful in mass rearing of E. finlandicus but is completely unsuitable as alternative food for T. pyri. Short development time and high values of population parameters achieved by T. pyri feeding on larvae and protonymphs of S. schizopus and by E. finlandicus feeding on juvenile stages of S. garmani indicate great suitability of these preys as food for the phytoseiids, and make both predatory species promising biocontrol agents in spider mite control on willows. PMID:26530991

  17. Hidracáridos (Acari, Hydrachnidia de la cuenca Andina del río Beni, Bolivia Hydracarids (Acari, Hydrachnidia from the Andean basin of Beni river, Bolivia

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    Beatriz Rosso de Ferradás

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Water mites from Andean part of the Bolivian Amazonian rivers were examined. A new species is described, Limnesia aymara. New records and redescription are made for Hygrobatella multiacetabulata Cook,1980, Atractides brasiliensis (Lundblad, 1937 and Krendowskia convexa (Ribaga, 1902. A new subgenus Schwoerbelobatella for hygrobatelids poliacetabulated is proposed and characterized. Ecological characteristics of the river area sampled and ecological preferences of the analyzed species are discussed.

  18. Nuevos registros de ácaros oribátidos (Acari: Oribatida para la Argentina New records of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida for Argentina

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    Cecilia Accattoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta publicación constituye un aporte al conocimiento del elenco oribatológico en suelos de Argentina, basado en relevamientos realizados en un parque urbano de la ciudad de La Plata, Buenos Aires. Se informan dos nuevas citas de géneros, una de subgénero y siete de especies para el país. Además, cinco de las especies halladas serían nuevas para la ciencia. Se incorporan ocho géneros y siete especies a las registradas para la Provincia de Buenos Aires.This paper is a contribution to the knowledge of assemblages of oribatid mites in soils of Argentina. The study is based on samples from an urban forest in the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires. New records for the country are provided for two genera, one subgenus and seven species. Furthermore, five of the species found are possibly new to science. Eight genera and seven species are incorporated to the record of the Buenos Aires province.

  19. Criterios para el manejo de tetranychus urticae koch (acari: tetranychidae) con el ácaro depredador amblyseius (neoseiulus) sp. (acari: phytoseiidae) en cultivos de rosas

    OpenAIRE

    Forero, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Martha; Cantor, Fernando; Rodríguez,Daniel; Cure, José Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    En cultivos de rosas en la Sabana de Bogotá, se ha registrado Amblyseius sp. como un ácaro depredador de Tetranychus urticae. Con el fin de evaluar el potencial de este ácaro en el manejo de T. urticae, se comparó en cultivos comerciales de rosa, bajo el sistema de agobio, la efectividad de liberaciones de Amblyseius sp. frente a la aplicación de productos de síntesis química, teniendo en cuenta los siguientes criterios de evaluación: presencia-ausencia del ácaro fitófago, porcentaje d...

  20. A gallery of the key characters to ease identification of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Gamasida: Dermanyssidae and allow differentiation from Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae

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    Di Palma Antonella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite is a major threat for the poultry industry and is of significant interest for public health. Identification of D. gallinae can be difficult for scientists not familiar with mite morphology and terminology especially when trying to use identification keys. Moreover, this species may easily be confused with another dermanyssoid mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern fowl mite, which often shares the same hosts and environment. Methods Specimens of D. gallinae were collected at poultry farms in the Puglia and performed for light and scanning electron microscopy observations, identification and micrographs. Moreover specimens of O. sylviarum were collected separately macerated and mounted on slides for light microscopy observations, identification and pictures. Results The micrographs used in this study, based on LM and SEM observations, highlight the following important identifying characters of D. gallinae: the prominent shoulders of the dorsal shield and the jagged edges of the shield reticulations, the position of setae j1, s1 and the epigynal pores, and the presence on tibia IV pl of one seta. Additional micrographs highlighting the shape of the dorsal (abruptly narrowed posteriorly and epigynal (narrowly rounded posteriorly shields and the chelicera (elongate, with distinct digits of O. sylviarum enable its differentiation from D.gallinae. Conclusion The photographic support provided here (both LM and SEM pictures can be considered a practical tool for scientists who are not well acquainted with the morphology of D.gallinae, and who are involved with classical and molecular systematics, veterinary and human health aspects of poultry red mites.

  1. A gallery of the key characters to ease identification of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Gamasida: Dermanyssidae) and allow differentiation from Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Di Palma Antonella; Giangaspero Annunziata; Cafiero Maria; Germinara Giacinto S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite) is a major threat for the poultry industry and is of significant interest for public health. Identification of D. gallinae can be difficult for scientists not familiar with mite morphology and terminology especially when trying to use identification keys. Moreover, this species may easily be confused with another dermanyssoid mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern fowl mite), which often shares the same hosts and environment. Method...

  2. Perspectives for mass rearing of Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae); Perspectivas para a criacao massal de Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark e Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Fabio A. de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-05-15

    Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma is an important predator of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) on citrus in Brazil. The suitability of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) as a food source of I. zuluagai in laboratory rearing was investigated at 25.5 {+-} 0.5 deg C, 88 {+-} 7% RU and photophase of 12h. Initially, levels of oviposition of the predator fed on eggs were evaluated, as well as the dead or live post-embryonic stages of T. putrescentiae, in a period of 10 days. The daily oviposition rate was 1.3 egg per female when they were fed on eggs on T. putrescentiae, 0.7 egg per female when they were fed on dead post embryonic stages and about 0.3 egg per female when they were fed on live post-embryonic stages. Later, the life table of I. zuluagai was constructed, when eggs of T. putrescentiae were offered to the predators as prey. The immature stages were observed every 8 h, to determine the corresponding durations. In the adult phase, the mites were observed every 24 h, to determine the reproductive parameters. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r{sub m}) was 0.11 female/ female/day; resulting in a fi nite rate of increase of 1.11 ({lambda}). The net reproductive rate (R{sub 0}) was 7.1 females/generation, with a mean generation time (T) 18.6 days. The results show that T. putrescentiae is a favorable food source for the development of I. zuluagai. (author)

  3. Typhlodromus pyri and Euseius finlandicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as potential biocontrol agents against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) inhabiting willows: laboratory studies on predator development and reproduction on four diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalska, Ewa K; Kozak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Euseius finlandicus (Oudemans) are important predators of phytophagous mites. The present laboratory study aimed to determine whether both species can develop and reach maturity feeding on spider mites occurring on willows, i.e., Schizotetranychus schizopus (Zacher), Schizotetranychus garmani Pritchard & Baker, and Tetranychus urticae Koch, and on Brassica napus L. pollen. The predators' development, reproduction and demographic parameters were significantly affected by diet. The data suggest that rape pollen can be useful in mass rearing of E. finlandicus but is completely unsuitable as alternative food for T. pyri. Short development time and high values of population parameters achieved by T. pyri feeding on larvae and protonymphs of S. schizopus and by E. finlandicus feeding on juvenile stages of S. garmani indicate great suitability of these preys as food for the phytoseiids, and make both predatory species promising biocontrol agents in spider mite control on willows.

  4. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus as experimental hosts for Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae Coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus como hospedeiros experimentais de Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L.H. Faccini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ciclo biológico do Amblyomma dubitatum, que se alimentava experimentalmente em coelhos domésticos, foi avaliado em condições laboratoriais e comparado com dados recentemente obtidos de infestações experimentais em capivaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, hospedeiros naturais para essa espécie. Os coelhos foram considerados hospedeiros experimentais adequados para larvas e ninfas porque quatro dos cinco parâmetros avaliados (número de carrapatos que ingurgitaram, período de alimentação, percentagem de carrapatos que realizaram muda e período de pré-muda foram semelhantes aos resultados obtidos com capivaras. As percentagens diárias de desprendimento e de muda das larvas e ninfas confirmam os coelhos como hospedeiros experimentais adequados para esses estágios de A. dubitatum. Os resultados do experimento indicam que os coelhos são hospedeiros inadequados para os adultos.

  5. Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungi to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae Selección de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was select entomopathogenic fungi tolerant to temperatures inside the brood area of honey bees (Apis mellifera for to control Varroa destructor. For this purpose, 50 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin and 48 Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin isolates were evaluated at 30 and 35 ºC. For each isolate, colony discs of 5 mm with mycelium were placed in the center of a Petri dish with Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium. The dishes were incubated at 30 and 35 °C, without light. Radial growth of each colony was measured daily. All the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates presented a lineal growth rate at a temperature of 30 ºC. However, at 35 ºC, most of the isolates did not grow, except three B. bassiana and 14 M. anisopliae isolates (P El objetivo de este trabajo fue seleccionar hongos entomopatógenos tolerantes a las temperaturas del nido de cría de las abejas (Apis mellifera, para ser utilizados en el control de Varroa destructor. Se evaluaron 50 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin y 48 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC. Discos de agar de 5 mm de diámetro con micelio de colonias de cada aislamiento, se depositaron en el centro de placas Petri con medio agar Sabouraud dextrosa (ASD. Las placas fueron incubadas a 30 y 35 °C y oscuridad y diariamente se midió el radio de cada colonia. Todos los aislamientos de B. bassiana y M. anisopliae var. anisopliae presentaron una tendencia lineal a través del tiempo a temperaturas de incubación de 30 °C. A 35 °C la mayoría de los aislamientos no crecieron, excepto tres aislamientos de B. bassiana y 14 de M. anisopliae (p < 0,001. Estos aislamientos fueron seleccionados para realizar pruebas de patogenicidad sobre V. destructor, aplicando una suspensión de 10(7 conidias mL-1. El aislamiento más efectivo fue Qu-M845 de M. anisopliae (p = 0,0033, produjo una mortalidad de 85%. La capacidad patogénica de este aislamiento en V. destructor y su tolerancia a las condiciones ambientales a las que sería expuesto, permite considerar esta cepa como una alternativa de control para esta plaga.

  6. Acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on larvae of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) and Anocentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Mateus Aparecido; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Scoralik, Márcio Goldner; Gomes, Fernando Teixeira; de Azevedo Prata, Márcia Cristina; Daemon, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acaricidal activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on non-engorged larvae of Amblyomma cajennense and Anocentor nitens. In order to carry out the study, six groups were formed, each concentration being a treatment (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively) and also with the creation of a control group (distilled water) and a positive control (Deltametrine). For each treatment, approximately 100 larvae of these ticks were placed onto filter papers (2 x 2 cm) impregnated with the concentrations used to test. Next, the envelopes were closed bearing inside the filter paper with measurements of 6 x 6 cm. For each group, six repetitions were performed, and after 24 h live and dead larvae were counted. This procedure was carried out for two essential oils on the two species of ticks. For A. cajennense, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 10.8%, 35.3%, 34.5%, and 53.1%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 61.1% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. In relation to A. nitens, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 20.1%, 84.5%, 89.2%, and 100.0%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 90.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oils tested showed a promising acaricidal activity mainly on A. nitens larvae. PMID:20640444

  7. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener; Adriane Fonseca Duarte; Milton Fernando Cabezas Guerrero; Uemerson Silva da Cunha; Dori Edson Nava

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L) e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L) sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se...

  8. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.

  9. Distribuição espacial e plano de amostragem de Calacarus heveae (Acari em seringueira Spatial distribution and sampling plan for Calacarus heveae (Acari on rubber trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 é um eriofídeo descrito de espécimes coletados em plantas de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae na região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Esse ácaro prefere a face adaxial dos folíolos e pode causar a perda do brilho, amarelecimento, bronzeamento dessa região e a subseqüente queda prematura das folhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a distribuição de C. heveae em seringueira, selecionar a unidade de amostragem mais representativa e desenvolver um plano de amostragem para o estudo de sua flutuação populacional. O trabalho foi conduzido com os clones PB 260 e IAN 873, respectivamente nos municípios de Itiquira e de Pontes e Lacerda, ambos no Mato Grosso. Em Itiquira, diferenças significativas foram observadas em quatro ocasiões em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha nos diferentes estratos das plantas. Nas amostragens realizadas em Pontes e Lacerda, nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre os estratos em relação àquele parâmetro. Apenas em Itiquira, em uma ocasião de amostragem, foi verificada diferença entre os três estratos, em relação à proporção de folhas infestadas. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi verificada em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha e proporção de folhas infestadas por C. heveae a diferentes distâncias da periferia da copa. Calacarus heveae exibe distribuição agregada no campo. Para estimar a densidade de C. heveae, um plano numérico e um plano binomial de amostragem foram desenvolvidos.Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 (Eriophyidae is a mite described from specimens collected on rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae in the northwest region of the state of São Paulo. This mite prefers the adaxial face of the folioles which it can turn dry, yellowish and brownish; it can also cause leaf fall. The aim of this work was to analyze the distribution of C. heveae on rubber trees, to select the most representative sampling unit and to develop a sampling plan to determine the populational fluctuation. This study was conducted with clones PB 260 and IAN 873, in Itiquira and Pontes e Lacerda, respectively, both in the state of Mato Grosso. In Itiquira, significant differences were observed in four occasions in relation to the average number of mites per leaf in the different plant strata. In the samplings carried out in Pontes e Lacerda, no significant differences were observed between strata in relation to that parameter. Only in Itiquira, in one occasion, a significant difference between strata was verified in relation to the proportion of infested leaves. No significant differences were verified in relation to the average number of mites per leaf and proportion of leaves infested by C. heveae at different depths in the canopy. Calacarus heveae exhibits aggregated distribution in the field. To estimate the density of C. heveae, numeric and sampling plans were developed.

  10. Nuevos hospedadores para las garrapatas Amblyomma tigrinum y Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae en Chile New hosts for the ticks Amblyomma tigrinum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registran, por primera vez en Chile, ninfas de garrapata café del perro (Rhipicephalus sanguineus parasitando dos ejemplares de cabras (Capra hircus y adultos (un macho y una hembra gravida de la garrapata de listas blancas (Amblyomma tigrinum parasitando a un bovino (Bos taurus. La importancia de los presentes reportes, hechos en la provincia de Ñuble, son discutidos.For the first time in Chile, cases of nymphs of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus being found on two goats (Capra hircus, and adult (one male and a gravid female white stripped ticks (Amblyomma tigrinum being found on cattle (Bos taurus have been reported. The aim of this review is to discuss the importance of these findings.

  11. Garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae en perros de la ciudad de Concepción, Chile Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on dogs in Concepción city, Chile

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    L. MUÑOZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar las especies de garrapatas que parasitan a los perros de la ciudad de Concepción, se extrajeron 137 garrapatas desde perros de ocho clínicas veterinarias de cuatro comunas de la ciudad de Concepción. Los ejemplares encontradas fueron observados mediante lupa estereoscópica y algunos fotografiados a microscopio electrónico. Como resultados se obtuvo que el 38.7% correspondían a Amblyomma tigrinum adultos y el 61.3% a Rhipicephalus sanguineus adultos e inmadurosA total of 137 specimens of ticks were collected in eight veterinary clinics in Concepcion city to determine the ticks-species present on dogs. The specimens were analyzed with the aid of a stereomicroscope and SEM pictures were taken. From the total, 38.7% were adults of Amblyomma tigrinum and 61.3% adults and inmatures of Rhipicephalus sanguineus

  12. Garrapatas (Acari: Ixodidae) en perros de la ciudad de Concepción, Chile Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on dogs in Concepción city, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz., L.; M. E. CASANUEVA

    2002-01-01

    Con la finalidad de determinar las especies de garrapatas que parasitan a los perros de la ciudad de Concepción, se extrajeron 137 garrapatas desde perros de ocho clínicas veterinarias de cuatro comunas de la ciudad de Concepción. Los ejemplares encontradas fueron observados mediante lupa estereoscópica y algunos fotografiados a microscopio electrónico. Como resultados se obtuvo que el 38.7% correspondían a Amblyomma tigrinum adultos y el 61.3% a Rhipicephalus sanguineus adultos e inmadurosA ...

  13. Nuevos hospedadores para las garrapatas Amblyomma tigrinum y Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) en Chile New hosts for the ticks Amblyomma tigrinum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    González-Acuña, D.; Valenzuela, G; Moreno, L.; K Ardiles; A Guglielmone

    2006-01-01

    Se registran, por primera vez en Chile, ninfas de garrapata café del perro (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) parasitando dos ejemplares de cabras (Capra hircus) y adultos (un macho y una hembra gravida) de la garrapata de listas blancas (Amblyomma tigrinum) parasitando a un bovino (Bos taurus). La importancia de los presentes reportes, hechos en la provincia de Ñuble, son discutidos.For the first time in Chile, cases of nymphs of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) being found on two goats...

  14. Field evaluation of neem and canola oil for the selective control of the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L; Whittington, R; Higo, H; Le Doux, M

    2000-06-01

    Neem oil, neem extract (neem-aza), and canola oil were evaluated for the management of the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie) in field experiments. Spraying neem oil on bees was more effective at controlling V. jacobsoni than feeding oil in a sucrose-based matrix (patty), feeding neem-aza in syrup, or spraying canola oil. Neem oil sprays also protected susceptible bees from A. woodi infestation. Only neem oil provided V. jacobsoni control comparable to the known varroacide formic acid, but it was not as effective as the synthetic product Apistan (tau-fluvalinate). Neem oil was effective only when sprayed six times at 4-d intervals and not when applied three times at 8-d intervals. Neem oil spray treatments had no effect on adult honey bee populations, but treatments reduced the amount of sealed brood in colonies by 50% and caused queen loss at higher doses. Taken together, the results suggest that neem and canola oil show some promise for managing honey bee parasitic mites, but the negative effects of treatments to colonies and the lower efficacy against V. jacobsoni compared with synthetic acaricides may limit their usefulness to beekeepers. PMID:10902299

  15. Larvicidal potencial of Sapindus saponaria (Sapindaceae against Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae Potencial larvicida de Sapindus saponaria (Sapindaceae sobre Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Fernandes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The larvicidal potential of the crude ethanolic extracts (CEE of the stem peel of Sapindus saponaria was evaluated against Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Lethal concentrations (LC, were calculated by preparing CEE solutions at different concentrations in distilled water. Larvae fasted for 14-21 days were utilized in the bioassays, after incubation of engorged females collected from infested environments frequented by dogs in several neighborhoods of Goiânia, GO. Bioassays were performed in a specially constructed biological chamber for testing botanical acaricides, acclimatized to 27±1ºC, RH>80%. The larvae were counted on filter paper envelopes impregnated with the solutions or distilled water and larval mortality observed after 48h. S. saponaria showed good larvicidal activity (LC50 and LC99 of 1994 and 3922ppm, respectively and the results demonstrated its potential as a botanical acaricide and an alternative control measure for R. sanguineus.Avaliou-se a potencialidade larvicida do extrato-bruto etanólico (EBE da casca do caule de Sapindus saponaria sobre Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Para o cálculo das concentrações letais (CL foram preparadas soluções com diferentes concentrações do EBE dissolvido em água destilada. Foram utilizadas larvas em jejum com 14 a 21 dias, obtidas pela incubação de teleóginas, coletadas em ambientes infestados, freqüentados por cães de vários bairros de Goiânia. Os bioensaios foram realizados em uma câmara biológica para testes com acaricidas botânicos, climatizada a 27±1ºC e UR>80%. As larvas foram contidas em envelopes de papel filtro impregnados com as soluções (grupo teste ou com água destilada (grupo-controle e a mortalidade larval foi observada após 48h. S. saponaria demonstrou atividade larvicida satisfatória (CL50 e CL99 respectivamente de 1994 e 3922ppm e os resultados demonstraram seu potencial como acaricida botânico e medida alternativa para o controle de R. sanguineus.

  16. Sobre el género Neocalonyx (Acari: Prostigmata: Hydryphantidae en las Yungas About the genus Neocalonyx (Acari: Prostigmata: Hydryphantidae in the Yungas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rosso de Ferradás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se tratan aquí dos especies conocidas del género Neocalonyx y se describe una nueva especie, N. diaguita sp. nov. de la provincia de Jujuy (Argentina. Se discuten los caracteres considerados en los tres subgéneros y los cuatro grupos de especies, reconocidos en uno de ellos.Two known species of Neocalonyx genus are dealt with in this paper, and one new species, N. diaguita sp. nov. from Jujuy province in Argentina is described.The characters considered in the three subgenera and the four species groups of one of them are discussed.

  17. Wuchujing ("Five Kitchens" Scripture)and Fengduzhou ("Yama's City" Mantras): Two Taoist Chanting Tunes Emerged in the Southern Song Dynasty%论南宋产生的两首道教经韵:[五厨经][丰都咒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲亨强

    2010-01-01

    当代道乐经韵大多来源甚古,但至今多仍不明其历史源流详情.在对[五厨经]和[丰都咒]这两首道教经韵的当代形态和宗教文化内涵及其古今演变轨迹进行分析研究的基础上,通过文献稽考和古今互证,现查明这两首经韵最迟产生于南宋时期,并延续传唱至今.这两首经韵的当代形态特点和仪式背景,大体保留了古老的传统样式.

  18. 早期基督教音乐的功利性抉择与格里高利圣咏%On Utilitarian Choice of Early Christian Music and Gregorian Chant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳军

    2010-01-01

    基督教是在犹太教的基础上发展起来的.早期基督教的仪式音乐基本承袭了犹太教的音乐传统.但基督教音乐完全摒弃了犹太教音乐中的娱乐性因素,成为纯粹意义上的功利性音乐.基督教音乐出现功利性抉择的原因是复杂的,既是为了满足弘扬基督教禁欲主义思想的需要,又与基督教在西方世界传播ゥ过程中的宗派斗争、世俗生活对宗教生活的渗透密切相关,同时也是为了维护教权与世皇的需要,而皇权与教权结合的直接结果,使格里高利圣咏成为中世纪西方基督教会唯一的仪式音乐.

  19. Musique, voix chantée et apprentissage : une revue de littérature et quelques propositions d'exploitation en didactique de la phonétique des langues

    OpenAIRE

    CORNAZ, Sandra; Caussade, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Publiée par le CRINI (Centre de Recherche sur les Identités Nationales et l'Interculturalité), E-Crini est une revue scientifique électronique dont l'objectif est de diffuser et de valoriser la recherche interdisciplinaire menée en civilisation, littérature, linguistique, didactique, traductologie et cinéma, sur la question des identités : linguistiques, culturelles ou encore nationales (aussi bien au sens historique qu'au sens anthropologique du terme), à travers des perspectives croisées. L...

  20. First report of an hypopus (Acari: Hypoderatidae) from a jaeger (Aves: Charadriiformes: Stercorariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Danny B.; Cole, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Thalassornectes (Alcidectes) aukletae, originally described from two species of auklets (Charadriiformes: Alcidae) from maritime eastern Russia, is reported from a third species of pelagic charadriiform (Stercorariidae), the pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius poinarinus (Temminck), from Florida. The specimens from the jaeger are slightly smaller, the genital apodeme is more heavily sclerotized, paired setae gm are twice as long and there are other minor variations in the idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy. These differences are not considered sufficient to warrant taxonomic separation at the species or subspecies level from the nominate species T. (A.) aukletae. The same hypopus occurring across different families of birds is unusual in the Hypoderatidae. The diversity in hosts from several orders of birds, low intensities of infection in the two species from Africa, low prevalences in alcids from Russia, and rarity of these hypoderatids in all surveyed hosts leads us to speculate that the true host affinities of species in the genus Thalassornectes are unknown. The alternative consideration is that these are simply uncommon species that are very host specific.

  1. Morphometric Study on Male Specimens of Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae in West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hosseini

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: Morphometric variation in Hyalomma spp is poorly studied. The variation in range and quantity of the mor­phometric parameters of H.anatolicum ‎underlies that the correct recognition and key construction for Hyalomma spe­cies dependes ‎on a complement morphometric study on the other species.

  2. Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) tick populations susceptible or resistant to acaricides in the Mexican Tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Díaz, M A; Fernández-Salas, A; Martínez-Ibáñez, F; Osorio-Miranda, J

    2013-10-18

    The objectives of the present study were: (i) to identify the frequency of cattle farms with a cohabitation of Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus, (ii) to determine the status of susceptibility or resistance to acaricides used in Veracruz, Mexico, on A. cajennense populations and (iii) to identify factors associated with A. cajennense resistant to acaricides. Fifty farms were visited to determine the presence of ticks (A. cajennense and R. microplus) and to collect engorged A. cajennense individuals. From these, 24 A. cajennense populations were evaluated in resistance bioassays using discriminating doses of acaricides. The acaricides tested were organophosphates (chlorpiriphos, coumaphos and diazinon), pyrethroids (flumethrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin), amidines (amitraz) and fipronil (a broad spectrum N-phenylpyrazole insecticide). A. cajennense infesting bovines were identified in 86% (43/50) of the farms visited, and 100% of the farms sampled (43/43) had cohabitation between R. microplus and A. cajennense. Of the farm owners or managers surveyed, 87.5% could not distinguish the morphological difference between tick genera. Populations of A. cajennense were 100%, 91.7% and 12.5% resistant to diazinon, coumaphos and chlorpyriphos (organophosphates), respectively, and 12.5% to amitraz, as were those susceptible to flumethrin and fipronil. In conclusions, populations of A. cajennense showed a high frequency of resistance to the organophosphates tested and to amitraz. Factors associated with the resistance to acaricides in A. cajennense were not identified. PMID:23827041

  3. In vitro activity of pineapple extracts (Ananas comosus, Bromeliaceae) on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza

    2013-07-01

    Measures to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, based only on chemical products are becoming unsustainable, mainly because of the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS) and bromelain extracted from the stem (Sigma-Aldrich®, B4882) on engorged females and larvae of R. (B.) microplus in vitro. These substances were diluted in water and evaluated at eight concentrations. Engorged females were collected and distributed in groups of 10, with three repetitions for each treatment. After immersion in the solutions, the females were placed in an incubator for observation of survival, oviposition and larval hatching. The larval packet method was used, also with three repetitions with about 100 larvae each. The packets were incubated and the readings were performed after 24 h. The estimated reproduction and efficacy of the solutions were calculated. The LC(50) and LC(90) were estimated using the Probit procedure of the SAS program. The eight concentrations were compared within each treatment by the Tukey test. For the experiment with engorged females, the most effective concentrations were 125, 250 and 500 mg/mL: 33%, 48% and 59% for the AEPS and 27%, 51% and 55% for the bromelain. The LC(50) and LC(90) values were, respectively, 276 and 8691 mg/mL for AEPS and 373 and 5172 mg/mL for bromelain. None of the dilutions tested was effective against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus. This is the first report of the action of pineapple extracts or their constituents on cattle ticks. The results demonstrate that further studies regarding composition of tick cuticle, with evaluation of other solvents and formulations, should be conducted seeking to enhance the effect of pineapple extracts and compounds against this ectoparasite. PMID:23541882

  4. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to pyrethroids and their associations in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Breno Barros; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Santana, Marília de Andrade; Alves, Leucio Cãmara; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The synthetic pyrethroids and their associations have been widely used for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The frequent use of acaricides has been inducing the development of resistance in the tick populations. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of R. (B.) microplus populations to pyrethroids and their associations in the region of Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brazil. In addition, the level of information among farm owners regarding tick control measures was investigated. Ticks were collected directly from naturally infested dairy cattle in the region and were exposed to pyrethroids and their associations. At the same time, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied with the aim of investigating the level of information among the farmers. The results reported here indicate that R. (B.) microplus populations in the dairy region of Garanhuns show resistance to pyrethroids and their associations, except when the product is associated with piperonyl butoxide. Regarding the results from the epidemiological survey, it was seen that there is a considerable lack of information among the farmers in relation to ixodid control measures. The level of ticks resistance to acaricides varied widely across the region studied. No alternative control programs have been implemented among these farms, thus demonstrating that there is a need for more information relating to the biology and control of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:23856731

  5. Towards a genomics approach to tick (Acari: Ixodidae) control in cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapholi, Ntanganedzeni O; Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; Banga, Cuthbert B; Muchenje, Voster; MacNeil, Michael D; Chimonyo, Michael; Dzama, Kennedy

    2014-09-01

    Ticks and tick-borne disease (TBD) are major challenges to cattle production in the tropics and subtropics. Economic losses associated with ticks amount to billions of dollars annually. Although efforts to eradicate ticks and TBD using chemical control strategies have been implemented in many developing countries for decades, these acaricides are costly, and cattle susceptibility to ticks remains unchanged. Traditional breeding methods, where the farmer selected animals using records to improve the host genetic resistance to ticks (HGRT), are less than fully effective and time consuming. The HGRT has been reported in literature. To date, solutions to fight ticks and TBD are still unclear. Development of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) technologies has created an opportunity to estimate breeding values of animals from DNA samples. The use of SNP technology for genomic selection allows information retrieval from the genotype even before the gene is expressed; thus potentially giving farmers the ability to make selection decisions on HGRT at an earlier age. This review discusses factors that affect HGRT, breeding selection, immunology, and genomic approaches and their application to improve HGRT in order to enhance livestock production. PMID:24954600

  6. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding calreticulin from Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinliang; Luo, Jianxun; Fan, Ruiquan; Fingerle, Volker; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Li, Youquan; Zhao, Haiping; Ma, Miling; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Dang, Zhisheng; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Yin, Hong

    2008-03-01

    The application of anti-tick vaccine has been shown to be the most promising alternative strategy compared to the current use of acaricides that suffer from a number of serious limitations. The success of this method is dependent upon identification and cloning of potential tick vaccine antigens. Previously, we have cloned 21 positive clones (named from Hq02 to Hq22) by immunoscreening complimentary DNA (cDNA) libraries of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis; however, some of those clones did not contain open reading frames (ORF). In this study, we amplified the entire sequence of Hq07 by using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. Hq07 contains an ORF of 1,233 bp that encodes for 410 amino acid residues with a coding capacity of 47 kDa. Search of the cloned sequences against GenBank revealed that Hq07 is a calreticulin (CRT)-similar clone and designated HqCRT. Expression analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that this gene is ubiquitously expressed at different developmental stages and in different tissues of H. qinghaiensis. The gene was expressed as glutathione S-transferase-fused proteins in a prokaryotic system. Western blot analysis revealed that native HqCRT was secreted into their hosts by ticks during blood sucking. Vaccination of sheep with rHqCRT conferred protective immunity against ticks, resulting in 54.3% mortality in adult ticks, compared to the 38.7% death rate in the control group. These results demonstrated that rHqCRT might be a useful vaccine candidate antigen for biological control of H. qinghaiensis.

  7. Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) transmits Acidovorax citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okhee; Park, Jung-Joon; Kim, Jinwoo

    2016-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important pests of cucurbit plants. If TSSM can act as vector for Acidovorax citrulli (Acc), causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), then the movement of mites from infected to healthy plants may represent a potential source of inocula for BFB outbreaks. To confirm the association between Acc and TSSM, we generated a green fluorescent protein-tagged mutant strain (Acc02rf) by transposon mutagenesis and demonstrated that TSSM can transmit Acc from infected to non-infected watermelon plants. Challenge with 10 TSSMs carrying Acc02rf population densities of 1.3 × 10(3) CFU each on freshly grown individual watermelon plants caused disease transmission to 53 %. Incubation periods ranged 7-9 days. Bacteria recovered from symptoms typical of those associated with leaf necrosis were characterized and identified as Acc. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that TSSM can be a vector of Acc. The results reported here support that the strong association of TSSM with Acc is of particular importance in controlling BFB. PMID:27178042

  8. Eriophyoid mites from Eastern India: description of three new species (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal. PMID:27395518

  9. An overview of Suctorian ciliates (Ciliophora, Suctorea) as epibionts of halacarid mites (Acari, Halacaridae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dovgal, I.; Chatterjee, T.; Ingole, B.S.

    . Permanent slides of infested halacarids were deposited in the collections of the Department of Fauna and Systematics of invertebrate animals of Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine. Results and discussion The systematic..., Lim. ceter and T. calix, can be found on different benthic invertebrate animals. All of the above men- tioned ciliate species are found on marine or brackish water hosts. Acineta sulcata can also inhabit freshwater i f t h e i r...

  10. A new genus and species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest

    OpenAIRE

    Kreiter, Serge; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    The phytoseiid mite Ragusaseius ferraguti n. gen., n. sp. is described from the primary Atlantic Forest Mata Atlantica in Brazil, based on specimens collected on Cyphomandra calycina Sendth (Solanaceae). This mite is unique in the following combination of characters: setae J3 and J4 present; dorsal setae medium to long, except for J5, and serrated; ventrianal shield anteriorly eroded, containing only JV2 and occasionally ZV2 in addition to circumanal setae.

  11. Natural hosts of the larvae of Nuttalliella sp. (N. namaqua? (Acari: Nuttalliellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The first collection of unengorged and fully engorged larvae of Nuttalliella sp. (N. namaqua? from the murid rodents Micaelamys namaquensis, Aethomys chrysophilus and Acomys spinosissimus in Limpopo Province and from M. namaquensis in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa, is documented. A total of nine larvae were collected from two M. namaquensis in the Soutpansberg mountain range in the Limpopo Province during April 2009. During the last week of September 2011, 221 larvae were collected from rodents at the same locality and 10 of 48 M. namaquensis, 6 of 12 Ae. chrysophilus and 3 of 14 Ac. spinosissimus were infested. One of the M. namaquensis harboured 53 larvae. Five larvae were collected from two M. namaquensis in the Northern Cape Province. Total genomic DNA was extracted from two larvae and a region of the 18S rRNA gene was sequenced for these. BLASTn searches revealed similarity between these specimens and the Nuttalliella sequences published on GenBank.

  12. Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, R R; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Bhutyal, A D S; Katoch, M; Singh, N K; Bader, M A

    2015-11-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50% (LC50), 95% (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08-10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08-288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region.

  13. Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae PARÁSITO DE Boa constrictor EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Torres M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir algunas garrapatas encontradas en dos ejemplares de Boa constrictor, llevados al Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre en Montería, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 37 garrapatas provenientes de dos individuos adultos de Boa constrictor, los parásitos fueron conservados en alcohol al 70% y posteriormente identificados mediante diversas claves taxonómicas. Resultados. Todas las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Amblyomma dissimile, de las cuales, 9 fueron hembras, 24 machos y 4 ninfas. Conclusiones. La identificación de ectoparásitos en especies de Boa c. constrictor contribuye a mantener adecuadamente esta especie en cautiverio y provee datos para establecer medidas profilácticas y tratamiento, igualmente, ayuda en el conocimiento de los agentes parasitarios de la fauna silvestre.

  14. New species and records of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Ermilov, Sergey G

    2015-12-01

    An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mites from Cuba, including 16 species, 9 genera and 4 families, is provided. Three new species, Prototritia triangularibus Niedbała sp. nov. (Protoplophoridae), Hoplophthiracarus vinalesensis Niedbała sp. nov. and Protophthiracarus paratripartitus Niedbała sp. nov. (both Steganacaridae), are described from leaf litter. Three species of the subgenus Atropacarus (Hoplophorella)-A. (H.) andrei (Balogh, 1958), A. (H.) brachys Niedbała, 2004 and A. (H.) stilifer (Hammer, 1961)-are recorded in the Cuban mite fauna for the first time.

  15. Moss mites (Acari: Oribatida in soil revitalizing: a chance for practical application in silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oribatida (known as moss mites or beetle mites increase the breakdown of organic material in the soil. The paper analyses the dynamics of their abundance and number of species after various treatments enriching the soil in 4 study areas: afforested post-agricultural area in the Tuchola Forest, afforested degraded post-military training area in Bydgoszcz-Jachcice, and forest nurseries at Białe Błota and Bielawy. The results show that in post-agricultural and degraded soils at the initial stages of forest succession, the density and number of species of oribatid mites were low, even after phyto-land-improvement (afforestation and lupin as green manure. In the forest nurseries, however, we recorded a positive effect of soil revitalizing after mulching with forest ectohumus (i.e. organic surface layer of the soil. The inoculation of soils with forest mesofauna appeared more effective in nursery plantations of silver birch (Betula pendula and small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata, as compared with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris. Thus to revitalize degraded soils effectively and to accelerate forest succession, apart from phytoland- improvement, it is advisable also to reintroduce mesofauna, e.g. with the use of forest ectohumus.

  16. Studies on Acaricidal Bioactivities of Artemisia annua L. Extracts Against Tetranychus cinnabarinus Bois. (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-qiang; DING Wei; ZHAO Zhi-mo; WU Jing; FAN Yu-hu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best extraction technique, the most suitable solvent, the optimal plant parts,and the acaricidal activities of Artemisia annua L. The petroleum ether (30-60℃), petroleum ether (60-90℃), ethanol,acetone, and water parallel and sequenced extracts were obtained from the leaves, stems and roots of different period of A. annua L. in April, May, June, July and September respectively. And then the acaricidal bioactivities against Tetranychus cinnabarinus of all extracts were determined by the slide-capillary method in the laboratory. The results indicated that the acaricidal bioactivities elevated as the development of A. annua plant at the concentration of 5 mg mL-1. The general tendency exhibited the sequence of July > June > May > April, but September decreased comparing to July. However, the most effective extracts in five months were all acetone parallel extract of A. annua leaf, and the corrected mortalities treated after 48 h ranged from 74 to 100%. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) against T. cinnabarinus of acetone parallel extracts of A. annua leaves in September, July, June, May and April were 0.5986, 0.4341, 0.8376, 0.9443 and 1.3817 mg mL-1, respectively, treated after 48 h. The 13 groups were isolated from acetone extracts of A. annua leaves in July by column chromatography, both the 11th and 12th groups exhibited strong bioactivities. The median lethal concentrations of the 11th and 12th groups against T. cinnabarinus were 0.3683 and 0.1586 mg mL-1, respectively. The acetone parallel extract of A. annua leaf in July was the most toxic to T. cinnabarinus and the corrected mortality was 100% after 48 h. The acetone parallel extract of the 11th and 12th groupswere the most active components, acted as the emphases in further study.

  17. Two new oribatid mite species with auriculate pteromorphs from Southern Vietnam (Acari: Oribatida: Parakalummidae, Galumnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermilov, S.G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new oribatid mite species, Neoribates spindleformis sp. nov. and Globogalumna biporosa sp. nov. are described from soil and litter of pine and acacias artificial plantations of Dong Nai Culture and Nature Reserve (Southern Vietnam. First new species is differs from all other species of Neoribates by combination of the following characters; mor¬phology of sensilli, number of leg claws and genital setae. Second new species differs from type-species of Globogalumna by the body surface and number of notogastral porose areas. The genus Globogalumna is recorded for the first time from the Oriental region.

  18. Mites (Acari: Laelapidae associated with sigmodontinae rodents in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba Agustín M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The richness, diversity, abundance and prevalence of mite species associated with sigmodontine rodents of different species in Entre Ríos province, Argentina are studied. Five of the six species of mites were reported for the first time in the study area. The richness and diversity of mites was higher on Oligoryzomys flavescens and O. delticola than on Akodon azarae. Androlaelaps rotundus was dominant and exhibited higher values of mean abundance and prevalence on A. azarae, Mysolaelaps microspinosus on O. flavescens and Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis on O. delticola.

  19. Reproductive parameters of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) affected by neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Reihaneh; Hejazi, Mir Jalil

    2015-08-01

    Two-spotted spider mite is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops worldwide. Some reports have indicated that application of neonicotinoid insecticides may lead to increased fecundity of this pest. If this is found to be true, the use of these pesticides may cause an outbreak of spider mite populations. Sublethal effects of three neonicotinoids, namely thiacloprid, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were studied on T. urticae adults at field recommended doses. The experiments were carried out using bean leaf pieces in plastic Petri dishes. The adult mites were treated using two methods: (1) drench application and (2) spraying of leaves with Potter Spray Tower. Our results indicated that all neonicotinoids tested increased T. urticae population. In both treatment methods, acetamiprid treated mites had the highest intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) and finite rate of population increase (λ); and the lowest mean generation time (T) and doubling time among the treatments. If similar results are obtained from greenhouse and field trials, the use of these insecticides requires necessary precautions such as avoiding repeated use of neonicotinoid insecticide for controlling insect pests. PMID:25912952

  20. Functional response of Phytoseiulus macropilis under different Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae population density in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We tested the functional response of the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 to different population densities of Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (the two-spotted spider mite - TSSM in the laboratory. We evaluated the curve that best fits the data obtained, based on the reduced X². The predators were obtained from leaves of Oso Grande strawberries at the municipality of Bom Princípio, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Fifteen seemingly healthy females of P. macropilis were randomly chosen and individualized in each of the arenas with different TSSM densities. The following prey densities were tested: 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, 35, 45, 55, 70 and 125 females. The tests were performed in a germination chamber with photoperiod of 12 hours at 28 ± 1ºC per day and 22 ± 1ºC at night and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. In all tests with up to three prey items, P. macropilis showed low functional response, whereas higher rates were observed when more prey items were offered. There was a strong positive correlation between increased prey numbers and daily prey consumption (r = 0.84 and p = 0.0006. A significant correlation was found between prey consumption and total oviposition (r = 0.70, p = 0.01. The daily oviposition rate was lower when few prey items were offered, increasing significantly with increased prey availability. The results showed a positive correlation between the number of prey items offered to the predator and its oviposition rate (r = 0.66, p = 0.01. Nevertheless, a strong correlation was observed between the daily consumption of prey and eggs/female/day (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001. A shorter oviposition period was reported when up to three prey items were offered. The oviposition period and the increase in prey numbers were positively correlated (r = 0.30, p = 0.34, but the difference was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, the longer the egg-laying period, the greater the oviposition rate (r = 0.90, p < 0.0001. The curve that best fits the data obtained in each case was also calculated, based on the least square method.

  1. Stability and fitness costs associated with etoxazole resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Rafael Sorrentino Minazzi; Sato, Mário Eidi; Santos, Taiana Lumi

    2016-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the most important pests on a wide range of crops worldwide. Studies on stability of resistance and possible fitness costs associated with etoxazole resistance were carried out in T. urticae to provide basic information necessary to define effective acaricide resistance management strategies for this pest. Selection for resistance to etoxazole was performed in a population of T. urticae collected from a commercial rose field, in Holambra County, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. After five rounds of selection for resistance, the resistance ratio (R/S) at the LC50 reached 8739 fold value in comparison with a susceptible strain (Brazabrantes S Strain). The stability of etoxazole resistance was studied under laboratory conditions, using a population with initial frequency of 75 % of resistant mites. The frequencies of etoxazole resistance were evaluated monthly for a period of 13 months. The frequency of etoxazole resistance decreased from 75 to 37 % in this period. Comparison of biological traits between resistant and susceptible strains indicated the presence of fitness costs associated with etoxazole resistance. The resistant strain showed lower fecundity and a higher proportion of males in the population. The figures for net reproductive rate (R 0), intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) and finite rate of increase (λ) were higher in the susceptible strain. The instability of etoxazole resistance is a favorable aspect for the acaricide resistance management in the spider mite. PMID:27222145

  2. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Turkey: description of five new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowicz, Agnieszka; Denizhan, Evsel; Bromberek, Klaudia; Szydło, Wiktoria; Skoracka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Five new eriophyoid mite species (Eriophyidae) from Turkey are described and illustrated in this paper: Aceria vanensis n. sp., Aceria onosmae n. sp., Aculus lydii n. sp., Aculus gebeliae n. sp. and Aculus spectabilis n. sp.. The descriptions are based on the morphology of females collected from weedy plants, respectively: Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae), Onosma isauricum Boiss. et Heldr. (Boraginaceae), Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae), Lotus gebelia Vent. (Fabaceae) and Stachys spectabilis Choisy ex DC. (Lamiaceae). The new species were found to be vagrant on their host plants with no visible damage symptoms observed. PMID:27395550

  3. A review of Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae in the Maghreb region: from biology to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa. This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can feed on several other animal species in the farm. This control option can lead to a reduction of the tick population, but not a decrease in tick-borne disease incidence. (vi Vaccination: this control option consists of injecting the protein Hd86; trials have shown a partial effect on nymphs, with no effect on adult ticks. Combination of two of these control options is recommended in regions where there are high burdens of important tick vectors. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on this tick species in the Maghreb region, since the number of published studies on Hyalomma scupense in this region is very limited.

  4. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) Gradient study in meadow ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubała, Piotr; Zaleski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K(av), P(av), N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. PMID:22134027

  5. Competitive and Predacious Interactions Among Three Phytoseiid Species Under Experimental Conditions (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, J; Zhang, Y-X; Saito, Y; Takada, T; Tsuji, N

    2016-02-01

    The effect of competition on species that coexist with similar ecological niches is an important theme in ecology. Furthermore, species displacement by introduced or invaded species is also an important environmental problem for biological control and conservation ecology. We tested whether two species of phytoseiids could coexist in closed cages with ample quantities of the extraguild prey species Carpoglyphus lactis (L.). Three species of phytoseiid mites-Amblyseius eharai Amitai & Swirski (a species native to China), Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (both species were introduced from outside of China)-were tested under experimental conditions (25 ± 1°C, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 [L:D] h). With extraguild prey, we found that the numbers of a single population of each phytoseiid species (initial density of 10 females per cage) reached a plateau between 18 and 25 d after introduction into the experimental cages, suggesting that density-dependent factors were operating. In closed environments, one of these density-dependent factors might be cannibalism by these species. With regression analyses, Lotka-Volterra equations estimated the rate of population increase (r) and the carrying capacity (K) of each species with the data from observations on population dynamics. We next observed the interactions of two phytoseiid species with abundant extraguild prey. In all species combinations, one species went extinct and the other increased in population size, despite the availability of sufficient extraguild prey, suggesting some type of competition must have caused the extinctions. We suggested that intraguild predation is the most plausible hypothesis to explain the results. PMID:26496951

  6. A new species of the genus Acarothrix (Acari: Halacaridae) from Brunei Darussalam and India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, T.; Marshall, D.J.; Guru, B.C.; Ingole B.S.; Pesic V.

    ) Department of Biology, Indian School of Learning, I.S.M. Annexe, P.O. – I.S.M., Dhanbad-826004, Jharkhand, India; E-mail: drtchatterjee@yahoo.co.in (2) Department of Biology, University Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE 1410, Brunei...

  7. A new species of Eutrachytes (Acari: Uropodina: Eutrachytidae) associated with the indian mangrove (Avicennia officinalis)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Moraza, M.L.; Kontschan, J.; Sahoo, G.; Ansari, Z.A.

    September 2015; accepted 13 November 2015; published online 04 March 2016) 1 Departamento de Biología Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona E-31080, Spain. mlmoraza@unav.es (* Corresponding author) 2 Plan Protection Institute...

  8. Ecology of the interaction between Ixodes loricatus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Criceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-10-01

    The present study explores associations of different factors (i.e. host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites and [mainly biotic] environmental factors) with burdens of Ixodes loricatus immature stages in one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. For 2 years, rodents were trapped and sampled monthly at 16 points located in four different sites in the Parana River Delta region. Data were analysed with generalized linear mixed models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were (a) environmental: trapping year, presence of cattle, type of vegetation, rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length, sex, body condition, blood cell counts, natural antibody titers and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Most of the associations investigated were found significant, but in general, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent. An exception was the presence of cattle, which was consistently negatively associated with both larvae and nymphs independently of all other variables considered and had the strongest effect on tick burdens. Mites, fleas and Amblyomma triste were also significantly associated (mostly positively) with larval and nymph burdens, and in many cases, they influenced associations with environmental or host factors. Our findings strongly support that raising cattle may have a substantial impact on the dynamics of I. loricatus and that interactions within the ectoparasite community may be an important-but generally ignored-driver of tick dynamics.

  9. Factors affecting patterns of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitism in a rodent host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-07-30

    Here we offer a multivariable analysis that explores associations of different factors (i.e., environmental, host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites) with the interaction of Amblyomma triste immature stages and one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. Monthly and for two years, we captured and sampled rodents at 16 points located at 4 different sites in the Parana River Delta region. The analyses were conducted with Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were: (a) environmental: trapping year, season, presence of cattle; type of vegetation (natural grassland or implanted forest); rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length; sex; body condition; blood cell counts; natural antibody titres; and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites: other stage of A. triste; Ixodes loricatus; lice; mites; and fleas. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Larvae were affected by all environmental variables assessed and by the presence of other ectoparasites (lice, fleas and other tick species). Host factors significantly associated with larval count were sex and levels of natural antibodies. Nymphs were associated with season, presence of cattle, body condition, body length and with burdens of I. loricatus. In most cases, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent (many interaction terms were significant). The findings of greater significance and implications of our study are two. Firstly, as burdens of A. triste larvae and nymphs were greater where cattle were present, and larval tick burdens were higher in implanted forests, silvopastoral practices developing in the region may affect the population dynamics of A. triste, and consequently the eco-epidemiology of Rickettsia parkeri. Secondly, strong associations and numerous interactions with other ectoparasites suggest that co-infestations may be more important for tick dynamics than has so far been appreciated.

  10. Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), a Parasite of Wild Mammals in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Martins, Thiago F; Oliveira, Caroline S; Binder, Lina C; Costa, Francisco B; Nunes, Pablo H; Gregori, Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    During 2013-2014, adult ticks were collected on the vegetation and subadult ticks were collected from small mammals [Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, Sooretamys angouya (Fischer), Euryoryzomys russatus (Wagner), Akodon montensis Thomas, Oxymycterus judex Thomas] in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southern Brazil. Analyses of the external morphology of the adult ticks revealed that they represent a new species, Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. Partial 16S rRNA sequences generated from males, females, and nymphs were identical to each other and closest (95% identity) to corresponding sequences of Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann. A. yucumense is morphologically and genetically closest related to A. dubitatum. Dorsally, male of these species can be separated by major longitudinal pale orange stripes associated with a pseudoscutum indicated by a pale stripe in A. yucumense, in contrast to pale creamy longitudinal stripes and absence of pseudoscutum in A. dubitatum. Ventrally, male coxal I spurs are separated by a space narrower than external spur width in A. yucumense, and wider than external spur width in A. dubitatum. Females of the two species can be separated by coxal I spurs, longer in A. yucumense than in A. dubitatum. In addition, the adult capitulum and ventral idiosoma of A. yucumense are generally dark brown colored, while A. dubitatum is yellowish or light brown colored. The nymph of A. yucumense differs from A. dubitatum by the scutal cervical groove length, slightly shorter in the former species. Currently, A. yucumense is restricted to southern Brazil. PMID:26336277

  11. Association patterns of ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae, Argasidae) of small mammals in Cerrado fragments, western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Martins, Thiago F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Labruna, Marcelo B; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2015-03-01

    The present study describes ticks associated with small mammals and analyzes the aggregation patterns according to seasonal and host variations in the Cerrado biome, central-western Brazil. Small mammals were systematically captured in 54 woodland fragments from February 2012 to July 2013. A total of 1,040 animals belonging to eight marsupial and 12 rodent species were captured; 265 animals were parasitized by eight tick species (in decreasing order of abundance): Ornithodoros mimon, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma parkeri, and Ixodes amarali. With few exceptions, collected ticks were larvae and nymphs. Among the more abundant animals, the marsupial Didelphis albiventris showed the highest tick prevalence (84.4 %), mean abundance (19.2), mean intensity (22.8), richness of ticks species (n = 7), and total abundance of ticks (n = 2,457). Amblyomma sculptum and O. mimon were the most generalist species, collected on four host species. Fifteen new tick-host associations are reported for the first time. Most ticks showed higher prevalence and mean intensity in the dry season, regardless of host species. Overall, tick prevalence and mean intensity of infestation were significantly associated with host gender. Finally, the importance of the large number of records of the argasid O. mimon is discussed. PMID:25633262

  12. Toxicity of neem oil to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda C.B Silva; Adenir V. Teodoro; Oliveira, Eugênio E.; Adriano S Rêgo; Silva, Rafael R.

    2013-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.)-derived pesticides have been used against a wide range of agricultural pests including tetranychid mites. Approaches combining lethal and sublethal toxicity studies of neem pesticides towards tetranychid mites are necessary to a comprehensive evaluation of such products. Here, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal toxicity of the neem oil Bioneem to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) by integrating lethal concentration (LC) with population...

  13. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus. PMID:23086445

  14. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h. PMID:22270115

  15. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  16. Morphometric Study on Male Specimens of Hyalomma Anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae in West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abdigoudarzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyalomma anatolicum is the well-known hard tick, which is one of the most important livestock and hu­man pathogens vector, wide range in host and distributed in all over the Hyalomma geographic fauna as well as in Iran. Taxonomy of the Hyalomma ssp. is debatable whereas their identification is a problematic work. The reasons for this claim is time consuming Delpy’s researches in Iran also Schulze School, Feldman-Muhsam and the Russian tick workers. We would like to understand morphometric variation in the field collected H. anatolicum in Iran also validat­ing some morphologic quantitative and qualitative characters.Methods: A total 247 field-collected tick specimens from different geographical regions in west of Iran includes Khuzestan and Lorestan Provinces were studied. The morphologic characters of the ticks were measured by the cali­brated stereomicroscope ‎armed scaled lens. The measurements were analyzed using SPSS ‎for windows, version 16 on an IBM PC, ‎so varied shapes of species in different geographic ‎regions were drawn by the ‎aid of a drawing tube con­nected to a light stereomicroscope.‎Results: One way ANOVA test revealed significant differences among the quantitative parameters in five zones (P<‎‎ 0.‎‎00‎‎1‎ also each zone to other zone by Post Hoc Tests e.g. LSD. No significant differences in the lateral grooves length/conscutum length ratio parameter were found.Conclusion: Morphometric variation in Hyalomma spp is poorly studied. The variation in range and quantity of the mor­phometric parameters of H.anatolicum ‎underlies that the correct recognition and key construction for Hyalomma spe­cies dependes ‎on a complement morphometric study on the other species.

  17. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillhart, D B; Fox, L B; Upton, S J

    1994-05-01

    Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say). PMID:8057327

  18. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L

    1993-09-01

    High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647

  19. Host utilization and seasonal occurrence of Dermacentor species (Acari:Ixodidae) in Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Masters, E J; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    2000-08-01

    A total of 3,235 Dermacentor variabilis (Say) specimens were collected from birds, mammals, and by dragging vegetation, and 2,683 D. albipictus (Packard) ticks were collected from deer from 1993 to 1996. Peak seasonal occurrence of adult D. variabilis was from May through July with a precipitous decrease in August. Nymphal D. variabilis populations peaked in June. Peak activity of larvae was bimodal, with one activity peak during late summer (September) and a second peak in winter or early spring. The raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.), was the principal host of adults followed by the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Rodents and the eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), were the primary hosts of nymphs. The marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan), was the principal host of larvae followed by the pine vole, Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte), and white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque). All stages of D. albipictus were found only on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Numbers of adult and nymphal D. albipictus peaked in November, whereas larvae peaked in September. PMID:11201355

  20. Seasonal activity and host associations of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    1999-11-01

    Based on tick collections recovered from wild vertebrates and by dragging, the seasonal occurrence of adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, extended from October through May in southeastern Missouri. Adult activity was bimodal with the higher peak occurring in November followed by a lower peak in February. The activity of immature I. scapularis had the general pattern of that found in the Northeast where Lyme disease is hyperendemic, with larval activity (July) peaking after that of nymphs (May and June). Vertebrates varied in their importance as hosts of I. scapularis. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginanus (Zimmerman), and coyotes, Canis latrans Say, were the primary hosts of adult I. scapularis. Broad-headed skinks, Eumeces laticeps (Schneider), and eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Latreille), were the primary hosts of nymphal I. scapularis. The broad-headed skink, 5-lined skink, Eumeces fasciatus (L.), and Carolina wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham), were the primary hosts of larval I. scapularis. Homeotherms were important hosts of immature I. scapularis, accounting for 30% of nymphs and 39% of larvae collected. The eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), may play an important role in the epidemiology of Lyme disease in Missouri. Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner were made from ticks recovered from rabbits, making the cottontail rabbit a key species for further study of the epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in Missouri. PMID:10593072

  1. Feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) and body condition of their avian hosts: a large correlative study

    OpenAIRE

    Galván, Ismael; Aguilera, Eduardo; Atiénzar, Francisco; Barba, Emilio; José L Cantó; Blanco, Guillermo; Cortés, Verónica; Óscar, Frías; Vögeli, Matthias; Jovani, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Feather mites are arthropods that live on or in the feathers of birds, and are among the commonest avian ectosymbionts. However, the nature of the ecological interaction between feather mites and birds remains unclear, some studies reporting negative effects of feather mites on their hosts and others reporting positive or no effects. Here we use a large dataset com- prising 20 189 measurements taken from 83 species of birds collected during 22 yr in 151 localities from seven countries in Europ...

  2. A screen of maternally inherited microbial endosymbionts in oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecka, Edyta; Olszanowski, Ziemowit

    2015-08-01

    We determined the distribution of microbial endosymbionts as possible agents of parthenogenesis in Oribatida. We screened mites from 20 species of 14 families suspected to be parthenogenetic from the absence or rarity of males. Our research included parthenogenesis-inducing bacteria Wolbachia spp., Cardinium spp., Rickettsia spp., and additionally Arsenophonus, Spiroplasma and microsporidia that can also manipulate host reproduction. We detected the endosymbionts by PCR-based methods and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of fixed and stained preparations of host cells. We detected Wolbachia only in one Oribatida species, Oppiella nova, by identifying Wolbachia genes using PCR. TEM observations confirmed infection by the endosymbiont in O. nova and its lack in other Oribatida species. Sequence analysis of hcpA and fbpA genes showed that the Wolbachia strain from O. nova was different from strains characterized in some insects, crustaceans (Isopoda), mites (Tetranychidae), springtails (Hexapoda) and roundworms (Nematoda). The analysis strongly suggested that the Wolbachia sp. strain found in O. nova did not belong to supergroups A, B, C, D, E, F, H or M. We found that the sequences of Wolbachia from O. nova were clearly distantly related to sequences from the bacteria of the other supergroups. This observation makes O. nova a unique Wolbachia host in terms of the distinction of the strain. The role of these micro-organisms in O. nova remains unknown and is an issue to investigate. PMID:25991706

  3. Precise identification of different stages of a tick, Ixodes granulatus Supino, 1897 (Acari:Ixodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ernieenor Faraliana Che Lah; Salmah Yaakop; Mariana Ahamad; Ernna George; Shukor Md Nor

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify different stages of Ixodes granulatus (I. granulatus) based on morphological characters prior to molecular identification which is significant for con-firming and identifying the nymphal stages of I. granulatus. Methods: A total of 14 individuals of adult, engorged and nymphal ticks collected from three different localities were examined morphologically using taxonomic keys, followed by PCR using cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Clustering analysis based on COI sequences was carried out by constructing neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony tree to clarify the genetic variation and diversity of local I. granulatus. Results: Based on external morphological characterizations, nine individuals (64.3%) were successfully identified as I. granulatus, while five individuals were recognized only as Ixodes sp. due to lack of morphological characters visible and development during that stage. Molecular analysis of local I. granulatus using COI gene revealed 93%–94%sequence homology from available sequence in GenBank and was in concordance with the morphological identification. Furthermore, a low intraspecific variation was observed among the species of I. granulatus collected from different localities (0%–3.7%). Conclusions: These findings demonstrated for the first time the establishment of COI gene for identifying I. granulatus nymphal tick which is of paramount importance to the control of potential tick-borne infections in Malaysia. Moreover, this study provides evidence that a combination of morphology and molecular data was corroborated as an accurate tool for tick identification.

  4. Fundamental aspects of genetic control of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiobiological properties of Tetranychus urticae and other topics of genetic control have been evaluated. The induction by X-rays or fast neutrons of dominant lethals in mature sperm and of dominant lethals and recessive lethals in prophase-1 oocytes and the induction by both radiation types of chromosome mutations, recessive lethals and factors causing F1-infertility in sperm and oocytes, have been studied. From the results the optimal dose, radiation type and germ cell type could be chosen for obtaining either fully sterile males or substerile males, producing fully infertile F1-females. Also the most favourable conditions were determined for the induction of chromosome mutations with the lowest frequency of linked recessive lethals. The radiobiological properties of holokinetic chromosomes are extensively discussed. The successful displacement of the standard karyotype by a radiation arranged karyotype is presented and discussed in its relevance for practical application. (Auth./C.F.)

  5. Efficacy of granular deltamethrin against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidade) nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, T L; Jordan, R A; Hung, R W; Taylor, R C; Markowski, D; Chomsky, M S

    2001-03-01

    A single barrier application of granular deltamethrin to the woodland edges of a forested residential community in late spring significantly reduced the abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs. The application also suppressed the population of Amblyomma americanum (L.) nymphs, which recently became established in the study area. The efficacy of deltamethrin is compared with other commonly used acaricides.

  6. Notes on Kaszabjbaloghia with the description of a new species from Ecuador (Acari: Mesostigmata: Uropodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenõ Kontschán

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaszabjbaloghia Hirschmann, 1973, distributed in South-America, is characterized by the following combination of characters: reduced marginal shield, posteromarginal setae placed on membranous cuticle on the dorsal idiosoma, linguliform genital shield in females, oval or egg-like genital shield bearing one pair needle-like setae in males, and the characteristic shape of peritremes. In this contribution, I provide short redescriptions of the known species of Kaszabjbaloghia and describe a new species, K. ecuadorica sp. nov., from Ecuador. The new species is similar to K. kaszabi Hirschmann, 1973, but differs from the latter in the ornamentation of genital shield of the female and the number of sternal cavities. Additionally, we transfer K. hirschmanni Hiramatsu, 1978 to Hutufeideria Hirschmann & Hirmatsu, 1977 (as Hutufeideria hirschmanni (Hiramatsu, 1978 comb. nov. on the basis of the following: setation of dorsal shield, ornamentation of caudal part of the dorsal shield, shape of hypostomal setae, shape of internal malae and setation of the palp. An identification key to the species of Kaszabjbaloghia is also provided. Original illustrations and scanning micrographs are provided for all species.

  7. Developmental biology of Argas neghmei Kohls & Hoogstraal (Acari: Argasidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Vargas, Pamela; Ardiles, Karen; Parra, Luis; Guglielmone, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In order to describe the developmental biology of the tick Argas neghmei Kohls & Hoogstraal under laboratory conditions, 40 females and 40 males were collected from chicken coops located in Calama (II Region, Chile). They were fed on chickens and maintained under two laboratory conditions: one group at 30 +/- 5 degrees C and 35 +/- 5 % RH and another at 27 +/- 5 degrees C and 80 +/- 5 % RH, both at 12: 12 h L:D photoperiod. The ticks were observed daily to determine larval feeding periods, preoviposition, oviposition, egg incubation as well as the frequency of egg laying, number of eggs laid, and percentage of larval hatching. Females did not lay eggs at 80 +/- 5% RH, and data on the biology of this tick was obtained only at 35 +/- 5% RH. The life cycle of A. neghmei lasted an average of 269 days. Feeding period of each nymphal stage as well as of adult females between oviposition events lasted less than a day. Females laid on average 1.8 egg batches and egg-laying period lasted on average 14 days, during which about 96 eggs were laid per female.

  8. Nuevas citas de ácaros oribátidos (Acari: Oribatida para la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana SALAZAR MARTÍNEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En la presente nota se citan, por primera vez para la Argentina, cuatro especies de ácaros oribátidos: Epilohmannia pallida americana Balogh & Mahunka, 1981, Protoribates (Triangius praeoccupatus (Pérez-Iñigo & Baggio, 1980, Scheloribates curvialatus Hammer, 1961 y Galumna innexa Pérez-Iñigo & Baggio, 1986. Los ejemplares fueron hallados en muestras de suelo recolectadas en La Plata, Provincia de Buenos Aires (34º 54’S, 57º 55 ́ W, en ambientes sometidos a intervención antrópica: bosques urbanos, huertas orgánicas y pastizales.

  9. Does Aponomma varanensis (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) occur on the Taiwanese mainland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R G

    1996-08-01

    On 15 July 1976, teams from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Taipei, Taiwan, made 3 collections of ticks from beneath the dorsal scales of the Taiwan stink snake, Elaphe carinata, at Makung in the Penghu Islands, which lie astride the Tropic of Cancer in the Taiwan Strait between southern mainland China and Taiwan proper. These ticks were later determined to be Aponomma varanensis (Supino, 1897), but this discovery was never published, and no member of the genus Aponomma has heretofore been reported from Taiwan or any of its outlying islets. Because suitable hosts, including E. carinata, are abundant on Taiwan and because A. varanensis is widely distributed in tropical Asia, it is argued that this or a related species of Aponomma will one day be found on the Taiwanese mainland.

  10. Molecular Effects of Irradiation (Cobalt-60 on the Control of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effective dose of irradiation to control pest mites in quarantine has been studied extensively, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the irradiation on mites are largely unknown. In this study, exposure to 400 Gy of γ rays had significant (p < 0.05 effects on the adult survival, fecundity and egg viability of Panonychus citri. The irradiation caused the degradation of the DNA of P. citri adults and damaged the plasma membrane system of the egg, which led to condensed nucleoli and gathered yolk. Additionally, the transcriptomes and gene expression profiles between irradiated and non-irradiated mites were compared, and three digital gene expression libraries were assembled and analyzed. The differentially expressed genes were putatively involved in apoptosis, cell death and the cell cycle. Finally, the expression profiles of some related genes were studied using quantitative real-time PCR. Our study provides valuable information on the changes in the transcriptome of irradiated P. citri, which will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause the sterility induced by irradiation.

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with wildlife and vegetation of Haller park along the Kenyan coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzala, W; Okanga, S

    2006-09-01

    This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause.

  12. Polymorphism of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitina, G V; Tokarev, Y S; Movila, A A; Yli-Mattila, T

    2011-03-01

    Polymorphism of 10 Beauveria bassiana strains, isolated from Ixodes ricinus in Moldova, was evaluated using traditional (morphological and cultural properties) and molecular (RAPD patterns and ITS sequences) methods. The isolates differed greatly in morphological and cultural features, such as color, consistence, and growth rate. Four RAPD-PCR markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity of the strains. Phylogenetic neighbor-joining analysis of RAPD patterns divided strains into 3 major clades. The ITS sequences of 8 strains were identical to those of known B. bassiana strains. Two subsets (1 and 2) different by one nucleotide change were found in the ITS1 region. One strain of subset 1 was different from known B. bassiana strains by possessing 2 point mutations in the ITS region. RAPD-based clustering correlated to ITS sequence and colony morphology-based grouping of the strains.

  13. Assessment of Bacterial Communities in Thirteen Species of Laboratory-Cultured Domestic Mites (Acari: Acaridida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Kopecky, Jan; Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Nesvorna, Marta; Zurek, Ludek; Erban, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) and stored-product mites (SPMs) of various species inhabit human homes and stored agricultural products. These mites are carriers and hosts of microorganisms that enable their survival. The bacteriome from 13 species of SPMs and HDMs was analyzed and compared by 454 pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Altogether 128,052 sequences were obtained and assigned to 71 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% identity level. The number of sequences in the OTUs between species of mites ranged from 6 to 31 in the individual mite species. We did not find any significant effect of diet or evolutionary origin of mites or their interaction on the composition of the mite bacteriome. In mite species with low bacterial diversity, the bacterial communities were dominated by potential symbiotic or parasitic bacteria, i.e., Cardinium in Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961) and Aeroglyphus robustus (Banks 1906) and the enteric bacteria Erwinia in Blomia tropicalis Van Bronswijk, de Cock & Oshima, 1974 and Xenorhabdus in Tyroborus lini (Oudemans, 1924). Among the bacterial species identified, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Kocuria, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, and Brachybacterium likely serve as food sources for the mites. The domestic acaridid mites carried high numbers of various bacteria that are potential threats to human health. These results contribute to the general understanding of the ecology of mite adaptation to human-made habitats. PMID:27122496

  14. Arrhenotoky and oedipal mating in the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae)

    OpenAIRE

    McCulloch John B; Owen Jeb P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The northern fowl mite (NFM; Ornithonyssus sylviarum) is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of birds and a major pest of poultry in the United States. Mite populations spread rapidly in commercial flocks, reach peak burdens of >70,000 mites per bird and have developed resistance to many pesticides. Despite decades as a pest in the United States, the reproductive biology of NFM remains unclear. Based on karyotypes, the NFM has haplodiploid sex determination, which suggests unmate...

  15. Susceptibility of laboratory-reared northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae), to selected acaricides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, M M; DeMilo, A B

    1988-07-01

    Toxicity was determined for 15 acaricides against a laboratory strain of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago). Adult females were exposed to residues on filter paper for 24 h. Three organophosphorous compounds (monocrotophos, cythioate, and famphur) were more toxic to the northern fowl mite than was carbaryl, the most commonly used pesticide in the poultry industry. The other tested compounds were less toxic to the mite than was carbaryl. Four of these, not used previously for northern fowl mite control, had low LC50's for northern fowl mites:aldicarb (0.46); pirimiphos-methyl (0.73); exo, exo-2,8-dichloro-4-thiatricyclo[3.2.1.0.]octane-4-oxide (AI3-63182) (0.87); and diazinon (2.48). PMID:3168660

  16. Artificial feeding of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), through membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, M M

    1986-08-01

    A new device and technique are described for the in vitro feeding of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago). The device consisted of a glass cylinder 25 mm in length and in outside diameter, capped with a chick skin membrane at one end and a snap-cap with a wire cloth window at the other end. Maximum feeding by northern fowl mites on warmed heparinized chicken blood occurred after 60 min and at a blood temperature range of 36-42 C. Skin membranes prepared from 1-wk-old chicks gave significantly higher feeding rates than those from 4-wk-old chicks, but unfrozen skins and skins frozen up to 4 wk were equally effective. Also, mites fed equally well through white leghorn and broiler chick skin membranes. About 80% of northern fowl mites fed. The in vitro technique described simplifies the approach to studies of northern fowl mite biology and physiology. PMID:3783349

  17. Temperature governs on-host distribution of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Riva, Deborah G; Soto, Diane; Mullens, Bradley A

    2015-02-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestri & Fanzago), is an ectoparasite of more than 70 species of North American wild birds, but it has a particularly significant impact on chickens, where it is a permanent resident of vent feathers. Improved control practices depend on a better understanding of host-mite relationships. ISA Brown hens were inoculated experimentally with northern fowl mite adults, and northern fowl mite populations developed naturally. Using a fast-response microprobe, temperatures of individual vent feathers (n = 15) were recorded at 5-mm increments along the length of the feather shaft. Immediately after temperatures were recorded, the individual feathers were quickly clipped at the skin surface and then flash-frozen between 2 small blocks of dry ice, freezing all northern fowl mite stages in situ. The feathers then were cut into 5-mm sections for careful mite enumeration by life stage. There were no overall differences among life stages in the distributions on the feather. Mite positions on feathers (distance from skin) varied distinctly with feather zone temperatures, as well as with ambient and average temperatures over the prior 24 hr. Ambient temperature at time of sampling affected the positions of the 2 mobile categories, adults and larvae/nymphs, but showed no statistical relationship with egg distribution. In contrast, ambient 24-hr temperature influenced the positions of all life stages. On-host feather temperatures reflected ambient temperatures. Feathers collected on hot days (ambient temperatures of 23-33 C) provided a narrow and quite warm range of temperature conditions for mites (often >30-36 C). Temperatures on cool days (ambient temperatures of <23 C) provided much wider on-host temperature ranges for mites to occupy (13-35 C). Mites were farther from the skin on warmer days. When mites had a broad range of temperatures, the feather temperature zone occupied by all life stages averaged 28-29 C. Mites move to occupy favorable temperature conditions on-host. When further out on feathers in warm weather, and under thermal stress, northern fowl mites either move off host or are dislodged. They then become a human pest, are noticed by farmers, and are more likely to disperse. PMID:25275303

  18. Development of precipitating antibody in chickens experimentally infested with northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murano, T; Namiki, K; Uchino, T; Shimizu, S; Fujisaki, K

    1989-06-01

    In order to examine the immune response of chickens to different population levels of mites, a microscopic slide modification of the Ouchterlony double-gel diffusion technique was adopted for examination of circulating antibody against the extract of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum. Precipitating antibodies were detected in all the chickens infested with the mite. One to three clearly defined precipitation lines appeared in almost all the serum samples of infested birds. Titers of antibody correlated with population levels of the mite on chickens, and no differences in antibody development of hens and roosters were distinguished. These results suggest that the titration of precipitating antibodies appears to be useful for the assessment of mite population levels on chickens. PMID:2505245

  19. Inhibition of the classical pathway of the complement system by saliva of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Paula F; Silva, Naylene C S; Fazito do Vale, Vladimir; Abreu, Jéssica F; Santos, Vânia C; Gontijo, Nelder F; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Pereira, Marcos H; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R V; Gomes, Alessandra P S; Araujo, Ricardo N

    2016-05-01

    Inhibition of the complement system during and after haematophagy is of utmost importance for tick success in feeding and tick development. The role of such inhibition is to minimise damage to the intestinal epithelium as well as avoiding inflammation and opsonisation of salivary molecules at the bite site. Despite its importance, the salivary anti-complement activity has been characterised only in species belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex which saliva is able to inhibit the alternative and lectin pathways. Little is known about this activity in other species of the Ixodidae family. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the inhibition of the classical pathway of the complement system by the saliva of Amblyomma cajennense at different stages of the haematophagy. The A. cajennense saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) were able to inhibit the complement classical pathway through haemolytic assays with higher activity observed when saliva was used. The anti-complement activity is present in the salivary glands of starving females and also in females throughout the whole feeding process, with significant higher activity soon after tick detachment. The SGE activity from both females fed on mice or horses had no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with tick body weight. The pH found in the intestinal lumen of A. cajennense was 8.04 ± 0.08 and haemolytic assays performed at pH 8.0 showed activation of the classical pathway similarly to what occurs at pH 7.4. Consequently, inhibition could be necessary to protect the tick enterocytes. Indeed, the inhibition observed by SGE was higher in pH 8.0 in comparison to pH 7.4 reinforcing the role of saliva in protecting the intestinal cells. Further studies should be carried out in order to identify the inhibitor molecule and characterise its inhibition mechanism. PMID:26948715

  20. Two new species of Neoribates (Neoribates Berlese, 1914 from China (Acari, Oribatida, Parakalummidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang, W.Q.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new oribatid mite species, Neoribates (N. cheni and Neoribates (N. particula spp. nov. are described from soil and litter of bamboo and under moss from China. Neoribates (N. cheni sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to Neoribates (N. spindleformis Ermilov, 2012 but differs from it in the number of leg claws and the position of epimeral setae. Neoribates (N. particula sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to Neoribates (N. gracilis Travé, 1972 but differs from it in the shape and size of rostral and lamellar setae, and the position of adanal setae ad3.

  1. Repellent effect of santalol from sandalwood oil against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyun Sik; Park, Kye Chung; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2012-04-01

    Thirty-four essential oils were screened for their repellent activities against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), at 0.1% concentration level using choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays. Of these, 20 essential oils showed significant repellencies against T. urticae in the choice tests. In subsequent no-choice tests using these 20 essential oils, only sandalwood oil showed significant repellency against T. urticae. Total number of eggs oviposited by T. urticae was significantly lower than controls in the choice tests when the kidney bean leaves were treated with 1 of 14 essential oils. The significant repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae lasted at least for 5 h at the 0.1% concentration level. Our GC-MS analysis indicated that the major components of the sandalwood oil were alpha-santalol (45.8%), beta-santalol (20.6%), beta-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-beta-santalol (3.3%). Santanol, a mixture of the two main components in the sandalwood oil, appears to be responsible for the repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae.

  2. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  3. Screening and Identification of Antigenic Proteins from the Hard Tick Dermacentor silvarum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Cui, Xuejiao; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Hui; Wu, Meng; Zeng, Hua; Cao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jingze; Hu, Yonghong

    2015-12-01

    In order to explore tick proteins as potential targets for further developing vaccine against ticks, the total proteins of unfed female Dermacentor silvarum were screened with anti-D. silvarum serum produced from rabbits. The results of western blot showed that 3 antigenic proteins of about 100, 68, and 52 kDa were detected by polyclonal antibodies, which means that they probably have immunogenicity. Then, unfed female tick proteins were separated by 12% SDS-PAGE, and target proteins (100, 68, and 52 kDa) were cut and analyzed by LC-MS/MS, respectively. The comparative results of peptide sequences showed that they might be vitellogenin (Vg), heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), respectively. These data will lay the foundation for the further validation of antigenic proteins to prevent infestation and diseases transmitted by D. silvarum. PMID:26797451

  4. Laboratory evaluation of four commercial repellents against larval Leptotrombidium deliense (Acari: Trombiculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Ismail, Siti Hazar Awang; Ming, Ho Tze

    2010-09-01

    Four commercial repellents were evaluated in the laboratory against Leptotrombidium deliense chiggers. Both in vitro and in vivo methods were used to determine repellency of the compounds. The repellents were Kellis (containing citronella oil, jojoba oil and tea tree oil), Kaps (containing citronella oil), BioZ (containing citronella oil, geranium oil and lemon grass oil) and Off (containing DEET). The combination of three active ingredients: citronella oil, geranium oil, lemon grass oil gave the highest repellency (87%) followed by DEET (84%). In vitro repellencies ranged from 73% to 87%. There was no significant difference between the four products. All the repellents had 100% in vivo repellency compared to 41-57% for the controls.

  5. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing wild turkeys (Aves: Phasianidae) in eastern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, D E; Applegate, R D; Fox, L B

    2001-01-01

    During the spring and fall turkey hunting seasons of 1999, hunters and Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks field personnel examined wild turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo L., for ticks and submitted them to us for identification. From springtime hunting, we received 113 ticks from 12 turkeys killed in nine counties, all in the eastern one-third of Kansas. Collectors reported examining three additional wild turkeys on which no ticks were found. All ticks were nymphal lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). Of 11 wild turkeys examined in seven counties during October, one was parasitized by 30 A. americanum larvae. Data from this study and accounts from the published literature suggest that parasitism of wild turkeys by immature lone star ticks is commonplace wherever this host and ectoparasite are sympatric. Our study suggests that M. gallopavo may be an important host that supports lone star tick populations.

  6. Molecular, biological, and morphometric comparisons between different geographical populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Gustavo S; Évora, Patrícia M; Mangold, Atílio J; Jittapalapong, Sattaporn; Rodriguez-Mallon, Alina; Guzmán, Pedro E E; Bechara, Gervásio H; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2016-01-15

    In this study, different geographical populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato were compared by molecular, biological, and morphometric methods. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using 12S and 16S rDNA sequences and showed two distinct clades: one composed of ticks from Brazil (Jaboticabal, SP), Cuba (Havana) Thailand (Bangkok) and the so-called "tropical strain" ticks. The second clade was composed of ticks from Spain (Zaragoza), Argentina (Rafaela, Santa Fe) and the so-called "temperate strain" ticks. Morphometric analysis showed good separation between females of the two clades and within the temperate clade. Males also exhibited separation between the two clades, but with some overlap. Multiple biological parameters revealed differences between the two clades, especially the weight of the engorged female. These results confirm the existence of at least two species under the name "R. sanguineus". PMID:26790741

  7. Occurrence and transmission of mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 from dejecta of Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; Turchetti, Tullio; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Paoli, Francesco; Danti, Roberto; Simoni, Sauro

    2016-03-01

    The natural spread of virus-induced hypovirulence is highly involved in the recovery of blighted chestnut stands and orchards in Italy and in Europe. The potential role of corticolous mites as vectors of hypovirulence in blighted chestnut Castanea sativa (Mill.) stands was pointed out in previous reports. Here, by using RT-PCR, mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV1) was detected in Thyreophagus corticalis mites reared on a hypovirulent strain in monoxenic cultures and in their faecal pellets. Cryphonectria parasitica mycelium derived from mites' dejecta was able to transmit CHV1 to the virulent strain determining its conversion to hypovirulent one. This converted strain induced healing cankers on excised stems, differently from the un-converted virulent strain. Our findings prove the spread of CHV1 by corticolous mites that feed on virus-infected fungus and emphasize their potential role as vectors. PMID:26895863

  8. Rhizoglyphus engeli nov. spec., with notes on the genus Rhizoglyphus (Acari, Acaridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyndhoven, van G.L.

    1968-01-01

    A new species of Rhizoglyphus, Rh. engeli nov. spec., is described. Some notes on the genus Rhizoglyphus deal with the morphological characters of Rh. robini, echinopus and solani, and describe in detail the differences in the genital system. Some inaccuracies in literature are discussed and the cor

  9. Isolation of Entomopathogenic Fungi From Soils and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks: Prevalence and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tuininga, Amy R.; Miller, Jessica L.; Shannon U. Morath; Daniels, Thomas J.; Falco, Richard C.; Marchese, Michael; Sahabi, Sadia; Rosa, Dieshia; Stafford, Kirby C.

    2009-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to Ixodes scapularis Say, the blacklegged tick. As a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an Eastern deciduous forest where I. scapularis is common. Several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf lit...

  10. Repellent activity of fractioned compounds from Chamaecyparis nootkatensis essential oil against nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Gabrielle; Dolan, Marc C; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Schmidt, Jason; Piesman, Joseph; Eisen, Rebecca J; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2006-09-01

    Preliminary repellent activity of 14 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., were evaluated against nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say in a laboratory bioassay and compared with technical grade N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet). Four hours after treatment, nootkatone and valencene-13-ol had repellent concentration (RC)50 values of 0.0458 and 0.0712% (wt:vol), respectively; two additional Alaska yellow cedar compounds, nootkatone 1 --> 10 epoxide and carvacrol had reported RC50 values of 0.0858 and 0.112%, respectively. The observed RC50 value for deet was 0.0728% (wt:vol). Although not statistically significantly more active than deet, the ability of these natural products to repel ticks at relatively low concentrations may represent a potential alternative to synthetic commercial repellents. PMID:17017233

  11. Effect of fast electrons on the reproductive biology of the grain mite Acarus siro (Acari: Acaridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of fast electrons on the reproductive biology of the grain mite Acarus siro was investigated in the laboratory at 25±1°C and 85% RH. Irradiation of adults with substerilizing doses of fast electrons significantly reduced fecundity and egg viability of the mite. The number of spermatophores found in the bursa of treated females was also considerably reduced. However, no change in the shape of the spermatophores was observed. It was not known whether the decrease in fecundity and egg viability was the result of the drop in spermatophore production or to the death of sperm cells. Fast electrons had less effect upon fecundity than the same dose of gamma radiation. However, irradiation by fast electrons had a similar effect on egg viability (expressed in percentage), number of spermatophores produced per individual, and number of adult F1 progeny. Fast-electron doses above 0.4 kGy caused sterility of the mite

  12. A new species of the genus Neogalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang, Wenqin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of oribatid mites of the family Galumnidae, Neogalumna longiporosa sp. nov., is described from dark loamy soil collected under moss in North Eastern China. It is the first identified member of the genus Neogalumna recorded for China. An identification key to the known species of Neogalumna is also given.

  13. Application of gamma radiation on longevity of some mites species (Acari: Tetranychidade)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rica_machi@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mites are pests agricultural found in various environments accessible to animal life: soil, aerial parts of the plants, host insects. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on longevity of mite pests of the tetranychidae family have been studied. The mites were irradiated in a source of Cobalt-60, Gammacell-220 type, at a dose rate of 0.486 kGy located in the CENA/USP, in the doses of 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, and 400 Gy with sixteen replicates per dose. After the irradiation, the mites were placed in petri dishes totalizing 5 treatments in 32 repetitions. The analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the Tukey test, the verification of means. Were evaluated daily the adult mortality and longevity of irradiated mites. After 25 days was observed a mean longevity of mites, for O.ilicis, 100 Gy was equal the control dose (18.3 days), but to T. desertorum and T. urticae the larger longevity was observed in the dose of 200 Gy (19.0 days) being that this dose, obtained the larger longevity in comparison to control dose (18.5 days), in general the longevity decreased in relation to increased doses. Thus, only the dose of 100 Gy and 200 Gy stimulated an increased the longevity in O. ilicis and T. desertorum and T. urticae respectively. The exact mechanism by which the mites are tolerant to avoid damage caused by radicals when exposed to ionizing radiation is not fully understood. (author)

  14. Canis familiaris, UN NUEVO HOSPEDERO DE Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis FOX, 1947 (ACARI: IXODIDA EN COLOMBIA

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    BEJARANO EDUAR E. E.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de garrapatas que parasitan perros en tres poblaciones del área rural del Caribe colombiano. Durante los meses de agosto y diciembre del año 2006 se realizó búsqueda activa de garrapatas sobre caninos domésticos de las localidades de El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero y Escobar Arriba, departamento de Sucre. Las garrapatas recolectadas fueron almacenadas en viales con etanol al 70% e identificadas empleando claves morfológicas de referencia para cada familia. Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se recolectaron 420 garrapatas a partir de 50 caninos infestados, de un total de 134 perros examinados, que corresponde a una tasa de infestación del 37,3%. Las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y Amblyomma ovale pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae, y Ornithodoros (Alectorobius puertoricensis de la familia Argasidae. La especie predominante fue R. sanguineus (92,1% en los estados de larva, ninfa y adulto, seguida por larvas de O. puertoricensis, que fueron halladas en menor número sobre caninos de las tres localidades. Se registra, por primera vez en América, el parasitismo de O. puertoricensis sobre caninos domésticos y se confirma su presencia en Colombia.

    Palabras clave: garrapatas, perros, Ornithodoros puertoricensis, Ixodida, Colombia.


    ABSTRACT

    Ticks are very important from the biomedical point of view, by their hematophagic activity and their role in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to man and animals. The main goal of this work was to establish the tick species parasiting dogs in three rural localities of the Colombian Caribbean. From August to December 2006, an active search of ticks on dogs was carried out in the localities of El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero and Escobar Arriba, department of Sucre. The collected ticks were preserved into eppendorf tubes with 70% ethanol, and identified using standard morphological keys for each family. Argasid species were determined by measuring external morphological characters. Of 134 examined dogs in the three localities, 50 were found infested by ticks, representing a infestation rate of 37,3%. A total of 420 ticks were collected from dogs and identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, and Amblyomma ovale of the Ixodidae family, and Ornithodoros puertoricensis of the Argasidae family. R. sanguineus was the predominant species (92,1% in the stages of larva, nymph and adult, following by O. puertoricensis larvae recorded in low numbers in the three regions sampled. The tick O. puertoricensis is recorded for the first time as ectoparasite of domestic dogs in America. Additionally, the presence of this tick species is confirmed in Colombia.

    Key words: Ticks, dogs, Ornithodoros puertoricensis, Ixodida, Colombia

  15. Some oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida from the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Anibal Ramadan Oliveira

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in three sites from northern and mid-eastern regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, to determine oribatid mite composition in patches of seasonal semideciduous forest and soybean crop plantation. A list of 52 taxa, 24 at the species level and 28 only at the genus level, is given, 27 of which are new records for the region.

  16. Genetic diversity of Salp15 in the Ixodes ricinus complex (Acari: Ixodidae.

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    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, is both essential for ticks to successfully obtain host blood and also facilitates transmission of Lyme borreliosis. To determine whether the Salp15 gene is expressed in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes sinensis, principle vectors of Lyme borreliosis in China, we studied transcriptions of this gene in semi-engorged larvae, nymph and adults of these two species. A total of eight Salp15 homologues, five in I. persulcatus and three in I. sinensis, were identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Interestingly, the intra-species similarity of Salp15 is approximately equal to its interspecies similarity and more than one Salp15 protein is expressed in a certain tick developmental stage. Comparison of DNA and proteins with other available tick Salp15 homologues suggests that the Salp15 superfamily is genetically conserved and diverse in the Ixodes ricinus complex. These findings indicate that Salp15 proteins in the I. ricinus complex may play an essential role in interacting with the host immune system and transmission of Borrelia genospecies.

  17. Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of livestock in Nicaragua, with notes about distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düttmann, Christiane; Flores, Byron; Kadoch Z, Nathaniel; Bermúdez C, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We document the species of ticks that parasitize livestock in Nicaragua. The study was based on tick collection on cattle and horses from 437 farms in nine departments. Of 4841 animals examined (4481 cows and 360 horses), 3299 were parasitized, which represent 68 % of the bovines and 67 % of the equines in study: 59 cows and 25 horses were parasitized by more than one species. In addition, 280 specimens of the entomological museum in León were examined. The ticks found on cattle were Rhipicephalus microplus (75.2 % of the ticks collected), Amblyomma mixtum (20.8 %), A. parvum (2.6 %), A. tenellum (0.7 %), A. maculatum (0.7 %). While the ticks collected from the horses were: Dermacentor nitens (41.5 %), A. mixtum (31.7 %), R. microplus (13.8 %), A. parvum (6.5 %), A. tenellum (3.3 %), D. dissimilis (2.4 %) and A. maculatum (0.8 %). PMID:27392740

  18. Amblyomma parvum Aragão, 1908 (Acari: Ixodidae): Phylogeography and systematic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Paula; Nava, Santiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; Szabo, Matias P J; Durden, Lance A; Bermudez, Sergio; Montagna, Matteo; Sánchez Quirós, Ana C; Beati, Lorenza

    2016-07-01

    The geographical distribution of Amblyomma parvum Aragão 1908 in the New World is disjunct, with two main clusters separated from each other by the Amazon basin. The main objectives of this study were to further investigate the systematic relationships within A. parvum, to determine whether or not populations from different geographical areas might represent cryptic species, and to reconstruct the phylogeographical evolutionary history of the species. The genetic diversity of A. parvum collected throughout its distributional range was analyzed by using 6 molecular markers: 5 mitochondrial [the small and the large ribosomal subunits 12rDNA and 16SrDNA, the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and II (COII) and the control region or d-loop (DL)], and one nuclear (ITS2, Inter transcribed spacer 2). Phylogenetic trees were inferred by using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. In addition, node dating was attempted for the main lineages identified phylogenetically. Although mitochondrial and nuclear topologies were not totally congruent, they all identified at least two main supported clusters, a Central American lineage, and a Brazilian-Argentinian lineage. Clade support and divergence values strongly suggest that the two lineages correspond to different taxonomic entities. Node dating placed the split between the Central American and the Brazilian-Argentinian lineages at approximately 5.8-4.9 Mya, just after the progressive replacement of the dry areas that occupied the northern part of South America by the Amazon Basin in the early-mid Miocene. This event might be the cause of fragmentation and putative speciation within the ancestral relatively xerophilic A. parvum population. PMID:27062445

  19. Redescription of two species of Oplitis Berlese (Acari, Mesostigmata, Oplitidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Esmaeil; Saboori, Alireza; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Etemad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Two new species records of Oplitidae, Oplitis exopodi Hunter & Farrier, 1975 and Oplitis sarcinulus Hunter & Farrier, 1976 are redescribed based on Iranian specimens from leaf-litter forest in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. A key to the Iranian species of Oplitis is presented. PMID:27587975

  20. Laboratory Study on Biological Control of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae by Entomopathogenic Indigenous Fungi (Beauveria bassiana

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    M Abdigoudarzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical control method using different acaricides as spray, dipping solution or pour-on is routinely used for controlling ticks. Biological control agents are favorable due to their safety for animals and environment. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are well known for controlling ticks. In this study, two Iranian indigenous strains of B. bassiana (B. bassiana 5197 and B. bassiana Evin were selected and grown on specific me­dia. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of two Iranian Ixodidae members (H. anatolicum anatolicum Koch 1844, and H. marginatum Koch 1844 by dipping method.Methods: Two Iranian strains of Beauveria bassiana (Beauveria bassiana 5197 and Beauveria bassiana Evin were selected and were grown successfully on specific media. The pathogenic effects of these strains were evaluated on adult stages of Iranian Ixodidae members such as, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and H. marginatum by dipping method (these ticks were grown up at laboratory conditions during 2002 up to 2003 and still it is continued .Results: There was no effect of strain 5197 on mortality or fecundity rates for ticks. There was acute phase sign of paralysis in test group after dipping ticks in suspension made from Evin strain of B. bassiana. In addition, the test groups were totally died after four months, but the control groups survived for six months.Conclusion: High concentration of fungal spores is needed for inducing fungal infection. Additional study using different strains and fungi on Iranian ticks is proposed. 

  1. Primer registro de Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae) para México

    OpenAIRE

    Griselda Montiel Parra; Helxine Fuentes Moreno; Margarita Vargas

    2007-01-01

    En este estudio se aportan los primeros datos de la garrapata Ixodes cookei Packard, 1869 en México. Un macho, 7 larvas y 15 ninfas se recolectaron en los estados de Nuevo León y Veracruz. Además, se registra al cacomixtle Bassariscus astutus como un nuevo huésped.

  2. Rickettsial infection in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of wild animals in midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Rute; Martins, Thiago F; Campos, Artur K; Melo, Andréia L T; Corrêa, Sandra H R; Morgado, Thaís O; Wolf, Rafael W; May-Júnior, Joares A; Sinkoc, Afonso L; Strüssmann, Christine; Aguiar, Daniel M; Rossi, Rogério V; Semedo, Thiago B F; Campos, Zilca; Desbiez, Arnaud L J; Labruna, Marcelo B; Pacheco, Richard C

    2016-04-01

    Ticks collected in the last two decades from free-living and captive wild animals from 28 municipalities of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were identified and tested using molecular methods for the presence of rickettsial agents. A total of 4467 ticks (229 larvae, 1676 nymphs, 1565 males, 997 females) representing 27 ixodid species were collected from 235 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals from three different ecoregions (Pantanal, Cerrado, and Amazonia). The species Amblyomma parkeri, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma varium and Ixodes luciae are reported for the first time in the state of Mato Grosso. Amongst 538 ticks tested by molecular methods for rickettsial infection, we detected 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' infecting Amblyomma cajennense sensu stricto and Amblyomma coelebs, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest infecting Amblyomma ovale, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD infecting Amblyomma nodosum, and 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae' infecting Amblyomma sculptum. Our results represent an impressive expansion of knowledge on tick fauna and rickettsiae and are essential for understanding the ecology of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Neotropical region, particularly in midwestern Brazil. PMID:26775021

  3. Tick pests and vectors (Acari: Ixodoidea) in European towns: Introduction, persistence and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspensky, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Ticks have always been a part of fauna in and around human settlements, and their significance changed concurrently with the enlargement of settlements and their transformation into towns. The increased rate of urbanization during the last decades has created a new reality for tick existence. Two groups of ticks are of major concern for modern towns: those living under natural conditions of urban surroundings and those well-adapted to urban conditions. During the process of urbanization, encroachment into forested and uncultivated areas as well as protection of existing green spaces create opportunities for ticks living in nature to also exist under urban and suburban conditions. Conditions of modern urban and especially suburban environment in developed European countries adequately meet tick requirements. Tick species having an advantage in urban areas are those that can use one and the same host at all parasitic stages, can starve for a prolonged time, can use either urban pests or domesticated animals as hosts, and can live in man-made buildings. The ticks of the Argas reflexus group (Argasidae) and the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae) comply with practically all conditions necessary for successful survival in urban areas. The ability of ticks to transmit numerous human and animal pathogens and the presence of many reservoir hosts in urban and suburban areas create persistent danger for human populations and domestic animals. Impact on urban ticks should be directed against the two major requirements of tick existence: reducing populations of potential tick hosts (feral pigeons, stray dogs and cats, and urban rodents), and changing other environmental conditions to make them less suitable for ticks. It is especially important that urban inhabitants be properly informed about the danger posed by ticks, the sites of possible tick attacks, and basic self-protection techniques.

  4. Effect of Crude Plant Extracts on Mushroom Mite, Luciaphorus sp. (Acari: Pygmephoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Prapassorn Bussaman; Chirayu Sa-uth; Paweena Rattanasena; Angsumarn Chandrapatya

    2012-01-01

    The use of plant extracts for controlling agricultural pests has become increasingly popular in the recent years. Mushroom mite, Luciaphorus sp., is a destructive pest of several mushroom species and has been reported to cause severe loss of mushroom cultivation in many settings. The efficacies of 23 rhizome and leaf extracts were evaluated against female adults of Luciaphorus sp. At 3 days after treatment, the rhizome extracts derived from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. and Zingiber montanum (Ko...

  5. Panonychus from Georgia: survey, taxonomical status and redescription of P. hadzhibejliae (Reck, 1947) (Acari, Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabuli, Tea; Çobanoglu, Sultan; Auger, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Panonychus species was undertaken across Georgia from 2005 to 2014 on various host plants, revealing three species: Panonychus citri (McGregor, 1916), Panonychus hadzhibejliae (Reck, 1947) and Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836). New hosts for P. ulmi and P. citri are recorded, Buxus sempervirens, Hedera colchica and Prunus laurocerasus for P. ulmi and Ficus carica for P. citri, whereas P. hadzhibejliae was only found on F. carica. The newly collected material also allowed us to investigate the taxonomical status of P. hadzhibejliae. The comparison of P. hadzhibejliae with the two closely related species sampled in the survey, P. ulmi and P. citri, and with data of P. caricae found in the literature, shows that P. hadzhibejliae is a valid species. It can be separated from the three other Panonychus species without ambiguity especially using the female dorsal setae length in combination with the ratio between the length of the female dorsal opisthosomal f2 and h1 setae and the ratio between the palptarsal terminal eupathidium su and the related solenidion ω. A redescription of P. hadzhibejliae is provided including the male and some morphological characters, measurements and drawings of the female that were omitted in the original description. A key to the world species of Panonychus is also proposed. PMID:27395141

  6. Three new species from the subfamily Phyllocoptinae (Acari, Trombidiformes, Eriophyidae in Iran

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    Parisa Lotfollahi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new eriophyid species (Phyllocoptinae, Shevtchenkella denticulata sp. n., Notallus pestehae sp. n. and Echinacrus ruthenicus sp. n., were described from Eryngium thyrsoideum Boiss. (Apiaceae, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae and Lycium ruthenicum Murray (Solanaceae, respectively. All the three new species were collected from southwest of the East Azerbaijan province, Iran in 2011. It is the first record of an eriophyoid mite collected from E. thyrsoideum and L. ruthenicum and the first record of Notallus from Anacardiaceae plant family.

  7. Three new species from the subfamily Phyllocoptinae (Acari, Trombidiformes, Eriophyidae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; de Lillo, Enrico; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Three new eriophyid species (Phyllocoptinae), Shevtchenkella denticulata sp. n., Notallus pestehae sp. n. and Echinacrus ruthenicus sp. n., were described from Eryngium thyrsoideum Boiss. (Apiaceae), Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) and Lycium ruthenicum Murray (Solanaceae), respectively. All the three new species were collected from southwest of the East Azerbaijan province, Iran in 2011. It is the first record of an eriophyoid mite collected from E. thyrsoideum and L. ruthenicum and the first record of Notallus from Anacardiaceae plant family. PMID:25147456

  8. Three new species from the subfamily Phyllocoptinae (Acari, Trombidiformes, Eriophyidae) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Lotfollahi; Enrico de Lillo; Karim Haddad Irani-Nejad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new eriophyid species (Phyllocoptinae), Shevtchenkella denticulata sp. n., Notallus pestehae sp. n. and Echinacrus ruthenicus sp. n., were described from Eryngium thyrsoideum Boiss. (Apiaceae), Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) and Lycium ruthenicum Murray (Solanaceae), respectively. All the three new species were collected from southwest of the East Azerbaijan province, Iran in 2011. It is the first record of an eriophyoid mite collected from E. thyrsoideum and L. ruthenicum an...

  9. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H M; Hernandes, F A; Pichorim, M

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  10. Toxicity of neem oil to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Amanda C.B Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.-derived pesticides have been used against a wide range of agricultural pests including tetranychid mites. Approaches combining lethal and sublethal toxicity studies of neem pesticides towards tetranychid mites are necessary to a comprehensive evaluation of such products. Here, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal toxicity of the neem oil Bioneem to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar by integrating lethal concentration (LC with population growth and biological parameter studies. According to Probit analyses the concentration of neem oil Bioneem which kills 50% of the population (LC50 of M. tanajoa was 3.28 ¼L cm-2, which is roughly twice the field concentration recommended of this biopesticide to control pest mites (1.7 ¼L cm-2. The growth rate of the cassava green mite steadily decreased with dosages of neem oil. Furthermore, sublethal concentrations of the neem oil corresponding to the LC50 reduced the periods of the immature stages of M. tanajoa resulting in a shorter developmental time. Similarly, the number of eggs per day and the number of eggs per female per day, a proxy for fecundity, were drastically reduced in M. tanajoa females exposed to the LC50 of neem oil. Based on our comprehensive approach we conclude that the neem oil showed lethal as well as sublethal toxicity on growth rate and biological parameters such as duration of immature stages and fecundity of the cassava green mite M. tanajoa and it could be used as an ecological alternative for the management of this pest.

  11. Effect of Crude Plant Extracts on Mushroom Mite, Luciaphorus sp. (Acari: Pygmephoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapassorn Bussaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts for controlling agricultural pests has become increasingly popular in the recent years. Mushroom mite, Luciaphorus sp., is a destructive pest of several mushroom species and has been reported to cause severe loss of mushroom cultivation in many settings. The efficacies of 23 rhizome and leaf extracts were evaluated against female adults of Luciaphorus sp. At 3 days after treatment, the rhizome extracts derived from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. and Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr. were found to have very strong acaricidal activities, resulting in 100% mite mortality, followed by Curcuma longa Linn. (98.89%, Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith. (97.78%, Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex Baker (88.89%, and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (84.44%. The leaf extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. and Melissa officinalis L. also resulted in 100% mite mortality 3 days after treatment, while the other leaf extracts induced mite mortality only below 70%. The results suggested that rhizome extracts of C. xanthorrhiza and Z. montanum and leaf extracts of O. sanctum and M. officinalis have a great potential for future development as natural acaricides for controlling Luciaphorus sp.

  12. Hosts, seasonal occurrence and life cycle of Rhipicentor nuttalli (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, L J; Horak, I G; Kok, D J; Van Zyl, W

    2002-09-01

    There are only two species worldwide within the genus Rhipicentor, namely Rhipicentor bicornis and Rhipicentor nuttalli and both occur only in Africa. Rhipicentor nuttali has a widespread distribution in South Africa and the present investigation was initiated to elucidate its host preference, seasonality and life cycle. Rock elephant shrews, Elephantulus myurus were examined for ticks at four localities in the Free State Province, one in Gauteng Province and two in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Cape elephant shrews, Elephantulus edwardii were examined at two places in the Western Cape Province, and a single specimen of the bushveld elephant shrew, Elephantulus intufi was examined in central Namibia. Small mammals of other species were also examined at two of these localities. The majority of E. myurus at two sites in the Free State, at the locality in Gauteng and both sites in Limpopo Province were infested with larvae and/or nymphs of R. nuttalli, while the single E. edwardii examined at one site in the Western Cape Province and the single E. intufi examined in Namibia were infested with nymphs of this tick. Not one of the other small animals was infested. Although larvae and nymphs of R. nuttalli were present on E. myurus throughout the year, the former were generally most numerous during the period March to September, and the latter during May to October. The preferred hosts of the adults are domestic dogs, leopards, Panthera pardus and South African hedgehogs, Atelerix frontalis. Adult females engorged on Atelerix frontalis in 16-32 days and, after a preoviposition period of 2-4 days, produced approximately 170,00 eggs during the following 60-70 days. The average incubation period of the eggs was 59 days. Larvae engorged on E. myurus in 4-10 days and moulted to nymphs 12-20 days later. Nymphs required 11-15 days to engorge on E. myurus and moulted to adults 32-47 days later. Allowing 14 days for the exoskeletons and mouthparts of each of the three parasitic stages to harden before they can attach to a host, the life cycle took approximately 214 days to complete in the laboratory. The length of this period, considered in conjunction with the times of maximum seasonal occurrence of the immature stages, indicates that the life cycle probably takes a year to complete in the field. PMID:12356163

  13. Detection of permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permethrin is a commonly used acaricide for tick control on domestic animals and in residential environments, while fipronil use is restricted to on-animal treatment. Following widespread reports of permethrin and fipronil application failures to control indoor infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguin...

  14. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species. PMID:8952073

  15. Chenophila nanseni sp. n. (Acari: Syringophilidae parasitising the barnacle goose in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoracki Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Chenophila nanseni sp. n., collected from covert quills of the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis (Anseriformes: Anatidae in Svalbard (Spitsbergen is described and female polymorphism is recorded in this species. In syringophilids this phenomenon was known only for representatives of the genus Stibarokris. The new species differs from the similar Ch. platyrhynchos by following features: in females of Ch. nanseni the anterior margin of the propodonotal shield is flat (vs. concave in Ch. platyrhynchos and the lengths of idiosomal setae si, f2 and ag3 in Ch. nanseni are distinctly shorter than in Ch. plathyrynchos.

  16. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) parasitizing humans in Corum and Yozgat provinces, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Adem; Keskin, Aysun; Bursali, Ahmet; Tekin, Saban

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat provinces in Turkey, a total of 2110 ticks representing 14 species were collected on humans, between June and September 2009. Of those, 1551 (687♂, 450♀, 407 nymphs, 7 larvae) were collected from Corum and 559 (330♂, 180♀, 49 nymphs) were collected from Yozgat. The majority of ticks (n = 1121, 53.1 %) was Hyalomma marginatum. Other common ticks infesting humans were Dermacentor marginatus (n = 209, 9.9 %) and Rhipicephalus turanicus sensu lato (n = 145, 6.9 %) in the study area. In addition, a total of 386 immature Hyalomma were found on humans in Corum (335 nymphs, 7 larvae) and Yozgat (44 nymphs). Ixodes laguri and Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica were recorded for the first time in Corum. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first detailed investigation on ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat, except individual or incidental records. The present study provides useful information for those concerned with ticks and tick-borne diseases in Turkey.

  17. The patterns of seasonal activity of Ixodes vespertilionis (Acari: Ixodidae) on Rhinolophus hipposideros in nursery colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piksa, Krzysztof; Górz, Andrzej; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of the long-legged bat tick Ixodes vespertilionis infestation on the lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros in 2 nursery colonies roosting in attics. Out of a total of 810 lesser horseshoe bats examined, 217 (26.8%) were found to be infested with a total of 464 I. vespertilionis individuals. The developmental stage most frequently found was the larva, followed by the nymph, and the adult female. Bats were significantly more frequently infested with I. vespertilionis ticks in the period April to May than in other months. In these months, all tick developmental stages were observed. During summer and autumn, only immature developmental stages were recorded, whilst in September and October larvae predominated. Considerable differences in tick load between nursery colonies were observed. The length of seasonal presence on bats, prevalence, and infestation intensity of I. vespertilionis on lesser horseshoe bats were higher in the nursery colony situated in close vicinity of a cave than in the colony situated far from the caves. The results suggest that the pattern of seasonal infestation of ticks on bats roosting in nursery colonies coincides with the seasonal activity of Rh. hipposideros in the caves. The first case of mixed infestation of the lesser horseshoe bat with I. vespertilionis and I. ricinus were also recorded. PMID:24252260

  18. Continental comparisons of the interaction between climate and the herbivorous mite, Floracarus perrepae (Acari : Eriophyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Goolsby, J.A.; Jesudasan, R.W.A.; Jourdan, Hervé; Muthuraj, B.; Bourne, A.S.; Pemberton, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum, is an invasive weed in the Florida Everglades and the leaf roll galling mite, Floracarus perrepae, is a proposed biological control agent. Field studies were conducted for one to two years at sites in its native range in Australia, New Caledonia, and India to evaluate the effect of climate on F perrepae. Monthly counts of the proportion of L. microphyllum subpinnae (leaflets) with leaf roll galls were used to measure the incidence of damage ...

  19. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-e ZHAO; Na GUO; Meng XUN; Ji-ru XU; Mei WANG; Duo-lao WANG

    2011-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation,756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an,China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study.Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP).The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%.Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender,residence,sharing sanitary ware,frequency of face-wash per day,and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation,whereas three variables (age,skin type,and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates.Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years.Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin.Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without.The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count.The inception rates were 21.3%,40.7%,59.2%,and 67.7% in the negative,mild,moderate,and severe infestation groups,respectively (X2=60.6,P<0.001).Specifically,the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R2=0.57,moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1,severe infestation OR=10.3).It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age,and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human.Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation.Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris.The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.

  20. The impact of insecticides applied in apple orchards on the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duso, Carlo; Ahmad, Shakeel; Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Klaric, Virna; Baldessari, Mario; Malagnini, Valeria; Angeli, Gino

    2014-03-01

    Kampimodromus aberrans is an effective predatory mite in fruit orchards. The side-effects of insecticides on this species have been little studied. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of insecticides on K. aberrans. Field experiments showed the detrimental effects of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad on predatory mites. Spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) populations reached higher densities on plots treated with etofenprox and tau-fluvalinate than in the other treatments. Single or multiple applications of neonicotinoids caused no detrimental effects on predatory mites. In the laboratory, spinosad and tau-fluvalinate caused 100 % mortality. Etofenprox caused a significant mortality and reduced fecundity. The remaining insecticides did not affect female survival except for imidacloprid. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin, thiacloprid, chlorpyrifos, lufenuron and methoxyfenozide were associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. No effect on fecundity was found for indoxacarb or acetamiprid. Escape rate of K. aberrans in laboratory was relatively high for etofenprox and spinosad, and to a lesser extent thiacloprid. The use of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad was detrimental for K. aberrans and the first two insecticides induced spider mite population increases. The remaining insecticides caused no negative effects on predatory mites in field trials. Some of them (reduced fecundity and repellence) should be considered with caution in integrated pest management programs.

  1. Selectivity of Three Miticides to Spider Mite Predator, Phytoseius plumifer (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Nadimi; Karim Kamali; Masoud Arbabi; Fateme Abdoli

    2009-01-01

    The predatory mite, Phytoseius plumifer (Canestrini & Fanzago), is one of the most abundant natural enemies and efficient predator of phytophagous mites in Iran. The miticides hexythiazox (Nisorun, EC 10%), fenpyroximate (Ortus,SC 5%), and abamectin (Vertimec, EC 1.8%) were tested in the laboratory for their side effects on P. Plumifer. The miticides were applied at the highest field recommended concentration (N) to detached leaves using a Potter Tower to deposit 2 mg spray solution per cm2. Percent predator mortality was evaluated from the protonymph up to the adult stage including the first five days of the oviposition period. Analysis of data showed that the total effect values of hexythiazox were below the lower threshold, and thus it could be considered to be a harmless miticide to P. Plumifer. In contrast, the total effects of fenpyroximate and abamectin were found harmful to the predatory mite at the highest field recommended concentrations.

  2. Damage level of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (acari: tetranychidae in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Suekane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Among phytophagous spider mites, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 is one of the most important agricultural pests, not only because of the damage it causes, but also because it has a wide host range, infesting many commercial crops such as leafy greens, cotton, beans, and soybeans, among others. This study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias (FCA of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD, located in the city of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments consisted of 5 levels in percentage of chlorotic symptoms (indicating mite damage: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. All of the characteristics evaluated, except for number of pods per plant, the number of seeds per plant, the total weight (productivity, and the weight of 1000 seeds, were significantly influenced by the different levels of chlorotic symptoms. The economic damage level for the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, according to the equation y = 66.63-0.51 x, based on the price of US$ 11.00 per bag of soybeans and a control cost of US$ 16.00, would be 15.80% chlorotic symptoms. At a price of US$ 29.00 per bag with the same control cost, the economic damage level would be 13% of chlorotic symptoms.

  3. Comparative life table analysis of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on 14 soybean genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amin Sedaratian; Yaghoub Fathipour; Saeid Moharramipour

    2011-01-01

    The life table parameters of two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, on 14 soybean genotypes (Sari, Sahar, Tellar, Zane, Ks3494, L17, Dpx, 032,033, Clark, Hill, I27, Tms and Williams) were evaluated at 28 ± 1℃, 65% ± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16 ∶ 8 h L ∶ D. The survivorship data (lx) of adult females were fitted to the Weibull frequency distribution model in all genotypes tested. Based on the Weibull parameters, the survival curve was type Ⅰ on all genotypes, which indicated that the mortality mostly occurred in old individuals. Furthermore, two mathematical models (Analytis and Enkegaard) were fitted to age-specific fecundity data (mx). The highest intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was recorded on L17 (0.392) and the lowest values of this parameter were obtained on Tms (0.233), Hill (0.236), 032 (0.236), I27 (0.237) and Clark (0.240). In addition, net reproductive rate (R0) and finite rate of increase (λ) of the TSSM had the highest value on L17 as 45.521 and 1.475, respectively. The lowest values of these parameters were recorded on Tms as 12.149 and 1.258, respectively. Doubling time (DT)varied significantly on different genotypes and the shortest and longest values of this period were obtained on L17 and 032, respectively. Our findings revealed that Tms, Hill,032, I27 and Clark were less suitable genotypes, suggesting that they are more resistant to the TSSM than the other genotypes.

  4. Impact of twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) duration of infestation on cotton seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W S; Catchot, A; Gore, J; Musser, F; Cook, D

    2013-04-01

    The yield response of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, duration of infestation during the seedling stage was measured at Starkville and Stoneville, MS, during 2010 and 2011. The treatments included a noninfested control, infestations lasting for 7, 14, 21, or 28 d, and a season long infested control. Twospotted spider mites from a greenhouse colony were inoculated on all of the infested cotton plots during the three-leaf stage. Applications of miticides were made to terminate infestations at the desired timings for each treatment. Twospotted spider mite densities and injury ratings were determined for each treatment at the end of the infestation period and yield was measured at the end of the season. Twospotted spider mite densities and injury rating significantly increased as duration of infestation increased. Significant differences in yield were observed between treatments. These data suggest infestations initiated at the three-leaf cotton growth stage with population densities at a minimum of 0.39 mites/cm2 existing > 14 d could result in reduction of cotton yields.

  5. Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of Two Biopesticides Against Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycopesticide Naturalis (based on Beauveria bassiana strain ATCC 74040 andbotanical pesticide Kingbo (based on oxymatrine, an alkaloid from Sophora flavescens, a traditionalChinese herb were tested against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticaeon greenhouse vegetables and the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi on apples. Thesebiopesticide products were applied twice at 5-day interval and concentrations of 0.1% and0.2%, and their effectiveness was compared to abamectin-based products and the syntheticacaricides acrinathrin and spirodiclofen, applied once at their recommended rates.The mycopesticide Naturalis, applied at 0.1% concentration against T. urticae on cucumber,reduced mite population density by 85-86%, achieving 91-93% efficacy. In a trial on tomato,efficacy reached some 96%, while population density was reduced by 93%. In a field trialon apple, Naturalis demonstrated an increasing and long-lasting effectiveness against thesummer population of P. ulmi of nearly 100%, and population reduction was achieved inassessments 30 days after the first treatment. Naturalis applied at a double rate achieved asomewhat better effect but only in the first trial. The botanical pesticide Kingbo, applied at0.1% concentration, demonstrated very high control efficacy (≥98% and population densityreduction (≥96% of T. urticae in both trials. A high and long-lasting effectiveness of thisbioacaricide was also achieved in a trial on P. ulmi. Its concentration of 0.2% achieved similareffect. The results in these trials indicate that applications of the mycopesticide Naturalisand the botanical pesticide Kingbo can provide effective control of T. urticae on cucumberand tomato grown in greenhouses, as well as P. ulmi on apple.

  6. Photosynthetic response of soybean to twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychydae injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeney de Freitas Bueno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a common pest on soybean plants. To clarify plant-arthropod interaction on mite-soybean system, leaf fluorescence, photosynthetic responses to variable carbon dioxide levels, and chlorophyll content were evaluated. Significant photosynthetic rate reduction was observed due to stomatal limitation. Stomatal closure was the major plant physiological response. As a consequence, there was reduction in photosynthetic rates. Surprisingly, plants did not show chlorophyll content reduction associated with photosynthetic impairment. No differences in fluorescence data indicate that T. urticae injury did not impair the function of light harvesting and photoelectron transport. These results showed that T. urticae could be a serious pest of soybean even on lower infestation, at least when photosynthesis was determinant to yield.O ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch é uma praga comum em plantas de soja. Para elucidar a interação entre o artrópode e a planta no sistema soja-ácaro, a fluorescência, as respostas fotossintéticas em diferentes concentrações internas de CO2 e o conteúdo de clorofila foram avaliados. Observou-se redução na capacidade fotossintética das plantas infestadas e o fechamento dos estômatos foi a principal causa dessa redução. As plantas infestadas não mostraram redução no conteúdo de clorofila. Também, nenhuma diferença foi encontrada na leitura de fluorescência, o que mostra que a injúria causada pelo ácaro não prejudica a coleta de luz nem o transporte de elétrons. Estes resultados mostram que T. urticae pode ser uma praga séria na cultura da soja mesmo em baixas infestações, principalmente nas situações em que a fotossíntese é fator determinante na produção.

  7. Releases of insectary-reared Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in commercial apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is one of several phytoseiid species that are available for purchase to supplement endemic predator populations that are not providing sufficient control of spider mites. We performed a series of releases of commercially reared G. occidentalis in commercial apple (...

  8. Evaluation of selected acaricides against twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on greenhouse cotton using multispectral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel E; Latheef, Mohamed A; López, Juan D

    2015-06-01

    Twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an early season pest of cotton in the mid-southern USA and causes reduction in yield, fiber quality and impaired seed germination. Objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy of abamectin and spiromesifen with two divergent LC50 values against TSSM in a computer-operated spray table which simulated aerial application parameters. Combined with a pressure of 276 kPa and a speed of 8 km/h, a 650033 nozzle delivered a spray rate of 18.7 L/ha. The active ingredient rates were 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 and the lowest label recommended rates for early season cotton. The intent was to study efficacy relative to deposition characteristics at active ingredient rates equal to and lower than those recommended by the label. Spectral reflectance values from a multispectral optical sensor were used to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index which numerically described the surface reflectance characteristics of cotton canopies concomitant to damage caused by T. urticae in the greenhouse. Water sensitive paper samplers described spray droplet spectra parameters (Dv0.1, Dv0.5 and Dv0.9, µm) and percent spray coverage. The volume median diameter (Dv0.5, µm) for abamectin and spiromesifen were respectively, 218 and 258 at one-half rate of the lowest label rate. These spray droplets were well above the driftable portions of the spray volume (<141 µm) for both abamectin and spiromesifen. Efficacy evaluations indicated that spiromesifen was more effective than abamectin in controlling T. urticae on early season cotton at one-half rate of the lowest label rate. Results reported herein demonstrate that the multispectral optical sensor in lieu of manually counting T. urticae appears to be a promising tool for efficacy evaluations against acaricides for early season plants grown in greenhouses.

  9. Sublethal effects of spinetoram on the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-09-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a serious pest of many agricultural crops and ornamental plants. The sublethal effects of a new chemical, spinetoram, on T. urticae were investigated by treating adult females and eggs with LC10 and LC20 in the laboratory. The data were assessed based on age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. The results showed that T. urticae developmental time from egg to adult was reduced and that fecundity was increased by treatment with LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram. The LC10 and LC20 of spinetoram also increased the intrinsic and finite rate of increase and the net reproductive rate and reduced the mean generation time, egg duration, and larval duration whether eggs or adult females were treated. These laboratory results suggest that sublethal or lethal doses of spinetoram may cause outbreaks of T. urticae.

  10. The Effect of Spiromesifen on the Reproductive Potential of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of spiromesifen on the fecundity, fertility and population growth of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch after treatment of pre-ovipositing females with five acaricide concentrations: 180mg/l (maximum recommended concentration for use in glasshouses against spider mites, 18 mg/l, 1.8 mg/l and 0.18 mg/l (the last one was discriminative for eggs and immatures in preliminary studies, i.e. produced 100% mortality of those stages and 0.018 mg/l. After24h exposure, the percentages of females surviving treatment without visible symptoms of poisoning were 50% (180 mg/l, 45% (18 mg/l, 51% (1.8 mg/l, 74% (0.18 mg/l, 96% (0.018 mg/l and 98% (0 mg/l. Over the first four days after treatment, the females that survived180 mg/l and 18 mg/l laid no eggs. The total number of eggs laid after treatment with these two concentrations was reduced to less than 2% against the control by the end of the trial. The females that survived 1.8 mg/l laid 50% less eggs, compared to the control, while the number of eggs laid by the females treated with 0.18 mg/l and 0.018 mg/l were 19% and 4% lower, respectively. Over the initial four days, egg hatch rates in treatments were 73-87%, and 92-93% in the control. Significant statistical differences between gross fecundity (FCg and gross fertility (FTg values in the control and treatments were detected for females surviving 180 mg/l, 18 mg/l and 1.8 mg/l. On the other hand, only the net fertility (FTn value of females treated with 0.018 mg/l showed no statistically significant difference from the control value. Treatments with 180 mg/l and 18 mg/l significantly reduced the instantaneous rate of increase (ri 6, 8 and 10 days after treatment, compared to the control. The negative ri values in those treatments indicated a declining population. Sublethal effects of spiromesifen and its impact on T. urticae management are discussed.

  11. Photosynthetic response of soybean to twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychydae) injury

    OpenAIRE

    Adeney de Freitas Bueno; Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bueno; Paul David Nabity; Leon George Higley; Odair Aparecido Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    The twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a common pest on soybean plants. To clarify plant-arthropod interaction on mite-soybean system, leaf fluorescence, photosynthetic responses to variable carbon dioxide levels, and chlorophyll content were evaluated. Significant photosynthetic rate reduction was observed due to stomatal limitation. Stomatal closure was the major plant physiological response. As a consequence, there was reduction in photosynthetic rates. Surprisingly, plants...

  12. Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. turanicus (Acari:Ixodidae): closely related species with different biological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe-Uspensky, I; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Uspensky, I; Galun, R

    1997-01-01

    Life cycle parameters of 2 closely related tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille and R. turanicus Pomerantsev, were studied under laboratory conditions. Both Rhipicephalus, which have small adults, demonstrated the same adaptations as large tick species inhabiting deserts and semideserts: high reproductive rate, decrease in egg size, and an increase in interstage growth to compensate for the smaller size at birth. Pronounced quantitative differences between both species were discerned in relation to these adaptations. Female R. turanicus produced twice as many eggs as R. sanguineus which was facilitated by the greater amount of blood engorged by females and by the smaller egg weight in R. turanicus as compared with R. sanguineus. In all developmental stages, the weight increase from unfed to fed ticks was greater in R. turanicus than in R. sanguineus (23% higher in larvae, 118% in nymphs, and 26% in females). The increase in weight in R. turanicus from the unfed larva (0.013 mg) to the unfed female (3.31 mg) was 254-fold, and in R. sanguineus it was 127-fold (from 0.021 to 2.54 mg). In nymphal R. turanicus, the higher density and the greater height of the dorsal epicuticular folds, as well as procuticular indentations found inside the folds allow this tick to stretch its alloscutum during blood engorgement to a greater extent than R. sanguineus. The rates of blood ingestion (for nymphs and females), egg maturation, and metamorphosis were 1.1-1.7 times greater in R. turanicus than in R. sanguineus. A life cycle strategy with both a higher reproductive rate and faster development in R turanicus may be explained by its greater dependence on environmental factors than that in R. sanguineus. PMID:9086715

  13. Occurrence and transmission of mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 from dejecta of Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; Turchetti, Tullio; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Paoli, Francesco; Danti, Roberto; Simoni, Sauro

    2016-03-01

    The natural spread of virus-induced hypovirulence is highly involved in the recovery of blighted chestnut stands and orchards in Italy and in Europe. The potential role of corticolous mites as vectors of hypovirulence in blighted chestnut Castanea sativa (Mill.) stands was pointed out in previous reports. Here, by using RT-PCR, mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV1) was detected in Thyreophagus corticalis mites reared on a hypovirulent strain in monoxenic cultures and in their faecal pellets. Cryphonectria parasitica mycelium derived from mites' dejecta was able to transmit CHV1 to the virulent strain determining its conversion to hypovirulent one. This converted strain induced healing cankers on excised stems, differently from the un-converted virulent strain. Our findings prove the spread of CHV1 by corticolous mites that feed on virus-infected fungus and emphasize their potential role as vectors.

  14. New records and human parasitism by Ornithodoros mimon (Acari: Argasidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Marcili, Arlei; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Fernandes, André A; Leite, Romario C; Venzal, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    The bat tick Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones is currently known by only few reports in Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina, and the state of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. Here, we expand the distribution of O. mimon in Brazil to the states of Minas Gerais (southeastern region), Goiás (central-western), Pernambuco, and Rio Grande do Norte (northeastern). Ticks were collected on human dwellings, where there had been repeated complains of tick bites on persons during the night. Tick bites were generally followed by intense inflammatory reactions that lasted for several weeks at the bite site. Bats and opossums were reported to inhabit the attic of the infested houses. In addition, a free-ranging opossum (Didelphis albiventris Lund) trapped in Rio Grande do Norte was found infested by argasid larvae. Based on morphological and/or molecular analysis, all ticks were identified as O. mimon. From one of the sites (Tiradentes, state of Minas Gerais), 20 field-collected nymphs were tested by a battery of polymerase chain reaction protocols targeting tick-borne microorganisms of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, Rickettsia, Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Coxiella; no tick specimen was found infected by any of these microorganism genera. The current study expands northwards the distribution of O. mimon, which has been shown to be very harmful to humans because of the intense inflammatory response that usually occurs after tick bites. PMID:24605480

  15. Life cycle of Ixodes (Ixodes) loricatus (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, T T; Labruna, M B; Abel, I dos S; Clerici, P T

    2000-09-01

    The life cycle of Ixodes (Ixodes) loricatus Neumann, reared in the laboratory, is described. Engorged females collected from opossums trapped in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, Brazil, which were used to start the laboratory colonies, were designated as BMG and CSP, respectively. Larval and nymphal ticks from both colonies fed separately on Rattus norvergicus Berkenhout or Calomys callosus Rengger, whereas Didelphis marsupialis L and Didelphis albiventris Lund were used as hosts for BMG and CSP adults, respectively. Biological and developmental data obtained from ticks of both the BMG and CSP colonies that were reared separately for two consecutive generations were compared. The percentage of fed or molted ticks reared on C. callosus was higher than that recorded for ticks fed on R. norvergicus in the majority of the observations. Despite significant differences among several of the biological parameters, the pattern of the life cycles of the two tick colonies was similar. Results indicated that the mean life cycle duration of I. (I.) loricatus was approximately 7 mo from parental oviposition to the occurrence of F1 eggs, regardless of geographic origin or host species. PMID:11004783

  16. Suitability of different pollen as alternative food for the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goleva, Irina; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2013-11-01

    The predacious mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot is used as a biological control agent against various pests in greenhouses. Pollen offered as supplementary food is reported to improve their fast establishment and performance. However, the nutritional suitability of different pollens for A. swirskii is not sufficiently known yet. Pollens of 21 plant species were offered to the mites as exclusive food during preimaginal development. Preimaginal mortality and developmental time have been assessed, followed by a life-table analysis of the emerged adults and a calculation of demographic parameters. Amblyseius swirskii can feed exclusively on pollen, but the nutritional value of the pollens differed significantly. Pollens of Lilium martagon and Hippeastrum sp. were toxic, causing 100 % preimaginal mortality, probably due to secondary plant compounds. Hibiscus syriacus pollen was absolutely incompatible for the juvenile and adult mites, possibly due to their external morphology, differing from all the other pollens tested and leading to 100 % preimaginal mortality also. Considering all parameters, feeding on Aesculus hippocastanum, Crocus vernus, Echinocereus sp. and Paulownia tomentosa pollens lead to the best performance of the mites. Feeding on most pollens resulted in no or low preimaginal mortality of A. swirskii, but affected significantly developmental time, adult longevity, and reproduction parameters. Commercial bee pollen was not able to improve life-table parameters compared to pure pollen of the plant species. Pollens of Helianthus annuus, Corylus avellana and a Poaceae mix were less suitable as food source and resulted in a poor performance of all tested parameters. Compared with literature data, 18 pollens tested proved to be a similar or better food source than cattail pollen, qualifying A. swirskii as a positively omnivorous type IV species. Pollens of Ricinus communis and Zea mays can be recommended as supplementary food offered as banker plants, and A. hippocastanum and Betula pendula pollen is recommended to be used as dispersible pollen in greenhouses. PMID:23670826

  17. The effects of beta acids from hops (Humulus lupulus) on mortality of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Probasco, Gene; Schantz, Lloyd

    2012-12-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) beta acids (HBA) were tested for miticidal effects on varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman, a parasitic mite of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). When varroa were placed on bees that had topical applications of 1 % HBA, there was 100 % mite mortality. Bee mortality was unaffected. Cardboard strips saturated with HBA and placed in colonies resulted in mite drop that was significantly greater than in untreated hives. HBA was detected on about 60 % of the bees in colonies during the first 48 h after application. Mite drop in colonies lasted for about 7 days with the highest drop occurring in the first 2-3 days after treatment. There was a reduction in the percentages of bees with HBA and in the amounts on their bodies after 7 days. Bee and queen mortality in the colonies were not affected by HBA treatments. When cardboard strips saturated with HBA were put in packages of bees, more than 90 % of the mites were killed without an increase in bee mortality. HBA might have potential to control varroa when establishing colonies from packages or during broodless periods.

  18. Esterases of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), parasitic mite of the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Żołtowska, Krystyna; Frączek, Regina; Lipiński, Zbigniew

    2014-04-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasite that causes serious damage to the population of the honeybee. Increasing resistance of the parasite to acaricides is related, among others, to metabolic adaptations of its esterases to facilitate decomposition of the chemicals used. Esterases are a large heterogeneous group of enzymes that metabolize a number of endogenous and exogenous substrates with ester binding. The aim of the present study was to determine the activity of esterases in the body extracts (BE) and excretion/secretion products (E/SP) of the mite. The enzymes contained in the E/SP should originate mainly from the salivary glands and the alimentary system and they may play a particularly important role in the first line of defence of the mite against acaricides. Activity of cholinesterases (ChEs) [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase], carboxylesterases (CEs) and phosphatases [alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP)] was investigated. The activity of all the enzymes except AChE was higher in the E/SP than in the BE. ChEs from the BE and from the E/SP reacted differently on eserine, a ChE inhibitor. Eserine inhibited both enzymes from the BE, increased decomposition of acetylcholine, but did not influence hydrolysis of butyrylcholine by the E/SP. Activity of the CEs from the BE in relation to the esters of carboxylic acids can be presented in the following series: C10 > C12 > C14 > C8 > C2 > C4 = C16, while activity of the CEs from the E/SP was: C4 > C8 > C2 > C14 > C10 > C12 > C16. The inhibitor of CEs, triphenyl phosphate, reduced the activity of esterases C2–C8 and C14–C16; however, it acted in the opposite way to CEs C10 and C12. The activity of both phosphatases was higher in the E/SP than in the BE (AcP about twofold and AP about 2.6-fold); the activities of AP and AcP in the same material were similar. Given the role of esterases in resistance to pesticides, further studies are necessary to obtain complete biochemical characteristics of the enzymes currently present in V. destructor.

  19. Bioactivity of propolis from different geographical origins on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Maldonado, Luis M; Alvarez, Alejandro R; Eguaras, Martín J; Marcangeli, Jorge A

    2010-06-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic mite that affects colonies of honey bee Apis mellifera worldwide. In the last years, substances of botanical origin have emerged as natural alternative acaricides to diminish the population levels of the mite. In the present work, the bioactivity of propolis from different geographical locations of Pampean region from Argentina on V. destructor was evaluated. Fourteen propolis samples were organoleptic and physicochemically characterized and, by means topical applications, their activity was tested on mites. All propolis had a homogeneous composition and the bioactivity levels against mites were comparable among the different propolis samples. The percentage of mites killed by the treatments ranged between 60.5% and 90% after 30 s of exposure. Thus, V. destructor was highly susceptible to propolis. Moreover, the mites remained anesthetized during the first hours after topical treatment. The results suggest that propolis from Argentinean pampas could be incorporated in honey bee colonies as acaricidal treatment by spraying.

  20. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  1. Resistance status of ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides in Isoka District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to obtain data on the farmer's approach to tick control and to determine whether Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neuman, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) were resistant to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides, in Isoka District, Zambia. Prevailing tick control practices were documented by administering a semi-structured questionnaire to 80 randomly selected smallholder livestock farmers from four agricultural camps (Longwe, Kantenshya, Kapililonga, and Ndeke) in Isoka District. Modified larval packet test (LPT) bioassay experiments were used to determine the resistance status of the common tick species against amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides. Fifty percent of respondents practiced chemical tick control with amitraz (27 %) and cypermethrin (23 %) being the acaricides in use, and were applied with knapsack sprayers. Less than 3 l of spray wash per animal was used which was considerably lower than the recommended delivery rate of 10 l of spray wash per animal. No significant susceptibility change to amitraz at 95 % confidence level was observed in R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum against amitraz. However, a significant change in the susceptibility of R. (Bo.) microplus tested with amitraz was detected at 95 % confidence. The test population had a lower susceptibility (LD50 0.014 %; LD90 0.023 %) than the reference population (LD50 0.013 %; LD90 0.020 %). The results indicated that resistance to amitraz was developing in R. (Bo.) microplus. For cypermethrin, no significant susceptibility change at 95 % confidence was observed in any of the three species and thus resistance to this chemical was not observed.

  2. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species.

  3. Oribátidos (Acari: Oribatida de la Selva Marginal de Punta Lara, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia ACCATTOLI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se relevaron diversos biotopos de la Selva Marginal de Punta Lara, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, para conocer el elenco de ácaros oribátidos que allí habitan. Se hallaron 28 especies, de las que siete resultaron nuevas para Argentina: Epilohmannia sculpturata Balogh & Mahunka, Nothrus willmanni Mahunka, Xenillus (Xenillus fecundus P. Balogh, Xenillus (Xenillus superbus (Perez-Íñigo & Baggio, Zetomimus (Protozetomimus polpaicoensis (Hammer, Pseudotocepheus (Pseudotocepheus pauliensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio y Lohmannia (Lohmannia juliae Mahunka. El biotopo más diverso resultó la hojarasca de la selva con 20 especies. Se discuten cuestiones zoogeográficas del sistema estudiado.

  4. Fenvalerate resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, N K; Rath, S S

    2016-09-01

    Larval packet test was used for evaluating the resistance levels in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from different districts of central plain zone of Punjab state, India against fenvalerate. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larvae plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of fenvalerate were utilized for the estimation of lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and 95 % (LC95) values against various field isolates of R. (B.) microplus. The slope of mortality (95 % confidence levels) varied from 0.730 ± 0.097 (0.419-1.043) to 1.455 ± 0.281 (0.558-2.352) and the value of R(2) varied from 0.881 to 0.997. From the regression equation the values of LC50 and LC95 were recorded in range of 184.39-1,338.01 and 3,253.33-112,706.26 ppm, respectively. Among the various tick isolates resistance factors in range of 1.56-54.34 were determined and all field isolates studied were found resistant against fenvalerate. Two field isolates (Jalandhar and Ludhiana) showed level I resistance; three (Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib and Amritsar) showed level II and Kapurthala isolate showed level IV resistance. The data generated on fenvalerate resistant status will help in judicious use of the drug and formulation of effective tick control strategy for the region. PMID:27605769

  5. Pathogenicity of Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri (Nematoda:Steinernematidae) to Ixodes Scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Aeschliman, A.

    1995-01-01

    The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic to engorged adult, blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis (Say), but not to unfed females, engorged nymphs, or engorged larvae. Nematodes apparently enter the tick through the genital pore, thus precluding infection of immature ticks. The timing of tick mortality, and overall mortality after 17 d, did not differ between infections by S. carpocapsae and S. glaseri. These nematodes typically do not complete their life cycles or produce infective juveniles in I. scapularis. However, both species successfully produced infective juveniles when the tick body was slit before nematode infection. Mortality of engorged I. scapularis females infected by S. carpocapsae was greater than uninfected controls, but did not vary significantly with nematode concentration (50-3,000 infective juveniles per 5-cm-diameter petri dish). The LC50 was 347.8 infective juveniles per petri dish (5 ticks per dish). Hatched egg masses of infected ticks weighed less than those of uninfected controls. Mortality of infected ticks was greatest between 20 and 30?C, and was lower at 15?C.

  6. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them.

  7. Effects of agroforestry on phytoseiid mite communities (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in vineyards in the South of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbar, Ziad; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Cheval, Brigitte; Kreiter, Serge

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and diversity of phytoseiid mites were surveyed from April to September 2003 to 2005 in vineyards (Grenache and Syrah cultivars) co-planted with rows of Sorbus domestica or Pinus pinea and in monoculture plots of grapes in the South of France. Densities of phytoseiid mites were different on the two tree species, with P. pinea a more suitable host than S. domestica. Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) exhilaratus was the dominant species occurring on grapes and on co-planted rows of S. domestica and P. pinea, whereas T. (T.) phialatus was the most abundant species in monoculture plots of both S. domestica and P. pinea. Factors determining the dominance of T. (T.) phialatus over T. (T.) exhilaratus in monoculture trees are discussed. In this study, agroforestry management did not affect phytoseiid diversity in vineyards, but did affect phytoseiid density, especially in 2005. The results obtained in 2003 and 2004 are not easy to discuss in this regard because of the low densities of mites observed during these 2 years (very dry climatic conditions and pesticide applications).

  8. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Carlos [Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)]. E-mail: carlosvasquez@ucla.edu.ve; Quiros de G, Magally [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, (Venezuela). Museo de Artropodos; Aponte, Orlando [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Estado Aragua (Venezuela). Inst. de Zoologia Agricola; Sandoval, D. Maria F. [Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Agricultura y Tierras (Venezuela). Servicio Autonomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria

    2008-11-15

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst is recorded for the first time in South America. High populations and severe damages caused by this new invasive mite were found on coconut and banana leaves in Sucre (10 deg 27' 47{sup N} and 64 deg 10' 38{sup W}) and Monagas (9 deg 46'60{sup N} and 63 deg 12'0{sup W}) states in northeastern Venezuela. (author)

  9. Description of male and immature stages of Eupalopsellus hamedaniensis et al. (Acari: Eupalopsellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Khanjani, Mohammad; Rostami, Elaheh; Abassipour, Habib

    2011-01-01

    The male, deutonymph, protonymph and larva of Eupalopsellus hamedaniensis Khanjani et al., 2007. A new are described and illustrated, based on 36 larva, six protonymph, two deutonymph and seven male available specimens from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and plum (Prunus salicina Lindl) (Rosaceae ) in the type locality Hamedan, Hamedan province and other parts of western Iran. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01647954.2010.519724

  10. Analyses of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: ixodidae) using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, Simone M.; Oliveira, Daniella G.L.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M., E-mail: daniellaoliveira@butantan.gov.b, E-mail: amchudzinki@butantan.gov.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied to determine the elemental composition of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense tick. This biological material came from Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) and it was investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (4MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP - Brazil. The concentration values for: Br (0.0032 {+-} 0.0005gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.104 {+-} 0.029gL{sup -1}), Cl (4.41 {+-} 0.25gL{sup -1}), I (76 {+-} 27{mu}gL{sup -1}), K (0.38 {+-} 0.09gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.038 {+-} 0.011gL{sup -1}), Na (4.30 {+-} 0.26gL{sup -1}) and S (1.35 {+-} 0.37gL{sup -1}) were determined for the first time. These data were compared with the concentration values established for Americanum and Anatolicum Excavatum tick species to clarify the ion balance in this biological material (hemolymph). This comparison suggests that Na concentration, majority in these species, has a similar behavior. These data also contribute to the understanding of hemolymph composition complementing its characterization as well as for the understanding of several physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion. (author)

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on spermatogenesis and fertility of male Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblyomma americanum males were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krad of gamma radiation. Testes of ticks treated with 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krad were smaller than those of ticks irradiated at lower levels and controls. No recognizable alteration in timing of spermatogenesis was noted among the different radiation groups, but severe breakdown and depletion of germinal cells was noted at 4, 8, and 16 krad. Percent hatch of larvae from crosses of irradiated males and untreated females decreased with increasing radiation level. No hatch was observed from eggs of females mated to males treated at 2 krad or higher

  12. Assessment of potential fumigants to control Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph B; Park, Yong-Lak; West, Todd P; Tobin, Patrick C

    2009-12-01

    With the recent decline of honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), there is a need for alternative or supplemental crop pollinators, such as Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, O. cornifrons propagation could be impeded by a cleptoparasitic mite, Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker. We investigated the effects of formic acid and wintergreen oil on mortality of C. krombeini hypopi and O. cornifrons adults by determining the lethal concentration of each compound on each species. On average, >4.8 and >1.8 h were required to cause mortality in O. cornifrons adults when 176.7 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil, respectively. Estimates of LC50 for C. krombeini hypopi treated with formic acid and wintergreen oil were 54.3 and 271.3 ppm, respectively. This study showed that C. krombeini could be controlled effectively without inducing O. cornifrons adult mortality based on concentration and duration of fumigation. PMID:20069836

  13. Experimental infection of the bat tick Carios fonsecai (Acari: Ixodidae with the rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Regina Favoretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study assessed the viability of the rabies virus in the argasid tick Carios fonsecai following experimental infection. Methods The mouse inoculation test (MIT, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used. The rabies virus was administered to ticks via the intra-coelomic route, and the ticks were sacrificed at different time points. Results The inoculated ticks were negative for rabies according to the MIT. Ticks macerated with rabies virus were positive according to the MIT and FAT. All of the tick lots tested by PCR were positive. Conclusions The rabies virus became unviable shortly after its inoculation into tick bodies. Ticks are not likely to play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies.

  14. Biology of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772 (Acari: Ixodidae on some laboratory hosts in Brazil

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    Daniel Sobreira Rodrigues

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The ixodid Amblyomma aureolatum is suspected to play a role in the epidemiology of wild life-cycle hemoparasites, which frequently infect dogs in rural and hunting areas in Brazil. Little is known about its bionomics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate some bionomic aspects of A. aureolatum ticks in Brazil. One engorged female, collected from a dog (Canis familiaris in São Sebastião das Águas Claras, State of Minas Gerais, was used to establish a colony in the laboratory. Subsequently its parasitic stage progeny were fed on domestic dogs and laboratory animals. The free-living stages were incubated at 27ºC ± 2°C and minimum 70% relative humidity in a BOD incubator. The egg incubation period ranged from 31 to 34 days; the parasitic period of larvae ranged from 4 to 6 days and ecdysis to nymphs occurred from day 19 up to day 22. The parasitic period of nymphs ranged from 5 to 8 days and the period of ecdysis to adults from 31 to 33 days. The parasitic period of adults ranged from 11 to 15 days, the pre-oviposition period from 6 to 12 days, and the oviposition period from 9 to 38 days. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 116 to 168 days.

  15. Ecosystemic, climatic and temporal differences in oribatid communities (Acari: Oribatida) from forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Hernández, E; Balanzategui, I; Iturrondobeitia, J C

    2016-08-01

    Oribatid mite communities from 18 natural autochthonous forest soils in the Basque Country, belonging to five forest types, distributed along an ombrothermic gradient of five climatic regions were broadly studied. Forest type and climatic region together (45 % of the total variability) were important factors influencing the oribatid community. The local scale variable (forest type, 28 %) was about as determinant a factor as the regional scale (climatic region, 26 %), though together they accounted for just 9 %. By contrast, the influence of spatial distribution (geography) was not significant by itself but played an important role as a co-variable. Differences in community indices were detected only for species abundances, with holm oak showing the highest oribatid density and beech the lowest. The effect of the passage of time on oribatid communities was also analyzed by comparing recent communities to those of 19-26 years ago in the same forests. The community indices are influenced by the course of time when separate periods of time are compared. Although the recently studied forests apparently show the same conservational conditions as those studied in the past, they are less diverse. PMID:27193341

  16. The First Report of Eustigmaeus Johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran

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    Mehdi Badakhshan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present.Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from in­fested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys.Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni.Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

  17. Species Diversity and Distribution of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Zabol County, Eastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ganjali; Mansour Dabirzadeh; Masoud Sargolzaie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. They are considered as main vectors for transmission of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and parasitical pathogens. The aim of the present study was to find out species diversity of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Zabol County, Eastern Iran in 2012. Methods: Ticks were selected randomly from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. The ticks were collected from the body of infested animals and stored in 70% ethan...

  18. Effect of temperature on feeding period of larval blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on eastern fence lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bose & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation.

  19. Synganglion histology in different stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Remédio, Rafael Neodini; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-06-01

    The present study performs a morpho-histological description of the central nervous system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in order to analyze if there are differences in this tissue among larvae, nymphs, and adults. The results showed that the central nervous system in all the life stages of R. sanguineus consists of a mass of fused nerves named synganglion. Externally, this organ does not present segmentation, consisting of a single structure located ventromedially in the third anterior of the body. This organ is externally covered by the neural lamella or neurilemma, a uniform and acellular layer. Below, there is the periganglionic membrane or perineurium, formed by glial cells, which are characterized by their elongated nuclei. The esophagus penetrates the synganglion dividing it in two regions: supraesophageal, which is the smaller of the two and consists of a protocerebrum, a single dorsal ganglion located anteriordorsally to the esophagus; and the subesophageal, which is the largest part of the synganglion, located in the posterior region and ventral to the esophagus. Internally, the synganglion is subdivided in an external cortical region-which contains the cellular body of the nervous cells-and an internal neuropile formed by a set of neural fibers and it is constituted by bilaterally symmetric ganglia, from where nerves emerge towards several parts of the body. The results here obtained showed that there are no differences in the morpho-histology of this tissue in different life stages of R. sanguineus, suggesting that the initial structure is maintained during the whole life cycle of the tick, i.e., from larval to adult stage. PMID:22218921

  20. The Evolving Medical and Veterinary Importance of the Gulf Coast tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is a three-host, ixodid tick that is distributed throughout much of the southeastern and south-central United States, as well as several countries throughout Central and South America. A considerable amount of scientific literature followed the original description of A. maculatum in 1844; nonetheless, the Gulf Coast tick was not recognized as a vector of any known pathogen of animals or humans for >150 years. It is now identified as the principal vector of Hepatozoon americanum, the agent responsible for American canine hepatozoonosis, and Rickettsia parkeri, the cause of an emerging, eschar-associated spotted fever group rickettsiosis identified throughout much of the Western Hemisphere. Coincident with these discoveries has been recognition that the geographical distribution of A. maculatum in the United States is far more extensive than described 70 yr ago, supporting the idea that range and abundance of certain tick species, particularly those with diverse host preferences, are not fixed in time or space, and may change over relatively short intervals. Renewed interest in the Gulf Coast tick reinforces the notion that the perceived importance of a particular tick species to human or animal health can be relatively fluid, and may shift dramatically with changes in the distribution and abundance of the arthropod, its vertebrate hosts, or the microbial agents that transit among these organisms. PMID:26336308

  1. Central nervous system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae): an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Remédio, Rafael Neodini; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-09-01

    This study performed the ultrastructural description of the synganglion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus males and females, aiming to contribute to the understanding of the cellular organization of this organ. The results show that the central nervous system of these individuals consists of a mass of fused nerves, named synganglion, from where nerves emerge towards several parts of the body. It is surrounded by the neural lamella, a uniform and acellular layer, constituted by repeated layers of homogeneous and finely granular material. The perineurium is just below, composed of glial cells, which extensions invaginate throughout the nervous tissue. The synganglion is internally divided into an outer cortex, which contains the cellular bodies of the neural cells and an inner neuropile. The neural cells can be classified into two types according to cell size, cytoplasm-nucleus relation, and neurosecretory activity. Type I cells are oval or spherical and present a large nucleus occupying most part of the cytoplasm, which contains few organelles. Type 2 cells are polygonal, present a great cytoplasm volume, and their nuclei are located in the cell periphery. The cytoplasm of these cells contains a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi regions, mitochondria, and several neurosecretory granules. The subperineurium and the tracheal ramifications are found between the cortex and the neuropile. The latter is formed mainly by neural fibers, tracheal elements, and glial cells. The results obtained show that R. sanguineus males' and females' nervous tissue present an ultrastructural organization similar to the one described in the literature for other tick species. PMID:22610445

  2. Description of all the stages of Ixodes inopinatus n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Nava, Santiago; Petney, Trevor

    2014-10-01

    All of the parasitic stages of Ixodes inopinatus n. sp. are described from specimens collected by flagging and on lizards and foxes. The new species replaces I. ricinus in dry areas of the Mediterranean region in Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. It has also been collected in areas of western Germany in sympatry with I. ricinus, far of its known distribution range and on an unusual host. The females of the new species can be separated from I. ricinus by the relative dimensions and punctations of the scutum, the length of the idiosomal setae, the size of the auriculae, and the aspect of the porose areas. Nymphs of I. inopinatus can be easily separated from I. ricinus by a combination of scutal dimensions, the relative size of scutal and alloscutal setae, and the relative size of the spurs on coxa I. The larvae of the new species have a broader than long scutum and unusually long Md1 to Md3 idiosomal setae. The new species is allopatric with I. ricinus in Spain and Portugal. It is hypothesized that it has been historically overlooked and reported as I. ricinus at least in northern Africa, southern Spain and parts of south-western Portugal. The existence of a new species in the I. ricinus complex makes necessary the critical assessment of its complete distribution, its abiotic preferences and seasonal activity, as well as its hosts and implications for the transmission of pathogens. PMID:25108790

  3. Nymphs of the genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) of Brazil: descriptions, redescriptions, and identification key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Thiago F; Onofrio, Valeria C; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2010-06-01

    Together with the larval stage, the nymphal stage of ticks of the genus Amblyomma are the most aggressive ticks for humans entering areas inhabited by wildlife and some domestic animals in Brazil. However, due to the absence of morphological descriptions of the nymphal stage of most Brazilian Amblyomma species, plus the lack of an identification key, little or nothing is known about the life history of Amblyomma spp. nymphs in the country. In the present study, morphological description of the nymphal stage, illustrating important external characters through scanning electron microscopy, is provided for nymphs of 15 Amblyomma species that occur in Brazil, for which the nymphal stage had never been described: A. aureolatum, A. auricularium, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. fuscum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. latepunctatum, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. ovale, A. pacae, A. pseudoconcolor, A. scalpturatum, A. varium. In addition, the nymphal stage of 12 Amblyomma species, which had been previously described, are redescribed: A. brasiliense, A. cajennense, A. dissimile, A. dubitatum, A. longirostre, A. oblongoguttatum, A. parkeri, A. parvum, A. romitii, A. rotundatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste. The descriptions and redescriptions totalized 27 species. Only 2 species (A. geayi, A. goeldii) out of the 29 Amblyomma species established in Brazil are not included in the present study. A dichotomous identification key is included to support taxonomic identification of the nymphal stage of 27 Amblyomma species established in Brazil. PMID:21771514

  4. A new species of Ornithodoros (Acari: Argasidae) from desert areas of northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Venzal, José M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Nava, Santiago; Lopes, Marcos G; Martins, Thiago F; Figueroa, Cecilia; Fernández, Nicolás; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-07-01

    Ornithodoros atacamensis n. sp. is described from larvae collected on the lizard Liolaemus bisignatus and from free-living adults collected in desert areas from the Pan de Azúcar and Llanos de Challe National Parks, in Northern Chile. Additionally, unengorged larvae were obtained from fertilized females, which laid eggs in the laboratory. Morphological and mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequence analyses were performed in order to compare this new soft tick species with other congeneric Neotropical representatives. Larvae of O. atacamensis are morphologically closely related to Ornithodoros talaje sensu stricto, Ornithodoros puertoricensis, Ornithodoros rioplatensis, Ornithodoros guaporensis and Ornithodoros hasei, all belonging to the O. talaje species group. The larval diagnostic characters for this species are a combination of a large pyriform dorsal plate with a length of approximately 300μm, 17 pairs of dorsal setae with five central pairs, hypostome with apex pointed and dental formula 2/2 in most rows, 3/3 apically, and capsule of the Haller's organ oval in shape without reticulations. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and a Principal Component Analysis based on morphometric characters provide additional support to the description of O. atacamensis as an independent lineage within the genus clustering within the O. talaje species group. PMID:27132517

  5. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on swifts (Apodiformes: Apodidae) in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolesano-Pascoli, Graziela; Garcia, Frederico Innecco; Gomes, Carla Raphaela Gonzaga; Diniz, Kátia Cristina; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Venzal, José Manuel; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-10-01

    Brazil harbors five species of Cypseloidinae swifts. Those from Streptoprocne and Cypseloides genera have a very distinct ecology. They shelter at night and build nests in moist cliffs by waterfalls. Information about tick infestation of these birds is virtually non-existent and restricted to the description of a new species, Ixodes paranaensis, in Streptoprocne biscutata in Paraná State and another record of this species in Streptoprocne zonaris in Minas Gerais State. We herein report tick infestation of swifts at eight waterfalls in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Swifts were captured during six campaigns from November 2008 to April 2013. Overall, 584 swifts were captured (527 C. senex, four C. fumigatus and 53 S. zonaris). Four birds were tick infested (prevalence of 0.7 %). Three individuals of C. senex hosted one tick each; a nymph of I. paranaensis, a female of I. paranaensis and a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense. One S. zonaris hosted an I. paranaensis nymph and an Ornithodoros sp. larva (Argasidae). PMID:24696361

  6. Scanning electron microscopy of all parasitic stages of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis Teng, 1980 (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ze; Li, Youquan; Liu, Zhijie; Ren, Qiaoyun; Ma, Miling; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis Teng (Acta Zootaxon Sin 5:144-149, 1980) is an endemic species in China. This tick species was first described based on engorged or semi-engorged specimens, and the drawings and description in words of morphological characteristics were poor. Therefore, the present study aims to redescribe morphological characteristics of all active stages of this tick species in detail by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, a comparison between H. qinghaiensis and other sympatric Haemaphysalis species was also analyzed. Males of H. qinghaiensis can be distinguished from sympatric Haemaphysalis species by the following characters: palpi less salient laterally and curved in contour; ventrointernal setae of palpal segment II thin, number <7; the tips of palpal segment III not so strongly recurved inward to become "pincerlike" and lacking dorsal spur; dental formula 5/5; lateral grooves enclose first festoon; coxa IV with a short, broadly triangular spur; tarsi somewhat humped; and spiracular plates long comma-shaped. Females of H. qinghaiensis can be distinguished by palpi less salient laterally and curved in contour; ventrointernal setae of palpal segment II thin, number <7; segment III of palpi lacking dorsal spur; dental formula 4/4; scutum subcircula; and tarsi somewhat humped. Nymphs of H. qinghaiensis can be distinguished from those of other species by palpi less salient laterally and curved in contour; dental formula 2/2; basis capituli rectangular, with distinct dorsal cornua, without ventral cornua; and spiracular plates with short and narrow dorsal prolongation. Larvae of H. qinghaiensis can be distinguished by palpi less salient laterally and curved in contour; basis capituli rectangular, without distinct cornua. PMID:24687283

  7. Description of a New Dermacentor (Acari: Ixodidae) Species from Thailand and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Apanaskevich, Maria A

    2015-09-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Dermacentor Koch, 1844, namely, Dermacentor filippovae n. sp., is described. All stages of this species are similar to those of D. auratus Supino, 1897, D. compactus Neumann, 1901, and D. limbooliati Apanaskevich and Apanaskevich, 2015 with which it was previously confused. Males of D. filippovae may be distinguished from those of D. auratus, D. compactus, and D. limbooliati by the following suite of characters: conscutum broadly oval with convex lateral sides, widest posteriorly; trapezium-like shape of pseudoscutum; central brown patch on conscutum indistinct; coxa I with internal spur narrowly triangular with tapering apex and external spur fairly long, narrowly triangular with tapering apex; numerous internal spurs on coxa IV; and trochanter I with moderate, broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. Females of D. filippovae may be distinguished from those of D. auratus, D. compactus, and D. limbooliati by the following suite of characters: central patch of scutum narrow, distinct line interrupted around midlength; more rounded shape of scutum; long and distinct alloscutal setae; moderately broad U-shaped genital aperture with preatrial fold bulging anteriorly and thereafter sharply sloping to flat surface posteriorly; coxa I with internal spur narrowly triangular with tapering apex and external spur fairly long, narrowly triangular with tapering apex; and trochanter I with moderate, broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. Dermacentor filippovae is known from Thailand and Vietnam where the adults were collected from wild boar, Sus scrofa L., and vegetation. PMID:26336207

  8. Description of New Dermacentor (Acari: Ixodidae) Species from Malaysia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Maria A; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2015-03-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Dermacentor Koch, 1844, namely, Dermacentor limbooliati n. sp., is described. Adults of this species are similar to those of Dermacentor auratus Supino, 1897 and Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901, with which it was previously confused. Males of D. limbooliati may be distinguished from those of D. auratus and D. compactus by the following suite of characters: relatively broad conscutum with slightly straightened lateral sides, conscutum widest approximately at mid-length, oval shape of pseudoscutum, central brown patch in the center of pseudoscutum broad and diffused and not continuous with central patch in posteromedian area, conscutum posterior to pseudoscutum rugose, wide and blunt internal spur on coxa I, relatively long, narrow, and pointed external spur on coxa I, numerous internal spurs on coxa IV and trochanter I with moderate and broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. Females of D. limbooliati may be distinguished from those of D. auratus and D. compactus by the following suite of characters: rounded shape of scutum, central brown patch broad and diffused in the center of scutum, relatively long alloscutum setae, genital aperture moderately narrow V-shaped with preatrial fold bulging, wide and blunt internal spur on coxa I, relatively long, narrow, and pointed external spur on coxae I and trochanter I with moderate and broadly triangular spur with tapering apex. D. limbooliati is known from Malaysia and Vietnam where the adults were collected from vegetation, Sus scrofa resting beds, a human, and clothing. The immature stages remain unknown. PMID:26336300

  9. Description of a new Dermacentor (Acari: Ixodidae) species, a parasite of wild mammals in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Bermúdez, Sergio E

    2013-11-01

    A new tick species belonging to the genus Dermacentor Koch, 1844, Dermacentor panamensis n. sp., is described. All stages of this species are similar to those of Dermacentor halli McIntosh, 1931, with which it was confused for a long time. Males of D. panamensis can be distinguished from those of D. halli by the following suite of characters: narrower conscutum, broader basis capituli, shorter dorsal cornua, narrower palpi, palpal segment III tapering to its apex, legs poorly ornate: ivory colored patches present only on dorsal aspects of leg segments (mostly on legs III and IV), and internal spur of coxae I narrower and more tapering. Females of D. panamensis can be distinguished from those of D. halli by the following suite of characters: narrower and less ornate scutum, broader basis capituli, shorter dorsal cornua, larger porose areas, narrower palpi, palpal segment III tapering to its apex, legs poorly ornate: ivory colored patches present only on dorsal aspects of leg segments (mostly on legs III and IV), and internal spur of coxae I narrower and more tapering. Nymphs of D. panamensis can be distinguished from those of D. halli by clear posterolateral projections of scutum and by absence of coxal "pore" on coxae I-IV, while larvae of D. panamensis can be distinguished from those ofD. halli by shorter and less sharp lateral projections of basis capituli dorsally and slightly sharp anterior angle of basis capituli. D. panamensis is known from highlands of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama where the adults were collected from porcupines and unidentified sloth and mouse while nymphs and larvae were found on various rodents and a bat. PMID:24843922

  10. Carios mimon (Acari: Argasidae): description of adults and redescription of larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Marcili, Arlei; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Venzal, José Manuel; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2011-05-01

    Carios mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera, originally described from larvae collected on bats Mimon crenulatum from Bolivia and Eptesicus brasiliensis from Uruguay. Later it was also registered from Argentina and recently included among the Brazilian tick fauna. In Brazil, this species is very aggressive to man, resulting in intense inflammatory response and pain. It is known only by the larval description and its morphology resembles that from other species currently included into the genus Carios, formerly classified into the subgenus Alectorobius, genus Ornithodoros. Here we describe adults and redescribe the larva of C. mimon, based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Remarks about its morphological similarity with other species of this genus are also discussed. Molecular analysis inferred from a portion of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene placed C. mimon in a cluster supported by maximal bootstrap value (100%) with other argasid species (mostly bat parasites in the New World), which have been classified into either the genus Ornithodoros or Carios, depending on the Argasidae classification adopted by different authors. PMID:21161720

  11. Description of nymphal instars of Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, 1969 (Acari: Argasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Pevidor, Luisa Viana; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Ornithodoros mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera in the Neotropical region, where it also bites humans aggressively. Here we describe for the first time all nymphal instars (N1, N2 and N3) of O. mimon based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Although the nymphal instars of O. mimon resemble each other closely, there are characters that differentiate them: the N3 are taller that N1 and N2; the genital primordium occurs in some N2 and all N3; the spiracular plate in N1 and N2 is cone-like, but in N3 it is semicircular; and the submarginal dorsal groove is less distinct in N1 but more evident in N3. Nymphs of 0. mimon closely resemble the bat-associated species of the genus Ornithodoros included in the Alectorobius group. We review prior descriptions of nymphs of the Alectorobius group and make comparisons with nymphs of O. minon, highlighting characters with diagnostic information, such as the idiosomal shape, presence of discs and hood and absence subapical protuberance of tarsus I. The description of nymphal instars of O. mimon herein presented, improves the taxonomy of the family Argasidae, performing a work more detailed about the immature stage of this species. PMID:26106682

  12. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Effects of neem on tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) and Neoseiulus Californicus (Mcgregor) (Acari: phytoseiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener; Adriane Fonseca Duarte; Milton Fernando Cabezas Guerrero; Uemerson Silva da Cunha; Dori Edson Nava

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L) e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L) sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se...

  13. TOXICIDADE DE ACARICIDAS PARA OVOS E FÊMEAS ADULTAS DE Euseius alatus DELEON (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigues da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The predatory mite Euseius alatus DeLeon has been reported in several economic crops in Brazil, with certified importance in fruit trees and coffee. In order to establish an integrated pest management program it is important to determine the efficient pesticides in pests control, but presenting low impact to predators. This work had the objective of evaluating the toxicity of acaricides (abamectin, azocyclotin, diafenthiuron, dicofol, sulphur, fenpropathrin, fenpyroximate, propargite, tetradifon to eggs and adult females of E. alatus. Leaf discs of "feijão de porco" (Canavalia ensiformes L. containing 10 eggs of E. alatus were immersed into the acaricides dilutions, during five seconds, and dried for 30 minutes under room temperature. Treated eggs were observed up to 72h to determine egg survival. The residual effect of the same acaricides to adult females of E. alatus was studied using arena constituted by treated leaf disc. Ten adult females were confined per arena, 30 minutes, 24h and 72h after immersing the discs into the acaricides dilutions. Mortality was measured 24, 48 and 72h after confining the females on the treated leaf discs. All tested acaricides showed low impact on egg survival, except for fenpropathrin that caused reduction of egg survival at rate of 66%. The acaricides azocyclotin, diafenthiuron, tetradifon and abamectin caused 100% of mortality to adult females. Otherwise, diafenthiuron (500g de a.i./Kg, fenpyroximate (50g de a.i./L, propargite (720g de a.i./L and tetradifon (80g de a.i./L caused lower impact to adult females of E. alatus and, therefore, being of potential recommendation into an integrated pest management.

  14. Estimating Densities of the Pest Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) in Canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Aston L; Hoffmann, Ary A; Umina, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    Development of sampling techniques to effectively estimate invertebrate densities in the field is essential for effective implementation of pest control programs, particularly when making informed spray decisions around economic thresholds. In this article, we investigated the influence of several factors to devise a sampling strategy to estimate Halotydeus destructor Tucker densities in a canola paddock. Direct visual counts were found to be the most suitable approach for estimating mite numbers, with higher densities detected than the vacuum sampling method. Visual assessments were impacted by the operator, sampling date, and time of day. However, with the exception of operator (more experienced operator detected higher numbers of mites), no obvious trends were detected. No patterns were found between H. destructor numbers and ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, or soil surface conditions, indicating that these factors may not be of high importance when sampling mites during autumn and winter months. We show further support for an aggregated distribution of H. destructor within paddocks, indicating that a stratified random sampling program is likely to be most appropriate. Together, these findings provide important guidelines for Australian growers around the ability to effectively and accurately estimate H. destructor densities. PMID:26470087

  15. [Biology of Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on three species of Annonaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Josilene M; Gondim, Manoel G C; Lofego, Antônio C

    2010-01-01

    The mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor) is considered a pest of a variety of plant species in the Americas. Although this mite apparently causes economic damage to Annonaceae, little is known about its biology. Here we studied the biology of T. mexicanus on soursop (Annona muricata), sweetsop (Annona squamosa) and araticum (Annona coriaceae). The first two species are the most important economical Annonaceae species in northeast Brazil; araticum is commonly found in the region, but not commercially explored. The mites were collected in the field from leaves of A. muricata and maintained in the laboratory for six months on detached leaves of A. muricata, A. squamosa and A. coriaceae, respectively, before observations started. Tetranychus mexicanus developed more slowly on A. squamosa than on the two other hosts, but oviposition was considerably lower on A. coriaceae. As indicated by the calculated life table parameters, biotic potential was higher on A. muricata than on the other hosts. Despite the observed differences in the T. mexicanus biology on the different evaluated hosts, development and reproduction were satisfactory in all of the hosts used.

  16. Effects of Ricinus communis oil esters on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study showed the interference of esters extracted from Ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. Ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of R. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerating the organs degeneration as a whole. It was found that esters interfered with the activity of cellular secretion by changing the glycoprotein of salivary composition especially in acini II cells. It was also shown that the damages caused by esters in the salivary glands cells of these ectoparasites increased in higher concentrations of the product and degenerative glandular changes were more pronounced.

  17. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.

  18. Histopathological study of ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to different thymol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Remédio, Rafael Neodini; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Thymol is a monoterpene with proven acaricide action for several tick species. In addition to killing these ectoparasites, thymol can also reduce oviposition and egg hatch rate. However, the effects of thymol on the morphophysiology of tick ovaries are still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphophysiological changes caused by this active principle in ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus after a 6-day feeding period, through the application of morphohistochemical techniques. After the feeding period, a total of 50 females were divided into five groups and immersed in the following solutions: (I) distilled water (control), (II) 30% ethanol (control), (III) 1.25 mg/mL thymol, (IV) 2.5 mg/mL thymol, and (V) 5.0 mg/mL thymol. The experimental groups were kept in a climatic chamber (27 ± 1 °C; RH 80 ± 10%) for 5 days. After this period, morphological (hematoxylin/eosin) and histochemical (von Kossa) techniques were applied after remotion of the ovaries. The morphological results revealed large vacuoles in germ cells at different developmental stages and invaginations that represent deformations in the chorionic membrane. From the results obtained in this study, it was concluded that thymol interfered with the development of oocytes, which showed degeneration signs. The treatment containing 5.0 mg/mL thymol affected more accentuately the morphological development. Moreover, thymol also altered the calcium content of yolk granules, which generally showed an intense staining for this element.

  19. Amblyomma mixtum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): First record confirmation in Colombia using morphological and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Páez, Fredy A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, Thiago F; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    Up to some years ago, the taxon Amblyomma cajennense represented a single tick species in the New World, from southern United States to northern Argentina. Recent studies, based on genetic, reproductive and morphological data reorganized this taxon into a complex of the following 6 valid species: A. cajennense sensu stricto, Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma interandinum, Amblyomma tonelliae, and Amblyomma patinoi. According to this classification, the A. cajennense complex is currently represented in Colombia by only one species, A. patinoi. Because the Colombian land is surrounded by confirmed records of A. mixtum in Panama and Ecuador, and by A. cajennense s.s. in Venezuela and the Brazilian Amazon, it is possible that these two species could also occur in Colombia. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of ticks of the A. cajennense complex in the Orinoquía region of Colombia. A total of 246 adult ticks of the Amblyomma genus were collected in three sampled regions: 71 females and 110 males in Arauca (Arauca Department), 27 females and 20 males in Nunchía (Casanare Department), and 10 females and 8 males in Yopal (Casanare Department). Based on morphological and molecular analyses, these ticks were identified as A. mixtum. Molecular analyses consisted of DNA sequences of two molecular markers, the nuclear second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The presence of A. mixtum in Colombia is of medical relevance, since this species is incriminated as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii in Central America.

  20. Larval morphology of benthic and interstitial water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from a Luxembourgian stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    2016-07-22

    During a project of the Luxembourg National Museum of Natural History the parasitism of water mites dwelling a small stream (Lurenzgriecht) in the southern part of the country (Gutland) was investigated. The first step of the project was to clarify the taxonomy of the larvae of all stream-dwelling species. For that reason emergence traps were installed in the stream during 2002 and emptied every 14 days to obtain parasitized hosts. Additionally, rearing experiments were implemented in the laboratory to produce larvae of well-defined species/mothers but only with partly success. The stream has a well-known water mite inventory of 22 species, almost equally composed of true benthic species and species strongly adapted to hyporheic interstitial. The larvae of five species (Torrenticola elliptica, Atractides pumilus, Feltria motasi, Ljania macilenta, Neoacarus hibernicus) were described here as new to science. Due to the poor quality and availability of former descriptions a re-description was made for another species living in the stream (Sperchon denticulatus-gr.) and, additionally, for Hygrobates fluviatilis, a common stream-dwelling species of the area. The larvae of nine species of the Lurenzgriecht had already been sufficiently described for identification purposes (Protzia eximia, Sperchonopsis verrucosa, Sperchon clupeifer, S. thienemanni, Lebertia glabra, Atractides fonticolus, Feltria rouxi, Ljania bipapillata, Aturus fontinalis). The larvae of some other species (Aturus crinitus, Kongsbergia spp., Stygohydracarus subterraneus, Arrenurus haplurus) could neither be reared in the lab nor attributed to species for taxonomic reasons. With the exception of Kongsbergia spp. (no known larva of the genus worldwide) and Aturus crinitus (a rare species in the Lurenzgriecht) an identification key was compiled for the larvae of all known species of the stream using the new descriptions and all available information on the other ones.

  1. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Effects of neem on tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks and Neoseiulus Californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of control and adverse effects of two neem based products: Azamax TM (Azadirachtin A/B 12g/L and Neemseto TM (Azadirachtin A/B, Nimbin and Salanin 2,389 g/L over two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis and Neoseiulus californicus in laboratory. Effects over the mortality, fecundity, eggs and biological persistence of the two-spotted spider mite when treated with neem based products were evaluated. For the phytoseiids the effects on mortality and fecundity were evaluated. The maximum mortality of two-spotted spider mites rates observed were 89.7% and 91.5% for Azamax TM and Neemseto TM respectively, on the 0.5% concentration after reapplying the product on the seventh day. Adverse effects were also observed over the fecundity and viability of the eggs when treated with commercial products (c.p.. The biological persistence of the products was of approximately three days after being pulverized. The formulations present selectivity in relation to the phytoseiids, however they caused fecundity reduction.

  2. Effect of a botanical acaricide on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and nontarget arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Susan P; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Rand, Peter W; Staples, Joseph K; St Amand, Theodore W; Stubbs, Constance S; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Smith, Leticia B; Smith, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    We tested the effectiveness of the rosemary oil-based insecticide, Eco-Exempt IC2, to control all stages of Ixodes scapularis (Say) in southern Maine. We selected plots in oak-pine forest where I. scapularis is endemic and recorded the abundance of ticks and nontarget arthropods before and after applications of IC2, bifenthrin (a synthetic pyrethroid), and water (reference treatment). Licensed applicators applied high-pressure spray treatments during the summer nymphal and fall adult seasonal peaks. Both acaricides sprayed during the summer nymphal season reduced nymphal I. scapularis/hour to zero. IC2 was as effective as bifenthrin in controlling nymphs through the rest of the nymphal season and also controlled adult ticks 9 mo postspray compared with 16 mo for bifenthrin, and both acaricides reduced larvae through 14 mo postspray. Both acaricides sprayed during the fall adult season reduced adult I. scapularis/hour to zero; IC2 controlled adult ticks 6 mo postspray compared with 1 yr for bifenthrin. Both fall-applied acaricides controlled nymphs 9 mo postspray and reduced larvae up to 10 mo postspray. Impacts on some nontarget arthropods was assessed. Colleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Collembola declined 1 wk postspray in acaricide-treated plots, and in IC2 plots all numbers rebounded by 20 d postspray. For bees and other flower-visiting insects there were no detectable reductions in nests produced, number emerged from nests, or number of foraging visits to flowering plants in IC2 or bifenthrin plots. IC2 was phytotoxic to the leafy portions of select understory plants that appeared to recover by the next growing season. PMID:23427661

  3. Resistance status of ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides in Isoka District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to obtain data on the farmer's approach to tick control and to determine whether Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neuman, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) were resistant to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides, in Isoka District, Zambia. Prevailing tick control practices were documented by administering a semi-structured questionnaire to 80 randomly selected smallholder livestock farmers from four agricultural camps (Longwe, Kantenshya, Kapililonga, and Ndeke) in Isoka District. Modified larval packet test (LPT) bioassay experiments were used to determine the resistance status of the common tick species against amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides. Fifty percent of respondents practiced chemical tick control with amitraz (27 %) and cypermethrin (23 %) being the acaricides in use, and were applied with knapsack sprayers. Less than 3 l of spray wash per animal was used which was considerably lower than the recommended delivery rate of 10 l of spray wash per animal. No significant susceptibility change to amitraz at 95 % confidence level was observed in R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum against amitraz. However, a significant change in the susceptibility of R. (Bo.) microplus tested with amitraz was detected at 95 % confidence. The test population had a lower susceptibility (LD50 0.014 %; LD90 0.023 %) than the reference population (LD50 0.013 %; LD90 0.020 %). The results indicated that resistance to amitraz was developing in R. (Bo.) microplus. For cypermethrin, no significant susceptibility change at 95 % confidence was observed in any of the three species and thus resistance to this chemical was not observed. PMID:26310511

  4. Potential nontarget effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) used for biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.; Heyer, K.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Treated insects placed with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4-10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.

  5. A first record of Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Suzana Gomes; Andrade, Gilda Vasconcellos de; Costa-Júnior, Lívio Martins

    2010-01-01

    A non-engorged adult female Amblyomma dissimile and two Amblyomma sp. larvae were found parasitizing the lizard Ameiva ameiva in the municipality of Chapadinha, State of Maranhão. This is the first record in the state of Maranhão and fills a gap in the distribution of A. dissimile in Brazil. The lizard A. ameiva represents a new host for A. dissimile, and also the first record of this tick species infesting lizards of the family Teiidae in Brazil. PMID:21184707

  6. Species Diversity and Distribution of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Zabol County, Eastern Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ganjali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. They are considered as main vectors for transmission of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and parasitical pathogens. The aim of the present study was to find out species diversity of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Zabol County, Eastern Iran in 2012.Ticks were selected randomly from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. The ticks were collected from the body of infested animals and stored in 70% ethanol, then transported to the laboratory of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Following examinations under stereomicroscope, ticks were identified using available taxonomic keys.In this study, a total number of 469 adult ticks (381 males and 88 females were collected. Ticks were classified into 2 genera and 9 species including: Hyalomma dromedarii (17.3%, Hy. schulzei (1.8%, Hy. marginatum (0.5%, Hy. anatolicum excavatum (12.60%, Hy. anatolicum anatolicum (11.2%, Hy. asiaticum asiaticum (11.0%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (21.2%, Rh. bursa (10.2% and Rh. turacunis (13.911%. The frequency of genus Hyalomma (54.6% was higher than Rhipicephalus. Rh. sanguineus was the predominant tick species and accounted for 21.26% of the ticks. The ratio of males was more than the female ticks.Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus species are commonly distributed in the study area. Further investigations are needed to identify the role of above tick species as vectors of pathogenic organisms.

  7. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  8. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time.

  9. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia Species Within Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected from Arkansas United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C

    2015-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases.

  10. Detection of a novel Rickettsia sp. in soft ticks (Acari: Argasidae) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; Leulmi, Hamza; Baziz-Neffah, Fadhila; Lalout, Reda; Mohamed, Chergui; Mohamed, Karakallah; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

    2015-01-01

    Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents that can infect humans and animals. In Africa, relapsing fever borreliae are neglected arthropod-borne pathogens that cause mild to deadly septicemia and miscarriage. It would be incredibly beneficial to be able to simultaneous detect and identify other pathogens transmitted by Argasid ticks. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted field surveys in 4 distinct areas of Algeria. We investigated the occurrence of soft ticks in rodent burrows and yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests in 10 study sites and collected 154 soft ticks. Molecular identification revealed the occurrence of two different soft tick genera and five species, including Carios capensis in yellow-legged gull nests and Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros sonrai, Ornithodoros erraticus in rodent burrows. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 41/154, corresponding to a global detection rate of 26.6%. Sequences of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene suggest that this agent is a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia. For the first time in Algeria, we characterize a novel Rickettsia species by molecular means in soft ticks.

  11. Estimation of nutritional losses caused by rhizoglyphus tritici (acari: acaridae) in stored wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stored grain mites which are one of the important pests of stored grains can modify the chemical composition of the stored wheat. The change in quality of wheat grains in terms of physical characteristics (thousand kernel weight, moisture, wet and dry gluten), chemical characteristics (crude protein, crude fat, fiber, ash and starch) and flour quality tests (falling number and dough rheological characteristics) of wheat variety lasani-08 when infested by varying levels of mite infestation for six months were observed under laboratory conditions. Maximum moisture contents (18.13%) were observed in grains having highest number of mites (7513), while minimum moisture contents (16.40%) were found in the grains without mites. Thousand kernel weight, wet gluten, dry gluten, crude protein, fat and starch contents were found minimum in the treatments having maximum number of mite population that was 26.07g, 23.33%, 7.13%, 10.07%, 0.72% and 64.14% respectively as compared to control which was 38.50g, 30.47%, 9.20%, 13.85%, 1.28% and 66.17% after six months of storage. The fiber contents increased significantly in highly infested grains (3.47%) as compared in control (1.07%). The ash contents increased in the infested grains, which was from 1.23% in control to 3.47% in the treatment initially treated with 20 pairs of mites. Falling number, water absorption, dough development time, dough stability, mixing tolerance index and softening of dough was also decreased to 428.33 sec, 56.03%, 3.27 min, 4.30 min, 49.67 bu and 76.67 bu, respectively in the highly infested grains as compared to control which was 651.67 sec, 60.73%, 5.13 min, 6.03 min, 67.67 bu and 141.67 bu, respectively. The results will help to determine the nutritional changes in mite infested wheat during storage. (author)

  12. Study of Acari and Collembola Populations in Four Cultivation Systems in Dourados - MS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosilda Mara Mussury; Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon; Sandra Verza da Silva; Valdirene Regis Soligo

    2002-01-01

    The impact four cultivation systems on the soil fauna was studied, using Oribatida and Gamasida acarids as bioindicators and collembolan. The research was carried out in experimental fields, located in EMBRAPA - CPAO in Dourados, Centerwest of Brazil from July 1997 to December 1999. The constant pasture system presented smaller impact on the soil fauna followed by agricultural cattle rotation and a direct plantation system. In the conventional plantation series, the populational density of th...

  13. Life cycle of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on ornamental plants, mostly Arecaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, C; Colmenárez, Y; de Moraes, G J

    2015-02-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, has been primarily found associated with coconut and musaceous plants in the New World. However, it has also been recorded on several other palms, heliconiaceous and zingiberaceous species. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of different botanical families on which R. indica has been collected in the field and of arecaceous plants of the natural vegetation of the neotropics. In total, ten species of Arecaceae as well as Heliconia psittacorum [Heliconiaceae] and Alpinia purpurata [Zingiberacae] were evaluated, using coconut as a control. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (29 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 10% RH and photoperiod 12 h of light). Raoiella indica was able to complete immature development only on coconut, Adonidia merrillii, Ptychosperma macarthurii, H. psittacorum and A. purpurata. Duration of the immature phase (egg-adult) ranged between 21.5 days on coconut to 34.1 days on A. purpurata. Longevity was at least 50% greater and oviposition at least 38% higher on coconut than on other plants. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was higher on coconut (0.166) and A. merrillii (0.042), but negative on the other two plant species. Raoiella indica could not reach adulthood on any of the other ten arecaceous species considered in the study. The results suggested R. indica to be a threat to A. merrillii in addition to coconut, but not to other evaluated plants. However, complementary studies should be conducted to investigate whether the experimental procedures adopted in this study could not have prevented the mite from a better performance than it could have been under field conditions, especially in relation to Mauritia flexuosa, one of the dominant arecaceous plants in South America.

  14. Diversity and population dynamics of Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in tropical flowers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Erika Pessoa Japhyassu; Finotti, Amanda Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2015-06-01

    Cultivation of tropical flowers has expanded considerably in Brazil, justifying efforts to determine the arthropods associated with it. Heliconia species are some of the most important tropical flowers in Brazil. Mites of the families Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae are commonly found on those plants. They disperse from flower to flower on hummingbirds. The objective of this study was to identify the diversity of mites of this group in tropical flowers, with emphasis on Heliconia species, in Brazil and to determine the fluctuation of the population of these mites in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state. Specimens from Amazonas, Bahia, Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina and São Paulo States were examined. Mites of the genera Asca and Iphidozercon (Ascidae), Cheiroseius and Lasioseius (Blattisociidae), and Proctolaelaps and Tropicoseius (Melicharidae) were collected in flowers of four plant families, with Lasioseius being the most diverse genus. Overall, most specimens found belonged to Tropicoseius, especially Tropicoseius venezuelensis Baker & Yunker; this was the dominant species on five of 13 Heliconia species/hybrids considered in this study. Samples of panicles of Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pavón were collected every 2 weeks, in Piracicaba. Six species of those mite families were found, among which Tropicoseius heliconiae Baker & Yunker and T. venezuelensis were the most numerous. The highest population levels of mites of those three families occurred at the beginning and at the end of the year, coinciding with the highest levels of rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, when plant flowers were most numerous and vigorous. Along each panicle, the highest mite densities were found in inflorescences of the three distal eighths of the panicles, where nectar and pollen were probably most abundant.

  15. Two neuropeptides from synganglia of the hard tick,Ixodes sinensis (Acari:Ixodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianxu; LIU Tongguang; YANG Hailong; XU Xueqing; LIU Zhigang; LAI Ren

    2006-01-01

    Two neuropeptides were isolated from synganglia (central nervous system) of the hard tick,Ixodes sinensis. Their primary sequences were established as Leu-VaI-VaI-Tyr-Pro-Trp-Thr-Lys and TrpGlu-Lys-Leu-Gly-Ser-Met-Glu-Thr-Leu. By hot plate bioassay, neuropeptide a displayed strong antinociceptive effect in mice by a dose-dependent behavior, while neuropeptide b had some relaxant effects on the isolated rat strip. These neuropeptides might be involved in down-regulating the host's defensive reaction.

  16. Biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Acari: Eriophyidae), a candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes key aspects of the biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus, an eriophyid mite that was recently described as a new species from Dipsacus fullonum and D. laciniatus (Dipsacaceae). Preliminary host-specificity tests have shown that it can develop and reproduce only on Dipsacus s...

  17. Effects of triflumuron on the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranichydae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz de Cabezón, F J; Pérez-Moreno, I; Marco, V

    2002-01-01

    The effects of triflumuron on the mortality, fecundity, and fertility of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, were evaluated in the laboratory. No differences in toxicity for larvae, protonymphs and deutonymphs were observed, but immature stages were 3.8-times more susceptible than adults at the LC50. The compound exhibited a direct contact ovicidal activity influenced by eggs age. 48-72 h old eggs were significantly more sensitive than eggs of the other age classes. No hatch inhibition was observed in eggs laid by treated adult females using a sublethal dose at two physiological times (triflumuron could be an interesting incorporation in integrated pest programs of T. urticae. PMID:12475077

  18. Amblyomma dissimi le (Acari: Ixodidae) PARÁSITO DE Boa constrictor EN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Carrascal, Juan; Oviedo, Teresa; Monsalve, Santiago; Torres, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo. Describir algunas garrapatas encontradas en dos ejemplares de Boa constrictor, llevados al Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre en Montería, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 37 garrapatas provenientes de dos individuos adultos de Boa constrictor, los parásitos fueron conservados en alcohol al 70% y posteriormente identificados mediante diversas claves taxonómicas. Resultados. Todas las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Amblyomma dissimile, d...

  19. Canis familiaris, un nuevo hospedero de ornithodoros (a.) puertoricensis fox, 1947 (acari: ixodida) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    BEJARANO EDUAR E. E.; PATERNINA-GÓMEZ MARGARET; DÍAZ-OLMOS YIRYS; PATERNINA LUIS E.

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN

    Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de g...

  20. Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae) PARÁSITO DE Boa constrictor EN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Torres M; Santiago Monsalve B; Teresa Oviedo S; Juan Carrascal V

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo. Describir algunas garrapatas encontradas en dos ejemplares de Boa constrictor, llevados al Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre en Montería, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 37 garrapatas provenientes de dos individuos adultos de Boa constrictor, los parásitos fueron conservados en alcohol al 70% y posteriormente identificados mediante diversas claves taxonómicas. Resultados. Todas las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Amblyomma dissimile, de...

  1. New host records of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Acari: Ixodidae) on birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeringóta, Viviane; Maturano, Ralph; Santolin, Ísis Daniele Alves Costa; McIntosh, Douglas; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Daemon, Erik; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2016-05-01

    Birds are an important component of the life histories and bioecology of a number of tick species and of some tick associated pathogens. An examination of the data concerning bird/tick associations in the Neotropics, showed that the tick Haemaphysalis leporispalustrisis (Packard, 1869) was rarely recorded infesting birds. The current study reports parasitism by H. leporispalustris in wild birds collected from Atlantic rain forest environments in the states of Rio de Janeiro (4LL) and Minas Gerais (17LL, 1NN), Brazil. All ticks were identified morphologically to the genus level; total DNA was extracted from each Haemaphysalis tick and examined by PCR and nucleotide sequencing of fragments of the eukaryotic genes encoding 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA. The bird species Arremon semitorquatus, Corythopis delalandi, Fluvicola nengeta, Troglodytes musculus, and Volatinia jacarina were recorded as hosts for H. leporispalustris for the first time in South America, and Turdus rufiventris represented a new record for Brazil. PMID:26965425

  2. Nanohystricidae n. fam., an unusual, plesiomorphic enarthronote mite family endemic to New Zealand (Acari, Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Roy A; Fuangarworn, Marut

    2015-01-01

    Nanohystrix hammerae n. gen., n. sp.--proposed on the basis of numerous adults and a few juveniles--is a new oribatid mite of the infraorder Enarthronota that appears to be phylogenetically relictual and endemic to northern New Zealand, in habitats ranging from native shrublands to native and semi-native forests. With an adult body length of 1-1.2 mm, the species is the largest known enarthronote mite outside Lohmanniidae, and it has an unusual combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. Plesiomorphies include: a well-formed median (naso) eye and pigmented lateral eyes; a bothridial seta with a simple, straight base; a vertically-oriented gnathosoma; a peranal segment; adanal sclerites partially incorporated in notogaster (uncertain polarity); three genu I solenidia and a famulus on tarsus II. Autapomorphies include: five pairs of pale cuticular disks on the notogaster, with unknown function; six pairs of long, erectile notogastral setae, including pair h2 incorporated in the second transverse scissure along with the f-row, and pair h1 in a third scissure; chelicerae that are unusually broad, creating a flat-faced appearance; legs I that are inferred to have an unusually wide range of motion. Further, it is the only enarthronote species known to have an elongated ovipositor, and one of few to have glassy, luminous notogastral setae. The gastronotum of juveniles lacks transverse scissures, but has isolated sclerites supporting setae, including erectile setae. The large character gaps between N. hammerae and other enarthronote taxa justifies proposal of a monotypic new family--Nanohystricidae n. fam.--which is tentatively grouped with several other relictual families in the paraphyletic Heterochthonioidea. Small muscles appear to be involved in the operation of all erectile setae, but seem to be only depressors, with erection effected by hysterosomal distension. Based on gut contents, its food is primarily fungal hyphae and spores, though ingestion of small arthropods also occurs (perhaps by necrophagy). Collections were made by Berlese-funnel samples of litter, by sweeping low vegetation, and (mainly) by pitfall traps; the latter two suggest that adults are surface-active. Tritonymphs were collected by pitfall traps, but earlier juveniles were collected only by Berlese-funnels. Adults are frequently infected with a eugregarine parasite, which can entirely fill the digestive caeca; immature trophozoites were also seen in tritonymphs. Adults also can serve as hosts for dispersal of secondary capilliconidia of the fungal genus Basidiobolus. PMID:26624174

  3. Diagrammatic scale of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) damage in coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. Due to the lack of standardized methods to quantify damage of this eryophyid, a diagrammatic scale with indices of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 70% of damage caused by A. guerreronis was elaborated and tested to accuracy, precision and reproduction of the estimations. To validate the scale, fruits with different levels of damage were previously measured with the program AssessR and submitted to 10 inexperienced evaluators with or without the scale (first evaluation) and seven days after (second evaluation) with the same evaluators, using digitized pictures of the same fruits in a different sequence. The accuracy and precision of each evaluator was determined through linear regression between observed and estimated damage. Without using the scale, evaluators were less precise as seven out of 10 overestimated the damage, while evaluators provided with the scale were much more accurate. Also, evaluations with the aid of the scale were much more reproducible than without the scale. The scale was used to determine the relationship between infestation and damage levels caused by A. guerrerronis. The relationship between infestation and damage fitted by the equation 1ny = 4.948 - 0.121x + 1.789 1nx (R2 = 99.87%, P < 0.0001). Therefore, these findings show that it is possible to estimate A. guerreronis population density on infested coconut fruits by using the diagrammatic scale. (author)

  4. Prey-related odor preference of the predatory mites Typhlodromalus manihoti and Typhlodromalus aripo (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanvossou, D.; Hanna, R.; Dicke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Typhlodromalus manihoti and Typhlodromalus aripo are exotic predators of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa in Africa. In an earlier paper, we showed that the two predators were attracted to odors from M. tanajoa-infested cassava leaves. In addition to the key prey species, M. tanajoa, two

  5. Infochemical-mediated niche use by the predatory mites Typhlodromalus manihoti and T. aripo (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanvossou, D.; Hanna, R.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    In Africa, Typhlodromalus manihoti and T. aripo, two introduced predators of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, occupy different parts of cassava foliage. In the present study, niche use by these two predators, as mediated by prey-induced infochemicals, was investigated. In response to pr

  6. Survey of natural enemies of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in citrus orchards in eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Pina, Tatiana; Dembilio, Oscar; Ferragut, Francisco; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2004 to 2007 to determine the species composition and relative abundance of natural enemies associated with colonies of either the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, or the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, in Valencian citrus orchards (eastern Spain). Fourteen species were recorded, six phytoseiid mites and eight insect predators. Two of them are reported for the first time on citrus in Spain and two more are first reports as predators associated with T. urticae. The community of predators associated with T. urticae and P. citri was almost identical, and the Morisita-Horn index of similarity between both natural enemy complexes was close to one, suggesting that predators forage on both pest species. Quantifying the presence of many known spider mites predators in Valencian citrus orchards is an important first step towards spider mite control. A challenge for future studies will be to establish conservation and/or augmentation management strategies for these predators, especially to improve T. urticae biological control. PMID:18803026

  7. Molecular Effects of Irradiation (Cobalt-60) on the Control of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Luo, Lingyan; Chen, Xieting; Hu, Meiying; Hu, Qiongbo; Gong, Liang; Weng, Qunfang

    2015-01-01

    The effective dose of irradiation to control pest mites in quarantine has been studied extensively, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the irradiation on mites are largely unknown. In this study, exposure to 400 Gy of γ rays had significant (p Panonychus citri. The irradiation caused the degradation of the DNA of P. citri adults and damaged the plasma membrane system of the egg, which led to condensed nucleoli and gathered yolk. Additionally, the transcriptomes and gene expression profiles between irradiated and non-irradiated mites were compared, and three digital gene expression libraries were assembled and analyzed. The differentially expressed genes were putatively involved in apoptosis, cell death and the cell cycle. Finally, the expression profiles of some related genes were studied using quantitative real-time PCR. Our study provides valuable information on the changes in the transcriptome of irradiated P. citri, which will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause the sterility induced by irradiation. PMID:26569230

  8. Population dynamics of Panonychus osmanthi (Acari: Tetranychidae) on two Osmanthus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashima, Yasuki; Gotoh, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    Panonychus osmanthi is a non-diapausing species of spider mite that superficially resembles P. citri. It infests Osmanthus species, which are evergreen roadside and garden trees. The population dynamics of P. osmanthi were studied on Osmanthus aurantiacus and O. x fortunei during a three-year period. Seasonal changes in P. osmanthi populations were fundamentally the same in each year, although their density differed greatly from year to year. The P. osmanthi population was bimodal, with one peak in spring (May-June) and another in winter (November-January). Populations abruptly declined after the spring peak. Predators showed a delayed density-dependent response to changes in spider mites from spring to summer, whereas in autumn and winter, predators were few because they had entered diapause. To determine the effect of predators on the rapid decline of spider mites just after the spring peak, the predators were removed by treating the trees with a synthetic pyrethroid. As a result, spider mite density did not decline after the spring peak and remained at a high level during the June-August period when spider mite density is usually very low. This suggests that predators play an important role in the drastic decline of P. osmanthi density just after the spring peak. PMID:14635810

  9. Significance of habitat type for the genetic population structure of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, Masahiro; Goka, Kouichi; Toda, Satoshi; Shintaku, Toshiyuki; Amano, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Restricted migration and habitat fragmentation promote genetic differentiation between populations. Because most of the hosts of Panonychus citri are woody plants, mainly citrus trees that are usually planted at intervals of several metres, this mite likely faces more risks (e.g., starvation) by dispersing between host plants, compared to other spider mite species that infest both herbaceous and woody plants, such as Tetranychus urticae. Such a limited gene flow between patches (host plants) can lead to differentiation of populations even within a small area. Therefore, we hypothesize that P. citri populations are genetically differentiated not only between distant populations but also within small areas, such as within a grove. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the divergence of P. citri populations in Japanese citrus groves according to a hierarchical arrangement of geographical distance, ranging from distant populations (10 groves distributed throughout different areas in two major Japanese islands; this level of analysis is referred to as 'geographic') to local populations (different trees in a specific grove; 'local'). Three molecular markers were used: an esterase locus, one microsatellite and a point mutation in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I. At a local level acaricide susceptibility tests were also performed using two acaricides: fenpyroximate (25 ppm) and etoxazole (3.33 ppm). At a broad geographic level the gene diversity decreased with decreasing area size and distance between populations. By contrast, at the local level, populations maintained a significant level of variation between trees within groves, and the divergence within groves was higher than between groves. Whereas no statistical difference of the mortalities was detected among groves for the two acaricides tested, the difference was statistically significant among trees within groves in fenpyroximate (ANOVA, pcitri populations maintain a higher level of variation between trees (or patches of trees) within groves than between groves at the local level, though the gene diversity tended to be smaller with decreasing distance between populations at the geographical level. Results are discussed in relation to the dispersal behaviour of spider mites. PMID:16082921

  10. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In great populations mites of the specie Tyrophagus putrescentiae can cause damages in stored products. The work had as objective to evaluate the effects of the gamma radiation of the Cobalt-60 to control the mites of the specie T. putrescentiae. The mites were irradiated with doses of 0 (control), 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 Gy, in a source of Cobalt-60 type Gammacell-220, with a dose rate of 0.718 kGy/hour. Each treatment consisted of four repetitions containing 10 mites each, in a total of approximately 40 mites for treatment. The evaluations were daily, being counted the number of mites died, put eggs and emerged larvae. Based on the obtained results it was concluded that the dose sterilizing for the mites of this specie was of 300 Gy. Already the dose of 600 Gy induced the total mortality of the mites after 11 days of the irradiation process. (author)

  11. Interspecific diversity of mitochondrial COI sequences in Japanese Panonychus species (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S; Osakabe, M; Komazaki, S

    2000-01-01

    Sequences of a part of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were analyzed in four Japanese Panonychus species to determine their phylogenetic relationships. Neighbor-Joining and maximum likelihood analysis resulted in a high bootstrap support of the relationships within the genus Panonychus. In contrast with a previous study based on ribosomal DNA data, the COI phylogeny suggested that P. mori was more distantly related to P. citri than to P. ulmi. This study shows for the first time that P. osmanthi is closely related to P. citri. Intraspecific variation analysis shows that the genetic distance between two local populations of P. mori is higher than between P. citri and P. osmanthi. PMID:11345318

  12. RFLP analysis of ribosomal DNA in sibling species of spider mite, genus Panonychus (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, M; Sakagami, Y

    1994-02-01

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length of spider mites was analysed in three sibling species of genus Panonychus (P. mori, P. citri and P. ulmi) and Tetranychus urticae. Seventy-one fragments were detected by enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) after Southern hybridization with two genomic rDNA probes of mouse. Percentages of shared fragments within species were larger than those among species, indicating that the variation of rDNAs was useful in phylogenetic studies of spider mite species. In a phenogram based on differences of the rDNA fragment length, the relationship among Panonychus species was compatible with the results of analysis based on the morphological characters. PMID:7915173

  13. Molecular characterization of two carboxylesterase genes of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Tian-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-04-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, is known for its ability to rapidly evolve resistance to insecticides/acaricides and to adapt to hosts that produce toxins. To get better insight into the detoxification mechanism of P. citri, two carboxylesterase (CarE) genes, PCE1 and PCE2, were isolated and characterized. PCE1 and PCE2 contained open reading frames of 1,653 and 1,392 nucleotides, encoding proteins of 550 and 463 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that PCE1 and PCE2 were most closely related to the CarE genes from other phytophagous mites. The transcriptional profiles of two CarE genes among developmental stages (egg, larva, nymph, adult female, and adult male), after exposing to four acaricides (avermectin, azocyclotin, pyridaben, and spirodiclofen) and acid rain were investigated using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed that during development, PCE1 was highly expressed at the egg stage, whereas PCE2 was abundantly expressed at the adult stage of males. The expression levels of PCE1 were highly induced upon exposure to acaricides and acid rain. On the other hand, the expression levels of PCE2 were increased after treatment with avermectin and pyridaben. These results suggest that PCE1 and PCE2 may have distinct roles in different developmental stages and participate in the detoxification of acaricides. PMID:23404785

  14. Molecular Effects of Irradiation (Cobalt-60) on the Control of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Zhang; Lingyan Luo; Xieting Chen; Meiying Hu; Qiongbo Hu; Liang Gong; Qunfang Weng

    2015-01-01

    The effective dose of irradiation to control pest mites in quarantine has been studied extensively, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the irradiation on mites are largely unknown. In this study, exposure to 400 Gy of γ rays had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the adult survival, fecundity and egg viability of Panonychus citri. The irradiation caused the degradation of the DNA of P. citri adults and damaged the plasma membrane system of the egg, which led to condensed...

  15. Life-history traits of the six Panonychus species from Japan (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kitashima, Yasuki

    2003-01-01

    Six species of the genus Panonychus are known from Japan. Life-history parameters of all six species were investigated at 25 degrees C, and for three species two strains of different geographical origin were included. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) ranged from 0.172/day for the P. osmanthi albino strain to 0.209/day for P. citri, while the net reproductive rate (R0) varied from 23.98 in the thelytokous species P. thelytokus to 46.61 in P. citri. Both values were higher in the polyphagous species (P. ulmi, P mori and P. citri), which are considered crop pests, than those in the oligophagous species (P. thelytokus and P. osmanthi), considered non-pests. The only exception was P. bambusicola, an oligophagous non-pest species with R0- and r(m)-values closely resembling those of the three polyphagous species. PMID:14635811

  16. Life cycle of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on ornamental plants, mostly Arecaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, C; Colmenárez, Y; de Moraes, G J

    2015-02-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, has been primarily found associated with coconut and musaceous plants in the New World. However, it has also been recorded on several other palms, heliconiaceous and zingiberaceous species. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of different botanical families on which R. indica has been collected in the field and of arecaceous plants of the natural vegetation of the neotropics. In total, ten species of Arecaceae as well as Heliconia psittacorum [Heliconiaceae] and Alpinia purpurata [Zingiberacae] were evaluated, using coconut as a control. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (29 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 10% RH and photoperiod 12 h of light). Raoiella indica was able to complete immature development only on coconut, Adonidia merrillii, Ptychosperma macarthurii, H. psittacorum and A. purpurata. Duration of the immature phase (egg-adult) ranged between 21.5 days on coconut to 34.1 days on A. purpurata. Longevity was at least 50% greater and oviposition at least 38% higher on coconut than on other plants. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was higher on coconut (0.166) and A. merrillii (0.042), but negative on the other two plant species. Raoiella indica could not reach adulthood on any of the other ten arecaceous species considered in the study. The results suggested R. indica to be a threat to A. merrillii in addition to coconut, but not to other evaluated plants. However, complementary studies should be conducted to investigate whether the experimental procedures adopted in this study could not have prevented the mite from a better performance than it could have been under field conditions, especially in relation to Mauritia flexuosa, one of the dominant arecaceous plants in South America. PMID:25342244

  17. Diversity and population dynamics of Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in tropical flowers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Erika Pessoa Japhyassu; Finotti, Amanda Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2015-06-01

    Cultivation of tropical flowers has expanded considerably in Brazil, justifying efforts to determine the arthropods associated with it. Heliconia species are some of the most important tropical flowers in Brazil. Mites of the families Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae are commonly found on those plants. They disperse from flower to flower on hummingbirds. The objective of this study was to identify the diversity of mites of this group in tropical flowers, with emphasis on Heliconia species, in Brazil and to determine the fluctuation of the population of these mites in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state. Specimens from Amazonas, Bahia, Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina and São Paulo States were examined. Mites of the genera Asca and Iphidozercon (Ascidae), Cheiroseius and Lasioseius (Blattisociidae), and Proctolaelaps and Tropicoseius (Melicharidae) were collected in flowers of four plant families, with Lasioseius being the most diverse genus. Overall, most specimens found belonged to Tropicoseius, especially Tropicoseius venezuelensis Baker & Yunker; this was the dominant species on five of 13 Heliconia species/hybrids considered in this study. Samples of panicles of Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pavón were collected every 2 weeks, in Piracicaba. Six species of those mite families were found, among which Tropicoseius heliconiae Baker & Yunker and T. venezuelensis were the most numerous. The highest population levels of mites of those three families occurred at the beginning and at the end of the year, coinciding with the highest levels of rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, when plant flowers were most numerous and vigorous. Along each panicle, the highest mite densities were found in inflorescences of the three distal eighths of the panicles, where nectar and pollen were probably most abundant. PMID:25860858

  18. Some avian and mammalian hosts of Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; MacIvor, K M; Petney, T N; De Vos, V

    1987-09-01

    Large numbers of birds, wild mammals and domestic stock from a variety of localities within the Republic of South Africa were examined for infestation with the ixodid ticks Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum. Every warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli), impala (Aepyceros melampus) and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) from the Kruger National Park in the north-eastern Transvaal Lowveld was infested with A. hebraeum. In the eastern Cape Province every helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), scrub hare (Lepus saxatilis) and kudu from the Andries Vosloo Kudu Reserve; all but 1 of the 22 domestic cattle examined on the farm "Bucklands"; and all Angora goats plus nearly all Boer goats examined on the farm "Brakhill" were infested with this tick. Most animals examined appeared to be good hosts of the immature stages, and the larger the host species the greater the chances of it harbouring large numbers of adult ticks. The largest animals examined, such as eland, buffalo, giraffe and rhinoceros, harboured very large numbers of adult A. hebraeum. No adult A. marmoreum was recovered from any host. However, 50% or more of helmeted guinea fowl and kudu from the Andries Vosloo Kudu Reserve; helmeted guinea fowl, scrub hares and eland (Taurotragus oryx) from the Mountain Zebra National Park; helmeted guinea fowl, kudu, domestic sheep, goats and cattle on the farm "Bucklands", and caracal (Felis caracal) from the Cradock and Southwell areas of the eastern Cape Province were infested with immature A. marmoreum. In the Bontebok National Park in the south-western Cape Province more than 35% of scrub hares, vaal ribbok (Pelea capreolus) and bontebok (Damaliscus dorcas dorcas) were infested with immature ticks. PMID:3329327

  19. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  20. New species of Hexabdella and Neomolgus (Acari: Prostigmata: Bdellidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbalian, Amir Hossein; Khanjani, Mohammad; Safaralizadeh, Mohammad Hassan; Ueckermann, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hexabdella Van der Schyff, Theron & Ueckermann (Acariformes: Bdellidae), H. quercusi Eghbalian, Khanjani, Safaralizadeh, Ueckermann sp. nov., and a new species of Neomolgus Oudemans, N. iraniensis Eghbalian, Khanjani, Safaralizadeh, Ueckermann sp. nov., are described and illustrated. A key is provided for adult females of all known species of Hexabdella, as well as for adult females of Neomolgus from Asian and neighbouring countries, including Iran, Japan and the Siberian region of Russia. All specimens were collected from soil and litter under oak trees, Quercus brantii Lindley (Fagaceae), or from soil and litter under wild almond, Amygdalus scoparia L. (Rosaceae), from western Iran. PMID:27395925

  1. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of varroa mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Varroidae)in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destuctor is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honey bee for pollination. The Varroa mite not only causes significant damage to honey bees by feeding on their haemolymph, but also serves as a vector of disease. In addition, the Varroa mite has develo...

  2. Laboratory evaluation of miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae), a honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, C M; Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L

    2000-04-01

    A laboratory bioassay was developed to evaluate miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans), an important parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Bees and mites were exposed to applications of essential oil constituents in petri dishes (60 by 20 mm). The registered mite control agents tau-fluvalinate (Apistan) and formic acid also were evaluated as positive controls. Treatments that caused high mite mortality (> 70%) at doses that produced low bee mortality (formic acid. The effect of mode of application (complete exposure versus vapor only) on bee and mite mortality was assessed for thymol, clove oil, and Magic3 by using a 2-chambered dish design. Estimated V. jacobsoni LD50 values were significantly lower for complete exposure applications of thymol and Magic3, suggesting that both vapor and topical exposure influenced mite mortality, whereas estimated values for clove oil suggested that topical exposure had little or no influence on mite mortality. These results indicate that essential oil constituents alone may not be selective enough to control Varroa under all conditions, but could be a useful component of an integrated pest management approach to parasitic mite management in honey bee colonies. PMID:10826162

  3. Distribution of Rickettsia rickettsii in ovary cells of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille1806 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    da Silva Costa Luís

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the fact that the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has a great potential to become the vector of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF for humans, the present study aimed to describe the distribution of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of BSF, in different regions of the ovaries of R. sanguineus using histological techniques. The ovaries were obtained from positive females confirmed by the hemolymph test and fed in the nymph stage on guinea pigs inoculated with R. rickettsii. Results The results showed a general distribution of R. rickettsii in the ovary cells, being found in oocytes in all stages of development (I, II, III, IV and V most commonly in the periphery of the oocyte and also in the cytoplasm of pedicel cells. Conclusions The histological analysis of the ovaries of R. sanguineus infected females confirmed the presence of the bacterium, indicating that the infection can interfere negatively in the process of reproduction of the ticks, once alterations were detected both in the shape and cell structure of the oocytes which contained bacteria.

  4. Ornithodoros peropteryx (Acari: Argasidae) in Bolivia: an argasid tick with a single nymphal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago; Terassini, Flavio A; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-10-01

    By the end of the 1960s, the argasid tick Ornithodoros peropteryx was described from larval specimens collected from the bat Peropteryx macrotis in Colombia. Since its original description, no additional record of O. peropteryx has been reported, and its post-larval stages have remained unknown. During July 2010, 18 larvae were collected from 9 bats (Centronycteris maximiliani), resulting in a mean infestation of 2.0 ± 2.2 ticks per bat (range 1-8). These bats were captured in a farm in northeastern Bolivia close to Guaporé River in the border with Brazil. Morphological examinations of the larvae revealed them to represent the species O. peropteryx. One engorged larva that was kept alive in the laboratory moulted to a nymph after 9 days. Fourteen days after the larval moulting, the nymph moulted to an adult female without taking any blood meal during the nymphal period. This adult female was used for a morphological description of the female stage of O. peropteryx. In addition, the larvae were used for a morphological redescription of this stage. One larva and two legs extirpated from the adult female were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR targeting a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene, which yielded DNA sequences at least 11 % divergent from any available argasid sequence in Genbank. We show that O. peropteryx ontogeny is characterized by a single, non-feeding, nymphal stage. This condition has never been reported for ticks. PMID:23543273

  5. An Initial Classification of Neotropical Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia Based on Habitat Preferences

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    Hugo R. Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing classifications of benthic and interstitial freshwater invertebrates are described and discussed. A classification is proposed for southern neotropical (south of latitude S 15 water mites in relation to their life style and habitat preferences. The classification includes planktonic, superficial, benthic, thermal, and subterranean forms. The diversity of the Hydrachnidia family and genera (22 families, 97 genera, and 521 species is then analyzed using the new classification. Ubiquitous stygobites deserve special consideration because they move through ecotone zones and tolerate extreme conditions. Water mite communities from a north-western Argentinean stream were first described using a surber net and consequently considered as benthic. Nineteen Hydrachnidia species (from benthic to stygobite were collected and classified. The vertical distribution observed during the year confirmed the permanent presence of benthic Hydrachnidia, even during the first flood, which is of special importance in running waters. The functional classification we propose will facilitate comparison of fauna from different areas that have different faunistic composition but may have similar functional distribution.

  6. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

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    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  7. Description of two species of Tenuipalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes) from succulent plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Tenuipalpus, T. sarcophilus n. sp., (Tenuipalpidae) is described from specimens collected from several species of ornamental succulent plants in Florida, including Crassula tetragona L, Sedum spp., Echeveria spp., Pachyphytum spp. (Crassulaceae) and Aloe spp. (Asphodelaceae), and fr...

  8. South African Acari. IV. Some Mites of the Addo Elephant National Park

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    E.A. Ueckermann

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Mites collected in the Addo Elephant National Park from 1968 to 1986 are given in a check list. Comments are made on the habitats and distribution of the 36 known species. The following species are described and illustrated: Tenuipalpus robustae Meyer, spec. nov., Tydeus schotiae Ueckermann spec. nov., Paralorryia grewiae Ueckermann, spec. nov. and Pronematulus pteroni Ueckermann, spec. nov.

  9. Revealing the diversity of a once small taxon: the genus Selenoribates (Acari, Oribatida, Selenoribatidae

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    Tobias Pfingstl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new intertidal oribatid species, Selenoribates elegans sp. n., Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. and Selenoribates satanicus sp. n. are described from the archipelago of Bermuda. Selenoribates elegans sp. n. is characterized by its slender body shape, S. quasimodo sp. n. possesses a hunchback in lateral view and S. satanicus sp. n. exhibits two horn-like projections on its anterior gastronotic region. Based on these new findings, the number of Selenoribates species doubled at once and the distribution of this genus, formerly limited to the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, includes now occurrences in the Atlantic and Indo-pacific Ocean as well. The morphology of S. quasimodo sp. n. and S. satanicus sp. n. deviates conspicuously from the other known members of Selenoribates, thus indicating that not only the number of species but also the anatomy of this genus is more diverse than formerly supposed. Nymphs of S. quasimodo sp. n. show an interesting case of ontogenetic neotrichy, with gastronotic setae being duplicated with each moult.

  10. Influence of gamma radiation for controlling Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) (Geijskes, 1939) in oxygen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Andre R., E-mail: rica_machi@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN- SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis mite are controlled across of solutions acaricides, which are chemicals and leave residues in addition there is the difficulty of an effective pulverization due to the small size of the mite, the objective of this study was to evaluate of the influence of oxygen combined with gamma radiation on B.phoenicis as alternative control. Were used 70 mites per arena in 9 reps on 3 treatments at doses of 0 (control), 200 and 300 Gy. For irradiation, the leaves containing the mites, were cut and placed on bottles with bladder tied with ribbons and strings, before was put pure oxygen and the bottle was then sealed, these were taken to a gamma irradiator of Cobalt 60-type Gammacell 220, under a dose rate of 0.381 kGy/hour located in the CENA/USP. Was evaluated daily (eggs, nymphs and adults) of the mites observed viability, fertility and mortality across of the analysis of variance design with completely randomized design using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 9.2® and by the Tukey test, the verification of means. After 22 days of irradiation the hatchability in 200 Gy dose was 41% after 3 days and 57% in control dose, this differed statistically of the other doses, where the nymphs arrived to the adult stage, which did not occurred in the 200 Gy dose and higher due to mutations, generated by the gamma radiation. In 300 Gy not was observed the presence of nymphs and eggs, being the sterilizing dose for all stages of the B.phoenicis. (author)

  11. Susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) to seven ixodicides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús A. Esparza Rentería; Emily Lizett Esparza Sevilla

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transm...

  12. Susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae to seven ixodicides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

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    Jesús A. Esparza Rentería

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transmits, such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis (Xianxun and Wenshun, 1997; Yeruhan et al., 1998, are of special interest. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the larvae of Boophilus microplus to seven tick-killing agents commonly used in the state of Nuevo Leon. The methodology used for the diagnosis of the susceptibility of B. microplus tick to Organochlorine, Organophosphorate and Pyrethroid compounds was the one applied by Rodriguez-Vivas et al., (2007; in which it was used a discriminant dose (table 1, using the larvae package test technique (Stone & Haydock, 1962. The results of the CL50 to the ticks of cattle in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico showed a greater susceptibility to Deltamethrine, followed by Chlorfenvinphos; in third place Diazinon, then Flumethrin; after that Cypermethrin, in sixth place Lindane and a less toxicological action for the Coumaphos (Asuntol. The result was already expected due to the fact that it is the most commonly used product in the control of ticks through the larval immersion technique.

  13. Evaluation of Four Bed Bug Traps for Surveillance of the Brown Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnohan, Lucas P; Kaufman, Phillip E; Allan, Sandra A; Gezan, Salvador A; Weeks, Emma N I

    2015-03-01

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle), can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acaricide treatment is currently the primary method of control, but can be costly and can lead to the development of acaricide resistance in tick populations. Traps of various designs can be used to help monitor and manage populations of indoor pests, such as cockroaches and bed bugs, but there are currently no commercially available traps for use with brown dog tick infestations. This study included a comparison of four commercially available bed bug traps (NightWatch [BioSensory Inc., Putnam, CT], Bed Bug Beacon [PackTite, Fort Collins, CO], ClimbUp [Susan McKnight Inc., Memphis, TN], and Verify [FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA]) with regard to their efficacy in capturing brown dog ticks, and also compared tick attraction to ClimbUp traps baited with several stimuli including CO2. Significantly more ticks were captured and attracted to the NightWatch and CO2-baited ClimbUp traps than the other two trap models. The results suggest that bed bug traps may be useful in brown dog tick monitoring, and CO2 will likely be an important component of a trapping system employed in the future. PMID:26336310

  14. Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) infection in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromdahl, E Y; Randolph, M P; O'Brien, J J; Gutierrez, A G

    2000-05-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a sometimes fatal, emerging tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis. It is frequently misdiagnosed because its symptoms mimic those of the flu. Current evidence indicates that Amblyomma americanum (L.), the lone star tick, is the major vector of HME. To determine if E. chaffeensis is present in ticks at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, questing A. americanum ticks were collected from 33 sites. Nucleic acid was extracted from 34 adult and 81 nymphal pools. Sequences diagnostic for E. chaffeensis from three different loci (16S rRNA, 120-kDa protein, and a variable-length polymerase chain reaction [PCR] target, or VLPT) were targeted for amplification by the PCR. Fifty-two percent of the collection sites yielded pools infected with E. chaffeensis, confirming the presence and widespread distribution of E. chaffeensis at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Analysis with the both the 120-kDa protein primers and the VLPT primers showed that genetic variance exists. A novel combination of variance for the two loci was detected in two tick pools. The pathogenic implications of genetic variation in E. chaffeensis are as yet unknown.

  15. Arrhenotoky and oedipal mating in the northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae

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    McCulloch John B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern fowl mite (NFM; Ornithonyssus sylviarum is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of birds and a major pest of poultry in the United States. Mite populations spread rapidly in commercial flocks, reach peak burdens of >70,000 mites per bird and have developed resistance to many pesticides. Despite decades as a pest in the United States, the reproductive biology of NFM remains unclear. Based on karyotypes, the NFM has haplodiploid sex determination, which suggests unmated females could produce male offspring (arrhenotoky. Thus, unmated females could disseminate to a new host and initiate an infestation by producing and mating with sons (oedipal mating. Methods We used small capsules to isolate and recover NFM on host chickens. Mites in capsules could blood feed, develop and reproduce, but could not contact other mites. Individual larvae were matured in isolation to produce known, unmated females. We evaluated reproduction of (I previously mated females (i in isolation, or (ii paired with a male, and (II unmated (virgin females in isolation. In each treatment we recorded the number and sexes of offspring produced over time. Results Mated NFM produced female and male offspring in isolation, or when paired with a male. When paired with a male, females produced a female-biased sex ratio of the offspring (F:M ratio ~5:1. Unmated, female NFM produced exclusively male offspring when in isolation. When paired with their sons that had developed to maturity, the "virgin" females were able to mate and subsequently produce female offspring. Conclusions This study found that females with immediate access to sperm produced mostly female offspring. Virgin female NFM initially produced only male offspring and subsequently used oedipal mating to produce female offspring. Using this reproductive system NFM could successfully colonize new hosts as immature, or unmated females. The strong female-biased sex ratio of NFM populations suggests a large proportion of the parasite population is capable of disseminating to new hosts, which is essential for an obligate parasite to persist.

  16. Avaliação in vitro de uma cepa de campo de Boophilus microplus (Acari : Ixodidae resistente à amitraz In vitro evaluation of a field strain of Boophilus microplus (Acari:Ixodidae resistant to amitraz

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    Minerva Santamaría Vargas

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso dos acaricidas químicos ainda se constitui no principal instrumento de controle do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus. No sul do Brasil, o amitraz aplicado por imersão e aspersão é o ingrediente ativo mais utilizado, nos últimos anos, contra as cepas de carrapatos resistentes aos organofosforados (OF e piretróides sintéticos (PS. Em conseqüência, torna-se importante a realização de investigações que possam contribuir para prolongar a vida útil desse ixodicida. No presente estudo, foi analisado o comportamento toxicológico de uma cepa de B. microplus colhida na localidade de Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, usando-se químicos da família dos OF, PS, misturas OF/PS, além do amitraz. Os resultados indicaram que a cepa denominada "Santa Luiza" apresentou fatores de resistência (FR que variaram entre 2,3 e 3,95 para OF, 23,3 e 147,56 para PS e de 3,76 a 21.57 para amitraz em testes realizados com larvas de carrapatos. A caracterização e purificação de uma cepa de B. microplus resistente ao amitraz permitem seu uso como cepa de referência para a avaliação biológica de ixodicidas alternativos, além de padronizar e validar métodos de diagnósticos toxicológicos que possam detectar resistência frente a esse acaricida.The use of chemical acaricide still remains as the main tool against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. In Southern Brazil, amitraz applied by immersion and/or spray is the main active ingredient to control organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid resistant strains. In consequence it is important to conduct investigations in order to prolong useful life of this ingredient. In this article, toxicological behaviour of a strain of Boophilus microplus named "Santa Luiza" collected in the locality of Alegrete, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was analyzed against acaricides organophosphorous, pyrethroids, mixtures SP and OP and amitraz. Results showed factors of resistance from 2.3 to 3.95 to OP, 23.3 to 147.56 to SP and 3.76 to 21.57 to amitraz indicating that this strain showed multiple resistance to tested acaricides. Characterization and purification of a B. microplus strain resistant to amitraz will allow its use as a reference strain for future utilization in biological evaluation of alternative acaricides as well as to standard and to validate diagnostic methods to detect resistant to this acaricide.

  17. CONTROL TEST TO MICRO ACARID Aculops lycopersici (Massee, 1937 (ACARI: ERIOPHYIDAE ATTACKING TOMATO PLANT, USING A NEW ACARID-KILLER ENSAIO DE CONTROLE AO MICROÁCARO DO TOMATEIRO Aculops lycopersici (Massee, 1937 (Acari: Eriophyidae COM UM NOVO ACARICIDA

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    Roberto Magno de Castro e Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This experiment was conducted in a tomato culture area in the surroundings of the Agronomy School of UFG with the objective of evaluate the effect of a new acarid-killer named avermectin against Aculops lycopersici (Massee, 1937, the tomato plant micro acarid. The experimental delineation used was random blocks with six treatments and four replicates. Treatments utilized were: Avermectin (Vertimec 18 CE, 50, 75 and 100 ml/100 1 of water; Cyhexatin (Plictran 50 BR 100 g/100 l of water; Sulphur (Kumulus 80% PM, 400g/100 1 of water and control. Pulverizations were made by using a portable costal sprayer, applying 30 ml of solution per plant. Estimations were made at 3, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days after treatments, sampling 10 leaves at random of 10 plants pertaining to 2 central lines of each parcel and counting the number of acarids aiming an area of 0.7 cm2/leaf. The results showed that the product avermectin was superior to other acarid-killers in all estimations realized, presenting a control efficiency close to 95% at smaller dosage, until 21 days. Cybexatin and sulphur reduced its efficiency during the experiment development.

    O experimento foi conduzido numa área de plantação de tomate, nas proximidades da Escola de Agronomia da UFG, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de um novo acaricida denominado avermectin, contra Aculops lycopersici (Massee, 1937, o microácaro do tomateiro. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: Avermectin (Vertimec 18 CE, 50, 75 e 100 ml/l00 1 de água; Cyhexatin (Plictran 50 BR. 100 g/100 1 de água; Enxofre (Kumulus 80% PM. 400 g/100 1 de água e Testemunha. As aplicações foram efetuadas com um pulverizador costal manual jacto, gastando-se 30 ml de calda por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 3, 7, 10, 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação, onde amostrou-se 10 folhas ao acaso, de 10 plantas das duas linhas centrais de cada parcela e contou-se o número de ácaros visando a uma área de 0,7 cm2/folha. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o produto avermectin foi superior aos outros acaricidas, apresentando uma eficiência de controle de aproximadamente 95%, na menor dosagem, até 21 dias. O cyhexatin e o enxofre foram reduzindo sua eficiência ao longo do desenvolvimento do ensaio.

  18. Desarrollo ontogenético y redescripción del adulto de Epidamaeus mitlsensillus (Acari: Oribatida: Damaeidae Ontogenetic development and redescription of the adult of Epidamaeus mitlsensillus (Acari: Oribatida: Damaeidae

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    Ricardo Iglesias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra el desarrollo ontogenético completo de Epidamaeus mitlsensillus Palacios-Vargas, 1984 (larva, protoninfa, deutoninfa y tritoninfa, del volcán Popocatépetl, Estado de México; asimismo, se redescribe el adulto. Los ejemplares fueron aclarados, disecados y montados en preparaciones semipermanentes con líquido de Hoyer para su observación y toma de mediciones. Las ilustraciones, que se presentan en láminas, fueron realizadas con ayuda de cámara clara, entintadas y luego escaneadas.The complete ontogenetic development of Epidamaeus mitlsensillus Palacios-Vargas, 1984 (larva, protonymph, deutonymph, and tritonymph from the Popocatepetl Volcano, State of México, is described and illustrated and redescription of the adult is done. The specimens were cleared, dissected and mounted on semi-permanent slides in Hoyer's solution for observation and measurements. Drawings were done using a camera lucida, then inked, scanned, and arranged in plates.

  19. Arrenúridos de la cuenca del Río Paraná, Argentina (Acari: Parasitengona: Hydrachnidia Arrenuridae from the basin of the Paraná River, Argentina (Acari: Parasitengona: Hydrachnidia

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    Beatriz Rosso de Ferradás

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se dan a conocer las hembras no descriptas de las especies Arrenurus (Megaluracarus santafesinus Rosso de Ferradás, 1973 y Arrenurus (Arrhenuropsides parviscutatus (Viets, 1954. Se brindan redescripciones detalladas de ambas especies. Se mencionan por primera vez para la cuenca argentina del Río Paraná, las especies Arrenurus (Arrhenuropsides parviscutatus ; Arrenurus (Dadayella proyecta (Lundblad, 1938; Arrenurus (Megaluracarus scopularis Lundblad, 1938 y Arrenurus Megaluracarusgladiiferus Lundblad, 1941, previamente conocidas para Paraguay. Para las especies mencionadas, se amplían las características morfomerísticas mediante comparación con material tipo y se brindan nuevos datos de su distribución geográfica en Argentina.The females of the species Arrenurus (Arrhenuropsides parviscutatus (Viets, 1954 and Arrenurus (Megaluracarus santafesinus Rosso de Ferradás, 1973 are described for the first time. Detailed redescriptions of both species are provided. The species Arrenurus (Arrhenuropsides parviscutatus (Viets, 1954, Arrenurus (Dadayella projecta (Lundblad, 1938; Arrenurus (Megaluracarus scopularis Lundblad, 1938 and Arrenurus (Megaluracarus gladiiferus Lundblad, 1941, described from Paraguay, are mentioned for the first time for Argentina. For the mentioned species, new morphologic characteristics and meassurements by comparison with type material, and new data on their geographic distribution in Argentina are given.

  20. Efeito do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae) em pomar de macieira Effect of weed management on Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae) in apple orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro; Luiz Belli; Alexander Souza; André Luiz Werner

    2002-01-01

    Avaliou-se a influência do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre o deslocamento de ácaros tetraniquídeos (Panonychus ulmi e Tetranychus urticae) e do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus em um pomar de macieira 'Gala', onde foi implantado o controle biológico do ácaro vermelho, P. ulmi, por meio de liberações massais de N. californicus. As parcelas tiveram as plantas daninhas manejadas de três formas: sem manejo, com roçadas manuais e com herbicidas. As populações de ácaros foram avaliadas sobre...