WorldWideScience

Sample records for channel state information

  1. Statistical-mechanical analysis of multiuser channel capacity with imperfect channel state information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui-Song; Zeng Gui-Hua

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of imperfect channel state information at the receiver, which is caused by noise and other interference, on the multi-access channel capacity is analysed through a statistical-mechanical approach. Replica analyses focus on analytically studying how the minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimation error appears in a multiuser channel capacity formula. And the relevant mathematical expressions are derived. At the same time,numerical simulation results are demonstrated to validate the Replica analyses. The simulation results show how the system parameters, such as channel estimation error, system load and signal-to-noise ratio, affect the channel capacity.

  2. On the low SNR capacity of MIMO fading channels with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2014-06-01

    The capacity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channels with full knowledge of channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter and the receiver (CSI-TR) has been shown recently to scale at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) essentially as SNR log(1/SNR), independently of the number of transmit and receive antennas. In this paper, we investigate the ergodic capacity of MIMO Rayleigh fading channel with estimated channel state information at the transmitter (CSI-T) and possibly imperfect channel state information at the receiver (CSI-R). Our framework can be seen as a generalization of previous works as it can capture the perfect CSI-TR as a special case when the estimation error variance goes to zero. In this paper, we mainly focus on the low SNR regime, and we show that the capacity scales as (1-α) SNR log(1/SNR), where α is the estimation error variance. This characterization shows the loss of performance due to error estimation over the perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. As a by-product of our new analysis, we show that our framework can be also extended to characterize the capacity of MIMO Rician fading channels at low SNR with possibly imperfect CSI-T and CSI-R. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  3. On the low SNR capacity of MIMO fading channels with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2014-05-01

    The capacity of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channels with full knowledge of channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter and the receiver (CSI-TR) has been shown recently to scale at low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) essentially as SNR log(1=SNR), independently of the number of transmit and receive antennas. In this paper, we investigate the ergodic capacity of MIMO Rayleigh fading channel with estimated channel state information at the transmitter (CSI-T) and possibly imperfect channel state information at the receiver (CSI-R). Our framework can be seen as a generalization of previous works as it can capture the perfect CSI-TR as a special case when the estimation error variance goes to zero. In our work, we mainly focus on the low SNR regime and we show that the capacity scales as (1-α) SNR log(1=SNR), where α is the estimation error variance. This characterization shows the loss of performance due to error estimation over the perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. As a by-product of our new analysis, we show that our framework can also be extended to characterize the capacity of MIMO Rician fading channels at low SNR with possibly imperfect CSI-T and CSI-R. © 2014 IFIP.

  4. On the capacity of Rician fading channels with full channel state information at low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2012-06-01

    The capacity of flat Rayleigh fading channels with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver at asymptotically low SNR has been recently shown to scale essentially as SNR log (1/SNR). In this paper, we investigate the Rician fading channel capacity with full CSI, and show that the capacity of this channel scales essentially as 1/1+K SNR log (1 /SNR), where K is the Rician factor. This characterization includes perfect CSI at both the transmitter and the receiver or noisy CSI at the transmitter and perfect CSI at the receiver. We also show that one-bit CSI at the transmitter is enough to achieve this asymptotic capacity using an On-Off power control scheme. Our framework may be seen as a generalization of previous works as it captures the Rayleigh fading channel as a special case by letting K goes to zero. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Secure Broadcasting with Imperfect Channel State Information at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2015-11-13

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper’s CSI and not of its channel’s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1−) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  6. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we consider secure broadcasting over fast fading channels. Assuming imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, we first provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity when a common message is broadcasted to multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of one eavesdropper. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link. Then, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate when each legitimate receiver is interested in an independent message. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained results for the case of independent but not necessarily identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  7. Multi-User Diversity vs. Accurate Channel State Information in MIMO Downlink Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindran, Niranjay

    2009-01-01

    In a multiple transmit antenna, single antenna per receiver downlink channel with limited channel state feedback, we consider the following question: given a constraint on the total system-wide feedback load, is it preferable to get low-rate/coarse channel feedback from a large number of receivers or high-rate/high-quality feedback from a smaller number of receivers? Acquiring feedback from many receivers allows multi-user diversity to be exploited, while high-rate feedback allows for very precise selection of beamforming directions. We show that there is a strong preference for obtaining high-quality feedback, and that obtaining near-perfect channel information from as many receivers as possible provides a significantly larger sum rate than collecting a few feedback bits from a large number of users.

  8. On the capacity of multiaccess fading channels with full channel state information at low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2013-06-01

    We study the throughput capacity region of the Gaussian multiaccess (MAC) fading channel with perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver (CSI-R) and at the transmitters (CSI-T), at low power regime. We show that it has a multidimensional rectangle structure and thus is simply characterized by single user capacity points. More specifically, we show that at low power regime, the boundary surface of the capacity region shrinks to a single point corresponding to the sum rate maximizer and that the coordinates of this point coincide with single user capacity bounds. Inspired from this result, we propose an on-off scheme, compute its achievable rate, and provide a necessary condition on the fading channels under which this scheme achieves single user capacity bounds of the MAC channel at asymptotically low power regime. We argue that this necessary condition characterizes a class of fading that encompasses all known wireless channels, where the capacity region of the MAC channel has a simple expression in terms of users\\' average power constraints only. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. On the capacity of cognitive radio under limited channel state information over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2011-06-01

    A spectrum-sharing communication system where the secondary user is aware of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link, but knows only the statistics and an estimated version of the secondary transmitter-primary receiver (ST-PR) link, is investigated. The optimum power profile and the ergodic capacity of the secondary link are derived for general fading channels (with continuous probability density function) under average and peak transmit-power constraints and with respect to two different interference constraints: an interference outage constraint and a signal-to-interference (SI) outage constraint. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, our results show, for instance, that the interference constraint is harmful at high-power regime, whereas at low-power regime, it has a marginal impact and no-interference performance may be achieved. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. MIMO Relaying Broadcast Channels with Linear Precoding and Quantized Channel State Information Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wei; Lu, Wu-Sheng; 10.1109/TSP.2010.2056687

    2012-01-01

    Multi-antenna relaying has emerged as a promising technology to enhance the system performance in cellular networks. However, when precoding techniques are utilized to obtain multi-antenna gains, the system generally requires channel state information (CSI) at the transmitters. We consider a linear precoding scheme in a MIMO relaying broadcast channel with quantized CSI feedback from both two-hop links. With this scheme, each remote user feeds back its quantized CSI to the relay, and the relay sends back the quantized precoding information to the base station (BS). An upper bound on the rate loss due to quantized channel knowledge is first characterized. Then, in order to maintain the rate loss within a predetermined gap for growing SNRs, a strategy of scaling quantization quality of both two-hop links is proposed. It is revealed that the numbers of feedback bits of both links should scale linearly with the transmit power at the relay, while only the bit number of feedback from the relay to the BS needs to gr...

  11. Multi-User Diversity vs. Accurate Channel State Information in MIMO Downlink Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindran, Niranjay; Jindal, Nihar

    2009-01-01

    In a multiple transmit antenna, single antenna per receiver downlink channel with limited channel state feedback, we consider the following question: given a constraint on the total system-wide feedback load, is it preferable to get low-rate/coarse channel feedback from a large number of receivers or high-rate/high-quality feedback from a smaller number of receivers? Acquiring feedback from many receivers allows multi-user diversity to be exploited, while high-rate feedback allows for very pr...

  12. Information-guided communications in MIMO systems with channel state impairments

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2013-06-20

    Information-guided channel hopping (IGCH) is a promising technique for high-data-rate communications using multiple antennas for information mapping at the transmitter and optional antenna diversity at the receiver. Compared with some popular multi-antenna techniques, the advantage of this scheme is proven in ideal channel conditions, where the channel is spatially white and the perfect channel state information is assumed available at the receiver. The main objective of this paper is to present an information theoretical study on IGCH in realistic propagation environments with channel degeneracy due to spatial correlation and keyhole phenomena as well as imperfect channel estimation. It is proven that good performance promised by IGCH can be achieved in a variety of non-ideal channel conditions. Moreover, the analysis in this paper provides a convenient tool for the corresponding system design in practical operating environments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. On the capacity of nakagami-m fading Channels with full channel state information at low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2012-06-01

    The capacity of flat Rayleigh fading channels with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver at asymptotically low SNR has been recently shown to scale essentially as SNR log(1/SNR)}. In this paper, we investigate the Nakagami-m fading channel capacity with full CSI, and show that the capacity of this channel scales essentially as m/ Omega SNR log(1/SNR), where m is the Nakagami-m fading parameter and where Ω is the channel mean-square. We also show that one-bit CSI at the transmitter is enough to achieve this asymptotic capacity using an On-Off power control scheme. Our framework may be seen as a generalization of previous works as it captures the Rayleigh fading channel as a special case by taking m=1. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. On the capacity of multiple access and broadcast fading channels with full channel state information at low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-01-01

    We study the throughput capacity region of the Gaussian multi-access (MAC) fading channel with perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver and at the transmitters, at low power regime. We show that it has a multidimensional rectangle structure and thus is simply characterized by single user capacity points.More specifically, we show that at low power regime, the boundary surface of the capacity region shrinks to a single point corresponding to the sum rate maximizer and that the coordinates of this point coincide with single user capacity bounds. Inspired from this result, we propose an on-off scheme, compute its achievable rate, and show that this scheme achieves single user capacity bounds of the MAC channel for a wide class of fading channels at asymptotically low power regime. We argue that this class of fading encompasses all known wireless channels for which the capacity region of the MAC channel has even a simpler expression in terms of users\\' average power constraints only. Using the duality of Gaussian MAC and broadcast channels (BC), we deduce a simple characterization of the BC capacity region at low power regime and show that for a class of fading channels (including Rayleigh fading), time-sharing is asymptotically optimal. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. On the low SNR capacity of maximum ratio combining over rician fading channels with full channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-04-01

    In this letter, we study the ergodic capacity of a maximum ratio combining (MRC) Rician fading channel with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver. We focus on the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) regime and we show that the capacity scales as L ΩK+L SNRx log(1SNR), where Ω is the expected channel gain per branch, K is the Rician fading factor, and L is the number of diversity branches. We show that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme. Our framework can be seen as a generalization of recently established results regarding the fading-channels capacity characterization in the low-SNR regime. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. On the capacity of multiple access and broadcast fading Channels with full channel state information at low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2013-07-01

    We study the throughput capacity region of the Gaussian multi-access (MAC) fading channel with perfect channel state information (CSI) at the receiver and at the transmitters (CSI-TR), at low power regime. We show that it has a multidimensional rectangle structure and thus is simply characterized by single user capacity points. More specifically, we show that at low power regime, the boundary surface of the capacity region shrinks to a single point corresponding to the sum-rate maximizer and that the coordinates of this point coincide with single user capacity bounds. Using the duality of Gaussian MAC and broadcast channels (BC), we provide a simple characterization of the BC capacity region at low power regime. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Non-cooperative Feedback Rate Control Game for Channel State Information in Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Lingyang; Han, Zhu; Zhang, Zhongshan; Jiao, Bingli

    2011-01-01

    It has been well recognized that channel state information (CSI) feedback is of great importance for dowlink transmissions of closed-loop wireless networks. However, the existing work typically researched the CSI feedback problem for each individual mobile station (MS), and thus, cannot efficiently model the interactions among self-interested mobile users in the network level. To this end, in this paper, we propose an alternative approach to investigate the CSI feedback rate control problem i...

  18. On the capacity of cognitive radio under limited channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2010-09-01

    A spectrum-sharing communication system where the secondary user is aware of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link, but knows only the statistics of the secondary transmitter-primary receiver link, is investigated. The optimum power profile and the ergodic capacity of the secondary link are derived for general fading channels (with continuous probability density function) under average and peak transmit-power constraints and with respect to two different interference constraints: an interference outage constraint and a signal-to-interference (SI) outage constraint. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, our results show that the interference constraint is harmful at high-power regime, whereas at lowpower regime, it has a marginal impact and no-interference performance may be achieved. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Performance limits of energy harvesting communications under imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Zenaidi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-07-26

    In energy harvesting communications, the transmitters have to adapt transmission to availability of energy harvested during the course of communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to mobility and environmental changes. In this paper, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the degree of channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter, in order to maximize the throughput. Differently from previous work, the CSI at the transmitter is not perfect and may include estimation errors. We solve this problem with respect to the causality and energy storage constraints. We determine the optimal offline policy in the case where the channel is assumed to be perfectly known at the receiver. Also, we obtain the power policy when the transmitter has no CSI. Furthermore, we analyze the asymptotic average throughput in a system where the average recharge rate goes asymptotically to zero. © 2016 IEEE.

  20. Capacity of cognitive radio under imperfect secondary and cross link channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of secondary user channel in a spectrum sharing scenario in which the secondary transmitter is instantaneously aware of estimated versions of the cross link (between the secondary transmitter and the primary receiver) and the secondary link Channel State Information (CSI). The secondary link optimal power profile along with the ergodic capacity are derived for a class of fading channels, under an average power constraint and an instantaneous interference outage constraint. We also show that our framework is rather general as it encompasses several previously studied spectrum sharing settings as special cases. In order to gain some insights on the capacity behavior, numerical results are shown for independent Rayleigh fading channels where it is found for instance, that at low SNR regime, only the secondary channel estimation matters and that the cross link CSI has no effect on the ergodic capacity; whereas at high SNR regime, the capacity is rather driven by the cross link CSI. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Concavity of Mutual Information Rate for Input-Restricted Finite-State Memoryless Channels at High SNR

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Guangyue

    2010-01-01

    We consider a finite-state memoryless channel with i.i.d. channel state and the input Markov process supported on a mixing finite-type constraint. We discuss the asymptotic behavior of entropy rate of the output hidden Markov chain and deduce that the mutual information rate of such a channel is concave with respect to the parameters of the input Markov processes at high signal-to-noise ratio. In principle, the concavity result enables good numerical approximation of the maximum mutual information rate and capacity of such a channel.

  2. Effective capacity of Nakagami-m fading channels with full channel state information in the low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-09-01

    The effective capacity have been introduced by Wu and Neji as a link-layer model supporting statistical delay QoS requirements. In this paper, we propose to study the effective capacity of a Nakagami-m fading channel with full channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter and at the receiver. We focus on the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) regime. We show that the effective capacity for any arbitrary but finite statistically delay Quality of Service (QoS) exponent θ, scales essentially as S NRlog(1/SNR) exactly as the ergodic capacity, independently of any QoS constraint. We also characterize the minimum energy required for reliable communication, and the wideband slope to show that our results are in agreement with results established recently by Gursoy et al. We also propose an on-off power control scheme that achieves the capacity asymptotically using only one bit CSI feedback at the transmitter. Finally, some numerical results are presented to show the accuracy of our asymptotic results. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Ergodic Capacity of Cognitive Radio Under Imperfect Channel-State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2012-09-08

    A spectrum-sharing communication system where the secondary user is aware of the instantaneous channel-state information (CSI) of the secondary link but knows only the statistics and an estimated version of the secondary transmitter-primary receiver link is investigated. The optimum power profile and the ergodic capacity of the secondary link are derived for general fading channels [with a continuous probability density function (pdf)] under the average and peak transmit power constraints and with respect to the following two different interference constraints: 1) an interference outage constraint and 2) a signal-to-interference outage constraint. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, our results show, for example, that the interference constraint is harmful at the high-power regime, because the capacity does not increase with the power, whereas at the low-power regime, it has a marginal impact and no-interference performance, which corresponds to the ergodic capacity under average or peak transmit power constraint in the absence of the primary user, may be achieved. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. On Cooperative Beamforming Based on Second-Order Statistics of Channel State Information

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiangyuan; Poor, H Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative beamforming in relay networks is considered, in which a source transmits to its destination with the help of a set of cooperating nodes. The source first transmits locally. The cooperating nodes that receive the source signal retransmit a weighted version of it in an amplify-and-forward (AF) fashion. Assuming knowledge of the second-order statistics of the channel state information, beamforming weights are determined so that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the destination is maximized subject to two different power constraints, i.e., a total (source and relay) power constraint, and individual relay power constraints. For the former constraint, the original problem is transformed into a problem of one variable, which can be solved via Newton's method. For the latter constraint, the original problem is transformed into a homogeneous quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) problem. In this case, it is shown that when the number of relays does not exceed three the global solution can...

  5. Adaptive rate transmission for spectrum sharing system with quantized channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2011-03-01

    The capacity of a secondary link in spectrum sharing systems has been recently investigated in fading environments. In particular, the secondary transmitter is allowed to adapt its power and rate to maximize its capacity subject to the constraint of maximum interference level allowed at the primary receiver. In most of the literature, it was assumed that estimates of the channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link and the interference level are made available at the secondary transmitter via an infinite-resolution feedback links between the secondary/primary receivers and the secondary transmitter. However, the assumption of having infinite resolution feedback links is not always practical as it requires an excessive amount of bandwidth. In this paper we develop a framework for optimizing the performance of the secondary link in terms of the average spectral efficiency assuming quantized CSI available at the secondary transmitter. We develop a computationally efficient algorithm for optimally quantizing the CSI and finding the optimal power and rate employed at the cognitive transmitter for each quantized CSI level so as to maximize the average spectral efficiency. Our results give the number of bits required to represent the CSI sufficient to achieve almost the maximum average spectral efficiency attained using full knowledge of the CSI for Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated by distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under generic constraints on the physically available resources. Our approach naturally includes the use of entangled Gaussian probe states. We prove that the metric enjoys some desirable properties like stability and covariance. As a by-product, we also obtain some general results in Gaussian channel estimation that are the continuous-variable analogs of previously known results in finite dimensions. We prove that optimal probe states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes, even in the presence of constraints on the reduced state input in the channel. This has experimental and computational implications. It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric: Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for its computation. We provide explicit formulas for computing the multiparametric quantum Fisher information for dissipative channels probed with arbitrary Gaussian states and provide the optimal observables for the estimation of the channel parameters (e.g., bath couplings, squeezing, and temperature).

  7. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    CERN Document Server

    Monras, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated from distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under some restriction on the available resources. We prove that optimal states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes that are needed. This has experimental and computational advantages: It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric. Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for computing the metric. We provide explicit formulae for computing the multiparametric quantum F...

  8. A CROSS-LAYER SCHEDULER WITH CHANNEL STATE INFORMATION FOR GUARANTEED QUALITY OF SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nandhini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WiMAX networks are deployed for commercial use because of its nature high bandwidth. This requirement invokes the application level changes in QoS provisioning techniques. The objective of the broadband wireless technologies is to ensure the end to end Quality of Service (QoS for the service classes. WiMAX is a revolution in wireless networks, which could support real time multimedia services. In order to provide QoS support and efficient usage of system resources an intelligent scheduling algorithm is needed. The design of the detailed scheduling algorithm is a major focus for researchers and service providers. In this study, a channel aware cross-layer scheduling algorithm for WiMAX networks has been proposed. This scheme employs the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR value, which allocates the bandwidth based on the information about the quality of the channel and the service requirements of each connection. The proposed algorithm is described in detail and evaluated, through a series of simulations. The QoS parameters of throughput, bandwidth efficiency and transmission efficiency have been measured in simulation.

  9. Information transfer through quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)

  10. Information transfer through quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-03-12

    channel. We then explain how all known coding theorems can be generalized from memoryless channels to forgetful memory channels. We also present examples for non-forgetful channels, and derive generic entropic upper bounds on their capacities for (private) classical and quantum information transfer. Ch. 7 provides a brief introduction to quantum information spectrum methods as a promising approach to coding theorems for completely general quantum sources and channels. We present a data compression theorem for general quantum sources and apply these results to ergodic as well as mixed sources. Finally we investigate the continuity of distillable entanglement - another key notion of the field, which characterizes the optimal asymptotic rate at which maximally entangled states can be generated from many copies of a less entangled state. We derive uniform norm bounds for all states with full support, and we extend some of these results to quantum channel capacities. (orig.)

  11. SVD-Aided Power Allocation and Iterative Detection Scheme for Turbo-BLAST System with Imperfect Channel State Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique that combines adaptive power allocation and iterative detection based on singular value decomposition (SVD is introduced for the modified Turbo-BLAST system with imperfect channel state information (I-CSI. At the transmitter, in order to maximize the capacity performance, the MIMO channel is decomposed into several parallel eigen subchannels by SVD, and then proper power based on the water-filling principle is allocated to every subchannel subject to the total transmit power constraint. At the receiver, the modified MMSE detector taking the CSI imperfection into account is used to remove the coantenna interference, and then the turbo idea is employed for iterative detection to lower the system BER. As a result, the BER performance is effectively enhanced. Numerical results show that the introduced SVD-aided adaptive power allocation method is valid to improve not only the capacity but also the BER performance in the presence of channel state information imperfection, while the iterative detector can further lower the BER results.

  12. Performance of Pre-processing Schemes with Imperfect Channel State Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Kyritsi, Persa; De Carvalho, Elisabeth;

    2006-01-01

    Pre-processing techniques have several benefits when the CSI is perfect. In this work we investigate three linear pre-processing filters, assuming imperfect CSI caused by noise degradation and channel temporal variation. Results indicate, that the LMMSE filter achieves the lowest BER and the high...... and the highest SINR when the CSI is perfect, whereas the simple matched filter may be a good choice when the CSI is imperfect. Additionally the results give insight into the inherent trade-off between robustness against CSI imperfections and spatial focusing ability....

  13. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Fixed-Gain Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks with Partial Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-06-01

    In this report, energy-efficient transmission and power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay networks with partial channel state information (CSI) are studied. In the energy-efficiency problem, the total power consumed is minimized while keeping the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) above a certain threshold. In the dual problem of power allocation, the end-to-end SNR is maximized under individual and global power constraints. Closed-form expressions for the optimal source and relay powers and the Lagrangian multiplier are obtained. Numerical results show that the optimal power allocation with partial CSI provides comparable performance as optimal power allocation with full CSI at low SNR.

  14. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for Fixed-Gain Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks with Partial Channel State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    In this letter, energy-efficient transmission and power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay networks with partial channel state information (CSI) are studied. In the energy-efficiency problem, the total power consumed is minimized while keeping the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) above a certain threshold. In the dual problem of power allocation, the end-to-end SNR is maximized under individual and global power constraints. Closed-form expressions for the optimal source and relay powers and the Lagrangian multiplier are obtained. Numerical results show that the optimal power allocation with partial CSI provides comparable performance as optimal power allocation with full CSI at low SNR. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Outage performance of opportunistic two-way amplify-and-forward relaying with outdated channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Kyusung

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the outage performance of an amplify-and-forward (AF)-based two-way relaying (TWR) system with multiple relays where a single relay selection is performed based on outdated channel state information (CSI). Specifically, we propose a single relay selection scheme in AF-based TWR system under outdated CSI conditions. With this policy, we offer a statistical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio per hop and analyze the outage probability with asymmetric outage thresholds based on CSI-assisted AF protocol. Additionally, we provide the exact and asymptotic expressions based on the provided statistical/joint statistical analyses of a dual-hop AF transmission. Finally, we verify our analytical results with some selected computer-based simulation results. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  16. Role of Information Sources and Communication Channels in Adoption of Improved Practices by Farmers in M. P. State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Devendra Kumar

    A study was made of information sources and channels whereby new ideas about improved farming methods are communicated to farmers. Questionnaire interviews were held with 200 farmers in Madhya Pradesh, India. Of the five information sources studied, neighbors were named by all respondents, village level workers by 72%, chairmen of village…

  17. Information capacities of quantum measurement channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2013-03-01

    We study the relation between the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities C and Cea of entanglement-breaking channels. We argue that the gain of entanglement assistance Cea/C > 1 generically for measurement channels with unsharp observables; in particular for the measurements with pure posterior states the information loss in the entanglement-assisted protocol is zero, resulting in an arbitrarily large gain for very noisy or weak signal channels. This is illustrated by examples of continuous observables corresponding to state tomography in finite dimensions and heterodyne measurement. In contrast, state preparations are characterized by the property of having no gain of entanglement assistance, Cea/C = 1.

  18. Information capacities of quantum measurement channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the relation between the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities C and Cea of entanglement-breaking channels. We argue that the gain of entanglement assistance Cea/C > 1 generically for measurement channels with unsharp observables; in particular for the measurements with pure posterior states the information loss in the entanglement-assisted protocol is zero, resulting in an arbitrarily large gain for very noisy or weak signal channels. This is illustrated by examples of continuous observables corresponding to state tomography in finite dimensions and heterodyne measurement. In contrast, state preparations are characterized by the property of having no gain of entanglement assistance, Cea/C = 1. (paper)

  19. Mutual Information of Pauli Channels with Correlated Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Li-zhen; FANG Mao-Fa

    2007-01-01

    A general formula for the mutual information of the Pauli channels with memory modelled by correlated noise is derived.It is shown that the mutual information depends on the channel shrinking factor,the input state parameter and the channel memory coefficient.The analyses based on the general formula reveal that the entanglement is always a useful resource to enhance the mutual information of some.Pauli channels,such as the bit flip channel and the bit-phase flip channel.Our analyses also show that the entanglement is not advantageous to the reliable transmission of classical information for Borne Pauli channels at any time,such as the phase flip channel and the phase damping channel.

  20. Dynamical Equations for Quantum Information and Application in Information Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Qiao; XING Xiu-San; H. E. Ruda

    2005-01-01

    @@ We establish several dynamical equations for quantum information density. It is demonstrated that quantum information density shares the same formalism of the Liouville equation, subdynamics kinetic equation and Fokker-Planck equation as the density operator and also possesses the superposition property. These allow one to use quantum information density directly to model quantum information. The kinetic equations for quantum information density reveal that the dynamical process of quantum information may be related to dissipative,Markovian, or diffusional information flows, together causing irreversibility. Finally, we discuss superposition of quantum information density, which allows us to construct a quantum information channel in the coherent state representation using harmonic oscillator based encoded quantum information, and obtain a formula for quantum dynamical mutual information.

  1. An information-guided channel-hopping scheme for block-fading channels with estimation errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2010-12-01

    Information-guided channel-hopping technique employing multiple transmit antennas was previously proposed for supporting high data rate transmission over fading channels. This scheme achieves higher data rates than some mature schemes, such as the well-known cyclic transmit antenna selection and space-time block coding, by exploiting the independence character of multiple channels, which effectively results in having an additional information transmitting channel. Moreover, maximum likelihood decoding may be performed by simply decoupling the signals conveyed by the different mapping methods. In this paper, we investigate the achievable spectral efficiency of this scheme in the case of having channel estimation errors, with optimum pilot overhead for minimum meansquare error channel estimation, when transmitting over blockfading channels. Our numerical results further substantiate the robustness of the presented scheme, even with imperfect channel state information. ©2010 IEEE.

  2. Interference Channels with Correlated Receiver Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nan; Gunduz, Deniz; Goldsmith, Andrea J.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The problem of joint source-channel coding in transmitting independent sources over interference channels with correlated receiver side information is studied. When each receiver has side information correlated with its own desired source, it is shown that source-channel code separation is optimal. When each receiver has side information correlated with the interfering source, sufficient conditions for reliable transmission are provided based on a joint source-channel coding scheme using the ...

  3. Information transmission through a noisy quantum channel

    OpenAIRE

    Barnum, Howard; Nielsen, M. A.; Schumacher, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Noisy quantum channels may be used in many information carrying applications. We show that different applications may result in different channel capacities. Upper bounds on several of these capacities are proved. These bounds are based on the coherent information, which plays a role in quantum information theory analogous to that played by the mutual information in classical information theory. Many new properties of the coherent information and entanglement fidelity are proved. Two non-clas...

  4. Classical Information Capacities of Some Single Qubit Quantum Noisy Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xian-Ting

    2003-01-01

    By using the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland theorem and through solving eigenvalues of states out from the quantum noisy channels directly, or with the help of the Bloch sphere representation, or Stokes parametrization representation, we investigate the classical information capacities of some well-known quantum noisy channels.

  5. Gaussian matrix product states for coding in bosonic communication channels

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Joachim; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2012-01-01

    The communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels with memory has recently attracted much interest. Here, we investigate a method to prepare the multimode entangled input symbol states for encoding classical information into these channels. In particular, we study the usefulness of a Gaussian matrix product state (GMPS) [G. Adesso and M. Ericsson, Phys. Rev. A 74, 030305 (2006)] as an input symbol state, which can be sequentially generated although it remains heavily entangled for an arbitrary number of modes. We show that the GMPS can achieve more than 99.9% of the Gaussian capacity for Gaussian bosonic memory channels with a Markovian or non-Markovian correlated noise model in a large range of noise correlation strengths. Furthermore, we present a noise class for which the GMPS is the exact optimal input symbol state of the corresponding channel. Since GMPS are ground states of particular quadratic Hamiltonians, our results suggest a possible link between the theory of quantum communication channels a...

  6. Transfer of Gravitational Information through a Quantum Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Baocheng; Zhan, Ming-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational information is incorporated into an atomic state by correlation of the internal and external degrees of freedom of the atom, in the present study of the atomic interferometer. Thus it is difficult to transfer information by using a standard teleportation scheme. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for the transfer of gravitational information through a quantum channel provided by the entangled atomic state. Significantly, the existence of a quantum channel suppresses phase noise, improving the sensitivity of the atomic interferometer. Thus our proposal provides novel readout mechanism for the interferometer with an improved signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. Additivity of Entangled Channel Capacity for Quantum Input States

    OpenAIRE

    Belavkin, V.P.; Dai, X.

    2007-01-01

    An elementary introduction into algebraic approach to unified quantum information theory and operational approach to quantum entanglement as generalized encoding is given. After introducing compound quantum state and two types of informational divergences, namely, Araki-Umegaki (a-type) and of Belavkin-Staszewski (b-type) quantum relative entropic information, this paper treats two types of quantum mutual information via entanglement and defines two types of corresponding quantum channel capa...

  8. Stochastic resonance in ion channels characterized by information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, I; Hänggi, P

    2000-04-01

    We identify a unifying measure for stochastic resonance (SR) in voltage dependent ion channels which comprises periodic (conventional), aperiodic, and nonstationary SR. Within a simplest setting, the gating dynamics is governed by two-state conductance fluctuations, which switch at random time points between two values. The corresponding continuous time point process is analyzed by virtue of information theory. In pursuing this goal we evaluate for our dynamics the tau information, the mutual information, and the rate of information gain. As a main result we find an analytical formula for the rate of information gain that solely involves the probability of the two channel states and their noise averaged rates. For small voltage signals it simplifies to a handy expression. Our findings are applied to study SR in a potassium channel. We find that SR occurs only when the closed state is predominantly dwelled upon. Upon increasing the probability for the open channel state the application of an extra dose of noise monotonically deteriorates the rate of information gain, i.e., no SR behavior occurs.

  9. Entropy of quantum channel in the theory of quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Roga, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Quantum channels, also called quantum operations, are linear, trace preserving and completely positive transformations in the space of quantum states. Such operations describe discrete time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with an environment. The thesis contains an analysis of properties of quantum channels and different entropies used to quantify the decoherence introduced into the system by a given operation. Part I of the thesis provides a general introduction to the subject. In Part II, the action of a quantum channel is treated as a process of preparation of a quantum ensemble. The Holevo information associated with this ensemble is shown to be bounded by the entropy exchanged during the preparation process between the initial state and the environment. A relation between the Holevo information and the entropy of an auxiliary matrix consisting of square root fidelities between the elements of the ensemble is proved in some special cases. Weaker bounds on the Holevo information are also es...

  10. On the Capacity of Compound State-Dependent Channels with States Known at the Transmitter

    CERN Document Server

    Piantanida, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of compound state-dependent channels with non-causal state information available at only the transmitter. A new lower bound on the capacity of this class of channels is derived. This bound is shown to be tight for the special case of compound channels with stochastic degraded components, yielding the full characterization of the capacity. Specific results are derived for the compound Gaussian Dirty-Paper (GDP) channel. This model consists of an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel corrupted by an additive Gaussian interfering signal, known at the transmitter only, where the input and the state signals are affected by fading coefficients whose realizations are unknown at the transmitter. Our bounds are shown to be tight for specific cases. Applications of these results arise in a variety of wireless scenarios as multicast channels, cognitive radio and problems with interference cancellation.

  11. State transfer in intrinsic decoherence spin channels

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ming-Liang; 10.1140/epjd/e2009-00220-8

    2011-01-01

    By analytically solving the master equation, we investigate quantum state transfer, creation and distribution of entanglement in the model of Milburn's intrinsic decoherence. Our results reveal that the ideal spin channels will be destroyed by the intrinsic decoherence environment, and the detrimental effects become severe as the decoherence rate $\\gamma$ and the spin chain length $N$ increase. For infinite evolution time, both the state transfer fidelity and the concurrence of the created and distributed entanglement approach steady state values, which are independent of the decoherence rate $\\gamma$ and decrease as the spin chain length $N$ increases. Finally, we present two modified spin chains which may serve as near perfect spin channels for long distance state transfer even in the presence of intrinsic decoherence environments $\\mathcal {F}{[\\rho(t)]}$.

  12. Probabilistic Teleportation via Quantum Channel with Partial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desheng Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two novel schemes are proposed to teleport an unknown two-level quantum state probabilistically when the sender and the receiver only have partial information about the quantum channel, respectively. This is distinct from the fact that either the sender or the receiver has entire information about the quantum channel in previous schemes for probabilistic teleportation. Theoretical analysis proves that these schemes are straightforward, efficient and cost-saving. The concrete realization procedures of our schemes are presented in detail, and the result shows that our proposals could extend the application range of probabilistic teleportation.

  13. Transfer information remotely via noise entangled coherent channels

    CERN Document Server

    Allati, A El; Hassouni, Y

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, a generalized protocol of quantum teleportation is suggested to investigate the possibility of remotely transfer unknown multiparities entangled coherent state. A theoretical technique is introduced to generate maximum entangled coherent states which are used as quantum channels. We show that the mean photon number plays a central role on the fidelity of the transferred information. The noise parameter can be considered as a control parameter only for small values of the mean photon number.

  14. Information Equation of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Gough

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Landauer’s principle is applied to information in the universe. Once stars began forming there was a constant information energy density as the increasing proportion of matter at high stellar temperatures exactly compensated for the expanding universe. The information equation of state was close to the dark energy value, w = -1, for a wide range of redshifts, 10 > z > 0.8, over one half of cosmic time. A reasonable universe information bit content of only 1087 bits is sufficient for information energy to account for all dark energy. A time varying equation of state with a direct link between dark energy and matter, and linked to star formation in particular, is clearly relevant to the cosmic coincidence problem. In answering the ‘Why now?’ question we wonder ‘What next?’ as we expect the information equation of state to tend towards w = 0 in the future.c

  15. Optimal transmission strategy for spatially correlated MIMO systems with channel statistical information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhen-shan; XU Guo-zhi

    2007-01-01

    In real multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, the perfect channel state information (CSI) may be costly or impossible to acquire. But the channel statistical information can be considered relatively stationary during long-term transmission.The statistical information can be obtained at the receiver and fed back to the transmitter and do not require frequent update. By exploiting channel mean and covariance information at the transmitter simultaneously, this paper investigates the optimal transmission strategy for spatially correlated MIMO channels. An upper bound of ergodic capacity is derived and taken as the performance criterion. Simulation results are also given to show the performance improvement of the optimal transmission strategy.

  16. [Synopsis about the hypothesis of "information channel" of channel-collateral system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xi-Lang

    2008-10-01

    The author of the present paper founded a theorem about the "incompleteness of single channel structure" (nerve, blood vessel, lymphatic, interspace, aperture, etc.) through quantitative and qualitative analysis about the economic information channel in the human body, which eliminates the probability of single channel structure in the information channel of channel (meridian)-collateral system. After comprehensive analysis on the current researches, the author puts forward a neodoxy, i.e., the body "information channel" structure of the channel-collateral system, mainly follows the distribution regularity of systemic statistics, and is not a single specific entity; various layers of the information channel in the main stems of the channel-collaterals are composed of optimized structure tissues. Hence, the structure of this information channel of channel-collateral system is an overall-optimized, sequential and compatible systemic structure. From this neodoxy, the author brings forward a working principle of channel-collaterals, which is supported theoretically by bio-auxology. The longitudinal distribution of the main stems of meridian-collaterals is considered to result from that in the process of the animal evolution, in the animals moving forward, the microscopic complicated movement of intracorporeal information and energy molecules is related to the forward macroscopic and non-uniform movement of organism in trans-measure. Its impulse and kinetic momentum forms a main vector in the longitudinal direction of the body (the direction of the main stem of channel-collaterals). In order to adapt to and utilize natural regularities, the main stems of the channel-collaterals gradually differentiate and evolve in the living organism, forming a whole system. The "hypothesis of biological origin of channel-collateral system" and "that of information channel of the channel-collaterals in the body" constitute a relatively complete theoretical system framework.

  17. [Synopsis about the hypothesis of "information channel" of channel-collateral system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xi-Lang

    2008-10-01

    The author of the present paper founded a theorem about the "incompleteness of single channel structure" (nerve, blood vessel, lymphatic, interspace, aperture, etc.) through quantitative and qualitative analysis about the economic information channel in the human body, which eliminates the probability of single channel structure in the information channel of channel (meridian)-collateral system. After comprehensive analysis on the current researches, the author puts forward a neodoxy, i.e., the body "information channel" structure of the channel-collateral system, mainly follows the distribution regularity of systemic statistics, and is not a single specific entity; various layers of the information channel in the main stems of the channel-collaterals are composed of optimized structure tissues. Hence, the structure of this information channel of channel-collateral system is an overall-optimized, sequential and compatible systemic structure. From this neodoxy, the author brings forward a working principle of channel-collaterals, which is supported theoretically by bio-auxology. The longitudinal distribution of the main stems of meridian-collaterals is considered to result from that in the process of the animal evolution, in the animals moving forward, the microscopic complicated movement of intracorporeal information and energy molecules is related to the forward macroscopic and non-uniform movement of organism in trans-measure. Its impulse and kinetic momentum forms a main vector in the longitudinal direction of the body (the direction of the main stem of channel-collaterals). In order to adapt to and utilize natural regularities, the main stems of the channel-collaterals gradually differentiate and evolve in the living organism, forming a whole system. The "hypothesis of biological origin of channel-collateral system" and "that of information channel of the channel-collaterals in the body" constitute a relatively complete theoretical system framework. PMID

  18. Non-Markovianity and reservoir memory of quantum channels: a quantum information theory perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylicka, B.; Chruściński, D.; Maniscalco, S.

    2014-07-01

    Quantum technologies rely on the ability to coherently transfer information encoded in quantum states along quantum channels. Decoherence induced by the environment sets limits on the efficiency of any quantum-enhanced protocol. Generally, the longer a quantum channel is the worse its capacity is. We show that for non-Markovian quantum channels this is not always true: surprisingly the capacity of a longer channel can be greater than of a shorter one. We introduce a general theoretical framework linking non-Markovianity to the capacities of quantum channels and demonstrate how harnessing non-Markovianity may improve the efficiency of quantum information processing and communication.

  19. Bit-padding information guided channel hopping

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2011-02-01

    In the context of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications, we propose a bit-padding information guided channel hopping (BP-IGCH) scheme which breaks the limitation that the number of transmit antennas has to be a power of two based on the IGCH concept. The proposed scheme prescribes different bit-lengths to be mapped onto the indices of the transmit antennas and then uses padding technique to avoid error propagation. Numerical results and comparisons, on both the capacity and the bit error rate performances, are provided and show the advantage of the proposed scheme. The BP-IGCH scheme not only offers lower complexity to realize the design flexibility, but also achieves better performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong

    2015-01-01

    While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime. PMID:26364893

  1. Multiaccess Channels with State Known to Some Encoders and Independent Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotagiri ShivaPrasad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a state-dependent multiaccess channel (MAC with state noncausally known to some encoders. For simplicity of exposition, we focus on a two-encoder model in which one of the encoders has noncausal access to the channel state. The results can in principle be extended to any number of encoders with a subset of them being informed. We derive an inner bound for the capacity region in the general discrete memoryless case and specialize to a binary noiseless case. In binary noiseless case, we compare the inner bounds with trivial outer bounds obtained by providing the channel state to the decoder. In the case of maximum entropy channel state, we obtain the capacity region for binary noiseless MAC with one informed encoder. For a Gaussian state-dependent MAC with one encoder being informed of the channel state, we present an inner bound by applying a slightly generalized dirty paper coding (GDPC at the informed encoder and a trivial outer bound by providing channel state to the decoder also. In particular, if the channel input is negatively correlated with the channel state in the random coding distribution, then GDPC can be interpreted as partial state cancellation followed by standard dirty paper coding. The uninformed encoders benefit from the state cancellation in terms of achievable rates, however, it seems that GDPC cannot completely eliminate the effect of the channel state on the achievable rate region, in contrast to the case of all encoders being informed. In the case of infinite state variance, we provide an inner bound and also provide a nontrivial outer bound for this case which is better than the trivial outer bound.

  2. Multiaccess Channels with State Known to Some Encoders and Independent Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nicholas Laneman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider a state-dependent multiaccess channel (MAC with state noncausally known to some encoders. For simplicity of exposition, we focus on a two-encoder model in which one of the encoders has noncausal access to the channel state. The results can in principle be extended to any number of encoders with a subset of them being informed. We derive an inner bound for the capacity region in the general discrete memoryless case and specialize to a binary noiseless case. In binary noiseless case, we compare the inner bounds with trivial outer bounds obtained by providing the channel state to the decoder. In the case of maximum entropy channel state, we obtain the capacity region for binary noiseless MAC with one informed encoder. For a Gaussian state-dependent MAC with one encoder being informed of the channel state, we present an inner bound by applying a slightly generalized dirty paper coding (GDPC at the informed encoder and a trivial outer bound by providing channel state to the decoder also. In particular, if the channel input is negatively correlated with the channel state in the random coding distribution, then GDPC can be interpreted as partial state cancellation followed by standard dirty paper coding. The uninformed encoders benefit from the state cancellation in terms of achievable rates, however, it seems that GDPC cannot completely eliminate the effect of the channel state on the achievable rate region, in contrast to the case of all encoders being informed. In the case of infinite state variance, we provide an inner bound and also provide a nontrivial outer bound for this case which is better than the trivial outer bound.

  3. Distributed Joint Source-Channel Coding on a Multiple Access Channel with Side Information

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rajesh; Sharma, Vinod

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of transmission of several distributed sources over a multiple access channel (MAC) with side information at the sources and the decoder. Source-channel separation does not hold for this channel. Sufficient conditions are provided for transmission of sources with a given distortion. The source and/or the channel could have continuous alphabets (thus Gaussian sources and Gaussian MACs are special cases). Various previous results are obtained as special cases. We also pr...

  4. Quantum Teleportation through Noisy Channels with Multi-Qubit GHZ States

    OpenAIRE

    Espoukeh, Pakhshan; Pedram, Pouria

    2014-01-01

    We investigate two-party quantum teleportation through noisy channels for multi-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and find which state loses less quantum information in the process. The dynamics of states is described by the master equation with the noisy channels that lead to the quantum channels to be mixed states. We analytically solve the Lindblad equation for $n$-qubit GHZ states $n\\in\\{4,5,6\\}$ where Lindblad operators correspond to the Pauli matrices and describe the decoh...

  5. Optimal Beamforming in Interference Networks with Perfect Local Channel Information

    CERN Document Server

    Mochaourab, Rami

    2010-01-01

    We consider multiuser settings in which systems simultaneously utilize the available communication resources. Since the performance of the systems is usually limited by mutual interference, efficient resource allocation in such scenarios is important. In general, the systems' joint operation is desired to be Pareto optimal. However, designing Pareto optimal resource allocation schemes is known to be difficult. In this work, we assume all transmitters apply multiple antennas and have perfect local channel state information of their own channels to all single-antenna receivers. Each transmitter is associated with a power gain-region which is composed of all jointly achievable power gains at the receivers. We prove that the boundary of the power gain-region is convex and always achieved with single-stream beamforming. Thus, the efficient beamforming vectors that achieve its boundary part in a specific direction are characterized by real-valued parameters between zero and one. According to the network setting and...

  6. Research on Cost Information Sharing and Channel Choice in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies examine information sharing in an uncertain demand environment in a supply chain. However there is little literature on cost information sharing in a dual-channel structure consisting of a retail channel and a direct sales channel. Assuming that the retail sale cost and direct sale cost are random variables with a general distribution, the paper investigates the retailer’s choice on cost information sharing in a Bertrand competition model. Based on the equilibrium outcome of information sharing, the manufacturer’s channel choice is discussed in detail. Our paper provides several interesting conclusions. In both single- and dual-channel structures, the retailer has little motivation to share its private cost information which is verified to be valuable for the manufacturer. When the cost correlation between the two channels increases, our analyses show that the manufacturer’s profit improves. However, when channel choice is involved, the value of information could play a different role. The paper finds that a dual-channel structure can benefit the manufacturer only when the cost correlation is sufficiently low. In addition, if the cost correlation is weak, the cost fluctuation will bring out the advantage of a dual-channel structure and adding a new direct channel will help in risk pooling.

  7. Omni-channel Retail Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    key players in the industry of retailing (Wilson, 2012; Verizon, 2012) and covers the idea that anything can be sold anywhere with consistent marketing, reasonable efficiency of the supply chain channels and responsible customer service. This article aims at contributing to a characterisation...... and digital sales channels by the use of technology, thus providing uniform customer experience and operational effectiveness across the channels (Hansen and Tambo, 2011). The vision of OCRIS remains largely at a conceptual level. Selected point-of-sale (“cash registers”) products and retail management...

  8. Gaussian matrix-product states for coding in bosonic communication channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Joachim; Karpov, Evgueni; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2012-01-01

    The communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels with memory has recently attracted much interest. Here, we investigate a method to prepare the multimode entangled input symbol states for encoding classical information into these channels. In particular, we study the usefulness of a Gaussian matrix-product state (GMPS) as an input symbol state, which can be sequentially generated although it remains heavily entangled for an arbitrary number of modes. We show that the GMPS can achieve more than 99.9% of the Gaussian capacity for Gaussian bosonic memory channels with a Markovian or non-Markovian correlated noise model in a large range of noise correlation strengths. Furthermore, we present a noise class for which the GMPS is the exact optimal input symbol state of the corresponding channel. Since GMPS are ground states of particular quadratic Hamiltonians, our results suggest a possible link between the theory of quantum communication channels and quantum many-body physics.

  9. Multiuser MIMO Downlink Made Practical: Achievable Rates with Simple Channel State Estimation and Feedback Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Caire, Giuseppe; Kobayashi, Mari; Ravindran, Niranjay

    2007-01-01

    We consider a MIMO fading broadcast channel and compute achievable ergodic rates when channel state information is acquired at the receivers via downlink training and explicit channel feedback is performed to provide transmitter channel state information (CSIT). Both ``analog'' and quantized (digital) channel feedback are analyzed, and digital feedback is shown to be potentially superior when the feedback channel uses per channel coefficient is larger than 1. Also, we show that by proper design of the digital feedback link, errors in the feedback have a relatively minor effect even if simple uncoded modulation is used on the feedback channel. We extend our analysis to the case of fading MIMO Multiaccess Channel (MIMO-MAC) in the feedback link, as well as to the case of a time-varying channel and feedback delay. We show that by exploiting the MIMO-MAC nature of the uplink channel, a fully scalable system with both downlink multiplexing gain and feedback redundancy proportional to the number of base station ant...

  10. Modulated Hawking radiation and a nonviolent channel for information release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Giddings

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Unitarization of black hole evaporation requires that quantum information escapes a black hole; an important question is to identify the mechanism or channel by which it does so. Accurate counting of black hole states via the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy would indicate this information should be encoded in radiation with average energy flux matching Hawking's. Information can be encoded with no change in net flux via fine-grained modulation of the Hawking radiation. In an approximate effective field theory description, couplings to the stress tensor of the black hole atmosphere that depend on the internal state of the black hole are a promising alternative for inducing such modulation. These can be picturesquely thought of as due to state-dependent metric fluctuations in the vicinity of the horizon. Such couplings offer the prospect of emitting information without extra energy flux, and can be shown to do so at linear order in the couplings, with motivation given for possible extension of this result to higher orders. The potential advantages of such couplings to the stress tensor thus extend beyond their universality, which is helpful in addressing constraints from black hole mining.

  11. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, A.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Paris, M. G. A.

    2003-01-01

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed-coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show tha...

  12. Nuclear quantum state engineering in ion channeling regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berec Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in quantum state engineering is to identify coherent quantum mechanical systems that can be precisely manipulated and scaled, but at the same time to allow decoupling from unwanted interactions. Such systems, once realized, would represent an efficient tool for characterization of quantum behavior reflected in the properties of matter with prerequisites for meeting dissipation constraints imposed in the nuclear physics as well in the quantum information theory. Using the pure29Si nanocrystal system we present a novel high resolution method for initialization of single electron polarized spin interaction and control of nuclear spin qubits. The presented study fuses field of particle channeling in MeV energy regime with quantum state engineering utilized via entanglement as an essential quantum property. Its aim is to bring focus on new theoretical proposals testing the quantum mechanical models for systems producible at particle accelerator facilities.

  13. Information Sharing and Channel Construction of Supply Chain under Asymmetric Demand Information

    OpenAIRE

    Guangdong Wu; Qingshan Kong; Jian-gang Shi; Hamid Reza Karimi; Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Information sharing and marketing channel building have become an important problem of supply chain management theory and practice. The research of information sharing focused on traditional channel of supply chain between upstream and downstream enterprises; however, the research ignores the behavior of information sharing with potential entrants and composite structure characteristics about traditional marketing channel with the direct channel. This paper uses the model to research the eff...

  14. Coding for quantum channels with side information at the transmitter

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of coding for quantum channels with side information that is available ahead of time at the transmitter but not at the receiver. We find a single-letter expression for the entanglement-assisted quantum capacity of such channels which closely parallels Gel'fand and Pinsker's solution to the classical version of the same problem. This theorem can also be used to find a lower bound on the unassisted quantum capacity of these channels.

  15. Achievable Information Rates on Linear Interference Channels with Discrete Input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In this paper lower bound on the capacity of multi-dimensional linear interference channels is derived, when the input is taken from a finite size alphabet. The bounds are based on the QR decomposition of the channel matrix, and hold for any input distribution that is independent across dimension....... Calculation of the bounds can be performed on a per-dimensions basis via look-up tables of the information rates of 1D channels....

  16. Information transmission and recovery in neural communications channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguia, M. C.; Rabinovich, M. I.; Abarbanel, H. D. I.

    2000-11-01

    Biological neural communications channels transport environmental information from sensors through chains of active dynamical neurons to neural centers for decisions and actions to achieve required functions. These kinds of communications channels are able to create information and to transfer information from one time scale to the other because of the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the component neurons. We discuss a very simple neural information channel composed of sensory input in the form of a spike train that arrives at a model neuron, then moves through a realistic synapse to a second neuron where the information in the initial sensory signal is read. Our model neurons are four-dimensional generalizations of the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron, and we use a model of chemical synapse derived from first-order kinetics. The four-dimensional model neuron has a rich variety of dynamical behaviors, including periodic bursting, chaotic bursting, continuous spiking, and multistability. We show that, for many of these regimes, the parameters of the chemical synapse can be tuned so that information about the stimulus that is unreadable at the first neuron in the channel can be recovered by the dynamical activity of the synapse and the second neuron. Information creation by nonlinear dynamical systems that allow chaotic oscillations is familiar in their autonomous oscillations. It is associated with the instabilities that lead to positive Lyapunov exponents in their dynamical behavior. Our results indicate how nonlinear neurons acting as input/output systems along a communications channel can recover information apparently ``lost'' in earlier junctions on the channel. Our measure of information transmission is the average mutual information between elements, and because the channel is active and nonlinear, the average mutual information between the sensory source and the final neuron may be greater than the average mutual information at an earlier neuron in the channel. This

  17. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied, keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non-squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive

  18. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, A; Illuminati, F; Paris, M G A

    2004-01-01

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed-coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive.

  19. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); De Siena, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Paris, M G A [ISIS ' A Sorbelli' , I-41026 Pavullo nel Frignano, MO (Italy)

    2004-06-01

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied, keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non-squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive.

  20. Perfect Entanglement Teleportation via Two Parallel W State Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mei-Yu; YAN Feng-Li

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for perfectly teleporting a two-qubit entangled state via two parallel W state channels. The scheme consists of a positive operator valued measurement (POVM), classical communication and the corresponding local unitary operation. How to realize the POVM using unitary operation and projective measurement is explicitly designed.%@@ We present a scheme for perfectly teleporting a two-qubit entangled state via two parallel W state channels.The scheme consists of a positive operator valued measurement (POVM), classical communication and the corre- sponding local unitary operation.How to realize the POVM using unitary operation and projective measurement is explicitly designed.

  1. Persian Back Channel Responses in Formal versus Informal Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Utterances like /xob/ (okay, /doroste/ (right, /hmm/, /ee/, /?re/ (yeah, occur frequently in Persian conversations, but have thus far escaped from the systematic studies. Good listeners generally produce these short utterances, called "back channel responses", in appropriate times to show their participation in the conversation, but the rules governing back channeling vary from one context to another. The usage of back channel responses is different in various contexts, due to politeness or formality. This paper studies the types and functions of the back channel responses in both formal and informal settings and provides a comparison of the usage of these responses in these two kinds of contexts. The results show /bale/ (yes and /doroste/ (right are used with formal or polite verbal form, while /xob/ (okay is used with the informal style of speech and less polite verbal form. With respect to the function of back channels, signaling the understanding is the main function of back channels in informal contexts. Also, back channels signaling agreement are more frequent in formal contexts, where emotional function is less likely.

  2. Time-bin-encoding-based remote states generation of nitrogen-vacancy centers through noisy channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏石磊; 陈丽; 郭奇; 王洪福; 朱爱东; 张寿

    2015-01-01

    We design proposals to generate remote Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state and W state of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to microtoroidal resonators (MTRs) through noisy channels by utilizing the time-bin encoding pro-cesses and fast-optical-switch-based polarization rotation operations. The polarization and phase noise induced by noisy channels generally affect the time of state generation but not its success probability and fidelity. Besides, the above pro-posals can be generalized to n-qubit between two or among n remote nodes with success probability unity under ideal conditions. Furthermore, the proposals are robust for regular noise-changeable channels for the n-node case. This method is also useful in other remote quantum information processing tasks through noisy channels.

  3. Information Theory vs. Queueing Theory for Resource Allocation in Multiple Access Channels

    CERN Document Server

    ParandehGheibi, Ali; Ozdaglar, Asuman; Eryilmaz, Atilla

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of rate allocation in a fading Gaussian multiple-access channel with fixed transmission powers. The goal is to maximize a general concave utility function of the expected achieved rates of the users. There are different approaches to this problem in the literature. From an information theoretic point of view, rates are allocated only by using the channel state information. The queueing theory approach utilizes the global queue-length information for rate allocation to guarantee throughput optimality as well as maximizing a utility function of the rates. In this work, we make a connection between these two approaches by showing that the information theoretic capacity region of a multiple-access channel and its stability region are equivalent. Moreover, our numerical results show that a simple greedy policy which does not use the queue-length information can outperform queue-length based policies in terms of convergence rate and fairness.

  4. Information transmission and recovery in neural communications channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguia, M. C.; Rabinovich, M. I.; Abarbanel, H. D. I.

    2000-11-01

    Biological neural communications channels transport environmental information from sensors through chains of active dynamical neurons to neural centers for decisions and actions to achieve required functions. These kinds of communications channels are able to create information and to transfer information from one time scale to the other because of the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the component neurons. We discuss a very simple neural information channel composed of sensory input in the form of a spike train that arrives at a model neuron, then moves through a realistic synapse to a second neuron where the information in the initial sensory signal is read. Our model neurons are four-dimensional generalizations of the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron, and we use a model of chemical synapse derived from first-order kinetics. The four-dimensional model neuron has a rich variety of dynamical behaviors, including periodic bursting, chaotic bursting, continuous spiking, and multistability. We show that, for many of these regimes, the parameters of the chemical synapse can be tuned so that information about the stimulus that is unreadable at the first neuron in the channel can be recovered by the dynamical activity of the synapse and the second neuron. Information creation by nonlinear dynamical systems that allow chaotic oscillations is familiar in their autonomous oscillations. It is associated with the instabilities that lead to positive Lyapunov exponents in their dynamical behavior. Our results indicate how nonlinear neurons acting as input/output systems along a communications channel can recover information apparently ''lost'' in earlier junctions on the channel. Our measure of information transmission is the average mutual information between elements, and because the channel is active and nonlinear, the average mutual information between the sensory source and the final neuron may be greater than the average mutual information at an earlier neuron in

  5. Multiphoton communication in lossy channels with photon-number entangled states

    CERN Document Server

    Usenko, V C; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Usenko, Vladyslav C.

    2006-01-01

    We address M-ary communication channels based on correlated multiphoton two-mode states of radiation in the presence of losses. In particular, we focus on channels build using feasible photon-number entangled states (PNES) as two-mode coherently-correlated (TMC) or twin-beam (TWB) states and compare their performances with that of channels built using feasible classically correlated (separable) states. We found that PNES provide larger channel capacity in the presence of loss, and that TWB-based channels may transmit a larger amount of information than TMC-based ones at fixed energy and overall loss. Optimized bit discrimination thresholds, as well as the corresponding maximized mutual information, are explicitly evaluated as a function of the beam intensity and the loss parameter for binary and quaternary alphabets. The propagation of TMC and TWB in lossy channels is analyzed and the joint photon number distribution is evaluated, showing that the beam statistics, either sub-Poissonian for TMC or super-Poisso...

  6. Cation Selectivity in Biological Cation Channels Using Experimental Structural Information and Statistical Mechanical Simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin John Finnerty

    Full Text Available Cation selective channels constitute the gate for ion currents through the cell membrane. Here we present an improved statistical mechanical model based on atomistic structural information, cation hydration state and without tuned parameters that reproduces the selectivity of biological Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. The importance of the inclusion of step-wise cation hydration in these results confirms the essential role partial dehydration plays in the bacterial Na+ channels. The model, proven reliable against experimental data, could be straightforwardly used for designing Na+ and Ca2+ selective nanopores.

  7. Information Sharing and Channel Construction of Supply Chain under Asymmetric Demand Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information sharing and marketing channel building have become an important problem of supply chain management theory and practice. The research of information sharing focused on traditional channel of supply chain between upstream and downstream enterprises; however, the research ignores the behavior of information sharing with potential entrants and composite structure characteristics about traditional marketing channel with the direct channel. This paper uses the model to research the effects brought about sharing demand information with potential entrants and building marketing channel, which reveals information sharing and channel building mechanism in the supply chain. The study found that the five-force model of Porter regards potential entrants only as a threat that is one-sided. When the channel competitiveness meets certain conditions, manufacturer and retailer will share demand information with potential entrants. Building composite marketing channel is the manufacturer's absolute dominant strategy. Channel construction will increase the entry barriers for potential entrants and weaken the effect of double marginalization; meanwhile, the performance of supply chain will be augmented.

  8. Effects of noises on joint remote state preparation via a GHZ-class channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hua-Qiu; Liu, Jin-Ming; Feng, Shang-Shen; Chen, Ji-Gen; Xu, Xin-Ye

    2015-10-01

    Using a GHZ-class state as quantum channel, we investigate the joint remote preparation of a qubit state in Pauli noise environments. By analytically solving the master equation in Lindblad form, we calculate the time evolution of the GHZ-class channel under different noisy conditions and then obtain the fidelity of the joint remote state preparation (JRSP) process and the corresponding average fidelity. We find that the fidelity depends on the noise type, the GHZ-class state, the initial state to be remotely prepared, and the Pauli decoherence rate. We also find that how two senders share the polar angle information of initial state plays an important role in the fidelity, and information sharing reduces the ability to resist the influence of Pauli noises in our JRSP protocol. Furthermore, how the two senders share the phase information affects the intensity of the bit-phase flip noise and the bit flip noise acting on the average fidelity. Besides, the fidelity of our JRSP protocol achieved via the maximally entangled channel is larger than that achieved via the partially entangled channel.

  9. 大规模MIMO系统信道状态信息反馈开销降低方法%Channel State Information Feedback Overhead Reduction Method for Massive MIMO Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小兵; 刘利; 景小荣

    2015-01-01

    针对大规模多输入多输出(massive-multiple input multiple output,massive MIMO)系统,结合离散余弦变换(discrete cosine yransform,DCT)和快速傅里叶变换(fast fourier transform,FFT)基,研究了基于压缩感知的信道状态信息(channel state information,CSI)反馈开销降低方法.首先在用户端,该方法基于压缩感知理论对三维(three dimension,3D) CSI采用不同稀疏基组合进行表示,进而形成两种不同的观测矩阵对其进行观测,其中方法1基于3D CSI直接形成观测矩阵,而方法2则基于垂直维CSI和水平维CSI分别形成两个中间观测矩阵,进而通过Kronecker积形成最终观测矩阵.最后,将观测值经矢量化后反馈给基站端;基站端则通过正交追踪匹配算法(orthogonal matching pursuit,OMP)重构CSI.仿真结果表明,基于两种稀疏基的组合可以使得CSI反馈开销得到大幅度降低,同时,基于方法1生成的观测矩阵所重构CSI性能明显优于基于方法2的.

  10. Capacity of Cognitive Radio with Partial Channel Distribution Information in Rayleigh Fading Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Li, Q.

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of the secondary user (SU) in a cognitive radio (CR) network in Rayleigh fading environments. Different from existing works where perfect channel state information (CSI) or channel distribution information (CDI) of the interference link from the SU to the primary user (PU) is assumed to be available, this paper assumes that only partial CDI is available. Specifically, we assume the distribution parameter is unknown and estimated from a set of channel gain samples. With such partial CDI, closed-form expressions for the ergodic and outage capacities of the SU are obtained under the transmit power and the interference outage constraints. It is shown that the capacity with partial CDI is not degraded compared to that with perfect CDI if the interference outage constraint is loose. It is also shown that the capacity can be significantly improved by increasing the number of channel gain samples.

  11. Cognitive relaying and power allocation under channel state uncertainties

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present robust joint relay precoder designs and transceiver power allocations for a cognitive radio network under imperfect channel state information (CSI). The secondary (or cognitive) network consists of a pair of single-antenna transceiver nodes and a non-regenerative two-way relay with multiple antennas which aids the communication process between the transceiver pair. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) while guaranteeing that the interference to the PU receiver is maintained below a specified threshold. We consider two robust designs: the first is based on the minimization of the total transmit power of the secondary relay node required to provide the minimum quality of service, measured in terms of mean-square error (MSE) of the transceiver nodes, and the second is based on the minimization of the sum-MSE of the transceiver nodes. The robust designs are based on worst-case optimization and take into account known parameters of the error in the CSI to render the performance immune to the presence of errors in the CSI. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed designs can be reformulated as tractable convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently. We illustrate the performance of the proposed designs through some selected numerical simulations. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. COHERENT INFORMATION ON THERMAL RADIATION NOISE CHANNEL: AN APPROACH OF INTEGRAL WITHIN ORDERED PRODUCT OF OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小余; 仇佩亮

    2001-01-01

    An analytical expression is given to the coherent information of the thermal radiation signal transmitted over the thermal radiation noise channel, one of the most essential quantum Gaussian channels. Focusing on the single normal mode of the thermal radiation signal and noise, we resolve the entangled state density operator, which characterizes quantum information transmission, into a direct product of two parts, with each part being a thermal radiation density operator. The calculation is aided by the technique known as "integral within ordered product of operators".

  13. Channel capacity and error exponents of variable rate adaptive channel coding for Rayleigh fading channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, KN

    1999-01-01

    We have evaluated the information theoretical performance of variable rate adaptive channel coding for Rayleigh fading channels. The channel states are detected at the receiver and fed back to the transmitter by means of a noiseless feedback link. Based on the channel state informations, the transmitter can adjust the channel coding scheme accordingly. Coherent channel and arbitrary channel symbols with a fixed average transmitted power constraint are assumed. The channel capacity and the err...

  14. Quantum States as Ordinary Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Wharton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.

  15. Remote State Preparation via a Non-Maximally Entangled Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亦庄; 顾永建; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We investigate remote state preparation (RSP) via a non-maximally entangled channel for three cases: a general qubit; a special ensemble of qubits (qubit states on the equator of the Bloch sphere); and an asymptotic limit of N copies ofa general state. The results show that the classical communication cost of RSP for the two latter cases can be less than that of teleportation, but for the first case, in a restricted setting, the classical communication cost is equal to that of teleportation. Whether or not this is the case for a more general setting is still an open question.

  16. Conservation implications of amphibian habitat relationships within channelized agricultural headwater streams in the midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for removing water from agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States. Channelized agricultural headwater s...

  17. State Information in Bayesian Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cuff, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Two-player zero-sum repeated games are well understood. Computing the value of such a game is straightforward. Additionally, if the payoffs are dependent on a random state of the game known to one, both, or neither of the players, the resulting value of the game has been analyzed under the framework of Bayesian games. This investigation considers the optimal performance in a game when a helper is transmitting state information to one of the players. Encoding information for an adversarial setting (game) requires a different result than rate-distortion theory provides. Game theory has accentuated the importance of randomization (mixed strategy), which does not find a significant role in most communication modems and source coding codecs. Higher rates of communication, used in the right way, allow the message to include the necessary random component useful in games.

  18. Basic functions of telecommunication channel elements for successful information transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad S. Markagić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in the field of multimedia telecommunications is an attempt to integrate texts, sound, images and videos coherently and consistently and to ensure simplicity and interactivity of operation. In order to make the proposed multimedia applications acceptable to end-users, the quality of transmission through the network and message presentation should have special attention. The main aims of this paper are the introduction to the communication channel with its basic elements, a detailed description of the information source and the presentation of possible approaches to the analysis of the telecommunication channel. Introduction In the age of mass application of various communication means, end-users of telecommunication channel elements rarely pay attention to the processes taking place in everyday communication and the elements presented in the channel. In order to discuss all the factors that influence the establishment and maintenance of the links, this paper will explain the basic elements of telecommunication channels. Source Every object that generates messages to be transferred to a recipient is called the source of the message. Directors, writers, speakers, books, newspapers, various instruments (thermometer, barometer, ammeter, etc., computers, a man himself - these are all sources of various messages. In relation to facilities that generate messages, there are different sources of messages. All the messages that they generate belong to discrete or continuous modes of messages. Discrete messages can be presented with element sets, where elements can be considered through different values of observed messages. Each text message of arbitrary length, for example, is made of a finite number of elements - symbols (letters, numbers, punctuation marks, from the set of symbols called the alphabet message source. Continuous messages can be presented with an infinite number of sets of elements where elements can have different values of

  19. Teleportation of a multiqubit state by an entangled qudit channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亦庄; 顾永建; 吴桂初; 郭光灿

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the problem of teleportation of an M-qubit state by using an entangled qudit pair as a quantum channe; and show that the teleportation of a multiparticle state can correspond to the teleportation of a multidimensional state.We also introduce a quantum-state converter composed of beamspliter arrays,on /off -detectors and coross-Kerr couplers and demonstrate that the stte concersion from an M-qubit to an N-dimensional qudit and vice versa can be implemented with this converter,where N=2M,Based on this ,an experimentallu feasible for the teleportation of an M-qubit via an entangl;ed N-level qudit pair channel is proposed.

  20. States and channels in quantum mechanics without complex numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Miszczak, J A

    2016-01-01

    In the presented note we aim at exploring the possibility of abandoning complex numbers in the representation of quantum states and operations. We demonstrate a simplified version of quantum mechanics in which the states are represented using real numbers only. The main advantage of this approach is that the simulation of the $n$-dimensional quantum system requires $n^2$ real numbers, in contrast to the standard case where $n^4$ real numbers are required. The main disadvantage is the lack of hermicity in the representation of quantum states. Using Mathematica computer algebra system we develop a set of functions for manipulating real-only quantum states. With the help of this tool we study the properties of the introduced representation and the induced representation of quantum channels.

  1. Estimation of Time-Varying Channel State Transition Probabilities for Cognitive Radio Systems by means of Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    A. Akbulut; T. Adiguzel; YILMAZ, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Particle Swarm Optimization is applied for the estimation of the channel state transition probabilities. Unlike most other studies, where the channel state transition probabilities are assumed to be known and/or constant, in this study, these values are realistically considered to be time-varying parameters, which are unknown to the secondary users of the cognitive radio systems. The results of this study demonstrate the following: without any a priori information about the cha...

  2. Information-theoretically Secret Key Generation for Fading Wireless Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Chunxuan; Reznik, Alex; Shah, Yogendra; Trappe, Wade; Mandayam, Narayan

    2009-01-01

    The multipath-rich wireless environment associated with typical wireless usage scenarios is characterized by a fading channel response that is time-varying, location-sensitive, and uniquely shared by a given transmitter-receiver pair. The complexity associated with a richly scattering environment implies that the short-term fading process is inherently hard to predict and best modeled stochastically, with rapid decorrelation properties in space, time and frequency. In this paper, we demonstrate how the channel state between a wireless transmitter and receiver can be used as the basis for building practical secret key generation protocols between two entities. We begin by presenting a scheme based on level crossings of the fading process, which is well-suited for the Rayleigh and Rician fading models associated with a richly scattering environment. Our level crossing algorithm is simple, and incorporates a self-authenticating mechanism to prevent adversarial manipulation of message exchanges during the protoco...

  3. TRIP Database 2.0: A Manually Curated Information Hub for Accessing TRP Channel Interaction Network

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Cheul Shin; Soo-Yong Shin; Jung Nyeo Chun; Hyeon Sung Cho; Jin Muk Lim; Hong-Gee Kim; Insuk So; Dongseop Kwon; Ju-Hong Jeon

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a family of Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels that play a crucial role in biological and disease processes. To advance TRP channel research, we previously created the TRIP (TRansient receptor potential channel-Interacting Protein) Database, a manually curated database that compiles scattered information on TRP channel protein-protein interactions (PPIs). However, the database needs to be improved for information accessibility and data utilization...

  4. Decoherence Sensing of Entangled-Coherent-State Channels via Unambiguous Quantum State Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Zhao-Yang; KUANG Le-Man

    2006-01-01

    @@ Unambiguous quantum state filtering is applied to evaluation of the decoherence sensing of entangled quantum channels consisting of N-mode entangled coherent states. It is found that quantum entanglement can enhance the performance of decoherence sensing while the increase of the mode numbers in the entangled probe field can slightly improve the sensing performance only in the weak field regime.

  5. Teleportation of qubit states through dissipative channels: Conditions for surpassing the no-cloning limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate quantum teleportation through dissipative channels and calculate teleportation fidelity as a function of damping rates. It is found that the average fidelity of teleportation and the range of states to be teleported depend on the type and rate of the damping in the channel. Using the fully entangled fraction, we derive two bounds on the damping rates of the channels: one is to beat the classical limit and the second is to guarantee the nonexistence of any other copy with better fidelity. The effect of the initially distributed maximally entangled state on the process is presented; the concurrence and the fully entangled fraction of the shared states are discussed. We intend to show that prior information on the dissipative channel and the range of qubit states to be teleported is helpful for the evaluation of the success of teleportation, where success is defined as surpassing the fidelity limit imposed by the fidelity of the 1-to-2 optimal cloning machine for the specific range of qubits

  6. Overview of Financial Contagion Channels in the Banking Sector of Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gudelytė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis article aims to determine and analyse the main features of channels of financial contagion in the banking sector of Baltic States. The most relevant channels seem to be the risk of common lender, the channel of real estate prices the channel of other macroeconomic shocks and the channel of volatility. This paper contributes to the further analysis of internal and external causes of financial crisis and its transmission channels in banking sector in Baltic States.Purpose To indicate and explain main problems related to the systemic risk and the channels of financial contagion in the banking sector of Baltic States.Design/methodology/approach – general overview of research papers presenting concepts and methodologies of assessment of systemic risk of the banking sector, statistical analysis of financial data.Findings determination of the main channels and extent of financial contagion that are relevant to banking sector of Baltic States.Research limitations/implications – the lack of information concerning the liquidity and asset structure of banking sector of Baltic States and the real estate prices in Baltic States. The most common problem analysing the financial contagion and systemic risk is the lack of information (especially about the structure of liabilities and assets of financial institutions, its maturity and the changing new banking regulatory conditions. Due the lack of data it is impossible to create stable and reliable statistical models describing the stochastic behaviour of financial contagion. We do not take into account the political factors concerning the reforms of financial market supervision that have also the impact on financial contagion and systemic risk ant the point of view to Baltic States of foreign investors. The findings of this article should ground the macro-prudential policy in the small countries of supervising institutions focussing on the external factors.Practical implications

  7. INFORMATION IN THE SYSTEM OF STATE ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kalytych, G.; Litosh, G.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the approaches to the notions of "information", "state administration system", "administrative information". The article considers the importance of of information for the whole state administration system and reveals the criteria which provide the information with administrative status. Special attention is paid to making of administrative decisions on the level of the sate which are based on effective information management.

  8. Efficient Quantum Information Transfer Through a Uniform Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Verrucchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be obtained by inducing a coherent dynamics in quantum wires with homogeneous intrawire interactions. This goal is accomplished by optimally tuning the coupling between the wire endpoints and the two qubits there attached. A general procedure to determine such value is devised, and scaling laws between the optimal coupling and the length of the wire are found. The procedure is implemented in the case of a wire consisting of a spin-1/2 XY chain: results for the time dependence of the quantities which characterize quantum-state and entanglement transfer are found of extremely good quality also for very long wires. The present approach does not require engineered intrawire interactions nor a specific initial pulse shaping, and can be applied to a vast class of quantum channels.

  9. Streamwise decay of localized states in channel flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zammert, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Channel flow, the pressure driven flow between parallel plates, has exact coherent structures that show various degrees of localization. For states which are localized in streamwise direction but extended in spanwise direction, we show that they are exponentially localized, with decay constants that are different on the upstream and downstream side. We extend the analysis of Brand and Gibson, J. Fluid Mech. 750, R1 (2014), for stationary states to the case of advected structures that is needed here, and derive expressions for the decay in terms of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of certain second order differential equations. The results are in very good agreement with observations on exact coherent structures of different transversal wave length.

  10. Quantum Decoherence Timescales for Ionic Superposition States in Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Salari, V; Fazileh, F; Shahbazi, F

    2014-01-01

    There are many controversial and challenging discussions about quantum effects in microscopic structures in neurons of the human brain. The challenge is mainly because of quick decoherence of quantum states due to hot, wet and noisy environment of the brain which forbids long life coherence for brain processing. Despite these critical discussions, there are only a few number of published papers about numerical aspects of decoherence in neurons. Perhaps the most important issue is offered by Max Tegmark who has calculated decoherence times for the systems of "ions" and "microtubules" in neurons of the brain. In fact, Tegmark did not consider ion channels which are responsible for ions displacement through the membrane and are the building blocks of electrical membrane signals in the nervous system. Here, we would like to re-investigate decoherence times for ionic superposition states by using the data obtained via molecular dynamics simulations. Our main approach is according to what Tegmark has used before. I...

  11. INFORMATION CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMUNICATION CHANNELS FOR SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Yi WANG; G. George YIN

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies identification of systems in which the system output is quantized,transmitted through a digital communication channel, and observed afterwards. The concept of the CR Ratio is introduced to characterize impact of communication channels on identification. The relationship between the CR Ratio and Shannon channel capacity is discussed. Identification algorithms are further developed when the channel error probability is unknown.

  12. Comment on"Teleportation Protocol of Three-Qubit State Using Four-Qubit Quantum Channels"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhao-Hui; Zha, Xin-Wei; Yu, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Recently, Choudhury (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 10, 1007 2016), proposed a teleportation protocol of three-qubit state using four-qubit quantum channels.According to their scheme the three-qubit entangled states could be teleported by use of three simultaneous quantum channels of four-qubit cluster states. In this paper,we emphasize that the same three-qubit entangled states can be teleported perfectly by using only one quantum channel of four-qubit cluster states.

  13. 农户分化状态下农民技术获取路径研究%Analysis on Acquisition Channels of Farmer’s Agricultural Technology Information in the State of Peasant Household Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦源; 赵玉姝; 高强; 李宪宝

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the effect of agricultural technology dissemination on farmers,aiming at problem that whether farm-ers can effectively obtain technical information,the paper carries out field survey to explore different farming technology ac-quisition channels by taking differentiation into the main premise.The results show that small -scale farmers tend to choose the way of interpersonal communication for technology acquisition;professionals and large family farms prefer network;co-operative households’access to technologies focuses on internal cooperation.%为提升农业技术传播效果,针对农民能否有效获取技术信息的问题,利用实地问卷调查数据,以农户分化为前提探究不同农业经营主体的技术获知路径。研究结果表明,小规模农户倾向于选择人际传播方式获取技术,专业大户和家庭农场对网络途径较为青睐,合作经营户的技术获取途径集中于合作社内部。

  14. Remote optimal state estimation over communication channels with random delays

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.

    2014-01-22

    This paper considers the optimal estimation of linear systems over unreliable communication channels with random delays. In this work, it is assumed that the system to be estimated is far away from the filter. The observations of the system are capsulized without time stamp and then transmitted to the network node at which the filter is located. The probabilities of time delays are assumed to be known. The event-driven estimation scheme is applied in this paper and the estimate of the states is updated only at each time instant when any measurement arrives. To capture the feature of communication, the system considered is augmented, and the arrived measurements are regarded as the uncertain observations of the augmented system. The corresponding optimal estimation algorithm is proposed and additionally, a numerical simulation represents the performance of this work. © 2014 The authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydraulic flow through a channel contraction: multiple steady states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akers, B.; Bokhove, O.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated shallow water flows through a channel with a contraction by experimental and theoretical means. The horizontal channel consists of a sluice gate and an upstream channel of constant width $b_0$ ending in a linear contraction of minimum width $b_c$. Experimentally, we observe upst

  16. Quantum Information Splitting of Arbitrary Three-qubit State by Using Five-qubit Cluster state and GHZ-state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Aihan; Wang, Jiwei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a new scheme of quantum information splitting (8QIS) by using five-qubit state and GHZ-state as quantum channel is proposed. The sender Alice performs Bell-state measurements (BSMs) on her qubit-pairs respectively,then tells her measurement result to the receivers Bob. If Bob wants to reconstruct the original states, he must cooperates with the controller Charlie, that Charlie performs two single particle measurement on his qubits and tells Bob the results. According to Alice's and Bob's results, Bob can reconstruct the initial state by applying appropriate unitary operation.

  17. State Policy Against Information War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Shibaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent and effective method to resolve aconflict between countries is information war. Information warfare, i.e. propaganda, information sabotage, blackmail, could be more damaging than the effects of the traditional methods of war. The government must be prepared to prevent and counteract the bleeding-edge techniques of warfare that is to work out measures, to oppose enemy’s information weapons , to gain information superiority , to develop a society thatis immune to disinformation, to elaborate a concept of information warfare counteraction.The authors have examined both foreign and Russian sources of law which define the requirements for the government activities to oppose information warfare. They also refer to the opinions of foreign and Russian researchers, politicians and public figures who have commented on the concept and features of such political and legal constructs as information warfare and information weapons. The problem of information warfare must be identified as a profoundly serious and damaging threat. This paper provides the features of information warfare and the methods to resist it as well as the proposals to amend the domestic legislation to create conditions for an accurate understanding of this political and legal phenomenon. In addition, it points out that the amendment of the Information Security Doctrine is not sufficient to counterbalance the threat of information warfare. In a certain document it is necessary to recount all notions, requirements and methods for the government actions aimed to gradually change the situation, particularly, the development of sectoral (information security legislation, specialists training to be able to deal with informational and psychological aggression forming public opinion through the government-run mass media, etc.

  18. Modern state of land information system Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bordyuzha

    2013-01-01

    The article described the role of cadastral information in land management. The land cadastre information system is the basis for the analysis of the modern state of land use. Land information system in Ukraine has been explored and analyzed. The displaying factors that influence the formation of a land information system. It is proposed to improve the information land system for the sustainable development of agricultural land.

  19. Channel stability downstream from a dam assessed using aerial photographs and stream-gage information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    The stability of the Neosho River channel downstream from John Redmond Dam, in southeast Kansas, was investigated using multiple-date aerial photographs and stream-gage information. Bankfull channel width was used as the primary indicator variable to assess pre- and post-dam channel change. Five six-mile river reaches and four stream gages were used in the analysis. Results indicated that, aside from some localized channel widening, the overall channel change has been minor with little post-dam change in bankfull channel width. The lack of a pronounced postdam channel change may be attributed to a substantial reduction in the magnitude of the post-dam annual peak discharges in combination with the resistance to erosion of the bed and bank materials. Also, the channel may have been overwidened by a series of large floods that predated construction of the dam, including one with an estimated 500-year recurrence interval.

  20. Tourism and information technologies distribution channels: a panorama of the brazilian reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisete Santos da Silva Zagheni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological evolution has made it possible that the same service may be delivered by means of multiple channels, including in the tourism sector.  The present study proposes to present a bibliographic summary of the distribution channels in tourism and the impact of information technologies (IT in these channels.  Based on exploratory research, 24 scientific papers were analyzed with the intention of identifying a research structure concerning the channels of Brazilian tourism and IT.  We observed that in Brazil, there is a lack of work concerning distribution channels in tourism, highlighting the management of these channels under the view of supply chains.  Beyond this, these papers concentrate on two elements of the channels: means of lodging and hospitality, and travel agencies.  These elements have used direct channels based on IT in order to support service activities and the commercialization of the tourist product.

  1. Quantum Information Splitting of Arbitrary Three-Qubit State by Using Seven-Qubit Entangled State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-fen; Wang, Rui-jin; Zhang, Feng-li; Deng, Fu-hu

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme of quantum information splitting arbitrary three-qubit state by using seven-qubit entangled as quantum channel. The sender Alice first performs Bell-state measurements (BSMs) on her qubits pairs respectively and tells her measurement outcome to authorizers Bob to reconstruct the original state, then Charlie should carries out single-qubit measurement (SQM) on his qubits. According to the results from Alice and Charlie, Bob can reconstruct the original state by applying an appropriate unitary operation. After analyzing, the method achieved the desired effect of quantum information splitting (QIS). We also realize the QIS of arbitrary three-qubit state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED).

  2. Generation and protection of steady-state quantum correlations due to quantum channels with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, You-neng; Fang, Mao-fa; Wang, Guo-you; Zeng, Ke

    2016-09-01

    We have proposed a scheme of the generation and preservation of two-qubit steady-state quantum correlations through quantum channels where successive uses of the channels are correlated. Different types of noisy channels with memory, such as amplitude damping, phase damping, and depolarizing channels, have been taken into account. Some analytical or numerical results are presented. The effect of channels with memory on dynamics of quantum correlations has been discussed in detail. The results show that steady-state entanglement between two initial qubits whose initial states are prepared in a specific family states without entanglement subject to amplitude damping channel with memory can be generated. The entanglement creation is related to the memory coefficient of channel μ . The stronger the memory coefficient of channel μ is, the more the entanglement creation is, and the earlier the separable state becomes the entangled state. Besides, we compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord when a two-qubit system is initially prepared in an entangled state. We show that entanglement dynamics suddenly disappears, while quantum discord dynamics displays only in the asymptotic limit. Furthermore, two-qubit quantum correlations can be preserved at a long time in the limit of μ → 1.

  3. Information cloning of harmonic oscillator coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N D Hari Dass; Pradeep Ganesh

    2002-08-01

    We show that in the case of unknown harmonic oscillator coherent statesit is possible to achieve what we call perfect information cloning. By this we mean that it is still possible to make arbitrary number of copies of a state which has exactly the same information content as the original unknown coherent state. By making use of this perfect information cloning it would be possible to estimate the original state through measurements and make arbitrary number of copies of the estimator. We define the notion of a measurement fidelity and calculate it for our case as well as for the Gaussian cloners.

  4. Dynamics of a multi-mode maximum entangled coherent state over an amplitude damping channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. E1 Allati; Y. Hassouni; N. Metwally

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the maximum entangled coherent state traveling through an amplitude damping channel is investigated.For small values of the transmissivity rate,the traveling state is very fragile to this noise channel,which suffers from the phase flip error with high probability. The entanglement decays smoothly for larger values of the transmissivity rate and speedily for smaller values of this rate.As the number of modes increases,the traveling state over this noise channel quickly loses its entanglement.The odd and even states vanish at the same value of field intensity.

  5. Dynamics of multi-modes maximum entangled coherent state over amplitude damping channel

    CERN Document Server

    Allati, A El; Metwally, N

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of maximum entangled coherent state travels through an amplitude damping channel is investigated. For small values of the transmissivity rate the travelling state is very fragile to this noise channel, where it suffers from the phase flip error with high probability. The entanglement decays smoothly for larger values of the transmissivity rate and speedily for smaller values of this rate. As the number of modes increases, the travelling state over this noise channel loses its entanglement hastily. The odd and even states vanish at the same value of the field intensity.

  6. Closed state-coupled C-type inactivation in BK channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiusheng; Li, Qin; Aldrich, Richard W

    2016-06-21

    Ion channels regulate ion flow by opening and closing their pore gates. K(+) channels commonly possess two pore gates, one at the intracellular end for fast channel activation/deactivation and the other at the selectivity filter for slow C-type inactivation/recovery. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel lacks a classic intracellular bundle-crossing activation gate and normally show no C-type inactivation. We hypothesized that the BK channel's activation gate may spatially overlap or coexist with the C-type inactivation gate at or near the selectivity filter. We induced C-type inactivation in BK channels and studied the relationship between activation/deactivation and C-type inactivation/recovery. We observed prominent slow C-type inactivation/recovery in BK channels by an extreme low concentration of extracellular K(+) together with a Y294E/K/Q/S or Y279F mutation whose equivalent in Shaker channels (T449E/K/D/Q/S or W434F) caused a greatly accelerated rate of C-type inactivation or constitutive C-inactivation. C-type inactivation in most K(+) channels occurs upon sustained membrane depolarization or channel opening and then recovers during hyperpolarized membrane potentials or channel closure. However, we found that the BK channel C-type inactivation occurred during hyperpolarized membrane potentials or with decreased intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) and recovered with depolarized membrane potentials or elevated [Ca(2+)]i Constitutively open mutation prevented BK channels from C-type inactivation. We concluded that BK channel C-type inactivation is closed state-dependent and that its extents and rates inversely correlate with channel-open probability. Because C-type inactivation can involve multiple conformational changes at the selectivity filter, we propose that the BK channel's normal closing may represent an early conformational stage of C-type inactivation.

  7. Do State Revenue Forecasters Utilize Available Information

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, William M.

    1989-01-01

    Tests whether state revenue forecasts incorporate all possible economic and political information. Formally defines the concept of rationality and then tests it on time series data on New Jersey's major revenue sources.

  8. Entanglement dynamics of Gaussian continuous states in correlated noisy channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Hua-Tang; Xia Hong-Xing; Li Gao-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the entanglement of an initial two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) in correlated noisy channels is investigated. It is shown that the correlated environment is helpful for preserving the entanglement of the initial TMSV.The entanglement period of the initial TMSV depends on the correlation property of the correlated environment.

  9. Local Sequence Information-based Support Vector Machine to Classify Voltage-gated Potassium Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Xia LIU; Meng-Long LI; Fu-Yuan TAN; Min-Chun LU; Ke-Long WANG; Yan-Zhi GUO; Zhi-Ning WEN; Lin JIANG

    2006-01-01

    In our previous work, we developed a computational tool, PreK-ClassK-ClassKv, to predict and classify potassium (K+) channels. For K+ channel prediction (PreK) and classification at family level (ClassK), this method performs well. However, it does not perform so well in classifying voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels (ClassKv). In this paper, a new method based on the local sequence information of Kv channels is introduced to classify Kv channels. Six transmembrane domains of a Kv channel protein are used to define a protein, and the dipeptide composition technique is used to transform an amino acid sequence to a numerical sequence. A Kv channel protein is represented by a vector with 2000 elements, and a support vector machine algorithm is applied to classify Kv channels. This method shows good performance with averages of total accuracy (Acc), sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP); reliability (R) and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 98.0%, 89.9%, 100%, 0.95 and 0.94 respectively. The results indicate that the local sequence information-based method is better than the global sequence information-based method to classify Kv channels.

  10. TRIP database 2.0: a manually curated information hub for accessing TRP channel interaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Cheul Shin

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels are a family of Ca(2+-permeable cation channels that play a crucial role in biological and disease processes. To advance TRP channel research, we previously created the TRIP (TRansient receptor potential channel-Interacting Protein Database, a manually curated database that compiles scattered information on TRP channel protein-protein interactions (PPIs. However, the database needs to be improved for information accessibility and data utilization. Here, we present the TRIP Database 2.0 (http://www.trpchannel.org in which many helpful, user-friendly web interfaces have been developed to facilitate knowledge acquisition and inspire new approaches to studying TRP channel functions: 1 the PPI information found in the supplementary data of referred articles was curated; 2 the PPI summary matrix enables users to intuitively grasp overall PPI information; 3 the search capability has been expanded to retrieve information from 'PubMed' and 'PIE the search' (a specialized search engine for PPI-related articles; and 4 the PPI data are available as sif files for network visualization and analysis using 'Cytoscape'. Therefore, our TRIP Database 2.0 is an information hub that works toward advancing data-driven TRP channel research.

  11. Organizing Distribution Channels for Information Goods on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Dewan; Marshall Freimer; Abraham Seidmann

    2000-01-01

    Rapid technological developments and deregulation of the telecommunications industry have changed the way in which content providers distribute and price their goods and services. Instead of selling a bundle of content and access through proprietary networks, these firms are shifting their distribution channels to the Internet. In this new setting, the content and Internet service providers find themselves in a relationship that is simultaneously cooperative and competitive. We find that prop...

  12. Completion Time in Multi-Access Channel: An Information Theoretic Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuanpeng

    2011-01-01

    In a multi-access channel, completion time refers to the number of channel uses required for users, each with some given fixed bit pool, to complete the transmission of all their data bits. In this paper, the characterization of the completion time region is based on the concept of constrained rates, where users' rates are defined over possibly different number of channel uses. An information theoretic formulation of completion time is given and the completion time region is then established for two-user Gaussian multi-access channel, which, analogous to capacity region, characterizes all possible trade-offs between users' completion times.

  13. Dual channel nitrogen laser useful for nanosecond excited state studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipman (1967) adapted the Blumlein discharge circuit to lasers and this method has proved highly useful in producing high peak pulses. The authors describe a double Blumlein producing two 250 kW pulses separated by 15 nanosecs. The dual channel nitrogen laser is designed for use in atomic spectroscopy, the first pulse excites the target atoms while the second pumps another laser whose output is used to study the levels. (U.S.)

  14. Examining the Relationship Between Flexible Resources and Health Information Channel Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manierre, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how variations in flexible resources influence where individuals begin their search for health information. Access to flexible resources such as money, power, and knowledge can alter the accessibility of channels for health information, such as doctors, the Internet, and print media. Using the HINTS 3 sample, whether information channel utilization is predicted by the same factors in two groups with distinct levels of access to flexible resources, as approximated by high and low levels of education, is investigated. Differences in access to flexible resources are hypothesized to produce variations in channel utilization in bivariate analyses, as well as changes in coefficient strength and statistical significance in multivariate models. Multinomial logit models were used to assess how a number of variables influence the probability of using a specific information channel first in either flexible resource group. Results suggest that individuals with higher levels of education, a proxy for flexible resources, are more likely to report seeking information from the Internet first, which is consistent with research on the digital divide. It appears that diminished access to flexible resources is also associated with heightened utilization of offline channels, including doctors. A handful of differences in predictors were found between the low and high flexible resource groups when multivariate models were compared. Future research should take into account the distinctions between different offline channels while also seeking to further understand how social inequality relates to the utilization of different channels and corresponding health outcomes.

  15. Examining the Relationship Between Flexible Resources and Health Information Channel Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manierre, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how variations in flexible resources influence where individuals begin their search for health information. Access to flexible resources such as money, power, and knowledge can alter the accessibility of channels for health information, such as doctors, the Internet, and print media. Using the HINTS 3 sample, whether information channel utilization is predicted by the same factors in two groups with distinct levels of access to flexible resources, as approximated by high and low levels of education, is investigated. Differences in access to flexible resources are hypothesized to produce variations in channel utilization in bivariate analyses, as well as changes in coefficient strength and statistical significance in multivariate models. Multinomial logit models were used to assess how a number of variables influence the probability of using a specific information channel first in either flexible resource group. Results suggest that individuals with higher levels of education, a proxy for flexible resources, are more likely to report seeking information from the Internet first, which is consistent with research on the digital divide. It appears that diminished access to flexible resources is also associated with heightened utilization of offline channels, including doctors. A handful of differences in predictors were found between the low and high flexible resource groups when multivariate models were compared. Future research should take into account the distinctions between different offline channels while also seeking to further understand how social inequality relates to the utilization of different channels and corresponding health outcomes. PMID:25616853

  16. Cloud Computing Application of Personal Information's Security in Network Sales-channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qiong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the promotion of Internet sales, the security of personal information to network users have become increasingly demanding. The existing network of sales channels has personal information security risks, vulnerable to hacker attacking. Taking full advantage of cloud security management strategy, cloud computing security management model is introduced to the network sale of personal information security applications, which is to solve the problem of information leakage. Then we proposed membership-based cloud service provided selection policy. By exploring the prospects of cloud computing in Internet sales, we try to solve the problem of the security of personal information in this channel.

  17. Quantum ballistic transport by interacting two-electron states in quasi-one-dimensional channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For quantum ballistic transport of electrons through a short conduction channel, the role of Coulomb interaction may significantly modify the energy levels of two-electron states at low temperatures as the channel becomes wide. In this regime, the Coulomb effect on the two-electron states is calculated and found to lead to four split energy levels, including two anticrossing-level and two crossing-level states. Moreover, due to the interplay of anticrossing and crossing effects, our calculations reveal that the ground two-electron state will switch from one anticrossing state (strong confinement) to a crossing state (intermediate confinement) as the channel width gradually increases and then back to the original anticrossing state (weak confinement) as the channel width becomes larger than a threshold value. This switching behavior leaves a footprint in the ballistic conductance as well as in the diffusion thermoelectric power of electrons. Such a switching is related to the triple spin degeneracy as well as to the Coulomb repulsion in the central region of the channel, which separates two electrons away and pushes them to different channel edges. The conductance reoccurrence region expands from the weak to the intermediate confinement regime with increasing electron density

  18. Quantum ballistic transport by interacting two-electron states in quasi-one-dimensional channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Abranyos, Yonatan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    For quantum ballistic transport of electrons through a short conduction channel, the role of Coulomb interaction may significantly modify the energy levels of two-electron states at low temperatures as the channel becomes wide. In this regime, the Coulomb effect on the two-electron states is calculated and found to lead to four split energy levels, including two anticrossing-level and two crossing-level states. Moreover, due to the interplay of anticrossing and crossing effects, our calculations reveal that the ground two-electron state will switch from one anticrossing state (strong confinement) to a crossing state (intermediate confinement) as the channel width gradually increases and then back to the original anticrossing state (weak confinement) as the channel width becomes larger than a threshold value. This switching behavior leaves a footprint in the ballistic conductance as well as in the diffusion thermoelectric power of electrons. Such a switching is related to the triple spin degeneracy as well as to the Coulomb repulsion in the central region of the channel, which separates two electrons away and pushes them to different channel edges. The conductance reoccurrence region expands from the weak to the intermediate confinement regime with increasing electron density.

  19. Tighter Lower Bounds on Mutual Information for Fiber-Optic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Irukulapati, Naga V; Agrell, Erik; Johannisson, Pontus; Wymeersch, Henk

    2016-01-01

    In fiber-optic communications, evaluation of mutual information (MI) is still an open issue due to the unavailability of an exact and mathematically tractable channel model. Traditionally, lower bounds on MI are computed by approximating the (original) channel with an auxiliary forward channel. In this paper, lower bounds are computed using an auxiliary backward channel, which has not been previously considered in the context of fiber-optic communications. Distributions obtained through two variations of the stochastic digital backpropagation (SDBP) algorithm are used as auxiliary backward channels and these bounds are compared with bounds obtained through the conventional digital backpropagation (DBP). Through simulations, higher information rates were achieved with SDBP compared with DBP, which implies that tighter lower bound on MI can be achieved through SDBP.

  20. Quantum channel of continuous variable teleportation and nonclassicality of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Takeoka, Masahiro; Ban, Masashi; Sasaki, Masahide

    2001-01-01

    Noisy teleportation of nonclassical quantum states via a two-mode squeezed-vacuum state is studied with the completely positive map and the Glauber-Sudarshan $P$-function. Using the nonclassical depth as a measure of transmission performance, we compare the teleportation scheme with the direct transmission through a noisy channel. The noise model is based on the coupling to the vacuum field. It is shown that the teleportation channel has better transmission performance than the direct transmi...

  1. Efficient Remote Preparation of Four-Qubit Cluster-Type Entangled States with Multi-Party Over Partially Entangled Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Hoehn, Ross D.; Ye, Liu; Kais, Sabre

    2016-07-01

    We present a strategy for realizing multiparty-controlled remote state preparation (MCRSP) for a family of four-qubit cluster-type states by taking a pair of partial entanglements as the quantum channels. In this scenario, the encoded information is transmitted from the sender to a spatially separated receiver with control of the transmission by multiple parties. Predicated on the collaboration of all participants, the desired state can be faithfully restored at the receiver's location with high success probability by application of additional appropriate local operations and necessary classical communication. Moreover, this proposal for MCRSP can be faithfully achieved with unit total success probability when the quantum channels are distilled to maximally entangled ones.

  2. The feature on the posterior conditional probability of finite state Markov channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Li-hua; SHEN Ji-hong; YUAN Yan-hua

    2005-01-01

    The feature of finite state Markov channel probability distribution is discussed on condition that original I/O are known. The probability is called posterior condition probability. It is also proved by Bayes formula that posterior condition probability forms stationary Markov sequence if channel input is independently and identically distributed. On the contrary, Markov property of posterior condition probability isn' t kept if the input isn't independently and identically distributed and a numerical example is utilized to explain this case. The properties of posterior condition probability will aid the study of the numerical calculated recurrence formula of finite state Markov channel capacity.

  3. Determining the cross-channel effects of informational web sites

    OpenAIRE

    Teerling, Marije Leonie

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the effects of an informational Web site on offline behavior, specifically with regard to customer buying behavior in a “traditional” store. This chapter serves to introduce the literature on informational Web sites (§1.2) and the multichannel environment (§1.3). It also highlights that this dissertation contributes to existing literature by providing insights into (1) the effects of informational Web sites, (2) the sequential process of search and purchase in m...

  4. Most robust and fragile two-qubit entangled states under depolarizing channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Chao-Qian; Jiang, Yue; Liang, Mai-Lin

    2012-01-01

    In the two-qubit system under the local depolarizing channels, the most robust and the most fragile states for a given concurrence or negativity are derived. For the one-sided channel, with the aid of the evolution equation for entanglement given by Konrad \\emph{et al.} [Nat. Phys. 4, 99 (2008)], the pure states are proved to be the most robust. Based on a generalization of the evolution equation, we classify the ansatz states in our investigation by the amount of robustness, and consequently derive the most fragile states. For the two-sided channel, the pure states are proved to be the most robust for a fixed concurrence, but is the most fragile with a given negativity when the channel is uniform. Under the uniform channel, for a given negativity, the most robust states are the ones with the maximal concurrence, which are also the most fragile states when the concurrence is given in the region of [1/2,1]. When the entanglement approaches zero, the most fragile states for a given negativity become the pure st...

  5. State-Dependent Inhibition of Sodium Channels by Local Anesthetics: A 40-Year Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G-K; Strichartz, G R

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge about the mechanism of impulse blockade by local anesthetics has evolved over the past four decades, from the realization that Na(+) channels were inhibited to affect the impulse blockade to an identification of the amino acid residues within the Na(+) channel that bind the local anesthetic molecule. Within this period appreciation has grown of the state-dependent nature of channel inhibition, with rapid binding and unbinding at relatively high affinity to the open state, and weaker binding to the closed resting state. Slow binding of high affinity for the inactivated state accounts for the salutary therapeutic as well as the toxic actions of diverse class I anti-arrhythmic agents, but may have little importance for impulse blockade, which requires concentrations high enough to block the resting state. At the molecular level, residues on the S6 transmembrane segments in three of the homologous domains of the channel appear to contribute to the binding of local anesthetics, with some contribution also from parts of the selectivity filter. Binding to the inactivated state, and perhaps the open state, involves some residues that are not identical to those that bind these drugs in the resting state, suggesting spatial flexibility in the "binding site". Questions remaining include the mechanism that links local anesthetic binding with the inhibition of gating charge movements, and the molecular nature of the theoretical "hydrophobic pathway" that may be critical for determining the recovery rates from blockade of closed channels, and thus account for both therapeutic and cardiotoxic actions. PMID:23710324

  6. Confidentiality & Authentication Mechanism for Biometric Information Transmitted over Low Bandwidth & Unreliable channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The security of bio-metric information – finger print, retina mapping, DNA mapping and some otherchemical and biological modified genes related information - transfer through low bandwidth andunreliable or covert channel is challenging task. Therefore, Security of biometric information is essentialrequirement in this fast developing communication world. Thus, in this paper, we propose efficient andeffective mechanism for confidentiality and authentication for biometric information transmitted by usingarithmetic encoding representation over low bandwidth and unreliable channel. It enhances the speed ofencryption, decryption and authentication process. It uses arithmetic encoding scheme and public keycryptography e.g. modified version of RSA algorithm called RSA-2 algorithm.

  7. Confidentiality & Authentication Mechanism for Biometric Information Transmitted over Low Bandwidth & Unreliable channel

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Raju

    2011-01-01

    The security of bio-metric information - finger print, retina mapping, DNA mapping and some other chemical and biological modified genes related information - transfer through low bandwidth and unreliable or covert channel is challenging task. Therefore, Security of biometric information is essential requirement in this fast developing communication world. Thus, in this paper, we propose efficient and effective mechanism for confidentiality and authentication for biometric information transmitted by using arithmetic encoding representation over low bandwidth and unreliable channel. It enhances the speed of encryption, decryption and authentication process. It uses arithmetic encoding scheme and public key cryptography e.g. modified version of RSA algorithm called RSA-2 algorithm.

  8. Shannon's secrecy system with informed receivers and its application to systematic coding for wiretapped channels

    CERN Document Server

    Merhav, Neri

    2007-01-01

    Shannon's secrecy system is studied in a setting, where both the legitimate decoder and the wiretapper have access to side information sequences correlated to the source, but the wiretapper receives both the coded information and the side information via channels that are more noisy than the respective channels of the legitmate decoder, which in turn, also shares a secret key with the encoder. A single--letter characterization is provided for the achievable region in the space of five figures of merit: the equivocation at the wiretapper, the key rate, the distortion of the source reconstruction at the legitimate receiver, the bandwidth expansion factor of the coded channels, and the average transmission cost (generalized power). Beyond the fact that this is an extension of earlier studies, it also provides a framework for studying fundamental performance limits of systematic codes in the presence of a wiretap channel. The best achievable performance of systematic codes is then compared to that of a general co...

  9. Determining the cross-channel effects of informational web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerling, Marije Leonie

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the effects of an informational Web site on offline behavior, specifically with regard to customer buying behavior in a “traditional” store. This chapter serves to introduce the literature on informational Web sites (§1.2) and the multichannel environment (§1.3). It al

  10. Entanglement Evolution of the Extended Werner-like State under the Influence of Different Noisy Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Nan; Ma, Jing; Yu, Si-Yuan; Tan, Li-Ying; Ran, Qi-Wen

    2015-02-01

    The entanglement evolution of the bipartite quantum system which is initially prepared in extended Werner-like state under the influence of independent or collective noisy channels are investigated by solving the master equation in Lindblad form. With the aid of the concurrence, we find that the initial state can preserve more entanglement in certain region when it is transmitted through the collective Pauli σ x or σ y noisy channel than the corresponding independent noisy channel. For the Pauli σ z or the depolarizing channel, however, the collective decoherence can speed up the process of entanglement decay. Meanwhile, we show that the purity of initial state has a great influence on the region which the entanglement can be preserved.

  11. The effect of cell size and channel density on neuronal information encoding and energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Biswa; Faisal, A Aldo; Laughlin, Simon B; Niven, Jeremy E

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the determinants of neuronal energy consumption and their relationship to information coding is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Three of the main determinants are cell size, ion channel density, and stimulus statistics. Here we investigate their impact on neuronal energy consumption and information coding by comparing single-compartment spiking neuron models of different sizes with different densities of stochastic voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels and different statistics of synaptic inputs. The largest compartments have the highest information rates but the lowest energy efficiency for a given voltage-gated ion channel density, and the highest signaling efficiency (bits spike(-1)) for a given firing rate. For a given cell size, our models revealed that the ion channel density that maximizes energy efficiency is lower than that maximizing information rate. Low rates of small synaptic inputs improve energy efficiency but the highest information rates occur with higher rates and larger inputs. These relationships produce a Law of Diminishing Returns that penalizes costly excess information coding capacity, promoting the reduction of cell size, channel density, and input stimuli to the minimum possible, suggesting that the trade-off between energy and information has influenced all aspects of neuronal anatomy and physiology.

  12. Optimal state estimation over communication channels with random delays

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.

    2013-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the optimal estimation of linear systems over unreliable communication channels with random delays. The measurements are delivered without time stamp, and the probabilities of time delays are assumed to be known. Since the estimation is time-driven, the actual time delays are converted into virtual time delays among the formulation. The receiver of estimation node stores the sum of arrived measurements between two adjacent processing time instants and also counts the number of arrived measurements. The original linear system is modeled as an extended system with uncertain observation to capture the feature of communication, then the optimal estimation algorithm of systems with uncertain observations is proposed. Additionally, a numerical simulation is presented to show the performance of this work. © 2013 The Franklin Institute.

  13. Quantum information processing with noisy cluster states

    CERN Document Server

    Tame, M S; Kim, M S; Vedral, V

    2005-01-01

    We provide an analysis of basic quantum information processing protocols under the effect of intrinsic non-idealities in cluster states. These non-idealities are based on the introduction of randomness in the entangling steps that create the cluster state and are motivated by the unavoidable imperfections faced in creating entanglement using condensed-matter systems. Aided by the use of an alternative and very efficient method to construct cluster state configurations, which relies on the concatenation of fundamental cluster structures, we address quantum state transfer and various fundamental gate simulations through noisy cluster states. We find that a winning strategy to limit the effects of noise, is the management of small clusters processed via just a few measurements. Our study also reinforces recent ideas related to the optical implementation of a one-way quantum computer.

  14. Fractal states in quantum information processing

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    The fractal character of some quantum properties has been shown for systems described by continuous variables. Here, a definition of quantum fractal states is given that suits the discrete systems used in quantum information processing, including quantum coding and quantum computing. Several important examples are provided.

  15. Information leakage and steganography: detecting and blocking covert channels

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Alís, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This PhD Thesis explores the threat of information theft perpetrated by malicious insiders. As opposite to outsiders, insiders have access to information assets belonging the organization, know the organization infrastructure and more importantly, know the value of the different assets the organization holds. The risk created by malicious insiders have led both the research community and commercial providers to spend efforts on creating mechanisms and solutions to reduce it. However, the lack...

  16. Role of shared information systems in distribution channels

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vázquez, José Manuel; Ramírez, Carolina

    2006-01-01

    Some manufacturers are reluctant to rationally share their Information Systems (ISs) with their dealers. Through a detailed case study analysis, we explore what could impel a manufacturer to overcome its reluctance by analysing its control problems (lack of direction; motivational; and personal limitations). We show that sharing ISs provides benefits derived from the collection of information in both quantity and quality that is in turn utilized by the manufacturer. It ensures that the manufa...

  17. Efficient quantum dialogue using entangled states and entanglement swapping without information leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Zhang, Yu Qing; Liu, Xue Feng; Hu, Yu Pu

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel quantum dialogue protocol by using the generalized Bell states and entanglement swapping. In the protocol, a sequence of ordered two-qutrit entangled states acts as quantum information channel for exchanging secret messages directly and simultaneously. Besides, a secret key string is shared between the communicants to overcome information leakage. Different from those previous information leakage-resistant quantum dialogue protocols, the particles, composed of one of each pair of entangled states, are transmitted only one time in the proposed protocol. Security analysis shows that our protocol can overcome information leakage and resist several well-known attacks. Moreover, the efficiency of our scheme is acceptable.

  18. Formal and Informal Communication Channels in Creating Corporate Brand Image and Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana First

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect that various communication channels have on corporate brand image creation among potential employees. Empirical data was collected by a survey conducted on a sample of 370 graduate students. The results revealed that more than ¾ of potential employees learn about the studied company through informal communication channels. Nevertheless, students of the faculties which organize formal company presentations are much better acquainted with such companies than the students of faculties where no formal presentations are held. Furthermore, within the scope of mono-channeled communication, there is no difference in the manner in which formal and informal channels influence brand knowledge and feelings. On the other hand, multi-channeled communication has a greater influence on both knowledge and feelings than mono-channeled communication. Finally, brand feelings are a stronger factor than brand knowledge in determining brand preference but knowledge also determines feelings. These results have several practical implications. Although informal communication has a wider range of resonance, formal communication is more important and should not be neglected by practitioners. Formal communication is not only able to create positive brand image equally well but it also acts as a trigger for informal communication. Practitioners facing limited resources are further advised to give priority to the communication that creates brand feelings rather than brand knowledge.

  19. States and channels in quantum mechanics without complex numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Miszczak, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the presented note we aim at exploring the possibility of abandoning complex numbers in the representation of quantum states and operations. We demonstrate a simplified version of quantum mechanics in which the states are represented using real numbers only. The main advantage of this approach is that the simulation of the $n$-dimensional quantum system requires $n^2$ real numbers, in contrast to the standard case where $n^4$ real numbers are required. The main disadvantage is the lack of ...

  20. Cloud Computing Application of Personal Information's Security in Network Sales-channels

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Qiong; Min Liu; Shiming Pang

    2013-01-01

    With the promotion of Internet sales, the security of personal information to network users have become increasingly demanding. The existing network of sales channels has personal information security risks, vulnerable to hacker attacking. Taking full advantage of cloud security management strategy, cloud computing security management model is introduced to the network sale of personal information security applications, which is to solve the problem of information leakage. Then we proposed me...

  1. Teleportation Protocol Of Three-Qubit State Using Four-Qubit Quantum Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Binayak S.; Dhara, Arpan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose a perfect teleportation protocol for certain class of three-qubit entangled states. The class of states which are teleported, is larger than those considered by Nie et al. (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 50, 2799 46) and Li et al. (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 47). We use cluster states as quantum channels. The paper is in the line of research for quantum mechanically transporting multiparticle entangled states.

  2. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states through varied gain channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Zhang Jing; Zhang Jun-Xiang; Zhang Tian-Cai

    2006-01-01

    This paper has investigated quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states in terms of the EPR entanglement states for continuous variables. It discusses the relationship between the fidelity and the entanglement of EPR states, which is characterized by the degree of squeezing and the gain of classical channels. It shows that the quality of teleporting quantum states also depends on the characteristics of the states themselves. The properties of teleporting even and odd coherent states at different intensities are investigated. The difference of teleporting two such kinds of quantum states are analysed based on the quantum distance function.

  3. Competition of information channels in the spreading of innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Gergely; Kun, Ferenc

    2011-08-01

    We study the spreading of information on technological developments in socioeconomic systems where the social contacts of agents are represented by a network of connections. In the model, agents get informed about the existence and advantages of new innovations through advertising activities of producers, which are then followed by an interagent information transfer. Computer simulations revealed that varying the strength of external driving and of interagent coupling, furthermore, the topology of social contacts, the model presents a complex behavior with interesting novel features: On the macrolevel the system exhibits logistic behavior typical for the diffusion of innovations. The time evolution can be described analytically by an integral equation that captures the nucleation and growth of clusters of informed agents. On the microlevel, small clusters are found to be compact with a crossover to fractal structures with increasing size. The distribution of cluster sizes has a power-law behavior with a crossover to a higher exponent when long-range social contacts are present in the system. Based on computer simulations we construct an approximate phase diagram of the model on a regular square lattice of agents.

  4. Most robust and fragile two-qubit entangled states under depolarizing channels

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Chao-Qian; Zhang, Fu-Lin; Jiang, Yue; Liang, Mai-Lin; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2012-01-01

    For a two-qubit system under local depolarizing channels, the most robust and most fragile states are derived for a given concurrence or negativity. For the one-sided channel, the pure states are proved to be the most robust ones, with the aid of the evolution equation for entanglement given by Konrad et al. [Nat. Phys. 4, 99 (2008)]. Based on a generalization of the evolution equation for entanglement, we classify the ansatz states in our investigation by the amount of robustness, and conseq...

  5. Formal and Informal Communication Channels in Creating Corporate Brand Image and Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana First; Marija Tomić

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect that various communication channels have on corporate brand image creation among potential employees. Empirical data was collected by a survey conducted on a sample of 370 graduate students. The results revealed that more than ¾ of potential employees learn about the studied company through informal communication channels. Nevertheless, students of the faculties which organize formal company presentations are much better acquainted with such companies than the s...

  6. Quantum Entanglement Channel based on Excited States in a Spin Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少良; 杜良辉; 郭光灿; 周幸祥; 周正威

    2011-01-01

    We study the possibility of using a spin chain to construct a quantum entanglement channel that can be used for quantum state transmission in a solid state system.We analyze the spin chain's states under various z-directional magnetic field and spin interactions to determine the entanglement between Alice and Bob's spins.We derive the conditions under which this entanglement can be distilled,and find that a spin chain of arbitrary length can be used as a quantum channel for quantum state transmission when the number of spin flips in the chain is large.%We study the possibility of using a spin chain to construct a quantum entanglement channel that can be used for quantum state transmission in a solid state system. We analyze the spin chain's states under various z-directional magnetic field and spin interactions to determine the entanglement between Alice and Bob's spins. We derive the conditions under which this entanglement can be distilled, and find that a spin chain of arbitrary length can be used as a quantum channel for quantum state transmission when the number of spin Hips in the chain is large.

  7. Quantum channel of continuous variable teleportation and nonclassicality of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noisy teleportation of nonclassical quantum states via a two-mode squeezed-vacuum state is studied with the completely positive map and the Glauber-Sudarshan P-function. Using the nonclassical depth as a measure of transmission performance, we compare the teleportation scheme with the direct transmission through a noisy channel. The noise model is based on the coupling to the vacuum field. It is shown that the teleportation channel has better transmission performance than the direct transmission channel in a certain region. The bounds for such a region and for obtaining the nonvanished nonclassicality of the teleported quantum states are also discussed. Our model shows a reasonable agreement with the teleportation fidelity observed in the experiment performed by Furusawa et al (1998 Science 282 706). We finally mention the required conditions for transmitting nonclassical features in real experiments

  8. Conformational heterogeneity in closed and open states of the KcsA potassium channel in lipid bicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dorothy M; Dikiy, Igor; Upadhyay, Vikrant; Posson, David J; Eliezer, David; Nimigean, Crina M

    2016-08-01

    The process of ion channel gating-opening and closing-involves local and global structural changes in the channel in response to external stimuli. Conformational changes depend on the energetic landscape that underlies the transition between closed and open states, which plays a key role in ion channel gating. For the prokaryotic, pH-gated potassium channel KcsA, closed and open states have been extensively studied using structural and functional methods, but the dynamics within each of these functional states as well as the transition between them is not as well understood. In this study, we used solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the conformational transitions within specific functional states of KcsA. We incorporated KcsA channels into lipid bicelles and stabilized them into a closed state by using either phosphatidylcholine lipids, known to favor the closed channel, or mutations designed to trap the channel shut by disulfide cross-linking. A distinct state, consistent with an open channel, was uncovered by the addition of cardiolipin lipids. Using selective amino acid labeling at locations within the channel that are known to move during gating, we observed at least two different slowly interconverting conformational states for both closed and open channels. The pH dependence of these conformations and the predictable disruptions to this dependence observed in mutant channels with altered pH sensing highlight the importance of conformational heterogeneity for KcsA gating. PMID:27432996

  9. The Degrees of Freedom of the Compound MIMO Broadcast Channels with Finite States

    CERN Document Server

    Maddah-Ali, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    Multiple-antenna broadcast channels with $M$ transmit antennas and $K$ single-antenna receivers is considered, where the channel of receiver $r$ takes one of the $J_r$ finite values. It is assumed that the channel states of each receiver are randomly selected from $\\mathcal{R}^{M\\times 1}$. It is shown that no matter what $J_r$ is, the degrees of freedom (DoF) of $\\frac{MK}{M+K-1}$ is achievable. The achievable scheme relies on the idea of interference alignment at receivers, without exploiting the possibility of cooperation among transmit antennas. It is proven that if $J_r \\geq M$, $r=1,...,K$, this scheme achieves the optimal DoF. This results implies that when the uncertainty of the base station about the channel realization is considerable, the system loses the gain of cooperation. However, it still benefits from the gain of interference alignment. In fact, in this case, the compound broadcast channel is treated as a compound X channel. Moreover, it is shown that when the base station knows the channel s...

  10. The Channels and Demands Analysis for Chinese Farmers’ Agricultural Information Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhensheng Tao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the characteristics of information sources and farmers’ demand for agricultural information in the process of agricultural informationization in China. We point out that it is not common for farmers to adopt modern information technology communication tools in rural areas nowadays, and the reason for this phenomenon is that farmers still rely mainly on traditional channels for information dissemination. To change the status quo, our government should respect farmers as dominant statuses in the process of agricultural informationization and encourage households with large-scale agricultural operation to use modern IT products in order to spread agricultural information in rural areas.

  11. Channel direction information probing for multi-antenna cognitive radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Villardi, Gabriel Porto; Kojima, Fumihide; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the problem of channel direction information (CDI) probing for multi-antenna cognitive radio system. The CDI of the channel from the secondary transmitter (ST) to primary receiver (PR) is elementary information in designing the beamforming at the ST for mitigating the interference to the PR. However, lacking the explicit cooperation between primary and secondary systems, the CDI has to be acquired by probing at the ST, which is challenging. To solve this, we consider the line of sight (LoS) channel between the ST and the PR, and propose one CDI probing scheme for the ST. Specifically, the ST sends two types of probing signals by beamforming towards an interested region where both the secondary receiver (SR) and the PR are located and then actively learns the hidden feedback information from the primary system to acquire the CDI. The proposed scheme has a closed-form solution, and avoids the iteration between the probing and acquisition, which is desirable for practical system. Moreover, we show that the proposed probing scheme can be extended for primary systems working under multi-access channel and broadcasting channel. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve the accuracy of the acquired CDI at the ST in cognitive ratio system remarkably.

  12. A general method for selecting quantum channel for bidirectional controlled state teleportation and other schemes of controlled quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a large number of protocols for bidirectional controlled state teleportation (BCST) have been proposed using n-qubit entangled states (nin {5,6,7}) as quantum channel. Here, we propose a general method of selecting multiqubit (n>4) quantum channels suitable for BCST and show that all the channels used in the existing protocols of BCST can be obtained using the proposed method. Further, it is shown that the quantum channels used in the existing protocols of BCST form only a negligibly small subset of the set of all the quantum channels that can be constructed using the proposed method to implement BCST. It is also noted that all these quantum channels are also suitable for controlled bidirectional remote state preparation. Following the same logic, methods for selecting quantum channels for other controlled quantum communication tasks, such as controlled bidirectional joint remote state preparation and controlled quantum dialogue, are also provided.

  13. State Discrimination with Post-Measurement Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ballester, M A; Winter, A; Ballester, Manuel A.; Wehner, Stephanie; Winter, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new state discrimination problem in which we are given additional information about the state after the measurement, or more generally, after a quantum memory bound applies. In particular, the following special case plays an important role in quantum cryptographic protocols in the bounded storage model: Given a string x encoded in an unknown basis chosen from a set of mutually unbiased bases, you may perform any measurement, but then store at most q qubits of quantum information. Later on, you learn which basis was used. How well can you compute a function f(x) of x, given the initial measurement outcome, the q qubits and the additional basis information? We first show a lower bound on the success probability for any balanced function, and any number of mutually unbiased bases, beating the naive strategy of simply guessing the basis. We then show that for two bases, any Boolean function f(x) can be computed perfectly if you are allowed to store just a single qubit, independent of the number of ...

  14. Teleportation of n-Particle State via n Pairs of EPR Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Min; ZHU Shi-Qun; FANG Jian-Xing

    2004-01-01

    The teleportation of an arbitrary n-particle state (n ≥ 1) is proposed if n pairs of identical EPR states are utilized as quantum channels. Independent Bell state measurements are performed for joint measurement. By using a special Latin square of order 2n(n ≥ 1), explicit expressions of outcomes after the Bell state measurements by Alice (sender) and the corresponding unitary transformations by Bob (receiver) can be derived. It is shown that the teleportation of n-particle state can be implemented by a series of single-qubit teleportation.

  15. Exploring information-seeking processes by business: analyzing source and channel choices in business-to-government service interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, van den Yvon; Pieterson, Willem; Dijk, van Jan; Arendsen, Rex

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of electronic channels it has become easier for businesses to consult various types of information sources in information-seeking processes. Governments are urged to rethink their role as reliable information source and the roles of their (electronic) service channels to provide effici

  16. Partial relay selection based on shadowing side information over generalized composite fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, in contrast to the relay selection protocols available in the literature, we propose a partial relay selection protocol utilizing only the shadowing side information of the relays instead of their full channel side information in order to select a relay in a dual-hop relaying system through the available limited feedback channels and power budget. We then presented an exact unified performance expression combining the average bit error probability, ergodic capacity, and moments-generating function of the proposed partial relay selection over generalized fading channels. Referring to the unified performance expression introduced in [1], we explicitly offer a generic unified performance expression that can be easily calculated and that is applicable to a wide variety of fading scenarios. Finally, as an illustration of the mathematical formalism, some numerical and simulation results are generated for an extended generalized-K fading environment, and these numerical and simulation results are shown to be in perfect agreement. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Extracellular potassium inhibits Kv7.1 potassium channels by stabilizing an inactivated state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Steffensen, Annette Buur; Grunnet, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) channels are regulators of several physiological processes including vasodilatation, repolarization of cardiomyocytes, and control of secretory processes. A number of Kv7.1 pore mutants are sensitive to extracellular potassium. We hypothesized that extracellular potassium also...... modulates wild-type Kv7.1 channels. The Kv7.1 currents were measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes at different concentrations of extracellular potassium (1-50 mM). As extracellular potassium was elevated, Kv7.1 currents were reduced significantly more than expected from theoretical calculations based...... on the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz flux equation. Potassium inhibited the steady-state current with an IC(50) of 6.0 ± 0.2 mM. Analysis of tail-currents showed that potassium increased the fraction of channels in the inactivated state. Similarly, the recovery from inactivation was slowed by potassium, suggesting...

  18. Standard Quantum Teleportation and Controlled Quantum Teleportation of an Arbitrary N-Qubit Information State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vikram; Prakash, Hari

    2016-04-01

    We explicitly present precise and simple protocols for standard quantum teleportation and controlled quantum teleportation of an arbitrary N-qubit information state and analyse the case of perfect teleportation using general quantum channels and measurement bases. We find condition on resource quantum channel and Bell states for achieving perfect quantum teleportation. We also find the unitary transformation required to be done by Bob for perfect quantum teleportation and discuss the connection with others related works. We also discuss how perfect controlled quantum teleportation demands a correct choice of the measurement basis of additional party.

  19. Hispanic women's preferences for breast health information: subjective cultural influences on source, message, and channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetzel, John; De Vargas, Felicia; Ginossar, Tamar; Sanchez, Christina

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 subjective cultural variables--self-construals (independence and interdependence), ethnic identity (bicultural, assimilation, traditional, and marginal), and cultural health attributions (equity and behavioral-environmental attributions)--on source, message, and channel preferences for receiving breast health information by Hispanic women age 35 or older. Subjective cultural variables collectively accounted for 2% to 28% of the variance in communication preferences. In addition, several associations were discovered: (a) having an interdependent self-construal was associated positively with preferences for significant other as a source, family sources, fear messages, media channels, and face-to-face channels; (b) having a bicultural identity was associated positively with preferences for family sources and media channels, but negatively with a desire for no information; and (c) having a marginal identity and equity attributions were associated positively with preferences for fear messages and a desire for no information, but negatively with preferences for expert sources. These findings are discussed in the context of tailoring breast health information to Hispanic women using computer technology and entertainment-education.

  20. Phosphorus transport and retention in a channel draining an urban, tropical catchment with informal settlements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyenje, P.M.; Meijer, L.M.G.; Foppen, J.W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-01-01

    rban catchments in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are increasingly becoming a major source of phosphorus (P) to downstream ecosystems. This is primarily due to large inputs of untreated wastewater to urban drainage channels, especially in informal settlements (or slums). However, the processes governing t

  1. 1020MHz single-channel proton fast magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Zhang, Rongchun; Hashi, Kenjiro; Ohki, Shinobu; Nishijima, Gen; Matsumoto, Shinji; Noguchi, Takashi; Deguchi, Kenzo; Goto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Tadashi; Maeda, Hideaki; Takahashi, Masato; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshio; Iguchi, Seiya; Tanaka, Ryoji; Nemoto, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Tetsuo; Suematsu, Hiroto; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Miki, Takashi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    This study reports a first successful demonstration of a single channel proton 3D and 2D high-throughput ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR techniques in an ultra-high magnetic field (1020MHz) NMR spectrometer comprised of HTS/LTS magnet. High spectral resolution is well demonstrated.

  2. Microscope-on-Chip Using Micro-Channel and Solid State Image Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2000-01-01

    Recently, Jet Propulsion Laboratory has invented and developed a miniature optical microscope, microscope-on-chip using micro-channel and solid state image sensors. It is lightweight, low-power, fast speed instrument, it has no image lens, does not need focus adjustment, and the total mass is less than 100g. A prototype has been built and demonstrated at JPL.

  3. Properties on the distant distribution of entanglement for arbitrary two-qubit pure states via noisy quantum channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qiong; Li Ji-Xin; Zeng Hao-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the change of entanglement for transmitting an arbitrarily entangled two-qubit pure state via one of three typical kinds of noisy quantum channels:amplitude damping quantum channel,phase damping quantum channel and depolarizing quantum channel.It finds,in all these three cases,that the output distant entanglement(measured by concurrence)reduces proportionately with respect to its initial amount,and the decaying ratio is determined only by the noisy characteristics of quantum channels and independent of the form of initial input state.

  4. Cognitive two-way relay beamforming: Design with resilience to channel state uncertainties

    KAUST Repository

    Ubaidulla, P.

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we propose a robust distributed relay beamformer design for cognitive radio network operating under uncertainties in the available channel state information. The cognitive network consists of a pair of transceivers and a set of non-regenerative two-way relays that assist the communication between the transceiver pair. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user node while ensuring that the interference to the primary receiver is maintained below a certain threshold. The proposed robust design maximizes the worst-case signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio at the secondary transceivers while satisfying constraints on the interference to the primary user and on the total relay transmit power. Though the robust design problem is not a convex problem in its original form, we show that it can be reformulated as a convex optimization problem, which can be solved efficiently. Numerical results are provided and illustrate the merits of the proposed design for various operating conditions and parameters. © 2016 IEEE.

  5. Passive states as optimal inputs for single-jump lossy quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giacomo; Mari, Andrea; Lloyd, Seth; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-06-01

    The passive states of a quantum system minimize the average energy among all the states with a given spectrum. We prove that passive states are the optimal inputs of single-jump lossy quantum channels. These channels arise from a weak interaction of the quantum system of interest with a large Markovian bath in its ground state, such that the interaction Hamiltonian couples only consecutive energy eigenstates of the system. We prove that the output generated by any input state ρ majorizes the output generated by the passive input state ρ0 with the same spectrum of ρ . Then, the output generated by ρ can be obtained applying a random unitary operation to the output generated by ρ0. This is an extension of De Palma et al. [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 62, 2895 (2016)], 10.1109/TIT.2016.2547426, where the same result is proved for one-mode bosonic Gaussian channels. We also prove that for finite temperature this optimality property can fail already in a two-level system, where the best input is a coherent superposition of the two energy eigenstates.

  6. Implementation of nonlocal Bell-state measurement and quantum information transfer with weak Kerr nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Juan; Guo Qi; Cheng Liu-Yong; Shao Xiao-Qiang; Wang Hong-Fu; Zhang Shou; Yeon Kyu-Hwang

    2011-01-01

    We propose a protocol to implement the nonlocal Bell-state measurement,which is nearly determinate with the help of weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities and quantum non-destructive photon number resolving detection.Based on the nonlocal Bell-state measurement,we implement the quantum information transfer from one place to another.The process is different from conventional teleportation but can be regarded as a novel form of teleportation without entangled channel and classic communication.

  7. Intercept-resend attack on six-state quantum key distribution over collective-rotation noise channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Garapo; Mhlambululi Mafu; Francesco Petruccione

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of collective-rotation noise on the security of the six-state quantum key distribution. We study the case where the eavesdropper, Eve, performs an intercept-resend attack on the quantum communication between Alice, the sender, and Bob, the receiver. We first derive the collective-rotation noise model for the six-state protocol and then parameterize the mutual information between Alice and Eve. We then derive quantum bit error rate for three intercept-resend attack scenarios. We observe that the six-state protocol is robust against intercept-resend attacks on collective rotation noise channels when the rotation angle is kept within certain bounds.

  8. Intercept-resend attack on six-state quantum key distribution over collective-rotation noise channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin, Garapo; Mhlambululi, Mafu; Francesco, Petruccione

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the effect of collective-rotation noise on the security of the six-state quantum key distribution. We study the case where the eavesdropper, Eve, performs an intercept-resend attack on the quantum communication between Alice, the sender, and Bob, the receiver. We first derive the collective-rotation noise model for the six-state protocol and then parameterize the mutual information between Alice and Eve. We then derive quantum bit error rate for three intercept-resend attack scenarios. We observe that the six-state protocol is robust against intercept-resend attacks on collective rotation noise channels when the rotation angle is kept within certain bounds. Project supported by the South African Research Chair Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation.

  9. S-matrix decomposition, natural reaction channels, and the quantum transition state approach to reactive scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthe, Uwe; Ellerbrock, Roman

    2016-05-28

    A new approach for the quantum-state resolved analysis of polyatomic reactions is introduced. Based on the singular value decomposition of the S-matrix, energy-dependent natural reaction channels and natural reaction probabilities are defined. It is shown that the natural reaction probabilities are equal to the eigenvalues of the reaction probability operator [U. Manthe and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 3411 (1993)]. Consequently, the natural reaction channels can be interpreted as uniquely defined pathways through the transition state of the reaction. The analysis can efficiently be combined with reactive scattering calculations based on the propagation of thermal flux eigenstates. In contrast to a decomposition based straightforwardly on thermal flux eigenstates, it does not depend on the choice of the dividing surface separating reactants from products. The new approach is illustrated studying a prototypical example, the H + CH4 → H2 + CH3 reaction. The natural reaction probabilities and the contributions of the different vibrational states of the methyl product to the natural reaction channels are calculated and discussed. The relation between the thermal flux eigenstates and the natural reaction channels is studied in detail. PMID:27250291

  10. S-matrix decomposition, natural reaction channels, and the quantum transition state approach to reactive scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthe, Uwe; Ellerbrock, Roman

    2016-05-01

    A new approach for the quantum-state resolved analysis of polyatomic reactions is introduced. Based on the singular value decomposition of the S-matrix, energy-dependent natural reaction channels and natural reaction probabilities are defined. It is shown that the natural reaction probabilities are equal to the eigenvalues of the reaction probability operator [U. Manthe and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 3411 (1993)]. Consequently, the natural reaction channels can be interpreted as uniquely defined pathways through the transition state of the reaction. The analysis can efficiently be combined with reactive scattering calculations based on the propagation of thermal flux eigenstates. In contrast to a decomposition based straightforwardly on thermal flux eigenstates, it does not depend on the choice of the dividing surface separating reactants from products. The new approach is illustrated studying a prototypical example, the H + CH4 → H2 + CH3 reaction. The natural reaction probabilities and the contributions of the different vibrational states of the methyl product to the natural reaction channels are calculated and discussed. The relation between the thermal flux eigenstates and the natural reaction channels is studied in detail.

  11. Exact performance of cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radios with quantized information under imperfect reporting channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sensing is the first and main step for cognitive radio systems to achieve an efficient use of the spectrum. Cooperation among cognitive radio users is a technique employed to improve the sensing performance by exploiting the diversity between the sensing channels to overcome the fading and shadowing effects which allows reduction of miss-detection and false alarm probabilities. Information can be exchanged between cooperating users in different formats from the binary hard information to the full soft information. Quantized information has shown its efficiency as a trade-off between binary hard and full soft for other cooperative schemes, in this paper, we investigate the use of quantized information between cooperating cognitive users. We derive closed-form expressions of the cooperative average false alarm and detection probabilities over fading channels for a generalized system model with not necessarily identical average sensing Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and imperfect reporting channels. Numerical simulations allow us to conclude a tradeoff between the quantization size and the reporting energy in order to achieve the optimal cooperative error probability. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.

  12. KATP channel as well as SGLT1 participates in GIP secretion in the diabetic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hidetada; Seino, Yusuke; Harada, Norio; Iida, Atsushi; Suzuki, Kazuyo; Izumoto, Takako; Ishikawa, Kota; Uenishi, Eita; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Miki, Takashi; Inagaki, Nobuya; Tsunekawa, Shin; Hamada, Yoji; Seino, Susumu; Oiso, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), a gut hormone secreted from intestinal K-cells, potentiates insulin secretion. Both K-cells and pancreatic β-cells are glucose-responsive and equipped with a similar glucose-sensing apparatus that includes glucokinase and an ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel comprising KIR6.2 and sulfonylurea receptor 1. In absorptive epithelial cells and enteroendocrine cells, sodium glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is also known to play an important role in glucose absorption and glucose-induced incretin secretion. However, the glucose-sensing mechanism in K-cells is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the involvement of SGLT1 (SLC5A1) and the KATP channels in glucose sensing in GIP secretion in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Glimepiride, a sulfonylurea, did not induce GIP secretion and pretreatment with diazoxide, a KATP channel activator, did not affect glucose-induced GIP secretion in the normal state. In mice lacking KATP channels (Kir6.2(-/-) mice), glucose-induced GIP secretion was enhanced compared with control (Kir6.2(+) (/) (+)) mice, but was completely blocked by the SGLT1 inhibitor phlorizin. In Kir6.2(-/-) mice, intestinal glucose absorption through SGLT1 was enhanced compared with that in Kir6.2(+) (/) (+) mice. On the other hand, glucose-induced GIP secretion was enhanced in the diabetic state in Kir6.2(+) (/) (+) mice. This GIP secretion was partially blocked by phlorizin, but was completely blocked by pretreatment with diazoxide in addition to phlorizin administration. These results demonstrate that glucose-induced GIP secretion depends primarily on SGLT1 in the normal state, whereas the KATP channel as well as SGLT1 is involved in GIP secretion in the diabetic state in vivo.

  13. Gyrator wavelet transform based non-linear multiple single channel information fusion and authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2015-11-01

    A novel gyrator wavelet transform based non-linear multiple single channel information fusion and authentication is introduced. In this technique, each user channel is normalized, phase encoded, and modulated by random phase function, and then multiplexed into a single channel user ciphertext. Now, the secret channel of corresponding user is phase encoded, modulated by random phase function, and gyrator transformed, and then multiplexed into a single channel secret ciphertext. The user ciphertext and secret ciphertext are multiplied to get a single channel multiplex image and then inverse gyrator transformed. The resultant spectrum is phase- and amplitude-truncated to obtain the encrypted image and the asymmetric key, respectively. The encrypted image is a single-level 2-D discrete wavelet transformed. The information is decomposed into LL, HL, LH, and HH sub-bands. This process is repeated to obtain three sets of four sub-bands of three different images. Next, the individual sub-band of each encrypted image is fused to get four fused sub-bands. Finally, the four fused sub-bands are inverse single-level 2-D discrete wavelet transformed to obtain final encrypted image. This is the main advantage for the proposed system: using multiple individual decryption keys (authentication key, asymmetric key, secret keys, and sub-band keys) for each user not only expands the key spaces but also supplies non-linear keys to control the system security. Moreover, the orders of gyrator transform provide extra degrees of freedom. The theoretical analysis and numerical simulation results support the proposed method.

  14. Chaos in quantum channels

    OpenAIRE

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel; Yoshida, Beni(Institute for Quantum Information & Matter and Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA, 91125, U.S.A.)

    2016-01-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channe...

  15. Electric field modulation of the membrane potential in solid-state ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Weihua; Reed, Mark A

    2012-12-12

    Biological ion channels are molecular devices that allow a rapid flow of ions across the cell membrane. Normal physiological functions, such as generating action potentials for cell-to-cell communication, are highly dependent on ion channels that can open and close in response to external stimuli for regulating ion permeation. Mimicking these biological functions using synthetic structures is a rapidly progressing yet challenging area. Here we report the electric field modulation of the membrane potential phenomena in mechanically and chemically robust solid-state ion channels, an abiotic analogue to the voltage-gated ion channels in living systems. To understand the complex physicochemical processes in the electric field regulated membrane potential behavior, both quasi-static and transient characteristics of converting transmembrane ion gradients into electric potential are investigated. It is found that the transmembrane potential can be adequately tuned by an external electrical stimulation, thanks to the unique properties of the voltage-regulated selective ion transport through a nanoscale channel.

  16. Evolution of l-photon excited thermo vacuum state in a single-mode damping channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rui; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how a kind of non-Gaussian states (l-photon excited thermo vacuum state Cla†l|0(β)>) evolves in a single-mode damping channel. We find that it evolves into a Laguerre-polynomial-weighted real-fictitious squeezed thermo vacuum state, which exhibits strong decoherence and its original nonclassicality fades. In particular, when l = 0, in this damping process the thermo squeezing effect decreases while the fictitious-mode vacuum becomes chaotic. In overcoming the difficulty of calculation, we employ the summation method within ordered product of operators, a new generating function formula about two-variable Hermite polynomials is derived.

  17. ATP interaction with the open state of the K(ATP) channel.

    OpenAIRE

    Enkvetchakul, D; Loussouarn, G.; Makhina, E; Nichols, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel closure by ATP is unclear, and various kinetic models in which ATP binds to open or to closed states have previously been presented. Effects of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) and multiple Kir6.2 mutations on ATP inhibition and open probability in the absence of ATP are explainable in kinetic models where ATP stabilizes a closed state and interaction with an open state is not required. Evidence that ATP can in fact interact wi...

  18. 76 FR 19310 - Information Collection; Certified State Mediation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Certified State Mediation Program AGENCY: Farm Service... Mediation Program. The information collection is necessary to ensure the grant program is being administered... following methods: Mail: Carol Wagner, Certified State Mediation Program Manager, USDA, FSA, Appeals...

  19. Purity of Gaussian states: Measurement schemes and time evolution in noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a systematic study of the purity for Gaussian states of single-mode continuous variable systems. We prove the connection of purity to observable quantities for these states, and show that the joint measurement of two conjugate quadratures is necessary and sufficient to determine the purity at any time. The statistical reliability and the range of applicability of the proposed measurement scheme are tested by means of Monte Carlo simulated experiments. We then consider the dynamics of purity in noisy channels. We derive an evolution equation for the purity of general Gaussian states both in thermal and in squeezed thermal baths. We show that purity is maximized at any given time for an initial coherent state evolving in a thermal bath, or for an initial squeezed state evolving in a squeezed thermal bath whose asymptotic squeezing is orthogonal to that of the input state

  20. Purity of Gaussian states: measurement schemes and time-evolution in noisy channels

    CERN Document Server

    Paris, M A G; Serafini, A; De Siena, S

    2003-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the purity for Gaussian states of single-mode continuous variable systems. We prove the connection of purity to observable quantities for these states, and show that the joint measurement of two conjugate quadratures is necessary and sufficient to determine the purity at any time. The statistical reliability and the range of applicability of the proposed measurement scheme is tested by means of Monte Carlo simulated experiments. We then consider the dynamics of purity in noisy channels. We derive an evolution equation for the purity of general Gaussian states both in thermal and squeezed thermal baths. We show that purity is maximized at any given time for an initial coherent state evolving in a thermal bath, or for an initial squeezed state evolving in a squeezed thermal bath whose asymptotic squeezing is orthogonal to that of the input state.

  1. The lower bound to the concurrence for four-qubit W state under noisy channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espoukeh, Pakhshan; Pedram, Pouria

    2015-02-01

    We study the dynamics of four-qubit W state under various noisy environments by solving analytically the master equation in the Lindblad form in which the Lindblad operators correspond to the Pauli matrices and describe the decoherence of states. Also, we investigate the dynamics of the entanglement using the lower bound to the concurrence. It is found that while the entanglement decreases monotonically for Pauli-Z noise, it decays suddenly for other three noises. Moreover, by studying the time evolution of entanglement of various maximally entangled four-qubit states, we indicate that the four-qubit W state is more robust under same-axis Pauli channels. Furthermore, three-qubit W state preserves more entanglement with respect to the four-qubit W state, except for the Pauli-Z noise.

  2. Information guided channel hopping with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2012-10-01

    In order to realize the information guided channel hopping, also known as spatial modulation, with more design flexibility, in this paper we propose a novel scheme that allows operation with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas. Once the number of transmit antennas is not a power of two, the antennas\\' symbols are mapped by different numbers of bits. Subsequently, constellations with different orders are exploited for the modulation of radiated symbols so as to guarantee that the total number of bits transmitted at each time slot remains the same. Furthermore, we introduce a decoding algorithm with low complexity for this design. Numerical results on bit error rate performance are provided and substantiate that the proposed scheme turns out to be a promising alternative to the design of information guided channel hopping. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Healthcare.gov State Marketplace Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Every state will have a Health Insurance Marketplace, but each state can choose how it will operate. States can create and run their own Marketplace, or have a...

  4. Reasoning About Information Flow Security of Separation Kernels with Channel-based Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yongwang; Sann, David; Zhang, Fuyuan; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Assurance of information flow security by formal methods is mandated in security certification of separation kernels. As an industrial standard for separation kernels, ARINC 653 has been complied with by mainstream separation kernels. Security of functionalities defined in ARINC 653 is thus very important for the development and certification of separation kernels. This paper presents the first effort to formally specify and verify separation kernels with ARINC 653 channel-based communication...

  5. Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... more likely than men to have used the Internet for health information. Women were more likely than men to have ...

  6. Probabilistic Remote Preparation of a Three-Particle Entangled State via Two Different Non-maximally Entangled Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We present two schemes for preparing remotely a three-particle entangled state by two different quantum channels. In the first scheme, two partial three-particle entangled states are used as the quantum channels, while in the second scheme, three two-particle non-maximally entangled states are employed as the quantum channels. It is shown that the remote state preparation can be successfully realized with certain probability, for both two schemes, if a sender performs some projective measurements and a receiver adopts some appropriate unitary transformations. It is shown also that the successful probabilities of these two schemes are different.

  7. Information flow in agriculture – through new channels for improved effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Csótó

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has undergone significant changes since the industrial revolution. The industrial age and the market economy have moulded agriculture in their image just as much as the characteristics and tools of the information age have recently been transforming its previous operation. Information and communication technology (ICTtake-up in agriculture remains low, and the reasons behind this barely changed in the last 20-30 years. Information technologies are regarded as mediating channels and a vehicle for new services. It is important to research the various aspects of adoption of newinformation technology, and also not only the use, but the “effective use” of it (Gurstein,2003. Information-intensive agriculture is fundamentally determined by information, knowledge and the decision-making farmers, in effect the human factor; therefore, studies aimed at the improvement of the situation of agriculture with ICT tools must be centred on the human element.

  8. KIR channel activation contributes to onset and steady-state exercise hyperemia in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Crecelius, Anne R.; Luckasen, Gary J.; Dennis G Larson; Dinenno, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR) channels and Na+-K+-ATPase, two pathways that lead to hyperpolarization of vascular cells, contributes to both the onset and steady-state hyperemic response to exercise. We also determined whether after inhibiting these pathways nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in the hyperemic response. Forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) was determined during rhythmic handgrip exercise at 10% maxi...

  9. Three-Party Controlled Quantum Teleportation with Six-Photon Entangled States via Collective Noise Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two three-party controlled quantum teleportation protocols using six-photon entangled states are proposed for circumventing collective noise. It can be performed in collective-dephasing noise or collective-rotation noise with unitary successful probability. Due to the symmetry of the quantum channel, each participant can act as a sender, a receiver or a controller. Moreover, it can be generalized to multiparty controlled teleportation protocols. (authors)

  10. Study on target characteristic polarization state in co-polarized channel for the coherent case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The target characteristic polarization state in the co-polarized channel for the coherent case was studied in greater detail, with emphasis on the analysis of the characteristic polarization states variable with the target parameters. The Sinclair backscatter matrix was diagonalized under the change of polariza- tion basis via a unitary transformation matrix. Then the diagonal matrix was parameterized by four parameters viz. matrix amplitude, absolute phase, amplitude ratio and phase difference. The behavior of the characteristic polarization states with the varieties of target parameters was discussed together with the power density plot. The characteristic polarization states were displayed on the Poincare sphere and six conclusions were obtained, which provide theoretic support for decreasing the computational complexity of target characteristic polarization state, or anticipating its position in the power density plot. Several simple target cases were considered for validating these conclusions.

  11. Study on target characteristic polarization state in co-polarized channel for the coherent case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang; GAO Gui; ZHOU XiaoGuang; JIANG YongMei; KUANG GangYao

    2009-01-01

    The target characteristic polarization state in the co-polarized channel for the coherent case was studied in greater detail,with emphasis on the analysis of the characteristic polarization states variable with the target parameters.The Sinclair backscatter matrix was diagonalized under the change of polarization basis via a unitary transformation matrix.Then the diagonal matrix was parameterized by four parameters viz.matrix amplitude,absolute phase,amplitude ratio and phase difference.The behavior of the characteristic polarization states with the varieties of target parameters was discussed together with the power density plot.The characteristic polarization states were displayed on the Poincare sphere and six conclusions were obtained,which provide theoretic support for decreasing the computational complexity of target characteristic polarization state,or anticipating its position in the power density plot.Several simple target cases were considered for validating these conclusions.

  12. Dirac Coupled Channel Analyses of the high-lying excited states at $^{22}$Ne(p,p$'$)$^{22}$Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, Sugie

    2015-01-01

    Dirac phenomenological coupled channel analyses are performed using an optical potential model for the high-lying excited vibrational states at 800 MeV unpolarized proton inelastic scatterings from $^{22}$Ne nucleus. Lorentz-covariant scalar and time-like vector potentials are used as direct optical potentials and the first-order vibrational collective model is used for the transition optical potentials to describe the high-lying excited vibrational collective states. The complicated Dirac coupled channel equations are solved phenomenologically using a sequential iteration method by varying the optical potential and the deformation parameters. Relativistic Dirac coupled channel calculations are able to describe the high-lying excited states of the vibrational bands in $^{22}$Ne clearly better than the nonrelativistic coupled channel calculations. The channel-coupling effects of the multistep process for the excited states of the vibrational bands are investigated. The deformation parameters obtained from the ...

  13. The Effect of Information Sources and Communication Channels on the diffusion of Innovation in a Data Base Development Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sree Nilakanta; Richard W. Scamell

    1990-01-01

    Increasing importance of emerging information technology, especially the data base component, has prompted the examination of the process of diffusion of innovations in the context of data base system development. This paper (1) examines the extent to which information sources and communication channels facilitate the diffusion of data base design tools and techniques, (2) studies how different information sources and communication channels influence diffusion and (3) assesses whether data ba...

  14. Boundary state in open string channel and open/closed string field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Isono, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    We generalize the idea of boundary states to open string channel. They describe the emission and absorption of the open string in the presence of intersecting D-branes. We study the algebra between such states under the star products of string field theory and confirm that they are projectors in a generalized sense. Based on this observation, we propose a modular dual description of Witten's open string field theory which seems to be an appropriate set-up to study D-branes by string field the...

  15. Adaptive Channel Estimation based on Soft Information Processing in Broadband Spatial Multiplexing Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Beinschob

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel approach in Multiple-Input Multiple Output (MIMO Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM channel estimation technique based on a Decision Directed Recursive Least Squares (RLS algorithm in which no pilot symbols need to be integrated in the data after a short initial preamble. The novelty and key concept of the proposed technique is the block-wise causal and anti-causal RLS processing that yields two independent processings of RLS along with the associated decisions. Due to the usage of low density parity check (LDPC channel code, the receiver operates with soft information, which enables us to introduce a new modification of the Turbo principle as well as a simple information combining approach based on approximated aposteriori log-likelihood ratios (LLRs. Although the computational complexity is increased by both of our approaches, the latter is relatively less complex than the former. Simulation results show that these implementations outperform the simple RLS-DDCE algorithm and yield lower bit error rates (BER and more accurate channel estimates.

  16. Quantum channels with a finite memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, G; Bowen, Garry; Mancini, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study quantum communication channels with correlated noise effects, i.e., quantum channels with memory. We derive a model for correlated noise channels that includes a channel memory state. We examine the case where the memory is finite, and derive bounds on the classical and quantum capacities. For the entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities it is shown that these bounds are attainable for certain classes of channel. Also, we show that the structure of any finite memory state is unimportant in the asymptotic limit, and specifically, for a perfect finite-memory channel where no information is lost to the environment, the channel is asymptotically noiseless.

  17. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  18. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  19. RFI channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceliece, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A class of channel models is presented which exhibit varying burst error severity much like channels encountered in practice. An information-theoretic analysis of these channel models is made, and conclusions are drawn that may aid in the design of coded communication systems for realistic noisy channels.

  20. KIR channel activation contributes to onset and steady-state exercise hyperemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecelius, Anne R; Luckasen, Gary J; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2014-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR) channels and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, two pathways that lead to hyperpolarization of vascular cells, contributes to both the onset and steady-state hyperemic response to exercise. We also determined whether after inhibiting these pathways nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in the hyperemic response. Forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) was determined during rhythmic handgrip exercise at 10% maximal voluntary contraction for 5 min in the following conditions: control [saline; trial 1 (T1)]; with combined inhibition of KIR channels and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alone [via barium chloride (BaCl2) and ouabain, respectively; trial 2 (T2)]; and with additional combined nitric oxide synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine) and cyclooxygenase inhibition [ketorolac; trial 3 (T3)]. In T2, the total hyperemic responses were attenuated ~50% from control (P 120 ± 15 ml/min; -29 ± 3%; P < 0.05 vs. T2). In protocol 3 (n = 8), BaCl2 alone reduced FBF during onset (~50%) and steady-state exercise (~30%) as observed in protocols 1 and 2, respectively, and addition of ouabain had no further impact. Our data implicate activation of KIR channels as a novel contributing pathway to exercise hyperemia in humans. PMID:24973385

  1. Information-Theoretic Analysis of Underwater Acoustic OFDM Systems in Highly Dispersive Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Xavier Socheleau

    2012-01-01

    established by the ISI/ICI and are based on lower bounds on mutual information that assume independent and identically distributed input data symbols. In agreement with recent statistical analyses of experimental shallow-water data, the channel is modeled as a multivariate Rician fading process with a slowly time-varying mean and with potentially correlated scatterers, which is more general than the common wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scattering model. Numerical assessments on real UA channels with spread factors around 10−1 show that reliable OFDM transmissions at 2 to 4 bits/sec/Hz are achievable provided an average signal-to-noise ratio of 15 to 20 dB.

  2. Information theory and statistical nuclear reactions. I. General theory and applications to few-channel problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, P.A.; Pereyra, P.; Seligman, T.H.

    1985-05-01

    Ensembles of scattering S-matrices have been used in the past to describe the statistical fluctuations exhibited by many nuclear-reaction cross sections as a function of energy. In recent years, there have been attempts to construct these ensembles explicitly in terms of S, by directly proposinng a statistical law for S. In the present paper, it is shown that, for an arbitrary number of channels, one can incorporate, in the ensemble of S-matrices, the conditions of flux conservation, time-reversal invariance, causality, ergodicity, and the requirement that the ensemble average coincide with the optical scattering matrix. Since these conditions do not specify the ensemble uniquely, the ensemble that has maximum information-entropy is dealt with among those that satisfy the above requirements. Some applications to few-channel problems and comparisons to Monte-Carlo calculations are presented.

  3. 76 FR 588 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Workforce Information Grants to States Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Information Grant Plan and Annual Performance Report) through Training and Employment Guidance Letter (TEGL) 3... supporting state and local workforce system transformational efforts. Therefore, ETA expects states through... makers, workforce system staff, job seekers, and external partners. These workforce information...

  4. Redundant imprinting of information in non-ideal environments: Quantum Darwinism via a noisy channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, Haitao; Zurek, Wojciech

    2011-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate. It recognizes that we - the observers - acquire our information about the ``systems of interest'' indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Objectivity, a key property of the classical world, arises via the proliferation of redundant information into the environment where many observers can then intercept it and independently determine the state of the system. While causing a system to decohere, environments that remain nearly invariant under the Hamiltonian dynamics, such as very mixed states, have a diminished ability to transmit information about the system, yet can still acquire redundant information about the system [1,2]. Our results show that Quantum Darwinism is robust with respect to non-ideal initial states of the environment. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  5. Redundant imprinting of information in nonideal environments: Objective reality via a noisy channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H. T.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2010-06-01

    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the objective, classical world from the quantum substrate. The key to this emergence is the proliferation of redundant information throughout the environment where observers can then intercept it. We study this process for a purely decohering interaction when the environment, E, is in a nonideal (e.g., mixed) initial state. In the case of good decoherence, that is, after the pointer states have been unambiguously selected, the mutual information between the system, S, and an environment fragment, F, is given solely by F’s entropy increase. This demonstrates that the environment’s capacity for recording the state of S is directly related to its ability to increase its entropy. Environments that remain nearly invariant under the interaction with S, either because they have a large initial entropy or a misaligned initial state, therefore have a diminished ability to acquire information. To elucidate the concept of good decoherence, we show that, when decoherence is not complete, the deviation of the mutual information from F’s entropy change is quantified by the quantum discord, i.e., the excess mutual information between S and F is information regarding the initial coherence between pointer states of S. In addition to illustrating these results with a single-qubit system interacting with a multiqubit environment, we find scaling relations for the redundancy of information acquired by the environment that display a universal behavior independent of the initial state of S. Our results demonstrate that Quantum Darwinism is robust with respect to nonideal initial states of the environment: the environment almost always acquires redundant information about the system but its rate of acquisition can be reduced.

  6. Automatic seizure detection based on the combination of newborn multi-channel EEG and HRV information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Mostefa; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

    2012-12-01

    This article proposes a new method for newborn seizure detection that uses information extracted from both multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) and a single channel electrocardiogram (ECG). The aim of the study is to assess whether additional information extracted from ECG can improve the performance of seizure detectors based solely on EEG. Two different approaches were used to combine this extracted information. The first approach, known as feature fusion, involves combining features extracted from EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) into a single feature vector prior to feeding it to a classifier. The second approach, called classifier or decision fusion, is achieved by combining the independent decisions of the EEG and the HRV-based classifiers. Tested on recordings obtained from eight newborns with identified EEG seizures, the proposed neonatal seizure detection algorithms achieved 95.20% sensitivity and 88.60% specificity for the feature fusion case and 95.20% sensitivity and 94.30% specificity for the classifier fusion case. These results are considerably better than those involving classifiers using EEG only (80.90%, 86.50%) or HRV only (85.70%, 84.60%).

  7. Informational Asymmetries in Laboratory Asset Markets with State Dependent Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Keser, Claudia; Markstädter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the formation of market prices in a new experimental setting involving multi-period asset markets with state-dependent fundamentals. We are particularly interested in two informational aspects: (1) the role of traders who are informed about the true state and (2) the provision of Bayesian updates of the assets state-dependent fundamental value (BFVs) to all traders. We find that bubbles are a rare phenomenon in all our treatments. Markets with asymmetrically informed traders co...

  8. Open State Destabilization by Atp Occupancy Is Mechanism Speeding Burst Exit Underlying KATP Channel Inhibition by Atp

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lehong; Geng, Xuehui; Drain, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel is named after its characteristic inhibition by intracellular ATP. The inhibition is a centerpiece of how the KATP channel sets electrical signaling to the energy state of the cell. In the β cell of the endocrine pancreas, for example, ATP inhibition results from high blood glucose levels and turns on electrical activity leading to insulin release. The underlying gating mechanism (ATP inhibition gating) includes ATP stabilization of closed states, bu...

  9. Entangled States Used in Remote Information Concentration and Their Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yin-Hua; YU Ya-Fei; ZHANG Zhi-Ming

    2006-01-01

    We analyse a process of remote information concentration achieved by the W state. The result turns out to be neither as good as performed by the GHZ state nor as by the Smolin bound entangled state. Based on this particular phenomenon, the properties of the three entangled states are realized.

  10. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 86 - State Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Information C Appendix C to Part 86 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN... State Office Building, Des Moines, IA 50319 6 Release within State, COMM: 515-281-5138. State of...

  11. Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    . Using this setup we have experimentally and theoretically investigated Gaussian quantum discord, continuous variable quantum key distribution and quantum polarization. The Gaussian discord broadens the definition of non-classical correlations from entanglement, to all types of correlations which cannot......The thesis is built up around a versatile optical experimental setup based on a laser, two optical parametric ampliers, a few sets of modulators and two sets of homodyne detectors, which together with passive linear optics generate, process and characterize various types of Gaussian quantum states...... in the mixture of coherent states. Further we investigate the robustness of the discord of a broader range of states and suggest a toolbox of states which can be used to test if a protocol is discord based, before performing a rigid proof. Gaussian quantum key distribution can be implemented with current...

  12. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed.

  13. Exact coherent states and connections to turbulent dynamics in minimal channel flow

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Several new families of nonlinear three-dimensional travelling wave solutions to the Navier-Stokes equation, also known as exact coherent states, are computed for Newtonian plane Poiseuille flow. The symmetries and streak/vortex structures are reported and their possible connections to critical layer dynamics examined. While some of the solutions clearly display fluctuations that are localized around the critical layer (the surface on which the streamwise velocity matches the wave speed of the solution), for others this connection is not as clear. Dynamical trajectories along unstable directions of the solutions are computed. Over certain ranges of Reynolds number, two solution families are shown to lie on the basin boundary between laminar and turbulent flow. Direct comparison of nonlinear travelling wave solutions to turbulent flow in the same channel is presented. The state-space dynamics of the turbulent flow are organized around one of the newly-identified travelling wave families, and in particular the ...

  14. Managing Information Resources: New Directions in State Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Sharon L.; Marchand, Donald A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a national survey of management policies and practices applied to information and information technology in state government. Management approaches and trends are discussed in the areas of data processing, telecommunications, office automation, records management, state library services, policy formation, budgeting and accounting,…

  15. The Asymmetric Information Model of State Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Nickolay V. Moshkin; Ron Shachar

    2002-01-01

    Marketing researchers and practitioners are interested in consumer loyalty because of its managerial consequences. Previous empirical studies find that consumers are loyal not only to a brand, but also to a firm (umbrella brand). That is, even when firms offer products, consumers tend to continue to purchase from the same firm. This repeat-purchase behavior might result from or from . The meaning of state dependence is that the current choice behaviorally depends on the previous one. The trad...

  16. Asymmetric ion transport through ion-channel-mimetic solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-12-17

    Both scientists and engineers are interested in the design and fabrication of synthetic nanofluidic architectures that mimic the gating functions of biological ion channels. The effort to build such structures requires interdisciplinary efforts at the intersection of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology. Biological ion channels and synthetic nanofluidic devices have some structural and chemical similarities, and therefore, they share some common features in regulating the traverse ionic flow. In the past decade, researchers have identified two asymmetric ion transport phenomena in synthetic nanofluidic structures, the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. The rectified ionic current is a diode-like current-voltage response that occurs when switching the voltage bias. This phenomenon indicates a preferential direction of transport in the nanofluidic system. The net diffusion current occurs as a direct product of charge selectivity and is generated from the asymmetric diffusion through charged nanofluidic channels. These new ion transport phenomena and the elaborate structures that occur in biology have inspired us to build functional nanofluidic devices for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this Account, we review our recent progress in the design and fabrication of biomimetic solid-state nanofluidic devices with asymmetric ion transport behavior. We demonstrate the origin of the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. We also identify several influential factors and discuss how to build these asymmetric features into nanofluidic systems by controlling (1) nanopore geometry, (2) surface charge distribution, (3) chemical composition, (4) channel wall wettability, (5) environmental pH, (6) electrolyte concentration gradient, and (7) ion mobility. In the case of the first four features, we build these asymmetric features directly into the nanofluidic structures. With the final three, we construct

  17. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  18. D-branes as coherent states in the open string channel

    CERN Document Server

    Cantcheff, Marcelo Botta

    2007-01-01

    We show that bosonic D-brane states may be represented as coherent states in an open string representation. By using the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) formalism, we may construct a condensed state of open string modes which encodes the information on the D-brane configuration. We also introduce a construction alternative to TFD, which does not require to assume thermal equilibrium. It is shown that the dynamics of the system, combined with geometric properties of the duplication rules of TFD, is sufficient to obtain the thermal states and their analytic continuations in a geometric fashion. We adopt this approach to show that bosonic D-brane states in the open string sector may also be built as boundary states in a special sense. Some implications of this study on the interpretation of the open/closed duality and on the kinematical/algebraic structure of an open string field theory are also commented.

  19. Cloud Information Content Analysis for EPIC's Oxygen A- and B-band Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. B.; Sanghavi, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) instrument on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) will have two molecular oxygen channels: one for the well-known ``A'' band at~764 nm and one for the weaker ``B'' band at 688~nm. In both cases, a channel-integrated relative measurement of absorption is possible using an ``in-band'' channel and a nearby ``reference'' channel. Together, these four observations enable a rudimentary differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of O2 in the characteristic retro-reflection geometry of the L1 vantage point. A priori, we thus have at best two new pieces of cloud information to access. EPIC's pixels have 10x10 km2 footprints at nadir (center of the illuminated disk), more as the viewing angle increases away from local zenith. What new information can be learned about clouds from these data on a pixel-by-pixel basis? O2 A-band observations from space have been pioneered with CNES's POLDER, ESA's SCIAMACHY, and JAXA's GOSat. NASA's OCO-2, to be launched in early 2013, will also have A-band capability. POLDER has low spectral and spatial resolutions, but offers multiple viewing directions for every pixel; SCIAMACHY has higher spectral but worse spatial resolution and just one viewing angle. GOSat has very high spectral but rather low spatial resolutions, again with the possibility of dense angular sampling, but no imaging (just one pixel at a time). OCO-2, a narrow swath imager, will have similarly high spectral resolution and reasonably high ( ˜2~km) spatial resolution. Of these four LEO missions, two are focused on CO2 DOAS, with O2 being assayed operationally only to deliver it in ppm's. POLDER and SCIAMACHY however have official cloud products based on A-band measurements. They contain, at the least, an estimate of cloud top height and, at the most, that plus an estimate of cloud pressure thickness. Cloud optical depth and effective particle size are derived from other spectral data, including continuum values

  20. Natural Resources Information System for the State of Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research program was to continue developing, editing, maintaining, utilizing and making publicly available the Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, working with Geological Information Systems at the University of Oklahoma's Sarkeys Energy Center, undertook to construct this information system in response to the need for a computerized, centrally located library containing accurate, detailed information on the state's natural resources. Particular emphasis during this phase of development was placed on computerizing information related to the energy needs of the nation, specifically oil and gas

  1. Pennsylvania state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and State levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  2. Maryland state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and State levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Maryland. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  3. Florida state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with DOE, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Florida. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  4. Massachusetts state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Massachusetts. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  5. Illinois State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Illinois. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  6. Pennsylvania state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  7. Oregon state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  8. California state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of California. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  9. Massachusetts state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Massachusetts. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  10. Maryland State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Handbook Series Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Maryland. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  11. California state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of California. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  12. Iowa state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, By Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Iowa. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full test of relevant statutes and regulations.

  13. Oregon state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administater, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  14. Iowa state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, By Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Iowa. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full test of relevant statutes and regulations

  15. Illinois state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Illinois. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  16. Maryland State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Handbook Series Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Maryland. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  17. Pennsylvania state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and State levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  18. Oregon state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  19. Oregon state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administater, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  20. Florida state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with DOE, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Florida. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  1. Ohio state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-09

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by POLITECH CORPORATION to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of Ohio. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; the full test of relevant statutes and regulations.

  2. Weighted Markov Chains and Graphic State Nodes for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses users' search behavior and decision making in data mining and information retrieval. Describes iterative information seeking as a Markov process during which users advance through states of nodes; and explains how the information system records the decision as weights, allowing the incorporation of users' decisions into the Markov…

  3. Understanding Farmers Information Network Implication For Effective Extension Delivery In Akwa Ibom State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odoemelam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Appropriateness of information is a critical factor needed to stimulate the right knowledge and attitude of farmers towards sustainable transformation of agriculture. The study investigated the information network that exists among rural communities in Akwa-Ibom States and its implication for effective extension delivery. Even though AKADEPAkwa-Ibom State Agricultural Development Programmes are highly involved in the dissemination process it is important to analyze the information networks of the farmers to improve exchange of information with the following specific objectives identify the different wealth groups in the study area ascertain the information networks that exists in the area analyze the different information types and assess the strength and weakness of the information sources. Data were generated through Focus Group Discussion and Participatory Observation employing different methodologies like wealth ranking information diagram and linkage matrix analysis using Likerts scale type. Data generated were analyzed with simple descriptive statistics and means. Major results show that in wealth ranking two groups of respondents were identified the female households with mean score between 1.9 and male headed household with mean score of 2.00 2.99. on information network farmer to farmer with 21 market 14 church 15 were highest source of their information network. On perceived weakness and strength of the information network the information quality frequency of use timeliness of information flow and link up of information were adequate while reliability of information was not adequate. The results show that intra community information flow was suitable and accessible to rich farmers while inaccessible and often irrelevant to poor farmers. Therefore in the face of threat to food insecurity prevalent in the country it is important to put in place a platform that will afford farmers to ask questions and get substantive responses

  4. Entanglement and purity of two-mode Gaussian states in noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the evolution of purity, entanglement, and total correlations of general two-mode continuous variable Gaussian states in arbitrary uncorrelated Gaussian environments. The time evolution of purity, von Neumann entropy, logarithmic negativity, and mutual information is analyzed for a wide range of initial conditions. In general, we find that a local squeezing of the bath leads to a faster degradation of purity and entanglement, while it can help to preserve the mutual information between the modes

  5. Entanglement and purity of two-mode Gaussian states in noisy channels

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, A; Paris, M G A; De Siena, S; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Siena, Silvio De

    2004-01-01

    We study the evolution of purity, entanglement and total correlations of general two--mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems in arbitrary uncorrelated Gaussian environments. The time evolution of purity, Von Neumann entropy, logarithmic negativity and mutual information is analyzed for a wide range of initial conditions. In general, we find that a local squeezing of the bath leads to a faster degradation of purity and entanglement, while it can help to preserve the mutual information between the modes.

  6. Effects of information transmission delay and channel blocking on synchronization in scale-free Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yun Wang; Yan-Hong Zheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the evolution of spatiotemporal patterns and synchronization transitions in dependence on the information transmission delay and ion channel blocking in scale-free neuronal networks.As the underlying model of neuronal dynamics,we use the HodgkinHuxley equations incorporating channel blocking and intrinsic noise.It is shown that delays play a significant yet subtle role in shaping the dynamics of neuronal networks.In particular,regions of irregular and regular propagating excitatory fronts related to the synchronization transitions appear intermittently as the delay increases.Moreover,the fraction of working sodium and potassium ion channels can also have a significant impact on the spatiotemporal dynamics of neuronal networks.As the fraction of blocked sodium channels increases,the frequency of excitatory events decreases,which in turn manifests as an increase in the neuronal synchrony that,however,is dysfunctional due to the virtual absence of large-amplitude excitations.Expectedly,we also show that larger coupling strengths improve synchronization irrespective of the information transmission delay and channel blocking.The presented results are also robust against the variation of the network size,thus providing insights that could facilitate understanding of the joint impact of ion channel blocking and information transmission delay on the spatiotemporal dynamics of neuronal networks.

  7. Information resources in state regulatory agencies-a California perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiZio, S.M. [California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Various state regulatory agencies have expressed a need for networking with information gatherers/researchers to produce a concise compilation of primary information so that the basis for regulatory standards can be scientifically referenced. California has instituted several programs to retrieve primary information, generate primary information through research, and generate unique regulatory standards by integrating the primary literature and the products of research. This paper describes these programs.

  8. Multi-Photon Multi-Channel Interferometry for Quantum Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dhand, Ish

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports advances in the theory of design, characterization and simulation of multi-photon multi-channel interferometers. I advance the design of interferometers through an algorithm to realize an arbitrary discrete unitary transformation on the combined spatial and internal degrees of freedom of light. This procedure effects an arbitrary $n_{s}n_{p}\\times n_{s}n_{p}$ unitary matrix on the state of light in $n_{s}$ spatial and $n_{p}$ internal modes. I devise an accurate and precise procedure for characterizing any multi-port linear optical interferometer using one- and two-photon interference. Accuracy is achieved by estimating and correcting systematic errors that arise due to spatiotemporal and polarization mode mismatch. Enhanced accuracy and precision are attained by fitting experimental coincidence data to a curve simulated using measured source spectra. The efficacy of our characterization procedure is verified by numerical simulations. I develop group-theoretic methods for the analysis and ...

  9. Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis on 4H-SiC Buried Channel MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; LU Hong-Liang; ZHANG Yi-Men; ZHANG Yu-Ming; YE Li-Hui

    2008-01-01

    With the combined use of the drift-diffusion (DD) model,experimental measured parameters and small-signal sinusoidal steady-state analysis,we extract the Y-parameters for 4H-SiC buried-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (BCMOSFETs). Output short-circuit current gain G and Mason's invariant U are calculated for extrapolating unity current gain frequency in the common-source configuration fT and the maximum frequency of oscillation fmax,respectively.Here fT = 800 MHz and fmax = 5 GHz are extracted for the 4H-SiC BCMOSFETs,while the field effect mobility reaches its peak value 87cm2/Vs when VGs = 4.5 V.Simulation results clearly show that the characteristic frequency of 4H-SiC BCMOSFETs and field effect mobility are superior,due to the novel structure,compared with conventional MOSFETs.

  10. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  11. Discovery Channel Telescope software component template and state design: principles and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Paul J.; Lacasse, Michael J.; Godwin, Ryan C.

    2012-09-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope is a 4.3m astronomical research telescope in northern Arizona constructed through a partnership between Discovery Communications and Lowell Observatory. The control software for the telescope and observatory systems consists of stand-alone, state-based components that respond to triggers (external signals or internal data changes). Component applications execute on Windows, real-time, and FPGA targets. The team has developed a template for a system component, the implementation of which has yielded large gains in productivity, robustness, and maintainability. These benefits follow from the dependence of the template on common, well-tested code, allowing a developer to focus on application-specific particulars unencumbered by details of infrastructure elements such as communication, and from the separation of concerns the architecture provides, ensuring that modifications are straightforward, separable, and consequently relatively safe. We describe a repeatable design process for developing a state machine design, and show how this translates directly into a concrete implementation utilizing several design patterns, illustrating this with examples from components of the functioning active optics system. We also present a refined top-level state machine design and rules for highly independent component interactions within and between hierarchies that we propose offer a general solution for large component-based control systems.

  12. Incident and Trafficking Database: New Systems for Reporting and Accessing State Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB) is the Agency's authoritative source for information on incidents in which nuclear and other radioactive material is out of national regulatory control. It was established in 1995 and, as of June 2014, 126 States participate in the ITDB programme. Currently, the database contains over 2500 confirmed incidents, out of which 21% involve nuclear material, 62% radioactive source and 17% radioactively contaminated material. In recent years, the system for States to report incidents to the ITDB has been evolving — moving from fax-based to secure email and most recently to secure on-line reporting. A Beta version of the on-line system was rolled out this June, offering a simple, yet secure, communication channel for member states to provide information. In addition the system serves as a central hub for information related to official communication of the IAEA with Member States so some communication that is traditionally shared by e-mail does not get lost when ITDB counterparts change. In addition the new reporting system incorporates optional features that allow multiple Member State users to collaboratively contribute toward an INF. States are also being given secure on-line access to a streamlined version of the ITDB. This improves States' capabilities to retrieve and analyze information for their own purposes. In addition, on-line access to ITDB statistical information on incidents is available to States through an ITDB Dashboard. The dashboard contains aggregate information on number and types of incidents, material involved, as well some other statistics related to the ITDB that is typically provided in the ITDB Quarterly reports. (author)

  13. Information searching trends through digital media channels and the impact of key words on customer’s response

    OpenAIRE

    Vidmar, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    In the modern world digital media channels, especially ones accessible via browsers, have an extreme influence on consumer decision process. This diploma thesis analyses the trends of information searching as well as the influence of search marketing on search engine performance. Search engines are the basic tools for finding and collecting information, both of which are crucial in consumer decision processes. The thesis continues with an overview of a modern consumer’s information searching ...

  14. Chaos in quantum channels

    CERN Document Server

    Hosur, Pavan; Roberts, Daniel A; Yoshida, Beni

    2015-01-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  15. D-branes as coherent states in the open string channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta Cantcheff, M.

    2008-06-01

    We show that bosonic D-branestates may be represented as coherent states in an open string representation. By using the thermo field dynamics (TFD) formalism, we may construct a condensed state of open string modes that encodes the information on the D-braneconfiguration. We also introduce a construction alternative to TFD, which does not require one to assume thermal equilibrium. It is shown that the dynamics of the system combined with the geometric properties of the duplication rules of TFD is sufficient to obtain the thermal states and their analytic continuations in a geometric fashion. We use this approach to show that a bosonic D-branestate in the open string sector may also be built as boundary states in a special sense. Some implications of this study for the interpretation of the open/closed duality and on the kinematic/algebraic structure of an open string field theory are also commented on.

  16. Reinventing Nordic Openness : Transparency and State Information in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    ErkkilÀ, Tero

    2010-01-01

    The study explores new ideational changes in the information strategy of the Finnish state between 1998 and 2007, after a juncture in Finnish governing in the early 1990s. The study scrutinizes the economic reframing of institutional openness in Finland that comes with significant and often unintended institutional consequences of transparency. Most notably, the constitutional principle of publicity (julkisuusperiaate), a Nordic institutional peculiarity allowing public access to state inform...

  17. Critical assessment of OmpF channel selectivity: merging information from different experimental protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion selectivity of a channel can be quantified in several ways by using different experimental protocols. A wide, mesoscopic channel, the OmpF porin of the outer membrane of E. coli, serves as a case study for comparing and analysing several measures of the channel cation-anion permeability in chlorides of alkali metals (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl). We show how different insights can be gained and integrated to rationalize the global image of channel selectivity. To this end, reversal potential, channel conductance and bi-ionic potential (two different salts with a common anion on each side of the channel but with the same concentration) experiments are discussed in light of an electrodiffusion model based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck formalism. Measurements and calculations based on the atomic crystal structure of the channel show that each protocol displays a particular balance between the different sources of selectivity.

  18. Information channel effects on women intention to purchase irradiated food in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Oh, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Yohan; Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kim, Soon-Bok; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Since the first irradiated food was approved and commercialized in 1987, most of Koreans still do not accept the irradiated food until now. It is reasoned that there are the ambiguous fear of nuclear technology and the confusion between irradiated food and radioactive-contaminated food. This investigation was carried out to examine the acknowledgement of irradiated food in Korean housewives and to study how to enhance the intention of purchasing the irradiated food. About 600 Korean housewives participated in the survey on the irradiated food in 2007, more than two-thirds of them were not aware of irradiated food. One hundred and fifty-four women who had known of irradiated food were subjected to an experiment for the source of information about irradiated food (e.g., lecture by an expert, video-watching and book-reading) in order to explore which type of information channel is the most effective in eliciting purchase intention. The result showed that the women group who had heard the lecture by an expert indicated the highest intention to purchase irradiated food, followed by the video-watching and the book-reading groups. In addition, the acceptance of the irradiated food had shown to lead the support for nuclear industry.

  19. Undermining the state? Informal mining and trajectories of state formation in Eastern Mindanao, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Building on critical perspectives on the state and the informal economy, this article provides an analysis of the “state of the state” on the eastern Mindanao mineral frontier. In the first instance, the author explains that the massive expansion of informal small-scale gold mining, instead of under

  20. Multifaceted determinants of online non-prescription drug information seeking and the impact on consumers' use of purchase channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgräfe, Catherine; Zentes, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    The growing importance of the Internet as an information and purchasing channel is drawing widespread attention from marketing decision makers. Nevertheless, the relevance of the Internet to the so-called self-medication market in Germany has been paid barely enough attention. Our study aims to contribute insights concerning the penetration of the Internet in this market, as well as to give an overview of the critical determinants of Internet use for non-prescription drug information seeking, such as the accessibility of professional information, trust in health professionals' opinion and the ability to search online, as well as the perceived usefulness and credibility of online non-prescription drug information. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the preferred use of the Internet as a non-prescription drug information source positively influences the choice of unconventional purchase channels for non-prescription drugs and negatively affects the use of stationary pharmacies. PMID:22733678

  1. The State of Information and Communication Technology in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gerami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of information and communicationtechnologies depend on several factors like government policythat encourage investors to spend their money in building ITinfrastructure and force business or particular institution toadopt the new technologies to bring the price down and manyothers. This paper investigates the state of Information andCommunication Technology in Iran.

  2. State FFA Officers' Confidence and Trustworthiness of Biotechnology Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.

    2007-01-01

    Are state FFA officers' awareness levels of agricultural topics reported in mass media superior to those who do not serve in leadership roles? The purpose of this study was to determine elected state FFA officers' awareness of biotechnology, and their confidence and trust of biotechnology information sources. Descriptive survey methods were used…

  3. Entanglement and purity of two-mode Gaussian states in noisy channels

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, A.; Illuminati, F.; M. Paris; De Siena, S.

    2003-01-01

    We study the evolution of purity, entanglement and total correlations of general two--mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems in arbitrary uncorrelated Gaussian environments. The time evolution of purity, Von Neumann entropy, logarithmic negativity and mutual information is analyzed for a wide range of initial conditions. In general, we find that a local squeezing of the bath leads to a faster degradation of purity and entanglement, while it can help to preserve the mutual informa...

  4. Holographic entanglement and causal information in coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalar solitons in global AdS4 are holographically dual to coherent states carrying a non-trivial condensate of a scalar operator. We study the holographic information content of these states, focusing on a particular spatial region, by examining the entanglement entropy and causal holographic information. We show generically that whenever the dimension of the condensed operator is sufficiently low (characterized by the double-trace operator becoming relevant), such coherent states have lower entanglement and causal holographic information than the vacuum state of the system, despite having greater energy. We also use these geometries to illustrate the fact that causal wedges associated with a simply-connected boundary region can have non-trivial topology even in causally trivial spacetimes

  5. Missouri State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Missouri. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; a description of the organization and structure of local governments affected by remedial action at the St. Louis area sites; a summary of relevant local ordinances and regulations; an identification of relevant public interest groups; a list of radio stations, television stations, and newspapers that provide public information to the St. Louis area or to Jefferson City; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  6. Missouri state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and rgulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Missouri. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; a description of the organization and structure of local governments affected by remedial action at the St. Louis area sites; a summary of relevant local ordinances and regulations; an identification of relevant public interest groups; a list of radio stations, television stations and newspapers that provide public information to the St. Louis area or to Jefferson City; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  7. Missouri State information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Missouri. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; a description of the organization and structure of local governments affected by remedial action at the St. Louis area sites; a summary of relevant local ordinances and regulations; an identification of relevant public interest groups; a list of radio stations, television stations, and newspapers that provide public information to the St. Louis area or to Jefferson City; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  8. Probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary GHZ-class state with a pure entangled two-particle quantum channel and its application in quantum state sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary GHZ-class state with a pure entangled two-particle quantum channel. The sender Alice first teleports the coefficients of the unknown state to the receiver Bob, and then Bob reconstructs the state with an auxiliary particle and some unitary operations if the teleportation succeeds. This scheme has the advantage of transmitting much less particles for teleporting an arbitrary GHZ-class state than others. Moreover, it discusses the application of this scheme in quantum state sharing.

  9. Effect of quantum noise on deterministic joint remote state preparation of a qubit state via a GHZ channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Ming; Qu, Zhi-Guo

    2016-08-01

    Quantum secure communication brings a new direction for information security. As an important component of quantum secure communication, deterministic joint remote state preparation (DJRSP) could securely transmit a quantum state with 100 % success probability. In this paper, we study how the efficiency of DJRSP is affected when qubits involved in the protocol are subjected to noise or decoherence. Taking a GHZ-based DJRSP scheme as an example, we study all types of noise usually encountered in real-world implementations of quantum communication protocols, i.e., the bit-flip, phase-flip (phase-damping), depolarizing and amplitude-damping noise. Our study shows that the fidelity of the output state depends on the phase factor, the amplitude factor and the noise parameter in the bit-flip noise, while the fidelity only depends on the amplitude factor and the noise parameter in the other three types of noise. And the receiver will get different output states depending on the first preparer's measurement result in the amplitude-damping noise. Our results will be helpful for improving quantum secure communication in real implementation.

  10. Information revolutions and spreading of communication channels: overview of divergence and/or convergence of the media

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Papić; Tomislav Jakopec; Milijana Mičunović

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the so-called information revolutions, with a special emphasis on the spreading of communication channels. The notion 'information revolution' is used conditionally – not in the sense of disruptive changes in communication models, but in the sense of expansion of communication possibilities. The revolutions were identified using Irving E. Fang's criteria. He defined six revolutions: writing, printing, mass media, using media for entertainment, the 'toolshe...

  11. Application of gamma scanning and neutron radiography methods to control fuel element state as tested in MR reactor loop channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-scanning and neutron radiography methods are described used for non-destructive control of fuel elements after their test in the loop channels of MR reactor, and also the equipment utilized. The techniques and the results obtained while studying fuel elements using the above mentioned methods are provided. It is established that gamma-scanning method can only indicate the presence of defect in the continuity of the fuel element core without identifying its type whereas the advantage of neutron radiography method is in obtaining visual results. At the same time gamma-scanning method makes it possible to determine energy release on the length of fuel elements, to find the burn up fraction, to study the phenomenon of fusion products migration which is difficult or impossible with neutron radiography method. A conclusion is drawn that gamma-scanning and neutron radiography methods successfully supplement each other and make it possible to obtain important information on fuel state in the irradiated fuel elements

  12. The $s$-channel Charged Higgs in the Fully Hadronic Final State at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Ijaz

    2016-01-01

    With the current measurements performed by CMS and ATLAS experiments, the light charged Higgs scenario ($m_{H^{\\pm}}$ $<$ 160 GeV), is excluded for most of the parameter space in the context of MSSM. However, there is still possibility to look for heavy charged Higgs boson particularly in the $s$-channel single top production process where the charged Higgs may appear as a heavy resonance state and decay to $t\\bar{b}$. The production process under consideration in this paper is $pp \\ra H^{\\pm} \\ra t\\bar{b}~+~h.c.$, where the top quark decays to $W^{+}b$ and $W^{+}$ boson subsequently decays to two light jets. It is shown that despite the presence of large QCD and electroweak background events, the charged Higgs signal can be extracted and observed at a large area of MSSM parameter space ($m_{H^{\\pm}}$,tan$\\beta$) at LHC. The observability of charged Higgs is potentially demonstrated with 5$\\sigma$ contours and $95\\%$ confidence level exclusion curves at different integrated LHC luminosities assuming a nomi...

  13. The s-channel charged Higgs in the fully hadronic final state at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ijaz [University of Malaya, National Center for Particle Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Hashemi, Majid [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tajuddin, Wan Ahmad [University of Malaya, National Center for Particle Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-04-15

    With the current measurements performed by CMS and ATLAS experiments, the light charged Higgs scenario (m{sub H}{sup {sub ±}} < 160 GeV), is excluded for most of the parameter space in the context of MSSM. However, there is still possibility to look for heavy charged Higgs boson particularly in the s-channel single top production process where the charged Higgs may appear as a heavy resonance state and decay to t anti b. The production process under consideration in this paper is pp → H{sup ±} → t anti b + h.c., where the top quark decays to W{sup +}b and W{sup +} boson subsequently decays to two light jets. It is shown that despite the presence of large QCD and electroweak background events, the charged Higgs signal can be extracted and observed at a large area of MSSM parameter space (m{sub H}{sup {sub ±}}, tanβ) at LHC. The observability of charged Higgs is potentially demonstrated with 5σ contours and 95% confidence level exclusion curves at different integrated LHC luminosities assuming a nominal center of mass energy of √(s) = 14 TeV. (orig.)

  14. Search for narrow pion-proton states in s-channel at EPECUR: experiment status

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, I G; Bordyuzhin, I G; Budkovsky, P Ye; Fedin, D A; Filimonov, Ye A; Golubev, V V; Kanavets, V P; Koroleva, L I; Kovalev, A I; Kozlenko, N G; Kozlov, V S; Krivshich, A G; Morozov, B V; Nesterov, V M; Novinsky, D V; Ryltsov, V V; Sadler, M; Sulimov, A D; Sumachev, V V; Svirida, D N; Tarakanov, V I; Trautman, V Yu

    2009-01-01

    An experiment EPECUR, aimed at the search of the cryptoexotic non-strange member of the pentaquark antidecuplet, started its operation at a pion beam line of the ITEP 10 GeV proton synchrotron. The invariant mass range of the interest (1610-1770) MeV will be scanned for a narrow state in the pion-proton and kaon-lambda systems in the formation-type experiment. The scan in the s-channel is supposed to be done by the variation of the incident pi- momentum and its measurement with the accuracy of up to 0.1% with a set of 1 mm pitch proportional chambers located in the first focus of the beam line. The reactions under the study will be identified by a magnetless spectrometer based on wire drift chambers with a hexagonal structure. Because the background suppression in this experiment depends on the angular resolution, the amount of matter in the chambers and setup is minimized to reduce multiple scattering. The differential cross section of the elastic pi-p-scattering on a liquid hydrogen target in the region of ...

  15. A collective coupled-channel model and mirror state energy displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, P. R.; Amos, K.; Canton, L.; Karataglidis, S.; van der Knijff, D.; Svenne, J. P.

    2015-09-01

    The spectra of nucleon-nucleus mirror systems allow examination of charge symmetry breaking in nucleon-nucleus interactions. To date, such examination has been performed with studies using microscopic models of structure. Herein we seek characterisation with a coupled-channel model in which the nucleon-nucleus interactions are described using a collective model prescription with the Pauli principle taken into account. The neutron-nucleus Hamiltonian is chosen to give the best match to the compound system spectrum, with emphasis on finding the correct ground state energy relative to the neutron-nucleus threshold. The Coulomb interactions for the proton-nucleus partner of a mirror pair are determined using charge distributions that match the root-mean-square charge radii of the nuclei in question. With the Coulomb interaction so defined modifying the neutron-nucleus Hamiltonian, we then predict a spectrum for the relevant proton-nucleus compound. Discrepancies in that resulting spectrum with measured values we tentatively ascribe to charge-symmetry breaking effects. We consider spectra obtained in this way for the mirror pairs 13C and 13N, 15C and 15F, and 15O and 15N, all to ˜ 10 MeV excitation.

  16. A collective coupled-channel model and mirror state energy displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra of nucleon-nucleus mirror systems allow examination of charge symmetry breaking in nucleon-nucleus interactions. To date, such examination has been performed with studies using microscopic models of structure. Herein we seek characterisation with a coupled-channel model in which the nucleon-nucleus interactions are described using a collective model prescription with the Pauli principle taken into account. The neutron-nucleus Hamiltonian is chosen to give the best match to the compound system spectrum, with emphasis on finding the correct ground state energy relative to the neutron-nucleus threshold. The Coulomb interactions for the proton-nucleus partner of a mirror pair are determined using charge distributions that match the root-mean-square charge radii of the nuclei in question. With the Coulomb interaction so defined modifying the neutron-nucleus Hamiltonian, we then predict a spectrum for the relevant proton-nucleus compound. Discrepancies in that resulting spectrum with measured values we tentatively ascribe to charge-symmetry breaking effects. We consider spectra obtained in this way for the mirror pairs 13C and 13N, 15C and 15F, and 15O and 15N, all to ∝ 10 MeV excitation. (orig.)

  17. Functional analysis and association state of water channel (AQP-1) isoforms purified from six mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, D J; van Hoek, A N

    1997-09-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) or CHIP28 occurs in glycosylated (glyCHIP) and non-glycosylated (CHIP) forms and solubilization in octyl-beta-D-glucoside (OG) results in a tight association of glyCHIP and CHIP to form a heterodimer. The tight association did not permit separation of the two forms by affinity chromatography. We examined the mechanism of the tight association by enzymatic removal of sugar moieties, utilized organic solvents for preferential solubilization and purified CHIP28 from six mammals for inspection of glycosylation and association state in OG. Removal of terminal saccharides sustained the dimeric state of human CHIP28, while endo-glycosidases induced the transition into monomers, without leaving an affinity tag for separation purposes. Separation was achieved by preferential solubilization of non-glycosylated CHIP28 in CHCl3/MeOH/H2O mixtures. The two CHIP28 forms were solubilized in SDS, chromatographed in OG, and reconstituted into proteoliposomes; pf values were 1.5 and 1.6 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). Among erythrocytes from cow, pig, sheep, rabbit, dog, and horse CHIP28, one out of two molecules was glycosylated and High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) analysis also indicated heterodimers in OG; functional analysis of reconstituted proteoliposomes gave single channel water permeabilities, pf's, ranging from 2.0-3.4 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). The results indicate that CHIP28 structure, function, and association in OG are conserved among mammals and establish procedures to obtain glycosylated and non-glycosylated CHIP28 in functional form. PMID:9417990

  18. Branding and Channel Issues in E-commerce from an Information System’s Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rina; Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce has matured and become mainstream. The fashion industry is now competing strongly in the digital markets. Beside traditional web-shops, new sales and branding channels are emerging e.g. M-commerce (mobile); social commerce; marketplaces; gaming etc. E-commerce and multi-channel retailing...

  19. Is Information Science an Anomalous State of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper looks at some of the problems in information science from the experience with similar problems in psycho logy. The apparent need for a set of rigorous definitions of the basic concepts is discussed, and it is argued that although this is necessary for the natural sciences...... it is not necessary for sciences which concern themselves with behavioral phenomena which have a prior description in natural language. It is further argued that information science should be more interested in uncertainty than in information, and it is shown how the Anomalous State of Knowledge (ASK) paradigm may...... be used to describe itself, hence also informa tion science. It is finally concluded that by turning to problems of uncertainty and lack of information, rather than information, information science may avoid many of the mistakes made by psychology....

  20. Remote atomic information concentration without Bell-state measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhen-Zhen; Fang Mao-Fa

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for information concentration of two remote two-level atoms in cavity QED. This scheme does not involve the Bell-state measurement. During the interaction between atom and cavity, the cavity frequency is large-detuned from the atomic transition frequency, thus the scheme is insensitive to both the cavity decay and the thermal field. This idea can directly be generalized in the case of multi-atom information concentration.

  1. DEFINITION INFORMATIVE INDICATORS OF HUMAN FUNCTIONAL STATE DURING LASER THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Tymchik, Gregory; Osadchiy, Oleksandr; Chupika, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    This article is about determination informative indicators of human functional state at laser therapy.Laser therapy occupies a special place among non-drug treatments. An important characteristic of such an impact is to assess the physiological state of man. The aim is to determine the efficiency of laser sensitivity by analyzing the structural and spectral characteristics of photoplethysmogram. The article describes the main indicators, namely the degree of blood supply providing organs and ...

  2. Exact Performance Analysis of Partial Relay Selection Based on Shadowing Side Information over Generalized Composite Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-01-01

    Relay technology has recently gained great interest in millimeter wave (60 GHz or above) radio frequencies as a promising transmission technique improving the quality of service, providing high data rate, and extending the coverage area without additional transmit power in deeply shadowed wireless environments. The performance of relay-based systems depends considerably on which relay selection protocols are used. These protocols are typically using the channel side information (CSI). Specifically, the relay terminal (RT) is chosen among all available RTs by a centralized entity (CE) which receives all RTs' CSI via feedback channels. However, in the millimeter wave radio frequencies, the rate of the variation of the CSI is much higher than that of a classical system operating in 6 GHz frequencies under the same mobility conditions, which evidently results in a serious problem causing outdated (inaccurate) CSI for the relay selection protocol at the CE since the feedback channels have a backhaul / transmission...

  3. State preparation for quantum information science and metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samblowski, Aiko

    2012-06-08

    The precise preparation of non-classical states of light is a basic requirement for performing quantum information tasks and quantum metrology. Depending on the assignment, the range of required states varies from preparing and modifying squeezed states to generating bipartite entanglement and establishing multimode entanglement networks. Every state needs special preparation techniques and hence it is important to develop the experimental expertise to generate all states with the desired degree of accuracy. In this thesis, the experimental preparation of different kinds of non-classical states of light is demonstrated. Starting with a multimode entangled state, the preparation of an unconditionally generated bound entangled state of light of unprecedented accuracy is shown. Its existence is of fundamental interest, since it certifies an intrinsic irreversibility of entanglement and suggests a connection with thermodynamics. The state is created in a network of linear optics, utilizing optical parametric amplifiers, operated below threshold, beam splitters and phase gates. The experimental platform developed here afforded the precise and stable control of all experimental parameters. Focusing on the aspect of quantum information networks, the generation of suitable bipartite entangled states of light is desirable. The optical connection between atomic transitions and light that can be transmitted via telecommunications fibers opens the possibility to employ quantum memories within fiber networks. For this purpose, a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator is operated above threshold and the generation of bright bipartite entanglement between its twin beams at the wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm is demonstrated. In the field of metrology, quantum states are used to enhance the measurement precision of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Recently, the sensitivity of a GW detector operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm was increased using squeezed

  4. State preparation for quantum information science and metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precise preparation of non-classical states of light is a basic requirement for performing quantum information tasks and quantum metrology. Depending on the assignment, the range of required states varies from preparing and modifying squeezed states to generating bipartite entanglement and establishing multimode entanglement networks. Every state needs special preparation techniques and hence it is important to develop the experimental expertise to generate all states with the desired degree of accuracy. In this thesis, the experimental preparation of different kinds of non-classical states of light is demonstrated. Starting with a multimode entangled state, the preparation of an unconditionally generated bound entangled state of light of unprecedented accuracy is shown. Its existence is of fundamental interest, since it certifies an intrinsic irreversibility of entanglement and suggests a connection with thermodynamics. The state is created in a network of linear optics, utilizing optical parametric amplifiers, operated below threshold, beam splitters and phase gates. The experimental platform developed here afforded the precise and stable control of all experimental parameters. Focusing on the aspect of quantum information networks, the generation of suitable bipartite entangled states of light is desirable. The optical connection between atomic transitions and light that can be transmitted via telecommunications fibers opens the possibility to employ quantum memories within fiber networks. For this purpose, a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator is operated above threshold and the generation of bright bipartite entanglement between its twin beams at the wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm is demonstrated. In the field of metrology, quantum states are used to enhance the measurement precision of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Recently, the sensitivity of a GW detector operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm was increased using squeezed

  5. Shannon information capacity of time reversal wideband multiple-input multiple-output system based on correlated statistical channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Bing-Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Ding

    2016-05-01

    Utilizing channel reciprocity, time reversal (TR) technique increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver with very low transmitter complexity in complex multipath environment. Present research works about TR multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication all focus on the system implementation and network building. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of antenna coupling on the capacity of wideband TR MIMO system, which is a realistic question in designing a practical communication system. It turns out that antenna coupling stabilizes the capacity in a small variation range with statistical wideband channel response. Meanwhile, antenna coupling only causes a slight detriment to the channel capacity in a wideband TR MIMO system. Comparatively, uncorrelated stochastic channels without coupling exhibit a wider range of random capacity distribution which greatly depends on the statistical channel. The conclusions drawn from information difference entropy theory provide a guideline for designing better high-performance wideband TR MIMO communication systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331007, 61361166008, and 61401065) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120185130001).

  6. Quantum information processing using designed defect states in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger;

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new physical implementation of spin qubits for quantum information processing, namely defect states in antidot lattices de¯ned in the two-dimensional electron gas at a semiconductor heterostructure. Calculations of the band structure of the periodic antidot lattice are presented. A p...

  7. Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    I dette projektarbejde med titlen “Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing” har målet været at generere optiske kat-tilstande. Dette er en kvantemekanisk superpositions tilstand af to koherente tilstande med stor amplitude. Sådan en tilstand er inter...

  8. Dynamics of sensory thalamocortical synaptic networks during information processing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A

    2004-11-01

    The thalamocortical network consists of the pathways that interconnect the thalamus and neocortex, including thalamic sensory afferents, corticothalamic and thalamocortical pathways. These pathways are essential to acquire, analyze, store and retrieve sensory information. However, sensory information processing mostly occurs during behavioral arousal, when activity in thalamus and neocortex consists of an electrographic sign of low amplitude fast activity, known as activation, which is caused by several neuromodulator systems that project to the thalamocortical network. Logically, in order to understand how the thalamocortical network processes sensory information it is essential to study its response properties during states of activation. This paper reviews the temporal and spatial response properties of synaptic pathways in the whisker thalamocortical network of rodents during activated states as compared to quiescent (non-activated) states. The evidence shows that these pathways are differentially regulated via the effects of neuromodulators as behavioral contingencies demand. Thus, during activated states, the temporal and spatial response properties of pathways in the thalamocortical network are transformed to allow the processing of sensory information.

  9. Online Information. Selected Databases at the New York State Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Library, Albany. Database Services.

    This brochure describes the online information services at the New York State Library, which has online access to over 250 databases covering a broad range of subject areas, including current events, law, science, medicine, public affairs, grants, business, computer technology, education, social welfare, and humanities. Many of these databases are…

  10. A criterion for quantum teleportation of an arbitrary N-particle state via a 2N-particle quantum channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A criterion for he tquantum teleportation of an arbitrary N-particle state via a 2N-particle quantum channel is presented by introducing a term of the “judgment operator. Using the criterion, not only the qualitative judgment of the possibility of successful teleportation can be made but also the quantitative calculation of the probability of successful teleportation can be explicitly given. In addition, a new genuine four-qubit entangled state is proposed, which could not belong to the category of previously known states under stochastic local operations and classical communication. (general)

  11. Fisher Information and entanglement of non-Gaussian spin states

    CERN Document Server

    Strobel, Helmut; Linnemann, Daniel; Zibold, Tilman; Hume, David B; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto; Oberthaler, Markus K

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is the key quantum resource for improving measurement sensitivity beyond classical limits. However, the production of entanglement in mesoscopic atomic systems has been limited to squeezed states, described by Gaussian statistics. Here we report on the creation and characterization of non-Gaussian many-body entangled states. We develop a general method to extract the Fisher information, which reveals that the quantum dynamics of a classically unstable system creates quantum states that are not spin squeezed but nevertheless entangled. The extracted Fisher information quantifies metrologically useful entanglement which we confirm by Bayesian phase estimation with sub shot-noise sensitivity. These methods are scalable to large particle numbers and applicable directly to other quantum systems.

  12. S3-S4 linker length modulates the relaxed state of a voltage-gated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Michael F; Lacroix, Jérôme J; Villalba-Galea, Carlos A; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2013-11-19

    Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) are membrane protein modules found in ion channels and enzymes that are responsible for a large number of fundamental biological tasks, such as neuronal electrical activity. The VSDs switch from a resting to an active conformation upon membrane depolarization, altering the activity of the protein in response to voltage changes. Interestingly, numerous studies describe the existence of a third distinct state, called the relaxed state, also populated at positive potentials. Although some physiological roles for the relaxed state have been suggested, little is known about the molecular determinants responsible for the development and modulation of VSD relaxation. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the linker (S3-S4 linker) between the third (S3) and fourth (S4) transmembrane segments of the VSD alters the equilibrium between resting and active conformations. By measuring gating currents from the Shaker potassium channel, we demonstrate here that shortening the S3-S4 linker stabilizes the relaxed state, whereas lengthening the linker or splitting it and coinjecting two fragments of the channel have little effect. We propose that natural variations of the length of the S3-S4 linker in various VSD-containing proteins may produce differential VSD relaxation in vivo.

  13. 78 FR 16298 - Comment Request for Information Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information Final Rule and State Income and Eligibility... Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information final rule and State Income and Eligibility... comments to the Employment and Training Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200...

  14. Solid-state NMR study and assignments of the KcsA potassium ion channel of S. lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Krisztina; Tian, Lin; McDermott, Ann E

    2007-12-01

    The extraordinary efficiency and selectivity of potassium channels have made them ideal systems for biophysical and functional studies of ion conduction. We carried out solid-state NMR studies of the selectivity filter region of the protein. Partial site-specific assignments of the NMR signals were obtained based on high field multidimensional solid-state NMR spectra of uniformly (13)C, (15)N enriched KcsA potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans. Both backbone and sidechain atoms were assigned for residues V76-D80 and P83-L90, in and near the selectivity filter region of the protein; this region exhibits good dispersion and useful chemical shift fingerprints. This study will enable structure, dynamic and mechanistic studies of ion conduction by NMR.

  15. Investigating the drugs-crime channel in economics of crime models empirical evidence from panel data of the German states

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Winker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The rising trends both in drug addiction and crime rates are of major public concern in Germany. Surprisingly, the economic theory of crime seems to ignore the drugs/crime nexus, whereas the criminological lit- erature considers illicit drug use a main reason of criminal activities. This paper provides an econometric assessment of the drugs/crime channel within a Becker/Ehrlich model of crime supply. Estimation with panel data from the German states allows us to take into account further fact...

  16. State-Space Approaches For Modelling Reduction Of Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation And Their Impact On The Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder J. Albattat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the use of a balance truncation algorithm to design low order infinite impulse response (IIR interpolator for pilot symbol assisted modulation. A state space model is developed to optimize filter coefficients. The proposed design for the filter has a frequency response is quite stable. This approach is highly beneficial for systems employing fading channel estimation. A comparison is given for the achieved results to that with ideal case.

  17. Simple, fast and accurate implementation of the diffusion approximation algorithm for stochastic ion channels with multiple states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Orio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The phenomena that emerge from the interaction of the stochastic opening and closing of ion channels (channel noise with the non-linear neural dynamics are essential to our understanding of the operation of the nervous system. The effects that channel noise can have on neural dynamics are generally studied using numerical simulations of stochastic models. Algorithms based on discrete Markov Chains (MC seem to be the most reliable and trustworthy, but even optimized algorithms come with a non-negligible computational cost. Diffusion Approximation (DA methods use Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE to approximate the behavior of a number of MCs, considerably speeding up simulation times. However, model comparisons have suggested that DA methods did not lead to the same results as in MC modeling in terms of channel noise statistics and effects on excitability. Recently, it was shown that the difference arose because MCs were modeled with coupled gating particles, while the DA was modeled using uncoupled gating particles. Implementations of DA with coupled particles, in the context of a specific kinetic scheme, yielded similar results to MC. However, it remained unclear how to generalize these implementations to different kinetic schemes, or whether they were faster than MC algorithms. Additionally, a steady state approximation was used for the stochastic terms, which, as we show here, can introduce significant inaccuracies. MAIN CONTRIBUTIONS: We derived the SDE explicitly for any given ion channel kinetic scheme. The resulting generic equations were surprisingly simple and interpretable--allowing an easy, transparent and efficient DA implementation, avoiding unnecessary approximations. The algorithm was tested in a voltage clamp simulation and in two different current clamp simulations, yielding the same results as MC modeling. Also, the simulation efficiency of this DA method demonstrated considerable superiority over MC methods

  18. Channel State Prediction, Feedback and Scheduling for a Multiuser MIMO-OFDM Downlink

    CERN Document Server

    Shirani-Mehr, Hooman; Caire, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    We consider the downlink of a MIMO-OFDM wireless systems where the base-station (BS) has M antennas and serves K single-antenna user terminals (UT) with K larger than or equal to M. Users estimate their channel vectors from common downlink pilot symbols and feed back a prediction, which is used by the BS to compute the linear beamforming matrix for the next time slot and to select the users to be served according to the proportional fair scheduling (PFS) algorithm. We consider a realistic physical channel model used as a benchmark in standardization and some alternatives for the channel estimation and prediction scheme. We show that a parametric method based on ESPRIT is able to accurately predict the channel even for relatively high user mobility. However, there exists a class of channels characterized by large Doppler spread (high mobility) and clustered angular spread for which prediction is intrinsically difficult and all considered methods fail. We propose a modified PFS that take into account the "predi...

  19. Instream Wood Loads and Channel Complexity in Headwater Streams Under Alternative Stable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livers, B.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Channel morphology and irregularities in stream boundaries can create zones of flow separation, where lower velocities trap fine sediment and organic matter and increase opportunities for nutrient processing and biological uptake. This effect is most pronounced with channel-spanning structures such as logjams. Humans have changed the spatial and temporal characteristics of wood distribution in streams, with lasting effects on instream wood recruitment, wood loads, logjam distribution, and hydraulic roughness. Previous studies in the Colorado Front Range show that contemporary headwater streams flowing through old-growth, unmanaged forests have more wood than streams flowing through younger-growth, managed forests, but do not evaluate the effects of wood on channel complexity. 'Managed' versus 'unmanaged' refers to whether forests were or are currently exposed to human alteration. Although some alteration has long since ceased, reduced wood loads in managed streams persist. Our primary objective was to quantify differences in logjams, wood volumes, stream complexity, and organic carbon storage on streams with different management and disturbance histories in order to examine legacy effects across a gradient of stream management. Data were collected during the summers of 2013 and 2014 in the Southern Rocky Mountains. The 25 stream reaches studied are 2nd to 3rd order, subalpine streams that are categorized into: old-growth unmanaged forests; younger, naturally disturbed unmanaged forests; and younger managed forests. We assessed instream and floodplain wood loads and logjams and evaluated the role that large wood plays in local channel complexity, pool volume, and storage of organic carbon. Preliminary results show that greatest wood and carbon storage in sediments, as well as channel complexity, occurs in streams in old-growth, unmanaged forests and the least wood and carbon storage and channel complexity occurs in younger-growth, managed forests.

  20. The role of patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical channels in fruit and vegetable intake among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Martinez, Lourdes; Lewis, Nehama; Freres, Derek; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    Previous research suggests positive effects of health information seeking on prevention behaviors such as diet, exercise, and fruit and vegetable consumption. The present study builds upon this research and strengthens causal claims from it by examining the lagged effect of patient-clinician information engagement on fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the indirect effect on the outcome through seeking information from nonmedical channels. The results are based on data collected from a randomly drawn sample of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry who completed mail surveys in the Fall of 2006 and 2007. There was a 65% response rate for baseline subjects (resulting n = 2,013); of those, 1,293 were interviewed 1 year later, and 1,257 were available for our analyses. Results show a positive lagged main effect of patient-clinician information engagement at baseline on fruit and vegetable consumption at follow-up (B = 0.26, SE = 0.10, p = .01). The mediation analysis shows that patient-clinician information engagement leads to increased fruit and vegetable consumption among cancer patients, in part through patients' information seeking from nonmedical channels. Implications of these findings for the cancer patient population and for physicians are discussed.

  1. DETERMINANTS OF THE CHOICE OF MARKETING CHANNELS BY CORPORATE CLIENTS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Soares

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey of 505 corporate clients from the information technology industry, this study uses a logit statistical model to analyze whether such factors as loyalty, trust, client importance, intimacy between customer and supplier and the cost of changing suppliers may affect the choice of the marketing channel used by the client. The results show that the greater intimacy between a supplier and a corporate client is a determining factor for the client’s preference for being served by the manufacturer rather than an intermediary. In contrast, clients’ perception of their own importance to the supplier is not very relevant to their preference for being served directly by the manufacturer, and the other factors were not identified as (statistically important determinants of the choice of the marketing channel. These results suggest that the real advantage of the direct sales channel over the indirect sales channel lies in its ability to strengthen the client-manufacturer relationship, thereby contributing to the development of solutions that better serve the needs of corporate clients.

  2. Information Gain vs. State Disturbance in Quantum Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, C

    1996-01-01

    The engine that powers quantum cryptography is the principle that there are no physical means for gathering information about the identity of a quantum system's state (when it is known to be prepared in one of a set of nonorthogonal states) without disturbing the system in a statistically detectable way. This situation is often mistakenly described as a consequence of the "Heisenberg uncertainty principle.'' A more accurate account is that it is a unique feature of quantum phenomena that rests ultimately on the Hilbert space structure of the theory along with the fact that time evolutions for isolated systems are unitary. In this paper we shall explore several aspects of the information--disturbance principle in an attempt to make it firmly quantitative and flesh out its significance for quantum theory as a whole.

  3. Coupled-Channel Investigation of the Collision of Protons and Antiprotons with Hydrogen- Like Atoms in the 2s States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reda S. Tantawi

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the electric charge of both the projectile and the target nucleus on the cross section of the inelastic collision of protons and antiprotons with atoms is investigated at energies ranging from i to 2500 KeV. The impact parameter method is used to analyse the cross sections of the excitation of the n = 3 states of H atom and He+, Li2+ ions being initially in the excited 2s states. The calculated cross sections for hydrogen atoms are compared with the other theoretical results based on coupled-channels methods.

  4. Deterministic distribution of four-photon Dicke state over an arbitrary collective-noise channel with cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-07-01

    We present two deterministic quantum entanglement distribution protocols for a four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state resorting to the frequency and spatial degrees of freedom, which are immune to an arbitrary collective-noise channel. Both of the protocols adopt the X homodyne measurement based on the cross-Kerr nonlinearity to complete the task of the single-photon detection with nearly unit probability in principle. After the four receivers share the photons, they add some local unitary operations to obtain a standard four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state.

  5. Formal and Informal Volunteering in a State Friendly Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Rosdahl, David; Koch-Nielsen, Inger

    Citizens’ civic engagement and participation in voluntary associations is shaped by several factors, some of which are institutional while others are characteristics about the individual and the environment to which s/he belongs. Based on a comprehensive population survey carried out as part...... of the Danish Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this article explores determinants of formal and informal volunteering in a ‘state friendly society’ like the Danish....

  6. Steady state reach-scale theory for radioactive tracer concentration in a simple channel/floodplain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, J. Wesley; Willenbring, Jane

    2010-11-01

    A steady state analytical model is presented for reach-scale variation in the concentration of a decaying radioactive tracer associated with sediment particles that regularly pass through an off-channel floodplain. The floodplain is represented as a series of well-mixed sediment reservoirs that continually exchange sediment with the channel. The model allows for tributary input and valley-wide aggradation or degradation. Tracer concentration depends on the upstream boundary concentration, the tracer and sediment load, floodplain geometry, and the rates of in-floodplain tracer production and/or decay. The theory predicts relatively modest down-channel change in the concentration of long-lived isotopes but implies that significant change may occur for (1) tracers with a short-enough half-life (such as 14C) or (2) floodplains with sediment residence times that are large enough for cosmogenic production or meteoric fallout to increase tracer concentration in the down-valley direction. The profiles are shown to be strongly dependent on the grain size distributions of both the sediment load and the floodplain. The results imply that down-channel 14C profiles have the potential to constrain Holocene bed material loads in systems with sufficient storage. The theory concisely describes the general importance of a floodplain for modifying in situ produced cosmogenic tracer concentration and can also characterize floodplain importance for fallout radioisotopes (i.e., 10Be, 210Pb, or 7Be) or organic 14C.

  7. Telemetry and Information Technologies in Diagnosis of Sportsmen Functional State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polevaya S.А.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to develop the instrumental methods for a full assessment of sportsmen functional state in the process of training and competition activity. Materials and Methods. 57 sportsmen (professional athletes and amateur sportsmen aged 14–24 years participated in the survey; 20 from them were female, and 37 male. In the study the following techniques were used: computer laterometry, computer campimetry, wireless (telemetry cardiointervalography. The results were processed using standard methods of parametric and nonparametric statistics. Results. There has been stated that computer laterometry enables to reveal cognitive strain in training time that can be a marker of “ineffective” state. Computer campimetry findings give the evidence of emotional state change on exertion. However, the most informative indicator of a sportsman functional state is the total power of heart rate variability spectrum. The comparison of the results obtained using the full assessment with clinical data of professional sportsmen of the experimental group showed continuous monitoring of heart rate in the process of training to be an effective screening technique of cardiovascular diseases. The application of wireless cardiointervalography enabled to monitor the sportsmen state effectively and noninvasively at all the stages of training and competition process.

  8. Case Study: The State of Information Systems in Queensland Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Smyth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available nature of the state. Relative to its population, Queensland has a large number of universities, each of which is engaged in Information Systems teaching and research. The study reveals little evidence of a distinctive Queensland-flavour of Information Systems. Rather, there is a diversity of curriculum approaches and an equally broad range of research foci and approaches to research. Two of the state’s regional universities are notable for the relative strength of their IS presence, in terms of number of IS staff, number of IS students and range of campuses across which IS is taught. The breadth of topics and approaches to IS in Queensland is evidenced by the existence of separate, competing IS groups in two of the largest universities; in each case, one of the IS groups is highly technical in orientation while the other is Business oriented. Across the nine Queensland universities there is wide variability in terms of the administrative location of the Information Systems academic staff in the university structure. The study assesses the state of IS in Queensland universities in relation to criteria indicative of the maturity of a discipline. Measured against these criteria, Information Systems in Queensland universities cannot be considered a mature, distinct academic discipline.

  9. Quantum channels with a finite memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study quantum communication channels with correlated noise effects, i.e., quantum channels with memory. We derive a model for correlated noise channels that includes a channel memory state. We examine the case where the memory is finite, and derive bounds on the classical and quantum capacities. For the entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities it is shown that these bounds are attainable for certain classes of channel. Also, we show that the structure of any finite-memory state is unimportant in the asymptotic limit, and specifically, for a perfect finite-memory channel where no information is lost to the environment, achieving the upper bound implies that the channel is asymptotically noiseless

  10. Quantum channels with a finite memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Garry; Mancini, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study quantum communication channels with correlated noise effects, i.e., quantum channels with memory. We derive a model for correlated noise channels that includes a channel memory state. We examine the case where the memory is finite, and derive bounds on the classical and quantum capacities. For the entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities it is shown that these bounds are attainable for certain classes of channel. Also, we show that the structure of any finite-memory state is unimportant in the asymptotic limit, and specifically, for a perfect finite-memory channel where no information is lost to the environment, achieving the upper bound implies that the channel is asymptotically noiseless.

  11. Source and Channel Coding for Correlated Sources Over Multiuser Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Gunduz, Deniz; Erkip, Elza; Goldsmith, Andrea; Poor, H. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Source and channel coding over multiuser channels in which receivers have access to correlated source side information is considered. For several multiuser channel models necessary and sufficient conditions for optimal separation of the source and channel codes are obtained. In particular, the multiple access channel, the compound multiple access channel, the interference channel and the two-way channel with correlated sources and correlated receiver side information are considered, and the o...

  12. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  13. Regional flexibility in the S4-S5 linker regulates hERG channel closed-state stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Christina M; Sokolov, Stanislav; Van Slyke, Aaron C; Claydon, Tom W

    2014-10-01

    hERG K(+) channel function is vital for normal cardiac rhythm, yet the mechanisms underlying the unique biophysical characteristics of the channel, such as slow activation and deactivation gating, are incompletely understood. The S4-S5 linker is thought to transduce voltage sensor movement to opening of the pore gate, but may also integrate signals from cytoplasmic domains. Previously, we showed that substitutions of G546 within the S4-S5 linker destabilize the closed state of the channel. Here, we present results of a glycine-scan in the background of 546L. We demonstrate site-specific restoration of WT-like activation which suggests that flexibility in the N-terminal portion of the S4-S5 linker is critical for the voltage dependence of hERG channel activation. In addition, we show that the voltage dependence of deactivation, which was recently shown to be left-shifted from that of activation due to voltage sensor mode-shift, is also modulated by the S4-S5 linker. The G546L mutation greatly attenuated the coupling of voltage sensor mode-shift to the pore gate without altering the mode-shift itself. Indeed, all of the S4-S5 linker mutations tested similarly reduced coupling of the mode-shift to the pore gate. These data demonstrate a key role for S4-S5 linker in the unique activation and deactivation gating of hERG channels. Furthermore, uncoupling of the mode-shift to the pore by S4-S5 linker mutations parallels the effects of mutations in the N-terminus suggestive of functional interactions between the two regions.

  14. Dual state-parameter optimal estimation of one-dimensional open channel model using ensemble Kalman filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Rui-xun; FANG Hong-wei; HE Guo-jian; YU Xin; YANG Ming; WANG Ming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,both state variables and parameters of one-dimensional open channel model are estimated using a framework of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF).Compared with observation,the predicted accuracy of water level and discharge are improved while the parameters of the model are identified simultaneously.With the principles of the EnKF,a state-space description of the Saint-Venant equation is constructed by perturbing the measurements with Gaussian error distribution.At the same time,the roughness,one of the key parameters in one-dimensional open channel,is also considered as a state variable to identify its value dynamically.The updated state variables and the parameters are then used as the initial values of the next time step to continue the assimilation process.The usefulness and the capability of the dual EnKF are demonstrated in the lower Yellow River during the water-sediment regulation in 2009.In the optimization process,the errors between the prediction and the observation are analyzed,and the rationale of inverse roughness is discussed.It is believed that (1) the flexible approach of the dual EnKF can improve the accuracy of predicting water level and discharge,(2) it provides a probabilistic way to identify the model error which is feasible to implement but hard to handle in other filter systems,and (3) it is practicable for river engineering and management.

  15. State of Missouri 1991--1992 Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Missouri State Heating Oil and Propane Program was to develop a joint state-level company-specific data collective effort. The State of Missouri provided to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration company specific price and volume information on residential No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semimonthly basis. The energy companies participating under the program were selected at random by the US Department of Energy and provided to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy prior to the implementation of the program. The specific data collection responsibilities for the Missouri Department of Natural Resources' Division of Energy included: (1) Collection of semimonthly residential heating oil and propane prices, collected on the first and third Monday from August 1991 through August 1992; and, (2) Collection of annual sales volume data for residential propane for the period September 1, 1990 through August 31. 1991. This data was required for the first report only. These data were provided on a company identifiable level to the extent permitted by State law. Information was transmitted to the US Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration through the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO)

  16. State-dependent resource harvesting with lagged information about system states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Fackler, Paul L.; Boomer, G Scott; Zimmerman, Guthrie; Williams, Byron K.; Nichols, James; Dorazio, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Markov decision processes (MDPs), which involve a temporal sequence of actions conditioned on the state of the managed system, are increasingly being applied in natural resource management. This study focuses on the modification of a traditional MDP to account for those cases in which an action must be chosen after a significant time lag in observing system state, but just prior to a new observation. In order to calculate an optimal decision policy under these conditions, possible actions must be conditioned on the previous observed system state and action taken. We show how to solve these problems when the state transition structure is known and when it is uncertain. Our focus is on the latter case, and we show how actions must be conditioned not only on the previous system state and action, but on the probabilities associated with alternative models of system dynamics. To demonstrate this framework, we calculated and simulated optimal, adaptive policies for MDPs with lagged states for the problem of deciding annual harvest regulations for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the United States. In this particular example, changes in harvest policy induced by the use of lagged information about system state were sufficient to maintain expected management performance (e.g. population size, harvest) even in the face of an uncertain system state at the time of a decision.

  17. 75 FR 51609 - Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities By the... established a Classified National Security Information Program (Program) designed to safeguard and govern access to classified national security information shared by the Federal Government with State,...

  18. 77 FR 76076 - Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector... matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight...

  19. On the identification of sensory information from mixed nerves by using single-channel cuff electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Udina Esther; Carpaneto Jacopo; Raspopovic Stanisa; Navarro Xavier; Micera Silvestro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Several groups have shown that the performance of motor neuroprostheses can be significantly improved by detecting specific sensory events related to the ongoing motor task (e.g., the slippage of an object during grasping). Algorithms have been developed to achieve this goal by processing electroneurographic (ENG) afferent signals recorded by using single-channel cuff electrodes. However, no efforts have been made so far to understand the number and type of detectable sens...

  20. 75 FR 28070 - Comment Request for Information Collection: “Confidentiality & Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Request for Information Collection: ``Confidentiality & Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation... Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information final rule and State Income and.... ADDRESSEE: Submit written comments to the Employment and Training Administration, Office of...

  1. Robust quantum state transfer via topologically protected edge channels in dipolar arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Dlaska, Clemens; Zoller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We show how to realize quantum state transfer between distant qubits using the chiral edge states of a two-dimensional topological spin system. Our implementation based on Rydberg atoms allows to realize the quantum state transfer protocol in state of the art experimental setups. In particular, we show how to adapt the standard state transfer protocol to make it robust against dispersive and disorder effects.

  2. Rational Secret Sharing over an Asynchronous Broadcast Channel with Information Theoretic Security

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, William K; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3601

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of rational secret sharing introduced by Halpern and Teague [1], where the players involved in secret sharing play only if it is to their advantage. This can be characterized in the form of preferences. Players would prefer to get the secret than to not get it and secondly with lesser preference, they would like as few other players to get the secret as possible. Several positive results have already been published to efficiently solve the problem of rational secret sharing but only a handful of papers have touched upon the use of an asynchronous broadcast channel. [2] used cryptographic primitives, [3] used an interactive dealer, and [4] used an honest minority of players in order to handle an asynchronous broadcast channel. In our paper, we propose an m-out-of-n rational secret sharing scheme which can function over an asynchronous broadcast channel without the use of cryptographic primitives and with a non-interactive dealer. This is possible because our scheme uses a small number, ...

  3. Majorana bound states in two-channel time-reversal-symmetric nanowire systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaidamauskas, Erikas; Paaske, Jens; Flensberg, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    must be negative, 2) inversion symmetry must be broken, and 3) the two channels must have different spin-orbit couplings. For the case of collinear spin-orbit directions, we find a general expression for the topological invariant by block diagonalization into two blocks with chiral symmetry only....... By projection to the low-energy sector we solve for the zero modes explicitly and study the details of the gap closing, which in the general case happens at finite momenta....

  4. Compressive Sensing With Prior Support Quality Information and Application to Massive MIMO Channel Estimation With Temporal Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Xiongbin; Lau, Vincent K. N.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of compressive sensing (CS) recovery with a prior support and the prior support quality information available. Different from classical works which exploit prior support blindly, we shall propose novel CS recovery algorithms to exploit the prior support adaptively based on the quality information. We analyze the distortion bound of the recovered signal from the proposed algorithm and we show that a better quality prior support can lead to better CS recovery performance. We also show that the proposed algorithm would converge in $\\mathcal{O}\\left(\\log\\mbox{SNR}\\right)$ steps. To tolerate possible model mismatch, we further propose some robustness designs to combat incorrect prior support quality information. Finally, we apply the proposed framework to sparse channel estimation in massive MIMO systems with temporal correlation to further reduce the required pilot training overhead.

  5. Information complementarity in multipartite quantum states and security in cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Anindita; Kumar, Asutosh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-03-01

    We derive complementarity relations for arbitrary quantum states of multiparty systems of any number of parties and dimensions between the purity of a part of the system and several correlation quantities, including entanglement and other quantum correlations as well as classical and total correlations, of that part with the remainder of the system. We subsequently use such a complementarity relation between purity and quantum mutual information in the tripartite scenario to provide a bound on the secret key rate for individual attacks on a quantum key distribution protocol.

  6. Nature's complex flume - Using a diagnostic state-and-transition framework to understand post-restoration channel adjustment of the Clark Fork River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Chris

    2016-02-01

    There is an imperfect symmetry between the patterns of channel evolution observed during laboratory flume experiments and those which materialize in rivers exposed to ambient environmental conditions that produce hydrogeomorphic fluxes which are more complex, contingent, and unpredictable. One strategy to improve our understanding of short- to medium-term channel evolution is to study landscapes that have undergone significant disturbance and have had their biogeomorphic templates reset to a known condition - in effect, creating a flume in nature. This study adopts a diagnostic state-and-transition framework to narrate and document baseline hypotheses for the potential evolutionary trajectories Clark Fork River, near Milltown, Montana. Following dam removal and remediation, a 5-km stretch of the Clark Fork River and its adjoining floodplain were reconstructed. Since flow was introduced to the newly constructed channel in December 2010, complex evolutionary trajectories have been observed on the Clark Fork's mainstem, its secondary channels, and floodplain. Focusing particularly on the river's secondary channels, this paper develops a typology of channel states that have been observed and demonstrates that multiple adjustment trajectories have materialized, sometimes within the same channel. A diagnostic state-and-transition framework offers a parsimonious strategy to quantitatively or qualitatively anticipate the influence of water, sediment, and ecological fluxes on channel evolution at the basin, reach, or segment scale. It provides environmental agencies with a robust method to devise spatially explicit scenario-based management plans for rivers in a variety of geomorphic settings.

  7. The Hydrophobic Effect Contributes to the Closed State of a Simplified Ion Channel through a Conserved Hydrophobic Patch at the Pore-Helix Crossing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eYonkunas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ion selectivity-filter structures are strikingly similar throughout the large family of K+ channels and other p-loop-like receptors (i.e., glutamate receptors. At the same time, the triggers for opening these channels, or gating, are diverse. Two questions that remain unanswered regarding these channels are: 1 what force(s stabilize the closed non-conducting channel-pore conformation? And 2 what is the free energy associated with transitioning from a closed (non-conducting to an open (conducting channel-pore conformation? The effects of charge and hydrophobicity on the conformational states of a model tetrameric biological ion channel are shown utilizing the amino acid sequence from the K+ channel KcsA as the model channel. Its widely conserved hydrophobic bundle crossing located adjacent to the lipid head-groups at the intracellular side of the membrane was calculated to have a 5 kcal/mol free energy difference between modeled open and closed conformations. Simulated mutants of amino acids within the hydrophobic region significantly contribute to the size of this difference. Specifically for KcsA, these residues are part of the pH sensor important for channel gating and our results are in agreement with published electrophysiology data. Our simulations support the idea that the hydrophobic effect contributes significantly to the stability of the closed conformation in tetrameric ion channels with a hydrophobic bundle crossing positioned in proximity to the lipid head groups of the biological membrane.

  8. The flood, the channels, and the dykes : managing legal information a globalized and digital world

    OpenAIRE

    Breuker, Joost; Casanovas, Pompeu; Klein, Michel C. A.; Francesconi, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Information search and retrieval are part of daily routines of the legal profession. Lawyers, judges, prosecutors, and legal clerks usually access a number of electronic resources to browse, search, select, or update legal contents. Legal databases have currently become large digital libraries where the tasks related to information-seeking may sometimes be cumbersome. Adding semantics to support information search may provide significant results in terms of efficiency, efficacy, and user sati...

  9. Automated Generation of Tabular Equations of State with Uncertainty Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, John H.; Robinson, Allen C.; Debusschere, Bert J.; Mattsson, Ann E.

    2015-06-01

    As computational science pushes toward higher fidelity prediction, understanding the uncertainty associated with closure models, such as the equation of state (EOS), has become a key focus. Traditional EOS development often involves a fair amount of art, where expert modelers may appear as magicians, providing what is felt to be the closest possible representation of the truth. Automation of the development process gives a means by which one may demystify the art of EOS, while simultaneously obtaining uncertainty information in a manner that is both quantifiable and reproducible. We describe our progress on the implementation of such a system to provide tabular EOS tables with uncertainty information to hydrocodes. Key challenges include encoding the artistic expert opinion into an algorithmic form and preserving the analytic models and uncertainty information in a manner that is both accurate and computationally efficient. Results are demonstrated on a multi-phase aluminum model. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. The Role Of Product Quality Information, Market State Information And Transaction Costs In Electronic Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Koppius, Otto; Heck, Eric

    2002-01-01

    textabstractElectronic auctions have rapidly increased in popularity, but the consequences of switching to an electronic auction are unclear. In part this is because multiple changes occur at the same time so one can only observe the combined effect of these changes and not the effect of each separate change. For instance, electronic bidders face lower transaction costs, but also have less information about product quality and about the state of the market such as the number of bidders. In th...

  11. Pre-trip tourism information search by smartphones and use of alternative information channels: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaang-Iuan Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a comprehensive model of how smartphone users search for pre-trip tourism information. Important dimensions and relationships in tourism information search (TIS behavior were studied in 21 subjects. The data collection process included semi-structured in-depth interviewing data and field observation data. The analysis revealed 10 activities characteristic of TIS behavior: internal searches, mobile searches, saving information in the smartphones, preliminary collaborative TIS, barriers to TIS, bringing mobile search to an end, summarizing information, PC Internet search, advanced collaborative TIS, and searches via editorial communications. Such data collection was not performed in isolation. Further, 20 propositions have been developed for future testing. The results suggest that pre-trip TIS appears to consist in a diversity of search patterns with the usage of multiple information sources; in addition, it is no longer individual but collaborative behavior in the context of Web 2.0. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of the research work are discussed, and directions for future work are suggested.

  12. Time- and state-dependent effects of methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium (MTSEA) exposure differ between heart and skeletal muscle voltage-gated Na(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, John P; Shockett, Penny E

    2012-03-01

    The substituted-cysteine scanning method (SCAM) is used to study conformational changes in proteins. Experiments using SCAM involve site-directed mutagenesis to replace native amino acids with cysteine and subsequent exposure to a methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagent such as methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium (MTSEA). These reagents react with substituted-cysteines and can provide functional information about relative positions of amino acids within a protein. In the human heart voltage-gated Na(+) channel hNav1.5 there is a native cysteine at position C373 that reacts rapidly with MTS reagents resulting in a large reduction in whole-cell Na(+) current (I(Na)). Therefore, in order to use SCAM in studies in this isoform, this native cysteine is mutated to a non-reactive residue, e.g., tyrosine. This mutant, hNav1.5-C373Y, is resistant to the MTS-mediated decrease in I(Na). Here we show that this resistance is time- and state-dependent. With relatively short exposure times to MTSEA (<4min), there is little effect on I(Na). However, with longer exposures (4-8min), there is a large decrease in I(Na), but this effect is only found when hNav1.5-C373Y is inactivated (fast or slow) - MTSEA has little effect in the closed state. Additionally, this long-term, state-dependent effect is not seen in human skeletal muscle Na(+) channel isoform hNav1.4, which has a native tyrosine at the homologous site C407. We conclude that differences in molecular determinants of inactivation between hNav1.4 and hNav1.5 underlie the difference in response to MTSEA exposure. PMID:22155680

  13. 45 CFR 150.205 - Sources of information triggering an investigation of State enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sources of information triggering an investigation... § 150.205 Sources of information triggering an investigation of State enforcement. Information that may... complaint received by CMS. (b) Information learned during informal contact between CMS and State...

  14. Bound states of multi-nucleon channels in N_f=2+1 lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Takeshi; Kuramashi, Yoshinobu; Ukawa, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the energies for multi-nucleon ground states with the nuclear mass number less than or equal to 4 in 2+1 flavor QCD at the lattice spacing of a = 0.09 fm employing a relatively heavy quark mass corresponding to m_pi = 0.51 GeV. We investigate the volume dependence of the energy shift of the ground state and the state of free nucleons to distinguish a bound state from attractive scattering states. From the investigation we conclude that ^4He, ^3He, deuteron and dineutron are bound at m_pi = 0.51 GeV. We compare their binding energies with those in our quenched studies and also with some recent investigations.

  15. Asymptotically Optimal Downlink Scheduling over Markovian Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Wenzhuo; Shroff, Ness B

    2011-01-01

    We consider the scheduling problem in downlink wireless networks with heterogeneous, Markov-modulated, ON/OFF channels. It is well-known that the performance of scheduling over fading channels heavily depends on the accuracy of the available Channel State Information (CSI), which is costly to acquire. Thus, we consider the CSI acquisition via a practical ARQ-based feedback mechanism whereby channel states are revealed at the end of only scheduled users' transmissions. In the assumed presence of temporally-correlated channel evolutions, the desired scheduler must optimally balance the exploitation-exploration trade-off, whereby it schedules transmissions both to exploit those channels with up-to-date CSI and to explore the current state of those with outdated CSI. In earlier works, Whittle's Index Policy had been suggested as a low-complexity and high-performance solution to this problem. However, analyzing its performance in the typical scenario of statistically heterogeneous channel state processes has remai...

  16. Quantum information analysis of electronic states at different molecular structures

    CERN Document Server

    Barcza, G; Marti, K H; Reiher, M

    2010-01-01

    We have studied transition metal clusters from a quantum information theory perspective using the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We demonstrate the competition between entanglement and interaction localization. We also discuss the application of the configuration interaction based dynamically extended active space procedure which significantly reduces the effective system size and accelerates the speed of convergence for complicated molecular electronic structures to a great extent. Our results indicate the importance of taking entanglement among molecular orbitals into account in order to devise an optimal orbital ordering and carry out efficient calculations on transition metal clusters. We propose a recipe to perform DMRG calculations in a black-box fashion and we point out the connections of our work to other tensor network state approaches.

  17. Protecting informative messages over burst error channels in chain-based wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Taghikhaki, Zahra; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the application, the way that data and information are disseminated is an important aspect in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The wireless data dissemination protocol should often guarantee a minimum reliability requirement. In this regard and to well-balance the energy and reliability, the more important packets should be protected by more powerful error control codes than the less important ones. This information-aware capability allows a system to deliver critical informatio...

  18. Crystal assisted processes in ion channeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datz, S.; Krause, H. F.; Vane, C. R.

    1996-07-01

    Channeled ions experience a restoring force from adjacent atomic rows or planes that govern their trajectories and hence limit their interactions to those with valence or conduction electrons. Trajectory information can be gained from emergence patterns and studies of radiative electron capture (REC) can give information on the electron momentum distributions and densities in the channel. With this knowledge, one can study ion-electron collisions in dense media; in particular, dielectronic excitation and recombination. The states of the energetic channeled ions can be influenced by the crystal field and by the wake field that follows them. They can also be perturbed by the periodic electromagnetic force with a frequency depending on their velocity and the periodicity of the lattice. When the frequency of the perturbation v caused by passing along a given crystal direction with atomic spacing d at velocity v reaches a resonance, v res = ( {v}/{d})K , where K = 1, 2, 3, …, resonant coherent excitation (RCE) can occur to non-degenerate eigenstates of the ion. Ions in these excited states can then be ionized by the channel electrons or, if not ionized, can escape from the crystal and radiate. RCE has been studied in both axial and planar channeling by varying the ion velocity or, in the case of planar channeling, by varying the apparent interatomic spacing by changing the angle with respect to an axis. In both cases, information can be gained concerning the states of channeled ions and the nature of the crystal channel.

  19. Information Security Management: The Study of Lithuanian State Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Jastiuginas, Saulius

    2012-01-01

    Growing information security cases and scope illustrate that the relevance of information security issues becomes critical and present information security means are not sufficient enough to manage information security. Narrow comprehension of information security merely as technological problem is broadened by the research results of economic, managerial, psychological, legal and other related aspects’ influence to information security. Information is named as the object of information secur...

  20. Role of the atmospheric mean state on the initiation of the Madden-Julian oscillation in a tropical channel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Pallav; Zhang, Chidong [University of Miami, RSMAS/MPO, Miami, FL (United States); Moncrieff, Mitchell W.; Dudhia, Jim; Caron, Julie M.; Bruyere, Cindy [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Ruby Leung, L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Tropical channel models, defined as models that are global in the zonal direction but bounded in the meridional direction, are particularly useful for simulating the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and understanding its physical and dynamical basis. Influences from the extratropics through the lateral boundaries have been found to be essential to the reproduction of the initiation of certain MJO events. This led to a hypothesis that multi-year simulations using a tropical channel model would reproduce reasonable MJO statistics under the influence of prescribed lateral boundary conditions derived from global reanalyses. Interestingly, the MJO statistics in such a multi-year simulation by a high-resolution tropical channel model are not better than those from global climate models. The error in the atmospheric mean state is found to be a possible reason for the poor MJO statistics in the simulation. Nevertheless, even with a large error in the mean state, the multi-year simulation captures two MJO events previously found to be initiated by extratropical influences. However, the model does not reproduce a third event, whose initiation is not directly influenced by the extratropics. This implies that in the absence of dynamical interactions between the MJO and the lateral boundary conditions, the error in the mean state could be sufficient to prevent the MJO initiation. To explore this third MJO event further, a series of sensitivity tests are conducted. These tests show that the simulation of this event is neither critically influenced by the cumulus parameterization employed, nor the initial conditions when the model is integrated 2 weeks prior to the MJO initiation. The model captures this event when the MJO signal is already present in the initial conditions. The use of high-resolution sea surface temperature does not improve the simulation of the third MJO event. A higher-resolution nested domain covering the Indo-Pacific warm pool region and including a cloud

  1. Role of the Atmospheric Mean State on the Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Tropical Channel Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Pallav; Zhang, Chidong; Moncrieff, Mitch; Dudhia, Jimy; Caron, Julie M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Bruyere, Cindy

    2010-06-08

    Tropical channel models, defined as models that are global in the zonal direction but bounded in the meridional direction, are particularly useful for simulating the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and understanding its physical and dynamical basis. Influences from the extratropics through the lateral boundaries have been found to be essential to the reproduction of the initiation of certain MJO events. This led to a hypothesis that multi-year simulations using a tropical channel model would reproduce reasonable MJO statistics under the influence of prescribed lateral boundary conditions derived from global reanalyses. Interestingly, the MJO statistics in such a multi-year simulation by a high-resolution tropical channel model are not better than those from global climate models. The error in the atmospheric mean state is found to be a possible reason for the poor MJO statistics in the simulation. Nevertheless, even with a large error in the mean state, the multi-year simulation captures two MJO events previously found to be initiated by extratropical influences. However, the model does not reproduce a third event, whose initiation is not directly influenced by the extratropics. This implies that in the absence of dynamical interactions between the MJO and the lateral boundary conditions, the error in the mean state could be sufficient to prevent the MJO initiation. To explore this third MJO event further, a series of sensitivity tests are conducted. These tests show that the simulation of this event is neither critically influenced by the cumulus parameterization employed, nor the initial conditions when the model is integrated 2 weeks prior to the MJO initiation. The model captures this event when the MJO signal is already present in the initial conditions. The use of highresolution sea surface temperature does not improve the simulation of the third MJO event. A higher-resolution nested domain covering the Indo-Pacific warm pool region and including a cloud

  2. The lower bound to the concurrence for four-qubit W state under noisy channels

    OpenAIRE

    Espoukeh, Pakhshan; Pedram, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics of four-qubit W state under various noisy environments by solving analytically the master equation in the Lindblad form in which the Lindblad operators correspond to the Pauli matrices and describe the decoherence of states. Also, we investigate the dynamics of the entanglement using the lower bound to the concurrence. It is found that while the entanglement decreases monotonically for Pauli-Z noise, it decays suddenly for other three noises. Moreover, by studying the ti...

  3. Purity of Gaussian states: Measurement schemes and time evolution in noisy channels

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, A.; M. Paris; Illuminati, F.; De Siena, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the purity for Gaussian states of single-mode continuous variable systems. We prove the connection of purity to observable quantities for these states, and show that the joint measurement of two conjugate quadratures is necessary and sufficient to determine the purity at any time. The statistical reliability and the range of applicability of the proposed measurement scheme is tested by means of Monte Carlo simulated experiments. We then consider the dynamics o...

  4. 75 FR 52545 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request, State Community Development Block...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request, State Community Development Block (CDBG) Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and... information: Title of Proposal: State Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program. OMB Control Number,...

  5. 78 FR 75959 - Agency Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application...

  6. 78 FR 30939 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: State Library Administrative Agencies Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... impact and effectiveness of museum, library and information services throughout the United States... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: State Library Administrative Agencies Survey, FY 2014 AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, The National...

  7. Life-threatening false alarm rejection in ICU: using the rule-based and multi-channel information fusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Zhao, Lina; Tang, Hong; Li, Qiao; Wei, Shoushui; Li, Jianqing

    2016-08-01

    False alarm (FA) rates as high as 86% have been reported in intensive care unit monitors. High FA rates decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient burdens and stresses. In this study, we proposed a rule-based and multi-channel information fusion method for accurately classifying the true or false alarms for five life-threatening arrhythmias: asystole (ASY), extreme bradycardia (EBR), extreme tachycardia (ETC), ventricular tachycardia (VTA) and ventricular flutter/fibrillation (VFB). The proposed method consisted of five steps: (1) signal pre-processing, (2) feature detection and validation, (3) true/false alarm determination for each channel, (4) 'real-time' true/false alarm determination and (5) 'retrospective' true/false alarm determination (if needed). Up to four signal channels, that is, two electrocardiogram signals, one arterial blood pressure and/or one photoplethysmogram signal were included in the analysis. Two events were set for the method validation: event 1 for 'real-time' and event 2 for 'retrospective' alarm classification. The results showed that 100% true positive ratio (i.e. sensitivity) on the training set were obtained for ASY, EBR, ETC and VFB types, and 94% for VTA type, accompanied by the corresponding true negative ratio (i.e. specificity) results of 93%, 81%, 78%, 85% and 50% respectively, resulting in the score values of 96.50, 90.70, 88.89, 92.31 and 64.90, as well as with a final score of 80.57 for event 1 and 79.12 for event 2. For the test set, the proposed method obtained the score of 88.73 for ASY, 77.78 for EBR, 89.92 for ETC, 67.74 for VFB and 61.04 for VTA types, with the final score of 71.68 for event 1 and 75.91 for event 2. PMID:27454710

  8. The DoF Region of the Three-Receiver MIMO Broadcast Channel with Side Information and Its Relation to Index Coding Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Asadi, Behzad; Ong, Lawrence; Johnson, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the three-receiver Gaussian multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channel with an arbitrary number of antennas at each of the transmitter and the receivers. We investigate the degrees-of-freedom (DoF) region of the channel when each receiver requests a private message, and may know some of the messages requested by the other receivers as receiver message side information (RMSI). We establish the DoF region of the channel for all 16 possible non-isomorphic RMSI configurat...

  9. 78 FR 53478 - Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement... information about this IC, contact Major Scott Fear, United States Park Police, 1100 Ohio Drive SW...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The United States Park Police (USPP) is a unit of the National...

  10. Hydrophobic interactions between the S5 segment and the pore helix stabilizes the closed state of Slo2.1 potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Hansen, Angela; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2016-04-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, Slo2.1K(+) channels are in a closed state unless activated by an elevation in [Na(+)]i. Fenamates such as niflumic acid also activate Slo2.1. Previous studies suggest that activation of Slo2.1 channels is mediated by a conformational change in the selectivity filter, and not a widening of the aperture formed by the S6 segment bundle crossing as occurs in voltage-gated K(+) channels. It is unclear how binding of Na(+) or fenamates is allosterically linked to opening of the presumed selectivity filter activation gate in Slo2.1. Here we examined the role of the S5 transmembrane segment in the activation of Slo2.1. Channels were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and whole cell currents measured with the voltage-clamp technique. Ala substitution of five residues located on a single face of the S5 α-helical segment induced constitutive channel activity. Leu-209, predicted to face towards Phe-240 in the pore helix was investigated by further mutagenesis. Mutation of Leu-209 to Glu or Gln induced maximal channel activation as did the combined mutation to Ala of all three hydrophobic S5 residues predicted to be adjacent to Phe-240. Together these results suggest that hydrophobic interactions between residues in S5 and the C-terminal end of the pore helix stabilize Slo2.1 channels in a closed state.

  11. Review: The state-of-art of sparse channel models and their applicability to performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories in fractured crystalline formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bruno; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Niemi, Auli; Lindgren, Georg

    2016-05-01

    Laboratory and field experiments done on fractured rock show that flow and solute transport often occur along flow channels. `Sparse channels' refers to the case where these channels are characterised by flow in long flow paths separated from each other by large spacings relative to the size of flow domain. A literature study is presented that brings together information useful to assess whether a sparse-channel network concept is an appropriate representation of the flow system in tight fractured rock of low transmissivity, such as that around a nuclear waste repository in deep crystalline rocks. A number of observations are made in this review. First, conventional fracture network models may lead to inaccurate results for flow and solute transport in tight fractured rocks. Secondly, a flow dimension of 1, as determined by the analysis of pressure data in well testing, may be indicative of channelised flow, but such interpretation is not unique or definitive. Thirdly, in sparse channels, the percolation may be more influenced by the fracture shape than the fracture size and orientation but further studies are needed. Fourthly, the migration of radionuclides from a waste canister in a repository to the biosphere may be strongly influenced by the type of model used (e.g. discrete fracture network, channel model). Fifthly, the determination of appropriateness of representing an in situ flow system by a sparse-channel network model needs parameters usually neglected in site characterisation, such as the density of channels or fracture intersections.

  12. Analysis of maximal-ratio of transmitting/receiving antenna selection with perfect and partial channel information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao XIAO; Guangxi ZHU; Lin ZHOU; Desheng WANG; Li LI

    2008-01-01

    To improve system performance and reduce the complexity and cost of receiver hardware, we investi-gated a new multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scheme combining maximal-ratio transmitting and receiver antenna selection (MRT/RAS). In this scheme, a single receiving antenna, which maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver, is selected for demodulation. The closed-form outage probability and the bit error rate (BER) of the MRT/RAS system are both presented. The simulation demonstrates that the MRT/ RAS scheme can achieve a full diversity order as if all the receiving antennas were used. It is shown that the MRT/RAS scheme outperforms some more complex space-time codes of the same spectral efficiency. The ana-lytical results are verified by simulation. In the end, we also analyze the MRT/RAS system based on partial chan-nel information.

  13. 76 FR 43701 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Tribal State Gaming Compact Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Class III Tribal State Gaming... the collection of information for the Class III Tribal State Gaming Compact Process. The information... comments on the information collection to Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, 1849 C...

  14. 75 FR 21610 - Overview Information: State Vocational Rehabilitation Unit In-Service Training; Notice Inviting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services Overview Information: State Vocational... to support projects for training State vocational rehabilitation (VR) unit personnel in program areas... staffing levels of the State agencies obtained from data on the Annual Vocational Rehabilitation...

  15. Resolving the 3D spatial orientation of helix I in the closed state of the colicin E1 channel domain by FRET. Insights into the integration mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Miguel R; Ho, Derek; Merrill, A Rod

    2016-10-15

    Current evidence suggests that the closed-state membrane model for the channel-forming domain of colicin E1 involves eight amphipathic α-helices (helices I-VII and X) that adopt a two-dimensional arrangement on the membrane surface. Two central hydrophobic α-helices in colicin E1 (VIII and IX) adopt a transmembrane location-the umbrella model. Helices I and II have been shown to participate in the channel by forming a transmembrane segment (TM1) in the voltage-induced open channel state. Consequently, it is paramount to determine the relative location and orientation of helix I in the two-dimensional arrangement of the membrane. A new, low-resolution, three-dimensional model of the closed state of the colicin E1 channel was constructed based on FRET measurements between three naturally occurring Trp residues and three sites in helix I, in addition to previously reported FRET distances for the channel domain. Furthermore, a new mechanism for the channel integration process involving the transition of the soluble to membrane-bound form is presented based on a plethora of kinetic data for this process.

  16. Channel dropping via bound states in the continuum in a system of two nonlinear cavities between two linear waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakov, Evgeny; Pichugin, Konstantin; Sadreev, Almas

    2013-10-01

    We show that two nonlinear resonant cavities aligned between two parallel waveguides can support self-induced bound states in the continuum (BSCs). These BSCs are symmetrical relative to an inversion of the waveguides and to inversion of the transport axis. Due to this BSCs can drop an incident wave from one waveguide to another with very high efficiency. We show also that the frequency of the efficient channel dropping can be tuned by injecting power. All these results are in good agreement with numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations in a two-dimensional photonic crystal of GaAs rods holding two parallel waveguides and two defects made of a Kerr medium.

  17. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Mobile radio channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pätzold, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the modelling, analysis and simulation of mobile radio channels, this book gives a detailed understanding of fundamental issues and examines state-of-the-art techniques in mobile radio channel modelling. It analyses several mobile fading channels, including terrestrial and satellite flat-fading channels, various types of wideband channels and advanced MIMO channels, providing a fundamental understanding of the issues currently being investigated in the field. Important classes of narrowband, wideband, and space-time wireless channels are explored in deta

  19. Analgesic effects of a substituted N-triazole oxindole (TROX-1), a state-dependent, voltage-gated calcium channel 2 blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbadie, Catherine; McManus, Owen B; Sun, Shu-Yu; Bugianesi, Randal M; Dai, Ge; Haedo, Rodolfo J; Herrington, James B; Kaczorowski, Gregory J; Smith, McHardy M; Swensen, Andrew M; Warren, Vivien A; Williams, Brande; Arneric, Stephen P; Eduljee, Cyrus; Snutch, Terrance P; Tringham, Elizabeth W; Jochnowitz, Nina; Liang, Annie; Euan MacIntyre, D; McGowan, Erin; Mistry, Shruti; White, Valerie V; Hoyt, Scott B; London, Clare; Lyons, Kathryn A; Bunting, Patricia B; Volksdorf, Sylvia; Duffy, Joseph L

    2010-08-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(v))2.2 (N-type calcium channels) are key components in nociceptive transmission pathways. Ziconotide, a state-independent peptide inhibitor of Ca(v)2.2 channels, is efficacious in treating refractory pain but exhibits a narrow therapeutic window and must be administered intrathecally. We have discovered an N-triazole oxindole, (3R)-5-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-3-(pyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one (TROX-1), as a small-molecule, state-dependent blocker of Ca(v)2 channels, and we investigated the therapeutic advantages of this compound for analgesia. TROX-1 preferentially inhibited potassium-triggered calcium influx through recombinant Ca(v)2.2 channels under depolarized conditions (IC(50) = 0.27 microM) compared with hyperpolarized conditions (IC(50) > 20 microM). In rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, TROX-1 inhibited omega-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive calcium currents (Ca(v)2.2 channel currents), with greater potency under depolarized conditions (IC(50) = 0.4 microM) than under hyperpolarized conditions (IC(50) = 2.6 microM), indicating state-dependent Ca(v)2.2 channel block of native as well as recombinant channels. TROX-1 fully blocked calcium influx mediated by a mixture of Ca(v)2 channels in calcium imaging experiments in rat DRG neurons, indicating additional block of all Ca(v)2 family channels. TROX-1 reversed inflammatory-induced hyperalgesia with maximal effects equivalent to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and it reversed nerve injury-induced allodynia to the same extent as pregabalin and duloxetine. In contrast, no significant reversal of hyperalgesia was observed in Ca(v)2.2 gene-deleted mice. Mild impairment of motor function in the Rotarod test and cardiovascular functions were observed at 20- to 40-fold higher plasma concentrations than required for analgesic activities. TROX-1 demonstrates that an orally available state-dependent Ca(v)2 channel blocker may

  20. Resonance effect in the voltage state of intrinsic Josephson junction stacks with multiple tunneling channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tomio; Ota, Yukihiro; Machida, Masahiko

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the resonance effect caused by the Josephson-Leggett (JL) mode in intrinsic Josephson junction stacks (IJJs) formed by a stack of multigap superconducting layers. Such an IJJ system is expected to be realized in a single crystal of highly anisotropic iron-based superconductors with thick blocking layers. It is shown that the JL mode is resonantly excited by the Josephson oscillations in the voltage state with inhomogeneous electric-field distribution along the c axis. The resonance creates a steplike structure with a negative resistance region in the I-V characteristics.

  1. Crowdsourcing, Citizen Science or Volunteered Geographic Information? The Current State of Crowdsourced Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda See

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Citizens are increasingly becoming an important source of geographic information, sometimes entering domains that had until recently been the exclusive realm of authoritative agencies. This activity has a very diverse character as it can, amongst other things, be active or passive, involve spatial or aspatial data and the data provided can be variable in terms of key attributes such as format, description and quality. Unsurprisingly, therefore, there are a variety of terms used to describe data arising from citizens. In this article, the expressions used to describe citizen sensing of geographic information are reviewed and their use over time explored, prior to categorizing them and highlighting key issues in the current state of the subject. The latter involved a review of ~100 Internet sites with particular focus on their thematic topic, the nature of the data and issues such as incentives for contributors. This review suggests that most sites involve active rather than passive contribution, with citizens typically motivated by the desire to aid a worthy cause, often receiving little training. As such, this article provides a snapshot of the role of citizens in crowdsourcing geographic information and a guide to the current status of this rapidly emerging and evolving subject.

  2. Inverse Determinant Sums and Connections Between Fading Channel Information Theory and Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Vehkalahti, Roope

    2011-01-01

    Since the invention of space-time coding numerous algebraic methods have been applied to code design. In particular algebraic number theory and central simple algebras have been at the forefront of the research. In the first part of the paper we will push this direction further and show how the error probability of algebraic codes is tied to some central aspects of algebraic number theory and central simple algebras. In particular we prove how the error probability of several algebraic codes is tied to the corresponding zeta functions and unit groups. In the second part of this paper we turn to study what information theory can say about algebra. We will first derive some corollaries from the diversity-multiplexing gain tradeoff (DMT) Zheng and Tse and later show how these results can be used to analyze the unit group of orders of certain division algebras.

  3. Optimization of bandwidth of communication channels of corporate networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Bondarenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article contains overview of the organization of communication between applications on the corporate network. It is stated that the main digital channel (channel B - 64 kbit/s and the primary digital channel (channel E1 the digital stream - 2048 kbit/s are used as the main channels in corporate networks. Problem areas of the functioning of the corporate network are identified. There are the rent of communication channels, which is growing rapidly with increasing the quality and speed of data transmission, and optimal use of bandwidth of communication channels. Setting of task. Optimal use of transmission channels bandwidth and minimizing the rent cost of channels is possible in two ways - the use of compression techniques of voice and video information and the application of variable structure of channels by using various-speed transmission channels. Differential pulse code modulation, adaptive differential pulse code modulation are the modern methods of speech signals processing. Organization of various-speed channels is performed in the structure of the BCC (for speech signals or PCR (for video. Suggestions for optimizing the structure of the channel signals. Proposed method of various-speed channels formation by using the channel intervals appropriate BCC (octets in the structure of signals E1 as envelopes containing various-speed channels. Channels can be selected for synchronization procedure CRC to simplify recognition of channels in the structure of E1. In this case, the minimal speed in the channel is 4 kbit/s. Conclusions. The proposed structure of envelopes is based on octet channel intervals of standard group signal of the primary group plesiochronous hierarchy E1 when transferring various-speed digital signals maximum allows to use the bandwidth at a fixed structure of channel interval, it makes possible to agree on the structure of the various-speed signals with the existing in communication networks.

  4. Charge states distribution of 3350 keV He ions channeled in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Bentini, G G; Bianconi, M; Lotti, R; Lulli, G

    2002-01-01

    When an ion beam is aligned along a major crystalline axis the dominant interaction is with valence electrons. In this condition the charge exchange processes mostly concern the interaction between the incident ion and a quasi-free electron gas and a strong reduction of the charge-changing probabilities is expected. In this work, 3350 keV He sup + and He sup 2 sup + ions were aligned at small tilt angles about the axis of a 4650 A silicon crystalline membrane. The charge state distribution (CSD) of the transmitted ions was detected by an electro-magnetic analyzer having a very small acceptance angle. In these conditions the equilibration of the CSD was not yet reached and this allowed, making use of simple approximations, for the measurement of the valence electron loss cross-section.

  5. Jump state estimation with multiple sensors with packet dropping and delaying channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Daniel; Peñarrocha, Ignacio; Sanchis, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    This work addresses the design of a state observer for systems whose outputs are measured through a communication network. The measurements from each sensor node are assumed to arrive randomly, scarcely and with a time-varying delay. The proposed model of the plant and the network measurement scenarios cover the cases of multiple sensors, out-of-sequence measurements, buffered measurements on a single packet and multirate sensor measurements. A jump observer is proposed that selects a different gain depending on the number of periods elapsed between successfully received measurements and on the available data. A finite set of gains is pre-calculated offline with a tractable optimisation problem, where the complexity of the observer implementation is a design parameter. The computational cost of the observer implementation is much lower than in the Kalman filter, whilst the performance is similar. Several examples illustrate the observer design for different measurement scenarios and observer complexity and show the achievable performance.

  6. Research on information sharing mechanism of agro-product marketing channel%农产品渠道联盟信息共享机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车愔

    2011-01-01

    农产品渠道联盟信息共享是指相互合作的渠道成员间在信息上的交流与共用.构建农产品渠道联盟信息共享机制可以使渠道成员增进相互交流、保持协调一致、做出有效的市场预测、提高市场反映速度、以更大的竞争优势达到整个联盟利益最大化,最终实现各成员的特定目标和利益.博弈分析显示,在农产品渠道联盟中,供应商与销售商的信息共享能提高参与信息共享的渠道成员的利润.农产品渠道联盟信息共享机制包括信息共享激励机制和信息共享保障机制.%Agro-product marketing channel alliance in-formation sharing refers to information exchange and sharing between mutual cooperation channel members. The con-structing of agro-product marketing channel alliance informa-tion sharing mechanism can improve mutual communication, coordination and make an effective market forecast, enhances the market reflect speed, realize alliance benefit maximiza-tion with more competitive advantages, and finally achieve every member's specific goals and interests. The game anal-ysis shows that information sharing between the suppliers and sellers can improve profits of involved in agro-product marketing channel alliance. The agro-product marketing channel alliance information sharing mechanism includes in-formation sharing encouragement mechanism and information sharing security mechanism.

  7. Fast-onset lidocaine block of rat NaV1.4 channels suggests involvement of a second high-affinity open state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Kevin J; Wagner, Larry E

    2016-06-01

    Local anesthetics (LAs) block resting, open, and inactivated states of voltage-gated Na(+) channels where inactivated states are thought to bind with highest affinity. However, reports of fast-onset block occurring over milliseconds hint at high-affinity block of open channels. Movement of voltage-sensor domain IV-segment 4 (DIVS4) has been associated with high affinity LA block termed voltage-sensor block (VSB) that also leads to a second open state. These observations point to a second high-affinity open state that may underlie fast-onset block. To test for this state, we analyzed the modulation of Na(+) currents by lidocaine and its quaternary derivative (QX222) from heterologously expressed (Xenopus laevis oocytes) rat skeletal muscle μ1 NaV1.4 (rSkM1) with β1 (WT-β1), and a mutant form (IFM-QQQ mutation in the III-IV interdomain, QQQ) lacking fast inactivation, in combination with Markov kinetic gating models. 100 μM lidocaine induced fast-onset (τonset≈2 ms), long-lived (τrecovery≈120 ms) block of WT-β1 macroscopic currents. Lidocaine blocked single-channel and macroscopic QQQ currents in agreement with our previously described mechanism of dual, open-channel block (DOB mechanism). A DOB kinetic model reproduced lidocaine effects on QQQ currents. The DOB model was extended to include trapping fast-inactivation and activation gates, and a second open state (OS2); the latter arising from DIVS4 translocation that precedes inactivation and exhibits high-affinity, lidocaine binding (apparent Kd=25 μM) that accords with VSB (DOB-S2VSB mechanism). The DOB-S2VSB kinetic model predicted fast-onset block of WT-β1. The findings support the involvement of a second, high-affinity, open state in lidocaine modulation of Na(+) channels.

  8. 76 FR 29783 - Agency Information Collection: Comment Request; The State of Ecosystem Services Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection: Comment Request; The State of Ecosystem Services... (ICR) for a new collection of information: The State of Ecosystem Services Implementation Survey. This...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Ecosystem goods and services are defined by ecologists as the...

  9. Mobile agents in crisis situations - adapting information to user’s affective state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kok; A. Winterboer; H. Cramer; G. Pavlin; F. Groen; V. Evers

    2010-01-01

    Emotion has been found to influence humans’ cognitive information processing and decision-making (Schwarz, 2000). A state of sadness, for example, is accompanied by substantive information processing, with greater attention to detail, whereas people in a happier state tend to process information mor

  10. United States National Library of Medicine Drug Information Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Hochstein, Colette; Goshorn, Jeanne; Chang, Florence

    2009-01-01

    The Drug Information Portal is a free Web resource from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) that provides a user-friendly gateway to current information for more than 15,000 drugs. The site guides users to related resources of NLM, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other government agencies. Current drug-related information regarding consumer health, clinical trials, AIDS, MeSH pharmacological actions, MEDLINE/PubMed biomedical literature, and physical properties and structure i...

  11. Quantum state transfer via temporal kicking of information

    CERN Document Server

    Di Franco, C; Kim, M S

    2009-01-01

    We propose a strategy for perfect state transfer in spin chains based on the use of an unmodulated coupling Hamiltonian whose coefficients are explicitly time dependent. We show that, if specific and non-demanding conditions are satisfied by the temporal behavior of the coupling strengths, our model allows perfect state transfer. The paradigma put forward by our proposal holds the promises to set an alternative standard to the use of clever encoding and coupling-strength engineering for perfect state transfer.

  12. Mandatory Vaccines: Questionable Federal Policy Informing Questionable State Laws

    OpenAIRE

    McCarty, Catherine M.

    2002-01-01

    Among the powers retained by the states are what have become known as the police powers. The police powers include the power of the state government to promote the public welfare by restraining and regulating private individual’s rights to liberty and uses of property. Public health regulation has long been regarded as one of the state’s primary and most important police powers. The validity of public health laws and regulations at both the state and fede...

  13. Quantum Multiple Access Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯广; 黄民信; 张永德

    2002-01-01

    We consider the transmission of classical information over a quantum channel by many senders, which is a generalization of the two-sender case. The channel capacity region is shown to be a convex hull bound by the yon Neumann entropy and the conditional yon Neumann entropies. The result allows a reasonable distribution of channel capacity over the senders.

  14. Elections, Information, and State-Dependent Candidate Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    The quality of political candidates often depends on the current state of the world, for example because their personal characteristics are more valuable in some situations than in others. We explore the implications of state-dependent candidate quality in a model of electoral competition where v...

  15. Uncertainty relation of mixed states by means of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variance of an observable in a quantum state is usually used to describe Heisenberg uncertainty relation. For mixed states, the variance includes quantum and classical uncertainties. By means of the skew information and the decomposition of the variance, a stronger uncertainty relation was presented by Luo [ Phys. Rev. A 72, 042110 (2005)]. In this paper, by using Wigner-Yanase-Dyson information which is a generalization of the skew information, we propose a general uncertainty relation of mixed states.

  16. 75 FR 62185 - Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for Assistance for Hiring...

  17. 75 FR 45207 - Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for Assistance for Hiring...

  18. 78 FR 55778 - Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for Assistance for Hiring...

  19. Regionalized Equations for Bankfull-Discharge and Channel Characteristics of Streams in New York State - Hydrologic Region 3 East of the Hudson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Baldigo, Barry P.

    2007-01-01

    Equations that relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and channel characteristics (such as width, depth, and cross-sectional area) at gaged sites are needed to define bankfull discharge and channel characteristics at ungaged sites and can be used for stream-restoration and protection projects, stream-channel classification, and channel assessments. These equations are intended to serve as a guide for streams in areas of similar hydrologic, climatic, and physiographic conditions. New York State contains eight hydrologic regions that were previously delineated on the basis of high-flow (flood) characteristics. This report presents predictive equations for bankfull characteristics (discharge and channel characteristics) for streams east of the Hudson River, referred to as Hydrologic Region 3. Stream-survey data and discharge records from 12 streamflow-gaging stations were used in regression analyses to relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and bankfull channel width, depth, and cross-sectional area. The four predictive equations are: bankfull discharge (cubic feet per second) = 83.8 (drainage area (square miles))0.679, (1) bankfull-channel width (feet) = 24.0 (drainage area (square miles))0.292, (2) bankfull-channel depth (feet) = 1.66 (drainage area (square miles))0.210, (3) bankfull-channel cross-sectional area (square feet) = 39.8 (drainage area (square miles))0.503. (4) The coefficients of determination (R2) for these four equations are 0.93, 0.85, 0.77, and 0.92, respectively. The high coefficients of determination for bankfull discharge and cross-sectional area indicate that much of the range in the variables is explained by the size of the drainage area; the smaller correlation coefficients for bankfull channel width and depth indicate that other factors also affect these relations. Recurrence intervals for the estimated bankfull discharge of each stream ranged from 1.16 to 3.35 years; the mean recurrence interval was 2.08 years. The 12 surveyed

  20. Informal economy as an expression of the state failure

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Kubiczek

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the phenomenon of second economy, underground or subterranean economy, unofficial economy, unrecorded economy, informal economy, cash economy etc., which has been assessed here as a function of a given mix of economic policies.

  1. Dynamic channel allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminsky, Andrew D.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) offers the possibility of capturing unused channel capacity by allocating unused resources between competing network nodes. This can reduce or possibly eliminate channels sitting idle while information awaits transmission. This holds potential for increasing throughput on bandwidth constrained networks. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the techniques used to allocate channels on demand and acc...

  2. A novel mechanism for fine-tuning open-state stability in a voltage-gated potassium channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Niciforovic, Ana P; Galpin, Jason D;

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels elicit membrane hyperpolarization through voltage-sensor domains that regulate the conductive status of the pore domain. To better understand the inherent basis for the open-closed equilibrium in these channels, we undertook an atomistic scan using synthetic fluor...

  3. To The Question Of Information Security During Rendering State And Municipal Services Through The Global Information And Telecommunication Network Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Galushkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzes some aspects of providing the state and municipal services by means of the global information and telecommunication network Internet. Author proves the need of ensuring information security and counteraction of cyberespionage, gives own offers.

  4. State Education Agencies, Information Systems, and the Expansion of State Power in the Era of Test-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Dorothea; Rutledge, Stacey; Bali, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how SEAs in three states designed, installed, and operated statewide, longitudinal student information systems (SLSIS). SLSIS track individual students' progress in K-12 schools, college, and beyond and link it to individual schools and teachers. They are key components of the information infrastructure of test-based…

  5. 34 CFR 403.206 - What are the State's responsibilities regarding a State occupational information coordinating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.206 What are... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities regarding a...

  6. Majorization preservation of Gaussian bosonic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels are majorization-preserving over the set of passive states of the harmonic oscillator. This means that comparable passive states under majorization are transformed into equally comparable passive states by any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. Our proof relies on a new preorder relation called Fock-majorization, which coincides with regular majorization for passive states but also induces another order relation in terms of mean boson number, thereby connecting the concepts of energy and disorder of a quantum state. The consequences of majorization preservation are discussed in the context of the broadcast communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels. Because most of our results are independent of the specific nature of the system under investigation, they could be generalized to other quantum systems and Hamiltonians, providing a new tool that may prove useful in quantum information theory and especially quantum thermodynamics.

  7. Quantum Teleportation of Tripartite Arbitrary State via W State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zheng-Yuan; YI You-Min; CAO Zhuo-Liang

    2005-01-01

    A scheme of teleportation of a tripartite state via W state is suggested. The W state serves as quantum channels. Standard Bell-state measurements and Von Neumann measurements are performed. After the sender operates the measurements and informs the receiver her results, he can reconstruct the original state by the corresponding unitary transformation. The probability of the successful teleportation is also obtained.

  8. Strategizing for Public Policy: The Information Literacy State Proclamation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Sharon A.; Jackman, Lana W.; Prause, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project designed to raise the awareness of policymakers about the importance of information literacy to achieve societal goals. Issues benefit from the governmental support, prioritization, mandates, and funding that can result when there is policy behind them. Studies indicate that many people lack the ability to draw on…

  9. Elections, Private Information, and State-Dependent Candidate Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    In this paper we contribute to the study of how democracy works when politicians are better informed than the electorate about conditions relevant for policy choice. We do so by setting up and analyzing a game theoretic model of electoral competition. An important feature of the model is that can...

  10. Informal Karst Education in the United States and Internationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the abundance of karst terrains and the important role they play in a wide variety of roles including supplying freshwater drinking supplies, no single, comprehensive study investigates the role of informal education for the improved understanding and protection of the terrains. Commonly overlooked anthropogenic karst disturbances…

  11. The energy content of restaurant foods without stated calorie information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: National recommendations for prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake through self-monitoring food consumption. However, there is little information on the energy content of foods offered by non-chain restaurants, which account for approximately 50% of restauran...

  12. State-dependent block of rat Nav1.4 sodium channels expressed in xenopus oocytes by pyrazoline-type insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Kristopher; Soderlund, David M

    2005-06-01

    Insecticidal pyrazolines inhibit voltage-sensitive sodium channels of both insect and mammalian neurons in a voltage-dependent manner. Studies on the effects of pyrazoline insecticides on mammalian sodium channels have been limited to experimentation on the tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel populations of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. In this study, we examined the effects of the insecticidal pyrazolines indoxacarb, the N-decarbomethoxyllated metabolite of indoxacarb (DCJW), and RH 3421 on rat Na(v)1.4 sodium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Both DCJW and RH 3421 were ineffective inhibitors of rat Na(v)1.4 sodium channels at a membrane potential of -120 mV, but depolarization to -60 mV or -30 mV during insecticide exposure resulted in substantial block. Inhibition by pyrazoline insecticides was nearly irreversible with washout, but repolarization of the membrane relieved block. DCJW and RH 3421 also caused hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of slow inactivation without affecting the voltage dependence of activation or fast inactivation. These results suggest that DCJW and RH 3421 interact specifically with the slow inactivated state of the sodium channel. Indoxacarb did not cause block at any potential, yet it interfered with the ability of DCJW, but not RH 3421, to inhibit sodium current. Phenytoin, an anticonvulsant, reduced the efficacy of both DCJW and RH 3421. These data imply that the binding site for pyrazoline insecticides overlaps with that for therapeutic sodium channel blockers.

  13. 78 FR 5793 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Evaluation of State Expanded Learning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Evaluation of State Expanded Learning Time... State Expanded Learning Time. OMB Control Number: 1850-New. Type of Review: New information collection... conduct semi-structured interviews with 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC)...

  14. Motivating Factors of Florida Community and State College Information Technology Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Wendy Louise

    2013-01-01

    In this study the core job characteristics that contribute to the internal motivational factors and job satisfaction of information technology faculty members working at a community or state college in Florida were investigated. Fifty-four information technology faculty members working at a community or state college in Florida completed the Job…

  15. Von Neumann entropy, mutual information and total correlations of Gaussian states

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, A; De Siena, S; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Siena, Silvio De

    2004-01-01

    We determine the Von Neumann entropy and the mutual information of an arbitrary bipartite Gaussian state. A comparison between mutual information and entanglement of formation for symmetric states is considered, remarking the crucial role of the symplectic eigenvalues in qualifying and quantifying correlations.

  16. 78 FR 12349 - Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (LWCF Act) (16 U.S.C. 460l-4 et seq... discussed in detail in the Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program Federal...

  17. On Feedback and the Classical Capacity of a Noisy Quantum Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Garry; Nagarajan, Rajagopal

    2003-01-01

    In Shannon information theory the capacity of a memoryless communication channel cannot be increased by the use of feedback from receiver to sender. In this paper the use of classical feedback is shown to provide no increase in the unassisted classical capacity of a memoryless quantum channel when feedback is used across non-entangled input states, or when the channel is an entanglement--breaking channel. This gives a generalization of the Shannon theory for certain classes of feedback protoc...

  18. The capacity of the cascaded fading channel in the low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a simple way to compute the ergodic capacity of cascaded channels with perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. We apply our generic results to the Rayleigh-double fading channel, and to the free-space optical channel in the presence of pointing errors and we express their low signal-to-noise ratio capacities. We mainly focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio range.

  19. Teleporting an unknown quantum state with unit fidelity and unit probability via a non-maximally entangled channel and an auxiliary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashvand, Taghi

    2016-08-01

    We present a new scheme for quantum teleportation that one can teleport an unknown state via a non-maximally entangled channel with certainly, using an auxiliary system. In this scheme depending on the state of the auxiliary system, one can find a class of orthogonal vectors set as a basis which by performing von Neumann measurement in each element of this class Alice can teleport an unknown state with unit fidelity and unit probability. A comparison of our scheme with some previous schemes is given and we will see that our scheme has advantages that the others do not.

  20. Minimal classical communication and measurement complexity for quantum information splitting of a two-qubit state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasanta K Panigrahi; Siddharth Karumanchi; Sreraman Muralidharan

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the usefulness of the highly entangled five-partite cluster and Brown states for the quantum information splitting (QIS) of a special kind of two-qubit state using remote state preparation. In our schemes, the information that is to be shared is known to the sender. We show that, QIS can be accomplished with just two classical bits, as opposed to four classical bits, when the information that is to be shared is unknown to the sender. The present algorithm, demonstrated through the cluster and Brown states is deterministic as compared to the previous works in which it was probabilistic.

  1. Foreign Institutional Investors and Stock Market Liquidity in China: State Ownership, Trading Activity and Information Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Mingfa; Nilsson, Birger; Suardi, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese government has implemented the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor (QFII) system in order to promote stock market liquidity by participation of foreign institutional investors. This paper is the first to explicitly identify the channels through which foreign institutional investors influence the liquidity on the Chinese stock markets. Firstly, we find that market participation by foreign institutional investors promotes liquidity both for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and no...

  2. Quantum Information Processing and Entanglement in Solid State Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kawabata, Shiro

    2004-01-01

    Control over electron-spin states, such as coherent manipulation, filtering and measurement promises access to new technologies in conventional as well as in quantum computation and quantum communication. In this paper, we review recent theoretical proposal of using electron spins in quantum confined structures as qubits. We also present a theoretical proposal for testing Bell's inequality in nano-electronics devices. We show that the entanglement of two electron spins can be detected in the ...

  3. Extracting Information about the Initial State from the Black Hole Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T

    2016-02-01

    The crux of the black hole information paradox is related to the fact that the complete information about the initial state of a quantum field in a collapsing spacetime is not available to future asymptotic observers, belying the expectations from a unitary quantum theory. We study the imprints of the initial quantum state contained in a specific class of distortions of the black hole radiation and identify the classes of in states that can be partially or fully reconstructed from the information contained within. Even for the general in state, we can uncover some specific information. These results suggest that a classical collapse scenario ignores this richness of information in the resulting spectrum and a consistent quantum treatment of the entire collapse process might allow us to retrieve much more information from the spectrum of the final radiation.

  4. Extracting Information about the Initial State from the Black Hole Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T

    2016-02-01

    The crux of the black hole information paradox is related to the fact that the complete information about the initial state of a quantum field in a collapsing spacetime is not available to future asymptotic observers, belying the expectations from a unitary quantum theory. We study the imprints of the initial quantum state contained in a specific class of distortions of the black hole radiation and identify the classes of in states that can be partially or fully reconstructed from the information contained within. Even for the general in state, we can uncover some specific information. These results suggest that a classical collapse scenario ignores this richness of information in the resulting spectrum and a consistent quantum treatment of the entire collapse process might allow us to retrieve much more information from the spectrum of the final radiation. PMID:26894699

  5. Effects of fractal gating of potassium channels on neuronal behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-Jiang; Zeng, Shang-You; Zhang, Zheng-Zhen

    2010-10-01

    The classical model of voltage-gated ion channels assumes that according to a Markov process ion channels switch among a small number of states without memory, but a bunch of experimental papers show that some ion channels exhibit significant memory effects, and this memory effects can take the form of kinetic rate constant that is fractal. Obviously the gating character of ion channels will affect generation and propagation of action potentials, furthermore, affect generation, coding and propagation of neural information. However, there is little previous research on this series of interesting issues. This paper investigates effects of fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state on neuronal behaviours. The obtained results show that fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state has important effects on neuronal behaviours, increases excitability, rest potential and spiking frequency of the neuronal membrane, and decreases threshold voltage and threshold injected current of the neuronal membrane. So fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state can improve the sensitivity of the neuronal membrane, and enlarge the encoded strength of neural information.

  6. Secrecy Capacity over Correlated Ergodic Fading Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Minki; Lee, Hyuckjae; Ha, Jeongseok

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the secrecy capacity of an ergodic fading wiretap channel in which the main channel is correlated with the eavesdropper channel. In this study, the full Channel State Information (CSI) is assumed, and thus the transmitter knows the channel gains of the legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper. By analyzing the resulting secrecy capacity we quantify the loss of the secrecy capacity due to the correlation. In addition, we study the asymptotic behavior of the secrecy capacity as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) tends to infinity. The capacity of an ordinary fading channel logarithmically increases with SNR. On the contrary, the secrecy capacity converges into a limit which can be an upper bound on the secrecy capacity over the fading wiretap channel. We find a closed form of the upper bound for the correlated Rayleigh wiretap channel which also includes the independent case as a special one. Our work shows that the upper bound is determined by only two channel parameters; the correlation coefficient an...

  7. The economics of crime: investigating the drugs-crime channel: empirical evidence from panel data of the German states

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Winker, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The rising trends both in drug addiction and crime rates are of major public concern in Germany. Surprisingly, the economic theory of crime seems to ignore the drugs?crime nexus, whereas the criminological literature considers illicit drug use a main reason of criminal activities. This paper provides an econometric assessment of the drugs?crime channel within a Becker?Ehrlich model of crime supply. We analyse three different channels from drug abuse to crime: system?related, economic?related ...

  8. Three-body analysis of 11Li and its -decay to deuteron channel and to halo analog state 11Be* (18.3 MeV)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kumar; V S Bhasin

    2004-09-01

    The ground state wave function of 11Li obtained in a three-body model proposed earlier (S Kumar and V S Bhasin, Phys. Rev. C65, 034007 (2002)) has been employed to study the probability distributions, momentum distributions and n–n correlation. Complex scaling method has been used to find the energy positions and widths of the three resonant states of 11Li above the breakup threshold. The formalism is extended further to study the -decay of 11Li to two channels. One is the -transition of 11Li into a high lying excited state of 11Be at 18.3 MeV, i.e., 11Be* and the second is the decay to deuteron + 9Li channel. The 11Be* state has been considered as a halo analog state identified as a bound three-body (9Li + n + p) system. The n- 9Li interaction in-corporates both the virtual state and the p-wave resonance observed experimentally. For p- 9Li interaction, a Coulomb corrected separable interaction is constructed using charge indepedendence for strong interaction part. The n–p interaction is operative only in 3S1 state corresponding to the isotopic spin h = 0. As a result the 11Be* state has the same isotopic spin as that of 9Li core, i.e., = 3/2. Using these realistic parameters as input and without invoking any other free parameter, the model has been used to predict the strength of the Gamow–Teller -decay of 11Li to 11Be* , i.e., GT = 1.5 and the value of the branching ratio to 9Li + deuteron channel to be 1.3 × 10−4. These results are found to be in rather good agreement with the recent experimental findings.

  9. Information technology issues in an era of greater state responsibilities: policy concerns for seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Carolyn M

    2002-01-01

    Five areas of state information technology policy are of special concern to seniors and senior service providers: obtaining access; closing the digital divide; developing information management systems; creating portals; and maintaining privacy. Increasing their activities in each of these areas, states continue to vary considerably in their responsiveness to meeting the challenge of including older adults, especially those living in rural areas, with the benefits of information technology.

  10. New York state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying our the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New York. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  11. New Mexico state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  12. New Mexico state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  13. New York state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New York. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  14. Accessible Information for Equally-Distant Partially-Entangled Alphabet State Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO San-Ru; HOU Bo-Yu; XI Xiao-Qiang; YUE Rui-Hong

    2002-01-01

    We have proposed a quantum system with equally-distant partially-entangled alphabet states which hasthe minimal mutual overlap and the highly distinguishability, these quantum states are used as the "signal states" ofthe quantum communication. We have also constructed the positive operator-valued measure for these "signal states"and discussed their entanglement properties and measurement of cntanglement. We calculate the accessible informationfor these alphabet states and show that the accessible information is closely related to the entanglement of the "signalstates": the higher the entanglement of the "signal states", the better the accessible information of the quantum system.and the accessible information reaches its maximal value when the alphabet states have their maximal entanglemcnt.

  15. New York state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying our the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New York. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  16. 75 FR 55598 - Proposed Information Collection; The State of Ecosystem Services Implementation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ....S. Geological Survey Proposed Information Collection; The State of Ecosystem Services Implementation... are implemented. The survey will gather information concerning: methods used in ecosystem services... information collection (IC) described below. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and as part...

  17. Characterization of the substituted N-triazole oxindole TROX-1, a small-molecule, state-dependent inhibitor of Ca(V)2 calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensen, Andrew M; Herrington, James; Bugianesi, Randal M; Dai, Ge; Haedo, Rodolfo J; Ratliff, Kevin S; Smith, McHardy M; Warren, Vivien A; Arneric, Stephen P; Eduljee, Cyrus; Parker, David; Snutch, Terrance P; Hoyt, Scott B; London, Clare; Duffy, Joseph L; Kaczorowski, Gregory J; McManus, Owen B

    2012-03-01

    Biological, genetic, and clinical evidence provide validation for N-type calcium channels (Ca(V)2.2) as therapeutic targets for chronic pain. A state-dependent Ca(V)2.2 inhibitor may provide an improved therapeutic window over ziconotide, the peptidyl Ca(V)2.2 inhibitor used clinically. Supporting this notion, we recently reported that in preclinical models, the state-dependent Ca(V)2 inhibitor (3R)-5-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-3-methyl-3-(pyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one (TROX-1) has an improved therapeutic window compared with ziconotide. Here we characterize TROX-1 inhibition of Cav2.2 channels in more detail. When channels are biased toward open/inactivated states by depolarizing the membrane potential under voltage-clamp electrophysiology, TROX-1 inhibits Ca(V)2.2 channels with an IC(50) of 0.11 μM. The voltage dependence of Ca(V)2.2 inhibition was examined using automated electrophysiology. TROX-1 IC(50) values were 4.2, 0.90, and 0.36 μM at -110, -90, and -70 mV, respectively. TROX-1 displayed use-dependent inhibition of Ca(V)2.2 with a 10-fold IC(50) separation between first (27 μM) and last (2.7 μM) pulses in a train. In a fluorescence-based calcium influx assay, TROX-1 inhibited Ca(V)2.2 channels with an IC(50) of 9.5 μM under hyperpolarized conditions and 0.69 μM under depolarized conditions. Finally, TROX-1 potency was examined across the Ca(V)2 subfamily. Depolarized IC(50) values were 0.29, 0.19, and 0.28 μM by manual electrophysiology using matched conditions and 1.8, 0.69, and 1.1 μM by calcium influx for Ca(V)2.1, Ca(V)2.2, and Ca(V)2.3, respectively. Together, these in vitro data support the idea that a state-dependent, non-subtype-selective Ca(V)2 channel inhibitor can achieve an improved therapeutic window over the relatively state-independent Ca(V)2.2-selective inhibitor ziconotide in preclinical models of chronic pain. PMID:22188924

  18. Quantum broadcast channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yard, J; Devetak, I; Yard, Jon; Hayden, Patrick; Devetak, Igor

    2006-01-01

    We analyze quantum broadcast channels, which are quantum channels with a single sender and many receivers. Focusing on channels with two receivers for simplicity, we generalize a number of results from the network Shannon theory literature which give the rates at which two senders can receive a common message, while a personalized one is sent to one of them. Our first collection of results applies to channels with a classical input and quantum outputs. The second class of theorems we prove concern sending a common classical message over a quantum broadcast channel, while sending quantum information to one of the receivers. The third group of results we obtain concern communication over an isometry, giving the rates at quantum information can be sent to one receiver, while common quantum information is sent to both, in the sense that tripartite GHZ entanglement is established. For each scenario, we provide an additivity proof for an appropriate class of channels, yielding single-letter characterizations of the...

  19. On 1-qubit channels

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlmann, Armin

    2000-01-01

    The entropy H_T(rho) of a state rho with respect to a channel T and the Holevo capacity of the channel require the solution of difficult variational problems. For a class of 1-qubit channels, which contains all the extremal ones, the problem can be significantly simplified by associating an Hermitian antilinear operator theta to every channel of the considered class. The concurrence of the channel can be expressed by theta and turns out to be a flat roof. This allows to write down an explicit...

  20. On 1-qubit channels

    CERN Document Server

    Uhlmann, A

    2001-01-01

    The entropy H_T(rho) of a state rho with respect to a channel T and the Holevo capacity of the channel require the solution of difficult variational problems. For a class of 1-qubit channels, which contains all the extremal ones, the problem can be significantly simplified by associating an Hermitian antilinear operator theta to every channel of the considered class. The concurrence of the channel can be expressed by theta and turns out to be a flat roof. This allows to write down an explicit expression for H_T. Its maximum would give the Holevo (1-shot) capacity.

  1. Where's the radon? The geographic information system in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Washington's lead agency for radon issues, the Department of Health (DOH) is developing the analytical basis for establishing a public health policy regarding radon. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a fundamental step in this analytical process to develop a map of the potential for indoor radon occurrence. The GIS analysis will take into account geology, geography, topography, soil permeability, indoor test results, population density and distribution, and housing. In addition, DOH is working to aid policy makers and residents by comparing residential exposures to the lowest exposure range at which miners evidenced excess lung cancers. This approach is a departure from the commonly used risk assessments that extrapolate from high to low exposure, and will help determine how many Washington residents are at risk. In conclusion there is an examination of Washington's radon prescriptive construction standards for residences. (author)

  2. State interrogation in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum-information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconstruction of a reduced density operator for weakly coupled systems of spins (1/2) from fits to nuclear magnetic resonance spectra is described in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on data treatment procedures that specify fewer than the 3n complete spectra that are implicitly prescribed in published references to state tomography on n-spin systems. It is shown that if the density operator is expanded in the so-called product-operator basis, it is always possible to estimate a desired coefficient in the expansion by measuring a single spectral multiplet. This simple observation can substantially reduce the experimental effort required for either complete density-matrix reconstruction or estimation of subsets of the coefficients in the product-operator expansion. A simple iterative algorithm can be used to produce reduced measurement procedures for experiments involving small numbers of qubits

  3. BLIND CHANNEL ESTIMATION OF SPACE-TIME FREQUENCY-SHIFT KEYING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The decoupled coherent Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection algorithm presented in this lettercan sharply reduce the complexity of the receiver as well as provide better error performance under the pre-condition that channel should be estimated first. Considering the bandwidth inefficiency of Frequency ShiftKeying (FSK), the acquisition of channel state information through training sequences will further decreasethe transmission efficiency. This letter presents a blind channel estimation algorithm based on noise subspacetheory which can acquire channel information without any training symbols. The simulation shows that thealgorithm brings about fewer channel estimation errors while the frequency efficiency can be increased.

  4. Erotized, AIDS-HIV Information in Court: A Study in State Censorship, Cultural Resistance, and First Amendment Issues Affecting Information Delivery in Information Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukenbill, W. Bernard

    This study analyzes court records of a county-level trial in Austin, Texas, in which erotized AIDS-HIV safer-sex information shown on a public access cable television program was claimed by the State of Texas to be obscene. This trial raised questions regarding such issues as: free access to information, especially through new technological…

  5. Information Technology and Art: Concepts and State of the Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salah Uddin; Camerano, Cristoforo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Jaccheri, Letizia

    The interaction between information technology (IT) and art is an increasing trend. Science, art and technology have been connected since the 60's, when scientists, artists, and inventors started to cooperate and use electronic instruments to create art. In 1960 Marshall McLuhan predicted the idea that the era of "machine-age" technology was next to close, and the electronic media were creating a new way to perform art [1]. The literature is full with examples of artists applying mathematics, robotic technology, and computing to the creation of art. The work in [2] is a good introduction to the merge of IT and art and introduces genetic art, algorithmic art, applications of complex systems and artificial intelligence. The intersection is drawing attention of people from diverse background and it is growing in size and scope. For these reasons, it is beneficiary for people interested in art and technology to know each other's background and interests well. In a multidisciplinary collaboration, the success depends on how well the different actors in the project collaborate and understand each other. See [3] for an introduction about multidisciplinary issues. Meyer and others in [4] explains the collaboration process between artists and technologists.

  6. Effects of mexiletine on ATP sensitive K+ channel of rat skeletal muscle fibres: a state dependent mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Tricarico, Domenico; Barbieri, Mariagrazia; Franchini, Carlo; Tortorella, Vincenzo; Conte Camerino, Diana

    1998-01-01

    The effects of mexiletine were evaluated on the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) of rat skeletal muscle fibres using patch clamp techniques. The effects of mexiletine were studied on macropatch currents 20 s (maximally activated), 8 min (early stage of rundown) and 15 min (late stage of rundown) after excision in the absence or in the presence of internal ADP (50–100 μM) or UDP (500 μM). In addition, the effects of mexiletine were tested on single channel.In the absence of ADP and UDP, mexilet...

  7. Interaction of Acid-sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) 1 with the Tarantula Toxin Psalmotoxin 1 is State Dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuanmao; Kalbacher, Hubert; Gründer, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are Na+ channels gated by extracellular H+. Six ASIC subunits that are expressed in neurons have been characterized. The tarantula toxin psalmotoxin 1 has been reported to potently and specifically inhibit homomeric ASIC1a and has been useful to characterize ASICs in neurons. Recently we have shown that psalmotoxin 1 inhibits ASIC1a by increasing its apparent affinity for H+. However, the mechanism by which PcTx1 increases the apparent H+ affinity remained un...

  8. Near-Nash equilibrium strategies for LQ differential games with inaccurate state information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ε -Nash equilibrium or “near equilibrium” for a linear quadratic cost game is considered. Due to inaccurate state information, the standard solution for feedback Nash equilibrium cannot be applied. Instead, an estimation of the players' states is substituted into the optimal control strategies equation obtained for perfect state information. The magnitude of the ε in the ε -Nash equilibrium will depend on the quality of the estimation process. To illustrate this approach, a Luenberger-type observer is used in the numerical example to generate the players' state estimates in a two-player non-zero-sum LQ differential game.

  9. Information Fusing Recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Pulse State Based on Stochastic Fuzzy Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jian; LIU Hong-jian; DENG Wei; WU Guo-zhen; CHEN Shu-qing; JING Ming-hua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the fuzzy characteristic of the pulse state and syndromes differentiation thinking mode of TCM, an information fusing recognition method of pulse states based on SFNN (Stochastic Fuzzy Neural Network) is presented in this paper. With the learning ability in parameters and structure, SFNN fuses the measurement information of three pulse-state sensors distributed in Cun, Guan,and Chi location of body for the pulse state recognition. The experimental results show that the percentage of correct recognition with new method is higher than that by single-data recognition one, with fewer off-line train numbers.

  10. Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; Villas-Boas, C. J.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.

  11. Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; Villas-Boas, C. J.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.

  12. Study on the Communication Channels of Financial Information in Colleges and Universities%高校财务信息的传播渠道探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华坤

    2016-01-01

    One of the important contents in colleges and universities information disclosure is the financial information. In view of the characteristics of public or directional open financial information in colleges and universities, as well as the use of the financial information, three types of communication channels are analyzed. This paper also puts forward the com-munication channels of the financial information in colleges and universities under the triple play environment.%高校财务信息是高校信息公开的重要内容之一。针对高校完全公开类财务信息和指向性公开类财务信息的特点,以及高校财务信息的使用对象,分析高校财务信息的三类传播渠道,并提出三网融合信息环境下高校财务信息的传播渠道选择。

  13. Information Acquisition and Exploitation in Multichannel Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Sudipto; Sarkar, Saswati

    2008-01-01

    A wireless system with multiple channels is considered, where each channel has several transmission states. A user learns about the instantaneous state of an available channel by transmitting a control packet in it. Since probing all channels consumes significant energy and time, a user needs to determine what and how much information it needs to acquire about the instantaneous states of the available channels so that it can maximize its transmission rate. This motivates the study of the trade-off between the cost of information acquisition and its value towards improving the transmission rate. A simple model is presented for studying this information acquisition and exploitation trade-off when the channels are multi-state, with different distributions and information acquisition costs. The objective is to maximize a utility function which depends on both the cost and value of information. Solution techniques are presented for computing near-optimal policies with succinct representation in polynomial time. Th...

  14. New Mexico state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Informaion Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  15. New Mexico state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Informaion Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of New Mexico. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  16. Three-mode Gaussian states in quantum information with continuous variables

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; Serafini, A; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Serafini, Alessio

    2006-01-01

    The structural aspects of tripartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems have been studied in [Adesso G, Serafini A and Illuminati F 2006 Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 73} 032345]. Here we focus our attention on the usefulness of such states in the context of realistic processing of continuous-variable quantum information. We introduce and discuss in detail several examples of pure and mixed three-mode states that stand out for their informational and/or entanglement properties. We then describe practical schemes to engineer such states with linear optics. In particular, we introduce a simple procedure -- based on passive optical elements -- to produce pure three-mode Gaussian states with {\\em arbitrary} entanglement structure (upon availability of an initial single-mode squeezed state). We analyze in detail the properties of distributed entanglement, showing that the promiscuity of entanglement sharing is a feature peculiar to symmetric Gaussian states that survives even in the pres...

  17. Trap states in enhancement-mode double heterostructures AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with different GaN channel layer thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report on trap states in enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures high electron mobility transistors by fluorine plasma treatment with different GaN channel layer thicknesses. Compared with the thick GaN channel layer sample, the thin one has smaller 2DEG concentration, lower electron mobility, lower saturation current, and lower peak transconductance, but it has a higher threshold voltage of 1.2 V. Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements are used to obtain the accurate capture cross section of trap states. By frequency dependent capacitance and conductance measurements, the trap state density of (1.98–2.56) × 1012 cm−2 eV−1 is located at ET in a range of (0.37–0.44) eV in the thin sample, while the trap state density of (2.3–2.92) × 1012 cm−2 eV−1 is located at ET in a range of (0.33–0.38) eV in the thick one. It indicates that the trap states in the thin sample are deeper than those in the thick one

  18. Trap states in enhancement-mode double heterostructures AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with different GaN channel layer thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunlong; Li, Peixian; Wang, Chong; Li, Xiangdong; Zhao, Shenglei; Mi, Minhan; Pei, Jiuqing; Zhang, Jincheng; Ma, Xiaohua; Hao, Yue

    2015-08-01

    This is the report on trap states in enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures high electron mobility transistors by fluorine plasma treatment with different GaN channel layer thicknesses. Compared with the thick GaN channel layer sample, the thin one has smaller 2DEG concentration, lower electron mobility, lower saturation current, and lower peak transconductance, but it has a higher threshold voltage of 1.2 V. Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements are used to obtain the accurate capture cross section of trap states. By frequency dependent capacitance and conductance measurements, the trap state density of (1.98-2.56) × 1012 cm-2 eV-1 is located at ET in a range of (0.37-0.44) eV in the thin sample, while the trap state density of (2.3-2.92) × 1012 cm-2 eV-1 is located at ET in a range of (0.33-0.38) eV in the thick one. It indicates that the trap states in the thin sample are deeper than those in the thick one.

  19. The role of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC in high AVP but low aldosterone states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stockand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the abundance of seminal discoveries establishing a strong causal relation between changes in aldosterone signaling, the activity of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC and blood pressure, the role of ENaC in health and disease is understood almost exclusively through the concept that this channel functions (in the distal nephron as a key end-effector controlling renal sodium excretion during feedback regulation of blood pressure by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS. Recent findings of aldosterone-independent stimulation of ENaC by vasopressin challenge the completeness of dogmatic understanding where ENaC serves solely as an end-effector of the RAAS important for control of sodium balance. Rather the consequences of activating ENaC in the distal nephron appear to depend on whether the channel is activated in the absence (by aldosterone or presence (by AVP of simultaneous activation of aquaporin 2 water channels. Thus, a unifying paradigm has ENaC at the junction of two signaling systems that sometimes must compete: one controlling and responding to changes in sodium balance, perceived as mean arterial pressure, and the other water balance, perceived as plasma osmolality.

  20. Indiana State University Undergraduate Students' Channels of Knowledge of and Use of Cunningham Memorial Library's Public Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Jack W.

    An application of the diffusion of innovations theory to library marketing, this study was designed to determine what channels of knowledge are more effective in persuading undergraduate students to adopt the use of library public services. To explore this topic at the local level, the following question was formulated: By what communication…

  1. SOCIAL AND ETHIC INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS ON GENERAL SOCIAL STATE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the analysis of intercommunication of social and ethical aspects of the use of information networks is conducted and their influence on social development of the state is determined.

  2. Performance of the ocean state forecast system at Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, T.M.B.; Sirisha, P.; Sandhya, K.G.; Srinivas, K.; SanilKumar, V.; Sabique, L.; Nherakkol, A.; KrishnaPrasad, B.; RakhiKumari; Jeyakumar, C.; Kaviyazhahu, K.; RameshKumar, M.; Harikumar, R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Nayak, S.

    The reliability of the operational Ocean State Forecast system at the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) during tropical cyclones that affect the coastline of India is described in this article. The performance...

  3. 离子通道记忆的二状态随机模型%Two-state stochastic models for memory in ion channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方积乾; 倪涛洋; 傅承主; 樊菁; 关永源

    1996-01-01

    目的:定量研究存在于通道中的记忆并提供有关统计方法以应用于生物医学研究.方法:利用随机过程分别建立短期和长期两类记忆的模型,坚持两状态而不是多状态,只是转移机制不同.结果:恒定转移强度的二状态马氏过程较好地拟合短期记忆的情形,处于一类随机环境中的二状态马氏过程较好地拟合长期记忆的情形;提出了参数估计的方法并以PC12细胞通道作为示例.结论:离子通道中的记忆可以用仅含两个状态的随机过程定量地建立模型.%AIM: To study quantitatively the memory existing in ion channels. METHODS: Stochastic processes were used to model 2 categories of memory (short-term and long-term) by persisting in the standpoint of two-state, instead of multiple states, but with different transition mechanism.RESULTS: A two-state Markov process with constant transition intensities well fitted the short-term memory and a two-state Markov process within a kind of random environment well fitted the long-term memory. Statistical procedures for parameter estimation were proposed and demonstrated with 2 real examples on the channels of PC12 cells. CONCLUSION: The memory in ion channels can be quantitatively modelled as stochastic process with 2 states.

  4. Transition of radiative recombination channels from delocalized states to localized states in a GaInP alloy with partial atomic ordering: a direct optical signature of Mott transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Z. C.; Ning, J. Q.; Deng, Z.; Wang, X. H.; Xu, S. J.; Wang, R. X.; Lu, S. L.; Dong, J. R.; Yang, H.

    2016-03-01

    Anderson localization is a predominant phenomenon in condensed matter and materials physics. In fact, localized and delocalized states often co-exist in one material. They are separated by a boundary called the mobility edge. Mott transition may take place between these two regimes. However, it is widely recognized that an apparent demonstration of Anderson localization or Mott transition is a challenging task. In this article, we present a direct optical observation of a transition of radiative recombination dominant channels from delocalized (i.e., local extended) states to Anderson localized states in the GaInP base layer of a GaInP/GaAs single junction solar cell by the means of the variable-temperature electroluminescence (EL) technique. It is found that by increasing temperature, we can boost a remarkable transition of radiative recombination dominant channels from the delocalized states to the localized states. The delocalized states are induced by the local atomic ordering domains (InP/GaP monolayer superlattices) while the localized states are caused by random distribution of indium (gallium) content. The efficient transfer and thermal redistribution of carriers between the two kinds of electronic states was revealed to result in both a distinct EL mechanism transition and an electrical resistance evolution with temperature. Our study gives rise to a self-consistent precise picture for carrier localization and transfer in a GaInP alloy, which is an extremely technologically important energy material for fabricating high-efficiency photovoltaic devices.

  5. Quantum Feedback Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Garry

    2002-01-01

    In Shannon information theory the capacity of a memoryless communication channel cannot be increased by the use of feedback. In quantum information theory the no-cloning theorem means that noiseless copying and feedback of quantum information cannot be achieved. In this paper, quantum feedback is defined as the unlimited use of a noiseless quantum channel from receiver to sender. Given such quantum feedback, it is shown to provide no increase in the entanglement--assisted capacities of a memo...

  6. Research on selecting the sale channel model of the information goods%信息产品销售渠道模式选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 李敏强; 寇纪淞

    2013-01-01

    The information goods manufacturer can distribute their products through many kinds of channels, e.g. online direct sale and traditional retail marketing. The retailer pays a manufacturer based on two common payment schemes, the Fixed-fee policy and the Per-copy policy. Which channel and sell model is preferable for the manufacture? The product quality, the price, and the customer acceptance for direct channel are the decisive factors. Through analyzing the decision behaviors of the manufacture, retailer and consumer, the model of maximizing the manufacture's profit is presented in the presence of both direct and retail channel. Based on the comparison among different channels, the paper shows that when the valuation for the information goods has a uniform distribution, the manufacture prefers the Fixed-fee policy through the direct sale channel, whereas the Per-copy policy is preferable through dual-channel. The best sale channel strategy is to distribute the high-quality version through the direct sale channel and the low-quality version through the retailing channel for the manufacturer.%信息产品供应商在销售产品时有多种渠道可以选择,可以通过在线直销,也可以通过传统的零售渠道方式.而在零售模式下,供应商可以与零售商之间采用Fixed-fee协议或Per-copy协议.供应商在面临这些不同的销售渠道和销售方式时,产品质量、销售价格以及消费者对直销渠道的接受程度等因素决定了最终的选择方式.通过对供应商、零售商和消费者的决策行为进行分析,给出了供应商通过直销渠道和零售渠道销售产品下的收益最优化模型,并对结果进行了比较.研究表明当消费者对产品评价值服从均匀分布的情况时,零售渠道下采用Fixed-fee模式有利于供应商,而在双重渠道下,供应商采用Per-copy模式更有利.而且当供应商采用直销渠道销售高质量产品,由零售渠道销售较低质量产品时,供应商能获得最大收益.

  7. Objectivity in a Noisy Photonic Environment through Quantum State Information Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbicz, J. K.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, the emergence of classical objectivity as a property of a quantum state has been explicitly derived for a small object embedded in a photonic environment in terms of a spectrum broadcast form—a specific classically correlated state, redundantly encoding information about the preferred states of the object in the environment. However, the environment was in a pure state and the fundamental problem was how generic and robust is the conclusion. Here, we prove that despite the initial environmental noise, the emergence of the broadcast structure still holds, leading to the perceived objectivity of the state of the object. We also show how this leads to a quantum Darwinism-type condition, reflecting the classicality of proliferated information in terms of a limit behavior of the mutual information. Quite surprisingly, we find "singular points" of the decoherence, which can be used to faithfully broadcast a specific classical message through the noisy environment.

  8. The States of Sub Saharan Africa on the way to the Global Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Pantserev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper devotes to the problem of overcoming of the digital divide in the Sub Saharan African States. On the example of Kenya the author speaks about the comparative success of the development of the information technologies in Africa and in turn underlines the most significant obstacles on the way of African states to the global information society and suggests the means how to overcome them.

  9. A comparison of the information technology knowledge of United States and German auditors

    OpenAIRE

    Greenstein-Prosch, Marilyn; McKee, Thomas E.; Quick, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Accountants has stated that competence in information technology is imperative for the professional accountant due to its pervasive use in the business world. Auditors would normally be expected to have higher knowledge than the average accountant since they must audit the work of many different clients with diverse information systems. We surveyed 2,500 United States and German auditing professionals to determine their self-reported knowledge le...

  10. Channel Norm-Based User Scheduling Exploiting Channel Asymmetry in Base Station Cooperative Transmission Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Shengqian; Bengtsson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Base station cooperative transmission, which is also known as coordinated multi-point (CoMP) transmission, is a promising technique to improve spectrum efficiency in future cellular systems. However, they need large signalling overhead to gather the channel information. In this paper, we consider low feedback user scheduling in downlink coherent CoMP systems exploiting their inherent channel asymmetry. Through the analysis of the statistics of the angle between channel vectors and the tightness of a lower bound of the orthogonally projected norm, we show that channel norm provides sufficient information to judge the orthogonality among users in asymmetric channels. Based on this observation, we propose a channel norm-based user scheduler (NUS), a local channel aided NUS (LocalNUS) and a large-scale fading-based user scheduler (LUS). Simulation results show that the LocalNUS performs very close to the existing greedy user scheduler (GUS) and semi-orthogonal user scheduler (SUS) with full channel state informat...

  11. Final state interaction in $D^+\\to K^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ with $K\\pi$ I=1/2 and 3/2 channels

    CERN Document Server

    Guimar\\aes, K S F F; de Paula, W; Frederico, T; Reis, A C dos

    2014-01-01

    The final state interaction contribution to $D^+$ decays is computed for the $K^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ channel within a light-front relativistic three-body model for the final state interaction. The rescattering process between the kaon and two pions in the decay channel is considered. The off-shell decay amplitude is a solution of a four-dimensional Bethe-Salpeter equation, which is decomposed in a Faddeev form. The projection onto the light-front of the coupled set of integral equations is performed via a quasi-potential approach. The S-wave $K\\pi$ interaction is introduced in the resonant isospin $1/2$ and the non-resonant isospin $3/2$ channels. The numerical solution of the light-front tridimensional inhomogeneous integral equations for the Faddeev components of the decay amplitude is performed perturbatively. The loop-expansion converges fast, and the three-loop contribution can be neglected in respect to the two-loop results for the practical application. The dependence on the model parameters in respect to the ...

  12. Two atomic constraints unambiguously position the S4 segment relative to S1 and S2 segments in the closed state of Shaker K channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fabiana V; Chanda, Baron; Roux, Benoît; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2007-05-01

    It is now well established that the voltage-sensing S4 segment in voltage-dependent ion channels undergoes a conformational change in response to varying membrane potential. However, the magnitude of the movement of S4 relative to the membrane and the rest of the protein remains controversial. Here, by using histidine scanning mutagenesis in the Shaker K channel, we identified mutants I241H (S1 segment) and I287H (S2 segment) that generate inward currents at hyperpolarized potentials, suggesting that these residues are part of a hydrophobic plug that separates the water-accessible crevices. Additional experiments with substituted cysteine residues showed that, at hyperpolarized potentials, both I241C and I287C can spontaneously form disulphide and metal bridges with R362C, the position of the first charge-carrying residue in S4. These results constrain unambiguously the closed-state positions of the S4 segment with respect to the S1 and S2 segments, which are known to undergo little or no movement during gating. To satisfy these constraints, the S4 segment must undergo an axial rotation of approximately 180 degrees and a transmembrane (vertical) movement of approximately 6.5 A at the level of R362 in going from the open to the closed state of the channel, moving the gating charge across a focused electric field.

  13. Effectiveness of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Implementations by Information Technology Departments within United States Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, Jon F.

    2010-01-01

    This research study examined whether the overall effectiveness of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) could be predicted by measuring multiple independent variables. The primary variables studied included the number of ITIL process modules adopted and the overall ITIL "maturity level." An online survey was used to collect data…

  14. 供压状态影响操纵台通道灯亮灭的机理分析%Mechanism Analysis of Impact of the Supply Pressure State on the Channel Lamp of Control Console

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清

    2011-01-01

    电传操纵系统通道故障灯亮灭是由监控电路根据各级表决故障信息判断产生,监控电路较复杂。飞机通电和供给液压时,通道灯时亮时灭,状态多种,是电传操纵系统故障监控电路作用的结果。阐述液压系统供压状态影响座舱ПУ-220/353操纵台通道灯亮灭的工作机理。%Monitoring circuit is a very complex system. The phenomenon that the trouble lights of fly - by - wire control system are out and on is the result of monitoring circuit according to the vote on various fault information. When the plane is electrified and supplied hydraulic, the state of channel lamp is the result of fault monitoring circuit of fly - by - wire control system. The operating principle that the states of supply pressure by hydraulic system have effect on channel lamp of cockpit ПУ - 220/353 control console is discussed in this paper

  15. Single-top production t-channel cross section measurement in the electron+jets final state at ATLAS with 35 pb{sup -1}of data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoriauli, Gia

    2012-07-15

    The cross section of the Standard Model electroweak production of a single top quark in the t-channel has been measured using the LHC proton-proton collision data at {radical}(s)=7 TeV, 35 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, recorded by the ATLAS detector during the year 2010. The measurement has been based on a selection of the collision events with an electron and one b-tagged hadronic jet in the central region of the detector and one extra jet in the forward region of the detector. These requirements are dictated by the topology of the final state particles in the t-channel process. They helped to optimize an expected fraction of the t-channel process, according to a study based on Monte-Carlo simulation, in the selected events and suppress the contribution of the background processes. The main background processes such as production of hadronic jets via the strong interaction and production of a single W boson with associated hadronic jets are measured by means of data driven methods developed in this work. The measured cross section of single top quark production in the t-channel process is 59{sup +44}{sub -39}(stat.){sup +63}{sub -39}(syst.) pb. The measured upper limit on the cross section is 226 pb at the 95% confidence level. The results are in agreement with the latest theoretical prediction of the t-channel cross section of the Standard Model production of a single top quark calculated at NNLO, 64.6{sup +3.3}{sub -2.6} pb, considering m {sub t-quark}=172.5 GeV.

  16. Single-top production t-channel cross section measurement in the electron+jets final state at ATLAS with 35 pb-1of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross section of the Standard Model electroweak production of a single top quark in the t-channel has been measured using the LHC proton-proton collision data at √(s)=7 TeV, 35 pb-1 of integrated luminosity, recorded by the ATLAS detector during the year 2010. The measurement has been based on a selection of the collision events with an electron and one b-tagged hadronic jet in the central region of the detector and one extra jet in the forward region of the detector. These requirements are dictated by the topology of the final state particles in the t-channel process. They helped to optimize an expected fraction of the t-channel process, according to a study based on Monte-Carlo simulation, in the selected events and suppress the contribution of the background processes. The main background processes such as production of hadronic jets via the strong interaction and production of a single W boson with associated hadronic jets are measured by means of data driven methods developed in this work. The measured cross section of single top quark production in the t-channel process is 59+44-39(stat.)+63-39(syst.) pb. The measured upper limit on the cross section is 226 pb at the 95% confidence level. The results are in agreement with the latest theoretical prediction of the t-channel cross section of the Standard Model production of a single top quark calculated at NNLO, 64.6+3.3-2.6 pb, considering m t-quark=172.5 GeV.

  17. Analysis of Channel-aware Multichannel ALOHA in OFDMA Wireless Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yumei; Sheng Yu

    2009-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems provide multiple channels that can be accessed via random access schemes. In this paper a channel-aware multichannel random access, based on local channel state information (CSI), was investigated and a multichannel slotted ALOHA scheme was proposed accordingly. Also an analytical investigation of total system throughput and the queue state evolution of generic node in the network were present by assuming the channel has been modeled by means of a two state Markov chain. Through the theoretical model and simulation results, we confirm that the proposed algorithm has the advantage of high throughput and low access delay.

  18. Information Technology Usage for Epidemiological Functions in U.S. State Public Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) use for epidemiological purposes in state public health departments has been documented only for a limited number of specific applications, leaving questions about its actual utilization and hindering IT's potential for information sharing. Communications, stages of change, and systems theories all influence the…

  19. 26 CFR 301.6104(c)-1 - Disclosure of certain information to State officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the communication from the Internal Revenue Service to the organization which informs such... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of certain information to State officers. 301.6104(c)-1 Section 301.6104(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 78 FR 23288 - Proposed Information Collection: State Water Resources Research Institute Program; Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Geological Survey Proposed Information Collection: State Water Resources Research Institute Program; Annual... collection (IC) to renew approval of the paperwork requirements for ``National Institutes for Water Resources...: eagreene@usgs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Water Resources Research Act of 1984,...

  1. 77 FR 69650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers... concerning the Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty Free. This request for comment is...: Title: Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty Free. OMB Number: 1651-0035. Form...

  2. 49 CFR 1135.2 - Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method: Annual State tax information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method: Annual State... RECOVERY PROCEDURES § 1135.2 Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method: Annual State tax information. (a) To enable the Board to calculate the revenue shortfall allocation method (RSAM), which is one of the...

  3. Sources of Malaria Information among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State and Implications for Malaria Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…

  4. Mode Switching for the Multi-Antenna Broadcast Channel Based on Delay and Channel Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect channel state information degrades the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communications; its effects on single-user (SU and multiuser (MU MIMO transmissions are quite different. In particular, MU-MIMO suffers from residual interuser interference due to imperfect channel state information while SU-MIMO only suffers from a power loss. This paper compares the throughput loss of both SU and MU-MIMO in the broadcast channel due to delay and channel quantization. Accurate closed-form approximations are derived for achievable rates for both SU and MU-MIMO. It is shown that SU-MIMO is relatively robust to delayed and quantized channel information, while MU-MIMO with zero-forcing precoding loses its spatial multiplexing gain with a fixed delay or fixed codebook size. Based on derived achievable rates, a mode switching algorithm is proposed, which switches between SU and MU-MIMO modes to improve the spectral efficiency based on average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, normalized Doppler frequency, and the channel quantization codebook size. The operating regions for SU and MU modes with different delays and codebook sizes are determined, and they can be used to select the preferred mode. It is shown that the MU mode is active only when the normalized Doppler frequency is very small, and the codebook size is large.

  5. Channel's Concurrence and Quantum Teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Yin-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Concurrence can measure the entanglement property of a system. If the channel is a pure state, positive concurrence state can afford the good performance in the teleportation process. If the channel ia a mixed state, positive concurrence state cannot assure the good performance in the teleportation. The conditions of the positive concurrence and the quantum teleportation in the Heisenberg spin ring is derived.

  6. Channel's Concurrence and Quantum Teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concurrence can measure the entanglement property of a system. If the channel is a pure state, positive concurrence state can afford the good performance in the teleportation process. If the channel ia a mixed state, positive concurrence state cannot assure the good performance in the teleportation. The conditions of the positive concurrence and the quantum teleportation in the Heisenberg spin ring is derived.

  7. Metastable states and information propagation in a 1D array of locally-coupled bistable cells

    OpenAIRE

    Anantram, M. P.; Roychowdhury, Vwani P.

    1998-01-01

    We study the effect of metastable states on the relaxation process (and hence information propagation) in locally coupled and boundary-driven structures. We first give a general argument to show that metastable states are inevitable even in the simplest of structures, a wire. At finite temperatures, the relaxation mechanism is a thermally assisted random walk. The time required to reach the ground state and its life time are determined by the coupling parameters. These time scales are studied...

  8. Capacity of Fading Channels in the Low Power Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    The low power regime has attracted various researchers in the information theory and communication communities to understand the performance limits of wireless systems. Indeed, the energy consumption is becoming one of the major limiting factors in wireless systems. As such, energy-efficient wireless systems are of major importance to the next generation wireless systems designers. The capacity is a metric that measures the performance limit of a wireless system. The study of the ergodic capacity of some fading channels in the low power regime is the main subject of this thesis. In our study, we consider that the receiver has always a full knowledge of the channel state information. However, we assume that the transmitter has possibly imperfect knowledge of the channel state information, i.e. he knows either perfectly the channel or only an estimated version of the channel. Both radio frequency and free space optical communication channel models are considered. The main contribution of this work is the explicit characterization of how the capacity scales as function of the signal-to-noise ratio in the low power regime. This allows us to characterize the gain due to the perfect knowledge compared to no knowledge of the channel state information at the transmitter. In particular, we show that the gain increases logarithmically for radio frequency communication. However, the gain increases as log2(Pavg) or log4(Pavg) for free-space optical communication, where Pavg is the average power constraint imposed to the input. Furthermore, we characterize the capacity of cascaded fading channels and we applied the result to Rayleigh-product fading channel and to a free-space optical link over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence in the presence of pointing errors. Finally, we study the capacity of Nakagami-m fading channel under quality of service constraints, namely the effective capacity. We have shown that the effective capacity converges to Shannon capacity in the very low

  9. United States; Information Note on the United States’ Fiscal Data

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study to present the United States fiscal data in a manner consistent with the Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM 2001). The study incorporates cash and accrual source data in a consistent and harmonized statistical framework, enhancing the accuracy and transparency of fiscal data. The paper presents a general discussion of the source data and the institutional coverage used in the U.S. pilot study. It describes the main results of the pilot, and suggests...

  10. Instream wood recruitment, channel complexity, and their relationship to stream ecology in forested headwater streams under alternative stable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livers, B.; Wohl, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human alteration to forests has had lasting effects on stream channels worldwide. Such land use changes affect how wood enters and is stored in streams as individual pieces and as logjams. Changes in wood recruitment affect the complexity and benefits wood can provide to the stream environment, such as zones of flow separation that store fine sediment and organic matter, increased nutrient processing, and greater habitat potential, which can enhance biota and cascade through stream-riparian ecosystems. Previous research in our study area shows that modern headwater streams flowing through old-growth, unmanaged forests have more wood than streams in young, managed forests, but does not explicitly evaluate how wood affects channel complexity or local ecology. 'Managed' refers to forests previously or currently exposed to human alteration. Alteration has long since ceased in some areas, but reduced wood loads in managed streams persist. Our primary objective was to quantify stream complexity metrics, with instream wood as a mediator, on streams across a gradient of management and disturbance histories in order to examine legacy effects of human alteration to forests. Data collected in the Southern Rocky Mountains include 24 2nd to 3rd order subalpine streams categorized into: old-growth unmanaged; younger, naturally disturbed unmanaged; and younger managed. We assessed instream wood loads and logjams and evaluated how they relate to channel complexity using a number of metrics, such as standard deviation of bed and banks, volume of pools, ratios of stream to valley lengths and stream to valley area, and diversity of substrate, gradient, and morphology. Preliminary results show that channel complexity is directly related to instream wood loads and is greatest in streams in old-growth. Related research in the field area indicates that streams with greater wood loads also have increased nutrient processing and greater abundance and diversity of aquatic insect predators.

  11. DVB-SH系统中改进的两状态LMS信道模型%Improved Two-State LMS Channel Model for DVB-SH System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖希; 王杨; 赵旦峰

    2016-01-01

    三状态LMS信道能以3种可能的阴影状态描述窄带传播信道,可作为DVB-SH物理层仿真的基础,但因每一状态的传播参数固定不变和状态类别的问题,影响DVB-SH标准物理层参数的选择,因此提出改进的两状态LMS信道模型。该模型利用状态序列生成器实现两状态之间的转移,并结合传播参数生成器获得新状态的传播参数,从而使Loo生成器生成复时间序列。利用功率控制减少衰减、缩小信号的动态范围。仿真结果表明,该模型能有效地代表阴影环境,且功率控制体制在一定的终端速度下可获得最大的控制增益。%Three-state land mobile satellite (LMS) channel model that describes the narrowband propagation channel in three possible shadowing states can serve as a baseline for physical layer simulation of the digital video broadcasting-satellite services to handhelds (DVB-SH) standard. But the fixed propagation parameters for each state and the state classification impact the parameters selection of physical layer in the DVB-SH standard. For this, an improved two-state LMS channel model is proposed in this paper. The transitions between two states are modeled by employing state sequence generator (SSN). When the state is changed, new propagation parameters are obtained by propagation parameter generator (PPG) and then are used to generate the complex time series by Loo generator. Power control (PC) is used to reduce fading and gets much smaller dynamic rang in the controlled signal. Simulation results show that the proposed model is effective for representation of shadowing conditions and the PC scheme could achieve maximum control gain at some termination speed.

  12. Secrecy Outage Capacity of Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Gungor, Onur; Koksal, C Emre; Gamal, Hesham El; Shroff, Ness B

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers point to point secure communication over flat fading channels under an outage constraint. More specifically, we extend the definition of outage capacity to account for the secrecy constraint and obtain sharp characterizations of the corresponding fundamental limits under two different assumptions on the transmitter CSI (Channel state information). First, we find the outage secrecy capacity assuming that the transmitter has perfect knowledge of the legitimate and eavesdropper channel gains. In this scenario, the capacity achieving scheme relies on opportunistically exchanging private keys between the legitimate nodes. These keys are stored in a key buffer and later used to secure delay sensitive data using the Vernam's one time pad technique. We then extend our results to the more practical scenario where the transmitter is assumed to know only the legitimate channel gain. Here, our achievability arguments rely on privacy amplification techniques to generate secret key bits. In the two cas...

  13. Nonperturbative approach to relativistic quantum communication channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, André G. S.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the transmission of both classical and quantum information between two arbitrary observers in globally hyperbolic spacetimes using a quantum field as a communication channel. The field is supposed to be in some arbitrary quasifree state and no choice of representation of its canonical commutation relations is made. Both sender and receiver possess some localized two-level quantum system with which they can interact with the quantum field to prepare the input and receive the output of the channel, respectively. The interaction between the two-level systems and the quantum field is such that one can trace out the field degrees of freedom exactly and thus obtain the quantum channel in a nonperturbative way. We end the paper determining the unassisted as well as the entanglement-assisted classical and quantum channel capacities.

  14. Dark states of two-mode quantized fields in two-channel models: competing k- and l-photon processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the properties of two-mode field states vertical bar ξ)kl satisfying the eigenvalue problem (a-hatk - ξb-hatl) vertical bar ξ)kl = 0, k, l = 1, 2, ..., subject to the condition that they are also eigenstates of the operator N-hatkl = la-hat†a-hat + kb-hat†b-hat. For the special case where k = l = 1, the resultant states are just the SU(2) coherent states of a two-mode field. The states vertical bar ξ)kl may arise as population trapping states, also known as dark states, in models involving competitive k- and l-photon processes

  15. Information Technology of Study of the State Foreign Debt in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvieieva Iuliia M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to expansion of international relations, growth of interest of states in attraction of foreign capital, appearance of excessive debts and problems connected with them, urgency of the issue of the state foreign debt significantly increased. The problem of state foreign debt is especially sharp in developing countries. Taking into account specific features of functioning of economies of these states, it is necessary to develop information approaches with the aim of studying macro-economic processes, which could assist in creation of improved mechanisms of functioning of the debt policy. The goal of the article is building an information technology of study of the state foreign debt, which would allow conduct of a complex analysis of the studied problem. The article offers a three-stage information technology of study of the state foreign debt, which gives a possibility to analyse and assess the study problem. This article also reveals properties, functions and tasks, which are solve by the information technology. It gives a detailed description of each stage and its notional elements. It forms the structured database for a possibility to carry out an experiment. On the basis of the first stage the article builds econometric models, which reflect interrelations between macro-economic factors, which gives an opportunity to forecast, analyse and assess the state foreign debt.

  16. Network Channel Information Monitoring of Conflict Resolution Technology Research%网络信道信息监听中的冲突消除技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰诗梅

    2012-01-01

    研究网络信道信息监听冲突消除方法.在信息监听过程中,当同一信道内同时接收到不同方向的信息时,将造成信息监听冲突,导致无法准确监听信息.为了避免上述缺陷,提出了一种基于信号排队延时算法的监听冲突消除技术.利用多时间间隔冲突预测方法,预测网络信道中的监听信号冲突.利用信号排队延时方法,对监听信号进行排序,从而实现网络信道中信息监听冲突的消除.实验结果表明,这种算法能够有效消除网络信道中的信息监听冲突,提高了信息监听的准确性.%Research conflict resolution of network information monitoring. There exist information conflicts in the same channel during the monitor process. This paper put forward a monitor conflict resolution technology based on signal queuing delay algorithm. This algorithm uses mulli - interval conflict prediction method to predict network monitor signal channel conflicts. The method sorts the monitor signals through signal queuing delay method in order to e-liminate the conflict of listening information in the channel,The experiment results show that the algorithm can eliminate monitor conflict and improve the accuracy of identification.

  17. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of... information by State and local government officials. (a) The Administrator shall make available to any State or local government official for official use the OCA information for stationary sources located...

  18. New Jersey state information handbook: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the implied authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, radiological surveys and research work has been conducted to determine radiological conditions at former MED/AEC sites. As of this time, 31 sites in 13 states have been identified that require or may require remedial action. This volume is one of a series produced under contract with DOE, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, by POLITECH CORPORATION to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of New Jersey. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations. The loose-leaf format used in these volumes will allow the material to be updated periodically as the Remedial Action Program progresses

  19. New Jersey state information handbook: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Under the implied authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, radiological surveys and research work has been conducted to determine radiological conditions at former MED/AEC sites. As of this time, 31 sites in 13 states have been identified that require or may require remedial action. This volume is one of a series produced under contract with DOE, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, by POLITECH CORPORATION to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of New Jersey. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations. The loose-leaf format used in these volumes will allow the material to be updated periodically as the Remedial Action Program progresses.

  20. Deterministic quantum teleportation and information splitting via a peculiar W-class state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper (Phys. Rev. 2006 A 74 062320) Agrawal et al. have introduced a kind of W-class state which can be used for the quantum teleportation of single-particle state via a three-particle von Neumann measurement, and they thought that the state could not be used to teleport an unknown state by making two-particle and one-particle measurements. Here we reconsider the features of the W-class state and the quantum teleportation process via the W-class state. We show that, by introducing a unitary operation, the quantum teleportation can be achieved deterministically by making two-particle and one-particle measurements. In addition, our protocol is extended to the process of teleporting two-particle state and splitting information. (general)