Sample records for channel nozzle arc-jet

  1. Arc Jet Test and Analysis of Asbestos Free Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Dome Ablative Materials (United States)

    Clayton, J. Louie


    Asbestos free solid motor internal insulation samples were recently tested at the MSFC Hyperthermal Arc Jet Facility. Objectives of the test were to gather data for solid rocket motor analog characterization of ablative and in-depth thermal performance of rubber materials subject to high enthalpy/pressure flow conditions. Tests were conducted over a range of convective heat fluxes for both inert and chemically reactive sub-sonic free stream gas flow. Active instrumentation included use of total calorimeters, in-depth thermocouples, and a surface pyrometer for in-situ surface temperature measurement. Post-test sample forensics involved determination of eroded depth, charred depth, total sample weight loss, and documentation of the general condition of the eroded profile. A complete Charring Material Ablator (CMA) style aero thermal analysis was conducted for the test matrix and results compared to the measured data. In general, comparisons were possible for a number of the cases and the results show a limited predictive ability to model accurately both the ablative response and the in-depth temperature profiles. Lessons learned and modeling recommendations are made regarding future testing and modeling improvements that will increase understanding of the basic chemistry/physics associated with the complicated material ablation process of rubber materials.

  2. Arc Jet Testing of Thermal Protection Materials: 3 Case Studies (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Conley, Joe


    Arc jet testing is used to simulate entry to test thermal protection materials. This paper discusses the usefulness of arc jet testing for 3 cases. Case 1 is MSL and PICA, Case 2 is Advanced TUFROC, and Case 3 is conformable ablators.

  3. Arc Jet Facility Test Condition Predictions Using the ADSI Code (United States)

    Palmer, Grant; Prabhu, Dinesh; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda


    The Aerothermal Design Space Interpolation (ADSI) tool is used to interpolate databases of previously computed computational fluid dynamic solutions for test articles in a NASA Ames arc jet facility. The arc jet databases are generated using an Navier-Stokes flow solver using previously determined best practices. The arc jet mass flow rates and arc currents used to discretize the database are chosen to span the operating conditions possible in the arc jet, and are based on previous arc jet experimental conditions where possible. The ADSI code is a database interpolation, manipulation, and examination tool that can be used to estimate the stagnation point pressure and heating rate for user-specified values of arc jet mass flow rate and arc current. The interpolation is performed in the other direction (predicting mass flow and current to achieve a desired stagnation point pressure and heating rate). ADSI is also used to generate 2-D response surfaces of stagnation point pressure and heating rate as a function of mass flow rate and arc current (or vice versa). Arc jet test data is used to assess the predictive capability of the ADSI code.

  4. Evaporative behavior of carbon with MPD Arc Jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukegawa, Toshio; Madarame, Haruki; Okamoto, Koji [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.


    Using the Magneto-Plasma-Dynamic Arc Jet (MPD Arc Jet) device, the plasma-material interaction during simulated plasma disruption was experimentally investigated. To clarify the effects of the evaporation, the isotropic graphite was used as a target. The thermal conductivity of the isotropic graphite was much higher than that of the pyrolytic graphite, resulting in smaller evaporation. The light intensity distribution during the simulated disruption for the isotropic graphite was quite different from that for the pyrolytic graphite. (author)

  5. CFD Simulations of the IHF Arc-Jet Flow: Compression-Pad/Separation Bolt Wedge Tests (United States)

    Goekcen, Tahir; Skokova, Kristina A.


    This paper reports computational analyses in support of two wedge tests in a high enthalpy arc-jet facility at NASA Ames Research Center. These tests were conducted using two different wedge models, each placed in a free jet downstream of a corresponding different conical nozzle in the Ames 60-MW Interaction Heating Facility. Each panel test article included a metallic separation bolt imbedded in Orion compression-pad and heatshield materials, resulting in a circular protuberance over a flat plate. The protuberances produce complex model flowfields, containing shock-shock and shock-boundary layer interactions, and multiple augmented heating regions on the test plate. As part of the test calibration runs, surface pressure and heat flux measurements on water-cooled calibration plates integrated with the wedge models were also obtained. Surface heating distributions on the test articles as well as arc-jet test environment parameters for each test configuration are obtained through computational fluid dynamics simulations, consistent with the facility and calibration measurements. The present analysis comprises simulations of the nonequilibrium flowfield in the facility nozzle, test box, and flowfield over test articles, and comparisons with the measured calibration data.

  6. CFD Simulations of the IHF Arc-Jet Flow: Compression-Pad Separation Bolt Wedge Tests (United States)

    Gokcen, Tahir; Skokova, Kristina A.


    This paper reports computational analyses in support of two wedge tests in a high enthalpy arc-jet facility at NASA Ames Research Center. These tests were conducted using two different wedge models, each placed in a free jet downstream of a corresponding different conical nozzle in the Ames 60-MW Interaction Heating Facility. Each panel test article included a metallic separation bolt imbedded in Orion compression-pad and heatshield materials, resulting in a circular protuberance over a flat plate. The protuberances produce complex model flowfields, containing shock-shock and shock-boundary layer interactions, and multiple augmented heating regions on the test plate. As part of the test calibration runs, surface pressure and heat flux measurements on water-cooled calibration plates integrated with the wedge models were also obtained. Surface heating distributions on the test articles as well as arc-jet test environment parameters for each test configuration are obtained through computational fluid dynamics simulations, consistent with the facility and calibration measurements. The present analysis comprises simulations of the non-equilibrium flow field in the facility nozzle, test box, and flow field over test articles, and comparisons with the measured calibration data.

  7. Arc Jet Testing of Hafnium Diboride Based Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (United States)

    Ellerby, Don; Beckman, Sarah; Irby, Edward; Squire, Tom; Olejniczak, Joe; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Gusman, Michael; Gasch, Matthew


    Hafnium Diboride (HFB,) based materials have shown promise for use in a number of high temperature aerospace applications, including rocket nozzles and as leading edges on hypersonic reentry vehicles. The stability of the materials in relevant environments is key to determining their suitability for a particular application. In this program we have been developing HfB2/SiC materials for use as sharp leading edges. The program as a whole included processing and characterization of the HfBJSiC materials. The specific work discussed here will focus on studies of the materials oxidation behavior in simulated reentry environments through arc jet testing. Four flat face models were tested to examine the influence of heat flux and stagnation pressure on the materials oxidation behavior. The results from arc jet testing of two HfB2/SiC cone models will also be discussed. Each cone model was run multiple times with gradually increasing heat fluxes. Total run times on a single cone model exceeded 80 minutes. For both the flat face and cone models surface temperatures well in excess of 2200 C were measured. Post test microstructural examination of the models and correlations with measured temperatures will be discussed.

  8. On Laminar to Turbulent Transition of Arc-Jet Flow in the NASA Ames Panel Test Facility (United States)

    Gokcen, Tahir; Alunni, Antonella I.


    This paper provides experimental evidence and supporting computational analysis to characterize the laminar to turbulent flow transition in a high enthalpy arc-jet facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The arc-jet test data obtained in the 20 MW Panel Test Facility include measurements of surface pressure and heat flux on a water-cooled calibration plate, and measurements of surface temperature on a reaction-cured glass coated tile plate. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed to characterize the arc-jet test environment and estimate its parameters consistent with the facility and calibration measurements. The present analysis comprises simulations of the nonequilibrium flowfield in the facility nozzle, test box, and flowfield over test articles. Both laminar and turbulent simulations are performed, and the computed results are compared with the experimental measurements, including Stanton number dependence on Reynolds number. Comparisons of computed and measured surface heat fluxes (and temperatures), along with the accompanying analysis, confirm that that the boundary layer in the Panel Test Facility flow is transitional at certain archeater conditions.

  9. Nozzle (United States)

    Chen, Alexander G.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.


    A fuel injector has a number of groups of nozzles. The groups are generally concentric with an injector axis. Each nozzle defines a gas flowpath having an outlet for discharging a fuel/air mixture jet. There are means for introducing the fuel to the air. One or more groups of the nozzles are oriented to direct the associated jets skew to the injector axis.

  10. Manufacturing Process Developments for Regeneratively-Cooled Channel Wall Rocket Nozzles (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Brandsmeier, Will


    Regeneratively cooled channel wall nozzles incorporate a series of integral coolant channels to contain the coolant to maintain adequate wall temperatures and expand hot gas providing engine thrust and specific impulse. NASA has been evaluating manufacturing techniques targeting large scale channel wall nozzles to support affordability of current and future liquid rocket engine nozzles and thrust chamber assemblies. The development of these large scale manufacturing techniques focus on the liner formation, channel slotting with advanced abrasive water-jet milling techniques and closeout of the coolant channels to replace or augment other cost reduction techniques being evaluated for nozzles. NASA is developing a series of channel closeout techniques including large scale additive manufacturing laser deposition and explosively bonded closeouts. A series of subscale nozzles were completed evaluating these processes. Fabrication of mechanical test and metallography samples, in addition to subscale hardware has focused on Inconel 625, 300 series stainless, aluminum alloys as well as other candidate materials. Evaluations of these techniques are demonstrating potential for significant cost reductions for large scale nozzles and chambers. Hot fire testing is planned using these techniques in the future.

  11. Methodology for Flight Relevant Arc-Jet Testing of Flexible Thermal Protection Systems (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Bruce, Walter E., III; Mesick, Nathaniel J.; Sutton, Kenneth


    A methodology to correlate flight aeroheating environments to the arc-jet environment is presented. For a desired hot-wall flight heating rate, the methodology provides the arcjet bulk enthalpy for the corresponding cold-wall heating rate. A series of analyses were conducted to examine the effects of the test sample model holder geometry to the overall performance of the test sample. The analyses were compared with arc-jet test samples and challenges and issues are presented. The transient flight environment was calculated for the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Earth Atmospheric Reentry Test (HEART) vehicle, which is a planned demonstration vehicle using a large inflatable, flexible thermal protection system to reenter the Earth's atmosphere from the International Space Station. A series of correlations were developed to define the relevant arc-jet test environment to properly approximate the HEART flight environment. The computed arcjet environments were compared with the measured arc-jet values to define the uncertainty of the correlated environment. The results show that for a given flight surface heat flux and a fully-catalytic TPS, the flight relevant arc-jet heat flux increases with the arc-jet bulk enthalpy while for a non-catalytic TPS the arc-jet heat flux decreases with the bulk enthalpy.

  12. Time-varying Entry Heating Profile Replication with a Rotating Arc Jet Test Article (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay Henderson; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Noyes, Eric A.; Mach, Jeffrey J.; Empey, Daniel M.; White, Todd R.


    A new approach for arc jet testing of thermal protection materials at conditions approximating the time-varying conditions of atmospheric entry was developed and demonstrated. The approach relies upon the spatial variation of heat flux and pressure over a cylindrical test model. By slowly rotating a cylindrical arc jet test model during exposure to an arc jet stream, each point on the test model will experience constantly changing applied heat flux. The predicted temporal profile of heat flux at a point on a vehicle can be replicated by rotating the cylinder at a prescribed speed and direction. An electromechanical test model mechanism was designed, built, and operated during an arc jet test to demonstrate the technique.

  13. Surface Catalysis and Oxidation on Stagnation Point Heat Flux Measurements in High Enthalpy Arc Jets (United States)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Driver, David M.; Terrazas-Salinas


    Heat flux sensors are routinely used in arc jet facilities to determine heat transfer rates from plasma plume. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of surface composition changes on these heat flux sensors. Surface compositions can change due to oxidation and material deposition from the arc jet. Systematic surface analyses of the sensors were conducted before and after exposure to plasma. Currently copper is commonly used as surface material. Other surface materials were studied including nickel, constantan gold, platinum and silicon dioxide. The surfaces were exposed to plasma between 0.3 seconds and 3 seconds. Surface changes due to oxidation as well as copper deposition from the arc jets were observed. Results from changes in measured heat flux as a function of surface catalycity is given, along with a first assessment of enthalpy for these measurements. The use of cupric oxide is recommended for future heat flux measurements, due to its consistent surface composition arc jets.

  14. Exhaust-gas measurements from NASAs HYMETS arc jet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Paul Albert


    Arc-jet wind tunnels produce conditions simulating high-altitude hypersonic flight such as occurs upon entry of space craft into planetary atmospheres. They have traditionally been used to study flight in Earth's atmosphere, which consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. NASA is presently using arc jets to study entry into Mars' atmosphere, which consists of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In both cases, a wide variety of chemical reactions take place among the gas constituents and with test articles placed in the flow. In support of those studies, we made measurements using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) that sampled the exhaust stream of a NASA arc jet. The experiments were conducted at the HYMETS arc jet (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) located at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. This report describes our RGA measurements, which are intended to be used for model validation in combination with similar measurements on other systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kashchenko


    Full Text Available Results of experimental study of local heat transfer at the end surfaces of channel profiles of turbine nozzles in secondary currents, the intensity of which was varied by reducing the height of the profiles are presented. The thickness of the boundary layer on the inlet in the channel profiles was reduced to the minimum possible in the experiment. The data characterizing the distribution of local heat transfer coefficients on the end surface in a wide range of characteristic parameters change is obtained.

  16. Characteristics of low-temperature short heat pipes with a nozzle-shaped vapor channel (United States)

    Seryakov, A. V.


    This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical studies of heat transfer and swirling pulsating flows in short low-temperature heat pipes whose vapor channels have the form of a conical nozzle. It has been found that as the evaporator of the heat pipe is heated, pressure pulsations occur in the vapor channel starting at a certain threshold value of the heat power, which is due to the start of boiling in the evaporator. The frequency of the pulsations has been measured, and their dependence on the superheat of the evaporator has been determined. It has been found that in heat pipes with a conical vapor channel, pulsations occur at lower evaporator superheats and the pulsation frequency is greater than in heat pipes of the same size with a standard cylindrical vapor channel. It has been shown that the curve of the heat-transfer coefficient versus thermal load on the evaporator has an inflection corresponding to the start of boiling in the capillary porous evaporator of the heat pipe.

  17. Influence of Catalysis and Oxidation on Slug Calorimeter Measurements in Arc Jets (United States)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Driver, Dave; TerrazasSalinas, Imelda


    Arc jet tests play a critical role in the characterization and certification of thermal protection materials and systems (TPS). The results from these arc jet tests feed directly into computational models of material response and aerothermodynamics to predict the performance of the TPS in flight. Thus the precise knowledge of the plasma environment to which the test material is subjected, is invaluable. As one of the environmental parameters, the heat flux is commonly measured. The measured heat flux is used to determine the plasma enthalpy through analytical or computational models. At NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), slug calorimeters of a geometrically similar body to the test article are routinely used to determine the heat flux. A slug calorimeter is a thermal capacitance-type calorimeter that uses the temperature rise in a thermally insulated slug to determine the heat transfer rate, see Figure 1(left). Current best practices for measuring the heat flux with a slug calorimeter are described in ASTM E457 - 96. Both the calorimeter body and slug are made of Oxygen Free High Conductivity Copper, and are cleaned before each run.

  18. Continuous Production of Nanotubes and Carbon Clusters by Use of the Revolver-Injection-Type Arc Jet Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsu Mieno


    Full Text Available Efficient and continuous production of fullerenes, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs, and carbon nano-particles has been developed by the JxB arc jet method, where the Lorentz force of magnetic field jets out gaseous carbon particles to the JxB direction. In order to realize continuous mass production of these carbon clusters, the revolverinjection-type arc jet producer (RIT-AJP has been developed. Production of fullerenes, endohedral metallo-fullerenes, SWNTs, metal-encapsulated carbon nano particles has been examined.

  19. Radial Profiles of the Plasma Electron Characteristics in a 30 kW Arc Jet (United States)

    Codron, Douglas A.; Nawaz, Anuscheh


    The present effort aims to strengthen modeling work conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center by measuring the critical plasma electron characteristics within and slightly outside of an arc jet plasma column. These characteristics are intended to give physical insights while assisting in the formulation of boundary conditions to validate full scale simulations. Single and triple Langmuir probes have been used to achieve estimates of the electron temperature (T(sub e)), electron number density (n(sub e)) and plasma potential (outside of the plasma column) as probing location is varied radially from the flow centerline. Both the electron temperature and electron number density measurements show a large dependence on radial distance from the plasma column centerline with T(sub e) approx. = (3 - 12 eV and n(sub e) approx. = 10(exp 12) - 10(exp 14)/cu cm.

  20. Ames Research Center Mars/Pathfinder Heat Shield Design Verification ARC-JET Test (United States)

    Tran, Huy K.; Hui, Frank; Wercinski, Paul; Cartledge, Alan; Tauber, Mike; Tran, Duoc T.; Chen, Y. K.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)


    Design verification tests were performed on samples representing the aerobrake of the Mars/Pathfinder vehicle. The test specimens consisted of the SLA-561V ablator bonded to the honeycomb structure. The primary objective was to evaluate the ablation materials performance and to measure temperatures within the ablator, at the structural bondline and at the back sheet of the honeycomb structure. Other objectives were to evaluate the effect of ablative repair plug material treatment and voids in the heat shield. A total of 29 models were provided for testing in the Ames 60MW arc-jet facility. Of these, 23 models were flat-faced and six remaining models were curved edge ones, intended to simulate the conditions on the curved rim of the forebody where the maximum shear occurred. Eight sets of test conditions were used. The stagnation point heating rates varied from 47 to 240 W/cm2 and the stagnation pressures from 0.15 to 0.27 atm. (The maximum flight values are 132 W/cm2 and 0.25 atm) The majority of these runs were made at a nominal stagnation pressure of 0.25 atm. Two higher pressure runs were made to check the current (denser) ablation material for spallation, or other forms of thermal stress failure. Over 60% of the flatfaced models yielded good thermocouple data and all produced useful surface recession information. Of the five curved-edge models that were tested, only one gave good data; the remaining ones experienced model-holder failure. The test results can be summarized by noting that no failure of the ablative material was observed on any model. Also, the bondline temperature design limit of 250 C was never reached within an equivalent flight time despite a stagnation point heat load that exceeded the maximum flight value by up to 130%. At heating rates of over 200W/cm2 and stagnation pressures of 0.25 atm, or greater, the average surface recessions exceeded 0.5 cm on some models. The surface roughness increased dramatically at pressures above 0.25 atm and

  1. Thermo Physics Facilities Branch Brochure ARC Jet Complex Fact Sheets, Hypervelocity Free-Flight Aerodynamic Facility Fact Sheets, Ames Vertical Gun Range Fact Sheets (United States)

    Fretter, E. F. (Editor); Kuhns, Jay (Editor); Nuez, Jay (Editor)


    The Ames Arc Jet Complex has a rich heritage of over 40 years in Thermal Protection System (TPS) development for every NASA Space Transportation and Planetary program, including Apollo, Space Shuttle, Viking, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder,Stardust, NASP,X-33,X-34,SHARP-B1 and B2,X-37 and Mars Exploration Rovers. With this early TPS history came a long heritage in the development of the arc jet facilities. These are used to simulate the aerodynamic heating that occurs on the nose cap, wing leading edges and on other areas of the spacecraft requiring thermal protection. TPS samples have been run in the arc jets from a few minutes to over an hour,from one exposure to multiple exposures of the same sample, in order t o understand the TPS materials response to a hot gas flow environment (representative of real hyperthermal environments experienced in flight). The Ames Arc l e t Complex is a key enabler for customers involved in the three major areas of TPS development: selection, validation, and qualification. The arc jet data are critical for validating TPS thermal models, heat shield designs and repairs, and ultimately for flight qualification.

  2. Nozzle fabrication technique (United States)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor)


    This invention relates to techniques for fabricating hour glass throat or convergent divergent nozzle shapes, and more particularly to new and improved techniques for forming rocket nozzles from electrically conductive material and forming cooling channels in the wall thereof. The concept of positioning a block of electrically conductive material so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a travelling electron discharge machine electrode and thereafter revolving the body about its own axis to generate a hyperbolic surface of revolution, either internal or external is novel. The method will generate a rocket nozzle which may be provided with cooling channels using the same control and positioning system. The configuration of the cooling channels so produced are unique and novel. Also the method is adaptable to nonmetallic material using analogous cutting tools, such as, water jet, laser, abrasive wire and hot wire.

  3. High-Melt Carbon-Carbon Coating for Nozzle Extensions (United States)

    Thompson, James


    Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies, Inc. (C-CAT), has developed a high-melt coating for use in nozzle extensions in next-generation spacecraft. The coating is composed primarily of carbon-carbon, a carbon-fiber and carbon-matrix composite material that has gained a spaceworthy reputation due to its ability to withstand ultrahigh temperatures. C-CAT's high-melt coating embeds hafnium carbide (HfC) and zirconium diboride (ZrB2) within the outer layers of a carbon-carbon structure. The coating demonstrated enhanced high-temperature durability and suffered no erosion during a test in NASA's Arc Jet Complex. (Test parameters: stagnation heat flux=198 BTD/sq ft-sec; pressure=.265 atm; temperature=3,100 F; four cycles totaling 28 minutes) In Phase I of the project, C-CAT successfully demonstrated large-scale manufacturability with a 40-inch cylinder representing the end of a nozzle extension and a 16-inch flanged cylinder representing the attach flange of a nozzle extension. These demonstrators were manufactured without spalling or delaminations. In Phase II, C-CAT worked with engine designers to develop a nozzle extension stub skirt interfaced with an Aerojet Rocketdyne RL10 engine. All objectives for Phase II were successfully met. Additional nonengine applications for the coating include thermal protection systems (TPS) for next-generation spacecraft and hypersonic aircraft.

  4. Scramjet Nozzles (United States)


    integration et gestion thermique) 14. ABSTRACT The lecture is given in four parts, each being a step in the process of nozzle design, and within each part...exhaust is directed downward at θ3, turning the lee airflow through the same angle and resulting in a pressure p3 that is lower than ambient and...below ambient proved entirely incompatible with any 3D implementation of the ideal 2D flow field, of which we could conceive. We were left with

  5. Excited State Chemistry in the Free Stream of the NASA IHF Arc Jet Facility Observed by Emission Spectroscopy (United States)

    Winter, Michael W.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.


    Spectroscopic measurements of non-equilibrium emission were made in the free stream of the 60 megawatts Interaction Heating Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. In the visible near infrared wavelength region, the most prominent emission was from molecular N2, and in the ultra violet region, the spectra were dominated by emission from molecular NO. The only atomic lines observed were those of copper (an erosion product of the electrodes). The bands of the 1st Positive system of N2 (if B is true then A is true) differed significantly from spectra computed spectra assuming only thermal excitation, suggesting overpopulation of the high vibrational states of the B state of N2. Populations of these high vibrational levels (peaking at v (sub upper) equals 13) of the N2 B state were determined by scaling simulated spectra; calculations were performed for each upper vibrational state separately. The experimental-theoretical procedure was repeated for several radial positions away from the nozzle axis to obtain spatial distributions of the upper state populations; rotational symmetry of the flow was assumed in simulations. The overpopulation of the high vibrational levels has been interpreted as the effect of inverse pre-dissociation of neutral atoms in the N2 A state, which populates the N2 B state through a level crossing process at v (sub upper) is greater than 10.

  6. Nozzle airfoil having movable nozzle ribs (United States)

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael


    A nozzle vane or airfoil structure is provided in which the nozzle ribs are connected to the side walls of the vane or airfoil in such a way that the ribs provide the requisite mechanical support between the concave side and convex side of the airfoil but are not locked in the radial direction of the assembly, longitudinally of the airfoil. The ribs may be bi-cast onto a preformed airfoil side wall structure or fastened to the airfoil by an interlocking slide connection and/or welding. By attaching the nozzle ribs to the nozzle airfoil metal in such a way that allows play longitudinally of the airfoil, the temperature difference induced radial thermal stresses at the nozzle airfoil/rib joint area are reduced while maintaining proper mechanical support of the nozzle side walls.

  7. Arc-jet test and analysis of Orbiter TPS inter-tile heating in high pressure gradient flow. [Thermal Protection System (United States)

    Rochelle, W. C.; Battley, H. H.; Hale, W. M.; Gallegos, J. J.; Kimbrough, B. S.


    During entry of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, the convective heating within inter-tile gaps of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) material produces elevated tile sidewall temperatures in regions of high surface pressure gradient. Arc-jet tests have been conducted recently to obtain a measure of the gap heating down the TPS tile sidewalls at test conditions representative of Orbiter flight environments. The object of this paper is to present the gap heating correlations that were developed from a thermal analysis for 3-D curved and flat TPS tile segments. Predictions of gap sidewall temperature were obtained within 30 F of test data on both Wing Glove and Double Wedge models. Derived heating ratios were obtained for a range of test conditions (pressure, pressure gradient, enthalpy, boundary layer thickness, gap width, surface temperature, etc.). The results of the study, which showed that heating ratios varied with the pressure gradient times the square root of the surface pressure, are being used to provide an assessment of gap filler requirements on Orbiter forward fuselage/chine and wing glove regions.

  8. Cold spray nozzle design (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL


    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  9. Firefighter Nozzle Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Selena K.; Sunderland, Peter B.; Jomaas, Grunde


    to anchor forces, the hose becomes straight. The nozzle reaction is found to equal the jet momentum flow rate, and it does not change when an elbow connects the hose to the nozzle. A forward force must be exerted by a firefighter or another anchor that matches the forward force that the jet would exert...... on a perpendicular wall. Three reaction expressions are derived, allowing it to be determined in terms of hose diameter, jet diameter, flow rate, and static pressure upstream of the nozzle. The nozzle reaction predictions used by the fire service are 56% to 90% of those obtained here for typical firefighting hand......Nozzle reaction and hose tension are analyzed using conservation of fluid momentum and assuming steady, inviscid flow and a flexible hose in frictionless contact with the ground. An expression that is independent of the bend angle is derived for the hose tension. If this tension is exceeded owing...

  10. Starting Transients in Supersonic Nozzles and Nozzle-Diffuser Assemblies. (United States)


    6 3 Small Single Nozzle Profile ..... ............... 9 4 Single Nozzle Test Section Dimensions .... .......... 10 5 Photograph of Large...inch Total Length = 0.902 inch Design Mach =3.23 Large Single Nozzle is 4 times all dimensions. Fig 3. S-mall Single Nozzle Profile 9 8.000 1.500 2.250

  11. Arcjet nozzle design impacts (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sovie, Amy J.; Haag, Thomas W.


    The effect of nozzle configuration on the operating characteristics of a low power dc arcjet thruster was determined. A conical nozzle with a 30 deg converging angle, a 20 deg diverging angle, and an area ratio of 225 served as the baseline case. Variations on the geometry included bell-shaped contours both up and downstream, and a downstream trumpet-shaped contour. The nozzles were operated over a range of specific power near that anticipated for on-orbit operation. Mass flow rate, thrust, current, and voltage were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between nozzles. The upstream contour was found to have minimal effect on arcjet operation. It was determined that the contour of the divergent section of the nozzle, that serves as the anode, was very important in determining the location of arc attachment, and thus had a significant impact on arcjet performance. The conical nozzle was judged to have the optimal current/voltage characteristics and produced the best performance of the nozzles tested.

  12. The Bi-Phase Nozzle. (United States)


    is the key element in the Bi-phase engine concept. While initially it may appear that the design of the nozzle profile is quite straight forward...the optimum nozzle profile has an elongated throat region, that the required shape is insensitive to drop diameter and nozzle length, and that the...theinlet (1/3 of the over- all length). The nozzle is constructed by "sandwiching" two inch thick machined aluminum nozzle profile plates between h

  13. Transonic swirling nozzle flow (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Pawlas, Gary E.


    A numerical model of viscous transonic swirling flow in axisymmetric nozzles is developed. MacCormack's implicit Gauss-Seidel method is applied to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in transformed coordinates. Numerical results are compared with experimental data to validate the method. The effect of swirl and viscosity on nozzle performance are demonstrated by examining wall pressures, Mach contours, and integral parameters.

  14. Fabrication of Microglass Nozzle for Microdroplet Jetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xie


    Full Text Available An ejection aperture nozzle is the essential part for all microdrop generation techniques. The diameter size, the flow channel geometry, and fluid impedance are the key factors affecting the ejection capacity. A novel low-cost fabrication method of microglass nozzle involving four steps is developed in this work. In the first heating step, the glass pipette is melted and pulled. Then, the second heating step is to determine the tip cone angle and modify the flow channel geometry. The desired included angle is usually of 30~45 degrees. Fine grind can determine the exact diameter of the hole. Postheating step is the final process and it can reduce the sharpness of the edges of the hole. Micronozzles with hole diameters varying from 30 to 100 µm are fabricated by the homemade inexpensive and easy-to-operate setup. Hydrophobic treating method of microglass nozzle to ensure stable and accurate injection is also introduced in this work. According to the jetting results of aqueous solution, UV curing adhesive, and solder, the fabricated microglass nozzle can satisfy the need of microdroplet jetting of multimaterials.

  15. Numerical Simulations of Canted Nozzle and Scarfed Nozzle Flow Fields (United States)

    Javed, Afroz; Chakraborty, Debasis


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used for the analysis of issues concerning non-conventional (canted and scarfed) nozzle flow fields. Numerical simulations are carried out for the quality of flow in terms of axisymmetric nature at the inlet of canted nozzles of a rocket motor. Two different nozzle geometries are examined. The analysis of these simulation results shows that the flow field at the entry of the nozzles is non axisymmetric at the start of the motor. With time this asymmetry diminishes, also the flow becomes symmetric before the nozzle throat, indicating no misalignment of thrust vector with the nozzle axis. The qualitative flow fields at the inlet of the nozzles are used in selecting the geometry with lesser flow asymmetry. Further CFD methodology is used to analyse flow field of a scarfed nozzle for the evaluation of thrust developed and its direction. This work demonstrates the capability of the CFD based methods for the nozzle analysis problems which were earlier solved only approximately by making simplifying assumptions and semi empirical methods.

  16. Suppressing Transient Side Loads in Supersonic Nozzles (United States)

    Wagner, W. R.


    Fins added to nozzle wall. Fins protrude from rocket nozzle wall at equal intervals about circumference. Inhibit circumferential growth of local flow separations, reducing sideways vibration of nozzle. Transientsuppressing fins helpful in rocket nozzles, jet engines, gas turbines, laser nozzles, flow diffusers, flow separators and other devices with supersonic flows.

  17. Nonseparating High-Area-Ratio Supersonic Nozzles (United States)

    Wagner, W. R.; Kassner, R. R.


    Procedure determines supersonic-nozzle contours that allow higher nozzle-exit wall pressures, reducing chamber pressure without causing wall-flow separation as encountered in optimum large-area-ratio nozzle designs. Procedure applies to chemical-laser nozzles, jet-engine and gas turbines, wind tunnels and rocket nozzles.

  18. Flow and Noise From Septa Nozzles (United States)

    Zaman, Khairul; Bridges, James


    This investigation pertains to distributed propulsion system. Basically, the jet exhaust is divided and channeled through multiple compartments or septa. In one version of the concept each septum is to be driven by an electric fan, the power being supplied by engines suitably mounted on the airframe. In the latter hybrid case the need for heavy power trains is eliminated and system studies indicate a net benefit in efficiency. From aeroacoustics point of view, however, there are concerns. An immediate question is whether the noise from the multiple jets would be equal to or greater than that from an equivalent single jet. When multiple jets are placed side by side sometimes they resonate and produce more noise. In order to address these issues a fundamental model-scale experiment is being carried out at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Preliminary results from this study have been presented recently. One of the key findings is that the noise from the septa nozzle can actually be less than that from the equivalent single nozzle. Continued studies make it clear that the flow from the septa nozzle may be quite sensitive to upstream passage geometry in each septum. This can have a profound impact on the evolution of the flow downstream as well as noise. These issues are currently being researched. The proposed paper is to summarize the results from the mainly experimental study that is to be aided by limited numerical simulation.

  19. Supersonic-Nozzle Shock-Wave Analysis (United States)

    Wagner, W. R.; Ratekin, G. H.


    Analytical procedure used to modify design of high-pressure-ratio nozzles to reduce vibration during start-up and shutdown. Nozzles used in jet engines, laser nozzles and diffusers, wind tunnels, gas turbines and rocket engines.

  20. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo


    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  1. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly (United States)

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.


    An airfoil and nozzle assembly including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached.

  2. Marangoni flow on an inkjet nozzle plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; Reinten, Hans; Wijshoff, H.; Wijshoff, Herman; van den Berg, Marc; Delescen, Koos; van Dongen, Rini; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Lohse, Detlef


    In piezo inkjet printing, nozzle failures are often caused by an ink layer on the nozzle plate. It is experimentally shown that the ink layer at the nozzle is formed through streamers of ink, emanating from a central ink band on the nozzle plate. The streamers propagate over a wetting nanofilm of

  3. Numerical Simulation of Twin Nozzle Injectors


    Milak, Dino


    Fuel injectors for marine applications have traditionally utilized nozzles with symmetric equispaced orifice configuration. But in light of the new marine emission legislations the twin nozzle concept has arisen. The twin nozzle differs from the conventional configuration by utilizing two closely spaced orifices to substitute each orifice in the conventional nozzle. Injector manufacturers regard twin nozzle injectors as a promising approach to facilitate stable spray patterns independent of t...

  4. Swirling structure for mixing two concentric fluid flows at nozzle outlet (United States)

    Mensink, Daniel L.


    A nozzle device for causing two fluids to mix together. In particular, a spray nozzle comprise two hollow, concentric housings, an inner housing and an outer housing. The inner housing has a channel formed therethrough for a first fluid. Its outer surface cooperates with the interior surface of the outer housing to define the second channel for a second fluid. The outer surface of the inner housing and the inner surface of the outer housing each carry a plurality of vanes that interleave but do not touch, each vane of one housing being between two vanes of the other housing. The vanes are curved and the inner surface of the outer housing and the outer surface of the inner housing converge to narrow the second channel. The shape of second channel results in a swirling, accelerating second fluid that will impact the first fluid just past the end of the nozzle where mixing will take place.

  5. Nozzle geometry for organic vapor jet printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; McGraw, Gregory


    A first device is provided. The device includes a print head. The print head further includes a first nozzle hermetically sealed to a first source of gas. The first nozzle has an aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns in a direction perpendicular to a flow direction of the first nozzle. At a distance from the aperture into the first nozzle that is 5 times the smallest dimension of the aperture of the first nozzle, the smallest dimension perpendicular to the flow direction is at least twice the smallest dimension of the aperture of the first nozzle.

  6. Alternate nozzle ablative materials program (United States)

    Kimmel, N. A.


    Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

  7. Flame tolerant secondary fuel nozzle (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Wu, Chunyang; Zuo, Baifang; Stevenson, Christian Xavier


    A combustor for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of primary nozzles configured to diffuse or premix fuel into an air flow through the combustor; and a secondary nozzle configured to premix fuel with the air flow. Each premixing nozzle includes a center body, at least one vane, a burner tube provided around the center body, at least two cooling passages, a fuel cooling passage to cool surfaces of the center body and the at least one vane, and an air cooling passage to cool a wall of the burner tube. The cooling passages prevent the walls of the center body, the vane(s), and the burner tube from overheating during flame holding events.

  8. Proposed Short-Throat Supersonic Nozzles (United States)

    Wagner, W. R.; Ratekin, G. H.


    Numerical procedure analyzes mach numbers along wall and in flow field, wall pressures, gas temperatures, and nozzle-throat discharge coefficients. Nozzles used in turbines, jet engines, magnetohydrodynamic systems, laser systems and other supersonic-flow devices.

  9. Turbomachine combustor nozzle including a monolithic nozzle component and method of forming the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoia, Lucas John; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Vanselow, John Drake; Westmoreland, James Harold


    A turbomachine combustor nozzle includes a monolithic nozzle component having a plate element and a plurality of nozzle elements. Each of the plurality of nozzle elements includes a first end extending from the plate element to a second end. The plate element and plurality of nozzle elements are formed as a unitary component. A plate member is joined with the nozzle component. The plate member includes an outer edge that defines first and second surfaces and a plurality of openings extending between the first and second surfaces. The plurality of openings are configured and disposed to register with and receive the second end of corresponding ones of the plurality of nozzle elements.

  10. Simulation of a Downsized FDM Nozzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pimentel, Rodrigo; Pedersen, David B.


    This document discusses the simulat-ion of a downsized nozzle for fused deposition modelling (FDM), namely the E3D HotEnd Extruder with manufactured diameters of 200-400 μm in the nozzle tip. The nozzle has been simulated in terms of heat transfer and fluid flow giving an insight into the physica...

  11. Supersonic Nozzle Flow Using DSMC (United States)

    Somers, William; Payne, Adam; Sampson, Andrew; Spencer, Ross


    Fenix is a particle-in-cell Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) computer simulation which models gas flow through an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Particular attention is given to a nozzle region in the ICP-MS where gasses moving through a steep pressure gradient undergo a supersonic transition, expanding into a near vacuum environment. The physical behavior of the gasses in the nozzle region are closely studied, including interaction with the thermalized nozzle, incompressibility of the gas, and flow fields near the nozzle. Fenix has recently reached a stage of completion allowing our research group to produce pressure, temperature and velocity flow data for various regions in the ICP-MS. It is now necessary to verify the algorithms used in Fenix, and to check our work against other methods. Grahame Bird, one of the foremost experts in DSMC simulations, has made available to the public a general DSMC simulation which may be used to model the ICP-MS. Bird's simulation will be used to corroborate the data produced by Fenix, and the images of flow conditions for each method will be presented and compared.

  12. Manufacturing Advanced Channel Wall Rocket Liners Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR will adapt and demonstrate a low cost flexible method of manufacturing channel wall liquid rocket nozzles and combustors, while providing developers a...

  13. Experimental characterization of spin motor nozzle flow.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erven, Rocky J.; Peterson, Carl Williams; Henfling, John Francis


    The Mach number in the inviscid core of the flow exiting scarfed supersonic nozzles was measured using pitot probes. Nozzle characterization experiments were conducted in a modified section of an obsolete M = 7.3 test section/nozzle assembly on Sandia's Hypersonic Wind Tunnel. By capitalizing on existing hardware, the cost and time required for tunnel modifications were significantly reduced. Repeatability of pitot pressure measurements was excellent, and instrumentation errors were reduced by optimizing the pressure range of the transducers used for each test run. Bias errors in probe position prevented us from performing a successful in situ calibration of probe angle effects using pitot probes placed at an angle to the nozzle centerline. The abrupt throat geometry used in the Baseline and Configuration A and B nozzles modeled the throat geometry of the flight vehicle's spin motor nozzles. Survey data indicates that small (''unmeasurable'') differences in the nozzle throat geometries produced measurable flow asymmetries and differences in the flow fields generated by supposedly identical nozzles. Therefore, data from the Baseline and Configuration A and B nozzles cannot be used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation. Configuration C and D nozzles replaced the abrupt throat geometry of Baseline and Configuration A and B nozzles with a 0.500-inch streamwise radius of curvature in the throat region. This throat geometry eliminated the flow asymmetries, flow separation in the nozzle throat, and measurable differences between the flow fields from identical nozzles that were observed in Baseline/A/B nozzles. Data from Configuration C and D nozzles can be used for CFD code validation.

  14. Shock Induced Starting of Gasdynamic Laser Nozzles. (United States)


    0.069 inch Total Length = 0.902 inch Design Mach = 3.23 Large Single Nozzle is 4 times all dimensions. V Fig 2. Small Single Nozzle Profile 7 -- 250...the presence of time-stable oblique shocks originating at the exit plane edges of the nozzle profile and extending downstream to form the classi- cal...test section was essentially the same in series 4, 7, 8, and 10. Part A of Fig 15 depicts the small single- nozzle profile , nozzle block holders

  15. Nozzle geometry variations on the discharge coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. Alam


    Full Text Available Numerical works have been conducted to investigate the effect of nozzle geometries on the discharge coefficient. Several contoured converging nozzles with finite radius of curvatures, conically converging nozzles and conical divergent orifices have been employed in this investigation. Each nozzle and orifice has a nominal exit diameter of 12.7×10−3 m. A 3rd order MUSCL finite volume method of ANSYS Fluent 13.0 was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations in simulating turbulent flows through various nozzle inlet geometries. The numerical model was validated through comparison between the numerical results and experimental data. The results obtained show that the nozzle geometry has pronounced effect on the sonic lines and discharge coefficients. The coefficient of discharge was found differ from unity due to the non-uniformity of flow parameters at the nozzle exit and the presence of boundary layer as well.

  16. Turbulence Measurements of Rectangular Nozzles with Bevel (United States)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.


    This paper covers particle image velocimetry measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratios 2, 4, and 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously, showed that increasing aspect ratios increased the high frequency noise, especially directed in the polar plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. The measurements presented here have important implications in the modeling of turbulent sources for acoustic analogy theories. While the nonaxisymmetric mean flow from the rectangular nozzles can be studied reliably using computational solutions, the nonaxisymmetry of the turbulent fluctuations, particularly at the level of velocity components, cannot; only measurements such as these can determine the impact of nozzle geometry on acoustic source anisotropy. Additional nozzles were constructed that extended the wide lip on one side of these nozzles to form beveled nozzles. The paper first documents the velocity fields, mean and variance, from the round, rectangular, and beveled rectangular nozzles at high subsonic speeds. A second section introduces measures of the isotropy of the turbulence, such as component ratios and lengthscales, first by showing them for a round jet and then for the rectangular nozzles. From these measures the source models of acoustic analogy codes can be judged or modified to account for these anisotropies.

  17. Supersonic jets from bevelled rectangular nozzles (United States)

    Rice, Edward J.; Raman, Ganesh


    The influence of nozzle exit geometry on jet mixing and noise production was studied experimentally for a series of rectangular nozzles operating at supersonic jet velocities. Both converging (C) and converging-diverging (C-D) nozzles were built with asymmetrical (single bevel) and symmetrical (double bevel) exit chambers and with conventional straight exits for comparison. About a four decibel reduction of peak mixing noise was observed for the double bevelled C-D nozzle operated at design pressure ratio. All bevelled geometries provided screech noise reduction for under-expanded jets and an upstream mixing noise directivity shift which would be beneficial for improved acoustic treatment performance of a shrouded system.

  18. Plug-in nanoliter pneumatic liquid dispenser with nozzle design flexibility. (United States)

    Choi, In Ho; Kim, Hojin; Lee, Sanghyun; Baek, Seungbum; Kim, Joonwon


    This paper presents a novel plug-in nanoliter liquid dispensing system with a plug-and-play interface for simple and reversible, yet robust integration of the dispenser. A plug-in type dispenser was developed to facilitate assembly and disassembly with an actuating part through efficient modularization. The entire process for assembly and operation of the plug-in dispenser is performed via the plug-and-play interface in less than a minute without loss of dispensing quality. The minimum volume of droplets pneumatically dispensed using the plug-in dispenser was 124 nl with a coefficient of variation of 1.6%. The dispensed volume increased linearly with the nozzle size. Utilizing this linear relationship, two types of multinozzle dispensers consisting of six parallel channels (emerging from an inlet) and six nozzles were developed to demonstrate a novel strategy for volume gradient dispensing at a single operating condition. The droplet volume dispensed from each nozzle also increased linearly with nozzle size, demonstrating that nozzle size is a dominant factor on dispensed volume, even for multinozzle dispensing. Therefore, the proposed plug-in dispenser enables flexible design of nozzles and reversible integration to dispense droplets with different volumes, depending on the application. Furthermore, to demonstrate the practicality of the proposed dispensing system, we developed a pencil-type dispensing system as an alternative to a conventional pipette for rapid and reliable dispensing of minute volume droplets.

  19. Apparatus and method for mixing fuel in a gas turbine nozzle (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Berry, Jonathan Dwight


    A nozzle includes a fuel plenum and an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. A primary fuel channel includes an inlet in fluid communication with the fuel plenum and a primary air port in fluid communication with the air plenum. Secondary fuel channels radially outward of the primary fuel channel include a secondary fuel port in fluid communication with the fuel plenum. A shroud circumferentially surrounds the secondary fuel channels. A method for mixing fuel and air in a nozzle prior to combustion includes flowing fuel to a fuel plenum and flowing air to an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. The method further includes injecting fuel from the fuel plenum through a primary fuel passage, injecting fuel from the fuel plenum through secondary fuel passages, and injecting air from the air plenum through the primary fuel passage.

  20. Nitrous oxide cooling in hybrid rocket nozzles (United States)

    Lemieux, Patrick


    The Department of Mechanical Engineering at the California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, has developed an innovative program of experimental research and development on hybrid rocket motors (where the fuel and the oxidizer are in different phases prior to combustion). One project currently underway involves the development of aerospike nozzles for such motors. These nozzles, however, are even more susceptible to throat ablation than regular converging-diverging nozzles, due the nature of their flow expansion mechanism. This paper presents the result of a recent development project focused on reducing throat ablation in hybrid rocket motor nozzles. Although the method is specifically targeted at increasing the life and operating range of aerospike nozzles, this paper describes its proof-of-concept implementation on conventional nozzles. The method is based on a regenerative cooling mechanism that differs in practice from that used in liquid propellant motors. A series of experimental tests demonstrate that this new method is not only effective at reducing damage in the most ablative region of the nozzle, but that the nozzle can survive multiple test runs.

  1. Exhaust Nozzle Plume and Shock Wave Interaction (United States)

    Castner, Raymond S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan


    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the exhaust plume. Both the nozzle exhaust plume shape and the tail shock shape may be affected by an interaction that may alter the vehicle sonic boom signature. The plume and shock interaction was studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation on two types of convergent-divergent nozzles and a simple wedge shock generator. The nozzle plume effects on the lower wedge compression region are evaluated for two- and three-dimensional nozzle plumes. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the deflected lower plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the wedge is modified by the presence of the plume, and the computational predictions show significant (8 to 15 percent) changes in shock amplitude.

  2. Fuel nozzle assembly for use as structural support for a duct structure in a combustor of a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A


    A fuel nozzle assembly for use in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer housing of the fuel nozzle assembly includes an inner volume and provides a direct structural connection between a duct structure and a fuel manifold. The duct structure defines a flow passage for combustion gases flowing within the combustor apparatus. The fuel manifold defines a fuel supply channel therein in fluid communication with a source of fuel. A fuel injector of the fuel nozzle assembly is provided in the inner volume of the outer housing and defines a fuel passage therein. The fuel passage is in fluid communication with the fuel supply channel of the fuel manifold for distributing the fuel from the fuel supply channel into the flow passage of the duct structure.

  3. External Cylindrical Nozzle with Controlled Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov


    Full Text Available There is a developed design of the external cylindrical nozzle with a vacuum camera. The paper studies the nozzle controllability of flow rate via regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere through an air throttle. Working capacity of the nozzle with inlet round or triangular orifice are researched. The gap is provided in the nozzle design between the external wall of the inlet orifice and the end face of the straight case in the nozzle case. The presented mathematical model of the nozzle with the evacuated chamber allows us to estimate the expected vacuum amount in the compressed section of a stream and maximum permissible absolute pressure at the inlet orifice. The paper gives experimental characteristics of the fluid flow process through the nozzle for different values of internal diameter of a straight case and an extent of its end face remoteness from an external wall of the inlet orifice. It estimates how geometry of nozzle constructive elements influences on the volume flow rate. It is established that the nozzle capacity significantly depends on the shape of inlet orifice. Triangular orifice nozzles steadily work in the mode of completely filled flow area of the straight case at much more amounts of the limit pressure of the flow. Vacuum depth in the evacuated chamber also depends on the shape of inlet orifice: the greatest vacuum is reached in a nozzle with the triangular orifice which 1.5 times exceeds the greatest vacuum with the round orifice. Possibility to control nozzle capacity through the regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere was experimentally estimated, thus depth of flow rate regulation of the nozzle with a triangular orifice was 45% in comparison with 10% regulation depth of the nozzle with a round orifice. Depth of regulation calculated by a mathematical model appeared to be much more. The paper presents experimental dependences of the flow coefficients of nozzle input orifice

  4. Fuel injection nozzle and method of manufacturing the same (United States)

    Monaghan, James Christopher; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael


    A fuel injection head for use in a fuel injection nozzle comprises a monolithic body portion comprising an upstream face, an opposite downstream face, and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes are integrally formed with and extend axially through the body portion. Each of the pre-mix tubes comprises an inlet adjacent the upstream face, an outlet adjacent the downstream face, and a channel extending between the inlet and the outlet. Each pre-mix tube also includes at least one fuel injector that at least partially extends outward from an exterior surface of the pre-mix tube, wherein the fuel injector is integrally formed with the pre-mix tube and is configured to facilitate fuel flow between the body portion and the channel.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Sergeev


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of quality control for solder joints of nozzles of chambers in liquid rocket engines (LRE. The nozzle of LRE chamber is a responsible product, operating in conditions of high pressure and temperature gradient, having a complex geometric shape and consisting of a large number of milled channels. The analysis of existing methods for solving the problem of quality control of solder joints in LRE nozzles of chambers is carried out. The necessity of the development of an automated laser-ultrasonic control method of solder joints in LRE nozzles of chambers is proved. The analysis of existing automated ultrasonic means of control and the factors affecting control accuracy is carried out. The prototype hardware has been designed for the automated laser ultrasonic nondestructive quality testing of solder joints of LRE nozzles. For software control of the sensor movement mechanism for scanning the inner surface of LRE chamber nozzles and its positioning, the usage of three-layer neural network is proposed. An adaptive algorithm of automated quality control of solder joints has been worked out. A method for the integrated assessment of the quality of solder joints of LRE chambers is suggested. In the process of research methodology was developed for automated measurement of geometrical characteristics of defects and quality control of solder joints in LRE nozzles of chambers. The approbation of the developed method was carried out on three-coordinate automated stand.

  6. 3D printing of gas jet nozzles for laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Döpp, A.; Guillaume, E.; Thaury, C.; Gautier, J.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Malka, V. [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, École Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 Boulevard des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France)


    Recent results on laser wakefield acceleration in tailored plasma channels have underlined the importance of controlling the density profile of the gas target. In particular, it was reported that the appropriate density tailoring can result in improved injection, acceleration, and collimation of laser-accelerated electron beams. To achieve such profiles, innovative target designs are required. For this purpose, we have reviewed the usage of additive layer manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, in order to produce gas jet nozzles. Notably we have compared the performance of two industry standard techniques, namely, selective laser sintering (SLS) and stereolithography (SLA). Furthermore we have used the common fused deposition modeling to reproduce basic gas jet designs and used SLA and SLS for more sophisticated nozzle designs. The nozzles are characterized interferometrically and used for electron acceleration experiments with the SALLE JAUNE terawatt laser at Laboratoire d’Optique Appliquée.

  7. Effect of riblets on the performance of a supersonic nozzle; Choonsoku nozzle no seino ni oyobosu riblet no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, K.; Asai, T. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Namiki Precision Jewel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the experimental study of the supersonic internal flow over the riblet surface mounted on the channel wall to reduce a pressure loss and improve the performance of a supersonic nozzle. The magnitude of the static pressure in the pressure-rise region observed in channels with riblet surface became lower than that for the case of smooth surface, and significance of its difference was indicated by uncertainty analysis estimated at 95% coverage. The Mach number distributions obtained by traversing a Pitot-tube showed that the separation point moved down-stream and the size of a separation region became small by using riblets. Furthermore, it was found that the stagnation pressure loss reduction achieved up to 56% in the uniform supersonic flow field at a Mach number of 2.0, and 29% in the separation region. (author)

  8. Structural strengthening of rocket nozzle extension by means of laser metal deposition (United States)

    Honoré, M.; Brox, L.; Hallberg, M.


    Commercial space operations strive to maximize the payload per launch in order to minimize the costs of each kg launched into orbit; this yields demand for ever larger launchers with larger, more powerful rocket engines. Volvo Aero Corporation in collaboration with Snecma and Astrium has designed and tested a new, upgraded Nozzle extension for the Vulcain 2 engine configuration, denoted Vulcain 2+ NE Demonstrator The manufacturing process for the welding of the sandwich wall and the stiffening structure is developed in close cooperation with FORCE Technology. The upgrade is intended to be available for future development programs for the European Space Agency's (ESA) highly successful commercial launch vehicle, the ARIANE 5. The Vulcain 2+ Nozzle Extension Demonstrator [1] features a novel, thin-sheet laser-welded configuration, with laser metal deposition built-up 3D-features for the mounting of stiffening structure, flanges and for structural strengthening, in order to cope with the extreme load- and thermal conditions, to which the rocket nozzle extension is exposed during launch of the 750 ton ARIANE 5 launcher. Several millimeters of material thickness has been deposited by laser metal deposition without disturbing the intricate flow geometry of the nozzle cooling channels. The laser metal deposition process has been applied on a full-scale rocket nozzle demonstrator, and in excess of 15 kilometers of filler wire has been successfully applied to the rocket nozzle. The laser metal deposition has proven successful in two full-throttle, full-scale tests, firing the rocket engine and nozzle in the ESA test facility P5 by DLR in Lampoldshausen, Germany.

  9. Design and Analysis of Fused Deposition Modeling 3D Printer Nozzle for Color Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanling Han


    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM has been one of the most widely used rapid prototyping (RP technologies leading to the increase in market attention. Obviously it is desirable to print 3D objects; however, existing FDM printers are restricted to printing only monochrome objects because of the entry-level nozzle structure, and literature on the topic is also sparse. In this paper, the CAD model of the nozzle is established first by UG (Unigraphics NX software to show the structure of fused deposition modeling 3D printer nozzle for color mixing. Second, the flow channel model of the nozzle is extracted and simplified. Then, the CAD and finite element model are established by UG and ICEM CFD software, respectively, to prepare for the simulation. The flow field is simulated by Fluent software. The nozzle’s suitable temperature at different extrusion speeds is obtained, and the reason for the blockage at the intersection of the heating block is revealed. Finally, test verification of the nozzle is performed, which can produce mixed-color artifacts stably.

  10. Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an...

  11. Characteristics of Smoke Off-Take Nozzle of Industrial Unified «Silal» М-I 115*460*860-05 and «Silal» М-II 230*460*860-1.0 Recuperators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchouk


    Full Text Available The paper contains a proposal to equip devices for regenerative heat usage with a subsonic converging nozzle with the purpose to reduce smoke content in the operational zone of heating and thermal furnaces applied at machine building and automotive and tractor industries. Calculation of nozzle channel part is given in the paper. 

  12. Acoustic Measurements of Rectangular Nozzles With Bevel (United States)

    Bridges, James E.


    A series of convergent rectangular nozzles of aspect ratios 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were constructed with uniform exit velocity profiles. Additional nozzles were constructed that extended the wide lip on one side of these nozzles to form beveled nozzles. Far-field acoustic measurements were made and analyzed, and the results presented. The impact of aspect ratio on jet noise was similar to that of enhanced mixing devices: reduction in aft, peak frequency noise with an increase in broadside, high frequency noise. Azimuthally, it was found that rectangular jets produced more noise directed away from their wide sides than from their narrow sides. The azimuthal dependence decreased at aft angles where noise decreased. The effect of temperature, keeping acoustic Mach number constant, was minimal. Since most installations would have the observer on the wide size of the nozzle, the increased high frequency noise has a deleterious impact on the observer. Extending one wide side of the rectangular nozzle, evocative of an aft deck in an installed propulsion system, increased the noise of the jet with increasing length. The impact of both aspect ratio and bevel length were relatively well behaved, allowing a simple bilinear model to be constructed relative to a simple round jet.

  13. Computational study of performance characteristics for truncated conical aerospike nozzles (United States)

    Nair, Prasanth P.; Suryan, Abhilash; Kim, Heuy Dong


    Aerospike nozzles are advanced rocket nozzles that can maintain its aerodynamic efficiency over a wide range of altitudes. It belongs to class of altitude compensating nozzles. A vehicle with an aerospike nozzle uses less fuel at low altitudes due to its altitude adaptability, where most missions have the greatest need for thrust. Aerospike nozzles are better suited to Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) missions compared to conventional nozzles. In the current study, the flow through 20% and 40% aerospike nozzle is analyzed in detail using computational fluid dynamics technique. Steady state analysis with implicit formulation is carried out. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The results are compared with experimental results from previous work. The transition from open wake to closed wake happens in lower Nozzle Pressure Ratio for 20% as compared to 40% aerospike nozzle.

  14. Aeroelastic Modeling of a Nozzle Startup Transient (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Sijun; Chen, Yen-Sen


    Lateral nozzle forces are known to cause severe structural damage to any new rocket engine in development during test. While three-dimensional, transient, turbulent, chemically reacting computational fluid dynamics methodology has been demonstrated to capture major side load physics with rigid nozzles, hot-fire tests often show nozzle structure deformation during major side load events, leading to structural damages if structural strengthening measures were not taken. The modeling picture is incomplete without the capability to address the two-way responses between the structure and fluid. The objective of this study is to develop a tightly coupled aeroelastic modeling algorithm by implementing the necessary structural dynamics component into an anchored computational fluid dynamics methodology. The computational fluid dynamics component is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, while the computational structural dynamics component is developed under the framework of modal analysis. Transient aeroelastic nozzle startup analyses at sea level were performed, and the computed transient nozzle fluid-structure interaction physics presented,

  15. Biannular Airbreathing Nozzle Rig (BANR) facility checkout and plug nozzle performance test data (United States)

    Cummings, Chase B.


    The motivation for development of a supersonic business jet (SSBJ) platform lies in its ability to create a paradigm shift in the speed and reach of commercial, private, and government travel. A full understanding of the performance capabilities of exhaust nozzle configurations intended for use in potential SSBJ propulsion systems is critical to the design of an aircraft of this type. Purdue University's newly operational Biannular Airbreathing Nozzle Rig (BANR) is a highly capable facility devoted to the testing of subscale nozzles of this type. The high accuracy, six-axis force measurement system and complementary mass flowrate measurement capabilities of the BANR facility make it rather ideally suited for exhaust nozzle performance appraisal. Detailed accounts pertaining to methods utilized in the proper checkout of these diagnostic capabilities are contained herein. Efforts to quantify uncertainties associated with critical BANR test measurements are recounted, as well. Results of a second hot-fire test campaign of a subscale Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) axisymmetric, shrouded plug nozzle are presented. Determined test article performance parameters (nozzle thrust efficiencies and discharge coefficients) are compared to those of a previous test campaign and numerical simulations of the experimental set-up. Recently acquired data is compared to published findings pertaining to plug nozzle experiments of similar scale and operating range. Suggestions relating to the future advancement and improvement of the BANR facility are provided. Lessons learned with regards to test operations and calibration procedures are divulged in an attempt to aid future facility users, as well.

  16. Prototype Variable-Area Exhaust Nozzle Designed (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gangbring


    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center s Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for adaptive aeropropulsion components has resulted in the design of a prototype variable-area exhaust nozzle (see the preceding photograph). The novel design exploits the potential of smart materials to improve the performance of existing fixed-area exhaust nozzles by introducing new capabilities for adaptive shape control, vibration damping, and flow manipulation. The design utilizes two different smart materials: shape memory alloy wires as actuators and magnetorheological fluids as damper locks.

  17. Combustor nozzles in gas turbine engines (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Ostebee, Heath Michael


    A micro-mixer nozzle for use in a combustor of a combustion turbine engine, the micro-mixer nozzle including: a fuel plenum defined by a shroud wall connecting a periphery of a forward tube sheet to a periphery of an aft tubesheet; a plurality of mixing tubes extending across the fuel plenum for mixing a supply of compressed air and fuel, each of the mixing tubes forming a passageway between an inlet formed through the forward tubesheet and an outlet formed through the aft tubesheet; and a wall mixing tube formed in the shroud wall.

  18. Lightweight Nozzle Extension for Liquid Rocket Engines Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ARES J-2X requires a large nozzle extension. Currently, a metallic nozzle extension is being considered with carbon-carbon composite as a backup. In Phase 1,...

  19. Turbocharger with variable nozzle having vane sealing surfaces (United States)

    Arnold, Philippe [Hennecourt, FR; Petitjean, Dominique [Julienrupt, FR; Ruquart, Anthony [Thaon les Vosges, FR; Dupont, Guillaume [Thaon les Vosges, FR; Jeckel, Denis [Thaon les Vosges, FR


    A variable nozzle for a turbocharger includes a plurality of vanes rotatably mounted on a nozzle ring and disposed in a nozzle flow path defined between the nozzle ring and an opposite nozzle wall. Either or both of the faces of the nozzle ring and nozzle wall include(s) at least one step that defines sealing surfaces positioned to be substantially abutted by airfoil surfaces of the vanes in the closed position of the vanes and to be spaced from the airfoil surfaces in positions other than the closed position. This substantial abutment between the airfoil surfaces and the sealing surfaces serves to substantially prevent exhaust gas from leaking past the ends of the airfoil portions. At the same time, clearances between the nozzle ring face and the end faces of the airfoil portions can be sufficiently large to prevent binding of the vanes under all operating conditions.

  20. Noise of Embedded High Aspect Ratio Nozzles (United States)

    Bridges, James E.


    A family of high aspect ratio nozzles were designed to provide a parametric database of canonical embedded propulsion concepts. Nozzle throat geometries with aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were chosen, all with convergent nozzle areas. The transition from the typical round duct to the rectangular nozzle was designed very carefully to produce a flow at the nozzle exit that was uniform and free from swirl. Once the basic rectangular nozzles were designed, external features common to embedded propulsion systems were added: extended lower lip (a.k.a. bevel, aft deck), differing sidewalls, and chevrons. For the latter detailed Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were made to predict the thrust performance and to optimize parameters such as bevel length, and chevron penetration and azimuthal curvature. Seventeen of these nozzles were fabricated at a scale providing a 2.13 inch diameter equivalent area throat." ! The seventeen nozzles were tested for far-field noise and a few data were presented here on the effect of aspect ratio, bevel length, and chevron count and penetration. The sound field of the 2:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet was very nearly axisymmetric, but the 4:1 and 8:1 were not, the noise on their minor axes being louder than the major axes. Adding bevel length increased the noise of these nozzles, especially on their minor axes, both toward the long and short sides of the beveled nozzle. Chevrons were only added to the 2:1 rectangular jet. Adding 4 chevrons per wide side produced some decrease at aft angles, but increased the high frequency noise at right angles to the jet flow. This trend increased with increasing chevron penetration. Doubling the number of chevrons while maintaining their penetration decreased these effects. Empirical models of the parametric effect of these nozzles were constructed and quantify the trends stated above." Because it is the objective of the Supersonics Project that

  1. CFD Analysis On The Performance Of Wind Turbine With Nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunkyraj Kh


    Full Text Available In this paper an effort has been made in dealing with fluid characteristic that enters a converging nozzle and analysis of the nozzle is carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics package ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5. The paper is the continuation of earlier work Analytical and Experimental performance evaluation of Wind turbine with Nozzles. First the CFD analysis will be carried out on nozzle in-front of wind turbine where streamline velocity at the exit volume flow rate in the nozzle and pressure distribution across the nozzle will be studied. Experiments were conducted on the Wind turbine with nozzles and the corresponding power output at different air speed and different size of nozzles were calculated. Different shapes and dimensions with special contours and profiles of nozzles were studied. It was observed that the special contour nozzles have superior outlet velocity and low pressure at nozzle exit the design has maximum Kinetic energy. These indicators conclude that the contraction designed with the new profile is a good enhancing of the nozzle performance.

  2. Integrated Ceramic Matrix Composite and Carbon/Carbon Structures for Large Rocket Engine Nozzles and Nozzle Extensions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low-cost access to space demands durable, cost-effective, efficient, and low-weight propulsion systems. Key components include rocket engine nozzles and nozzle...

  3. Orbiter Water Dump Nozzles Redesign Lessons Learned (United States)

    Rotter, Hank


    Hank Rotter, NASA Technical Fellow for Environmental Control and Life Support System, will provide the causes and lessons learned for the two Space Shuttle Orbiter water dump icicles that formed on the side of the Orbiter. He will present the root causes and the criticality of these icicles, along with the redesign of the water dump nozzles and lessons learned during the redesign phase.

  4. New atomization nozzle for spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, H.C. van; Houben, R.J.; Koldeweij, R.B.J.


    A new atomization nozzle based on ink jet technology is introduced for spray drying. Application areas are the food and dairy industry, in the first instance, because in these industries the quality demands on the final powders are high with respect to heat load, powder shape, and size distribution.

  5. EUCC SRB Nozzle erosion motor test (United States)


    The roman candle effect as seen in this picture represents the testing of a solid rocket booster (SRB) for unexplained corrosion conditions (EUCC) which have occurred on the nozzles of redesigned solid rocket motors (RSRM). The motor being tested in this photo is a 48 M-NASA motor.

  6. Clamp and Gas Nozzle for TIG Welding (United States)

    Gue, G. B.; Goller, H. L.


    Tool that combines clamp with gas nozzle is aid to tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding in hard-to-reach spots. Tool holds work to be welded while directing a stream of argon gas at weld joint, providing an oxygen-free environment for tungsten-arc welding.

  7. Shock wave fabricated ceramic-metal nozzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Stuivinga, M.E.C.; Keizers, H.L.J.; Verbeek, H.J.; Put, P.J. van der


    Shock compaction was used in the fabrication of high temperature ceramic-based materials. The materials' development was geared towards the fabrication of nozzles for rocket engines using solid propellants, for which the following metal-ceramic (cermet) materials were fabricated and tested: B4C-Ti

  8. Sluicing nozzle test report, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsower, D.C., Westinghouse Hanford


    The Westinghouse Hanford Company is exploring various options for retrieving waste materials from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. One option under investigation is the use of a commercially available sluicing nozzle manufactured by Bristol Equipment Company.

  9. Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D.


    The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), along with some disadvantages (high current cost of production and storage, high volume per BTU, and an unknown safety profile when in wide use). One of the primary reasons for switching to hydrogen is the elimination of CO2 emissions. Also, with hydrogen, design challenges such as fuel coking in the fuel nozzle and particulate emissions are no longer an issue. However, because it takes place at high temperatures, hydrogen-air combustion can still produce significant levels of NOx emissions. Much of the current research into conventional hydrocarbon-fueled aircraft gas turbine combustors is focused on NOx reduction methods. The Zero CO2 Emission Technology (ZCET) hydrogen combustion project will focus on meeting the Office of Aerospace Technology goal 2 within pillar one for Global Civil Aviation reducing the emissions of future aircraft by a factor of 3 within 10 years and by a factor of 5 within 25 years. Recent advances in hydrocarbon-based gas turbine combustion components have expanded the horizons for fuel nozzle development. Both new fluid designs and manufacturing technologies have led to the development of fuel nozzles that significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The goal of the ZCET program is to mesh the current technology of Lean Direct Injection and rocket injectors to provide quick mixing, low emissions, and high-performance fuel nozzle designs. An experimental program is planned to investigate the fuel nozzle concepts in a flametube test rig. Currently, a hydrogen system is being installed in cell 23 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Research Combustion Laboratory. Testing will be conducted on a variety of fuel nozzle concepts up to combustion pressures of 350 psia and inlet air temperatures of 1200 F

  10. Computational Studies of Magnetic Nozzle Performance (United States)

    Ebersohn, Frans H.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Sheehan, John P.; Shebalin, John B.; Raja, Laxminarayan


    An extensive literature review of magnetic nozzle research has been performed, examining previous work, as well as a review of fundamental principles. This has allow us to catalog all basic physical mechanisms which we believe underlie the thrust generation process. Energy conversion mechanisms include the approximate conservation of the magnetic moment adiabatic invariant, generalized hall and thermoelectric acceleration, swirl acceleration, thermal energy transformation into directed kinetic energy, and Joule heating. Momentum transfer results from the interaction of the applied magnetic field with currents induced in the plasma plume., while plasma detachment mechanisms include resistive diffusion, recombination and charge exchange collisions, magnetic reconnection, loss of adiabaticity, inertial forces, current closure, and self-field detachment. We have performed a preliminary study of Hall effects on magnetic nozzle jets with weak guiding magnetic fields and weak expansions (p(sub jet) approx. = P(sub background)). The conclusion from this study is that the Hall effect creates an azimuthal rotation of the plasma jet and, more generally, creates helical structures in the induced current, velocity field, and magnetic fields. We have studied plasma jet expansion to near vacuum without a guiding magnetic field, and are presently including a guiding magnetic field using a resistive MHD solver. This research is progressing toward the implementation of a full generalized Ohm's law solver. In our paper, we will summarize the basic principle, as well as the literature survey and briefly review our previous results. Our most recent results at the time of submittal will also be included. Efforts are currently underway to construct an experiment at the University of Michigan Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL) to study magnetic nozzle physics for a RF-thruster. Our computational study will work directly with this experiment to validate the numerical

  11. CFD Analysis On The Performance Of Wind Turbine With Nozzles


    Chunkyraj Kh; C. D. Hampali; Anand S. N.


    In this paper an effort has been made in dealing with fluid characteristic that enters a converging nozzle and analysis of the nozzle is carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics package ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5. The paper is the continuation of earlier work Analytical and Experimental performance evaluation of Wind turbine with Nozzles. First the CFD analysis will be carried out on nozzle in-front of wind turbine where streamline velocity at the exit volume flow rate in the nozzle and press...

  12. 2-DOF Angle Measurement of Rocket Nozzle with Multivision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Guo


    Full Text Available A real-time measurement method is presented for the 2-DOF swing angles of rocket nozzle by the use of multivision and rocket nozzle rotation axes. This method takes offline processing to measure the position of two nozzle rotation axes in image coordinate system by means of multi-vision and identify the rotation transformation relation between image coordinate system and fixed-nozzle coordinate system. During real-time measurement, the nozzle 2-DOF swing angles can be measured with transformation of marker coordinate from image coordinate system to fixed-nozzle coordinate system. This method can effectively resolve the problem of occlusion by markers in wide swing range of the nozzle. Experiments were conducted to validate its correctness and high measurement accuracy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan KOLARIČ


    Full Text Available Modern transport is still based on vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. Due to stricter ecological requirements, the designers of engines are continually challenged to develop more environmentally friendly engines with the same power and performance. Unfortunately, there are not any significant novelties and innovations available at present which could significantly change the current direction of the development of this type of propulsion machines. That is why the existing ones should be continually developed and improved or optimized their performance. By optimizing, we tend to minimize fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions in order to meet the norms defined by standards (i.e. Euro standards. Those propulsion engines are actually developed to such extent that our current thinking will not be able to change their basic functionality, but possible opportunities for improvement, especially the improvement of individual components, could be introduced. The latter is possible by computational fluid dynamics (CFD which can relatively quickly and inexpensively produce calculations prior to prototyping and implementation of accurate measurements on the prototype. This is especially useful in early stages of development or at optimization of dimensional small parts of the object where the physical execution of measurements is impossible or very difficult. With advances of computational fluid dynamics, the studies on the nozzles and outlet channel injectors have been relieved. Recently, the observation and better understanding of the flow in nozzles at large pressure and high velocity is recently being possible. This is very important because the injection process, especially the dispersion of jet fuel, is crucial for the combustion process in the cylinder and consequently for the composition of exhaust gases. And finally, the chemical composition of the fuel has a strong impact on the formation of dangerous emissions, too. The

  14. Energy saving opportunities of energy efficient air nozzles (United States)

    Slootmaekers, Tim; Slaets, Peter; Bartsoen, Tom; Malfait, Lieven; Vanierschot, Maarten


    Compressed air is a common energy medium. The production of compressed air itself is not a very efficient process. Avoiding any unnecessary losses of air can lead to large reductions in electricity consumption. Since blowing applications are one of the main domains were compressed-air is used, any reduction in the mass flow needed for operation can lead to significant energy savings. In this paper the normal volumetric flow rate and generated impact force are compared between a stepped nozzle and a so called energy saving nozzle which allows extra air from the surroundings to be entrained. These two different nozzle geometries are used in industrial blowing applications. Until now there was no study available which compares the impact forces and volumetric flow rates for these types of nozzles. The flow field of the two nozzles was calculated by CFD simulations. The impact forces and volumetric flow rates are calculated out of this flow field. Each nozzle was simulated with three different input pressures. The nozzles were simulated with an input pressure of 3, 4 and 5 barg. The energy saving nozzle consumes only 1 % less volumetric flow rate then the stepped nozzle at the same inlet pressure. The replacement of a stepped nozzle with an energy saving nozzle will not immediately result in a decrease in input volumetric flow rate. The pressure at the inlet of the energy saving nozzle has to be reduced as well. After reducing the input pressure the energy saving nozzle generates the same impact force than the stepped nozzle. Hereby a decrease of 4.5 % in input volumetric flow rate was possible. The energy cost will decrease with 4.5 % as well because the normal volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the energy cost. The replacement of a stepped nozzle with an energy saving nozzle while maintaining the same inlet pressure is only useful when the impact force from the stepped nozzle is not sufficient. The energy saving nozzle can generate 5.6 % more impact

  15. Jet-Surface Interaction: High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test, Nozzle Design and Preliminary Data (United States)

    Brown, Clifford; Dippold, Vance


    The Jet-Surface Interaction High Aspect Ratio (JSI-HAR) nozzle test is part of an ongoing effort to measure and predict the noise created when an aircraft engine exhausts close to an airframe surface. The JSI-HAR test is focused on parameters derived from the Turbo-electric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) concept aircraft which include a high-aspect ratio mailslot exhaust nozzle, internal septa, and an aft deck. The size and mass flow rate limits of the test rig also limited the test nozzle to a 16:1 aspect ratio, half the approximately 32:1 on the TeDP concept. Also, unlike the aircraft, the test nozzle must transition from a single round duct on the High Flow Jet Exit Rig, located in the AeroAcoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, to the rectangular shape at the nozzle exit. A parametric nozzle design method was developed to design three low noise round-to-rectangular transitions, with 8:1, 12:1, and 16: aspect ratios, that minimizes flow separations and shocks while providing a flat flow profile at the nozzle exit. These designs validated using the WIND-US CFD code. A preliminary analysis of the test data shows that the actual flow profile is close to that predicted and that the noise results appear consistent with data from previous, smaller scale, tests. The JSI-HAR test is ongoing through October 2015. The results shown in the presentation are intended to provide an overview of the test and a first look at the preliminary results.

  16. Nozzle designs with pitch precursor ablatives (United States)

    Blevins, H. R.; Bedard, R. J.


    Recent developments in carbon phenolic ablatives for solid rocket motor nozzles have yielded a pitch precursor carbon fiber offering significant raw material availability and cost saving advantages as compared to conventional rayon precursor material. This paper discusses the results of an experimental program conducted to assess the thermal performance and characterize the thermal properties of pitch precursor carbon phenolic ablatives. The end result of this program is the complete thermal characterization of pitch fabric, pitch mat, hybrid pitch/rayon fabric and pitch mat molding compound. With these properties determined an analytic capability now exists for predicting the thermal performance of these materials in rocket nozzle liner applications. Further planned efforts to verify material performance and analytical prediction procedures through actual rocket motor firings are also discussed.

  17. PDE Nozzle Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm (United States)

    Billings, Dana; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    Genetic algorithms, which simulate evolution in natural systems, have been used to find solutions to optimization problems that seem intractable to standard approaches. In this study, the feasibility of using a GA to find an optimum, fixed profile nozzle for a pulse detonation engine (PDE) is demonstrated. The objective was to maximize impulse during the detonation wave passage and blow-down phases of operation. Impulse of each profile variant was obtained by using the CFD code Mozart/2.0 to simulate the transient flow. After 7 generations, the method has identified a nozzle profile that certainly is a candidate for optimum solution. The constraints on the generality of this possible solution remain to be clarified.

  18. Thiokol 260-SL Nozzle Development Program (United States)


    excited by the above environments were investigated. These were: (a) lateral vibration of the nozzle exit cone as a cantilever beam , (b) radial vibration...under the debulking roller to prevent springback of the material. The cooling of the wrapped tape tended to set the material and prevent subsequent...between sheets of nylon were then placed at intervals on the surface of the shell as shown in Figure 10. The convergent ablative stack was then

  19. Wormhole Formation in RSRM Nozzle Joint Backfill (United States)

    Stevens, J.


    The RSRM nozzle uses a barrier of RTV rubber upstream of the nozzle O-ring seals. Post flight inspection of the RSRM nozzle continues to reveal occurrence of "wormholes" into the RTV backfill. The term "wormholes", sometimes called "gas paths", indicates a gas flow path not caused by pre-existing voids, but by a little-understood internal failure mode of the material during motor operation. Fundamental understanding of the mechanics of the RSRM nozzle joints during motor operation, nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of the RTV backfill material, identification of the conditions that predispose the RTV to form wormholes, and screening of candidate replacement materials is being pursued by a joint effort between Thiokol Propulsion, NASA, and the Army Propulsion & Structures Directorate at Redstone Arsenal. The performance of the RTV backfill in the joint is controlled by the joint environment. Joint movement, which applies a tension and shear load on the material, coupled with the introduction of high pressure gas in combination create an environment that exceeds the capability of the material to withstand the wormhole effect. Little data exists to evaluate why the material fails under the modeled joint conditions, so an effort to characterize and evaluate the material under these conditions was undertaken. Viscoelastic property data from characterization testing will anchor structural analysis models. Data over a range of temperatures, environmental pressures, and strain rates was used to develop a nonlinear viscoelastic model to predict material performance, develop criteria for replacement materials, and quantify material properties influencing wormhole growth. Three joint simulation analogs were developed to analyze and validate joint thermal barrier (backfill) material performance. Two exploratory tests focus on detection of wormhole failure under specific motor operating conditions. A "validation" test system provides data to "validate" computer models and

  20. Optimization Methodology for Unconventional Rocket Nozzle Design (United States)

    Follett, W.


    Several current rocket engine concepts such as the bell-annular tripropellant engine, and the linear aerospike being proposed for the X-33, require unconventional three-dimensional rocket nozzles which must conform to rectangular or sector-shaped envelopes to meet integration constraints. These types of nozzles exist outside the current experience database, therefore, development of efficient design methods for these propulsion concepts is critical to the success of launch vehicle programs. Several approaches for optimizing rocket nozzles, including streamline tracing techniques, and the coupling of CFD analysis to optimization algorithms are described. The relative strengths and weaknesses of four classes of optimization algorithms are discussed: Gradient based methods, genetic algorithms, simplex methods, and surface response methods. Additionally, a streamline tracing technique, which provides a very computationally efficient means of defining a three-dimensional contour, is discussed. The performance of the various optimization methods on thrust optimization problems for tripropellant and aerospike concepts is assessed and recommendations are made for future development efforts.

  1. Details of Side Load Test Data and Analysis for a Truncated Ideal Contour Nozzle and a Parabolic Contour Nozzle (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David M.; Brown, Andrew M.


    Two cold flow subscale nozzles were tested for side load characteristics during simulated nozzle start transients. The two test article contours were a truncated ideal and a parabolic. The current paper is an extension of a 2009 AIAA JPC paper on the test results for the same two nozzle test articles. The side load moments were measured with the strain tube approach in MSFC s Nozzle Test Facility. The processing techniques implemented to convert the strain gage signals into side load moment data are explained. Nozzle wall pressure profiles for separated nozzle flow at many NPRs are presented and discussed in detail. The effect of the test cell diffuser inlet on the parabolic nozzle s wall pressure profiles for separated flow is shown. The maximum measured side load moments for the two contours are compared. The truncated ideal contour s peak side load moment was 45% of that of the parabolic contour. The calculated side load moments, via mean-plus-three-standard-deviations at each nozzle pressure ratio, reproduced the characteristics and absolute values of measured maximums for both contours. The effect of facility vibration on the measured side load moments is quantified and the effect on uncertainty is calculated. The nozzle contour designs are discussed and the impact of a minor fabrication flaw in the nozzle contours is explained.

  2. MHD Simulations of the Plasma Flow in the Magnetic Nozzle (United States)

    Smith, T. E. R.; Keidar, M.; Sankaran, K.; olzin, K. A.


    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of plasma through a magnetic nozzle is simulated by solving the governing equations for the plasma flow in the presence of an static magnetic field representing the applied nozzle. This work will numerically investigate the flow and behavior of the plasma as the inlet plasma conditions and magnetic nozzle field strength are varied. The MHD simulations are useful for addressing issues such as plasma detachment and to can be used to gain insight into the physical processes present in plasma flows found in thrusters that use magnetic nozzles. In the model, the MHD equations for a plasma, with separate temperatures calculated for the electrons and ions, are integrated over a finite cell volume with flux through each face computed for each of the conserved variables (mass, momentum, magnetic flux, energy) [1]. Stokes theorem is used to convert the area integrals over the faces of each cell into line integrals around the boundaries of each face. The state of the plasma is described using models of the ionization level, ratio of specific heats, thermal conductivity, and plasma resistivity. Anisotropies in current conduction due to Hall effect are included, and the system is closed using a real-gas equation of state to describe the relationship between the plasma density, temperature, and pressure.A separate magnetostatic solver is used to calculate the applied magnetic field, which is assumed constant for these calculations. The total magnetic field is obtained through superposition of the solution for the applied magnetic field and the self-consistently computed induced magnetic fields that arise as the flowing plasma reacts to the presence of the applied field. A solution for the applied magnetic field is represented in Fig. 1 (from Ref. [2]), exhibiting the classic converging-diverging field pattern. Previous research was able to demonstrate effects such as back-emf at a super-Alfvenic flow, which significantly alters the shape of the

  3. Gas turbine nozzle vane insert and methods of installation (United States)

    Miller, William John; Predmore, Daniel Ross; Placko, James Michael


    A pair of hollow elongated insert bodies are disposed in one or more of the nozzle vane cavities of a nozzle stage of a gas turbine. Each insert body has an outer wall portion with apertures for impingement-cooling of nozzle wall portions in registration with the outer wall portion. The insert bodies are installed into the cavity separately and spreaders flex the bodies toward and to engage standoffs against wall portions of the nozzle whereby the designed impingement gap between the outer wall portions of the insert bodies and the nozzle wall portions is achieved. The spreaders are secured to the inner wall portions of the insert bodies and the bodies are secured to one another and to the nozzle vane by welding or brazing.

  4. Quantitative Spectral Radiance Measurements in the HYMETS Arc Jet (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Hires, Drew V.; Johansen, Craig T.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.


    Calibrated spectral radiance measurements of gaseous emission spectra have been obtained from the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A fiber-optic coupled spectrometer collected natural luminosity from the flow. Spectral radiance measurements are reported between 340 and 1000 nm. Both Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) samples were placed in the flow. Test gases studied included a mostly-N2 atmosphere (95% nitrogen, 5% argon), a simulated Earth Air atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and a simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon). The bulk enthalpy of the flow was varied as was the location of the measurement. For the intermediate flow enthalpy tested (20 MJ/kg), emission from the Mars simulant gas was about 10 times higher than the Air flow and 15 times higher than the mostly-N2 atmosphere. Shock standoff distances were estimated from the spectral radiance measurements. Within-run, run-to-run and day-to-day repeatability of the emission were studied, with significant variations (15-100%) noted.

  5. In Situ Laser Diagnostics for Arc-Jet Facilities Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop novel instrumentation based on laser absorption spectroscopy techniques for ultrasensitive...

  6. Pressurizer with a mechanically attached surge nozzle thermal sleeve (United States)

    Wepfer, Robert M


    A thermal sleeve is mechanically attached to the bore of a surge nozzle of a pressurizer for the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor steam generating system. The thermal sleeve is attached with a series of keys and slots which maintain the thermal sleeve centered in the nozzle while permitting thermal growth and restricting flow between the sleeve and the interior wall of the nozzle.

  7. Transient flow characteristics in a rocket engine nozzle


    Takahashi, Masahiro; Ueda, Shuichi; Tomita, Takeo; Takahashi, Mamoru; Tamura, Hiroshi; Aoki, Kenji; 高橋 政浩; 植田 修一; 冨田 健夫; 高橋 守; 田村 洋; 青木 賢治


    Transient flow characteristics in convergent-divergent nozzles with cold gaseous nitrogen were studied using axisymmetric Navier-Stokes computation. A mechanism which possibly causes serious side-load during the start-up transient of the rocket engine nozzle is discussed. The numerical results are compared with the experimental results for validation. In case of the nozzle, with which remarkable side-load peaks were observed in the experiment and the transition from the Free Shock Separation ...

  8. Fluidically augmented nozzles for pulse detonation engine applications


    Smith, Larry R.


    Pulse Detonation Engines (PDE) operate in a cyclic manner resulting in large changes in the combustion chamber pressure. The widely varying pressure ratio between the chamber and nozzle exit makes it difficult to efficiently produce thrust since a fixed area ratio exhaust nozzle would operate off design nearly the entire cycle. Therefore, a nozzle with the capability to create the necessary area ratio throughout the cycle is required to produce an effective and efficient thrust profile. A dyn...

  9. Flow separation in rocket nozzles under high altitude condition (United States)

    Stark, R.; Génin, C.


    The knowledge of flow separation in rocket nozzles is crucial for rocket engine design and optimum performance. Typically, flow separation is studied under sea-level conditions. However, this disregards the change of the ambient density during ascent of a launcher. The ambient flow properties are an important factor concerning the design of altitude-adaptive rocket nozzles like the dual bell nozzle. For this reason an experimental study was carried out to study the influence of the ambient density on flow separation within conventional nozzles.

  10. Numerical simulation of transient flows in a rocket propulsion nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijo, Vincent [School of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heuy Dong, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Matsuo, Shigeru [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga (Japan)


    A numerical investigation of transient flows in an axisymmetric over-expanded thrust-optimized contour nozzle is presented. These nozzles experience side-loads during start-up and shut-down operations, because of the flow separation at nozzle walls. Two types of flow separations such as free shock separation (FSS) and restricted shock separation (RSS) shock structure occur. A two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulation has been carried for a thrust-optimized contour nozzle to validate present results and investigate oscillatory flow characteristics during the start-up processes. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved using a fully implicit finite volume scheme. Governing equations are solved by coupled implicit scheme. The present work is concerned with comprehensive assessment of the flow features by using Reynolds stress turbulence model. Computed pressure at the nozzle wall closely matched with the experimental data. A hysteresis phenomenon has been observed between these two shock structures. The transition from FSS to RSS pattern during start-up process has shown maximum nozzle wall pressure. Nozzle wall pressure and shear stress values have shown fluctuations during the FSS to RSS transition. The oscillatory pressure has been observed on the nozzle wall for high pressure ratio. Present results have shown that magnitude of the nozzle wall pressure variation is high for the oscillatory phenomenon.

  11. Variable volume combustor with aerodynamic fuel flanges for nozzle mounting (United States)

    McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ostebee, Heath Michael


    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles and a fuel injection system for providing a flow of fuel to the micro-mixer fuel nozzles. The fuel injection system may include a number of support struts supporting the fuel nozzles and for providing the flow of fuel therethrough. The fuel injection system also may include a number of aerodynamic fuel flanges connecting the micro-mixer fuel nozzles and the support struts.

  12. Low Cost Carbon-Carbon Rocket Nozzle Development Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This development will provide an inexpensive vacuum nozzle manufacturing option for NOFBXTM monopropellant systems that are currently being developed under NASA SBIR...

  13. Evaluation of carbon-carbon for space engine nozzle (United States)

    Suhoza, J. P.; Cawood, G. W.; Cawood, G. W.; Cawood, G. W.; Cawood, G. W.; Cawood, G. W.


    An investigation is underway to determine the suitability of carbon-carbon composite materials for lightweight nozzle extensions on the Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV). The best combinations of fiber precursor, matrix material, and oxidation protection coatings are being evaluated in a series of hot-fire tests in an O sub 2/H sub 2 rocket nozzle environment. Evaluation criteria include life expectancy (recession), strength to weight, producibility, maturity, and cost. A data base of carbon-carbon performance in the OTV nozzle environment will be established which may be used in designing a full-scale OTV nozzle extension.

  14. Heat and fluid flow properties of circular impinging jet with a low nozzle to plate spacing. Improvement by nothched nozzle; Nozzle heibankan kyori ga chiisai baai no enkei shototsu funryu no ryudo dennetsu tokusei. Kirikaki nozzle ni yoru kaizen kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakouchih, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Matsumoto, A.; Watanabe, A.


    It is well known that as decreasing the nozzle to plate spacing considerably the heat transfer coefficient of circular impinging jet, which impinges to the plate normally, increases remarkably. At that time, the flow resistance of nozzle-plate system also increases rapidly. In this study, in order to reduce the flow resistance and to enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the circular impinging jet with a considerably low nozzle to plate spacing, a special nozzle with notches is proposed, and considerable improvement of the flow and heat transfer properties are shown. The mechanism of enhancement of the heat transfer properties is also discussed. (author)

  15. Study of nozzle deposit formation mechanism for direct injection gasoline engines; Chokufun gasoline engine yo nozzle no deposit seisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, M.; Saito, A. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Shibata, H. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Niwa, Y. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    Nozzles in fuel injectors for direct injection gasoline engines are exposed to high temperature combustion gases and soot. In such a rigorous environment, it is a fear that fuel flow rate changes in injectors by deposit formation on nozzles. Fundamental factors of nozzle deposit formation were investigated through injector bench tests and engine dynamometer tests. Deposit formation processes were observed by SEM through engine dynamometer tests. The investigation results reveal nozzle deposit formation mechanism and how to suppress the deposit. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Airfoil shape for a turbine nozzle (United States)

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Patik, Joseph Francis; Itzel, Gary Michael


    A first-stage nozzle vane includes an airfoil having a profile according to Table I. The annulus profile of the hot gas path is defined in conjunction with the airfoil profile and the profile of the inner and outer walls by the Cartesian coordinate values given in Tables I and II, respectively. The airfoil is a three-dimensional bowed design, both in the airfoil body and in the trailing edge. The airfoil is steam and air-cooled by flowing cooling mediums through cavities extending in the vane between inner and outer walls.

  17. Turbofan Noise Reduction Associated With Increased Bypass Nozzle Flow (United States)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.


    An advanced 22-in. scale model turbofan, typical of a current-generation aircraft engine design by GE Aircraft Engines, was tested in NASA Glenn Research Center s 9- by 15- Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to explore the far-field acoustic effects of an increased bypass nozzle area at simulated aircraft speeds of takeoff, approach, and landing. The wind-tunnel-scale model consisted of the bypass stage fan, stators, and nacelle (including the fan exit nozzle) of a typical turbofan. This fan-stage test was part of the NASA Glenn Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test, second entry, which acquired aeroacoustic results over a range of test conditions. A baseline nozzle was selected, and the nozzle area was chosen for maximum performance at sea-level conditions. Two additional nozzles were also tested--one with a 5.4-percent increase in nozzle area over the baseline nozzle (sized for design point conditions), corresponding to a 5-percent increase in fan weight flow, and another nozzle with a 10.9-percent increase in nozzle area over the baseline nozzle (sized for maximum weight flow at sea-level conditions), corresponding to a 7.5 percent increase in fan weight flow. Measured acoustic benefits with increased nozzle area were very encouraging, showing overall sound power level reductions of 2 dB or more (left graph) while the stage adiabatic efficiency (right graph) and thrust (final graph) actually increased by several percentage points. These noise-reduction benefits were seen to include both rotor-interaction tones and broadband noise, and were evident throughout the range of measured sideline angles.

  18. Analysis of film cooling in rocket nozzles (United States)

    Woodbury, Keith A.


    This report summarizes the findings on the NASA contract NAG8-212, Task No. 3. The overall project consists of three tasks, all of which have been successfully completed. In addition, some supporting supplemental work, not required by the contract, has been performed and is documented herein. Task 1 involved the modification of the wall functions in the code FDNS (Finite Difference Navier-Stokes) to use a Reynolds Analogy-based method. This task was completed in August, 1992. Task 2 involved the verification of the code against experimentally available data. The data chosen for comparison was from an experiment involving the injection of helium from a wall jet. Results obtained in completing this task also show the sensitivity of the FDNS code to unknown conditions at the injection slot. This task was completed in September, 1992. Task 3 required the computation of the flow of hot exhaust gases through the P&W 40K subscale nozzle. Computations were performed both with and without film coolant injection. This task was completed in July, 1993. The FDNS program tends to overpredict heat fluxes, but, with suitable modeling of backside cooling, may give reasonable wall temperature predictions. For film cooling in the P&W 40K calorimeter subscale nozzle, the average wall temperature is reduced from 1750R to about 1050R by the film cooling. The average wall heat flux is reduced by a factor of 3.

  19. Numerical analysis of choked converging nozzle flows with surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choked converging nozzle flow and heat transfer characteristics are numerically investigated by means of a recent computational model that integrates the axisymmetric continuity, state, momentum and energy equations. To predict the combined effects of nozzle geometry, friction and heat transfer rates, analyses are ...

  20. Design and Analysis of Elliptical Nozzle in AJM Process using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... material removal rate (MRR), so this research mainly focuses on designing nozzle geometry to improve flow rate and MRR in AJM machining process. The elliptical shape nozzle has been designed and analyzed using computational fluid dynamics software (CFD). CFD is the most efficient software for flow rate analysis.

  1. Design and Optimization of Aerospike nozzle using CFD (United States)

    Naveen Kumar, K.; Gopalsamy, M.; Antony, Daniel; Krishnaraj, R.; Viswanadh, Chaparala B. V.


    New rocket designs are being adopted to increase the performance of the current satellite launch vehicles (SLVs). But, the aerospike (or plug) nozzle concept that has been under development since the 1950s is yet to be utilized on a launch platform. Due to its ability to adjust the environment by altering the outer jet boundary, the aerospike nozzle delivers better performance compared to present day bell nozzle. An aerospike nozzle is designed for 20 bar pressure ratio. In order to improve the performance of the aerospike nozzle for various conditions, optimization of the nozzle was carried out for some important design parameters and their performances were studied for cold flow conditions. Initially a model of an aerospike nozzle is created for certain parameters, then the optimization process is carried out for the nozzle (Truncated model & Base bleed model). Optimized model is designed by the software GAMBIT and the flow behaviour is analysed by the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT. Comparison also takes place between the full length and the optimized models.

  2. Noise from Aft Deck Exhaust Nozzles: Differences in Experimental Embodiments (United States)

    Bridges, James E.


    Two embodiments of a rectangular nozzle on an aft deck are compared. In one embodiment the lower lip of the nozzle was extended with the sidewalls becoming triangles. In a second embodiment a rectangular nozzle was fitted with a surface that fit flush to the lower lip and extended outward from the sides of the nozzle, approximating a semi-infinite plane. For the purpose of scale-model testing, making the aft deck an integral part of the nozzle is possible for relatively short deck lengths, but a separate plate model is more flexible, accounts for the expanse of deck to the sides of the nozzle, and allows the nozzle to stand off from the deck. Both embodiments were tested and acoustic far-field results were compared. In both embodiments the extended deck introduces a new noise source, but the amplitude of the new source was dependent upon the span (cross-stream dimension) of the aft deck. The noise increased with deck length (streamwise dimension), and in the case of the beveled nozzle it increased with increasing aspect ratio. In previous studies of slot jets in wings it was noted that the increased noise from the extended aft deck appears as a dipole at the aft deck trailing edge, an acoustic source type with different dependence on velocity than jet mixing noise. The extraneous noise produced by the aft deck in the present studies also shows this behavior both in directivity and in velocity scaling.

  3. Multi-orifice deposition nozzle for additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Randall F.; Post, Brian K.; Cini, Colin L.


    An additive manufacturing extrusion head includes a nozzle for accepting and depositing a heated material onto a work surface and/or part. The nozzle includes a valve body and an internal poppet body moveable between positions to permit deposition of at least two bead sizes of heated material onto a work surface and/or part.

  4. Two-Phase Hero Turbine With Curved Nozzles (United States)

    Fabris, Gracio


    Proposed hero turbine includes de Laval nozzles modified to new curved, longer, more-gradually-tapered shape that promotes flashing and reduces separation. Turbines designed with new nozzles compete with rotary separator turbines used in geothermal powerplants. Other potential applications include heat pumps and thermal-energy conversion systems.

  5. Improvement of the SERN nozzle performance by aerodynamic flap design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhn, P.; Henckels, A.; Sieberger, G. [Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Wind Tunnel Section, DLR, Cologne (Germany)


    As continuation of the former study [P. Gruhn et al., Aerospace Science and Technology 4 (2000) 555-565], we examine the flow at a SERN nozzle for a future hypersonic cruise vehicle with help of a nozzle/after-body wind tunnel model. Main focus is on the flow at the nozzle flap and the separation of the boundary layer at the flap cowl. The location of this separation is determined for different nozzle pressure ratios and different Reynolds numbers. An empirical criterion to predict the separation point at the flap cowl of the nozzle/after-body model is established. Based on the experiments and recent studies, a geometry for the nozzle flap of the reference configuration ELAC of the Collaborative Research Center 253 of the Aachen University of Technology is suggested. Numerical studies result in an improved axial thrust going along with an improved thrust vector angle for this new flap in the whole examined Mach range between 1.23 and 7. The improvements of up to 11 percent in axial thrust coefficient and up to 15 deg. in thrust vector angle at low Mach numbers exceed the progresses made for the nozzle of the nozzle/after-body model in the former study. (authors)

  6. Nozzle cooling of hot surfaces with various orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsky Jaroslav


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is an investigation of hot surface orientation influence on heat transfer during cooling by a nozzle. Two types of nozzles were used for the experiments (air-mist nozzle and hydraulic nozzle. A test plate was cooled in three positions – top, side and bottom position. The aim was to simulate a cooling situation in the secondary zone of a continuous casting machine. Temperature was measured in seven locations under the cooled surface by thermocouples. These data were used for an inverse heat conduction problem and then boundary conditions were computed. These boundary conditions are represented by surface temperature, heat transfer coefficient and heat flux. Results from an inverse calculation were compared in each position of thermocouples separately. The total cooling intensity was specified for all configurations of nozzles and test plate orientation. Results are summarised in a graphical and numerical format.

  7. Analysis, design and testing of high pressure waterjet nozzles (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Andre P.


    The Hydroblast Research Cell at MSFC is both a research and a processing facility. The cell is used to investigate fundamental phenomena associated with waterjets as well as to clean hardware for various NASA and contractor projects. In the area of research, investigations are made regarding the use of high pressure waterjets to strip paint, grease, adhesive and thermal spray coatings from various substrates. Current industrial methods of cleaning often use ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as chlorinated solvents, and high pressure waterjet cleaning has proven to be a viable alternative. Standard methods of waterjet cleaning use hand held or robotically controlled nozzles. The nozzles used can be single-stream or multijet nozzles, and the multijet nozzles may be mounted in a rotating head or arranged in a fan-type shape. We consider in this paper the use of a rotating, multijet, high pressure water nozzle which is robotically controlled. This method enables rapid cleaning of a large area, but problems such as incomplete coverage (e.g. the formation of 'islands' of material not cleaned) and damage to the substrate from the waterjet have been observed. In addition, current stripping operations require the nozzle to be placed at a standoff distance of approximately 2 inches in order to achieve adequate performance. This close proximity of the nozzle to the target to be cleaned poses risks to the nozzle and the target in the event of robot error or the striking of unanticipated extrusions on the target surface as the nozzle sweeps past. Two key motivations of this research are to eliminate the formation of 'coating islands' and to increase the allowable standoff distance of the nozzle.

  8. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles (United States)

    Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.


    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  9. Feedback mechanism for smart nozzles and nebulizers (United States)

    Montaser, Akbar [Potomac, MD; Jorabchi, Kaveh [Arlington, VA; Kahen, Kaveh [Kleinburg, CA


    Nozzles and nebulizers able to produce aerosol with optimum and reproducible quality based on feedback information obtained using laser imaging techniques. Two laser-based imaging techniques based on particle image velocimetry (PTV) and optical patternation map and contrast size and velocity distributions for indirect and direct pneumatic nebulizations in plasma spectrometry. Two pulses from thin laser sheet with known time difference illuminate droplets flow field. Charge coupled device (CCL)) captures scattering of laser light from droplets, providing two instantaneous particle images. Pointwise cross-correlation of corresponding images yields two-dimensional velocity map of aerosol velocity field. For droplet size distribution studies, solution is doped with fluorescent dye and both laser induced florescence (LIF) and Mie scattering images are captured simultaneously by two CCDs with the same field of view. Ratio of LIF/Mie images provides relative droplet size information, then scaled by point calibration method via phase Doppler particle analyzer.

  10. Study of Liquid Sheet Emanating from a Simplex Fuel Nozzle* (United States)

    Jog, M. A.; Jeng, S. M.; Dimicco, R.; Oplaski, A.; Holtzclaw, D.; Benjamin, M.


    We have computationally modeled the flow in a simplex nozzle and have predicted the characteristics of the liquid sheet emanating from it. Simplex nozzles are commonly used for fuel injection in gas turbine engines. The Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian numerical method is used with a finite volume formulation to solve the governing equations. The free-surface positions are tracked Lagrangianly, thereby avoiding any numerical smearing at the interface. An adaptive grid generation technique is used to body-fit the interior grids to the free surface. The thickness and the angle of the liquid sheet emanating from the nozzle have been predicted. As the commonly used simplex fuel nozzles are small, it is difficult to make accurate measurements on the fluid flow properties within the body of the nozzle and near the nozzle exit. To overcome these difficulties, a large-scale transparent prototype nozzle is used to provide adequate spatial resolution for observation. An argon laser is used for measurements of the liquid sheet thickness. The liquid surface positions as a function of time are recorded using a high speed camera. Comparison of our computational results with the experimental measurements show excellent agreement. *Work supported by Ohio Aerospace Institute and Parker Hannifin Co.

  11. A shear reversal nozzle for efficient gas atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.W.


    The primary purpose of this report is to establish definitive rationale and technical drivers for atomizing nozzles that employ the shear reversal principle. In a shear reversing nozzle, the liquid to be atomized is introduced into a supersonic gas flow and is allowed to accelerate to a velocity near that of the gas before it exits the nozzle. The pressure conditions at the exit of the nozzle are managed in such a manner to produce a strong normal shock wave in the gas flow field. The shock wave causes a large reduction in the gas velocity at the exit of the nozzle. Because the liquid is traveling near the initial gas velocity as it exits the nozzle, it now encounters a relatively slow moving gas flow field, which causes further reductions in the particle size. An elementary atomizing model is presented comprising two distinct processes: (1) particle divisions and (2) particle shearing. From the model, the primary process variables were identified and strategies were presented to maximize the production of fine diameter particles. In addition, an elementary finite difference model was presented to aid in the determination of the overall length of the shear reversing nozzle. Finally, a procedure was given to establish proper sizing of the components involved.

  12. Application of LBB to a nozzle-pipe interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.J.; Sohn, G.H.; Kim, Y.J. [and others


    Typical LBB (Leak-Before-Break) analysis is performed for the highest stress location for each different type of material in the high energy pipe line. In most cases, the highest stress occurs at the nozzle and pipe interface location at the terminal end. The standard finite element analysis approach to calculate J-Integral values at the crack tip utilizes symmetry conditions when modeling near the nozzle as well as away from the nozzle region to minimize the model size and simplify the calculation of J-integral values at the crack tip. A factor of two is typically applied to the J-integral value to account for symmetric conditions. This simplified analysis can lead to conservative results especially for small diameter pipes where the asymmetry of the nozzle-pipe interface is ignored. The stiffness of the residual piping system and non-symmetries of geometry along with different material for the nozzle, safe end and pipe are usually omitted in current LBB methodology. In this paper, the effects of non-symmetries due to geometry and material at the pipe-nozzle interface are presented. Various LBB analyses are performed for a small diameter piping system to evaluate the effect a nozzle has on the J-integral calculation, crack opening area and crack stability. In addition, material differences between the nozzle and pipe are evaluated. Comparison is made between a pipe model and a nozzle-pipe interface model, and a LBB PED (Piping Evaluation Diagram) curve is developed to summarize the results for use by piping designers.

  13. Temperature State of Noncooled Nozzle Adjutage of Liquid Rocket Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin


    Full Text Available The increasing specific impulse of the liquid rocket engine (LRE, which is designed to operate in space or in rarefied atmosphere, is directly related to the increasing speed of the combustion gases in the outlet section of the nozzle due to increasing nozzle expansion ratio. An intensity of the convective heat transfer of LRE combustion with the supersonic part of a nozzle shell in the first approximation is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of gas dynamic path and reduces substantially as approaching to the outlet section of the nozzle.Therefore, in case of large nozzle expansion ratio the use of modern heat-resistant materials allows us to implement its outlet section as a thin-walled uncooled adjutage. This design solution results in reducing total weight of nozzle and decreasing overall preheat of LRE propellant used to cool the engine chamber. For a given diameter of the nozzle outlet section and pressure of combustion gases in this section, to make informed choices of permissible length for uncooled adjutage, it is necessary to have a reliable estimate of its thermal state on the steady-state LRE operation. A mathematical model of the nozzle shell heat transfer with the gas stream taking into account the heat energy transfer by convection and radiation, as well as by heat conduction along the generatrix of the shell enables this estimate.Quantitative analysis of given mathematical model showed that, because of the comparatively low pressure and temperature level of combustion gases, it is acceptable to ignore their own radiation and absorption capacity as compared with the convective heat intensity and the surface nozzle radiation. Thus, re-radiation of its internal surface portions is a factor of importance. Its taking into consideration is the main feature of the developed mathematical model.

  14. Bubble removal with the use of a vacuum pressure generated by a converging-diverging nozzle. (United States)

    Christoforidis, Theodore; Ng, Carlos; Eddington, David T


    Bubbles are an intrinsic problem in microfluidic devices and they can appear during the initial filling of the device or during operation. This report presents a generalizable technique to extract bubbles from microfluidic networks using an adjacent microfluidic negative pressure network over the entire microfluidic channel network design. We implement this technique by superimposing a network of parallel microchannels with a vacuum microfluidic channel and characterize the bubble extraction rates as a function of negative pressure applied. In addition, we generate negative pressure via a converging-diverging (CD) nozzle, which only requires inlet gas pressure to operate. Air bubbles generated during the initial liquid filling of the microfluidic network are removed within seconds and their volume extraction rate is calculated. This miniaturized vacuum source can achieve a vacuum pressure of 7.23 psi which corresponds to a bubble extraction rate of 9.84 pL/s, in the microfluidic channels we characterized. Finally, as proof of concept it is shown that the bubble removal system enables bubble removal on difficult to fill microfluidic channels such as circular or triangular shaped channels. This method can be easily integrated into many microfluidic experimental protocols.

  15. Numerical simulation of film-cooled ablative rocket nozzles (United States)

    Landrum, D. B.; Beard, R. M.


    The objective of this research effort was to evaluate the impact of incorporating an additional cooling port downstream between the injector and nozzle throat in the NASA Fast Track chamber. A numerical model of the chamber was developed for the analysis. The analysis did not model ablation but instead correlated the initial ablation rate with the initial nozzle wall temperature distribution. The results of this study provide guidance in the development of a potentially lighter, second generation ablative rocket nozzle which maintains desired performance levels.

  16. Simple and Compact Nozzle Design for Laser Vaporization Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kokish, M G; Odom, B C


    We have developed and implemented a compact transparent nozzle for use in laser vaporization sources. This nozzle eliminates the need for an ablation aperture, allowing for a more intense molecular beam. We use this nozzle to prepare a molecular beam of aluminum monohydride (AlH) suitable for ion trap loading of AlH$^+$ via photoionization in ultra-high vacuum. We demonstrate stable AlH production over hour time scales using a liquid ablation target. The long-term stability, low heat load and fast ion production rate of this source are well-suited to molecular ion experiments employing destructive state readout schemes requiring frequent trap reloading.

  17. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine (United States)

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.


    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  18. Turbulent mixed convection in asymmetrically heated vertical channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokni Ameni


    Full Text Available In this paper an investigation of mixed convection from vertical heated channel is undertaken. The aim is to explore the heat transfer obtained by adding a forced flow, issued from a flat nozzle located in the entry section of a channel, to the up-going fluid along its walls. Forced and free convection are combined studied in order to increase the cooling requirements. The study deals with both symmetrically and asymmetrically heated channel. The Reynolds number based on the nozzle width and the jet velocity is assumed to be 3 103 and 2.104; whereas, the Rayleigh number based on the channel length and the wall temperature difference varies from 2.57 1010 to 5.15 1012. The heating asymmetry effect on the flow development including the mean velocity and temperature the local Nusselt number, the mass flow rate and heat transfer are examined.

  19. Flow Visualization Proposed for Vacuum Cleaner Nozzle Designs (United States)


    In 1995, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Kirby Company (a major vacuum cleaner company) began negotiations for a Space Act Agreement to conduct research, technology development, and testing involving the flow behavior of airborne particulate flow behavior. Through these research efforts, we hope to identify ways to improve suction, flow rate, and surface agitation characteristics of nozzles used in vacuum cleaner nozzles. We plan to apply an advanced visualization technology, known as Stereoscopic Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), to a Kirby G-4 vacuum cleaner. Resultant data will be analyzed with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. We also plan to evaluate alternative vacuum cleaner nozzle designs. The overall goal of this project is to quantify both velocity fields and particle trajectories throughout the vacuum cleaner nozzle to optimize its "cleanability"--its ability to disturb and remove embedded dirt and other particulates from carpeting or hard surfaces. Reference


    Treshow, M.


    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  1. Influence study of flow separation on the nozzle vibration response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Li


    Full Text Available In the present paper, the vibration response difference of the upper stage nozzle with higher expansion ratio between ground and altitude simulation hot-firing test is analyzed. It indicates that the acceleration response of the nozzle under ground hot-firing test is much higher than that of the altitude condition. In order to find the essential reason, the experimental and numerical simulation studies of the flow separation are developed by using the test engine nozzle. The experimental data show that the nozzle internal flow occurred flow separation and the divergence cone internal wall pressure pulsation increased significantly downstream from the separation location. The numerical simulation and experimental results indicate that the increase of internal wall pressure and turbulence pulsating pressure are the substantial reason of vibration response increasing aggravatingly during the ground firing test.

  2. Analysis of a Low-Angle Annular Expander Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyll Schomberg


    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of a low-angle annular expander nozzle is presented to observe the variance in shock structure within the flow field. A RANS-based axisymmetric numerical model was used to evaluate flow characteristics and the model validated using experimental pressure readings and schlieren images. Results were compared with an equivalent converging-diverging nozzle to determine the capability of the wake region in varying the effective area of a low-angle design. Comparison of schlieren images confirmed that shock closure occurred in the expander nozzle, prohibiting the wake region from affecting the area ratio. The findings show that a low angle of deflection is inherently unable to influence the effective area of an annular supersonic nozzle design.

  3. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Transonic Performance Flight Demonstration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Altitude compensating nozzles continue to be of interest for use on future launch vehicle boosters and upper stages because of their higher mission average Isp and...

  4. Design methods of Coanda effect nozzle with two streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele TRANCOSSI


    Full Text Available This paper continues recent research of the authors about the ACHEON Coanda effect two streams nozzle. This nozzle aims to produce an effective deflection of a propulsive jet with a correspondent deviation of the thrust vector in a 2D plane. On the basis of a previously published mathematical model, based on integral equations, it tries to produce an effective design guideline, which can be adopted for design activities of the nozzle for aeronautic propulsion. The presented model allows defining a governing method for this innovative two stream synthetic jet nozzle. The uncertainness level of the model are discussed and novel aircraft architectures based on it are presented. A CFD validation campaign is produced focusing on validating the model and the designs produced.

  5. Optimal Thrust Vectoring for an Annular Aerospike Nozzle Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent success of an annular aerospike flight test by NASA Dryden has prompted keen interest in providing thrust vector capability to the annular aerospike nozzle...

  6. Combustion Chamber/Nozzle Assembly and Fabrication Process Therefor (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor)


    An integral lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly for a rocket engine has a refractory metal shell defining a chamber of generally frusto-conical contour. The shell communicates at its larger end with a rocket body, and terminates at its smaller end in a tube of generally cylindrical contour, which is open at its terminus and which serves as a nozzle for the rocket engine. The entire inner surface of the refractory metal shell has a thermal and oxidation barrier layer applied thereto. An ablative silica phenolic insert is bonded to the exposed surface of the thermal and oxidation barrier layer. The ablative phenolic insert provides a chosen inner contour for the combustion chamber and has a taper toward the open terminus of the nozzle. A process for fabricating the integral, lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly is simple and efficient, and results in economy in respect of both resources and time.

  7. Fabrication process for combustion chamber/nozzle assembly (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor)


    An integral, lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly for a rocket engine has a refractory metal shell defining a chamber of generally frusto-conical contour. The shell communicates at its smaller end with a rocket body, and terminates at its larger end in a generally contact contour, which is open at its terminus and which serves as a nozzle for the rocket engine. The entire inner surface of the refractory metal shell has a thermal and oxidation barrier layer applied thereto. An ablative silica phenolic insert is bonded to the exposed surface of the thermal and oxidation barrier layer. The ablative phenolic insert provides a chosen inner contour for the combustion chamber and has a taper toward the open terminus of the nozzle. A process for fabricating the integral, lightweight combustion chamber/nozzle assembly is simple and efficient, and results in economy in respect of both resources and time.

  8. Fabrication of Composite Combustion Chamber/Nozzle for Fastrac Engine (United States)

    Lawrence, T.; Beshears, R.; Burlingame, S.; Peters, W.; Prince, M.; Suits, M.; Tillery, S.; Burns, L.; Kovach, M.; Roberts, K.


    The Fastrac Engine developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center for the X-34 vehicle began as a low cost engine development program for a small booster system. One of the key components to reducing the engine cost was the development of an inexpensive combustion chamber/nozzle. Fabrication of a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and nozzle was considered too expensive and time consuming. In looking for an alternate design concept, the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Project provided an extensive background with ablative composite materials in a combustion environment. An integral combustion chamber/nozzle was designed and fabricated with a silica/phenolic ablative liner and a carbon/epoxy structural overwrap. This paper describes the fabrication process and developmental hurdles overcome for the Fastrac engine one-piece composite combustion chamber/nozzle.

  9. Application of shape-based similarity query for aerodynamic optimization of wind tunnel primary nozzle


    Kolář Jan


    The aerodynamic shape optimization of the supersonic flat nozzle is the aim of proposed paper. The nozzle discussed, is applied as a primary nozzle of the inlet part of supersonic wind tunnel. Supersonic nozzles of the measure area inlet parts need to guarantee several requirements of flow properties and quality. Mach number and minimal differences between real and required velocity and turbulence profiles at the nozzle exit are the most important parameters to meet. The aerodynamic sha...

  10. A study of forced flow separation in rocket nozzle (United States)

    Chiou, J. N.; Hung, R. J.


    The characteristics of flow profile in a rocket nozzle during the start transient were investigated as well as possibilities of reducing the side-load thrust by sticking trip wires in the nozzle. To simplify the geometry of flow configuration around the trip wire, it was assumed that the flow is passing through square steps instead of round wires. Since a purely analytic solution is not available, a series of semiempirical solutions was proposed.

  11. Exhaust Nozzle for a Multitube Detonative Combustion Engine (United States)

    Bratkovich, Thomas E.; Williams, Kevin E.; Bussing, Thomas R. A.; Lidstone, Gary L.; Hinkey, John B.


    An improved type of exhaust nozzle has been invented to help optimize the performances of multitube detonative combustion engines. The invention is applicable to both air-breathing and rocket engines used to propel some aircraft and spacecraft, respectively. In a detonative combustion engine, thrust is generated through the expulsion of combustion products from a detonation process in which combustion takes place in a reaction zone coupled to a shock wave. The combustion releases energy to sustain the shock wave, while the shock wave enhances the combustion in the reaction zone. The coupled shockwave/reaction zone, commonly referred to as a detonation, propagates through the reactants at very high speed . typically of the order of several thousands of feet per second (of the order of 1 km/s). The very high speed of the detonation forces combustion to occur very rapidly, thereby contributing to high thermodynamic efficiency. A detonative combustion engine of the type to which the present invention applies includes multiple parallel cylindrical combustion tubes, each closed at the front end and open at the rear end. Each tube is filled with a fuel/oxidizer mixture, and then a detonation wave is initiated at the closed end. The wave propagates rapidly through the fuel/oxidizer mixture, producing very high pressure due to the rapid combustion. The high pressure acting on the closed end of the tube contributes to forward thrust. When the detonation wave reaches the open end of the tube, it produces a blast wave, behind which the high-pressure combustion products are expelled from the tube. The process of filling each combustion tube with a detonable fuel/oxidizer mixture and then producing a detonation repeated rapidly to obtain repeated pulses of thrust. Moreover, the multiple combustion tubes are filled and fired in a repeating sequence. Hence, the pressure at the outlet of each combustion tube varies cyclically. A nozzle of the present invention channels the

  12. Nozzle Mounting Method Optimization Based on Robot Kinematic Analysis (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyue; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain; Deng, Sihao


    Nowadays, the application of industrial robots in thermal spray is gaining more and more importance. A desired coating quality depends on factors such as a balanced robot performance, a uniform scanning trajectory and stable parameters (e.g. nozzle speed, scanning step, spray angle, standoff distance). These factors also affect the mass and heat transfer as well as the coating formation. Thus, the kinematic optimization of all these aspects plays a key role in order to obtain an optimal coating quality. In this study, the robot performance was optimized from the aspect of nozzle mounting on the robot. An optimized nozzle mounting for a type F4 nozzle was designed, based on the conventional mounting method from the point of view of robot kinematics validated on a virtual robot. Robot kinematic parameters were obtained from the simulation by offline programming software and analyzed by statistical methods. The energy consumptions of different nozzle mounting methods were also compared. The results showed that it was possible to reasonably assign the amount of robot motion to each axis during the process, so achieving a constant nozzle speed. Thus, it is possible optimize robot performance and to economize robot energy.

  13. Determining the drift potential of Venturi nozzles compared with standard nozzles across three insecticide spray solutions in a wind tunnel. (United States)

    Ferguson, J Connor; Chechetto, Rodolfo G; O'Donnell, Chris C; Dorr, Gary J; Moore, John H; Baker, Greg J; Powis, Kevin J; Hewitt, Andrew J


    Previous research has sought to adopt the use of drift-reducing technologies (DRTs) for use in field trials to control diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola (Brassica napus L.). Previous studies observed no difference in canopy penetration from fine to coarse sprays, but the coverage was higher for fine sprays. DBM has a strong propensity to avoid sprayed plant material, putting further pressure on selecting technologies that maximise coverage, but often this is at the expense of a greater drift potential. This study aims to examine the addition of a DRT oil that is labelled for control of DBM as well and its effect on the drift potential of the spray solution. The objectives of the study are to quantify the droplet size spectrum and spray drift potential of each nozzle type to select technologies that reduce spray drift, to examine the effect of the insecticide tank mix at both (50 and 100 L ha(-1) ) application rates on droplet size and spray drift potential across tested nozzle type and to compare the droplet size results of each nozzle by tank mix against the drift potential of each nozzle. The nozzle type affected the drift potential the most, but the spray solution also affected drift potential. The fine spray quality (TCP) resulted in the greatest drift potential (7.2%), whereas the coarse spray quality (AIXR) resulted in the lowest (1.3%), across all spray solutions. The spray solutions mixed at the 100 L ha(-1) application volume rate resulted in a higher drift potential than the same products mixed at the 50 L ha(-1) mix rate. The addition of the paraffinic DRT oil was significant in reducing the drift potential of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstkai (Bt)-only treatments across all tested nozzle types. The reduction in drift potential from the fine spray quality to the coarse spray quality was up to 85%. The addition of a DRT oil is an effective way to reduce the spray solution drift potential across all

  14. Design and Analyses of High Aspect Ratio Nozzles for Distributed Propulsion Acoustic Measurements (United States)

    Dippold, Vance F., III


    A series of three convergent, round-to-rectangular high aspect ratio (HAR) nozzles were designed for acoustic testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig (NATR). The HAR nozzles had exit area aspect ratios of 8:1, 12:1, and 16:1. The nozzles were designed to mimic a distributed propulsion system array with a slot nozzle. The nozzle designs were screened using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations. In addition to meeting the geometric constraints required for testing in the NATR, the HAR nozzles were designed to be free of flow features that would produce unwanted noise (e.g., flow separations) and to have uniform flow at the nozzle exit. Multiple methods were used to generate HAR nozzle designs. The final HAR nozzle designs were generated in segments using a computer code that parameterized each segment. RANS screening simulations showed that intermediate nozzle designs suffered flow separation, a normal shockwave at the nozzle exit (caused by an aerodynamic throat produced by boundary layer growth), and non-uniform flow at the nozzle exit. The RANS simulations showed that the final HAR nozzle designs were free of flow separations, but were not entirely successful at producing a fully uniform flow at the nozzle exit. The final designs suffered a pair of counter-rotating vortices along the outboard walls of the nozzle. The 16:1 aspect ratio HAR nozzle had the least uniform flow at the exit plane; the 8:1 aspect ratio HAR nozzles had a fairly uniform flow at the nozzle exit plane.

  15. Enhanced flow boiling in microchannels through integrating multiple micro-nozzles and reentry microcavities (United States)

    Li, Wenming; Qu, Xiaopeng; Alam, Tamanna; Yang, Fanghao; Chang, Wei; Khan, Jamil; Li, Chen


    In a microchannel system, a higher mass velocity can lead to enhanced flow boiling performances, but at a cost of two-phase pressure drop. It is highly desirable to achieve a high heat transfer rate and critical heat flux (CHF) exceeding 1 kW/cm2 without elevating the pressure drop, particularly, at a reduced mass velocity. In this study, we developed a microchannel configuration that enables more efficient utilization of the coolant through integrating multiple microscale nozzles connected to auxiliary channels as well as microscale reentry cavities on sidewalls of main microchannels. We achieved a CHF of 1016 W/cm2 with a 50% less mass velocity, i.e., 680 kg/m2s, compared to the two-nozzle configuration developed in our previous studies. Two primary enhancement mechanisms are: (a) the enhanced global liquid supply by four evenly distributed micronozzles, particularly near the outlet region and (b) the effective management of local dryout by the capillary flow-induced sustainable thin liquid film resulting from an array of microscale cavities. A significantly improved heat transfer coefficient of 131 kW/m2 K at a mass velocity of 680 kg/m2s is attributed to the enhanced nucleate boiling, the established capillary/thin film evaporation, and the induced advection from the present microchannel configuration. All these significant enhancements have been achieved with a ˜55% lower two-phase pressure drop.

  16. Development of Profile Forging for Channel Head of Ap/Acp Steam Generator (United States)

    Bao-zhong, Wang; Ying, Liu; Yi, Guo; Kai-quan, Liu; De-li, Zhao; Ling-ling, Zhao

    The AP/CAP Steam Generator has the most complex structure in current nuclear power plant forgings. In order to improve material utilization and nozzle Properties, China First Heavy Industries (CFHI) have carried out the study on profile and blocker-type forging for Channel Head. The numerical and physical Simulations verify that the channel head can be forged step by step in profiling dies with 100 150MN hydraulic press. The achievement has been applied firstly in the AP1000 project of Xian Ning 1#. On this basis, the optimizations of forging process and die structure have been completed. Through process optimizations above, the nozzles of different shapes have obtained uniform deformation and the full-size channel head forging (Including main forging and samples) of CAP1400 steam generator has been manufactured successfully. And the mechanical properties indicate that the toughness has been improved obviously and the gas content has been reduced effectively in nozzle regions.

  17. Research on Development of Turbo-generator with Partial Admission Nozzle for Supercritical CO{sub 2} Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Junhyun; Shin, Hyung-ki; Lee, Gilbong; Baik, Young-Jin [Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young-Seok [Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byunghui [InGineers Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A Sub-kWe small-scale experimental test loop was manufactured to investigate characteristics of the supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle. A high-speed turbo-generator was also designed and manufactured. The designed rotational speed of this turbo-generator was 200,000 rpm. Because of the low expansion ratio through the turbine and low mass flowrate, the rotational speed of the turbo-generator was high. Therefore, it was difficult to select the rotating parts and design the turbine wheel, axial force balance and rotor dynamics in the lab-scale experimental test loop. Using only one channel of the nozzle, the partial admission method was adapted to reduce the rotational speed of the rotor. This was the world’s first approach to the supercritical carbon dioxide turbo-generator. A cold-run test using nitrogen gas under an atmospheric condition was conducted to observe the effect of the partial admission nozzle on the rotor dynamics. The vibration level of the rotor was obtained using a gap sensor, and the results showed that the effect of the partial admission nozzle on the rotor dynamics was allowable.

  18. How configuration of supersonic nozzle section affects rate of molecule rearrangement by vibrational levels in gasdynamic carbon monoxide laser active medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilik, N.Ya., Margolin, A.D.; Shmelev, V.M.


    Steady adiabatic quasi-one-dimensional flow of a CO+ Ar mixture through a flat supersonic nozzle is analyzed, assuming equilibrium with respect to all translational and rotational degrees of freedom in the critical nozzle section. The equations of vibrational relaxation kinetics are solved by numerical integration, giving estimates of gain for vibrational-rotational transitions and the populations of vibrational levels in CO molecules in various sections of the supersonic nozzle segment. As such a gas flows through an expanding nozzle, the maximum of the amplification factor is found to shift monotonically toward lower vibrational levels. At a fixed vibrational level or with an increasing gas expansion ratio, on the other hand, the path along which the population of a given level builds up to a quasi-steady magnitude in a channel of uniform cross section is found to become longer. The results of calculations as well as experimental data on 20% CO+ 80% Ar and 5% CO+ 15% N/sub 2/+ 80% Ar mixtures with gas expansion to temperatures of 30 to 200/sup 0/K and with temperatures in the critical nozzle section ranging from 1000 to 3000/sup 0/K indicate how the redistribution of CO molecules by vibrational levels depends on the nozzle profile, particularly on the distance from the critical section. In pure carbon monoxide or in mixtures with a low concentration of the inert component, gain will increase as the temperature of the active medium drops due to expansion, but a slowdown of V-V exchange processes due to lower density and temperature can decrease gain.

  19. Temperature Histories in Ceramic-Insulated Heat-Sink Nozzle (United States)

    Ciepluch, Carl C.


    Temperature histories were calculated for a composite nozzle wall by a simplified numerical integration calculation procedure. These calculations indicated that there is a unique ratio of insulation and metal heat-sink thickness that will minimize total wall thickness for a given operating condition and required running time. The optimum insulation and metal thickness will vary throughout the nozzle as a result of the variation in heat-transfer rate. The use of low chamber pressure results in a significant increase in the maximum running time of a given weight nozzle. Experimentally measured wall temperatures were lower than those calculated. This was due in part to the assumption of one-dimensional or slab heat flow in the calculation procedure.

  20. Viscous three-dimensional analyses for nozzles for hypersonic propulsion (United States)

    Harloff, G. J.; Reddy, D. R.; Lai, H. T.


    A Navier-Stokes computer code was validated using a number of two- and three-dimensional configurations for both laminar and turbulent flows. The validation data covers a range of freestream Mach numbers from 3 to 14, including wall pressures, velocity pressure, and skin friction. Nozzle flow fields computed for a generic scramjet nozzle from Mach 3 to 20, wall pressures, wall skin friction values, heat transfer values, and overall performance are presented. In addition, three-dimensional solutions obtained for two asymmetric, single expansion ramp nozzles at a pressure ratio of 10 consists of the internal expansion region in the converging/diverging sections and the external superonic exhaust in a quiescent ambient environment. The fundamental characteristics that were captured successfully include expansion fans; Mach wave reflections; mixing layers; and nonsymmetrical, multiple inviscid cell, supersonic exhausts. Comparison with experimental data for wall pressure distributions at the center planes shows good agreement.

  1. Optimization design of energy deposition on single expansion ramp nozzle (United States)

    Ju, Shengjun; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xiaoyong; Qin, Yupei; Ye, Zhifei


    Optimization design has been widely used in the aerodynamic design process of scramjets. The single expansion ramp nozzle is an important component for scramjets to produces most of thrust force. A new concept of increasing the aerodynamics of the scramjet nozzle with energy deposition is presented. The essence of the method is to create a heated region in the inner flow field of the scramjet nozzle. In the current study, the two-dimensional coupled implicit compressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes and Menter's shear stress transport turbulence model have been applied to numerically simulate the flow fields of the single expansion ramp nozzle with and without energy deposition. The numerical results show that the proposal of energy deposition can be an effective method to increase force characteristics of the scramjet nozzle, the thrust coefficient CT increase by 6.94% and lift coefficient CN decrease by 26.89%. Further, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm coupled with the Radial Basis Function neural network surrogate model has been employed to determine optimum location and density of the energy deposition. The thrust coefficient CT and lift coefficient CN are selected as objective functions, and the sampling points are obtained numerically by using a Latin hypercube design method. The optimized thrust coefficient CT further increase by 1.94%, meanwhile, the optimized lift coefficient CN further decrease by 15.02% respectively. At the same time, the optimized performances are in good and reasonable agreement with the numerical predictions. The findings suggest that scramjet nozzle design and performance can benefit from the application of energy deposition.

  2. Design and performance evaluation of a dual bell nozzle (United States)

    Kbab, H.; Sellam, M.; Hamitouche, T.; Bergheul, S.; Lagab, L.


    The main objective of a dual bell nozzle is the enhancement of performances based on the principle of auto-adaptation in accordance with the altitude. Indeed, this system has as advantage the auto-adaptation of the flow for two operating modes (at low and high altitude) without mechanical activation. The principle is theoretically simple but structural forces involved can be significant. In this study, a numerical method for the design of this type of nozzle is developed. On the one hand, it is based on a transonic flow approaches to define the starting line on which the supersonic calculations will be initiated. On the other hand, the method of characteristics is used to draw the base nozzle profile. Knowing that the latter is assimilated as a polynomial of the second degree, its constants are calculated from initial conditions. In order to minimize the weight of this nozzle, its truncation proves necessary; this is performed at a point where the best compromise (weight / performances) was respected. The profile of the second curve is calculated to give a constant wall pressure. This is achieved by using the direct method of characteristics applied for a centered expansion wave that the intensity is P2/P1 at the junction. Once the profile is generated, an analysis of the thermodynamic-parameters evolution (such as: pressure, Mach number) and aerodynamic performances is conducted. For more consistency, our results are compared with numerical databases of ONERA nozzle. Simulations of flow in the nozzle with Ansys 13.0 environment for different types of meshes are presented. Also, to offset the effects of the boundary layer, the simulations were performed by using the k-ω SST turbulence model. The obtained results by the method of characteristics and numerical simulation are compared to the computed results of the literature and it was found good agreement and similarity.

  3. Rocket nozzle thermal shock tests in an arc heater facility (United States)

    Painter, James H.; Williamson, Ronald A.


    A rocket motor nozzle thermal structural test technique that utilizes arc heated nitrogen to simulate a motor burn was developed. The technique was used to test four heavily instrumented full-scale Star 48 rocket motor 2D carbon/carbon segments at conditions simulating the predicted thermal-structural environment. All four nozzles survived the tests without catastrophic or other structural failures. The test technique demonstrated promise as a low cost, controllable alternative to rocket motor firing. The technique includes the capability of rapid termination in the event of failure, allowing post-test analysis.

  4. Development of moldable carbonaceous materials for ablative rocket nozzles. (United States)

    Lockhart, R. J.; Bortz, S. A.; Schwartz, M. A.


    Description of a materials system developed for use as low-cost ablative nozzles for NASA's 260-in. solid rocket motor. Petroleum coke and carbon black fillers were employed; high density was achieved by controlling particle size distribution. An alumina catalyzed furfuryl ester resin which produced high carbon residues after pyrolysis was employed as the binder. Staple carbon fibers improved the strength and crack resistance of molded bodies. In static firing tests of two subscale nozzles, this material compared favorably in erosion rate with several other ablative systems.

  5. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian


    that the salt will run from the high level of the road to the lower level”. In the test the salt moved 1 meter in 3 hours. The knowledge gained from the measurements in the county of Funen - brine spread with nozzles, spreading salt to high level of the road and using GPS controlled spreading – was implemented......During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...

  6. Multiple-Nozzle Spray Head Applies Foam Insulation (United States)

    Walls, Joe T.


    Spray head equipped with four-nozzle turret mixes two reactive components of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam insulating material and sprays reacting mixture onto surface to be insulated. If nozzle in use becomes clogged, fresh one automatically rotated into position, with minimal interruption of spraying process. Incorporates features recirculating and controlling pressures of reactive components to maintain quality of foam by ensuring proper blend at outset. Also used to spray protective coats on or in ships, aircraft, and pipelines. Sprays such reactive adhesives as epoxy/polyurethane mixtures. Components of spray contain solid-particle fillers for strength, fire retardance, toughness, resistance to abrasion, or radar absorption.

  7. Computational Simulation on a Coaxial Substream Powder Feeding Laval Nozzle of Cold Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng HUANG


    Full Text Available In this paper, a substream coaxial powder feeding nozzle was investigated for use in cold spraying. The relationship between nozzle structure and gas flow, the acceleration behavior of copper particles were examined by computational simulation method. Also, one of the nozzle was used to spray copper coating on steel substrate. The simulation results indicate that: the velocity of gas at the center of the nozzle is lower than that of the conventional nozzle. Powders are well restrained near the central line of the nozzle, no collision occurred between the nozzle wall and the powders. This type of nozzle with expansion 3.25 can successfully deposit copper coating on steel substrate, the copper coating has low porosity about 3.1 % – 3.8 % and high bonding strength about 23.5 MPa – 26.8 MPa. DOI:

  8. DURACON - Variable Emissivity Broadband Coatings for Liquid Propellant Rocket Nozzles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need exists for a fast drying, robust, low gloss, black, high emissivity coating that can be applied easily on aircraft rocket nozzles and nozzle extensions....

  9. Structure Optimization and Numerical Simulation of Nozzle for High Pressure Water Jetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuce Zhang


    Full Text Available Three kinds of nozzles normally used in industrial production are numerically simulated, and the structure of nozzle with the best jetting performance out of the three nozzles is optimized. The R90 nozzle displays the most optimal jetting properties, including the smooth transition of the nozzle’s inner surface. Simulation results of all sample nozzles in this study show that the helix nozzle ultimately displays the best jetting performance. Jetting velocity magnitude along Y and Z coordinates is not symmetrical for the helix nozzle. Compared to simply changing the jetting angle, revolving the jet issued from the helix nozzle creates a grinding wheel on the cleaning surface, which makes not only an impact effect but also a shearing action on the cleaning object. This particular shearing action improves the cleaning process overall and forms a wider, effective cleaning range, thus obtaining a broader jet width.

  10. Simulation of combustion products flow in the Laval nozzle in the software package SIFIN (United States)

    Alhussan, K. A.; Teterev, A. V.


    Developed specialized multifunctional software package SIFIN (Simulation of Internal Flow In the Nozzle) designed for the numerical simulation of the flow of products of combustion in a Laval nozzle. It allows to design the different profiles of the nozzles, to simulate flow of multicomponent media based energy release by burning, to study the effect of swirling flow of products of combustion at the nozzle settings, to investigate the nature of the expiry of the gas jet with varying degrees of pressure ratio.

  11. Numerical and experimental study of liquid breakup process in solid rocket motor nozzle (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Hsin

    Rocket propulsion is an important travel method for space exploration and national defense, rockets needs to be able to withstand wide range of operation environment and also stable and precise enough to carry sophisticated payload into orbit, those engineering requirement makes rocket becomes one of the state of the art industry. The rocket family have been classified into two major group of liquid and solid rocket based on the fuel phase of liquid or solid state. The solid rocket has the advantages of simple working mechanism, less maintenance and preparing procedure and higher storage safety, those characters of solid rocket make it becomes popular in aerospace industry. Aluminum based propellant is widely used in solid rocket motor (SRM) industry due to its avalibility, combusion performance and economical fuel option, however after aluminum react with oxidant of amonimum perchrate (AP), it will generate liquid phase alumina (Al2O3) as product in high temperature (2,700˜3,000 K) combustion chamber enviornment. The liquid phase alumina particles aggromorate inside combustion chamber into larger particle which becomes major erosion calprit on inner nozzle wall while alumina aggromorates impinge on the nozzle wall surface. The erosion mechanism result nozzle throat material removal, increase the performance optimized throat diameter and reduce nozzle exit to throat area ratio which leads to the reduction of exhaust gas velocity, Mach number and lower the propulsion thrust force. The approach to avoid particle erosion phenomenon taking place in SRM's nozzle is to reduce the alumina particle size inside combustion chamber which could be done by further breakup of the alumina droplet size in SRM's combustion chamber. The study of liquid breakup mechanism is an important means to smaller combustion chamber alumina droplet size and mitigate the erosion tack place on rocket nozzle region. In this study, a straight two phase air-water flow channel experiment is set up

  12. Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Nozzle Survivability for T&E (United States)


    used to melt the electrode while a second electron beam was used to control the rate of solidification in the mold . Gas bubbles tend to come to the...38 4.4 Ni -Coated Cu - Back-Side-Cooled Arc-Heater Nozzles .............................................45 5.0 SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS...25 25. Principal Stress Distribution for Direction 1

  13. Rocket nozzle lip flow by direct simulation Monte Carlo method (United States)

    Hueser, J. E.; Brock, F. J.; Melfi, L. T., Jr.; Bird, G. A.


    The flow in the immediate vicinity of a rocket nozzle lip has been analyzed, and the results are presented. A rapid change in gas composition is observed in the flow around the lip depending principally on species molecular mass and local flow angle. The divergence of axial and radial temperatures indicating breakdown of translational equilibrium is observed in the results.

  14. ARIANE 5 booster nozzle. Components description and dimensioning (United States)

    Bussiere, M.; Mora, B.

    ARIANE 5 launcher includes two strap on solid rocket motors named MPS (Moteur à Propergol Solide), developed by EUROPROPULSION, a common subsidiary between SEP and BPD. Among all the nozzles developed by SEP in the field of Solid Propellants during the last 20 years, the MPS nozzle offers specific characteristics that set the main design choices: - the need for a very high reliability, in relation with inhabited flights, - dimensions, leading to the biggest nozzle ever made in Europe. Design is particularly based: - on a 3 pieces throat assembly made of SEPCARB ® (SEP CARBON/CARBON), from inlet to throat, to insure with maximum reliability both aerodynamic functions and ablation resistance, - on a flexible bearing with metallic shims, protected by a boot, to fill the purpose of thrust orientation. After a description of the general architecture of the nozzle, this note introduces the developments conducted on a modelisation and experimental approach basis for the justification of the design of these two leading points: the SEPCARB ® three pieces throat assembly and the flexible bearing protection boot.

  15. Performance of an aero-space plane propulsion nozzle (United States)

    Emanuel, George; Bae, Yoon-Yeong


    An inviscid and viscous analysis is provided for an exposed half nozzle that is used with a scramjet for thrust generation. The analysis is based on the inviscid theory of a two-dimensional, minimum length nozzle with a curved inlet surface, where the flow may be sonic or supersonic. Inlet conditions are prescribed and the gas is assumed to be perfect. Viscous, and when appropriate inviscid, nondimensional parametric results are provided for the thrust, lift, heat transfer, pitching moment, and a variety of boundary-layer thicknesses. In addition to global results, wall distributions of pressure, heat transfer, etc., are provided. The analysis demonstrates that the nozzle produces a considerable lift force whose magnitude may exceed the thrust and a significant pitching moment. The thrust is quite sensitive to the inlet Mach number; it rapidly decreases as the inlet Mach number increases There is little loss in the thrust as the nozzle's downstream wall is truncated. The corresponding decrease in lift and the pitching moment is moderate.

  16. Liquid Atomization out of a Full Cone Pressure Swirl Nozzle

    CERN Document Server

    Rimbert, Nicolas


    A thorough numerical, theoretical and experimental investigation of the liquid atomization in a full cone pressure swirl nozzle is presented. The first part is devoted to the study of the inner flow. CAD and CFD software are used in order to determine the most important parameters of the flow at the exit of nozzle. An important conclusion is the existence of two flow regions: one in relatively slow motion (the boundary layer) and a second nearly in solid rotation at a very high angular rate (about 100 000 rad/s) with a thickness of about 4/5th of the nozzle section. Then, a theoretical and experimental analysis of the flow outside the nozzle is carried out. In the theoretical section, the size of the biggest drops is successfully compared to results stemming from linear instability theory. However, it is also shown that this theory cannot explain the occurrence of small drops observed in the stability domain whose size are close to the Kolmogorov and Taylor turbulent length scale. A Phase Doppler Particle Ana...

  17. Nonlinear indirect combustion noise for compact supercritical nozzle flows (United States)

    Huet, M.


    In this paper, indirect combustion noise generated by the acceleration of entropy perturbations through a supercritical nozzle is investigated in the nonlinear regime and in the low-frequency limit (quasi-static hypothesis). This work completes the study of Huet and Giauque (Journal of Fluid Mechanics 733 (2013) 268-301) for nonlinear noise generation in nozzle flows without shock and particularly focuses on shocked flow regimes. It is based on the analytical model of Marble and Candel for compact nozzles (Journal of Sound and Vibration 55 (1977) 225-243), initially developed for excitations in the linear regime and rederived here for nonlinear perturbations. Full nonlinear analytical solutions are provided in the absence of shock as well as second-order analytical expressions when a shock is present in the diffuser. An analytical evaluation of the shock displacement inside the nozzle caused by the forcing is proposed and maximum possible forcings to avoid unchoke and 'over-choke' are discussed. The accuracy of the second-order model and the nonlinear contributions to the generated waves are then addressed. This model is found to be very accurate for the generated entropy wave with negligible nonlinear contributions. Nonlinearities are more visible, but still limited, for the downstream acoustic wave for large inlet Mach numbers. Analytical developments are validated thanks to comparisons with numerical simulations.

  18. Internal Mixing Studied for GE/ARL Ejector Nozzle (United States)

    Zaman, Khairul


    To achieve jet noise reduction goals for the High Speed Civil Transport aircraft, researchers have been investigating the mixer-ejector nozzle concept. For this concept, a primary nozzle with multiple chutes is surrounded by an ejector. The ejector mixes low-momentum ambient air with the hot engine exhaust to reduce the jet velocity and, hence, the jet noise. It is desirable to mix the two streams as fast as possible in order to minimize the length and weight of the ejector. An earlier model of the mixer-ejector nozzle was tested extensively in the Aerodynamic Research Laboratory (ARL) of GE Aircraft Engines at Cincinnati, Ohio. While testing was continuing with later generations of the nozzle, the earlier model was brought to the NASA Lewis Research Center for relatively fundamental measurements. Goals of the Lewis study were to obtain details of the flow field to aid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) efforts and obtain a better understanding of the flow mechanisms, as well as to experiment with mixing enhancement devices, such as tabs. The measurements were made in an open jet facility for cold (unheated) flow without a surrounding coflowing stream.

  19. Effects of Multiple Nozzles on Asymmetric Ejector Performance (United States)

    Lineberry, D.; Landrum, B.


    This paper presents a comparison of a single nozzle and a dual nozzle strut based ejector. The results are focused on the fluid properties in the ejector duct. The research focused on choking mechanisms, mass flow entrainment, and mixing duct pressure distributions. The two ejectors were tests at equivalent primary mass flow rates. This corresponds to chamber pressures ranging from 100 psi to 900 psi in the single nozzle strut and 50 psi to 450 psi in the dual nozzle strut. Secondary flow was drawn from the lab at atmospheric pressure, and was not controlled. The secondary flow was found to choke at a value of 2.3 lb/s for a primary mass flow rate at approximately 2.1 lb/s for both ejectors. This choke was believed to be a mass addition choke rather than a traditional aerodynamic choke. The mixing duct pressure distribution exhibited two distinct trends at "low pressure" trend and at "high pressure" trend. For the low pressure trend, the mixing length for the ejectors remained fixed around 20 inches, regardless of the chamber pressure. For the higher pressure trend, the mixing length was considerably longer and increased with increasing chamber pressure. At high chamber pressures (high mass flow rates), a supersonic core flow was present at the exit of the duct. For these cases, the two streams did not have time to mix by the end of the duct.

  20. Investigation of nozzle contours in the CSIR supersonic wind tunnel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vallabh, Bhavya


    Full Text Available The existing nozzle contour profiles of the CSIR’s supersonic or High Speed Wind Tunnel (HSWT) produce weak waves in the test section region, which effectively degrades the air flow quality in the test section. This paper describes a calculation...

  1. Experimental investigation of the evacuation effect in expansion deflection nozzles (United States)

    Taylor, N. V.; Hempsell, C. M.; Macfarlane, J.; Osborne, R.; Varvill, R.; Bond, A.; Feast, S.


    This paper provides an overview of results generated by the static test expansion-deflection rocket nozzle (STERN) project. The engine propellants were gaseous air and hydrogen, with a design chamber pressure and thrust of 102 bar and 5 kN respectively. The maximum chamber pressure achieved was restricted to 55 bar absolute, due to a conservative approach in the test programme dictated by the uncertainty in heat transfer to the pintle. Despite this, the programme achieved many successes, including the first tests of an ED nozzle in the UK; the production of significant amounts of data for both the analysis of the performance of the nozzle and the verification of analysis codes; and an improved compensation performance over that apparent from earlier work, including demonstration of attached flow to the exit plane for all chamber pressures. Whilst the wake pressure was not as high as hoped, ranging between 70% and 95% of ambient and apparently inversely related to chamber pressure, this result is still sufficiently encouraging to warrant further investigation of the type. As importantly, the data derived from the experiments, including performance analysis and wall pressure variations in time and space, are now being made available to the wider academic community, something which for commercial reasons appears to be a unique occurrence for this type of nozzle.

  2. Construction of a pulsed nozzle fourier transform microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Construction of a pulsed nozzle fourier transform microwave spectrometer to study the lithium bond. A P TIWARI 1, B J MUKKADA 1, E ARUNAN 1 and P C MATHIAS 2. 1Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of. Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. 2Sophisticated Instruments Facility, Indian Institute ...

  3. SHINE Tritium Nozzle Design: Activity 6, Task 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okhuysen, Brett S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In FY14, we studied the qualitative and quantitative behavior of a SHINE/PNL tritium nozzle under varying operating conditions. The result is an understanding of the nozzle’s performance in terms of important flow features that manifest themselves under different parametric profiles. In FY15, we will consider nozzle design with a focus on nozzle geometry and integration. From FY14 work, we will understand how the SHINE/PNL nozzle behaves under different operating scenarios. The first task for FY15 is to evaluate the FY14 model as a predictor of the actual flow. Considering different geometries is more time-intensive than parameter studies, therefore we recommend considering any relevant flow features that were not included in the FY14 model. In the absence of experimental data, it is particularly important to consider any sources of heat in the domain or boundary conditions that may affect the flow and incorporate these into the simulation if they are significant. Additionally, any geometric features of the beamline segment should be added to the model such as the orifice plate. The FY14 model works with hydrogen. An improvement that can be made for FY15 is to develop CFD properties for tritium and incorporate those properties into the new models.

  4. Numerical modeling of a compressible multiphase flow through a nozzle (United States)

    Niedzielska, Urszula; Rabinovitch, Jason; Blanquart, Guillaume


    New thermodynamic cycles developed for more efficient low temperature resource utilization can increase the net power production from geothermal resources and sensible waste heat recovery by 20-40%, compared to the traditional organic Rankine cycle. These improved systems consist of a pump, a liquid heat exchanger, a two-phase turbine, and a condenser. The two-phase turbine is used to extract energy from a high speed multiphase fluid and consists of a nozzle and an axial impulse rotor. In order to model and optimize the fluid flow through this part of the system an analysis of two-phase flow through a specially designed convergent-divergent nozzle has to be conducted. To characterize the flow behavior, a quasi-one-dimensional steady-state model of the multiphase fluid flow through a nozzle has been constructed. A numerical code capturing dense compressible multiphase flow under subsonic and supersonic conditions and the coupling between both liquid and gas phases has been developed. The output of the code delivers data vital for the performance optimization of the two-phase nozzle.

  5. Vortex flow and cavitation in diesel injector nozzles (United States)

    Andriotis, A.; Gavaises, M.; Arcoumanis, C.

    Flow visualization as well as three-dimensional cavitating flow simulations have been employed for characterizing the formation of cavitation inside transparent replicas of fuel injector valves used in low-speed two-stroke diesel engines. The designs tested have incorporated five-hole nozzles with cylindrical as well as tapered holes operating at different fixed needle lift positions. High-speed images have revealed the formation of an unsteady vapour structure upstream of the injection holes inside the nozzle volume, which is referred to as . Computation of the flow distribution and combination with three-dimensional reconstruction of the location of the strings inside the nozzle volume has revealed that strings are found at the core of recirculation zones; they originate either from pre-existing cavitation sites forming at sharp corners inside the nozzle where the pressure falls below the vapour pressure of the flowing liquid, or even from suction of outside air downstream of the hole exit. Processing of the acquired images has allowed estimation of the mean location and probability of appearance of the cavitating strings in the three-dimensional space as a function of needle lift, cavitation and Reynolds number. The frequency of appearance of the strings has been correlated with the Strouhal number of the vortices developing inside the sac volume; the latter has been found to be a function of needle lift and hole shape. The presence of strings has significantly affected the flow conditions at the nozzle exit, influencing the injected spray. The cavitation structures formed inside the injection holes are significantly altered by the presence of cavitation strings and are jointly responsible for up to 10% variation in the instantaneous fuel injection quantity. Extrapolation using model predictions for real-size injectors operating at realistic injection pressures indicates that cavitation strings are expected to appear within the time scales of typical injection

  6. Radical recombination in a hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoyuan


    Full Text Available To reveal the radical recombination process in the scramjet nozzle flow and study the effects of various factors of the recombination, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO schemes are applied to solve the decoupled two-dimensional Euler equations with chemical reactions to simulate the hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle flow. The accuracy of the numerical method is verified with the measurements obtained by a shock tunnel experiment. The overall model length is nearly 0.5 m, with inlet static temperatures ranging from 2000 K to 3000 K, inlet static pressures ranging from 75 kPa to 175 kPa, and inlet Mach numbers of 2.0 ± 0.4 are involved. The fraction Damkohler number is defined as functions of static temperature and pressure to analyze the radical recombination progresses. Preliminary results indicate that the energy releasing process depends on different chemical reaction processes and species group contributions. In hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle flow, reactions with H have the greatest contribution during the chemical equilibrium shift. The contrast and analysis of the simulation results show that the radical recombination processes influenced by inflow conditions and nozzle scales are consistent with Damkohler numbers and potential dissociation energy release. The increase of inlet static temperature improves both of them, thus making the chemical non-equilibrium effects on the nozzle performance more significant. While the increase of inlet static pressure improves the former one and reduces the latter, it exerts little influence on the chemical non-equilibrium effects.

  7. Droplets Generated from a new OGEE shaped, liquid, air-shear, electrostatic nozzle (United States)

    Inculet, I. I.; Base, T. E.; Castle, G. S. P.


    A series of experimental tests was carried out on an 'OGEE' shaped planform, liquid air-shear electrostatic nozzle. Liquid was ejected from the upper surface of the nozzle and was then dispersed and atomized efficiently by a high speed air flow passing over the nozzle and by the effect of two very strong coherent air vortices generated by the 'OGEE' shaped nozzle surface. Initial test results which are presented show the nozzle to perform far superior to a similar delta wing shaped design which is used extensively in various industries applications.

  8. Turbine combustor with fuel nozzles having inner and outer fuel circuits (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo


    A combustor cap assembly for a turbine engine includes a combustor cap and a plurality of fuel nozzles mounted on the combustor cap. One or more of the fuel nozzles would include two separate fuel circuits which are individually controllable. The combustor cap assembly would be controlled so that individual fuel circuits of the fuel nozzles are operated or deliberately shut off to provide for physical separation between the flow of fuel delivered by adjacent fuel nozzles and/or so that adjacent fuel nozzles operate at different pressure differentials. Operating a combustor cap assembly in this fashion helps to reduce or eliminate the generation of undesirable and potentially harmful noise.

  9. Integration of Flex Nozzle System and Electro Hydraulic Actuators to Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Nayani, Kishore Nath; Bajaj, Dinesh Kumar


    A rocket motor assembly comprised of solid rocket motor and flex nozzle system. Integration of flex nozzle system and hydraulic actuators to the solid rocket motors are done after transportation to the required place where integration occurred. The flex nozzle system is integrated to the rocket motor in horizontal condition and the electro hydraulic actuators are assembled to the flex nozzle systems. The electro hydraulic actuators are connected to the hydraulic power pack to operate the actuators. The nozzle-motor critical interface are insulation diametrical compression, inhibition resin-28, insulation facial compression, shaft seal `O' ring compression and face seal `O' ring compression.

  10. The proton therapy nozzles at Samsung Medical Center: A Monte Carlo simulation study using TOPAS (United States)

    Chung, Kwangzoo; Kim, Jinsung; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Sunghwan; Han, Youngyih


    To expedite the commissioning process of the proton therapy system at Samsung Medical Center (SMC), we have developed a Monte Carlo simulation model of the proton therapy nozzles by using TOol for PArticle Simulation (TOPAS). At SMC proton therapy center, we have two gantry rooms with different types of nozzles: a multi-purpose nozzle and a dedicated scanning nozzle. Each nozzle has been modeled in detail following the geometry information provided by the manufacturer, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. For this purpose, the novel features of TOPAS, such as the time feature or the ridge filter class, have been used, and the appropriate physics models for proton nozzle simulation have been defined. Dosimetric properties, like percent depth dose curve, spreadout Bragg peak (SOBP), and beam spot size, have been simulated and verified against measured beam data. Beyond the Monte Carlo nozzle modeling, we have developed an interface between TOPAS and the treatment planning system (TPS), RayStation. An exported radiotherapy (RT) plan from the TPS is interpreted by using an interface and is then translated into the TOPAS input text. The developed Monte Carlo nozzle model can be used to estimate the non-beam performance, such as the neutron background, of the nozzles. Furthermore, the nozzle model can be used to study the mechanical optimization of the design of the nozzle.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Zou, Ling; O' Brien, James


    All BWR RCIC (Reactor Core Isolation Cooling) systems and PWR AFW (Auxiliary Feed Water) systems use Terry turbine, which is composed of the wheel with turbine buckets and several groups of fixed nozzles and reversing chambers inside the turbine casing. The inlet steam is accelerated through the turbine nozzle and impacts on the wheel buckets, generating work to drive the RCIC pump. As part of the efforts to understand the unexpected “self-regulating” mode of the RCIC systems in Fukushima accidents and extend BWR RCIC and PWR AFW operational range and flexibility, mechanistic models for the Terry turbine, based on Sandia National Laboratories’ original work, has been developed and implemented in the RELAP-7 code to simulate the RCIC system. RELAP-7 is a new reactor system code currently under development with the funding support from U.S. Department of Energy. The RELAP-7 code is a fully implicit code and the preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method is used to solve the discretized nonlinear system. This paper presents a set of analytical models for simulating the flow through the Terry turbine nozzles when inlet fluid is pure steam. The implementation of the models into RELAP-7 will be briefly discussed. In the Sandia model, the turbine bucket inlet velocity is provided according to a reduced-order model, which was obtained from a large number of CFD simulations. In this work, we propose an alternative method, using an under-expanded jet model to obtain the velocity and thermodynamic conditions for the turbine bucket inlet. The models include both adiabatic expansion process inside the nozzle and free expansion process out of the nozzle to reach the ambient pressure. The combined models are able to predict the steam mass flow rate and supersonic velocity to the Terry turbine bucket entrance, which are the necessary input conditions for the Terry Turbine rotor model. The nozzle analytical models were validated with experimental data and

  12. Performance aspects of de Laval spray-forming nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.


    Spray forming is a multiphase fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is directed onto a suitably shaped substrate or pattern to produce a coherent, near-net-shape deposit The technology can simplify materials processing where simultaneously improving product quality. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Here we briefly describe the flow field characterization and atomization behavior of liquid metals in linear de Laval nozzles, and illustrate their versatility by summarizing results from three spray-forming programs. In one program, low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm was produced. In another program, polymer membranes [approximately] 5 [mu]m thick were spray formed. Finally, recent results in spray forming molds, dies, and related tooling for rapid prototyping are described.

  13. Performance aspects of de Laval spray-forming nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.


    Spray forming is a multiphase fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is directed onto a suitably shaped substrate or pattern to produce a coherent, near-net-shape deposit The technology can simplify materials processing where simultaneously improving product quality. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Here we briefly describe the flow field characterization and atomization behavior of liquid metals in linear de Laval nozzles, and illustrate their versatility by summarizing results from three spray-forming programs. In one program, low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm was produced. In another program, polymer membranes {approximately} 5 {mu}m thick were spray formed. Finally, recent results in spray forming molds, dies, and related tooling for rapid prototyping are described.

  14. Development of Submerged Entry Nozzles that Resist Clogging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Jeffrey D. Smith; Kent D. Peasle


    Accretion formation and the associated clogging of SENs is a major problem for the steel industry leading to decreased strand speed, premature changing of SENs or strand termination and the associated reductions in productivity, consistency, and steel quality. A program to evaluate potentially clog resistance materials was initiated at the University of Missouri-Rolla. The main objective of the research effort was to identify combinations of steelmaking and refractory practices that would yield improved accretion resistance for tundish nozzles and submerged entry nozzles. A number of tasks were identified during the initial kick-off meeting and each was completed with two exceptions, the thermal shock validation and the industrial trials. Not completing these two tasks related to not having access to industrial scale production facilities. Though much of the results and information generated in the project is of proprietary nature.

  15. Design of two-dimensional channels with prescribed velocity distributions along the channel walls (United States)

    Stanitz, John D


    A general method of design is developed for two-dimensional unbranched channels with prescribed velocities as a function of arc length along the channel walls. The method is developed for both compressible and incompressible, irrotational, nonviscous flow and applies to the design of elbows, diffusers, nozzles, and so forth. In part I solutions are obtained by relaxation methods; in part II solutions are obtained by a Green's function. Five numerical examples are given in part I including three elbow designs with the same prescribed velocity as a function of arc length along the channel walls but with incompressible, linearized compressible, and compressible flow. One numerical example is presented in part II for an accelerating elbow with linearized compressible flow, and the time required for the solution by a Green's function in part II was considerably less than the time required for the same solution by relaxation methods in part I.

  16. Clearing channel in condensation trail in the frame of turbulence model with one differential equation (United States)

    Kucherov, A. N.


    A polydispersive water aerosol model is developed in the frame of a one parameter model of turbulence in the wake behind large civil aircraft. A possibility is considered to create a clearing channel in the condensation trail (contrail) by a laser beam. Relations are derived between contrail parameters, clearing channel parameters and parameters at the engine nozzle section for different atmosphere conditions in cruiser. As an example contrails behind aircraft IL-86 and IL-96 are considered.

  17. Thrust Augmentation by Airframe-Integrated Linear-Spike Nozzle Concept for High-Speed Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemi Takahashi


    Full Text Available The airframe-integrated linear-spike nozzle concept applied to an external nozzle for high-speed aircraft was evaluated with regard to the thrust augmentation capability and the trim balance. The main focus was on the vehicle aftbody. The baseline airframe geometry was first premised to be a hypersonic waverider design. The baseline aftbody case had an external nozzle comprised of a simple divergent nozzle and was hypothetically replaced with linear-spike external nozzle configurations. Performance evaluation was mainly conducted by considering the nozzle thrust generated by the pressure distribution on the external nozzle surface at the aftbody portion calculated by computer simulation at a given cruise condition with zero angle of attack. The thrust performance showed that the proposed linear-spike external nozzle concept was beneficial in thrust enhancement compared to the baseline geometry because the design of the proposed concept had a compression wall for the exhaust flow, which resulted in increasing the wall pressure. The configuration with the boattail and the angled inner nozzle exhibited further improvement in thrust performance. The trim balance evaluation showed that the aerodynamic center location appeared as acceptable. Thus, benefits were obtained by employing the airframe-integrated linear-spike external nozzle concept.

  18. Operating a magnetic nozzle helicon thruster with strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazunori, E-mail:; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)


    A pulsed axial magnetic field up to ∼2.8 kG is applied to a 26-mm-inner-diameter helicon plasma thruster immersed in a vacuum chamber, and the thrust is measured using a pendulum target. The pendulum is located 30-cm-downstream of the thruster, and the thruster rf power and argon flow rate are fixed at 1 kW and 70 sccm (which gives a chamber pressure of 0.7 mTorr). The imparted thrust increases as the applied magnetic field is increased and saturates at a maximum value of ∼9.5 mN for magnetic field above ∼2 kG. At the maximum magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the normalized plasma density, and the ion flow energy in the magnetic nozzle, agree within ∼50% and of 10%, respectively, with a one-dimensional model that ignores radial losses from the nozzle. This magnetic nozzle model is combined with a simple global model of the thruster source that incorporates an artificially controlled factor α, to account for radial plasma losses to the walls, where α = 0 and 1 correspond to zero losses and no magnetic field, respectively. Comparison between the experiments and the model implies that the radial losses in the thruster source are experimentally reduced by the applied magnetic field to about 10% of that obtained from the no magnetic field model.

  19. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction. (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K; Hoffmann, W Clint


    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected.

  20. Nozzle Flow with Vibrational Nonequilibrium. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Landry, John Gary


    Flow of nitrogen gas through a converging-diverging nozzle is simulated. The flow is modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations that have been modified for vibrational nonequilibrium. The energy equation is replaced by two equations. One equation accounts for energy effects due to the translational and rotational degrees of freedom, and the other accounts for the affects due to the vibrational degree of freedom. The energy equations are coupled by a relaxation time which measures the time required for the vibrational energy component to equilibrate with the translational and rotational energy components. An improved relaxation time is used in this thesis. The equations are solved numerically using the Steger-Warming flux vector splitting method and the Implicit MacCormack method. The results show that uniform flow is produced outside of the boundary layer. Nonequilibrium exists in both the converging and diverging nozzle sections. The boundary layer region is characterized by a marked increase in translational-rotational temperature. The vibrational temperature remains frozen downstream of the nozzle, except in the boundary layer.

  1. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joint-4 Thermal Analysis (United States)

    Clayton, J. Louie


    This study provides for development and test verification of a thermal model used for prediction of joint heating environments, structural temperatures and seal erosions in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzle Joint-4. The heating environments are a result of rapid pressurization of the joint free volume assuming a leak path has occurred in the filler material used for assembly gap close out. Combustion gases flow along the leak path from nozzle environment to joint O-ring gland resulting in local heating to the metal housing and erosion of seal materials. Analysis of this condition was based on usage of the NASA Joint Pressurization Routine (JPR) for environment determination and the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) for structural temperature prediction. Model generated temperatures, pressures and seal erosions are compared to hot fire test data for several different leak path situations. Investigated in the hot fire test program were nozzle joint-4 O-ring erosion sensitivities to leak path width in both open and confined joint geometries. Model predictions were in generally good agreement with the test data for the confined leak path cases. Worst case flight predictions are provided using the test-calibrated model. Analysis issues are discussed based on model calibration procedures.

  2. Chemical processes in the turbine and exhaust nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, S.P.; Waitz, I.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aero-Environmental Lab.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dawes, W.N. [University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.


    The objective is to establish an understanding of primary pollutant, trace species, and aerosol chemical evolution as engine exhaust travels through the nonuniform, unsteady flow fields of the turbine and exhaust nozzle. An understanding of such processes is necessary to provide accurate inputs for plume-wake modeling efforts and is therefore a critical element in an assessment of the atmospheric effects of both current and future aircraft. To perform these studies, a numerical tool was developed combining the calculation of chemical kinetics and one-, two-, or three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) Reynolds-averaged flow equations. Using a chemistry model that includes HO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub x} reactions, several 1-D parametric analyses were conducted for the entire turbine and exhaust nozzle flow path of a typical advanced subsonic engine to understand the effects of various flow and chemistry uncertainties on a baseline 1-D result. These calculations were also used to determine parametric criteria for judging 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D modeling requirements as well as to provide information about chemical speciation at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 9 refs.

  3. Period Doubling in Bubbling from a Submerged Nozzle (United States)

    Dennis, Jordan; Grace, Laura; Lehman, Susan

    The timing of bubbles rising from a nozzle submerged in a viscous solution was measured to examine the period-doubling route to chaos in this system. A narrow nozzle was submerged in a mixture of water and glycerin, and nitrogen was supplied to the nozzle at a varying flow rate. The bubbles were detected using a laser and photodiode system; when the bubbles rise through the laser beam, they scatter the light so that the signal at the photodiode decreases. The period between bubbles as well as the duration of each bubble (a function of bubble size and bubble velocity) was determined, and examined as the nitrogen flow rate increased, for solutions with five different concentrations of glycerin. Bubbles were also recorded visually using a high-speed camera. Within the flow rates tested, we observed a bifurcation of the period to period-2 behavior for all solutions tested, and a further bifurcation to period-4 for all solutions except pure glycerin. The solution viscosity affected both the onset of the bifurcation and the precise bubble behavior during the bifurcation. Unusually, a short period/long period pair of bubbles recurring at a regular interval was sometimes observed in the low flow regime which is typically period-1, an observation which requires further investigation. Research supported by NSF DMR 1560093.

  4. CFD Models of a Serpentine Inlet, Fan, and Nozzle (United States)

    Chima, R. V.; Arend, D. J.; Castner, R. S.; Slater, J. W.; Truax, P. P.


    Several computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes were used to analyze the Versatile Integrated Inlet Propulsion Aerodynamics Rig (VIIPAR) located at NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig consists of a serpentine inlet, a rake assembly, inlet guide vanes, a 12-in. diameter tip-turbine driven fan stage, exit rakes or probes, and an exhaust nozzle with a translating centerbody. The analyses were done to develop computational capabilities for modeling inlet/fan interaction and to help interpret experimental data. Three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculations of the fan stage were used to predict the operating line of the stage, the effects of leakage from the turbine stream, and the effects of inlet guide vane (IGV) setting angle. Coupled axisymmetric calculations of a bellmouth, fan, and nozzle were used to develop techniques for coupling codes together and to investigate possible effects of the nozzle on the fan. RANS calculations of the serpentine inlet were coupled to Euler calculations of the fan to investigate the complete inlet/fan system. Computed wall static pressures along the inlet centerline agreed reasonably well with experimental data but computed total pressures at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) showed significant differences from the data. Inlet distortion was shown to reduce the fan corrected flow and pressure ratio, and was not completely eliminated by passage through the fan

  5. Research on air intake an exhaust nozzle in HYPR project; HYPR project ni okeru intake nozzle no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Omi, J. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kishi, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Murakami, A. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the research on air intake and exhaust nozzle in HYPR (Super/Hyper-Sonic Transport Propulsion System) project. HYPR project adopts the concept of CCE (combined cycle engine) composed of a turbojet engine and a ramjet engine. The air intake for flight in a mach range of 0-5 adopts a shock wave system composed of 6 shock waves to keep a total pressure recovery more than 81% at Mach 3 and more than 51% at Mach 5 under the condition of minimum bleed air flow rate. Since stable operation, high profitability and high environment adaptivity are required for CCE at Mach 0-5, the exhaust nozzle with a high thrust efficiency (more than 95% at Mach 5, more than 97% at Mach 3), and its moving mechanism and cooling structure (for maximum gas temperature of 1900 degrees C) are adopted, satisfying ICAO standard on exhaust jet noise. Study was made on aerodynamics of the nozzle at Mach 3 and 5, and its moving mechanism and cooling structure. Further development is indispensable for SST in the 21st century. (NEDO)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović


    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  7. Effects of temperature-gradient-induced damage of zirconia metering nozzles (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Xue, Qun-hu


    The effects of temperature-gradient-induced damage of zirconia metering nozzles were investigated through analysis of the phase composition and microstructure of nozzle samples. The analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy after the samples were subjected to a heat treatment based on the temperatures of the affected, transition, and original layers of zirconia metering nozzles during the continuous casting of steel. The results showed that, after heat treatment at 1540, 1410, or 1300°C for a dwell time of 5 h, the monoclinic zirconia phase was gradually stabilized with increasing heat-treatment temperature. Moreover, a transformation to the cubic zirconia phase occurred, accompanied by grain growth, which illustrates that the temperature gradient in zirconia metering nozzles affects the mineral composition and microstructure of the nozzles and accelerates damage, thereby deteriorating the quality and service life of the nozzles.

  8. A Survey of Challenges in Aerodynamic Exhaust Nozzle Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Applications (United States)

    Shyne, Rickey J.


    The current paper discusses aerodynamic exhaust nozzle technology challenges for aircraft and space propulsion systems. Technology advances in computational and experimental methods have led to more accurate design and analysis tools, but many major challenges continue to exist in nozzle performance, jet noise and weight reduction. New generations of aircraft and space vehicle concepts dictate that exhaust nozzles have optimum performance, low weight and acceptable noise signatures. Numerous innovative nozzle concepts have been proposed for advanced subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic vehicle configurations such as ejector, mixer-ejector, plug, single expansion ramp, altitude compensating, lobed and chevron nozzles. This paper will discuss the technology barriers that exist for exhaust nozzles as well as current research efforts in place to address the barriers.

  9. Analysis of nozzle effect on pulsed detonation engine performance based on laser absorption spectroscopy with Doppler frequency shift (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-long; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng; Lv, Xiao-jing


    An optical experiment system of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is designed for valveless gas-liquid PDE to reveal the mechanism of nozzle improved the thrust performance. The velocity of detonation exhaust with non-nozzle, convergent nozzle, divergent nozzle and convergent-divergent nozzle is tested by laser Doppler velocimetry. The results indicate that laser Doppler method can accurately infer the instantaneous flow velocity, especially the velocity platform where contributes more to the engine impulse. The maximum value is 1222.66 m/s, 1128.52 m/s, 1338.64 m/s and 1296.93 m/s, the time of duration which the velocity is greater than 400m/s is 8.51ms, 7.58ms, 5.83ms and 17.62ms of the velocity under the condition of non-nozzle, convergent nozzle, divergent nozzle and convergent-divergent nozzle respectively.

  10. Effect of geometrical parameters on submerged cavitation jet discharged from profiled central-body nozzle (United States)

    Yang, Minguan; Xiao, Shengnan; Kang, Can; Wang, Yuli


    The flow characteristics of cavitation jets are essential issues among relevant studies. The physical properties of the jet are largely determined by the geometrical parameters of the nozzle. The structure and cavitation jets characteristics of the angular-nozzle and the self-resonating cavitation nozzle have been extensively studied, but little research is conducted in the central-body cavitation nozzle mainly because of its hard processing and the cavitation jet effect not satisfactory. In this paper, a novel central-body nozzle (a non-plunger central-body nozzle with square outlet) is studied to solve above problems. Submerged jets discharged from the novel central-body nozzle are simulated, employing the full cavitation model. The impact of nozzle configuration on jet properties is analyzed. The analysis results indicate that when central-body relative diameter keeps constant, there is an optimal contraction degree of nozzle's outlet, which can induce intense cavitation in the jet. The central-body relative diameter also affects jet profiles. In the case of large central-body relative diameter, most of the bubbles settle in the jet core. On the contrary, a smaller relative diameter makes bubbles concentrate in the interface between the jet and its surrounding fluid. Moreover, the shorter outlet part allows the cavitation zone further extend in both the axial and racial directions. The research results further consummate the study on the central-body nozzles and the correlation between cavitation jet and the structure, and elementarily reveal the mechanism of cavitation jet produced in a non-plunger novel central-body nozzle and the effect of the structure parameters on the cavitation jet, moreover, provide the theoretical basis for the optimal design of the nozzle.

  11. Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test Project (Briefing Charts) (United States)


    Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test Project Mr. Eric J. Paulson-Vehicle Analyst Rocket Propulsion Division Combustion devices Branch build axisymmetric cold flow nozzle test articles using plastic-based inexpensive rapid additive manufacturing – Feasible to rapid prototype lobed...Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) February 2015-March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Epitrochoid Power-Law Nozzle Rapid Prototype Build/Test

  12. Drop spectrum comparison of five aerial application nozzle assemblies. Forest research report No. 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Vision is the most commonly aerially applied forest herbicide. These applications are made with helicopter mounted spray systems using various nozzle components and configurations. Although the nozzles are similar in size and output, they produce a noticeably different distribution of drop sizes, generally ranging in diameter from 10-2000 micrometres (um). This report determines the drop size distribution of five nozzle assemblies commonly used, the D6 JET, D8 JET, D8-45, D8-46, and 8010 LP.

  13. Study of secondary-flow patterns in an annular cascade of turbine nozzle blades with vortex design (United States)

    Rohlik, Harold E; Allen, Hubert W; Herzig, Howard Z


    In order to increase understanding of the origin of losses in a turbine, the secondary-flow components in the boundary layers and the blade wakes of an annular cascade of turbine nozzle blades (vortex design) was investigated. A detailed study was made of the total-pressure contours and, particularly, of the inner-wall loss cores downstream of the blades. The inner-wall loss core associated with a blade of the turbine-nozzle cascade is largely the accumulation of low-momentum fluids originating elsewhere in the cascade. This accumulation is effected by a secondary-flow mechanism which acts to transport the low-momentum fluids across the channels on the walls and radially in the blade wakes and boundary layers. The patterns of secondary flow were determined by use of hydrogen sulfide traces, paint, flow fences, and total pressure surveys. At one flow condition investigated, the radial transport of low-momentum fluid in the blade wake and on the suction surface near the trailing edge accounted for 65 percent of the loss core; 30 percent resulted from flow in the thickened boundary layer on the suction surface and 35 percent from flow in the blade wake.

  14. Experimental stress analysis of the attachment region of hemispherical shells with attached nozzles. Part 2b. Radial nozzle 7. 875 in. O. D. --7. 500 in. I. D. 10. 00 in. penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R.L.; Holland, R.W.; Stengl, G.R.


    The report presents the results of investigations conducted on a hemisphere with a radial nozzle of 7.875'' O.D. and 7.500'' I.D. and 10'' penetration into the hemisphere. Stress values were determined for the following five types of loadings: (1) internal pressure applied to the hemisphere and nozzle assembly, (2) an axial load applied collinear with nozzle, (3) a pure bending moment, or axial couple, applied to the nozzle, (4) a transverse or shear load applied normal to the nozzle, and (5) a pure torque applied in the radial plane of the nozzle.

  15. Direct Numerical Simulation of Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer inside an Axisymmetric Nozzle (United States)

    Huang, Junji; Zhang, Chao; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.


    As a first step toward a study of acoustic disturbance field within a conventional, hypersonic wind tunnel, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a Mach 6 turbulent boundary layer on the inner wall of a straight axisymmetric nozzle are conducted and the results are compared with those for a flat plate. The DNS results for a nozzle radius to boundary-layer thickness ratio of 5:5 show that the turbulence statistics of the nozzle-wall boundary layer are nearly unaffected by the transverse curvature of the nozzle wall. Before the acoustic waves emanating from different parts of the nozzle surface can interfere with each other and undergo reflections from adjacent portions of the nozzle surface, the rms pressure fluctuation beyond the boundary layer edge increases toward the nozzle axis, apparently due to a focusing effect inside the axisymmetric configuration. Spectral analysis of pressure fluctuations at both the wall and the freestream indicates a similar distribution of energy content for both the nozzle and the flat plate, with the peak of the premultiplied frequency spectrum at a frequency of [(omega)(delta)]/U(sub infinity) approximately 6.0 inside the free stream and at [(omega)(delta)]/U(sub infinity) approximately 2.0 along the wall. The present results provide the basis for follow-on simulations involving reverberation effects inside the nozzle.

  16. Fluctuating Pressure Analysis of a 2-D SSME Nozzle Air Flow Test (United States)

    Reed, Darren; Hidalgo, Homero


    To better understand the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) startup/shutdown tansients, an airflow test of a two dimensional nozzle was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center's trisonic wind tunnel. Photographic and other instrumentation show during an SSME start large nozzle shell distortions occur as the Mach disk is passing through the nozzle. During earlier develop of the SSME, this startup transient resulted in low cycle fatigue failure of one of the LH2 feedlines. The two dimensional SSME nozzle test was designed to measure the static and fluctuating pressure environment and color Schlieren video during the startup and shutdown phases of the run profile.

  17. Proposed Flight Research of a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle Using the NASA F-15 Airplane (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Bui, Trong T.; Ruf, Joseph H.


    For more than a half-century, several types of altitude-compensating rocket nozzles have been proposed and analyzed, but very few have been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. One type of altitude-compensating nozzle is the dual-bell rocket nozzle, which was first introduced into literature in 1949. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. This paper proposes a method for conducting testing and research with a dual-bell rocket nozzle in a flight environment. We propose to leverage the existing NASA F-15 airplane and Propulsion Flight Test Fixture as the flight testbed, with the dual-bell nozzle operating during captive-carried flights, and with the nozzle subjected to a local flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle. The primary objective of this effort is not only to advance the technology readiness level of the dual-bell nozzle, but also to gain a greater understanding of the nozzle mode transitional sensitivity to local flow-field effects, and to quantify the performance benefits with this technology. The predicted performance benefits are significant, and may result in reducing the cost of delivering payloads to low-Earth orbit.

  18. On the choice of approximations in direct problems of nozzle design (United States)

    Volkov, Yu. S.; Galkin, V. M.


    Two problems are considered: the design of a supersonic nozzle with a uniform exit characteristic and the design of a subsonic nozzle part with a plane (straight) sonic line in the minimum cross section. It is shown how the choice of a nozzle profile approximation affects the direct solutions to variational gas dynamics problems. The nozzle profile is described by polynomials or splines (quadratic, cubic, rational). The varied variables are the profile’s expansion coefficients in terms of basis functions or the parameters to be interpolated. It is shown that a priori information on the monotonicity of the desired profile improves the efficiency of the solution.

  19. Free-jet acoustic investigation of high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles (United States)

    Knott, P. R.; Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Bhutiani, P. K.; Vogt, P. G.


    The experimental and analytical results of a scale model simulated flight acoustic exploratory investigation of high radius ratio coannular plug nozzles with inverted velocity and temperature profiles are summarized. Six coannular plug nozzle configurations and a baseline convergent conical nozzle were tested for simulated flight acoustic evaluation. The nozzles were tested over a range of test conditions that are typical of a Variable Cycle Engine for application to advanced high speed aircraft. It was found that in simulate flight, the high radius ratio coannular plug nozzles maintain their jet noise and shock noise reduction features previously observed in static testing. The presence of nozzle bypass struts will not significantly affect the acousticn noise reduction features of a General Electric type nozzle design. A unique coannular plug nozzle flight acoustic spectral prediction method was identified and found to predict the measured results quite well. Special laser velocimeter and acoustic measurements were performed which have given new insights into the jet and shock noise reduction mechanisms of coannular plug nozzles with regard to identifying further benificial research efforts.

  20. CFD simulation of square cross-section, contoured nozzle flows - Comparison with data (United States)

    Ostrander, Mark J.; Thomas, Scott R.; Voland, Randall T.; Guy, Robert W.; Srinivasan, Shivakumar


    Computational analyses have been made of the flow in NASA Langley's Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility's Mach 4.7 and Mach 6 square cross-section contoured nozzles, for comparison with experimental results. The analyses, which were performed using a three-dimensional RANS computer code assuming a single species gas with constant specific heats, were intended to provide insight into the nature of the flow development in this type of nozzle. The computational results showed the exit flow distribution to be affected by counter-rotating vortices along the centerline of each nozzle sidewall. Calculated flow properties show general, but not complete, agreement with experimental measurements in both nozzles.

  1. Effect of simulated forward speed on the jet noise of inverted velocity profile coannular nozzles (United States)

    Packman, A. B.; Ng, K. W.; Chen, C. Y.


    Tests were conducted of inverted velocity profile coannular nozzles and a conical nozzle in an acoustic wind tunnel facility to simulate flight effects on jet noise generation. Coannular model nozzles were tested at fan to core nozzle exit area ratios of .75 and 1.2. Fan stream jet velocity ranged up to 2000 fps at a variety of fan exhaust pressure ratios and temperatures for a core stream of 1000 fps. The wind tunnel airflow was varied from static to 425 fps. The acoustic results indicated that the noise level differences seen previously under static conditions are retained in the flight environment.

  2. An Interactive Method of Characteristics Java Applet to Design and Analyze Supersonic Aircraft Nozzles (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J.


    The Method of Characteristics (MOC) is a classic technique for designing supersonic nozzles. An interactive computer program using MOC has been developed to allow engineers to design and analyze supersonic nozzle flow fields. The program calculates the internal flow for many classic designs, such as a supersonic wind tunnel nozzle, an ideal 2D or axisymmetric nozzle, or a variety of plug nozzles. The program also calculates the plume flow produced by the nozzle and the external flow leading to the nozzle exit. The program can be used to assess the interactions between the internal, external and plume flows. By proper design and operation of the nozzle, it may be possible to lessen the strength of the sonic boom produced at the rear of supersonic aircraft. The program can also calculate non-ideal nozzles, such as simple cone flows, to determine flow divergence and nonuniformities at the exit, and its effect on the plume shape. The computer program is written in Java and is provided as free-ware from the NASA Glenn central software server.

  3. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)


    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  4. Analysis and design of three dimensional supersonic nozzles. Volume 1: Nozzle-exhaust flow field analysis by a reference plane characteristics technique (United States)

    Dash, S.; Delguidice, P.


    A second order numerical method employing reference plane characteristics has been developed for the calculation of geometrically complex three dimensional nozzle-exhaust flow fields, heretofore uncalculable by existing methods. The nozzles may have irregular cross sections with swept throats and may be stacked in modules using the vehicle undersurface for additional expansion. The nozzles may have highly nonuniform entrance conditions, the medium considered being an equilibrium hydrogen-air mixture. The program calculates and carries along the underexpansion shock and contact as discrete discontinuity surfaces, for a nonuniform vehicle external flow.

  5. Fluidically Augmented Nozzles for Pulse Detonation Engine Applications (United States)


    Enters the Diverging Section of the Nozzle Due to the large vibrations and shock waves associated with a detonation, the shadowgraph mirrors and laser...began to vibrate during the test which eventually caused the picture quality to degrade as the vibrations from the detonation travel throughout the...COOH tpis91 *C2 g 6/01 C2H g 1/91 C2H2, acetylene g 5/01 C2H2,vinylidene g 4/02 CH2CO,ketene g 3/02

  6. Evaluation of Nozzle Arrangement Focused on RPV Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Lee, Gyu Mahn; Jeoung, Kyeong Hoon; Kim, Tae Wan; Park, Keun Bae; Kim, Keung Koo


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the fabrication capacity of the reactor pressure vessel. For that reason, this study focuses on survey of the domestic equipment capacity and the feasible size for reactor pressure vessel. Also, the forecasting issues of adoption of new material for reactor pressure vessel are reviewed through typically examples. Additionally, an evaluation procedure for the design of nozzle is developed to meet ASME code requirements. The developed design procedure could provide typical references for the development of advanced reactor design in the future.

  7. Surge Nozzle NDE Specimen Mechanical Stress Improvement Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredette, Lee F.


    The purpose of this project was to perform a finite element analysis of a pressurized water reactor pressurizer surge nozzle mock-up to predict both the weld residual stresses created in its construction and the final stress state after the application of the Mechanical Stress Improvement Process (MSIP). Strain gages were applied to the inner diameter of the mock-up to record strain changes during the MSIP. These strain readings were used in an attempt to calculate the final stress state of the mock-up as well.

  8. On Shor's Channel Extension and Constrained Channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.; Shirokov, M. E.

    Several equivalent formulations of the additivity conjecture for constrained channels, which formally is substantially stronger than the unconstrained additivity, are given. To this end a characteristic property of the optimal ensemble for such a channel is derived, generalizing the maximal distance property. It is shown that the additivity conjecture for constrained channels holds true for certain nontrivial classes of channels. After giving an algebraic formulation for Shor's channel extension, its main asymptotic property is proved. It is then used to show that additivity for two constrained channels can be reduced to the same problem for unconstrained channels, and hence, ``global'' additivity for channels with arbitrary constraints is equivalent to additivity without constraints.

  9. Supersonic flow gradients at an overexpanded nozzle lip (United States)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.


    The flowfield of a planar, overexpanded jet flow and an axisymmetric one are analyzed theoretically for a wide range of governing flow parameters (such as the nozzle divergence angle, the initial flow Mach number, the jet expansion ratio, and the ratio of specific heats). Significant differences are discovered between these parameters of the incident shock and the downstream flow for a planar jet and for an axisymmetric overexpanded jet flow. Incident shock curvature, shock strength variation, the geometrical curvature of the jet boundary, gradients of total and static pressure and Mach number, and flow vorticity parameters in post-shock flow are studied theoretically for non-separated nozzle flows. Flow parameters indicating zero and extrema values of these gradients are reported. Some theoretical results (such as concavities of incident shock and jet boundary, local decreases in the incident shock strength, increases and decreases in the static pressure, and the Mach number downstream of the incident shock) seem rather specific and non-evident at first sight. The theoretical results, achieved while using an inviscid flow model, are compared and confirmed with experimental data obtained by other authors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘCHEAUA Fănel


    Full Text Available There are situations when the agricultural field irrigation requires water retrieved from the medium or deep groundwater reserves. For this solution submersible pumps are needed in order to take over the water from a certain depth and carry it to the surface to be stored in a tank or distributed directly to the irrigation plant. An alternative solution is represented by using a pumping system that can achieve a continuous water transport on a vertical direction from the source depth to the surface that comprises a centrifugal pump and a VENTURI nozzle positioned inside the well. In order to achieve this model a fluid driving circuit is required and special construction of the VENTURI tube by means of which the water is accelerated toward the surface. A 3D model of the VENTURI nozzle was built and analyzed with ANSYS CFX in order to highlight the operating parameters depending on the initially declared conditions. The obtained results are presented from the conducted analysis on the virtual model.

  11. Small diameter nozzle plasma arc as a processing tool (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Komatsu, A.; Yoshioka, S.; Miyazaki, T.


    High-power-density plasma arc equipment with a small diameter nozzle of 0.1-0.3 mm has been developed, which produces power density of about 104 W/mm2 at the exit of the nozzle. The density is comparable to those produced by electron and laser beams. In the present article, development procedure, power density on the target surface, and processing capability in comparison to the conventional electron and laser beams are described. The power density as the processing heat source depends on the kind of processing. The apparent power density in cutting is of the order of 104 W/mm2; on the other hand, that in surface hardening is of the order of 102 W/mm2. The processing capability for causing melting such as cutting and welding does not depend on the working distance, which is defined as the distance between the torch and target material; furthermore, the deviation of the torch from the correct position does not affect the processing capability. The equipment developed is suitable for an automated production system because high precision position control of the torch is not required.

  12. Evolutionary Optimization of Centrifugal Nozzles for Organic Vapours (United States)

    Persico, Giacomo


    This paper discusses the shape-optimization of non-conventional centrifugal turbine nozzles for Organic Rankine Cycle applications. The optimal aerodynamic design is supported by the use of a non-intrusive, gradient-free technique specifically developed for shape optimization of turbomachinery profiles. The method is constructed as a combination of a geometrical parametrization technique based on B-Splines, a high-fidelity and experimentally validated Computational Fluid Dynamic solver, and a surrogate-based evolutionary algorithm. The non-ideal gas behaviour featuring the flow of organic fluids in the cascades of interest is introduced via a look-up-table approach, which is rigorously applied throughout the whole optimization process. Two transonic centrifugal nozzles are considered, featuring very different loading and radial extension. The use of a systematic and automatic design method to such a non-conventional configuration highlights the character of centrifugal cascades; the blades require a specific and non-trivial definition of the shape, especially in the rear part, to avoid the onset of shock waves. It is shown that the optimization acts in similar way for the two cascades, identifying an optimal curvature of the blade that both provides a relevant increase of cascade performance and a reduction of downstream gradients.

  13. An Evaluation on the Effect of Residual Stress and Phase Transformation Improvement by Welding in Half Nozzle Repair Method of BMI Nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Giyeol; Lee, Sangho; Kim, Taeryong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, it is evaluated that the effect of Pad welding for the Half Nozzle Repair method in the BMI the main instrument of NPP using SYSWELD which is the weld analysis code. BMI (Bottom Mounted Instrumentation) Nozzle is less sensitive to PWSCC generation of Alloy 600 material because the operation temperature is in the relatively low temperature region. But, it is very important to ensure the maintenance of the technical preparation for the damage because Nozzle is installed at reactor bottom head which is not possible to replace. A damage of Reactor Vessel BMI Nozzle under operation was confirmed as No.1 and No.46 Nozzle was observed to find acid precipitate while inspecting the reactor vessel bottom head of STP unit 1 in April 2003. Thus maintenance technology was developed such as Half Nozzle Repair in order to prevent damage of J-Groove welding including BMI Nozzle. In case of J-Groove welding, after cutting J-Groove satisfied the condition required by welding geometry design, new Nozzle of Alloy 690 material is inserted. And then welding applied for welding process parameters is performed when welding procedure applied for Alloy 52 weld filler metal is satisfied. The result of evaluation can be obtained as the following. 1) In order to prevent PWSCC of the BMI nozzle, the Half Nozzle Repair method was performed. As the result, the material Alloy 690 which has the strong corrosion resistance, one of the main factors of PWSCC, was replaced to prevent PWSCC. However, the higher tensile stress, another factor of PWSCC, than yield strength (350MPa) was occurred for Alloy 690 in the inner diameter of the nozzle contacting with the primary water in terms of the Hoop Stress. But compared to the yield strength, it cannot be seen much difference, so the prevention of PWSCC can be estimated. However, additional mechanical surface enhancing procedure such as pinning after welding is required so as to reduce the high tensile stress of the entire welding portion. 2

  14. Effect of Turbine Axial Nozzle-Wheel Clearance on Performance of Mark 25 Torpedo Power Plant (United States)

    Hoyt, Jack W.; Kottas, Harry


    Investigations were made of the turbine from a Mark 25 torpedo to determine the performance of the unit with three different turbine nozzles at various axial nozzle-wheel clearances. Turbine efficiency with a reamed nondivergent nozzle that uses the axial clearance space for gas expansion was little affected by increasing the axial running clearance from 0.030 to 0.150 inch. Turbine efficiency with cast nozzles that expanded the gas inside the nozzle passage was found to be sensitive to increased axial nozzle-wheel clearance. A cast nozzle giving a turbine brake efficiency of 0.525 at an axial running clearance of 0.035 inch gave a brake efficiency of 0.475 when the clearance was increased to 0.095 inch for the same inlet-gas conditions and blade-jet speed ratio. If the basis for computing the isentropic power available to the turbine is the temperature inside the nozzle rather then the temperature in the inlet-gas pipe, an increase in turbine efficiency of about 0.01 is indicated.

  15. Modified computation of the nozzle damping coefficient in solid rocket motors (United States)

    Liu, Peijin; Wang, Muxin; Yang, Wenjing; Gupta, Vikrant; Guan, Yu; Li, Larry K. B.


    In solid rocket motors, the bulk advection of acoustic energy out of the nozzle constitutes a significant source of damping and can thus influence the thermoacoustic stability of the system. In this paper, we propose and test a modified version of a historically accepted method of calculating the nozzle damping coefficient. Building on previous work, we separate the nozzle from the combustor, but compute the acoustic admittance at the nozzle entry using the linearized Euler equations (LEEs) rather than with short nozzle theory. We compute the combustor's acoustic modes also with the LEEs, taking the nozzle admittance as the boundary condition at the combustor exit while accounting for the mean flow field in the combustor using an analytical solution to Taylor-Culick flow. We then compute the nozzle damping coefficient via a balance of the unsteady energy flux through the nozzle. Compared with established methods, the proposed method offers competitive accuracy at reduced computational costs, helping to improve predictions of thermoacoustic instability in solid rocket motors.

  16. High-Speed Additive Manufacturing Through High-Aspect-Ratio Nozzles (United States)

    Shaw, Leon; Islam, Mashfiqul; Li, Jie; Li, Ling; Ayub, S. M. Imran


    The feasibility of layer-by-layer manufacturing through high-aspect-ratio (HAR) nozzles for microextrusion of paste to deposit planes has been investigated. Various conditions for paste extrusion, including nozzle moving speed, piston speed, extrusion rate, and distance between the nozzle tip and substrate, have been evaluated. By linking various microextrusion parameters together with the aid of a critical distance concept derived from microextrusion using circular nozzles and addressing the extrusion delay in response to the change of the piston speed and air pocket problems properly, we successfully microextruded single planes, multilayer objects, and larger planes made of multiple smaller planes side by side through HAR nozzles. It is further demonstrated that the X-Y dimensions of an extruded plane in the steady-state extrusion stage are determined by the nozzle travel distance and the length of the HAR nozzle opening if microextrusion is conducted with proper conditions. However, the height of the extruded plane is not only determined by the microextrusion conditions, but also affected by the drying shrinkage of the paste after microextrusion. This demonstration of the feasibility of using a HAR nozzle machine opens the door to manufacture of multimaterial, multilayer devices with high productivity in the near future.

  17. LTN Inlets and Nozzles Branch Overview; NASA GE - Methods Development Review (United States)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo


    LTNInlets and Nozzles Branch Overview to be presented to GE during method review meeting. Presentation outlines the capabilities, facilities and tools used by the LTN Branch to conduct its mission of developing design and analysis tools and technologies for inlets and nozzles used on advanced vehicle concepts ranging from subsonic to hypersonic speeds.

  18. Study on probability of failure for RPV nozzle region under severe accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Il Soon; Oh, Young Jin; Sim, Sang Hoon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)


    Most of previous studies for creep rupture of RPV lower head under severe accident condition, have been focused on global failure of RPV lower head. In contrast, the local failure of the RPV nozzle region has not been studied in detail. This study focused the nozzle failure analysis into creep rupture evaluation of RPV lower head under severe accident condition, and this will help improve the safety assessment of nuclear power plants under severe accident conditions. The existence and features of nozzle failure in LAVA-ICI tested vessel of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and LHF-4 tested vessel of SNL, are examined. To understand the basic mechanical properties of nozzle material and weld metal, the tensile tests in various temperature levels and the creep rupture tests in various temperature and stress levels, are accomplished. The stress and deformation of LAVA-ICI experiments are analysed using measured basic mechanical properties. The failure time of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) in nozzle region was calculated using modified TMI-2 VIP model. Nozzle region failure characteristics was studied for SNL-LHF-4 experimental case using Finite Element Method (FEM). Using characteristics of nozzle failure, a new failure prediction experimental method was proposed for RPV nozzle failure. 19 refs., 43 figs. (Author)

  19. Model based decision support system for agrochemical applications for MMAT nozzles (United States)

    Droplet size, which is affected by nozzle type, nozzle setups and operation, and spray solution, is one of the most critical factors influencing spray performance (Gajtkowski 1985, Matthews 2000, Giles et al. 2005, Miller Tuck 2005, drift (Hewitt 1997), and food safety (Czaczyk Gnusowski 2007), and ...

  20. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White


    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  1. Wear surface studies on coal water slurry nozzles in industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Zeliang [Hunan Engineering Technology Key Laboratory of Inorganic and Nonmetal Materials, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412008, Hunan Province (China)]. E-mail:; Deng Jianxin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province (China)]. E-mail:; Li Jianfeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province (China)]. E-mail:


    In this study, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(W,Ti)C ceramic, WC/Co cemented carbide, and 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel were produced to be used as nozzle materials in coal water slurry (CWS) industry boilers. Coal water slurry burning tests with these nozzles were carried out. The wear surface features of the nozzles made from these materials were examined. The results showed that the wear mechanisms of nozzles varied from entry to exit. The material removal of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(W,Ti)C ceramic nozzle in CWS atomizing and burning is attributed to a mixed mode damage by brittle fracture, polishing, thermal cracking and chipping. The nozzle entry section appears to be entirely brittle in nature with evidence of large scale-chipping. The centre bore area showed a polishing effect with a very smooth surface. While the exit section exhibits cracking owing to the large thermal shock. Examination of the eroded bore surface of the WC/Co cemented carbide nozzles demonstrated that the wear occurred through preferential removal of the metal binder (Co) followed by pluck-out of the exposed WC grains at the entry zone, while the center and the exit zone showed polishing action. The primary wear mechanisms of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel nozzle exhibited plastic deformation at the entry zone, and plowing and micro-cutting at the other zones by the eroded particles.

  2. Performance and wear characteristics of ceramic, cemented carbide, and metal nozzles used in coal-water-slurry boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, J.X.; Ding, Z.L.; Zhou, H.M.; Tan, Y.Q. [Xiangtan University, Xiangtan (China). School of Mechanical Engineering


    Ceramics, cemented carbides, and metals were prepared to be used as nozzles in CWS boilers. CWS burning tests in a boiler with these nozzles were carried out. The erosion wear resistance of these nozzles was compared by determining their erosion rates and hole diameter variation. Results showed that the life of the ceramic nozzles is about 30 times high than that of the metal nozzles. The wear types at the nozzle wall surface differed in various positions. The nozzle center wall section suffers form abrasive impact under low impact angles, and the damage at the center wall mainly occurs by plowing and plastic deformation for metals, and by polishing action for carbides and ceramics. The primary wear mechanisms at the exit of ceramic nozzle exhibited thermal shock damage with chipping owing to the greater thermal stresses.

  3. Direct Numerical Simulation of Acoustic Noise Generation from the Nozzle Wall of a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (United States)

    Huang, Junji; Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.


    The acoustic radiation from the turbulent boundary layer on the nozzle wall of a Mach 6 Ludwieg Tube is simulated using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), with the flow conditions falling within the operational range of the Mach 6 Hypersonic Ludwieg Tube, Braunschweig (HLB). The mean and turbulence statistics of the nozzle-wall boundary layer show good agreement with those predicted by Pate's correlation and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations. The rms pressure fluctuation P'(rms)/T(w) plateaus in the freestream core of the nozzle. The intensity of the freestream noise within the nozzle is approximately 20% higher than that radiated from a single at pate with a similar freestream Mach number, potentially because of the contributions to the acoustic radiation from multiple azimuthal segments of the nozzle wall.

  4. Thrust distribution for attitude control in a variable thrust propulsion system with four ACS nozzles (United States)

    Lim, Yeerang; Lee, Wonsuk; Bang, Hyochoong; Lee, Hosung


    A thrust distribution approach is proposed in this paper for a variable thrust solid propulsion system with an attitude control system (ACS) that uses a reduced number of nozzles for a three-axis attitude maneuver. Although a conventional variable thrust solid propulsion system needs six ACS nozzles, this paper proposes a thrust system with four ACS nozzles to reduce the complexity and mass of the system. The performance of the new system was analyzed with numerical simulations, and the results show that the performance of the system with four ACS nozzles was similar to the original system while the mass of the whole system was simultaneously reduced. Moreover, a feasibility analysis was performed to determine whether a thrust system with three ACS nozzles is possible.

  5. Technical Analysis of Kort Nozzle Application for SPOB Ship 4990 DWT on River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bambang Musriyadi


    Full Text Available Propeller is a locomotor shaped vanes are used to drive ships, and also propellers which serves to move tehaga by changing the turning force of the propeller thrust menggerakakan into the vessel. In increasing the value of the thrust to be generated that is by applying the kort nozzle propeller. The method used in this study using CFD (Computional Fluid Dynamic, and the variation is from the conventional propeller models, with a kort nozzle propeller type kort nozzle type 19A and 37. Based on the findings that the kort nozzle propeller with the addition of the value of the thrust , propeller efficiency and torque generated. The driving force value is by using kort nozzle propeller type 37 amounted to 349.27 kN.

  6. Gas Nozzle Effect on the Deposition of Polysilicon by Monosilane Siemens Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Oh Kang


    Full Text Available Deposition of polysilicon (poly-Si was tried to increase productivity of poly-Si by using two different types of gas nozzle in a monosilane Bell-jar Siemens (MS-Siemens reactor. In a mass production of poly-Si, deposition rate and energy consumption are very important factors because they are main performance indicators of Siemens reactor and they are directly related with the production cost of poly-Si. Type A and B nozzles were used for investigating gas nozzle effect on the deposition of poly-Si in a MS-Siemens reactor. Nozzle design was analyzed by computation cluid dynamics (CFD. Deposition rate and energy consumption of poly-Si were increased when the type B nozzle was used. The highest deposition rate was 1 mm/h, and the lowest energy consumption was 72 kWh⋅kg-1 in this study.

  7. Wind tunnel Measurement of Spray Drift from on-off Controlled Sprayer Nozzles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Jensen, Peter Kryger; Miller, Paul


    wide surface area with a length of 200 mm. The test was conducted in the wind tunnel at Silsoe Spray Applications Unit in the UK. The measurements consisted of two test series; airborne drift was collected on polyethylene lines more than 375 mm away from the centerline of the nozzle and ground deposits...... were collected on 20 mm wide paper lines closer than 375 mm from the nozzle. The nozzle height was 400 mm and the nozzle was aligned at right angles to forward direction across the wind tunnel and perpendicular to the wind direction. The nozzles involved were mounted on a transporter system...... and arranged to deliver a pulse of spray using the WeedSeeker valve. The tests were conducted to determine accumulated spray deposit at different crosswind and forward speeds. In general, the deposits, especially those measured downwind close to the target zone showed significant increase as the crosswind...

  8. Wind tunnel measurement of spray drift from on-off controlled sprayer nozzles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Jensen, Peter Kryger; Miller, Paul

    wide surface area with a length of 200 mm. The test was conducted in the wind tunnel at Silsoe Spray Applications Unit in the UK. The measurements consisted of two test series; airborne drift was collected on polyethylene lines more than 375 mm away from the centerline of the nozzle and ground deposits...... were collected on 20 mm wide paper lines closer than 375 mm from the nozzle. The nozzle height was 400 mm and the nozzle was aligned at right angles to forward direction across the wind tunnel and perpendicular to the wind direction. The nozzles involved were mounted on a transporter system...... and arranged to deliver a pulse of spray using the WeedSeeker valve. The tests were conducted to determine accumulated spray deposit at different crosswind and forward speeds. In general, the deposits, especially those measured downwind close to the target zone showed significant increase as the crosswind...

  9. The naturally oscillating flow emerging from a fluidic precessing jet nozzle (United States)

    Wong, Chong Y.; Nathan, Graham J.; Kelso, Richard M.

    Phase-averaged and directionally triggered digital particle image velocimetry measurements were taken in longitudinal and transverse planes in the near field of the flow emerging from a fluidic precessing jet nozzle. Measurements were performed at nozzle inlet Reynolds and Strouhal numbers of 59000 and 0.0017, respectively. Results indicate that the jet emerging from the nozzle departs with an azimuthal component in a direction opposite to that of the jet precession. In addition, the structure of the region, reported in an earlier study, is better resolved here. At least three unique vortex-pair regions containing smaller vortical are identified for the first time. These include a vortex-pair region originating from the foci on the downstream face of the nozzle centrebody, a vortex-pair region shed from the edge of the centrebody and a vortex-pair region originating from the downstream surface of the nozzle exit lip.

  10. Effects of Nozzle Configuration on Rock Erosion Under a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Jet at Various Pressures and Temperatures


    Man Huang; Yong Kang; Xiaochuan Wang; Yi Hu; Deng Li; Can Cai; Feng Chen


    The supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) jet offers many advantages over water jets in the field of oil and gas exploration and development. To take better advantage of the SC-CO2 jet, effects of nozzle configuration on rock erosion characteristics were experimentally investigated with respect to the erosion volume. A convergent nozzle and two Laval nozzles, as well as artificial cores were employed in the experiments. It was found that the Laval nozzle can enhance rock erosion ability, whic...

  11. Application of shape-based similarity query for aerodynamic optimization of wind tunnel primary nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolář Jan


    Full Text Available The aerodynamic shape optimization of the supersonic flat nozzle is the aim of proposed paper. The nozzle discussed, is applied as a primary nozzle of the inlet part of supersonic wind tunnel. Supersonic nozzles of the measure area inlet parts need to guarantee several requirements of flow properties and quality. Mach number and minimal differences between real and required velocity and turbulence profiles at the nozzle exit are the most important parameters to meet. The aerodynamic shape optimization of the flat 2D nozzle in CFD is employed to reach as uniform exit velocity profile as possible, with the mean Mach number 1.4. Optimization process does not use any of standard routines of global or local optimum searching. Instead, newly formed routine, which exploits shape-based oriented sequence of nozzles, is used to research within whole discretized parametric space. The movement within optimization process is not driven by gradient or evolutionary too, instead, the Path of Minimal Shape Deformation is followed. Dynamic mesh approach is used to deform the shape and mesh from the actual nozzle to the subsequent one. Dynamic deformation of mesh allows to speed up whole converging process as an initialization of flow at the newly formed mesh is based on afore-computed shape. Shape-based similarity query in field of supersonic nozzles is discussed and applied. Evolutionary technique with genetic algorithm is used to search for minimal deformational path. As a result, the best variant from the set of solved shapes is analyzed at the base of momentum coefficient and desired Mach number at the nozzle exit.

  12. Aeroacoustic Analysis of Fan Noise Reduction With Increased Bypass Nozzle Area (United States)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary G.


    An advanced model turbofan was tested in the NASA Glenn 9-by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) to explore far field acoustic effects of increased bypass nozzle area. This fan stage test was part of the NASA Glenn Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test, second entry (SDT2) which acquired aeroacoustic results over a range of test conditions. The baseline nozzle was sized to produce maximum stage performance at cruise condition. However, the wind tunnel testing is conducted near sea level condition. Therefore, in order to simulate and obtain performance at other operating conditions, two additional nozzles were designed and tested one with +5 percent increase in weight flow (+5.4 percent increase in nozzle area compared with the baseline nozzle), sized to simulate the performance at the stage design point (takeoff) condition, and the other with a +7.5 percent increase in weight flow (+10.9 percent increase in nozzle area) sized for maximum weight flow with a fixed nozzle at sea level condition. Measured acoustic benefits with increased nozzle area were very encouraging, showing overall sound power level (OAPWL) reductions of 2 or more dB while the stage thrust actually increased by 2 to 3 percent except for the most open nozzle at takeoff rotor speed where stage performance decreased. Effective perceived noise levels for a 1500 ft engine flyover and 3.35 scale factor showed a similar noise reduction of 2 or more EPNdB. Noise reductions, principally in the level of broadband noise, were observed everywhere in the far field. Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements taken downstream of the rotor showed that the total turbulent velocity decreased with increasing nozzle flow, which may explain the reduced rotor broadband noise levels.

  13. Design and evaluation of single and dual flow thrust vector nozzles with post exit vanes (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Vaccarezza, Stephen E.; Dobbins, Sean


    This Thrust Vectored Research project required that a 1/24 scale model of the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle, (HARV), propulsion system be constructed on the university campus. This propulsion system was designed for cold flow testing on a multicomponent test rig. Forces and moments were measured to study nozzle performance parameters. The flow visualization technique of color Schlieren photography was performed to investigate the flow phenomena at the nozzle exit. The flow interactions that were identified consisted of vane nozzleing between the outer and lower vanes and vane tip interference. The thrust vectoring system consisted of three asymmetrically spaced vanes installed circumferentially on a maximum afterburner nozzle. The performance of the nozzle was investigated with the outer and lower vanes equally deflected, (-10 deg is less than delta(sub v) is less than 25 deg), and with the upper vane fully retracted, (delta(sub v) equals -10 deg). The nozzle pressure ratio ranged from 4 to 6. The results indicated that a vane nozzleing effect developed at nozzle pressure ratios of 4 and 6 when the outer and lower vanes were deflected far enough into the flow field such that the increase in vane area accelerated the flow past the vanes causing distorted shock waves. This accelerated flow was a result of a pressure differential existing between the inside surface of the vane and the ambient pressure. The stagnation pressure that developed along the inside surface of the vane accelerated the flow past the vanes causing it to equalize with ambient pressure, thus providing distorted shock waves. A tip interference was present at the trailing edge of the upper vane as a result of low nozzle pressure, NPR 4, with high vane deflection, delta(sub v) equals 25 degrees, and also with a high nozzle pressure, NPR 6, and low vane deflections, delta(sub v) equals 15 degrees.

  14. Application of shape-based similarity query for aerodynamic optimization of wind tunnel primary nozzle (United States)

    Kolář, Jan


    The aerodynamic shape optimization of the supersonic flat nozzle is the aim of proposed paper. The nozzle discussed, is applied as a primary nozzle of the inlet part of supersonic wind tunnel. Supersonic nozzles of the measure area inlet parts need to guarantee several requirements of flow properties and quality. Mach number and minimal differences between real and required velocity and turbulence profiles at the nozzle exit are the most important parameters to meet. The aerodynamic shape optimization of the flat 2D nozzle in CFD is employed to reach as uniform exit velocity profile as possible, with the mean Mach number 1.4. Optimization process does not use any of standard routines of global or local optimum searching. Instead, newly formed routine, which exploits shape-based oriented sequence of nozzles, is used to research within whole discretized parametric space. The movement within optimization process is not driven by gradient or evolutionary too, instead, the Path of Minimal Shape Deformation is followed. Dynamic mesh approach is used to deform the shape and mesh from the actual nozzle to the subsequent one. Dynamic deformation of mesh allows to speed up whole converging process as an initialization of flow at the newly formed mesh is based on afore-computed shape. Shape-based similarity query in field of supersonic nozzles is discussed and applied. Evolutionary technique with genetic algorithm is used to search for minimal deformational path. As a result, the best variant from the set of solved shapes is analyzed at the base of momentum coefficient and desired Mach number at the nozzle exit.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics based aerodynamic optimization of the wind tunnel primary nozzle (United States)

    Jan, Kolář; Václav, Dvořák


    The aerodynamic shape optimization of the supersonic flat nozzle is the aim of proposed paper. The nozzle discussed, is applied as a primary nozzle of the inlet part of supersonic wind tunnel. Supersonic nozzles of the measure area inlet parts need to guarantee several requirements of flow properties and quality. Mach number and minimal differences between real and required velocity and turbulence profiles at the nozzle exit are the most important parameters to meet. The aerodynamic shape optimization of the flat 2D nozzle in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is employed to reach as uniform exit velocity profile as possible, with the mean Mach number 1.4. Optimization process does not use any of standard routines of global or local optimum searching. Instead, newly formed routine, which exploits shape-based oriented sequence of nozzles, is used to research within whole discretized parametric space. The movement within optimization process is not driven by gradient or evolutionary too, instead, the Path of Minimal Shape Deformation is followed. Dynamic mesh approach is used to deform the shape and mesh from the actual nozzle to the subsequent one. Dynamic deformation of mesh allows to speed up whole converging process as an initialization of flow at the newly formed mesh is based on afore-computed shape. Shape-based similarity query in field of supersonic nozzles is discussed and applied. Evolutionary technique with genetic algorithm is used to search for minimal deformational path. As a result, the best variant from the set of solved shapes is analyzed at the base of momentum coefficient and desired Mach number at the nozzle exit.

  16. Development of Thermal Barriers for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle Joints (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.


    The Space Shuttle solid rocket motor case assembly joints are sealed using conventional 0-ring seals. The 5500+F combustion gases are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of insulation. Special joint-fill compounds are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flowpath to the seals. On a number of occasions. NASA has observed in several of the rocket nozzle assembly joints hot gas penetration through defects in the joint- fill compound. The current nozzle-to-case joint design incorporates primary, secondary and wiper (inner-most) 0-rings and polysulfide joint-fill compound. In the current design, 1 out of 7 motors experience hot gas to the wiper 0-ring. Though the condition does not threaten motor safety, evidence of hot gas to the wiper 0-ring results in extensive reviews before resuming flight. NASA and solid rocket motor manufacturer Thiokol are working to improve the nozzle-to-case joint design by implementing a more reliable J-leg design and a thermal barrier, This paper presents burn-resistance, temperature drop, flow and resiliency test results for several types of NASA braided carbon-fiber thermal barriers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the thermal barriers when exposed to the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Thermal barriers braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over 6 minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Tests were performed on two thermal barrier braid architectures, denoted Carbon-3 and Carbon-6, to measure the temperature drop across and along the barrier in a compressed state when subjected to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch. Carbon-3 and Carbon-6 thermal barriers were excellent insulators causing temperature drops through their diameter of up to a 2800 and 2560 F. respectively. Gas temperature 1/4" downstream of the thermal barrier were within the

  17. Computer Graphic Design Using Auto-CAD and Plug Nozzle Research (United States)

    Rogers, Rayna C.


    The purpose of creating computer generated images varies widely. They can be use for computational fluid dynamics (CFD), or as a blueprint for designing parts. The schematic that I will be working on the summer will be used to create nozzles that are a part of a larger system. At this phase in the project, the nozzles needed for the systems have been fabricated. One part of my mission is to create both three dimensional and two dimensional models on Auto-CAD 2002 of the nozzles. The research on plug nozzles will allow me to have a better understanding of how they assist in the thrust need for a missile to take off. NASA and the United States military are working together to develop a new design concept. On most missiles a convergent-divergent nozzle is used to create thrust. However, the two are looking into different concepts for the nozzle. The standard convergent-divergent nozzle forces a mixture of combustible fluids and air through a smaller area in comparison to where the combination was mixed. Once it passes through the smaller area known as A8 it comes out the end of the nozzle which is larger the first or area A9. This creates enough thrust for the mechanism whether it is an F-18 fighter jet or a missile. The A9 section of the convergent-divergent nozzle has a mechanism that controls how large A9 can be. This is needed because the pressure of the air coming out nozzle must be equal to that of the ambient pressure other wise there will be a loss of performance in the machine. The plug nozzle however does not need to have an A9 that can vary. When the air flow comes out it can automatically sense what the ambient pressure is and will adjust accordingly. The objective of this design is to create a plug nozzle that is not as complicated mechanically as it counterpart the convergent-divergent nozzle.

  18. Boiling water jet outflow from a thin nozzle: spatial modeling (United States)

    Bolotnova, R. Kh.; Korobchinskaya, V. A.


    This study presents dual-temperature two-phase model for liquid-vapor mixture with account for evaporation and inter-phase heat transfer (taken in single-velocity single-pressure approximation). Simulation was performed using the shock-capturing method and moving Lagrangian grids. Analysis was performed for simulated and experimental values of nucleation frequency (for refining the initial number and radius of microbubbles) which affect the evaporation rate. Validity of 2D and 1D simulation was examined through comparison with experimental data. The peculiarities of the water-steam formation at the initial stage of outflow through a thin nozzle were studied for different initial equilibrium states of water for the conditions close to chosen experimental conditions.

  19. Cooled variable nozzle radial turbine for rotor craft applications (United States)

    Rogo, C.


    An advanced, small 2.27 kb/sec (5 lbs/sec), high temperature, variable area radial turbine was studied for a rotor craft application. Variable capacity cycles including single-shaft and free-turbine engine configurations were analyzed to define an optimum engine design configuration. Parametric optimizations were made on cooled and uncooled rotor configurations. A detailed structural and heat transfer analysis was conducted to provide a 4000-hour life HP turbine with material properties of the 1988 time frame. A pivoted vane and a moveable sidewall geometry were analyzed. Cooling and variable geometry penalties were included in the cycle analysis. A variable geometry free-turbine engine configuration with a design 1477K (2200 F) inlet temperature and a compressor pressure ratio of 16:1 was selected. An uncooled HP radial turbine rotor with a moveable sidewall nozzle showed the highest performance potential for a time weighted duty cycle.

  20. Apparatus for mixing fuel in a gas turbine nozzle (United States)

    Barker, Carl Robert


    A fuel nozzle in a combustion turbine engine that includes: a fuel plenum defined between an circumferentially extending shroud and axially by a forward tube-sheet and an aft tube-sheet; and a mixing-tube that extends across the fuel plenum that defines a passageway connecting an inlet formed through the forward tube-sheet and an outlet formed through the aft tube-sheet, the mixing-tube comprising one or more fuel ports that fluidly communicate with the fuel plenum. The mixing-tube may include grooves on an outer surface, and be attached to the forward tube-sheet by a connection having a fail-safe leakage path.

  1. A study on mechanism of wear on body seat in nozzle of diesel fuel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeonggee, Son; Yamashita, Toru; Sato, Susumu; Kosaka, Hidenori; Masuko, Masabumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)


    Wear of nozzle's body seat of diesel fuel injector, which is caused by the collision of needle on the body seat in a nozzle, affects fuel spray behaviors and injection characteristics. Recently, to reduce the wear of body seat, DLC nozzles are widely used. The DLC on the needle which is called diamond-like carbon has a certain effect in reducing wear of body seat. However, disallowable wear is reported at limited engine operating conditions. Moreover, the wear mechanism of body seat with DLC coated needle has not been made clear yet. In this study, the influence of temperature of the body seat and fuel property on the wear of DLC nozzle was investigated with a newly developed wear testing device which was constructed based on common-rail injection system. Worn surfaces of body seat were observed by FE-SEM, laser scanning microscope and EPMA. The obtained results from the measurements show that DLC nozzle has much less wear amount than non-DLC nozzle on the body seat and the corrosive wear effect is suppressed with DLC nozzle. (orig.)

  2. Design of a three-dimensional scramjet nozzle considering lateral expansion and geometric constraints (United States)

    Lv, Zheng; Xu, Jinglei; Mo, Jianwei


    A new method based on quasi two-dimensional supersonic flow and maximum thrust theory to design a three-dimensional nozzle while considering lateral expansion and geometric constraints is presented in this paper. To generate the configuration of the three-dimensional nozzle, the inviscid flowfield is calculated through the method of characteristics, and the reference temperature method is applied to correct the boundary layer thickness. The computational fluid dynamics approach is used to obtain the aerodynamic performance of the nozzle. Results show that the initial arc radius slightly influences the axial thrust coefficient, whereas the variations in the lateral expansion contour, the length and initial expansion angle of the lower cowl significantly affect the axial thrust coefficient. The three-dimensional nozzle designed by streamline tracing technique is also investigated for comparison to verify the superiority of the new method. The proposed nozzle shows increases in the axial thrust coefficient, lift, and pitching moment of 6.86%, 203.15%, and 642.86%, respectively, at the design point, compared with the nozzle designed by streamline tracing approach. In addition, the lateral expansion accounts for 22.46% of the entire axial thrust, while it has no contribution to the lift and pitching moment in the proposed nozzle.

  3. Free-jet investigation of mechanically suppressed, high radius ratio coannular plug model nozzles (United States)

    Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.; Knott, P. R.


    The experimental and analytical acoustic results of a scale-model investigation or unsuppressed and mechanically suppressed high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzles with inverted velocity and temperature profiles are summarized. Nine coannular nozzle configurations along with a reference conical nozzle were evaluated in the Anechoic Free-Jet Facility for a total of 212 acoustic test points. Most of the tests were conducted at variable cycle engine conditions applicable to advanced high speed aircraft. The tested nozzles included coannular plug nozzles with both convergent and convergent-divergent (C-D) terminations in order to evaluate C-D effectiveness in the reduction of shock-cell noise and 20 and 40 shallow-chute mechanical suppressors in the outer stream in order to evaluate their effectiveness in the reduction of jet noise. In addition to the acoustic tests, mean and turbulent velocity measurements were made on selected plumes of the 20 shallow-chute configuration using a laser velocimeter. At a mixed jet velocity of 700 m/sec, the 20 shallow-chute suppressor configuration yielded peak aft quadrant suppression of 11.5 and 9 PNdB and forward quadrant suppression of 7 and 6 PNdB relative to a baseline conical nozzles during static and simulated flight, respectively. The C-D terminations were observed to reduce shock-cell noise. An engineering spectral prediction method was formulated for mechanically suppressed coannular plug nozzles.

  4. Development and testing of a relay nozzle concept for air-jet weaving (United States)

    Münkel, A.; Gloy, Y. S.; Gries, T.


    The textile industry is an energy intensive branch of industry. Increasing energy costs are a challenge for textile manufacturers as well as for the developers of textile production machines [1]. Air jet weaving is the most productive method to produce woven fabrics. However, air-jet weaving machines have a significantly higher level of energy consumption compared to other weaving machines. Approximately 80% of compressed air is consumed by the relay nozzles. Therefore, there are different approaches to reduce the consumption of compressed air and to increase the energy efficiency of air-jet looms [2] At the Institut für Textiltechnik der RWTH Aachen University, Aachen new relay nozzle concepts have been developed. Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) the concepts were further developed with the result of an energy-efficient relay nozzle concept. The simulations have shown the potential energy savings up to 60 % compared to conventional relay nozzles. Furthermore, practical validations of these simulation results were done. The velocity, stagnation pressure and volume flow were measured in the reed canal. The optimal position regarding the injection angle and high, as well as the distance between two relay nozzles were identified with the results of the measurements. In addition, the relay nozzles were tested in the industrial environment. These tests have shown a low error rate which is comparable conventional relay nozzle concepts. Furthermore, exergy savings up to 49% has been measured.

  5. Classification of spray nozzles based on droplet size distributions and wind tunnel tests. (United States)

    De Schamphelerie, M; Spanoghe, P; Nuyttens, D; Baetens, K; Cornelis, W; Gabriels, D; Van der Meeren, P


    Droplet size distribution of a pesticide spray is recognised as a main factor affecting spray drift. As a first approximation, nozzles can be classified based on their droplet size spectrum. However, the risk of drift for a given droplet size distribution is also a function of spray structure, droplet velocities and entrained air conditions. Wind tunnel tests to determine actual drift potentials of the different nozzles have been proposed as a method of adding an indication of the risk of spray drift to the existing classification based on droplet size distributions (Miller et al, 1995). In this research wind tunnel tests were performed in the wind tunnel of the International Centre for Eremology (I.C.E.), Ghent University, to determine the drift potential of different types and sizes of nozzles at various spray pressures. Flat Fan (F) nozzles Hardi ISO 110 02, 110 03, 110 04, 110 06; Low-Drift (LD) nozzles Hardi ISO 110 02, 110 03, 110 04 and Injet Air Inclusion (AI) nozzles Hardi ISO 110 02, 110 03, 110 04 were tested at a spray pressures of 2, 3 and 4 bar. The droplet size spectra of the F and the LD nozzles were measured with a Malvern Mastersizer at spray pressures 2 bar, 3 bar and 4 bar. The Malvern spectra were used to calculate the Volume Median Diameters (VMD) of the sprays.

  6. A free jet (supersonic), molecular beam source with automatized, 50 nm precision nozzle-skimmer positioning (United States)

    Eder, S. D.; Samelin, B.; Bracco, G.; Ansperger, K.; Holst, B.


    Low energy (thermal) free jet (supersonic) molecular beams are used in a range of applications from surface science and surface deposition to quantum coherence and gas kinetics experiments. A free jet molecular beam is created by a gas expansion from a high pressure reservoir through a small aperture (nozzle). The nozzle typically has a diameter of 2-20 μm. The central part of the beam is selected using a skimmer, typically up to 500 μm in diameter. Recent years have seen the introduction of highly spatially confined beam sources based on micrometer skimmers and micrometer or even sub-micrometer nozzles. Such sources have been applied, for example, in the investigation of superfluidity and in neutral helium microscopy. However, up till now no source design allowing the precise positioning of the micro-skimmer relative to the nozzle has been available. This is an important issue because the relative position of skimmer and nozzle can influence the beam properties considerably. Here we present the design and implementation of a new molecular beam source, which allows an automatized, 50 nm precision positioning of the skimmer relative to the nozzle. The source is liquid nitrogen cooled and the temperature can be controlled between 110 K and 350 K with a temperature fluctuation of less than ±0.1 K over several hours. Beam intensity measurements using a 5 μm nozzle and a skimmer 5 μm in diameter are presented for stagnation pressures po in the range 3-180 bars. A 2D beam profile scan, using a 9.5 μm skimmer and a 5 μm nozzle is presented as a further documentation of the versatility of the new design and as an illustration of the influence of the relative skimmer-nozzle position on the beam properties.

  7. Base Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Four-Nozzle Clustered Rocket Engine: Effect of Nozzle Pressure Ratio (United States)

    Nallasamy, R.; Kandula, M.; Duncil, L.; Schallhorn, P.


    The base pressure and heating characteristics of a four-nozzle clustered rocket configuration is studied numerically with the aid of OVERFLOW Navier-Stokes code. A pressure ratio (chamber pressure to freestream static pressure) range of 990 to 5,920 and a freestream Mach number range of 2.5 to 3.5 are studied. The qualitative trends of decreasing base pressure with increasing pressure ratio and increasing base heat flux with increasing pressure ratio are correctly predicted. However, the predictions for base pressure and base heat flux show deviations from the wind tunnel data. The differences in absolute values between the computation and the data are attributed to factors such as perfect gas (thermally and calorically perfect) assumption, turbulence model inaccuracies in the simulation, and lack of grid adaptation.

  8. Conceptual Design for a Dual-Bell Rocket Nozzle System Using a NASA F-15 Airplane as the Flight Testbed (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ruf, Joseph H.; Bui, Trong T.; Martinez, Martel; St. John, Clinton W.


    The dual-bell rocket nozzle was first proposed in 1949, offering a potential improvement in rocket nozzle performance over the conventional-bell nozzle. Despite the performance advantages that have been predicted, both analytically and through static test data, the dual-bell nozzle has still not been adequately tested in a relevant flight environment. In 2013 a proposal was constructed that offered a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) F-15 airplane as the flight testbed, with the plan to operate a dual-bell rocket nozzle during captive-carried flight. If implemented, this capability will permit nozzle operation into an external flow field similar to that of a launch vehicle, and facilitate an improved understanding of dual-bell nozzle plume sensitivity to external flow-field effects. More importantly, this flight testbed can be utilized to help quantify the performance benefit with the dual-bell nozzle, as well as to advance its technology readiness level. Toward this ultimate goal, this report provides plans for future flights to quantify the external flow field of the airplane near the nozzle experiment, as well as details on the conceptual design for the dual-bell nozzle cold-flow propellant feed system integration within the NASA F-15 Propulsion Flight Test Fixture. The current study shows that this concept of flight research is feasible, and could result in valuable flight data for the dual-bell nozzle.

  9. Welding residual stress distributions for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Ju Hee; Bae, Hong Yeol; OH, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyungsoo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Tae Kwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In pressurized water nuclear reactors, dissimilar metal welds are susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking. To access this problem, accurate estimation of welding residual stresses is important. This paper provides general welding residual stress profiles in dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds using finite element analysis. By introducing a simplified shape for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds, changes in the welding residual stress distribution can be seen using a geometry variable. Based on the results, a welding residual stress profile for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds is proposed that modifies the existing welding residual stress profile for austenitic pipe butt welds.

  10. The Determination of Forces and Moments on a Gimballed SRM Nozzle Using a Cold Flow Model (United States)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Bacchus, David L.; Hengel, John E.


    The Solid Rocket Motor Air Flow Facility (SAF) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was used to characterize the flow in the critical aft end and nozzle of a solid propellant rocket motor (SRM) as part of the design phase of development. The SAF is a high pressure, blowdown facility which supplies a controlled flow of air to a subscale model of the internal port and nozzle of a SRM to enable measurement and evaluation of the flow field and surface pressure distributions. The ASRM Aft Section/Nozzle Model is an 8 percent scale model of the 19 second burn time aft port geometry and nozzle of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor, the now canceled new generation space Shuttle Booster. It has the capability to simulate fixed nozzle gimbal angles of 0, 4, and 8 degrees. The model was tested at full scale motor Reynolds Numbers with extensive surface pressure instrumentation to enable detailed mapping of the surface pressure distributions over the nozzle interior surface, the exterior surface of the nozzle nose and the surface of the simulated propellant grain in the aft motor port. A mathematical analysis and associated numerical procedure were developed to integrate the measured surface pressure distributions to determine the lateral and axial forces on the moveable section of the nozzle, the effective model thrust and the effective aerodynamic thrust vector (as opposed to the geometric nozzle gimbal angle). The nozzle lateral and axial aerodynamic loads and moments about the pivot point are required for design purposes and require complex, three dimensional flow analyses. The alignment of the thrust vector with the nozzle geometric centerline is also a design requirement requiring three dimensional analyses which were supported by this experimental program. The model was tested with all three gimbal angles at three pressure levels to determine Reynolds number effects and reproducibility. This program was successful in demonstrating that a measured surface pressure

  11. The effect of the nozzle profile on the characteristics of a gas-dynamic laser (United States)

    Kireev, V. I.; Minin, S. N.; Pirumov, U. G.


    The effect of geometric and gas-dynamic parameters on nonequilibrium processes occurring in two-dimensional gas-mixture flows in both subsonic and supersonic sections of plane and axisymmetric nozzles is investigated numerically. Ratios of the geometric parameters of the subsonic and transonic nozzle sections are recommended which ensure that the flow does not separate and the acoustic surface is nearly flat. A parametric study of the effect of the expansion ratio, full pressure, temperature, and gas composition shows that the least losses of useful oscillatory energy in the resonance region occur in nozzles based on a uniform characteristic.

  12. The effect of the nozzle profile on the characteristics of a gas-dynamic laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kireev, V.I.; Minin, S.N.; Pirumov, U.G.


    The effect of geometric and gas-dynamic parameters on nonequilibrium processes occurring in two-dimensional gas-mixture flows in both subsonic and supersonic sections of plane and axisymmetric nozzles is investigated numerically. Ratios of the geometric parameters of the subsonic and transonic nozzle sections are recommended which ensure that the flow does not separate and the acoustic surface is nearly flat. A parametric study of the effect of the expansion ratio, full pressure, temperature, and gas composition shows that the least losses of useful oscillatory energy in the resonance region occur in nozzles based on a uniform characteristic.

  13. Thermal-hydraulics of PGV-4 water volume during damage of the feedwater collector nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logvinov, S.A.; Titov, V.F. [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation); Notaros, U.; Lenkei, I. [NPP Paks (Hungary)


    A number of VVER-440 plants has experienced the distributing nozzles of feedwater collector being damaged due to corrosion-erosion wearing. Such phenomenon could result in feedwater redistribution within the SG inventory with undesirable consequences. The collector with damaged nozzles has to be replaced but a certain time is needed for the preparatory works. The main objective of the investigation conducted is to assess if the safe operation of SG is possible before collector replacement. It was shown that the nozzle damage as observed did not result in the dangerous disturbances of thermobydraulics as compared with the conditions existing at the initial period of operation. (orig.).

  14. Systems and methods for detecting a flame in a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Storey, James Michael; Lipinski, John; Mestroni, Julio Enrique; Williamson, David Lee; Marshall, Jason Randolph; Krull, Anthony


    A system may detect a flame about a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine. The gas turbine may have a compressor and a combustor. The system may include a first pressure sensor, a second pressure sensor, and a transducer. The first pressure sensor may detect a first pressure upstream of the fuel nozzle. The second pressure sensor may detect a second pressure downstream of the fuel nozzle. The transducer may be operable to detect a pressure difference between the first pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor.

  15. Understanding of cluster size deviation by measuring the dimensions of cluster jet from conical nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Chen


    Full Text Available This work aims to understand the cluster size deviation from the prediction by an existing scaling law for conical nozzles. The dimensions of cluster jet at different heights above a nozzle along the direction of gas flow are measured. This study indicates that the dimension of cluster jet is underestimated in the existing scaling law and this under-estimation leads to the over-estimation of the equivalent diameter of conical nozzle. Thus the underestimation of the dimension of cluster jet may be one of possible factors responsible for the cluster size deviation (the degree of the deviation depends on details of cluster jet.

  16. Experimental Performance of Area Ratio 200, 25 and 8 Nozzles on JP-4 Fuel and Liquid Oxygen Rocket Engine (United States)

    Lovell, J. Calvin; Samanich, Nick E.; Barnett, Donald O.


    The performance of an area ratio 200 bell-shaped nozzle, an area ratio 25 bell-shaped nozzle, and an area ratio 8 conic nozzle on a JP-4 fuel and liquid-oxygen rocket engine has been determined. Tests were conducted using a nominal 4000-pound-thrust rocket in the Lewis 10- by 10-foot supersonic tunnel, which provided the altitude environment needed for fully expanded nozzle flow. The area ratio 200 nozzle had a vacuum thrust coefficient of 1.96, compared with 1.82 and 1.70 for the area ratio 25 and 8 nozzles, respectively. These values are approximately equal to those for theoretical frozen expansion. The measured value of vacuum specific impulse for the area ratio 200 nozzle was 317 seconds for a combustion-chamber characteristic velocity of 5200 feet per second. The vacuum-specific-impulse increase for the area-ratio increase from 8 to 200 was 46 seconds.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Pelton Nozzle Jet Flow Behavior Considering Elbow Pipe (United States)

    Chongji, Zeng; Yexiang, Xiao; Wei, Xu; Tao, Wu; Jin, Zhang; Zhengwei, Wang; Yongyao, Luo


    In Pelton turbine, the dispersion of cylindrical jet have a great influence on the energy interaction of jet and buckets. This paper simulated the internal flow of nozzle and the downstream free jet flow at 3 different needle strokes. The nozzle model consists of the elbow pipe and the needle rod which supported by 4 ribs. Homogenous model and SST k-ω model were adopted to simulate the unsteady two-phase jet flow. The development of free flow, including a contraction process followed by an expansion process, was analysed detailed as well as the influence of the nozzle geometry on the jet flow pattern. The increase of nozzle opening results in a more dispersion jet, which means a higher hydraulic loss. Upstream bend and ribs induce the secondary flow in the jet and decrease the jet concentration.

  18. Alternative Fabrication Designs for Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Nozzle Extensions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order for carbon-carbon nozzle extensions and exit cones to serve as practical, low cost components for future Earth-to-Orbit propulsion systems, it is necessary...

  19. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly duct-tube-to-inlet-nozzle attachment system (United States)

    Christiansen, David W.; Smith, Bob G.


    A reusable system for removably attaching the lower end 21 of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly duct tube to an upper end 11 of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly inlet nozzle. The duct tube's lower end 21 has sides terminating in locking tabs 22 which end in inwardly-extending flanges 23. The flanges 23 engage recesses 13 in the top section 12 of the inlet nozzle's upper end 11. A retaining collar 30 slides over the inlet nozzle's upper end 11 to restrain the flanges 23 in the recesses 13. A locking nut 40 has an inside threaded portion 41 which engages an outside threaded portion 15 of the inlet nozzle's upper end 11 to secure the retaining collar 30 against protrusions 24 on the duct tube's sides.

  20. Wedge Shock and Nozzle Exhaust Plume Interaction in a Supersonic Jet Flow (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Heath, Christopher


    Fundamental research for sonic boom reduction is needed to quantify the interaction of shock waves generated from the aircraft wing or tail surfaces with the nozzle exhaust plume. Aft body shock waves that interact with the exhaust plume contribute to the near-field pressure signature of a vehicle. The plume and shock interaction was studied using computational fluid dynamics and compared with experimental data from a coaxial convergent-divergent nozzle flow in an open jet facility. A simple diamond-shaped wedge was used to generate the shock in the outer flow to study its impact on the inner jet flow. Results show that the compression from the wedge deflects the nozzle plume and shocks form on the opposite plume boundary. The sonic boom pressure signature of the nozzle exhaust plume was modified by the presence of the wedge. Both the experimental results and computational predictions show changes in plume deflection.

  1. Research on precise control of 3D print nozzle temperature in PEEK material (United States)

    Liu, Zhichao; Wang, Gong; Huo, Yu; Zhao, Wei


    3D printing technology has shown more and more applicability in medication, designing and other fields for its low cost and high timeliness. PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), as a typical high-performance special engineering plastic, become one of the most excellent materials to be used in 3D printing technology because of its excellent mechanical property, good lubricity, chemical resistance, and other properties. But the nozzle of 3D printer for PEEK has also a series of very high requirements. In this paper, we mainly use the nozzle temperature control as the research object, combining with the advantages and disadvantages of PID control and fuzzy control. Finally realize a kind of fuzzy PID controller to solve the problem of the inertia of the temperature system and the seriousness of the temperature control hysteresis in the temperature control of the nozzle, and to meet the requirements of the accuracy of the nozzle temperature control and rapid reaction.

  2. Modelling the Evaporation Rate in an Impingement Jet Dryer with Multiple Nozzles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna-Lena Ljung; L. Robin Andersson; Anders G. Andersson; T. Staffan Lundström; Mats Eriksson


    ... an impingement jet dryer with a total of 9 pairs of nozzles that dries sheets of metal. Different methods to model the evaporation rate are studied, as well as the influence of recirculating the outlet air...

  3. Autowaves in a dc complex plasma confined behind a de Laval nozzle

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, M A; Schwabe, M; Thoma, M H; Höfner, H; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E


    Experiments to explore stability conditions and topology of a dense microparticle cloud supported against gravity by a gas flow were carried out. By using a nozzle shaped glass insert within the glass tube of a dc discharge plasma chamber a weakly ionized gas flow through a de Laval nozzle was produced. The experiments were performed using neon gas at a pressure of 100 Pa and melamine-formaldehyde particles with a diameter of 3.43 {\\mu}m. The capturing and stable global confining of the particles behind the nozzle in the plasma were demonstrated. The particles inside the cloud behaved as a single convection cell inhomogeneously structured along the nozzle axis in a tube-like manner. The pulsed acceleration localized in the very head of the cloud mediated by collective plasma-particle interactions and the resulting wave pattern were studied in detail.

  4. Laboratory Observation of a Plasma-Flow-State Transition from Diverging to Stretching a Magnetic Nozzle (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Ando, Akira


    An axial magnetic field induced by a plasma flow in a divergent magnetic nozzle is measured when injecting the plasma flow from a radio frequency (rf) plasma source located upstream of the nozzle. The source is operated with a pulsed rf power of 5 kW, and the high density plasma flow is sustained only for the initial ˜100 μ sec of the discharge. The measurement shows a decrease in the axial magnetic field near the source exit, whereas an increase in the field is detected at the downstream side of the magnetic nozzle. These results demonstrate a spatial transition of the plasma-flow state from diverging to stretching the magnetic nozzle, where the importance of both the Alfvén and ion Mach numbers is shown.

  5. Optical observation of ultrafine droplets and air flows from newly designed supersonic air assist spray nozzles (United States)

    Miyashiro, Seiji S.; Mori, H.; Takechi, H.


    One of the authors developed a new spray drying nozzle (special quadruplet fluid spray nozzle) for drug manufacturing and it has succeeded in manufacturing fine particles of 2 micrometer diameter of 1/15 ratios to those currently in use. The flow visualization results show that the two air jets become under-expanded on both edge sides of the nozzle, generate shock and expansion waves alternately on each side and reach the edge tip, where they collide, unite, and spout out while shock and expansion waves are again formed in the mixed jet. When the edge surfaces are supplied with water, the water is extended into thin film by the air jet and intensely disturbed. At the nozzle tip it is torn into droplets, which are further atomized afterwards in shock waves. At the spray tip, the friction with ambient air shears the droplets furthermore, and they decrease further in size.

  6. Black hole acoustics in the minimal geometric deformation of a de Laval nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Roldao da [Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre (Brazil)


    The correspondence between sound waves, in a de Laval propelling nozzle, and quasinormal modes emitted by brane-world black holes deformed by a 5D bulk Weyl fluid are here explored and scrutinized. The analysis of sound waves patterns in a de Laval nozzle in the laboratory, reciprocally, is here shown to provide relevant data about the 5D bulk Weyl fluid and its on-brane projection, comprised by the minimal geometrically deformed compact stellar distribution on the brane. Acoustic perturbations of the gas fluid flow in the de Laval nozzle are proved to coincide with the quasinormal modes of black holes solutions deformed by the 5D Weyl fluid, in the geometric deformation procedure. Hence, in a phenomenological Eoetvoes-Friedmann fluid brane-world model, the realistic shape of a de Laval nozzle is derived and its consequences studied. (orig.)

  7. Effect of boundary layer trip on reduction of jet noise in over-expanded nozzle flow (United States)

    Anyoji, Masayuki; Tabaru, Issei


    A flow resonance accompanied by the emission of acoustic tones occurs in an over-expanded convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzle when operated at comparatively low pressure ratios. This phenomenon is distinguished from conventional screech tones and is referred to as "transonic tones". In contrast to screech tones, the peak resonant frequency for transonic tones increases with pressure ratio; the peak sound pressure level exceeds 110 dB. In this study, we investigated the basic characteristics of transonic resonance and tones using a circular C-D nozzle in an anechoic room. The effects of the boundary layer trip were also evaluated using a tripping wire for the suppressing transonic resonance and tones. The results of acoustic measurements show that several predominant peaks correspond to transonic tones. However, the boundary layer trip inside the nozzle effectively eliminated these tones and suppressed the unsteadiness of the flow inside the nozzle.

  8. Design and Analysis of Metal-to-Composite Nozzle Extension Joints Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the operational demands of liquid rocket engines increases, so too does the need for improved design and manufacturing methods for metal-to-composite nozzle...

  9. Reverse Circulation Drilling Method Based on a Supersonic Nozzle for Dust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyu Wu


    Full Text Available To reduce dust generated from drilling processes, a reverse circulation drilling method based on a supersonic nozzle is proposed. The suction performance is evaluated by the entrainment ratio. A series of preliminary laboratory experiments based on orthogonal experimental design were conducted to test the suction performance and reveal the main factors. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD were conducted to thoroughly understand the interaction mechanism of the flows. The Schlieren technique was further carried out to reveal the flow characteristic of the nozzle. The results show that the supersonic nozzle can significantly improve the reverse circulation effect. A high entrainment ratio up to 0.76 was achieved, which implied strong suction performance. The CFD results agreed well with experimental data with a maximum difference of 17%. This work presents the great potential for supersonic nozzles and reverse circulation in dust control, which is significant to protect the envrionment and people’s health.

  10. Black hole acoustics in the minimal geometric deformation of a de Laval nozzle (United States)

    da Rocha, Roldão


    The correspondence between sound waves, in a de Laval propelling nozzle, and quasinormal modes emitted by brane-world black holes deformed by a 5D bulk Weyl fluid are here explored and scrutinized. The analysis of sound waves patterns in a de Laval nozzle in the laboratory, reciprocally, is here shown to provide relevant data about the 5D bulk Weyl fluid and its on-brane projection, comprised by the minimal geometrically deformed compact stellar distribution on the brane. Acoustic perturbations of the gas fluid flow in the de Laval nozzle are proved to coincide with the quasinormal modes of black holes solutions deformed by the 5D Weyl fluid, in the geometric deformation procedure. Hence, in a phenomenological Eötvös-Friedmann fluid brane-world model, the realistic shape of a de Laval nozzle is derived and its consequences studied.

  11. Drug/polymer nanoparticles prepared using unique spray nozzles and recent progress of inhaled formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ozeki


    Full Text Available Inhaled formulations are promising for pulmonary and systemic non-pulmonary diseases. Functional engineered particles including drugs and drug-loaded nanocarriers have been anticipated because they can improve drug delivery efficacy against target sites in the lungs or blood. In this review, unique spray nozzles (e.g., four-fluid spray nozzle and two-solution mixing type nozzle for the preparation of nanocomposite particles which mean microparticles containing drug nanoparticles are described. These nozzles can produce nanocomposite particles in one-step and their spray drying system is suitable for scaling-up. Nanocomposite particles are useful in improving drug absorption and delivery efficacy against alveolar macrophages. In addition, recent studies on several pulmonary diseases (tuberculosis, lung cancer, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, vaccine and others and related inhaled formulations were also reviewed.

  12. Improvement of combustion in a direct injection diesel engine by micro-hole nozzle; Micro hole nozzle wo mochiita chokusetsu funshashiki diesel kikan no nensho kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Kobori, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Iida, N. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology


    In an attempt to promote the atomization of fuel spray and the mixing of fuel and air in diesel engines, a micro-hole nozzle which has orifices with a diameter smaller than 0.10mm was developed. In this study, the combustion tests were carried out using a single cylinder diesel engine equipped with a micro-hole nozzle and a common rail type high-pressure fuel injection system. A comparison with the results of a conventional nozzle experiment showed that the peak of initial premixed combustion increased, but the peak of diffusion combustion decreased. As a result, when nozzle orifice diameter become small from {phi} 0.15 mm to {phi} 0.10 mm, the combustion was accompanied by smokeless with the same levels of NO{sub x} emission and fuel economy. And results of a comparison the toroidal type chamber with the shallow dish type chamber revealed that the optimization of combustion chamber is necessary for the increase of the injection stage with increasing of the number of nozzle orifice. If an orifice diameter becomes {phi} 0.06 mm, the diffusion combustion can not be observed and the combustion is formed of only premixed combustion. The combustion in the case of {phi} 0.06 mm was accompanied with the drastic deterioration of fuel economy, smoke and HC with all over load. But the micro-hole nozzle has a potential for the formation of the lean and homogeneous premixed mixture until the fuel-air mixture ignites. (author)

  13. High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation (United States)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.


    Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical

  14. Characterization of the cavitating flow in converging-diverging nozzle based on experimental investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Pavel


    Full Text Available Cavitation phenomena occuring in converging-diverging nozzle (Venturi tube are described in the paper. A closed test circuit with possibility to control both flow rate and static pressure level were used. Loss coefficient was evaluated for different sigma numbers resulting in full „static“ characterization of the nozzle. Visualizations of the cavitation pattern development were acquired and matched with evolution of the loss coefficient. Three cavitation regimes are described: partial cavitation, fully developed cavitation, supercavitation.

  15. Particle Aggregation in Large Counter-current Spray Drying Towers: Nozzle Configuration, Vortex Momentum and Temperature


    Francia, Victor; Martín, Luis; Bayly, Andrew E.; Simmons, Mark. J.H.


    This work investigates particle growth in a counter-current swirl detergent dryer, operating with a single nozzle, at a range of nozzle heights, air drying temperatures, TA, and superficial air velocities, UA, which were selected to enhance or inhibit particle aggregation in the dryer. The growth kinetics are discussed paying special attention to the impact of the cycle of deposition and re-entrainment of material from the wall deposits. All cases lead to substantial aggregation and mono-moda...

  16. Agglomeration of Alumina Particles in the Flow of a Metallized Propellant Rocket Nozzle (United States)


    a function of x In Figure 2 for a given nozzle profile . It can be seen that the function increases rapidly In the vicinity of the throat and then...d7. •cf o N11’ : . lei: -’,0" 2. -- I)1 , • Z 18 .*,I . - 18 C Nozzle profile 0 ’ a 6 8 12 CM Figure 2. Universal abscissa function. The integration

  17. Performance Investigation of Solid-Rocket Motor with Nozzle Throat Erosion


    Suwicha Chankapoe; Nattawat Winya; Narupon Pittayaprasertkul


    In order to determine the performance and key design parameters of rocket, the erosion of nozzle throat during solid rocket motor burning have to be calculated. This study aims to predict the nozzle throat erosion in solid rocket motors according to the thrust profile of motor in operating conditions and develop a model for optimum performance of rocket. We investigate the throat radius change in the static test programs. The standard method and thrust coefficient are used for adjusting into...

  18. The Investigation of the Cavitation Phenomenon in the Laval Nozzle with Full and Partial Surface Wetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonská Jana


    Full Text Available The article deals with the cavitation phenomenon affected by full and partial wetting of the wall. For the numerical computation of flow in the Laval nozzle the Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model was tested and was used for cavitation research of flow within the nozzle considering partial surface wetting. The coefficient of wetting for various materials was determined using experimental, theoretical and numerical methods of fluid flow due to partial surface wetting.

  19. Method of joining a vane cavity insert to a nozzle segment of a gas turbine (United States)

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian


    An insert containing apertures for impingement cooling a nozzle vane of a nozzle segment in a gas turbine is inserted into one end of the vane. The leading end of the insert is positioned slightly past a rib adjacent the opposite end of the vane through which the insert is inserted. The end of the insert is formed or swaged into conformance with the inner margin of the rib. The insert is then brazed or welded to the rib.

  20. Radar cross section measurement of double S-shaped nozzle with radar absorbing material (United States)

    Guo, Xiao; Yang, Qingzhen; Yang, Huichen; Du, Kai


    The backward scattering characteristic of the jet engine nozzle is one of the most challenging problem in applied electromagnetics. Radar cross section (RCS) data of a double S-shaped nozzle (DSN) with and without radar absorbing material (RAM) were measured in the microwave chamber using stepping test system. The experiment results show that S-shaped structure has a certain effect on the backwards scattering characteristics. Coating RAM can reduce the RCS of DSN effectively.

  1. Design, development, and validation of concepts for generating passive pulsation in cooling nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enno Sabelberg


    This study focuses on a cooling nozzle which generates a passive jet excitation, without an electric motor or any valve system. Four different nozzle design mechanisms for the jet excitation were developed and tested with respect to their passively generated pulsation. Strouhal number, pressure fluctuation and pulsation amplitude were measured. A Strouhal number close to 0.2 was achieved with one excitation mechanism. The Strouhal number achieved by the other mechanisms was above 0.1.

  2. Black hole acoustics in the minimal geometric deformation of a de Laval nozzle


    da Rocha, Roldao


    The correspondence between sound waves, in a de Laval propelling nozzle, and quasinormal modes emitted by brane-world black holes deformed by a 5D bulk Weyl fluid are here explored and scrutinised. The analysis of sound waves patterns in a de Laval nozzle at a laboratory, reciprocally, is here shown to provide relevant data about the 5D bulk Weyl fluid and its on-brane projection, comprised by the minimal geometrically deformed compact stellar distribution on the brane. Acoustic perturbations...

  3. Influences of Nozzle Material on Laser Droplet Brazing Joints with Cu89Sn11 Preforms (United States)

    Stein, Stefan; Heberle, Johannes; Gürtler, Franz Josef; Cvecek, Kristian; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    This paper presents latest results on the influences of nozzle material and geometry on the electromechanical contacting of sensitive piezoceramic actuator modules. Two nozzle types have been investigated,a standard WC/Co nozzle which is used for soldering applications and a novelceramic nozzle. Applications for active piezoceramic components integrated in structural parts are e.g. active damping, energy harvesting, or monitoring of vibrations and material failure. Anup to now unsolved problem is the electrical contacting of such components without damaging the conductor or the metallization of the ceramic substrate. Since piezoelectric components are to be integrated into structures made of casted aluminum, requirements are high mechanical strength and temperature resistance. Within this paper a method forcontacting piezoceramic modules is presented. A spherical braze preform of tin bronze Cu89Sn11 with a diameter of 600 μm is located in a ceramic nozzle and is subsequently melted by a laser pulse. The liquid solder is ejected from the nozzlevia nitrogen overpressure and wets the surface of the metallization pad and the Cu-wire, resulting in a brazing joint after solidification. The process is called laser droplet brazing (LDB). To asses the thermal evolution during one cycle WC/Co and ZTA have been simulated numerically for two different geometries enabling a proposition weather the geometry or the material properties have a significant influence on the thermal load during one cycle. To evaluate the influence of the nozzle on the joint the positioning accuracy, joint height and detachment times have been evaluated. Results obtained with the ZTA nozzle show comparable positioning accuracies to a WC/Co nozzle with a lower standard deviation of solder detachment time.

  4. Modeling of internal and near-nozzle flow for a GDI fuel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Kaushik [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Som, Sibendu [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Battistoni, Michele [Univ. of Perugia (Italy); Li, Yanheng [Convergent Science Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Quan, Shaoping [Convergent Science Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Senecal, Peter Kelly [Convergent Science Inc., Madison, WI (United States)


    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for a fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k -ε turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative and flashing conditions. Noticeable hole-to-hole variations have been observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under all the operating conditions considered in this study. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Under favorable conditions considerable flashing has been observed in the near-nozzle regions. An enormous volume is occupied by the gasoline vapor, stantial computational cost. Volume-averaging instead of mass-averaging is observed to be more effective, especially for finer mesh resolutions.

  5. Using meshes to change the characteristics of simulated rainfall produced by spray nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia C.P. Carvalho


    Full Text Available Rainfall simulators have been used for many years contributing to the understanding of soil and water conservation processes. Nevertheless, rainfall simulators’ design and operation might be rather demanding for achieving specific rainfall intensity distributions and drop characteristics and are still open for improvement. This study explores the potential of combining spray nozzle simulators with meshes to change rainfall characteristics, namely drop properties (drop diameters and fall speeds. A rainfall simulator laboratory set-up was prepared that enabled the incorporation of different wire meshes beneath the spray nozzles. The tests conducted in this exploratory work included different types of spray nozzles, mesh materials (plastic and steel, square apertures and wire thicknesses, and positions of the meshes in relation to the nozzles. Rainfall intensity and drop size distribution and fall speed were analysed. Results showed that the meshes combined with nozzles increased the mean rainfall intensity on the 1 m2 control plot below the nozzle and altered the rain drops’ properties, by increasing the mass-weighted mean drop diameter, for example.

  6. Computational and experimental study on supersonic film cooling for liquid rocket nozzle applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Vishnu


    Full Text Available An experimental and computational investigation of supersonic film cooling (SFC was conducted on a subscale model of a rocket engine nozzle. A computational model of a convergent-divergent nozzle was generated, incorporating a secondary injection module for film cooling in the divergent section. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD simulations were run on the model and different injection configurations were analyzed. The CFD simulations also analyzed the parameters that influence film cooling effectiveness. Subsequent to the CFD analysis and literature survey an angled injection configuration was found to be more effective, therefore the hardware was fabricated for the same. The fabricated nozzle was later fixed to an Air-Kerosene combustor and numerous sets of experiments were conducted in order to ascertain the effect on film cooling on the nozzle wall. The film coolant employed was gaseous Nitrogen. The results showed substantial cooling along the walls and a considerable reduction in heat transfer from the combustion gas to the wall of the nozzle. Finally the computational model was validated using the experimental results. There was fairly good agreement between the predicted nozzle wall temperature and the value obtained through experiments.

  7. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with the ATLS for Investigation on CEDM Penetration Nozzle Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoungho; Seokcho; Park, Hyunsik; Choi, Namhyun; Park, Yusun; Kim, Jongrok; Bae, Byounguhn; Kim, Yeonsik; Choi, Kiyong; Song, Chulhwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, thermal-hydraulic integral effect test with the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) was performed for simulating a failure of CEDM penetration nozzle. The main objectives of the present test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response during a failure of CEDM penetration nozzle but also to establish an integral effect test database for the validation of the safety analysis codes. Furthermore, present experimental data were utilized to resolve the safety issue raised by the PWSCC at the CEDM penetration nozzle of the YGN-3. Thermal-hydraulic integral effect test with the ATLAS was performed for simulating a failure of CEDM penetration nozzle. Failure of two penetration nozzles of the CEDM in the APR1400 was simulated. Initial and boundary conditions were determined with respect to the reference conditions of the APR1400. However, with an aim of corresponding to the YGN-3 situation, the safety injection water was supplied via CLI mode. Compared to the cold leg break SBLOCA, the consequences of the event were milder in terms of a loop seal clearance, break flow rate, collapsed water level, and PCT. This could be mainly attributed to the small break flow rate in case of the failure in the RPV upper head. Present experimental data were utilized to resolve the safety issue raised by the PWSCC at the CEDM penetration nozzle of the YGN-3.

  8. Numerical investigation of the effects of ITD length on low pressure nozzle (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Liu, Jun; Liu, Hongrui; Wang, Pei; Du, Qiang


    The advantage of high efficiency, low SFC (Specific Fuel Consumption), ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan engine attracts more and more attention in modern commercial engine. The intermediate turbine duct (ITD), which connects high pressure turbine (HPT) with low pressure turbine (LPT), has a critical impact on the overall performance of turbine by guiding flow coming from HPT to LPT without too much loss. Therefore, it becomes more and more urgent to master the technique of designing aggressive, even super-aggressive ITD. Much more concerns have been concentrated on the duct. However, in order to further improve turbine, LPT nozzle is arranged into ITD to shorten low pressure axle. With such design concept, it is obvious that LPT nozzle flow field is easily influenced by upstream duct structure, but receives much less interests on the contrary. In this paper, numerical method is used to investigate the effects of length of ITD with upstream swirl blades on LPT nozzle. Nine models with the same swirl and nozzle blades, while the length of ITD is the only parameter to be changed, will be discussed. Finally, several conclusions and advices for designers are summarized. After changing axial length of ducts, inlet and outlet flow field of nozzle differs, correspondingly. On the other hand, the shearing stress on nozzle blade (suction and pressure) surface presents individual feature under various inlet flow. In addition to that, "Clocking-like effect" is described in this paper, which will contribute much to the pressure loss and should be paid enough attention.

  9. On nitrogen condensation in hypersonic nozzle flows: Numerical method and parametric study

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Longyuan


    A numerical method for calculating two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric hypersonic nozzle flows with nitrogen condensation is developed. The classical nucleation theory with an empirical correction function and the modified Gyarmathy model are used to describe the nucleation rate and the droplet growth, respectively. The conservation of the liquid phase is described by a finite number of moments of the size distribution function. The moment equations are then combined with the Euler equations and are solved by the finite-volume method. The numerical method is first validated by comparing its prediction with experimental results from the literature. The effects of nitrogen condensation on hypersonic nozzle flows are then numerically examined. The parameters at the nozzle exit under the conditions of condensation and no-condensation are evaluated. For the condensation case, the static pressure, the static temperature, and the amount of condensed fluid at the nozzle exit decrease with the increase of the total temperature. Compared with the no-condensation case, both the static pressure and temperature at the nozzle exit increase, and the Mach number decreases due to the nitrogen condensation. It is also indicated that preheating the nitrogen gas is necessary to avoid the nitrogen condensation even for a hypersonic nozzle with a Mach number of 5 operating at room temperatures. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. CFD analysis of helical nozzles effects on the energy separation in a vortex tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmahmoud Nader


    Full Text Available In this article computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis of a three-dimensional steady state compressible and turbulent flow has been carried out through a vortex tube. The numerical models use the k-ε turbulence model to simulate an axisymmetric computational domain along with periodic boundary conditions. The present research has focused on the energy separation and flow field behavior of a vortex tube by utilizing both straight and helical nozzles. Three kinds of nozzles set include of 3 and 6 straight and 3 helical nozzles have been investigated and their principal effects as cold temperature difference was compared. The studied vortex tubes dimensions are kept the same for all models. The numerical values of hot and cold outlet temperature differences indicate the considerable operating role of helical nozzles, even a few numbers of that in comparing with straight nozzles. The results showed that this type of nozzles causes to form higher swirl velocity in the vortex chamber than the straight one. To be presented numerical results in this paper are validated by both available experimental data and flow characteristics such as stagnation point situation and the location of maximum wall temperature as two important facts. These comparisons showed reasonable agreement.

  11. Effects of the geometric orientations of the nozzle exit on the breakup of free liquid jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, V. N.; Murthy, Z. V. P. [Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Gujarat (India)


    Free liquid jets are produced through various geometric orientations of the nozzle exit. The breakup lengths of liquid jets under various geometric orientations of the nozzle exit were studied. Images of jets were captured using a high-speed camera with a maximum frame rate of 1000 frames per second and were analyzed to determine the dynamics between jets and breakup lengths. The breakup length of jets changes with the cut angle of the nozzle exit. In addition, adding polymer reduces the effect of the cut angle of the nozzle exit on the breakup length for an entire range of velocities. The effect of the cut angle on breakup length is predominant for aqueous solutions with surfactants. This work provides motivation for further computational research to study jet dynamics in a partially covered nozzle exit, such as the case in which the boundary conditions near the nozzle opening is more complex with the cut angle and its vertex position, which directly reflects liquid jet dynamics.

  12. Development and Testing of Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extensions for Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.


    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Defense (DOD) requirements, as well as those of the broader Commercial Space industry. For NASA, C-C nozzle extension technology development primarily supports the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) and NASA's Commercial Space partners. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) efforts are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases needed to enable the use of composite nozzle extensions on cryogenic upper stage engines, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing and qualifying composite nozzle extensions. Recent, on-going, and potential future work supporting NASA, DOD, and Commercial Space needs will be discussed. Information to be presented will include (a) recent and on-going mechanical, thermal, and hot-fire testing, as well as (b) potential future efforts to further develop and qualify domestic C-C nozzle extension solutions for the various upper stage engines under development.

  13. Combustion Dynamics in Multi-Nozzle Combustors Operating on High-Hydrogen Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santavicca, Dom; Lieuwen, Tim


    Actual gas turbine combustors for power generation applications employ multi-nozzle combustor configurations. Researchers at Penn State and Georgia Tech have extended previous work on the flame response in single-nozzle combustors to the more realistic case of multi-nozzle combustors. Research at Georgia Tech has shown that asymmetry of both the flow field and the acoustic forcing can have a significant effect on flame response and that such behavior is important in multi-flame configurations. As a result, the structure of the flame and its response to forcing is three-dimensional. Research at Penn State has led to the development of a three-dimensional chemiluminescence flame imaging technique that can be used to characterize the unforced (steady) and forced (unsteady) flame structure of multi-nozzle combustors. Important aspects of the flame response in multi-nozzle combustors which are being studied include flame-flame and flame-wall interactions. Research at Penn State using the recently developed three-dimensional flame imaging technique has shown that spatial variations in local flame confinement must be accounted for to accurately predict global flame response in a multi-nozzle can combustor.

  14. Influence of Water-jet Nozzle Geometry on Cutting Ability of Soft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwansyah Irwansyah


    Full Text Available Hygiene is main reason for food processor to use waterjet cutting system. Traditionally food cutting process is low-quality, unsafe products, procedures and direct contact between product and labor. This paper introduced a low cost waterjet system for cutting soft material as identic food material. The low cost waterjet system has been developed by using a commercial pressure pump for cleaning purposes and modified nozzle. In order to enhance waterjet pressure for cutting products, a modified waterjet nozzle was designed. Paramater design of waterjet system was setup on nozzle orifice diameter 0.5 mm, standoff distance 15 mm, length of nozzle cylindrical tube 2.5 mm. Polycarbonate, polysterene, and polyethelene materials are used as sample product with thickness 2 mm, to represent similar properties with agriculture products. The experimental results indicate good possibilities of waterjet system to cut material in appropriate profile surface. The waterjet also can be used to improve cutting finished surface of food products. Therefore, utilizing a low cost commercial pump and modified nozzle for waterjet system reduces equipment price, operational cost and environmental hazards. It indicates viable technology applied to substitute traditional cutting technology in post harvest agriculture products. Keywords: cutting ability, modified nozzle, polymer material, water-jet system

  15. Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flows in Overexpanded Supersonic Nozzle with Film Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sellam


    Full Text Available Reignition phenomena occurring in a supersonic nozzle flow may present a crucial safety issue for rocket propulsion systems. These phenomena concern mainly rocket engines which use H2 gas (GH2 in the film cooling device, particularly when the nozzle operates under over expanded flow conditions at sea level or at low altitudes. Consequently, the induced wall thermal loads can lead to the nozzle geometry alteration, which in turn, leads to the appearance of strong side loads that may be detrimental to the rocket engine structural integrity. It is therefore necessary to understand both aerodynamic and chemical mechanisms that are at the origin of these processes. This paper is a numerical contribution which reports results from CFD analysis carried out for supersonic reactive flows in a planar nozzle cooled with GH2 film. Like the experimental observations, CFD simulations showed their ability to highlight these phenomena for the same nozzle flow conditions. Induced thermal load are also analyzed in terms of cooling efficiency and the results already give an idea on their magnitude. It was also shown that slightly increasing the film injection pressure can avoid the reignition phenomena by moving the separation shock towards the nozzle exit section.

  16. Time-Frequency Analysis of Rocket Nozzle Wall Pressures During Start-up Transients (United States)

    Baars, Woutijn J.; Tinney, Charles E.; Ruf, Joseph H.


    Surveys of the fluctuating wall pressure were conducted on a sub-scale, thrust- optimized parabolic nozzle in order to develop a physical intuition for its Fourier-azimuthal mode behavior during fixed and transient start-up conditions. These unsteady signatures are driven by shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions which depend on the nozzle pressure ratio and nozzle geometry. The focus however, is on the degree of similarity between the spectral footprints of these modes obtained from transient start-ups as opposed to a sequence of fixed nozzle pressure ratio conditions. For the latter, statistically converged spectra are computed using conventional Fourier analyses techniques, whereas the former are investigated by way of time-frequency analysis. The findings suggest that at low nozzle pressure ratios -- where the flow resides in a Free Shock Separation state -- strong spectral similarities occur between fixed and transient conditions. Conversely, at higher nozzle pressure ratios -- where the flow resides in Restricted Shock Separation -- stark differences are observed between the fixed and transient conditions and depends greatly on the ramping rate of the transient period. And so, it appears that an understanding of the dynamics during transient start-up conditions cannot be furnished by a way of fixed flow analysis.

  17. Free-jet acoustic investigation of high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles. Comprehensive data report, volume 1 (United States)

    Knott, P. R.; Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Shutiani, P. K.; Vogt, P. G.


    Six coannular plug nozzle configurations having inverted velocity and temperature profiles, and a baseline convergent conical nozzle were tested for simulated flight acoustic evaluation in General Electric's Anechoic Free-Jet Acoustic Facility. The nozzles were tested over a range of test conditions that are typical of a Variable Cycle Engine for application to advanced high speed aircraft. The outer stream radius ratio for most of the configurations was 0.853, and the inner-stream-outer-stream area ratio was tested in the range of 0.54. Other variables investigated were the influence of bypass struts, a simple noncontoured convergent-divergent outer stream nozzle for forward quadrant shock noise control, and the effects of varying outer stream radius and inner-stream-to-outer-stream velocity ratios on the flight noise signatures of the nozzles. It was found that in simulated flight, the high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles maintain their jet noise and shock noise reduction features previously observed in static testing. The presence of nozzle bypass structs will not significantly effect the acoustic noise reduction features of a General Electric-type nozzle design. A unique coannular plug nozzle flight acoustic spectral prediction method was identified and found to predict the measured results quite well. Special laser velocimeter and acoustic measurements were performed which have given new insight into the jet and shock noise reduction mechanisms of coannular plug nozzles with regard to identifying further beneficial research efforts.

  18. The influence of cavitation on the flow characteristics of liquid nitrogen through spray nozzles: A CFD study (United States)

    Xue, Rong; Ruan, Yixiao; Liu, Xiufang; Cao, Feng; Hou, Yu


    Spray cooling with cryogen could achieve lower temperature level than refrigerant spray. The internal flow conditions within spray nozzles have crucial impacts on the mass flow rate, particle size, spray angle and spray penetration, thereby influencing the cooling performance. In this paper, CFD simulations based on mixture model are performed to study the cavitating flow of liquid nitrogen in spray nozzles. The cavitation model is verified using the experimental results of liquid nitrogen flow over hydrofoil. The numerical models of spray nozzle are validated against the experimental data of the mass flow rate of liquid nitrogen flow through different types of nozzles including the pressure swirl nozzle and the simple convergent nozzle. The numerical studies are performed under a wide range of pressure difference and inflow temperature, and the vapor volume fraction distribution, outlet vapor quality, mass flow rate and discharge coefficient are obtained. The results show that the outlet diameter, the pressure difference, and the inflow temperature significantly influence the mass flow rate of spray nozzles. The increase of the inflow temperature leads to higher saturation pressure, higher cavitation intensity, and more vapor at nozzle outlet, which can significantly reduce mass flow rate. While the discharge coefficient is mainly determined by the inflow temperature and has little dependence on the pressure difference and outlet diameter. Based on the numerical results, correlations of discharge coefficient are proposed for pressure swirl nozzle and simple convergent nozzles, respectively, and the deviation is less than 20% for 93% of data.

  19. Analyses of Control Surface Seal Tested in the Ames Arc Jet Tunnel (Panel Test Facility) (United States)

    Reich, Alton J.; Athavale, Mahesh; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Breen, Daniel P.; Robbie, Malcolm G.


    The contents include: 1) Rope Seal; 2) Improvements to porous medial simulation in CFD-ACE+; 3) Porous media heat transfer validation case-stead-state and transient flat plate; 4) Simulation of GRC cold flow seal test fixture; 5) Simulation of calibration plate in the Panel Test Facility (PTF); and 6) Simulation of rope seal test in the PTF. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  20. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors in TPS: Arc Jet Model Design & Testing (United States)

    Black, Richard; Feldman, Jay; Ellerby, Donald; Monk, Joshua; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Switzer, Matthew


    Techniques for using fiber optics with Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) have been developed by IFOS Corp. for use in thermal protection systems (TPS) on spacecraft heat shield materials through NASA Phase 1 and 2 SBIR efforts and have been further improved in a recent collaboration between IFOS and NASA that will be described here. Fiber optic temperature sensors offer several potential advantages over traditional thermocouple sensors including a) multiplexing many sensors in a single fiber to increase sensor density in a given array or to provide spatial resolution, b) improved thermal property match between sensor and TPS to reduce heat flow disruption, c) lack of electrical conductivity.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Radiative Compressible Flows in Aerodynamic Heating Arc-Jet Facility (United States)

    Bensassi, Khalil; Laguna, Alejandro A.; Lani, Andrea; Mansour, Nagi N.


    Numerical simulations of an arc heated flow inside NASA's 20 [MW] Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF) are performed in order to investigate the three-dimensional swirling flow and the current distribution inside the wind tunnel. The plasma is considered in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium(LTE) and is composed of Air-Argon gas mixture. The governing equations are the Navier-Stokes equations that include source terms corresponding to Joule heating and radiative cooling. The former is obtained by solving an electric potential equation, while the latter is calculated using an innovative massively parallel ray-tracing algorithm. The fully coupled system is closed by the thermodynamics relations and transport properties which are obtained from Chapman-Enskog method. A novel strategy was developed in order to enable the flow solver and the radiation calculation to be preformed independently and simultaneously using a different number of processors. Drastic reduction in the computational cost was achieved using this strategy. Details on the numerical methods used for space discretization, time integration and ray-tracing algorithm will be presented. The effect of the radiative cooling on the dynamics of the flow will be investigated. The complete set of equations were implemented within the COOLFluiD Framework. Fig. 1 shows the geometry of the Anode and part of the constrictor of the Aerodynamics heating facility (AHF). Fig. 2 shows the velocity field distribution along (x-y) plane and the streamline in (z-y) plane.

  2. New Stagnation Arc Jet Model Design for Testing ADEPT 3-D Carbon Cloth (United States)

    Beck, R.; Chen, Y.-K.; Wercinski, P.; Agrawal, P.; Chavez-Garcia, J.


    The ADEPT concept has been considered as an entry, descent and landing system to enable Human Mars class missions. Ground rules for the Mars studies required aerocapture, orbit, and then entry. The design utilizes a 3-D woven carbon cloth fabric as both heatshield and primary structure and design guidelines required 6 layers remaining after all entry events. The peak heating predicted for the ADEPT carbon cloth was 35 Wcm2 and resulting temperatures were predicted to be 1400K. Predictions for carbon mass loss were performed using equilibrium thermochemistry, which is only accurate for T2000K. Carbon oxidation is kinetically controlled at T2000K, and mass loss drops off considerably from equilibrium values. Design of the cloth thickness and mass would be significantly reduced if kinetics were considered. This effort was to design a stagnation test article design that could be used in the AHF with varying levels of oxygen where the results could be used to develop an engineering model to describe the recession rate of the carbon as a function of the partial pressure of monotomic oxygen.

  3. Crack cause analysis of a graphite nozzle throat insert (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Bao, Futing; Zhao, Yu; Hou, Lian; Hui, Weihua; Zhang, Ning; Shi, Wei


    With an objective to determine the failure cause of a throughout crack at an angle of 45° and a breach during a firing test, a simplified analysis procedure with consideration of the structure gap was established to simulate the thermo-structural response of a nozzle. By neglecting erosion and pyrolysis of the insulating materials and establishing temperature-dependent or anisotropic material models, ANSYS Parameter Design Language codes were written to perform the fully coupled thermal-structural simulation. A Quasi-1D flow was calculated for supplying boundary conditions. Study on mesh independence and time step independence was also conducted to evaluate simulated results. It was found that shortly after ignition, compressive stress in the x direction and tensile stress in the y direction contributed to anomalies. And through contact status analysis, inappropriate gap design was regarded as the origin of the too large stress, which was the primary cause of these anomalies during firing test. Simulation results were in good agreement with firing test results. In addition, the simplified analysis procedure was proven effective. Gap size should be seriously dealt with in the future design.

  4. Development of pepper nozzle seedling with different fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Kawahata Pagliarini


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to test the slow and conventional release fertilization on pepper nozzle initial seedling development. It was developed at UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, in Pad & Fan greenhouse, from 9th October to 18th November 2010, with seedlings produced at UNESP in plastic tray with 60 cells filled with commercial substrate, when it was 4 or 6 leaves they were transplanted in plastic vases with 1.3 L of volume filled with commercial substrate. It was chosen completely randomized design with four treatments and twenty repetitions. The treatments were: T1 = control (without fertilization, T2 = slow release fertilization Osmocote 3M (15-09-12, T3 = slow release fertilization Basacote 3M (16-08-12 and T4 = total release fertilization (04-30-10, everyone with 3 g L-1 substrate. The parameters analyzed were: plant height, steam diameter, chlorophyll content and number of flowers and fruit. The slow release fertilization were more efficient than convention one for the study variable.

  5. Distribuição volumétrica de pontas de pulverização Turbo Teejet 11002 em diferentes condições operacionais Distribution pattern of nozzle TT 11002 under different operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas


    pressure, as well as the possibility of reducing spray volume by increasing nozzle spacing. Nozzle deposition pattern was evaluated for 30, 40 and 50 cm spray heights, at pressures of 100, 200, 300 and 400 kPa, on a pattern table, using a "V" channel and 5 cm spacing. Ten nozzles were individually placed at the center of the pattern table followed by collection and measurement of the volume sprayed for 60 seconds and determination of the distribution pattern. Based on the deposition patterns, distribution uniformity for nozzles spaced at 40, 50, 80, 100, 120 and 150 cm was simulated using a computer program. Nozzle TT 11002 showed good distribution uniformity, with coefficient of variation (CV below 7 at 100 kPa pressure for nozzles spaced up to 50 cm and at 40 and 50 cm spray heights. At pressures above 200 kPa, good distribution uniformity was verified at up to 50, 100 and 120 cm spacing at 30, 40 and 50 cm spray heights, respectively. Nozzle TT 11002 allows spray volume reduction by increasing nozzle spacing, with good distribution uniformity and increased operational capacity of the spraying equipment.

  6. Citizens and service channels: channel choice and channel management implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan


    The arrival of electronic channels in the 1990s has had a huge impact on governmental service delivery. The new channels have led to many new opportunities to improve public service delivery, not only in terms of citizen satisfaction, but also in cost reduction for governmental agencies. However,

  7. Channel nut tool (United States)

    Olson, Marvin


    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  8. Development of Reactor Vessel Bottom Mount Instrumentation Nozzle Routine Inspection Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaled, Atya Ahmed Abdallah; Ihn, Namgung [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    The primary coolant water of pressurized water reactors has created cracks in j-weld of penetrations with Alloy 600 through a process called primary water stress corrosion cracking. On October 6, 2013, BMI nozzle number 3 at Palo Verde Unit 3 (PVNGS-3) exhibited small white de-posits around the annulus. Nozzle attachment to the RV lower head is by J-groove weld to the inside penetration of the nozzle and the weld material is of Alloy 600 material. Above two cases clearly show the necessity of routine inspection of RV lower head penetration during refueling outage. Nondestructive inspection is generally performed to detect fine cracks or defects that may develop during operation. Defects usually occur at weld regions, hence most non-destructive inspection is to scan and check any defects or crack in the weld region. BMI nozzles at the bottom head of a nuclear reactor vessel (RV) are one of such area for inspection. But BMI nozzles have not been inspected during regular refuel outage due to the relative small size of BMI nozzle and limited impact of the consequences of BMI leak. However, there is growing concern since there have been leaks at nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as recent operating experience. In this study, we propose a system that is conveniently used for nondestructive inspection of BMI nozzles during regular refueling outage without removing all the reactor internals. A 3D model of the inspection system was also developed along with the RV and internals which permits a virtual 3D simulation to check the design concept and usability of the system.

  9. Flow processes in overexpanded chemical rocket nozzles. Part 3: Methods for the aimed flow separation and side load reduction (United States)

    Schmucker, R. H.


    Methods aimed at reduction of overexpansion and side load resulting from asymmetric flow separation for rocket nozzles with a high opening ratio are described. The methods employ additional measures for nozzles with a fixed opening ratio. The flow separation can be controlled by several types of nozzle inserts, the properties of which are discussed. Side loads and overexpansion can be reduced by adapting the shape of the nozzle and taking other additional measures for controlled separation of the boundary layer, such as trip wires.

  10. Feasibility studies of a passive scatter proton therapy nozzle without a range modulator wheel. (United States)

    Harvey, Mark C; Polf, Jerimy C; Smith, Alfred R; Mohan, Radhe


    The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of producing a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) without a range modulation wheel (RMW) using the passive scattering beam delivery technique. For this study, a comprehensive Monte Carlo model of a passive scattering treatment nozzle was used. The RMW was removed from the model leaving only the initial fixed scatterer (RMW-free configuration). Range modulation was achieved by directly changing the energy of the proton beam entering the nozzle. To produce a uniform SOBP, the number of protons injected into the nozzle at each beam energy was "dose weighted." To do so, the effective number of protons was calculated for the individual initial energies using an analytical dose-weighting function, and the resulting weighted Bragg curves were summed together to produce an SOBP of the desired width. We found that SOBPs calculated using the RMW-free nozzle configuration were in very good agreement to those calculated with the standard nozzle configuration containing the RMW for the 250, 180, and 100 MeV maximum beam energies. The depth of the distal 90% dose and the 80%-20% distal dose falloff of SOBPs calculated with the two different nozzle configurations agreed to within a millimeter for the three beam energy options considered in this study. In addition, the 80%-20% lateral penumbra for the cross-field dose profiles calculated with the RMW-free delivery method agreed with results calculated using the standard RMW technique to less than one millimeter. For an equal number of protons injected into the nozzle, an increase of up to 10% in the delivered dose and a significant reduction in both the in-air secondary neutron fluence and dose equivalent (H/D) were observed at the isocenter by removing the RMW from the treatment nozzle and modulating the initial proton beam energy. However, increases in delivery time of up to 70% were also estimated with this method. Our results suggest that it is feasible to deliver a passively

  11. Droplet phase characteristics in liquid-dominated steam--water nozzle flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, T.W.


    An experimental study was undertaken to determine the droplet size distribution, the droplet spatial distribution and the mean droplet velocity in low-quality, steam-water flow from a rectangular cross-section, converging-diverging nozzle. A unique forward light scattering technique was developed for droplet size distribution measurements. Droplet spatial variations were investigated using light transmission measurements, and droplet velocities were measured with a laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV) system incorporating a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. Nozzle throat radius of curvature and height were varied to investigte their effects on droplet size. Droplet size distribution measurements yielded a nominal Sauter mean droplet diameter of 1.7 and a nominal mass-mean droplet diameter of 2.4 Neither the throat radius of curvature nor the throat height were found to have a significant effect upon the nozzle exit droplet size. The light transmission and LDV measurement results confirmed both the droplet size measurements and demonstrated high spatial uniformity of the droplet phase within the nozzle jet flow. One-dimensional numerical calculations indicated that both the dynamic breakup (thermal equilibrium based on a critical Weber number of 6.0) and the boiling breakup (thermal nonequilibrium based on average droplet temperature) models predicted droplet diameters on the order of 7.5, which are approximately equal to the maximum stable droplet diameters within the nozzle jet flow.

  12. External nozzle flap dynamic load measurements on F-15 S/MTD model (United States)

    Seiner, John M.; Ponton, Michael K.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.; Manning, James C.; Mason, Mary L.


    Dynamic pressure loads were obtained on 1/12 scale models of the F-15B production aircraft and the F-15 S/MTD experimental aircraft with rectangular nozzles and canards. Flight Mach numbers from 0.51 to 1.20 were studied for aircraft angles of attack from 0 to 10 deg and nozzle pressure ratios from 1.00 to 5.09. The results show that dynamic levels are lower in the internozzle region of twin rectangular nozzles than are levels found with twin axisymmetric nozzles. At other locations, the levels associated with both geometries are of the same order of magnitude when normalized by aircraft dynamic Q. At Mach number of 0.51, the loads spectrum is dominated by plume shock noise processes for both geometries. Above Mach 0.51, this mechanism is associated with either vortex bursting from a forward location or turbulent boundary layer separation over the nozzle external flaps. At supersonic speeds both geometries show significantly decreased load levels.

  13. Pengembangan Rancangan Nozzle Waterjet untuk Meningkatkan Kecepatan Renang pada Tank BMP-3F (Infantry Fighting Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozzaqi Anata


    Full Text Available Negara Kepulauan Republik Indonesia (NKRI memiliki wilayah  perairan yang luas, sehingga pertahanan negara di sektor perairan menjadi lebih dirapatkan. Strategi yang dibentuk adalah dengan memproduksi dan membeli kendaraan tempur. Salah satu kendaraan yang dibeli adalah tank amphibi BMP-3F buatan rusia. Kendaraan tank ini ketika dioperasikan di perairan hanya mencapai kecepatan 10 km/h, oleh karena itu akan dilakukan pengembangan perancangan nozzle waterjet untuk dapat meningkatkan kecepatan renang dari tank BMP-3F. Sehingga dilakukan beberapa modifikasi dari variasi nozzle yang akan dianalisa menggunakan SolidWorks yakni variasi diameter nozzle dari kondisi awal 140 mm hingga menjadi 110 mm, serta perbedaan sudut nozzle yang nantinya akan membentuk cone, dari 10 hingga 40, serta penambahan ulir pada sisi outlet water jet. Dari hasil analisa data dan perhitungan diperoleh untuk hasil thrust tertinggi dengan bentuk nozzle cone variasi 40 menghasilkan thrust sebesar 146,347 kN dengan kecepatan renang meningkat sebesar 89% dari kecepatan awal yakni menjadi 10,017 knot pada saat thrust deduction factor sebesar 0,3076.

  14. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet Flows with Shock Interactions (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Morr, Donald E.; Durston, Donald A.


    NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are performing studies of supersonic aircraft concepts with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern aircraft designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty remains in the aft signatures due to boundary layer and nozzle exhaust jet effects. Wind tunnel testing without inlet and nozzle exhaust jet effects at lower Reynolds numbers than in-flight make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel is planned for February 2016 to address the nozzle jet effects on sonic boom. The experiment will provide pressure signatures of test articles that replicate waveforms from aircraft wings, tails, and aft fuselage (deck) components after passing through cold nozzle jet plumes. The data will provide a variety of nozzle plume and shock interactions for comparison with computational results. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of a variety of shock generators were evaluated to define a reduced collection of suitable test models. The computational results of the candidate wind tunnel test models as they evolved are summarized, and pre-test computations of the final designs are provided.

  15. Effects of Fuel and Nozzle Characteristics on Micro Gas Turbine System: A Review (United States)

    Akasha Hashim, Muhammad; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed


    For many decades, gas turbines have been used widely in the internal combustion engine industry. Due to the deficiency of fossil fuel and the concern of global warming, the used of bio-gas have been recognized as one of most clean fuels in the application of engine to improve performance of lean combustion and minimize the production of NOX and PM. This review paper is to understand the combustion performance using dual-fuel nozzle for a micro gas turbine that was basically designed as a natural gas fuelled engine, the nozzle characteristics of the micro gas turbine has been modelled and the effect of multi-fuel used were investigated. The used of biogas (hydrogen) as substitute for liquid fuel (methane) at constant fuel injection velocity, the flame temperature is increased, but the fuel low rate reduced. Applying the blended fuel at constant fuel rate will increased the flame temperature as the hydrogen percentages increased. Micro gas turbines which shows the uniformity of the flow distribution that can be improved without the increase of the pressure drop by applying the variable nozzle diameters into the fuel supply nozzle design. It also identifies the combustion efficiency, better fuel mixing in combustion chamber using duel fuel nozzle with the largest potential for the future. This paper can also be used as a reference source that summarizes the research and development activities on micro gas turbines.

  16. Fluid flow analysis of a hot-core hypersonic wind-tunnel nozzle concept (United States)

    Anders, J. B.; Sebacher, D. I.; Boatright, W. B.


    A hypersonic-wind-tunnel nozzle concept which incorporates a hot-core flow surrounded by an annular flow of cold air offers a promising technique for maximizing the model size while minimizing the power required to heat the test core. This capability becomes especially important when providing the true-temperature duplication needed for hypersonic propulsion testing. Several two-dimensional wind-tunnel nozzle configurations that are designed according to this concept are analyzed by using recently developed analytical techniques for prediction of the boundary-layer growth and the mixing between the hot and cold coaxial supersonic airflows. The analyses indicate that introduction of the cold annular flow near the throat results in an unacceptable test core for the nozzle size and stagnation conditions considered because of both mixing and condensation effects. Use of a half-nozzle with a ramp on the flat portion does not appear promising because of the thick boundary layer associated with the extra length. However, the analyses indicate that if the cold annular flow is introduced at the exit of a full two-dimensional nozzle, an acceptable test core will be produced. Predictions of the mixing between the hot and cold supersonic streams for this configuration show that mixing effects from the cold flow do not appreciably penetrate into the hot core for the large downstream distances of interest.

  17. Fuel density effect on near nozzle flow field in small laminar coflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan


    Flow characteristics in small coflow diffusion flames were investigated with a particular focus on the near-nozzle region and on the buoyancy force exerted on fuels with densities lighter and heavier than air (methane, ethylene, propane, and n-butane). The flow-fields were visualized through the trajectories of seed particles. The particle image velocimetry technique was also adopted for quantitative velocity field measurements. The results showed that the buoyancy force exerted on the fuel as well as on burnt gas significantly distorted the near-nozzle flow-fields. In the fuels with densities heavier than air, recirculation zones were formed very close to the nozzle, emphasizing the importance of the relative density of the fuel to that of the air on the flow-field. Nozzle heating influenced the near-nozzle flow-field particularly among lighter fuels (methane and ethylene). Numerical simulations were also conducted, focusing specifically on the effect of specifying inlet boundary conditions for fuel. The results showed that a fuel inlet boundary with a fully developed velocity profile for cases with long tubes should be specified inside the fuel tube to permit satisfactory prediction of the flow-field. The calculated temperature fields also indicated the importance of the selection of the location of the inlet boundary, especially in testing various combustion models that include soot in small coflow diffusion flames. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  18. A Comparative Study of Nozzle/Diffuser Micropumps with Novel Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Cherng Shyu


    Full Text Available This study conducts an experimental study concerning the improvement of nozzle/diffuser micropump design using some novel no-moving-part valves. A total of three micropumps, including two enhancement structures having two-fin or obstacle structure and one conventional micro nozzle/diffuser design, are made and tested in this study. It is found that dramatic increase of the pressure drops across the designed micro nozzles/diffusers are seen when the obstacle or fin structure is added. The resultant maximum flow rates are 47.07 mm3/s and 53.39 mm3/s, respectively, for the conventional micro nozzle/diffuser and the added two-fin structure in micro nozzle/diffuser operated at a frequency of 400 Hz. Yet the mass flow rate for two-fin design surpasses that of conventional one when the frequency is below 425 Hz but the trend is reversed with a further increase of frequency. This is because the maximum efficiency ratio improvement for added two-fin is appreciably higher than the other design at a lower operating frequency. In the meantime, despite the efficiency ratio of the obstacle structure also reveals a similar trend as that of two-fin design, its significant pressure drop (flow resistance had offset its superiority at low operating frequency, thereby leading to a lesser flow rate throughout the test range.

  19. Measuring concentricity and coaxial tolerance of nozzle and cavity with tool microscope (United States)

    Lu, Xizhao; Jiang, Feng; Ye, Ruifang; Lei, Tingping


    While the equipment of Micro-jet wave-guided laser was assembled, high-precision of concentricity and coaxiality between nozzle and cavity are required, which directly or indirectly influent the laser coupling precision of nozzle, the micro-jet stability and the steady length of micro-jet as well. As a result, the measurement of concentricity and coaxiality is important to improve the processing quality of Micro-jet wave-guided laser Through the new digital universal tool microscope measuring both ends of micro nozzle and diameter of nozzle, more resolution the other hand, the backlight detection the edge of nozzle is utilized. When the position of the center of a circle is indirect measured and then find out the concentricity through the uncertainty of the measurement and calculation method. V shaped groove is utilized to make certain its position. Otherwise, digital imaging through setting fixture and the use of new digital universal tool microscope and processed by software, which will cause to reduce measurement human error in tradition, after that, error theory analysis will be carried out, uncertainty theory will be utilized to make the experiment more sure at the same time. Above all, the reliability of data is obtained, compared with the traditional measurement methods are more accurate. Therefore, the processing quality of laser drilling will be enhanced significantly.

  20. VCE early acoustic test results of General Electric's high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzle (United States)

    Knott, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Bhutiani, P. K.; Majjigi, R. K.; Doyle, V. L.


    Results of variable cycle engine (VCE) early acoustic engine and model scale tests are presented. A summary of an extensive series of far field acoustic, advanced acoustic, and exhaust plume velocity measurements with a laser velocimeter of inverted velocity and temperature profile, high radius ratio coannular plug nozzles on a YJ101 VCE static engine test vehicle are reviewed. Select model scale simulated flight acoustic measurements for an unsuppressed and a mechanical suppressed coannular plug nozzle are also discussed. The engine acoustic nozzle tests verify previous model scale noise reduction measurements. The engine measurements show 4 to 6 PNdB aft quadrant jet noise reduction and up to 7 PNdB forward quadrant shock noise reduction relative to a fully mixed conical nozzle at the same specific thrust and mixed pressure ratio. The influences of outer nozzle radius ratio, inner stream velocity ratio, and area ratio are discussed. Also, laser velocimeter measurements of mean velocity and turbulent velocity of the YJ101 engine are illustrated. Select model scale static and simulated flight acoustic measurements are shown which corroborate that coannular suppression is maintained in forward speed.

  1. Experimental Analyses of Flow Field Structures around Clustered Linear Aerospike Nozzles (United States)

    Taniguchi, Mashio; Mori, Hideo; Nishihira, Ryutaro; Niimi, Tomohide


    An aerospike nozzle has been expected as a candidate for an engine of a reusable space shuttle to respond to growing demand for rocket-launching and its cost reduction. In this study, the flow field structures in any cross sections around clustered linear aerospike nozzles are visualized and analyzed, using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of NO seeded in the carrier gas N2. Since flow field structures are affected mainly by pressure ratio (Ps/Pa, Ps: the source pressure in a reservoir, Pa: the ambient pressure in the vacuum chamber), the clustered linear aerospike nozzle is set inside a vacuum chamber to carry out the experiments in the wide range of pressure ratios from 75 to 200. Flow fields are visualized in several cross-sections, demonstrating the complicated three-dimensional flow field structures. Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) of PtTFPP bound by poly-IBM-co-TFEM is also applied to measurement of the complicated pressure distribution on the spike surface, and to verification of contribution of a truncation plane to the thrust. Finally, to examine the effect of the sidewalls attached to the aerospike nozzle, the flow fields around the nozzle with the sidewalls are compared with those without sidewalls.

  2. Higher quality quercetin sustained release ethyl cellulose nanofibers fabricated using a spinneret with a Teflon nozzle. (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Zhuan-Hua; Yu, Deng-Guang


    This study investigates the usage of a spinneret with a Teflon nozzle for fabrication of higher quality drug sustained-release electrospun nanofibers. Ethyl cellulose (EC) and quercetin were used as a filament-forming polymer matrix and an active pharmaceutical ingredient, respectively. The electrospinning was conducted using both a traditional stainless steel spinneret and a spinneret with a Teflon nozzle. Experimental results demonstrated that a Teflon-fluid interface at the spinneret's nozzle provided a better performance for implementing electrospinning than a traditional metal-fluid interface in the following aspects: (1) keeping more electrical energy on the working fluids for an efficacious process; (2) exerting less negative effect on the fluid to draw it back to the tube; and (3) making less possibility of clogging. The resulted nanofibers from the spinneret with a Teflon nozzle exhibited higher quality than those from the traditional spinneret in those: (1) smaller diameter and narrower distribution, 520±70 nm for the former and 750±280 nm for the later, as indicated by the field emission scanning electron microscopic images; and (2) better sustained-release profiles of quercetin from the former than the latter, as demonstrated by the in vitro dissolution tests. The new protocols about usage of Teflon as a spinneret's nozzle and the related knowledge disclosed here should promote the preparation and application of electrospun functional nanofibers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of an Aeroelastic Modeling Capability for Transient Nozzle Side Load Analysis (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Sijun; Chen, Yen-Sen


    Lateral nozzle forces are known to cause severe structural damage to any new rocket engine in development during test. While three-dimensional, transient, turbulent, chemically reacting computational fluid dynamics methodology has been demonstrated to capture major side load physics with rigid nozzles, hot-fire tests often show nozzle structure deformation during major side load events, leading to structural damages if structural strengthening measures were not taken. The modeling picture is incomplete without the capability to address the two-way responses between the structure and fluid. The objective of this study is to develop a coupled aeroelastic modeling capability by implementing the necessary structural dynamics component into an anchored computational fluid dynamics methodology. The computational fluid dynamics component is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, while the computational structural dynamics component is developed in the framework of modal analysis. Transient aeroelastic nozzle startup analyses of the Block I Space Shuttle Main Engine at sea level were performed. The computed results from the aeroelastic nozzle modeling are presented.

  4. Numerical and analytical modelling of entropy noise in a supersonic nozzle with a shock (United States)

    Leyko, M.; Moreau, S.; Nicoud, F.; Poinsot, T.


    Analytical and numerical assessments of the indirect noise generated through a nozzle are presented. The configuration corresponds to an experiment achieved at DLR by Bake et al. [The entropy wave generator (EWG): a reference case on entropy noise, Journal of Sound and Vibration 326 (2009) 574-598] where an entropy wave is generated upstream of a nozzle by an electrical heating device. Both 3-D and 2-D axisymmetric simulations are performed to demonstrate that the experiment is mostly driven by linear acoustic phenomena, including pressure wave reflection at the outlet and entropy-to-acoustic conversion in the accelerated regions. Moreover, the spatial inhomogeneity of the upstream entropy fluctuation has no visible effect for the investigated frequency range (0-100 Hz). Similar results are obtained with a purely analytical method based on the compact nozzle approximation of Marble and Candel [Acoustic disturbances from gas nonuniformities convected through a nozzle, Journal of Sound and Vibration 55 (1977) 225-243] demonstrating that the DLR results can be reproduced simply on the basis of a low-frequency compact-elements approximation. Like in the present simulations, the analytical method shows that the acoustic impedance downstream of the nozzle must be accounted for to properly recover the experimental pressure signal. The analytical method can also be used to optimize the experimental parameters and avoid the interaction between transmitted and reflected waves.

  5. The effect of nozzle diameter, injection pressure and ambient temperature on spray characteristics in diesel engine (United States)

    Rhaodah Andsaler, Adiba; Khalid, Amir; Sharifhatul Adila Abdullah, Nor; Sapit, Azwan; Jaat, Norrizam


    Mixture formation of the ignition process is a key element in the diesel combustion as it influences the combustion process and exhaust emission. Aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of nozzle diameter, injection pressure and ambient temperature to the formation of spray. This study investigated diesel formation spray using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Multiphase volume of fluid (VOF) behaviour in the chamber are determined by means of transient simulation, Eulerian of two phases is used for implementation of mixing fuel and air. The detail behaviour of spray droplet diameter, spray penetration and spray breakup length was visualised using the ANSYS 16.1. This simulation was done in different nozzle diameter 0.12 mm and 0.2 mm performed at the ambient temperature 500 K and 700 K with different injection pressure 40 MPa, 70 MPa and 140 MPa. Results show that high pressure influence droplet diameter become smaller and the penetration length longer with the high injection pressure apply. Smaller nozzle diameter gives a shorter length of the breakup. It is necessary for nozzle diameter and ambient temperature condition to improve the formation of spray. High injection pressure is most effective in improvement of formation spray under higher ambient temperature and smaller nozzle diameter.

  6. The Effect of Nozzle Types and Time of Herbicide Incorporation in Soil on Corn (Zea mays L. Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gerami


    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effect of nozzle types and the time of herbicide incorporation in soil on weed control, using split plot design by randomized block design. The main plots were soil and herbicide mixing time and the subplots were nozzle types with three replications. This study was performed in Karaj station of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, located 25 km west of Tehran, in 2008. Treatments were including: T-Jet standard nozzle, Flood-Jet nozzle and Air induction nozzle as well as mixing with the soil immediately, three, six and nine hours after spraying. The parameters were measured includes: the number of weeds before spraying, 15 days and 30 days after spraying; dry weed at two stages of 15 and 30 days after the spraying; and yield of corn. The results revealed that the spraying quality coefficient was greater for T-jet nozzle compared to the other types. However Flood-jet nozzle had a wide range of corn weeds control in comparison to other treatments. Regardless of the nozzle type, the immediate incorporation of herbicide in soil after spraying significantly increased the yield. The time of herbicide incorporation in soil and poison intermixture with soil, from zero to 4.5 hours after spraying was superior to the other times. This was mainly due to different weeds reactions to the times of herbicide incorporation in soil after spraying, and also treatments effect on yield and weed dry weight. Combined data analysis showed that treatment combination of T-Jet nozzle (with time of herbicide incorporation in soil immediately and three hours after spraying, Flood-jet nozzle (with time of herbicide incorporation in soil immediately after spraying and air induction nozzle (with time of herbicide incorporation in soil immediately, three and six hours after spraying produced the highest yield than the other treatment combinations.

  7. [Memory and potassium channels]. (United States)

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, Iu V; Skrebitskiĭ, V G


    The K(+)-channels of the surface membrane play a crucial role in the generation of electrical activity of a neuron. There is a large diversity of the K(+)-channels that depends on a great number (over 200) of genes encoding channels proteins. An evolutionary conservation of channel's proteins is determined. The K(+)-channels were found to have a great importance in the memory processes. It was shown on different model systems that K(+)-current of the surface membrane decreases during the learning. The antagonists of K(+)-channels were found to improve the learning and memory. It was revealed in electrophysiological experiments that K(+)-channels antagonists can either themselves induce a long-term synaptic potentiation or intensify the synaptic potentiation induced by a tetanization. The disfunction of K(+)-channels is believed to be an important link in the mechanisms of memory disturbances. In animal mutants with K(+)-channels disfunction, learning and memory are deficient. In behavioral experiments, the use of K(+)-channels openers make the learning worse. Amnesia caused by cerebral ischemia is explained by strong activity of K(+)-channels which not only inhibits neuronal excitement but also causes neurodegeneration. The question on the K(+)-channels involvement into pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease is discussed. Neurotoxic peptide beta-amyloid, which is supposed to be involved into mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease, modulates K(+)-channels function. The effect of beta-amyloid depends on the subtype of K(+)-channels: A-channels are inhibited, and KDR-channels, on the contrary, become stronger. The effect of the cognitive enhancers (vinpocetine, piracetam, tacrine, linopirdine) on K(+)-current also depends on the subtype of K(+)-channels. Slow-inactivating K(+)-currents (IDR, IK(Ca), IM) are inhibited in the presence of these drugs, while fast-in-activating K(+)-current (A-current) remains unchanged or even increases.

  8. Hadamard quantum broadcast channels (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.


    We consider three different communication tasks for quantum broadcast channels, and we determine the capacity region of a Hadamard broadcast channel for these various tasks. We define a Hadamard broadcast channel to be such that the channel from the sender to one of the receivers is entanglement-breaking and the channel from the sender to the other receiver is complementary to this one. As such, this channel is a quantum generalization of a degraded broadcast channel, which is well known in classical information theory. The first communication task we consider is classical communication to both receivers, the second is quantum communication to the stronger receiver and classical communication to other, and the third is entanglement-assisted classical communication to the stronger receiver and unassisted classical communication to the other. The structure of a Hadamard broadcast channel plays a critical role in our analysis: The channel to the weaker receiver can be simulated by performing a measurement channel on the stronger receiver's system, followed by a preparation channel. As such, we can incorporate the classical output of the measurement channel as an auxiliary variable and solve all three of the above capacities for Hadamard broadcast channels, in this way avoiding known difficulties associated with quantum auxiliary variables.

  9. Bending-torsional flutter of a cantilevered pipe conveying fluid with an inclined terminal nozzle (United States)

    Firouz-Abadi, R. D.; Askarian, A. R.; Kheiri, M.


    Stability analysis of a horizontal cantilevered pipe conveying fluid with an inclined terminal nozzle is considered in this paper. The pipe is modelled as a cantilevered Euler-Bernoulli beam, and the flow-induced inertia, Coriolis and centrifugal forces along the pipe as well as the follower force induced by the jet-flow are taken into account. The governing equations of the coupled bending-torsional vibrations of the pipe are obtained using extended Hamilton's principle and are then discretized via the Galerkin method. The resulting eigenvalue problem is then solved, and several cases are examined to determine the effect of nozzle inclination angle, nozzle aspect ratio, mass ratio and bending-to-torsional rigidity ratio on flutter speed of the system.

  10. Ultra low injection angle fuel holes in a combustor fuel nozzle (United States)

    York, William David


    A fuel nozzle for a combustor includes a mixing passage through which fluid is directed toward a combustion area and a plurality of swirler vanes disposed in the mixing passage. Each swirler vane of the plurality of swirler vanes includes at least one fuel hole through which fuel enters the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes thereby decreasing a flameholding tendency of the fuel nozzle. A method of operating a fuel nozzle for a combustor includes flowing a fluid through a mixing passage past a plurality of swirler vanes and injecting a fuel into the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes.

  11. CFD Analysis of Nozzle Exit Position Effect in Ejector Gas Removal System in Geothermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Nugroho


    Full Text Available The single stage ejector is used to extract the Non CondensableGas (NCG in the condenser using the working principle of the Venturi tube. Three dimensional computational simulation of the ejector according to the operating conditions was conducted to determine the flow in the ejector. Motive steam entering through the convergent – divergent nozzle with increasing flow velocity so that the low pressure exist around the nozzle. Comparison is done also in a two dimensional simulation to know the differences occurring phenomena and flow inside ejector. Different simulation results obtained between two dimensional and three dimensional simulation. Reverse flow which occurs in the mixing chamber made the static pressure in the area has increased dramatically. Then the variation performed on Exit Nozzle Position (NXP to determine the changes of the flow of the NCG and the vacuum level of the ejector. Keywords: Ejector, NCG, CFD, Compressible flow.

  12. Aerodynamic/acoustic performance of YJ101/double bypass VCE with coannular plug nozzle (United States)

    Vdoviak, J. W.; Knott, P. R.; Ebacker, J. J.


    Results of a forward Variable Area Bypass Injector test and a Coannular Nozzle test performed on a YJ101 Double Bypass Variable Cycle Engine are reported. These components are intended for use on a Variable Cycle Engine. The forward Variable Area Bypass Injector test demonstrated the mode shifting capability between single and double bypass operation with less than predicted aerodynamic losses in the bypass duct. The acoustic nozzle test demonstrated that coannular noise suppression was between 4 and 6 PNdB in the aft quadrant. The YJ101 VCE equipped with the forward VABI and the coannular exhaust nozzle performed as predicted with exhaust system aerodynamic losses lower than predicted both in single and double bypass modes. Extensive acoustic data were collected including far field, near field, sound separation/ internal probe measurements as Laser Velocimeter traverses.

  13. Visualization and Analyses of Jet Structures from a Cluster-Type Linear Aerospike Nozzle (United States)

    Niimi, Tomohide; Mori, Hideo; Okabe, Kazuki; Masai, Yusuke; Taniguchi, Mashio

    Aerospike nozzles have been expected as a candidate for an engine of reusable space shuttles to respond to growing demand for rocket-launching and its cost reduction. In this study, the flow field structure in any cross sections around the linear-type aerospike nozzle are visualized and analyzed, using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of NO seeded in the carrier gas N2. Since the flow field structure is affected mainly by the pressure ratio (P/P), the linear-type aerospike nozzle is set inside the vacuum chamber to carry out the experiments in the wide range of pressure ratios from 75 to 250. Flow fields are visualized in several cross-sections, demonstrating the complicated three-dimensional flow field structures. Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) of PtTFPP bound by poly(TMSP) is also applied successfully to measurement of the complicated pressure distribution on the spike surface.

  14. A Novel Machine Vision System for the Inspection of Micro-Spray Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yi Huang


    Full Text Available In this study, we present an application of neural network and image processing techniques for detecting the defects of an internal micro-spray nozzle. The defect regions were segmented by Canny edge detection, a randomized algorithm for detecting circles and a circle inspection (CI algorithm. The gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM was further used to evaluate the texture features of the segmented region. These texture features (contrast, entropy, energy, color features (mean and variance of gray level and geometric features (distance variance, mean diameter and diameter ratio were used in the classification procedures. A back-propagation neural network classifier was employed to detect the defects of micro-spray nozzles. The methodology presented herein effectively works for detecting micro-spray nozzle defects to an accuracy of 90.71%.

  15. Increased Jet Noise Due to a "Nominally Laminar" State of Nozzle Exit Boundary Layer (United States)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.


    A set of 2-inch diameter nozzles is used to investigate the effect of varying exit boundary layer state on the radiated noise from high-subsonic jets. It is confirmed that nozzles involving turbulent boundary layers are the quietest while nozzles involving a nominally-laminar boundary layer are loud especially on the high-frequency side of the sound pressure level spectrum. The latter boundary layer state involves a Blasius-like mean velocity profile but higher turbulence intensities compared to those in the turbulent state. The higher turbulence in the initial region of the jet shear layer leads to increased high-frequency noise. The results strongly suggest that an anomaly noted with subsonic jet noise databases in the literature is due to a similar effect of differences in the initial boundary layer state.

  16. Nozzle Fuzzy Controller of Agricultural Spraying Robot Aiming Toward Crop Rows (United States)

    Ren, Jianqiang

    A novel nozzle controller of spraying robot aiming toward crop-rows based on fuzzy control theory was studied in this paper to solve the shortcomings of existing nozzle control system, such as the long regulation time, the higher overshoot and so on. The new fuzzy controller mainly consists of fuzzification interface, defuzzification interface, rule-base and inference mechanism. Considering the actual application, the fuzzy controller was designed as a 2-inputs&1-output closed-loop system. The inputs are the distance from nozzle to crop row and its change rate, the output is the control signal to the execution unit. Based on the design project, we selected the FMC chip NLX230, the EMCU chip AT89S52 and the EEPROM chip AT93C57 to make the fuzzy controller. Experimental results show that the project is workable and efficient, it can solve the shortcomings of existing controller perfectly and the control efficiency can be improved greatly.

  17. Gen 2.0 Mixer/Ejector Nozzle Test at LSAF June 1995 to July 1996 (United States)

    Arney, L. D.; Sandquist, D. L.; Forsyth, D. W.; Lidstone, G. L.; Long-Davis, Mary Jo (Technical Monitor)


    Testing of the HSCT Generation 2.0 nozzle model hardware was conducted at the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility, LSAF. Concurrent measurements of noise and thrust were made at critical takeoff design conditions for a variety of mixer/ejector model hardware. Design variables such as suppressor area ratio, mixer area ratio, liner type and thickness, ejector length, lobe penetration, and mixer chute shape were tested. Parallel testing was conducted at G.E.'s Cell 41 acoustic free jet facility to augment the LSAF test. The results from the Gen 2.0 testing are being used to help shape the current nozzle baseline configuration and guide the efforts in the upcoming Generation 2.5 and 3.0 nozzle tests. The Gen 2.0 results have been included in the total airplane system studies conducted at MDC and Boeing to provide updated noise and thrust performance estimates.

  18. Effect of DVI nozzle location on the thermal mixing in the RVDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyung Seok; Cho, Bong Hyun; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Bae, Yoon Yeong; Park, Jong Gun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    In the Korea Next Generation Reactor (KNGR), Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) concepts has been introduced as Safety Injection System (SIS) for the increase of reliability and safety. Five DVI nozzle locations are carefully selected to determine optimum location view point of reactor vessel Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) and thermal hydraulics. The computational fluid dynamic code CFX is used for this study. The analysis results are as follows. (1) Since the vessel beltline temperature of all cases is well above RT{sub PTS} (89 deg F), all case satisfy PTS concern. The vessel beltline temperature distribution of case 4 is most uniform. (2) With regard to temperature distribution, case 3 and 4 show more even distribution. Case 1 and 5 show very low locally temperature, evidencing poor thermal mixing. Therefore, it is recommended that the nozzle location should be right above the cold leg nozzle if circumstance permits. (author). 12 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Numerical investigation of the variable nozzle effect on the mixed flow turbine performance characteristics (United States)

    Meziri, B.; Hamel, M.; Hireche, O.; Hamidou, K.


    There are various matching ways between turbocharger and engine, the variable nozzle turbine is the most significant method. The turbine design must be economic with high efficiency and large capacity over a wide range of operational conditions. These design intents are used in order to decrease thermal load and improve thermal efficiency of the engine. This paper presents an original design method of a variable nozzle vane for mixed flow turbines developed from previous experimental and numerical studies. The new device is evaluated with a numerical simulation over a wide range of rotational speeds, pressure ratios, and different vane angles. The compressible turbulent steady flow is solved using the ANSYS CFX software. The numerical results agree well with experimental data in the nozzleless configuration. In the variable nozzle case, the results show that the turbine performance characteristics are well accepted in different open positions and improved significantly in low speed regime and at low pressure ratio.

  20. Study on probability of failure for RPV nozzle region under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Il Soon; Jeong, Kwang Jin; Oh, Young Jin; Kwon, Seung Uk; Jun, Hyun Chul [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea)


    Most of previous study for creep rupture of RPV lower head under severe accident condition, have been focused on global failure of RPV lower head. In contract, the local failure of the RPV nozzle region has not been studied in detail. The existence and features of nozzle failure in LAVA-ICI specimen of KAERI and LHF-4 specimen of Sandia National Lab., are observed. It is confirmed that the nozzle failure of LHF-4 specimen is due to the hoop stress in the RPV. The tensile tests in various temperatures and the creep rupture tests in various temperatures and stresses, are accomplished. The finite element analysis for LAVA-ICI experiment was confirmed, and the stress and deformation analysis results are used in LAVA-ICI experiment. 17 refs., 34 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  1. Robust design and analysis of a conformal expansion nozzle with inverse-design idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbiao GAN


    Full Text Available This paper examines robust optimization design and analysis of a conformal expansion nozzle of flying wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV with the inverse-design idea. In view of flow features and stealth constraints, the inverse-design idea is described and the uncertainty-based robust design model is presented. A robust design system employs this model to combine deterministic optimization and robust optimization and is applied into design of a conformal expansion nozzle. The results indicate that design optimization can conform to the anticipation of the inverse-design idea and significantly improve the aerodynamic performance that meet the requirement of 6σ. The present method is a feasible nozzle design strategy that integrates robust optimization and inverse-design.

  2. USACE Navigation Channels 2012 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  3. Calcium channel blocker overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to ...

  4. Fully Coupled Aero-Thermochemical-Elastic Simulations of an Eroding Graphite Nozzle (United States)

    Blades, E. L.; Reveles, N. D.; Nucci, M.; Maclean, M.


    A multiphysics simulation capability has been developed that incorporates mutual interactions between aerodynamics, structural response from aero/thermal loading, ablation/pyrolysis, heating, and surface-to-surface radiation to perform high-fidelity, fully coupled aerothermoelastic ablation simulations, which to date had been unattainable. The multiphysics framework couples CHAR (a 3-D implicit charring ablator solver), Loci/CHEM (a computational fluid dynamics solver for high-speed chemically reacting flows), and Abaqus (a nonlinear structural dynamics solver) to create a fully coupled aerothermoelastic charring ablative solver. The solvers are tightly coupled in a fully integrated fashion to resolve the effects of the ablation pyrolysis and charring process and chemistry products upon the flow field, the changes in surface geometry due to recession upon the flow field, and thermal-structural analysis of the body from the induced aerodynamic heating from the flow field. The multiphysics framework was successfully demonstrated on a solid rocket motor graphite nozzle erosion application. Comparisons were made with available experimental data that measured the throat erosion during the motor firing. The erosion data is well characterized, as the test rig was equipped with a windowed nozzle section for real-time X-ray radiography diagnostics of the instantaneous throat variations for deducing the instantaneous erosion rates. The nozzle initially undergoes a nozzle contraction due to thermal expansion before ablation effects are able to widen the throat. A series of parameters studies were conducted using the coupled simulation capability to determine the sensitivity of the nozzle erosion to different parameters. The parameter studies included the shape of the nozzle throat (flat versus rounded), the material properties, the effect of the choice of turbulence model, and the inclusion or exclusion of the mechanical thermal expansion. Overall, the predicted results match

  5. Mixing Process in Ejector Nozzles Studied at Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (United States)


    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been studying mixing processes in ejector nozzles for its High Speed Research (HSR) Program. This work is directed at finding ways to minimize the noise of a future supersonic airliner. Much of the noise such an airplane would generate would come from the nozzle, where a hot, high-speed jet exits the engine. Several different nozzle configurations were used to produce nozzle systems with different acoustical and aerodynamic characteristics. The acoustical properties were measured by an array of microphones in an anechoic chamber, and the aerodynamics were measured by traditional pressure and temperature instruments as well as by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), a technique for visualizing the airflow pattern without disturbing it. These measurements were put together and compared for different configurations to examine the relationships between mixing and noise generation. The mixer-ejector nozzle with the installed flow-visualization windows (foreground), the optical equipment and the supporting structure for the Laser Doppler Velocimetry flow visualization (midfield), and the sound-absorbing wedges used to create an anechoic environment for acoustic testing (background) is shown. The High Speed Research Program is a NASA-funded effort, in cooperation with the U.S. aerospace industry, to develop enabling technologies for a future supersonic airliner. One of the technological barriers being addressed is noise generated during near-airport operation. The mixer-ejector nozzle concept is being examined as a way to reduce jet noise while maintaining thrust. Ambient air is mixed with the high-velocity engine exhaust to reduce the jet velocity and hence the noise generated by the jet. The model was designed and built by Pratt & Whitney under NASA contract. The test, completed in June 1995, was conducted in Lewis' Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory.

  6. Effects of nonuniform Mach-number entrance on scramjet nozzle flowfield and performance (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Xu, Jinglei; Quan, Zhibin; Mo, Jianwei


    Considering the non-uniformities of nozzle entrance influenced by the upstream, the effects of nonuniform Mach-number coupled with shock and expansion-wave on the flowfield and performances of single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) are numerically studied using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The adopted Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methodology is validated by comparing the numerical results with the cold experimental data, and the average method used in this paper is discussed. Uniform and nonuniform facility nozzles are designed to generate different Mach-number profile for the inlet of SERN, which is direct-connected with different facility nozzle, and the whole flowfield is simulated. Because of the coupling of shock and expansion-wave, flow direction of nonuniform SERN entrance is distorted. Compared with Mach contour of uniform case, the line is more curved for coupling shock-wave entrance (SWE) case, and flatter for the coupling expansion-wave entrance (EWE) case. Wall pressure distribution of SWE case appears rising region, whereas decreases like stairs of EWE case. The numerical results reveal that the coupled shock and expansion-wave play significant roles on nozzle performances. Compared with the SERN performances of uniform entrance case at the same work conditions, the thrust of nonuniform entrance cases reduces by 3-6%, pitch moment decreases by 2.5-7%. The negative lift presents an incremental trend with EWE while the situation is the opposite with SWE. These results confirm that considering the entrance flow parameter nonuniformities of a scramjet nozzle coupled with shock or expansion-wave from the upstream is necessary.

  7. Channel morphology [Chapter 5 (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary


    Channel morphology has become an increasingly important subject for analyzing the health of rivers and associated fish populations, particularly since the popularization of channel classification and assessment methods. Morphological data can help to evaluate the flows of sediment and water that influence aquatic and riparian habitat. Channel classification systems,...

  8. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A


    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  9. Quasi-One-Dimensional Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Magnetic Nozzles (United States)

    Ebersohn, Frans H.; Sheehan, J. P.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Shebalin, John V.


    A method for the quasi-one-dimensional simulation of magnetic nozzles is presented and simulations of a magnetic nozzle are performed. The effects of the density variation due to plasma expansion and the magnetic field forces on ion acceleration are investigated. Magnetic field forces acting on the electrons are found to be responsible for the formation of potential structures which accelerate ions. The effects of the plasma density variation alone are found to only weakly affect ion acceleration. Strongly diverging magnetic fields drive more rapid potential drops.

  10. The effects of nozzle geometry on waterjet breakup at high Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahedi Tafreshi, H.; Pourdeyhimi, B. [Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center, North Carolina State University, NC 27695-8301, Raleigh (United States)


    Waterjet breakup is traditionally considered to follow the Ohnesorge classification. In this classification, high Reynolds number waterjets are considered to atomize quickly after discharge. By generating a constricted waterjet where the water flow stays detached all the way through the nozzle, we have observed the first wind-induced breakup mode at high Reynolds numbers. Such a peculiar behavior, however, was not observed in non-constricted waterjets. Our results indicate that, constricted jets do not follow the Ohnesorge classification, in contrast to the non-constricted waterjets. We discuss the impact of nozzle geometry on the characteristics of waterjets and support our discussion by numerical simulations. (orig.)

  11. Concept Design and Testing of Multi-nozzle Water Mist Fire Suppression System


    Danardono A. Sumarsono; Yulianto S. Nugroho; Mariance; I Gede Wahyu W. Ariasa


    In this work a flexible design of multi-nozzle arrangement of water mist fire suppression system was studied. The source of fire was a 65 mm diameter cooking oil fire. An investigation on the impact of nozzle arrangement on the temperature profile of fires was conducted. The occurance of oil splash due to the application of water mist was also studied. The water mist systems developed in the present work can effectively extinguish cooking oil fires and prevented them from re-ignitio...

  12. Effect of the Geometric Shape of the Jet Pump Nozzle on Its Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Lomakin


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental study of fluid flow in the jet pump, and, in particular, near the nozzle. It considers the influence of possible manufacturing errors of the pump on its characteristics, such as head and efficiency.Numerical simulation is based on the calculation method of control volume discrete analogs of the Reynolds averaged Navies-Stokes and continuity equations of a continuous medium (method RANS. The closure of the system of equations is performed by k-ω SST turbulence model. The number of cells of the computational grid is about 2 million. The boundary conditions are a fluid velocity at both pump inlets and a pressure at the outlet. In this case the calculated value is the pressure at both inlets.An experimental study is conducted on a hydraulic test bench. The data obtained by experiment are used to discharge characteristic of the pump and its efficiency. Given comparison of design and experimental characteristics shows a significant difference resulting from the manufacturing inaccuracies of the inner shape of the pump nozzle.The paper reports results of modeling a flow in the pump with a shape of the nozzle corresponding to that of really manufactured and several models more with intermediate forms of the nozzle.The simulation results obtain good agreement between the calculation of the corresponding real prototype model with experimental data, and it is shown that a small taper of the inner shape of the nozzle significantly affect the pump head, namely it increases with insignificant change of pressure at the pump inlet, which gives an indication of increasing pump efficiency.This work complements the existing studies of the effect of various factors on the operation of jet devices, such as the scale factor, the change in the axial position of the nozzle and the surface roughness.From the results of the study several conclusions can be drawn. In contrast to the accepted

  13. Study of liquid and vapor phase behavior on Diesel sprays for heavy duty engine nozzles


    Payri, Raul; Gimeno, Jaime; Bracho Leon, Gabriela; Vaquerizo, Daniel


    A lot of effort has been put in the past years into the understanding of the delivery and development of diesel sprays in engine-like conditions as it has been proved to be a very important step for the design of better and cleaner commercial engines. Due to the bigger share of passenger cars engines over heavy duty engines, the research has been mainly focused on the investigation using small nozzles. This paper studies two nozzles with diameters representative of those that can be encounter...

  14. Simulation of Internal Flows inside an Inlet Nozzle Assemble of the CANDU-6 Moderator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Churl; Park, Joo Hwan


    For predicting the inlet velocity profile at the CANDU-6 moderator nozzles, a commercial CFD code is tested and applied. The fluid flows going through the moderator piping network have three major phenomena such as pipe flows, curved pipe flows, and impinging jets. Some experimental data were collected for each flow type, and various turbulence models were tested and optimized. As a result of the investigation, detailed velocity profiles and turbulent parameters at the nozzle outlets are obtained, which can be applied to the simulation of the CANDU moderator circulation.

  15. Static Thrust of an Annular Nozzle with a Concave Central Base (United States)

    Corson, Blake W., Jr.; Mercer, Charles E.


    A static test of an annular nozzle with a concave central base, producing a jet in which tangents to the jet streamlines at the exit converged toward a region on the axis of symmetry downstream of the exit, has indicated good thrust performance. A value of nozzle-flow coefficient only slightly less than unity indicates the internal loss to be small. Pressures on the concave central base are relatively large and positive, and a predictable portion of the total thrust of the jet is exerted on the central base.

  16. J-Integral characterization of the nozzle steels from intermediate test vessels IV-5 and IV-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auten, T.A.; Macdonald, B.D.; Scavone, D.W.; Bozik, D.


    Reported here are the results of elastic-plastic fracture toughness tests performed on low alloy steels from the nozzles of the intermediate test vessels IV-5 and IV-9 from the Heavy Steel Section Technology Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These vessels had been given prototypic nozzle corner flaw tests prior to the development of the ASTM E-813 standard test procedure for J-integral testing. The objective of this work is to provide J-integral material test support for future elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of the nozzles. J-integral tests at 88{degrees}C (190{degrees}F) of the IV-5 nozzle material produced stable ductile tearing. The tearing resistance data are expected to support analysis of the observed similar stable tearing response of the nozzle corner flaw. J-integral tests at 24{degrees}C (75{degrees}F) of the IV-9 nozzle produced elastic-plastic fracture instability preceded by stable tearing. A similar response was observed in the IV-9 nozzle corner flaw test. It will be a major and important challenge to develop a fracture mechanics rationale that reconciles these small specimen and nozzle corner flaw test results. These test results are being made available to allow their use by a wide variety of organizations in developing such a rationale, which would be a significant contribution to quantifying the flaw tolerance of reactor pressure vessels.

  17. Micro-fabricated metal nozzle plates used for water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerken, M.J.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias


    In this paper the fabrication and use of micro-structured metal nozzle plates as emulsification devices is investigated and discussed. These structured metal nozzle plates were fabricated via two distinct routes. Laser ablation, performed with a femtosecond laser, was used to drill micrometer-sized

  18. One-Step Production of Protein-Loaded PLGA Microparticles via Spray Drying Using 3-Fluid Nozzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Andersen, Sune Klint


    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using a spray-dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle to microencapsulate protein drugs into polymeric microparticles.......The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using a spray-dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle to microencapsulate protein drugs into polymeric microparticles....

  19. Ion channel pharmacology. (United States)

    Camerino, Diana Conte; Tricarico, Domenico; Desaphy, Jean-François


    Because ion channels are involved in many cellular processes, drugs acting on ion channels have long been used for the treatment of many diseases, especially those affecting electrically excitable tissues. The present review discusses the pharmacology of voltage-gated and neurotransmitter-gated ion channels involved in neurologic diseases, with emphasis on neurologic channelopathies. With the discovery of ion channelopathies, the therapeutic value of many basic drugs targeting ion channels has been confirmed. The understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship has highlighted possible action mechanisms of other empirically used drugs. Moreover, other ion channels have been pinpointed as potential new drug targets. With regards to therapy of channelopathies, experimental investigations of the intimate drug-channel interactions have demonstrated that channel mutations can either increase or decrease affinity for the drug, modifying its potential therapeutic effect. Together with the discovery of channel gene polymorphisms that may affect drug pharmacodynamics, these findings highlight the need for pharmacogenetic research to allow identification of drugs with more specific effects on channel isoforms or mutants, to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. With a greater understanding of channel genetics, structure, and function, together with the identification of novel primary and secondary channelopathies, the number of ion channel drugs for neurologic channelopathies will increase substantially.

  20. Spray drift reduction evaluations of spray nozzles using a standardized testing protocol (United States)

    The development and testing of drift reduction technologies has come to the forefront of application research in the past few years in the United States. Drift reduction technologies (DRTs) can be spray nozzles, sprayer modifications, spray delivery assistance, spray property modifiers (adjuvants),...

  1. Sauter mean diameter statistics of the starch dispersion atomized with hydraulic nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin, E-mail:; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang, E-mail: [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar, E-mail: [Department Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)


    In the reported research work, the microscopic droplet velocity at different axial and radial locations downstream to the nozzle exit was studied by using a non-intrusive Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) techniques. These velocity measurements made in the viscous fluid spray sterams were used to predict the different breakup regimes in the flow. It was noticed that the droplet velocity decreased sharply downstream to the nozzle exit, whereas steady decrease in velocity was seen along the radial directions. For shorter injection time periods, the velocity downstream to the nozzle was not following the general breakup model. However, along the radial direction it exactly followed the discussed model. Along the spray centerline, the velocity was decreasing sharply even at far points from the nozzle exit. It was difficult to identify the core region, transition region and fully developed spray region in the flow. It revealed that the jet breakup was not completed yet and further disintegration was taking place along the spray centerline for shorter injection periods below 250 ms.

  2. Nozzle-jet printed flexible field-effect transistor biosensor for high performance glucose detection. (United States)

    Bhat, Kiesar Sideeq; Ahmad, Rafiq; Yoo, Jin-Young; Hahn, Yoon-Bong


    Printable electronics is a subject of great interest for low-cost, facile and environmentally-friendly large scale device production. But, it still remains challenging for printable biosensor development. Herein, we present the fabrication of nozzle-jet printed flexible field-effect transistor (FET) glucose biosensor. The silver source-drain electrodes and ZnO seed layers were printed on flexible substrate by nozzle-jet printer followed by ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) synthesis and glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Utilization of nozzle-jet printing methods resulted in highly reproducible electrodes with well-defined vertical grown ZnO NRs for high GOx loading and enhanced glucose sensing performance in a wide glucose detection range. The stability, anti-interference ability, reproducibility, reusability, and applicability in human serum samples were also assessed. Overall, biosensor fabrication using nozzle-jet printer will not only provide large scale production of highly reproducible electrodes but also reduce the fabrication cost. Additionally, printed electrodes can be modified accordingly for different analyte detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of gas temperature on nozzle damping experiments on cold-flow rocket motors (United States)

    Sun, Bing-bing; Li, Shi-peng; Su, Wan-xing; Li, Jun-wei; Wang, Ning-fei


    In order to explore the impact of gas temperature on the nozzle damping characteristics of solid rocket motor, numerical simulations were carried out by an experimental motor in Naval Ordnance Test Station of China Lake in California. Using the pulse decay method, different cases were numerically studied via Fluent along with UDF (User Defined Functions). Firstly, mesh sensitivity analysis and monitor position-independent analysis were carried out for the computer code validation. Then, the numerical method was further validated by comparing the calculated results and experimental data. Finally, the effects of gas temperature on the nozzle damping characteristics were studied in this paper. The results indicated that the gas temperature had cooperative effects on the nozzle damping and there had great differences between cold flow and hot fire test. By discussion and analysis, it was found that the changing of mainstream velocity and the natural acoustic frequency resulted from gas temperature were the key factors that affected the nozzle damping, while the alteration of the mean pressure had little effect. Thus, the high pressure condition could be replaced by low pressure to reduce the difficulty of the test. Finally, the relation of the coefficients "alpha" between the cold flow and hot fire was got.

  4. An Investigation into Air-Sand-Water Three-Phase Flow through the Sandblasting Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasalizadeh


    Full Text Available The numerical analysis of air-sand-water three-phase turbulent flow through converging-diverging nozzle is investigated for employing on sandblasting systems. For this purpose-dispersed flow of air-sand-water by various airs inlet pressures and different mass flow rates of sand particles and water droplets were considered. Two-way turbulence coupling between particles/droplets and airflow as well as interference between the incident streams of particles and rebounded from the wall were applied in the numerical model. In addition, the shock wave, which is produced in supersonic flow at diverging part of nozzle, was considered. In this study the Realizable k-ε and Discrete Phase models were utilized for simulating of multi-phase turbulent flow through the converging-diverging nozzle. As review of literature indicates there is not any experimental or analytical data on three-phase flow through the nozzle, consequently for validation of model, the same turbulent and multi-phase models were utilized on air-water two-phase flow. The obtained results were in good agreement with the experimental data. According to the results of three-phase flow simulation, the averaged exhaust momentum of sand particles had inverse proportion with water mass flow rate, and increasing of air inlet pressure had significant effect on mean exhaust velocity of sand particles.

  5. Large-eddy simulation of cavitating nozzle flow and primary jet break-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Örley, F.; Trummler, T.; Hickel, S.; Mihatsch, M.S.; Schmidt, S.J.; Adams, N.A.


    We employ a barotropic two-phase/two-fluid model to study the primary break-up of cavitating liquid jets emanating from a rectangular nozzle, which resembles a high aspect-ratio slot flow. All components (i.e., gas, liquid, and vapor) are represented by a homogeneous mixture approach. The cavitating

  6. Incident shock strength evolution in overexpanded jet flow out of rocket nozzle (United States)

    Silnikov, Mikhail V.; Chernyshov, Mikhail V.


    The evolution of the incident shock in the plane overexpanded jet flow or in the axisymmetric one is analyzed theoretically and compared at the whole range of governing flow parameters. Analytical results can be applied to avoid jet flow instability and self-oscillation effects at rocket launch, to improve launch safety and to suppress shock-wave induced noise harmful to environment and personnel. The mathematical model of ;differential conditions of dynamic compatibility; was applied to the curved shock in non-uniform plane or axisymmetrical flow. It allowed us to study such features of the curved incident shock and flow downstream it as shock geometrical curvature, jet boundary curvature, local increase or decrease of the shock strength, flow vorticity rate (local pressure gradient) in the vicinity of the nozzle lip, static pressure gradient in the compressed layer downstream the shock, and many others. All these quantities sufficiently depend on the flow parameters (flow Mach number, jet overexpansion rate, nozzle throat angle, and ration of gas specific heats). These dependencies are sometimes unusual, especially at small Mach numbers. It was also surprising that there is no great difference among all these flowfield features in the plane jet and in the axisymmetrical jet flow out of a nozzle with large throat angle, but all these parameters behave in a quite different way in an axisymmetrical jet at small and moderate nozzle throat angles.

  7. Thermo-Structural Response Caused by Structure Gap and Gap Design for Solid Rocket Motor Nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun


    Full Text Available The thermo-structural response of solid rocket motor nozzles is widely investigated in the design of modern rockets, and many factors related to the material properties have been considered. However, little work has been done to evaluate the effects of structure gaps on the generation of flame leaks. In this paper, a numerical simulation was performed by the finite element method to study the thermo-structural response of a typical nozzle with consideration of the structure gap. Initial boundary conditions for thermo-structural simulation were defined by a quasi-1D model, and then coupled simulations of different gap size matching modes were conducted. It was found that frictional interface treatment could efficiently reduce the stress level. Based on the defined flame leak criteria, gap size optimization was carried out, and the best gap matching mode was determined for designing the nozzle. Testing experiment indicated that the simulation results from the proposed method agreed well with the experimental results. It is believed that the simulation method is effective for investigating thermo-structural responses, as well as designing proper gaps for solid rocket motor nozzles.

  8. Effect of cavitation on velocity in the near-field of a diesel nozzle

    CERN Document Server

    Purwar, Harsh; Idlahcen, Saïd; Roze, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Meès, Loïc; Michard, Marc


    The entire process of atomization of the fuel in an internal combustion engine plays a very important role in determining the overall efficiency of these engines. A good atomization process could help the fuel to mix with the air properly leading to its efficient combustion, thereby reducing the emitted pollutants as well. The recent trend followed by the engineers focused on designing fuel injectors for more efficient atomization is to increase the atomization pressure while decreasing the nozzle orifice diameter. A consequence of this is the development of cavitation (formation of vapor cavities or bubbles in the liquid) inside the injector close to the nozzle. The main reason behind this is the sudden changes in the pressure inside the injector and these cavities or bubbles are usually formed where the pressure is relatively low.This work mainly focuses on studying the formation of cavitation and its effect on the velocity of the spray in the near nozzle region using asymmetrical transparent nozzle equippe...

  9. Jet-Surface Interaction Noise from High-Aspect Ratio Nozzles: Test Summary (United States)

    Brown, Clifford; Podboy, Gary


    Noise and flow data have been acquired for a 16:1 aspect ratio rectangular nozzle exhausting near a simple surface at the NASA Glenn Research Center as part of an ongoing effort to understand, model, and predict the noise produced by current and future concept aircraft employing a tightly integrated engine airframe designs. The particular concept under consideration in this experiment is a blended-wing-body airframe powered by a series of electric fans exhausting through slot nozzle over an aft deck. The exhaust Mach number and surface length were parametrically varied during the test. Far-field noise data were acquired for all nozzle surface geometries and exhaust flow conditions. Phased-array noise source localization data and in-flow pressure data were also acquired for a subset of the isolated (no surface) and surface configurations; these measurements provide data that have proven useful for modeling the jet-surface interaction noise source and the surface effect on the jet-mixing noise in round jets. A summary of the nozzle surface geometry, flow conditions tested, and data collected are presented.

  10. Load calculation on the nozzle in a flue gas desulphurization system (United States)

    Róbert, Olšiak; Zoltán, Fuszko; Zoltán, Csuka


    The desulphurization system is used to remove sulfur oxides from exhaust, so-called flue gases through absorbing them via the sprayed suspension. The suspension delivered from the pump system to the atmospheric bi-directional double hollow cone nozzle has the prescribed working pressure. The unknown mechanical load on the solid body of the nozzle is present through the change of moment due to the flow of the suspension through the bi-directional outflow areas [1], [4]. The calculation of the acting forces and torques in the 3 directions was carried out with the methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the software ANSYS Fluent. The geometric model of the flow areas of the nozzle were created with the methods of reverse engineering. The computational mesh required by the CFD solver was created, and its quality verified with the standard criteria. The used boundary conditions were defined by the hydraulic parameters of the pump system, the properties of the suspension present in the hydraulic system were specified by sample analysis. The post-processed and analyzed results of the CFD calculation, the pressure-field and the velocity magnitudes in particular directions were further used as input parameters at the mechanical analysis of the load on the bi-directional nozzle.

  11. Pyrolysis oil combustion in a horizontal box furnace with an externally mixed nozzle (United States)

    Combustion characteristics of neat biomass fast-pyrolysis oil were studied in a horizontal combustion chamber with a rectangular cross-section. An air-assisted externally mixed nozzle known to successfully atomize heavy fuel oils was installed in a modified nominal 100 kW (350,000 BTU/h nominal cap...

  12. Development of high temperature materials for solid propellant rocket nozzle applications (United States)

    Manning, C. R., Jr.; Lineback, L. D.


    Aspects of the development and characteristics of thermal shock resistant hafnia ceramic material for use in solid propellant rocket nozzles are presented. The investigation of thermal shock resistance factors for hafnia based composites, and the preparation and analysis of a model of elastic materials containing more than one crack are reported.

  13. Assessment of turbulence modeling for gas flow in two-dimensional convergent–divergent rocket nozzle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balabel, A; Hegab, A.M; Nasr, M; El-Behery, Samy M


    ... characteristics have a strong and direct impact on many physical processes occurring within the nozzle. The flow behavior inside the combustion chamber of a rocket plays a key role in both motor design and operation. The majority of the previous studies on the rocket motors have involved the investigations of a nozzleless rocket motor to study the applicabilit...

  14. Two-dimensional automatic measurement for nozzle flow distribution using improved ultrasonic sensor. (United States)

    Zhai, Changyuan; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Xiu; Wang, Ning; Zou, Wei; Li, Wei


    Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately.

  15. Two-Dimensional Automatic Measurement for Nozzle Flow Distribution Using Improved Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyuan Zhai


    Full Text Available Spray deposition and distribution are affected by many factors, one of which is nozzle flow distribution. A two-dimensional automatic measurement system, which consisted of a conveying unit, a system control unit, an ultrasonic sensor, and a deposition collecting dish, was designed and developed. The system could precisely move an ultrasonic sensor above a pesticide deposition collecting dish to measure the nozzle flow distribution. A sensor sleeve with a PVC tube was designed for the ultrasonic sensor to limit its beam angle in order to measure the liquid level in the small troughs. System performance tests were conducted to verify the designed functions and measurement accuracy. A commercial spray nozzle was also used to measure its flow distribution. The test results showed that the relative error on volume measurement was less than 7.27% when the liquid volume was 2 mL in trough, while the error was less than 4.52% when the liquid volume was 4 mL or more. The developed system was also used to evaluate the flow distribution of a commercial nozzle. It was able to provide the shape and the spraying width of the flow distribution accurately.

  16. Computational study of a High Pressure Turbine Nozzle/Blade Interaction (United States)

    Kopriva, James; Laskowski, Gregory; Sheikhi, Reza


    A downstream high pressure turbine blade has been designed for this study to be coupled with the upstream uncooled nozzle of Arts and Rouvroit [1992]. The computational domain is first held to a pitch-line section that includes no centrifugal forces (linear sliding-mesh). The stage geometry is intended to study the fundamental nozzle/blade interaction in a computationally cost efficient manner. Blade/Nozzle count of 2:1 is designed to maintain computational periodic boundary conditions for the coupled problem. Next the geometry is extended to a fully 3D domain with endwalls to understand the impact of secondary flow structures. A set of systematic computational studies are presented to understand the impact of turbulence on the nozzle and down-stream blade boundary layer development, resulting heat transfer, and downstream wake mixing in the absence of cooling. Doing so will provide a much better understanding of stage mixing losses and wall heat transfer which, in turn, can allow for improved engine performance. Computational studies are performed using WALE (Wale Adapted Local Eddy), IDDES (Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation), SST (Shear Stress Transport) models in Fluent.

  17. Experimental Research on Micro-nozzle Applied on Micro-propulsion Systems based on MEMS (United States)

    Bao-jun, Zhang; Xing-chen, Li; Yi-yong, Huang; Xiang-ming, Xu


    In order to study the influence of the structural parameters of micro thruster applied in micro satellite attitude adjustment and orbital maneuver on its propulsion performance, this paper considers the factors influencing the performance of the thruster, and utilizes the orthogonal test design to obtain nine groups of micro-nozzles with different structural parameters. We processed this series of micro nozzles through MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology. The micro-nozzles are made of single crystal silicon and glass through the anode bonding, and the electric heating wire is creatively processed through MEMS in the thrust chamber to improve the performance of the micro thruster. Experiments were carried out in a vacuum chamber. Finally, we analyse the experimental results by analysis of variance and analysis of range. The experimental results show that the performance of the micro nozzle is optimal when the semi-shrinking angle is 30 degrees, the semi-expansion angle is 15 degrees and the area ratio is 6.22. Meantime, the experiment verifies that it is feasible to improve the propulsive performance of micro-propulsion system through electronic heater strip.

  18. Flight and wind tunnel test results of the mechanical jet noise suppressor nozzle (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.; McKinnon, R. A.; Johnson, E. S.; Brooks, J. R.


    Comprehensive acoustic and propulsion data are presented, based on flight and wind tunnel tests, of a mechanical jet noise suppressor designed to satisfy the requirements of an advanced supersonic transport (AST) under study by the McDonnell Douglas Corporation. The flight program was conducted jointly by MDC, Rolls-Royce Ltd., and the British Aerospace Corporation, using an HS-125 aircraft modified to accept an upgraded RR Viper 601 engine with conical reference and mechanical suppressor nozzles and an acoustically treated ejector. The nacelle, engine and nozzle configurations from the HS-125 were also tested in one of NASA's wind tunnels to obtain thrust performance at forward velocity and acoustic data. The acoustic flight test data, when scaled to an AST engine nozzle size and projected to a typical sideline distance, indicate reduction in effective perceived noise level of 16 EPNdB at the takeoff power setting. It is estimated that the in-flight thrust loss for a typical AST suppressor/ejector nozzle configuration (37.5 inch equivalent diameter) would be 5.4 percent at takeoff power settings and 6.6 percent at cutback power settings.

  19. Hybrid simulations of rarefied supersonic gas flows in micro-nozzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torre, F. la; Kenjereš, S.; Moerel, J.L.P.A.; Kleijn, C.R.


    We show that accurate predictions of gas flow and pressure in axisymmetric micro-thruster nozzles with throat diameters in the µm range, and thrusts in the µN range, cannot be performed using continuum based Computational Fluid Dynamics with slip flow boundary conditions, but can be performed by

  20. Influence of the trajectory angle and nozzle height from the ground on water distribution radial curve of a sprinkler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Friso


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of the variation of two factors of the working condition, the trajectory angle and the nozzle height from the ground, on the water distribution radial curve of a sprinkler, a mathematical model, able to elaborate with a very good accuracy the size spectrum of droplets generated by a nozzle starting from experimental water distribution radial curves, was used and applied in reversed form. In a previous paper, 37 dimensional droplet spectra were obtained, generated by four sprinklers under varying conditions of operating pressure and nozzle size, but with a single value of trajectory angle and a single value of the nozzle height from the ground level. The application of the mathematical model to the 37 dimensional spectra of the droplets has led to new water distribution radial curves on varying the trajectory angle and the nozzle height. The evaluation of these curves, along with original and experimental ones, has been made using the uniformity of distribution, by means of Christiansen's coefficient CU. Increasing values of pressure and nozzle size provide the best CU. This is applied to all heights of the nozzle from the ground and to almost all trajectory angle values. In all cases, different nozzle heights do not show significant differences in CU values. This also occurred in the comparison of three different trajectory angles, unless the larger diameter and lower height of the nozzle where the CU coefficient gets worse with decreasing the trajectory. The evaluation of the new water distribution radial curves was also made in relation to the produced radius of throw R (m, and it was found that R is positively influenced by all the variables involved. Considering this relationship, two monomial type equations (one for nozzle discharge up to 120 dm3/min and radius of throw less than 30 m and one for nozzle discharge above 120 dm3/min and higher throw radii were found that can predict R compared to the discharge

  1. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  2. Preliminary Two-Phase Terry Turbine Nozzle Models for RCIC Off-Design Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report presents the effort to extend the single-phase analytical Terry turbine model to cover two-phase off-design conditions. The work includes: (1) adding well-established two-phase choking models – the Isentropic Homogenous Equilibrium Model (IHEM) and Moody’s model, and (2) theoretical development and implementation of a two-phase nozzle expansion model. The two choking models provide bounding cases for the two-phase choking mass flow rate. The new two-phase Terry turbine model uses the choking models to calculate the mass flow rate, the critical pressure at the nozzle throat, and steam quality. In the divergent stage, we only consider the vapor phase with a similar model for the single-phase case by assuming that the liquid phase would slip along the wall with a much slower speed and will not contribute the impulse on the rotor. We also modify the stagnation conditions according to two-phase choking conditions at the throat and the cross-section areas for steam flow at the nozzle throat and at the nozzle exit. The new two-phase Terry turbine model was benchmarked with the same steam nozzle test as for the single-phase model. Better agreement with the experimental data is observed than from the single-phase model. We also repeated the Terry turbine nozzle benchmark work against the Sandia CFD simulation results with the two-phase model for the pure steam inlet nozzle case. The RCIC start-up tests were simulated and compared with the single-phase model. Similar results are obtained. Finally, we designed a new RCIC system test case to simulate the self-regulated Terry turbine behavior observed in Fukushima accidents. In this test, a period inlet condition for the steam quality varying from 1 to 0 is applied. For the high quality inlet period, the RCIC system behaves just like the normal operation condition with a high pump injection flow rate and a nominal steam release rate through the turbine, with the net addition of water to the primary system; for


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Mohd Noh


    Full Text Available The need for low-thrust propulsion systems for small scale spacecraft is growing. Low thrust characteristics generally lead to low Reynolds number flows from propulsive devices that utilize converging-diverging nozzle. In the present work, seven choked converging-diverging nozzle flow characteristics operating at Reynolds number of 46000 are numerically investigated using a commercial software FLUENT 6.1.22. Computational work is carried out using axisymmetric flow Spalart-Allmaras model, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, coupled solver and linearized using implicit scheme. The nozzles, which are intended to be used for thruster application, have a throat diameter of 11 mm and an area ratio of 4. All six nozzles are derived from a nozzle with divergence angle of 28°, where the divergence angle is reduced while maintaining the area ratio. The main objective of this work is to investigate the performance and flow characteristic of nozzles with different geometry. Numerical findings show that there is thrust reduction observed as the divergence angle reduces from 28° to 10°, except for nozzle with divergence angles of 16° and 18°, where they produce thrusts higher than their derivative one. Numerical result also reveals that the flow separation phenomenon occurs inside all nozzles, where normal shock forms inside nozzles with divergence angle of 20°, 14° and 10°, and this shock degrades the performance of the nozzle in term of the thrust produced.ABSTRAK : Keperluan sistem kuasa kipas tujahan rendah bagi pesawat angkasa berskala kecil makin meningkat. Umumnya ciri-ciri tujahan rendah membawa kepada aliran nombor Reynolds yang rendah dari alat dorongan yang menggunakan muncung tumpu-capah. Buat masa ini, tujuh muncung cekik tumpu-capah beroperasi pada nombor Reynolds 46000 telah dikaji menggunakan perisian komersil FLUENT 6.1.22. Kerja pengiraan dijalankan dengan menggunakan model aliran simetri sepaksi Spalart-Allmaras, dua dimensi, simestri

  4. A study on thick plate forming for hollow-partitioned steam turbine nozzle (United States)

    Kwak, Bong-Seok; Kang, Byeong-Kwon; Yoon, Mahn-Jung; Jeon, Jae-Young; Kang, Beom-Soo; Ku, Tae-Wan


    In thermal and nuclear power plants, steam turbine system to generate electric power is composed of turbine rotor assemblies for high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) turbines, its main shaft, and turbine nozzle diaphragms, and so forth. Especially, the turbine nozzle diaphragm consists of many turbine nozzles with three-dimensional asymmetric shape and complicated surface curvatures at each turbine stage. In this study, main goal is tool design and fabrication, and its application to thick plate cold forming for replacing solid-type turbine nozzle manufactured by a series of metal forging process with hollow-partitioned one obtained from cold forming. The hollow-partitioned turbine nozzle (stator) has asymmetric curvature contours, so it is hard to adopt a series of draw-bead or blank holder. Thus, the thick plate as a thick blank experiences unstable and non-uniform contact on the tool surfaces in the die cavity. To easy this unstable positioning restraint in the thick plate forming, the shoulder angles of the forming punch and the lower die are selected as the geometric process parameter to control the blank position in the die cavity. The thick plate material is 409L stainless steel (SUS409L) with initial thickness of 5.00mm, and the dimensions are a length of about 980.00mm and a width of roughly 372.60mm. Uni-axial tensile tests for the initial blank material of SUS409L are performed to verify the mechanical properties including the anisotropic characteristics, and finite element simulations are carried out using ABAQUS Explicit/Implicit. As the obtained and summarized results, the suitable shoulder angle combinations of the lower die and the punch were verified as (30°, 90°) and (45°, 90°), and then the transverse blank direction (TD) of SUS409L thick plate was investigated to be well matched.

  5. Combining spray nozzle simulators with meshes: characterization of rainfall intensity and drop properties (United States)

    Carvalho, Sílvia C. P.; de Lima, João L. M. P.; de Lima, M. Isabel P.


    Rainfall simulators can be a powerful tool to increase our understanding of hydrological and geomorphological processes. Nevertheless, rainfall simulators' design and operation might be rather demanding, for achieving specific rainfall intensity distributions and drop characteristics. The pressurized simulators have some advantages over the non-pressurized simulators: drops do not rely on gravity to reach terminal velocity, but are sprayed out under pressure; pressurized simulators also yield a broad range of drop sizes in comparison with drop-formers simulators. The main purpose of this study was to explore in the laboratory the potential of combining spray nozzle simulators with meshes in order to change rainfall characteristics (rainfall intensity and diameters and fall speed of drops). Different types of spray nozzles were tested, such as single full-cone and multiple full-cone nozzles. The impact of the meshes on the simulated rain was studied by testing different materials (i.e. plastic and steel meshes), square apertures and wire thicknesses, and different vertical distances between the nozzle and the meshes underneath. The diameter and fall speed of the rain drops were measured using a Laser Precipitation Monitor (Thies Clima). The rainfall intensity range and coefficients of uniformity of the sprays and the drop size distribution, fall speed and kinetic energy were analysed. Results show that when meshes intercept drop trajectories the spatial distribution of rainfall intensity and the drop size distribution are affected. As the spray nozzles generate typically small drop sizes and narrow drop size distributions, meshes can be used to promote the formation of bigger drops and random their landing positions.

  6. Numerical investigation of flow separation behavior in an over-expanded annular conical aerospike nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Miaosheng


    Full Text Available A three-part numerical investigation has been conducted in order to identify the flow separation behavior—the progression of the shock structure, the flow separation pattern with an increase in the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR, the prediction of the separation data on the nozzle wall, and the influence of the gas density effect on the flow separation behavior are included. The computational results reveal that the annular conical aerospike nozzle is dominated by shock/shock and shock/boundary layer interactions at all calculated NPRs, and the shock physics and associated flow separation behavior are quite complex. An abnormal flow separation behavior as well as a transition process from no flow separation at highly over-expanded conditions to a restricted shock separation and finally to a free shock separation even at the deign condition can be observed. The complex shock physics has further influence on the separation data on both the spike and cowl walls, and separation criteria suggested by literatures developed from separation data in conical or bell-type rocket nozzles fail at the prediction of flow separation behavior in the present asymmetric supersonic nozzle. Correlation of flow separation with the gas density is distinct for highly over-expanded conditions. Decreasing the gas density or reducing mass flow results in a smaller adverse pressure gradient across the separation shock or a weaker shock system, and this is strongly coupled with the flow separation behavior. The computational results agree well with the experimental data in both shock physics and static wall pressure distribution at the specific NPRs, indicating that the computational methodology here is advisable to accurately predict the flow physics.

  7. Model based decision support system of operating settings for MMAT nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Bradley Keith


    Full Text Available Droplet size, which is affected by nozzle type, nozzle setups and operation, and spray solution, is one of the most critical factors influencing spray performance, environment pollution, food safety, and must be considered as part of any application scenario. Characterizing spray nozzles can be a timely and expensive proposition if the entire operational space (all combinations of spray pressure and orifice size, what influence flow rate is to be evaluated. This research proposes a structured, experimental design that allows for the development of computational models for droplet size based on any combination of a nozzle’s potential operational settings. The developed droplet size determination model can be used as Decision Support System (DSS for precise selection of sprayer working parameters to adapt to local field scenarios. Five nozzle types (designs were evaluated across their complete range of orifice size (flow rate* and spray pressures using a response surface experimental design. Several of the models showed high level fits of the modeled to the measured data while several did not as a result of the lack of significant effect from either orifice size (flow rate* or spray pressure. The computational models were integrated into a spreadsheet based user interface for ease of use. The proposed experimental design provides for efficient nozzle evaluations and development of computational models that allow for the determination of droplet size spectrum and spraying classification for any combination of a given nozzle’s operating settings. The proposed DSS will allow for the ready assessment and modification of a sprayers performance based on the operational settings, to ensure the application is made following recommendations in plant protection products (PPP labels.

  8. Application of Optimization Techniques to Design of Unconventional Rocket Nozzle Configurations (United States)

    Follett, W.; Ketchum, A.; Darian, A.; Hsu, Y.


    Several current rocket engine concepts such as the bell-annular tri-propellant engine, and the linear aerospike being proposed for the X-33 require unconventional three dimensional rocket nozzles which must conform to rectangular or sector shaped envelopes to meet integration constraints. These types of nozzles exist outside the current experience database, therefore, the application of efficient design methods for these propulsion concepts is critical to the success of launch vehicle programs. The objective of this work is to optimize several different nozzle configurations, including two- and three-dimensional geometries. Methodology includes coupling computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis to genetic algorithms and Taguchi methods as well as implementation of a streamline tracing technique. Results of applications are shown for several geometeries including: three dimensional thruster nozzles with round or super elliptic throats and rectangualar exits, two- and three-dimensional thrusters installed within a bell nozzle, and three dimensional thrusters with round throats and sector shaped exits. Due to the novel designs considered for this study, there is little experience which can be used to guide the effort and limit the design space. With a nearly infinite parameter space to explore, simple parametric design studies cannot possibly search the entire design space within the time frame required to impact the design cycle. For this reason, robust and efficient optimization methods are required to explore and exploit the design space to achieve high performance engine designs. Five case studies which examine the application of various techniques in the engineering environment are presented in this paper.

  9. Development of repair mechanism of FSX-414 based 1st stage nozzle of gas turbine (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Tawfiqur


    This paper describes the failure mechanism and repair technology of 1st stage nozzle or vane of industrial gas turbine which is made of cobalt based super alloy FSX-414. 1st stage nozzles or vanes are important stationery components of gas turbine based power plant. Those are the parts of hot gas path components of gas turbine and their manufacturing process is casting. At present, it is widely accepted that gas turbine based combined cycle power plant is the most efficient and cost effective solution to generate electricity. One of the factors of high efficiency of this type of gas turbine is the increase of its turbine inlet temperature. As an effect of this factor and in conjunction with some other factors, the 1st stage nozzle of gas turbine operates under extremely high temperature and thermal stresses. As a result, the design lifetime of these components becomes limited. Furthermore, attention on nozzles or vanes is required in order to achieve their design lifetime. However, due to unfriendly operational condition and environmental effect, anytime failure can occur on these heat resistant alloy based components which may lead to severe damage of gas turbine. To mitigate these adverse effects, schedule maintenance is performed on a predetermined time interval of hot gas path components of gas turbine based power plant. This paper addresses common failures in gas turbine's 1st stage nozzles or vanes. Usually these are repaired by using ADH process but for several reasons ADH process is not used here. Hence the challenging task is performed using gas tungsten arc welding which is presented in this article systematically.

  10. Distribution of prothioconazole and tebuconazole between wheat ears and flag leaves following fungicide spraying with different nozzle types at flowering. (United States)

    Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs; Varga, Mónika; Mesterházy, Ákos


    Wheat ears are difficult targets from the aspect of fungicide spraying. Sideward-spraying nozzle types may enhance the ear coverage, which may possibly lead to higher effectiveness in the management of Fusarium head blight (FHB). On average, sideward-spraying Turbo TeeJet Duo nozzles resulted in 1.30 and 1.43 times higher prothioconazole-desthio and tebuconazole contents and Turbo FloodJet nozzles in 1.08 and 1.34 times higher prothioconazole-desthio and tebuconazole contents in wheat ears by comparison with those achieved with vertically-spraying XR TeeJet nozzles. In contrast, the vertically-spraying XR TeeJet nozzles resulted in 1.57 and 1.31 times higher prothioconazole-desthio and tebuconazole contents in the flag leaf blade. The degradation of the active ingredient (AI) depended on the year, the cultivar and the plant organ, but not on the spraying method. There was no clear relationship between the efficacy of a given nozzle type and the outcome of the FHB epidemic. The ear coverage and therefore the AI content have been improved with the two sideward-spraying nozzle types. There was no effective translocation of the AI content between the ears and flag leaf blades. Prothioconazole and tebuconazole proved to be highly effective in the management of FHB, but the FHB resistance of the cultivar was also decisive. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The Neural Noisy Channel


    Yu, Lei; Blunsom, Phil; Dyer, Chris; Grefenstette, Edward; Kocisky, Tomas


    We formulate sequence to sequence transduction as a noisy channel decoding problem and use recurrent neural networks to parameterise the source and channel models. Unlike direct models which can suffer from explaining-away effects during training, noisy channel models must produce outputs that explain their inputs, and their component models can be trained with not only paired training samples but also unpaired samples from the marginal output distribution. Using a latent variable to control ...

  12. A simple quantum channel having superadditivity of channel capacity


    Sasaki, Masahide; Kato, Kentaro; Izutsu, Masayuki; Hirota, Osamu


    When classical information is sent through a quantum channel of nonorthogonal states, there is a possibility that transmittable classical information exceeds a channel capacity in a single use of the initial channel by extending it into multi-product channel. In this paper, it is shown that this remarkable feature of a quantum channel, so-called superadditivity, appears even in as low as the third extended coding of the simplest binary input channel. A physical implementation of this channel ...

  13. TRP channels in schistosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais


    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is effectively the only drug currently available for treatment and control of schistosomiasis, a disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Many anthelmintics, likely including PZQ, target ion channels, membrane protein complexes essential for normal functioning of the neuromusculature and other tissues. Despite this fact, only a few classes of parasitic helminth ion channels have been assessed for their pharmacological properties or for their roles in parasite physiology. One such overlooked group of ion channels is the transient receptor potential (TRP channel superfamily. TRP channels share a common core structure, but are widely diverse in their activation mechanisms and ion selectivity. They are critical to transducing sensory signals, responding to a wide range of external stimuli. They are also involved in other functions, such as regulating intracellular calcium and organellar ion homeostasis and trafficking. Here, we review current literature on parasitic helminth TRP channels, focusing on those in schistosomes. We discuss the likely roles of these channels in sensory and locomotor activity, including the possible significance of a class of TRP channels (TRPV that is absent in schistosomes. We also focus on evidence indicating that at least one schistosome TRP channel (SmTRPA has atypical, TRPV1-like pharmacological sensitivities that could potentially be exploited for future therapeutic targeting.

  14. SST Technology Follow-On Program - Phase 2. Noise Suppressor/Nozzle Development. Volume 4. Performance Technology Summary (United States)


    ABBREVIATIONS u ’ > » ^B AS Cf c Fg CPA CVint D^x D B Deq EAR FID Flip fps L,LE L/D Minimum annular area between the ejector lip and the...distance between any two adjacent tubes Nozzle internal velocity coefficient; measured Cpg + Dg/PlD Ejector diameter, inches ^base’ nozzle base d™E...static pressure within the inlet. This is reflected as an increase in nozzle base drag and in ejector-lip suction (Fup/ FiD ) as shown in figure 43

  15. On the nozzle geometry of a transferred plasma cutting torch for the arc stabilization with swirl flow


    Sakuragi, Shunichi; 桜木, 俊一


    In the plasma cutting process, the arcjet with high specific energy is required to get good cut quality in the dross-free cutting. For this purpose, it is necessary to stabilize the arc with gas flow rate lower than the conventional torches. The present paper discusses the nozzle shape that effectively stabilizes the arc by the swirl flow. The pressure measurement inside the large-scale model-nozzle indicates that the nozzle shape can be optimized to create a large pressure gradient for the a...

  16. Rotary and High-Pressure Nozzle Spray Plume Droplet Analysis For Aerially Applied Mosquito Adulticides: Laser Diffraction Characterization. (United States)

    Hornby, Jonathan A; Robinson, Jim; Sterling, Milton


    The droplet spectrum of a mosquito adulticide spray plume determines its ability to drift through the target area, impinge on the mosquito, deliver a toxic dose, and the risk of environmental contamination. This paper provides data on droplet spectra produced from 6 nozzles in a high-pressure nozzle spray system and 5 rotary nozzle systems for common mosquito adulticides. Spray plume spectra were measured by laser diffraction. High-pressure nozzles were evaluated at pressures ranging from 500 psi to 6,000 psi. Rotary nozzles were evaluated at rotational speeds ranging from 500 rpm to 24,000 rpm. Measurements were made at wind speeds of 129 km/h (80 mph) to 225 km/h (140 mph). Adulticides included were Fyfanon®, Aqua-Reslin®, Dibrom®, Duet®, Permanone®, and the inert mineral oil, Orchex® 796. High-pressure nozzles produced spray plumes within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) label requirements for all configurations tested except for one at a wind speed of 225 km/h, BETE® MW125. Air speed had no significant effect on the spray plume volume median diameter (Dv(0.5)) at the speeds tested with Fyfanon®. The spray plume 90% drop volume diameter (Dv(0.9)) significantly decreased, 13% at the higher wind speed of 225 km/h. Drop size was inversely related to pressure. Dilution of the product formulations increased the Dv(0.5) of the spray plume but it did not exceed the label requirements. For the PJ15 nozzle, orientation of the nozzle into the wind of up to 135° showed a significant increase in Dv(0.5) at 500 psi, 750 psi, and 1,500 psi. The Dv(0.5) varied Rotary nozzles produced spray plumes within the EPA label requirements for all test configurations examined. Air speed had no significant effect on Dv(0.5) or Dv(0.9) of the plume at speeds tested with Fyfanon for the ASC A20 nozzle. The rotary AU5000 nozzle using Orchex 796 produced plumes of larger drops in all configurations than any of the rotary nozzles of similar configurations using active

  17. Combustion Experiment to Evaluate a LOX Vaporization Nozzle for a Swirling-Oxidizer-Flow-Type Hybrid Rocket Engine with a 1500N-Thrust (United States)

    Kitagawa, Koki; Sakurazawa, Toshiaki; Yuasa, Saburo

    The authors have proposed a LOX vaporization nozzle for swirling-oxidizer-flow-type hybrid rocket engines to increase engine performance. In this study, we developed the LOX vaporization nozzle for this type of a hybrid rocket engine with a 1500N-thrust. Vaporization experiments, using a LOX supply system for the nozzle to be independent of a GOX supply system for the engine, were conducted. The test runs at little oxygen mass flow rates and low combustion pressures at the design point showed that LOX could be vaporized safely through the nozzle. It was confirmed that the design of the LOX vaporization nozzle was proper. Vaporization and burning experiments using vaporized O2 through the LOX vaporization nozzle showed that reliable and rapid ignition and stable combustion without combustion oscillation were achieved. The LOX vaporization nozzle increased the engine performance of the swirling-oxidizer- flow-type hybrid rocket engine.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Alibekov


    Full Text Available The dependence of the apparent location of the hydraulic parameters of parabolic channels in earthen channel and volume of dredging required in their design and construction, on the basis of conditions to ensure the stability of the slope at the maximum water flow rate. 

  19. Suppression of the secondary flow in a suction channel of a large centrifugal pump (United States)

    Torii, D.; Nagahara, T.; Okihara, T.


    The suction channel configuration of a large centrifugal pump with a 90-degree bend was studied in detail to suppress the secondary flow at the impeller inlet for improving suction performance. Design of experiments (DOE) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to evaluate the sensitivity of several primary design parameters of the suction channel. A DOE is a powerful tool to clarify the sensitivity of objective functions to design parameters with a minimum of trials. An L9 orthogonal array was adopted in this study and nine suction channels were designed, through which the flow was predicted by steady state calculation. The results indicate that a smaller bend radius with a longer straight nozzle, distributed between the bend and the impeller, suppresses the secondary flow at the impeller inlet. An optimum ratio of the cross sectional areas at the bend inlet and outlet was also confirmed in relationship to the contraction rate of the downstream straight nozzle. These findings were obtained by CFD and verified by experiments. The results will aid the design of large centrifugal pumps with better suction performance and higher reliability.

  20. Micro Fluidic Channel Machining on Fused Silica Glass Using Powder Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sam Park


    Full Text Available In this study, micro fluid channels are machined on fused silica glass via powder blasting, a mechanical etching process, and the machining characteristics of the channels are experimentally evaluated. In the process, material removal is performed by the collision of micro abrasives injected by highly compressed air on to the target surface. This approach can be characterized as an integration of brittle mode machining based on micro crack propagation. Fused silica glass, a high purity synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, is selected as a workpiece material. It has a very low thermal expansion coefficient and excellent optical qualities and exceptional transmittance over a wide spectral range, especially in the ultraviolet range. The powder blasting process parameters affecting the machined results are injection pressure, abrasive particle size and density, stand-off distance, number of nozzle scanning, and shape/size of the required patterns. In this study, the influence of the number of nozzle scanning, abrasive particle size, and pattern size on the formation of micro channels is investigated. Machined shapes and surface roughness are measured using a 3-dimensional vision profiler and the results are discussed.

  1. Micro Fluidic Channel Machining on Fused Silica Glass Using Powder Blasting. (United States)

    Jang, Ho-Su; Cho, Myeong-Woo; Park, Dong-Sam


    In this study, micro fluid channels are machined on fused silica glass via powder blasting, a mechanical etching process, and the machining characteristics of the channels are experimentally evaluated. In the process, material removal is performed by the collision of micro abrasives injected by highly compressed air on to the target surface. This approach can be characterized as an integration of brittle mode machining based on micro crack propagation. Fused silica glass, a high purity synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, is selected as a workpiece material. It has a very low thermal expansion coefficient and excellent optical qualities and exceptional transmittance over a wide spectral range, especially in the ultraviolet range. The powder blasting process parameters affecting the machined results are injection pressure, abrasive particle size and density, stand-off distance, number of nozzle scanning, and shape/size of the required patterns. In this study, the influence of the number of nozzle scanning, abrasive particle size, and pattern size on the formation of micro channels is investigated. Machined shapes and surface roughness are measured using a 3-dimensional vision profiler and the results are discussed.

  2. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida


    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...

  3. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter


    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  4. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.


    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over the communicat......A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over...... the communication channel. The method further includes determining a sequence of second coefficient estimates of the communication channel based on a decomposition of the first coefficient estimates in a dictionary matrix and a sparse vector of the second coefficient estimates, the dictionary matrix including...... filter characteristics of at least one known transceiver filter arranged in the communication channel....

  6. Extreme bosonic linear channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.


    The set of all channels with a fixed input and output is convex. We first give a convenient formulation of the necessary and sufficient condition for a channel to be an extreme point of this set in terms of the complementary channel, a notion of great importance in quantum information theory. This formulation is based on the general approach to extremality of completely positive maps in an operator algebra in the spirit of Arveson. We then use this formulation to prove our main result: under certain nondegeneracy conditions, environmental purity is necessary and sufficient for the extremality of a bosonic linear (quasifree) channel. It hence follows that a Gaussian channel between finite-mode bosonic systems is extreme if and only if it has minimum noise.

  7. Influence of an ultrasonic nozzle in spray-drying and storage on the properties of blueberry powder and microcapsules. (United States)

    Tatar Turan, Feyza; Cengiz, Alime; Sandıkçı, Dilara; Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Kahyaoglu, Talip


    Recently, ultrasonic nozzle technology has been applied in spray-drying because of its numerous advantages, including providing more uniform droplets and reducing damage observed in bioactive compounds. In this study, the production of blueberry powders and microcapsules by using an ultrasonic spray nozzle was investigated. Firstly, the important ultrasonic nozzle parameters were optimised by using response surface methodology and compared with a conventional nozzle (control). Secondly, powder and microcapsules obtained at the optimum point were stored at 22 °C and 35 °C at 0.32 water activity (aw ). The optimum conditions were estimated as 125 °C inlet air temperature, 9 W ultrasonic power and 8% feed pump rate. There was significantly difference (P food industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Development of a Silicon Carbide Molecular Beam Nozzle for Simulation Planetary Flybys and Low-Earth Orbit (United States)

    Patrick, E. L.; Earle, G. D.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, Paul R.


    From commercial origins as a molybdenum molecular beam nozzle, a ceramic nozzle of silicon carbide (SiC) was developed for space environment simulation. The nozzle is mechanically stable under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. A heated, continuous, supersonically-expanded hydrogen beam with a 1% argon seed produced an argon beam component of nearly 4 km/s, with an argon flux exceeding 1x1014 /cm2.s. This nozzle was part of a molecular beam machine used in the Atmospheric Experiments Branch at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to characterize the performance of the University of Texas at Dallas Ram Wind Sensor (RWS) aboard the Air Force Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) launched in the Spring of 2008.

  9. Monitoring Approach to Evaluate the Performances of a New Deposition Nozzle Solution for DED Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mazzucato


    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to improve the process efficiency of a direct energy deposition (DED system, closed loop control systems can be considered for monitoring the deposition and melting processes and adjusting the process parameters in real-time. In this paper, the monitoring of a new deposition nozzle solution for DED systems is approached through a simulation-experimental comparison. The shape of the powder flow at the exit of the nozzle outlet and the spread of the powder particles on the deposition plane are analyzed through 2D images of the powder flow obtained by monitoring the powder depositions with a high-speed camera. These experimental results are then compared with data obtained through a Computational Fluid Dynamics model. Preliminary tests are carried out by varying powder, carrier, and shielding mass flow, demonstrating that the last parameter has a significant influence on the powder distribution and powder flow geometry.

  10. Global subsonic flow in a 3-D infinitely long curved nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Chen


    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on the existence and stability of a subsonic global solution in an infinitely long curved nozzle for the three-dimensional steady potential flow equation. By introducing some suitably weighted Holder spaces and establishing a series of a priori estimates on the solution to second order linear elliptic equation in an unbounded strip domain with two Neumann boundary conditions and one periodic boundary condition with respect to some variable, we show that the global subsonic solution of potential flow equation in a 3-D nozzle exists uniquely when the state of subsonic flow at negative infinity is given. Meanwhile, the asymptotic state of the subsonic solution at positive infinity as well as the asymptotic behavior at minus infinity are also studied.

  11. Indirect Combustion Noise: Noise Generation by Accelerated Vorticity in a Nozzle Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Kings


    Full Text Available The noise generation by accelerated vorticity waves in a nozzle flow was investigated in a model experiment. This noise generation mechanism belongs, besides entropy noise, to the indirect combustion noise phenomena. Vorticity as well as entropy fluctuations, originating from the highly turbulent combustion zone, are convected with the flow and produce noise during their acceleration in the outlet nozzle of the combustion chamber. In the model experiment, noise generation of accelerated vorticity fluctuations was achieved. The vorticity fluctuations in the tube flow were produced by injecting temporally additional air into the mean flow. As the next step, a parametric study was conducted to determine the major dependencies of the so called vortex noise. A quadratic dependency of the vortex noise on the injected air amount was found. In order to visualise and classify the artificially generated vorticity structures, planar velocity measurements have been conducted applying Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV.

  12. Transonic Resonance Demonstrated To Be a Source of Internal Noise From Mixer-Ejector Nozzles (United States)

    Zaman, Khairul B.


    During noise field studies with mixer-ejector nozzles in NASA's High-Speed Research program, tones were often encountered. The tones would persist in the simulated "cutback" condition (shortly after takeoff). Unfortunately, we did not understand their origin and, thus, could not develop a logical approach for suppressing them. We naturally questioned whether or not some of those tones were due to the transonic resonance. This was studied with a 1/13th scale model of the High-Speed Civil Transport nozzle. The first objective was to determine if indeed tones could be detected in the radiated noise. The next objective was to diagnose if those tones were due to the transonic resonance. Agreement of the frequencies with the correlation equation and the effect of boundary layer tripping were to be used in the diagnosis.

  13. Development of a Supersonic Atomic Oxygen Nozzle Beam Source for Crossed Beam Scattering Experiments (United States)

    Sibener, S. J.; Buss, R. J.; Lee, Y. T.


    A high pressure, supersonic, radio frequency discharge nozzle beam source was developed for the production of intense beams of ground state oxygen atoms. An efficient impedance matching scheme was devised for coupling the radio frequency power to the plasma as a function of both gas pressure and composition. Techniques for localizing the discharge directly behind the orifice of a water-cooled quartz nozzle were also developed. The above combine to yield an atomic oxygen beam source which produces high molecular dissociation in oxygen seeded rare gas mixtures at total pressures up to 200 torr: 80 to 90% dissociation for oxygen/argon mixtures and 60 to 70% for oxygen/helium mixtures. Atomic oxygen intensities are found to be greater than 10{sup 17} atom sr{sup -1} sec{sup -1}. A brief discussion of the reaction dynamics of 0 + IC1 ..-->.. I0 + C1 is also presented.

  14. Three-dimensional viscous flow computations of high area ratio nozzles for hypersonic propulsion (United States)

    Reddy, D. R.; Harloff, G. J.


    The PARC3D code was selected by the authors to analyze a variety of complex and high-speed flow configurations. Geometries considered for code validation include ramps and corner flows, which are characteristic of inlets and nozzles. Flows with Mach numbers of 3-14 were studied. Both two- and three-dimensional experimental data for shock-boundary-layer interaction were considered to validate the code. A detailed comparison of various flow parameters with available experimental data is presented; agreement between the solutions and the experimental data in terms of pitot pressure profiles, yaw-angle distributions, static pressures, and skin friction is found to be very good. In addition, two- and three-dimensional flow calculations were performed for a hypersonic nozzle. Comparison of the wall pressure results with the published solutions is made for the two-dimensional case.

  15. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.


    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  16. Effects of Nozzle Diameter on Diesel Spray Flames: A numerical study using an Eulerian Stochastic Field Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Jangi, Mehdi; Bai, Xue-Song


    is in influencing the air entrainment into the upstream of the spray flames. In addition, the simulated normalised flame lengths are found to decrease when the nozzle diameters increase. These predictions are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observation. This work proves that the ESF model can...... serve as an important tool for the simulation of spray flames in marine diesel engines, where fuel injectors with different nozzle diameters are applied for pilot and main injections....

  17. Supersonic nozzle profiling for supersonic aerospace testing in a view of high-temperature of properties of real gases (United States)

    Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Kulikov, Yu M.; Panov, V. A.; Sargsyan, M. A.; Son, E. E.; Tyuftyaev, A. S.


    The paper presents the modified method for the supersonic nozzle profiling with respect to non-monotonic dependence of adiabatic index on temperature, as well as the results of nozzle profile calculation for two sets of input parameters, based on independently determined specific heat curve for molecular nitrogen N2 and products of its thermal decomposition in the temperature range of T = 260-100000 K and atmospheric pressure.

  18. Reduced Noise Gas Turbine Engine System and Supersonic Exhaust Nozzle System Using Elector to Entrain Ambient Air (United States)

    Sokhey, Jagdish S. (Inventor); Pierluissi, Anthony F. (Inventor)


    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique gas turbine engine system. Another embodiment is a unique exhaust nozzle system for a gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engine systems and exhaust nozzle systems for gas turbine engines. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  19. Long-term firing tests of the nozzles of rocket engines made on the basis of carbon composite materials (United States)

    Gubertov, A. M.; Koshlakov, V. V.; Mironov, V. V.; Rubinskii, V. R.; Pashutov, A. V.; Antipov, Ye. A.; Bratukhin, N. A.; Volkov, N. N.; Volkova, L. I.; Tsatsuev, S. M.; Tlevtsezhev, V. V.


    The results of the experimental investigation of the physico-chemical processes of interaction, destruction, and ablation of carbon composite materials and oxidation-protective coatings of nozzles of liquid-propellant rocket engines are presented. The thermally-stressed state of the joint between the nozzle made of composite material and the metallic combustion chamber of the rocket engine under standard operating conditions have been analyzed.



    Lenain, Jean-François; Pateyron, Bernard


    p.19; The optimization of the extension of the lifetime of the torches without hazard of drop of the product is an unceasing industrial difficulty. It needs a reliable criterion to characterize the wear, and thus indicate when the nozzle used should be switched by a new nozzle. These criteria are still quite subjective and hold the operator's experience. In 2003, David RIGOT, in collaboration with the Volvo Aero Corporation, has defined a number of criteria in his thesis dissertation [ ]. Thi...

  1. Assay for calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.


    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  2. Production of milk foams by steam injection: the effects of steam pressure and nozzle design


    Jimenez-Junca, Carlos; Sher, Alexander; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Niranjan, Keshavan


    Foam properties depend on the physico-chemical characteristics of the continuous phase, the method of production and process conditions employed; however the preparation of barista-style milk foams in coffee shops by injection of steam uses milk as its main ingredient which limits the control of foam properties by changing the biochemical characteristics of the continuous phase. Therefore, the control of process conditions and nozzle design are the only ways available to produce foams with di...

  3. Spinal cord deformation due to nozzle gas flow effects using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Wong, Ronnie J.; Jivraj, Jamil; Vuong, Barry; Ramjist, Joel; Sun, Cuiru; Huang, Yize; Yang, Victor X. D.


    The use of gas assistance in laser machining hard materials is well established in manufacturing but not in the context of surgery. Laser cutting of osseous tissue in the context of neurosurgery can benefit from gas-assist but requires an understanding of flow and pressure effects to minimize neural tissue damage. In this study we acquire volumetric flow rates through a gas nozzle on the spinal cord, with dura and without dura.

  4. Outlet plenum mixing for transient overpower conditions of a one-exit nozzle LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, P.A.


    Two types of transient tests were employed to model a one-exit nozzle LMFBR outlet plenum. Water was used as a test fluid in the simulation of constant flowrates, Transient Overpower (TOP) conditions. In the first test, simulated fuel flow was 85% and blanket flow was 15%, whereas in the second test, the fuel flow was 100%. This allowed the assessment of the mitigating effects of blanket flow upon the exit nozzle temperature transient. The flow field was clearly three-dimensional, and a less active, though not stagnant, region was observed diametrically opposite the exit nozzle. During steady state, oscillations above the fuel-blanket interface were found to be small. This is attributed to the existence above the reactor core of a recirculating flow field, which served as an effective mixing agent. A simple lumped-parameter model, EXIT1, was developed to simulate TOP transient conditions for the test with both fuel and blanket flows. The predicted temperature profiles for various regions in the plenum were in good agreement with the experimental profiles, except for the region immediately above the reactor blanket. In devising the computer model, the temperature in this region was assumed to remain constant throughout the transient. However, this constant temperature did not prevail owing to the mixing that occurred in this region as a result of the recirculating flow field above the reactor core. The computer model can be readily modified to take into account the mixing due to this recirculation. In the test without blanket flow, good agreement between predictions and data was again obtained. In comparing results of the two tests, it was found that the blanket flow had only a small mitigating influence on the transient at the exit nozzle. The computer model can easily be extrapolated to reactor conditions.

  5. Optimum geometry for boiler soot blowers nozzles; Geometria optima de toberas para deshollinadores de caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza Garza, Jesus; Garcia Tinoco, Guillermo J.; Martinez Flores, Jose Oscar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    For boiler soot blowing converging-diverging nozzles are employed, whose function is to convert thermal energy of a gas into kinetic energy to remove the deposits that adhere to the heat exchanger surfaces. In this paper are described the experimental equipment and the methods for flow, dynamic pressure, discharge velocity and air expansion factor calculation in each nozzle, as a function of its design geometry, utilizing air from a five stage centrifugal compressor. The graphic analysis of the results, concludes that the most efficient nozzles are not the ones than develop the greatest velocity, but the ones of highest dynamic pressure at the outlet. The nozzle geometry that allows obtaining the maximum dynamic air pressure at the discharge is A{sub 2}/A{sub g}=1.3676 [Espanol] Para el deshollinado de calderas se utilizan las toberas convergentes-divergentes, cuya funcion es convertir la energia termica de un gas en energia cinetica para remover los depositos que se adhieren a las superficies de intercambio de calor. En este trabajo se describen el equipo experimental y los metodos de calculo para flujo, presion dinamica, velocidad a la descarga y factor de expansion del aire en cada tobera, como funcion de su geometria de diseno. Durante la experimentacion se evaluaron siete disenos diferentes de toberas, empleando aire de un compresor centrifugo de cinco etapas. Del analisis grafico de los resultados, se concluye que las toberas mas eficientes no son las que desarrollan mayor velocidad sino las de mayor presion dinamica de la salida. La geometria de tobera que permite obtener la maxima presion dinamica del aire a la descarga es A{sub 2}/A{sub g} = 1.3676.

  6. Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial Application Flat Fan Nozzles (United States)


    Bradley K. Fritz,1 W. Clint Hoffmann,1 and W. E. Bagley2 Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial...Application Flat Fan Nozzles REFERENCE: Fritz, Bradley K., Hoffmann, W. Clint, and Bagley, W. E., “Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on...factors. Twelve spray-solution treatments were evaluated, ten of which contained a formulated glyphosate product and nine of these con- tained an

  7. Numerical Estimation Method for the NonStationary Thrust of Pulsejet Ejector Nozzle


    A. Yu. Mikushkin; A. A. Samoilova; G. Y. Bivol; A. E. Korobov; S. V. Golovastov


    The article considers a calculation method for the non-stationary thrust of pulsejet ejector nozzle that is based on detonation combustion of gaseous fuel.To determine initial distributions of the thermodynamic parameters inside the detonation tube was carried out a rapid analysis based on x-t-diagrams of motion of glowing combustion products. For this purpose, the section with transparent walls was connected to the outlet of the tube to register the movement of products of combustion.Based o...

  8. Non-Equilibrium Kinetics and Transport Properties in Reacting Flows in Nozzles (United States)

    Alexandrova, T. Yu.; Chikhaoui, A.; Kustova, E. V.; Nagnibeda, E. A.


    Non-equilibrium vibration-dissociation kinetics, transport properties and dissociation rate coefficients in expanding flows are studied on the basis of different kinetic theory approaches: state-to-state, multi-temperature and one-temperature ones. The limits of validity of more simple models are discussed, the influence of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions, initial conditions, nozzle profile on the macroscopic parameters, heat transfer and reaction rates is investigated.

  9. Effect of nozzle profile on gas mixing in an atmospheric and low pressure DC plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmane, M.; Soucy, G.; Boulos, M.I. [Univ. of Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); Henne, R. [Inst. for Technical Thermodynamics, Stuttgart (Germany)


    The study combines enthalpy probe and mass spectrometer measurements in a DC-plasma jet under atmospheric and low pressure conditions. Both, standard cylindrical and laval nozzle were used as anode profiles. A detailed description of the experimental technique is given together with preliminary results. These confirm the role by which enthalpy probe measurements can be used to bridge the gap in temperature range between emission spectroscopic techniques and standard thermocouple probing.

  10. Phased array ultrasonic examination of space shuttle main engine nozzle weld (United States)

    James, S.; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.


    This paper describes a Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination that was developed for the examination of a limited access circumferential Inconel 718 fusion weld of a Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle-Cone. The paper discusses the selection and formation criteria used for the phased array focal laws, the reference standard that simulated hardware conditions, the examination concept, and results. Several unique constraints present during this examination included limited probe movement to a single axis and one-sided access to the weld.

  11. The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions (United States)


    with six fuels including conventional (No. 2 Diesel , JP-8, Jet-A), alternative fuels, and a surrogate with the objective of assessing the performance...density were reported with peak liquid penetration lengths reported with No. 2 Diesel (max) and Fischer-Tropsch/ surrogate (min). Variations in vapor...The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions by Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon

  12. Laser-assisted inkjet printing of highly viscous fluids with sub-nozzle resolution (United States)

    Delrot, Paul; Modestino, Miguel A.; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe


    Drop-on-demand inkjet printing is mostly based on thermal and piezo-actuation, allowing for densely packed nozzles in inkjet printers. However, the droplet diameter is typically defined by the nozzle diameter, thus limiting the range of viscosity that can be jetted to 10-100 mPa.s to prevent nozzle clogging. Here, we present a laser-assisted system for the delivery of micro-droplets of highly viscous fluids with sub-nozzle resolution. Highly focused supersonic jets have recently been demonstrated by focusing a nanosecond pulse of light into a micro-capillary filled with dyed water, hence generating a cavitation bubble. The consequent pressure wave impact on the concave free surface of the liquid generated flow-focused micro-jets. We implemented this technique for the production of low velocity micro-droplets with photopolymer inks of increasing viscosity (0.6-148 mPa.s) into a 300 μm-wide glass capillary using low laser energies (3-70 μJ). Time-resolved imaging provided details on the droplet generation. Single micro-droplets of diameter 70-80 μm were produced on demand with inks of viscosity 0.6-9 mPa.s with good controllability and reproducibility, thus enabling to print two-dimensional patterns with a precision of 13 μm. Furthermore, the primary droplet produced with the most viscous fluid was about 66% of the capillary diameter. Preliminary results also showed that the process is linearly scalable to narrower capillaries (100-200 μm), thus paving the way for a compact laser-assisted inkjet printer. A possible application of the device would be additive manufacturing as the printed patterns could be consequently cured.

  13. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels. (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian


    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  14. Effects of axial gap and nozzle distribution on aerodynamic forces of a supersonic partial-admission turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpeng JIANG


    Full Text Available The turbine in an LH2/LOX rocket engine is designed as a two-stage supersonic partial-admission turbine. Three-dimensional steady and unsteady simulations were conducted to analyze turbine performance and aerodynamic forces on rotor blades. Different configurations were employed to investigate the effects of the axial gap and nozzle distribution on the predicted performance and aerodynamic forces. Rotor blades experience unsteady aerodynamic forces because of the partial admission. Aerodynamic forces show periodicity in the admission region, and are close to zero after leaving the admission region. The unsteady forces in frequency domain indicate that components exist in a wide frequency region, and the admission passing frequency is dominant. Those multiples of the rotational frequency which are multiples of the nozzle number in a full-admission turbine are notable components. Results show that the turbine efficiency decreases as the axial gap between nozzles and the 1st stage rotor (rotor 1 increases. Fluctuation of the circumferential aerodynamic force on rotor 1 blades decreases with the axial gap increasing. The turbine efficiency decreases as the circumferential spacing between nozzles increases. Fluctuations of the circumferential and axial aerodynamic forces increase as the circumferential spacing increases. As for the non-equidistant nozzle distribution, it produces similar turbine performance and amplitude-frequency characteristics of forces to those of the normal configuration, when the mean spacing is equal to that of the normal case. Keywords: Aerodynamic force, Axial gap, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD, Nozzle distribution, Partial admission, Turbine

  15. Preparation of sustained-release coated particles by novel microencapsulation method using three-fluid nozzle spray drying technique. (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi


    We prepared sustained-release microcapsules using a three-fluid nozzle (3N) spray drying technique. The 3N has a unique, three-layered concentric structure composed of inner and outer liquid nozzles, and an outermost gas nozzle. Composite particles were prepared by spraying a drug suspension and an ethylcellulose solution via the inner and outer nozzles, respectively, and mixed at the nozzle tip (3N-PostMix). 3N-PostMix particles exhibited a corrugated surface and similar contact angles as ethylcellulose bulk, thus suggesting encapsulation with ethylcellulose, resulting in the achievement of sustained release. To investigate the microencapsulation process via this approach and its usability, methods through which the suspension and solution were sprayed separately via two of the four-fluid nozzle (4N) (4N-PostMix) and a mixture of the suspension and solution was sprayed via 3N (3N-PreMix) were used as references. It was found that 3N can obtain smaller particles than 4N. The results for contact angle and drug release corresponded, thus suggesting that 3N-PostMix particles are more effectively coated by ethylcellulose, and can achieve higher-level controlled release than 4N-PostMix particles, while 3N-PreMix particles are not encapsulated with pure ethylcellulose, leading to rapid release. This study demonstrated that the 3N spray drying technique is useful as a novel microencapsulation method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acoustic structures in the near-field from clustered rocket nozzles (United States)

    Canchero, Andres; Tinney, Charles E.; Murray, Nathan E.; Ruf, Joseph H.


    The plume and acoustic field produced by a cluster of two and four rocket nozzles is visualized by way of retroreflective shadowgraphy. Steady state and transient operations (startup/shutdown) were conducted in the fully-anechoic chamber and open jet facility of The University of Texas at Austin. The laboratory scale rocket nozzles comprise thrust-optimized parabolic contours, which during start-up, experience free shock separated flow, restricted shock separated flow and an end-effects regime prior to flowing full. Shadowgraphy images with synchronized surveys of the acoustic loads produced in close vicinity to the rocket clusters and wall static pressure profiles are first compared with several RANS simulations during steady operations. A Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of various regions in the shadowgraphy images is then performed to elucidate the prominent features residing in the supersonic annular flow region, the acoustic near field and the interaction zone that resides between the nozzle plumes. POD modes are used to detect propagation paths of the acoustic waves and shock cell structures in the supersonic shear layer. Spectral peak frequencies on the propagation paths are associated with the shock cell length, which are responsible for generating broadband shock noise. Aerospace Engineering & Engineering Mechanics.

  17. Ultra-High Speed Visualization of the Flashing Instability in Micron Size Nozzles under Vacuum Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Tariq A.


    I visualized the flash-boiling atomization of liquid jets released into a low pressure environment at frame rates of up to five million frames per second. Such a high temporal resolution allowed us to observe for the first time the bubble expansion mechanism that atomizes the jet. To visualize the dynamics in detail, I focused closely to the outflow of the nozzle using a long distance microscope objective. I documented an abrupt transition from a laminar to a fully external flashing jet by systematically reducing the ambient pressure. I performed experiments with different volatile liquids and using nozzles with different inner diameters. The inner diameters of the nozzles varied from 30 to 480 . Perfluorohexane (PFnH) was our main working fluid, but also methanol, ethanol and 1-bromopropane were tested. Surprisingly, minimum intensity profiles revealed spray angles close to ~360°, meaning drops are ejected in all directions. Also, I measured speeds of bubble expansion up to 140 m/s. That is 45 times faster than the upper bound for inertial growth speed in complete vacuum from the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. I also calculated the trajectories of the ejected droplets as well as the drop speed distribution using particle tracking. I expect that our results bring new insight into the flash-boiling atomization mechanism.

  18. Steady computational analysis of shrouded plug nozzle flows using unequal stream pressures (United States)

    Ruhs, Kevin Paul

    This study focuses on the effects of unequal core and bypass stream feed pressures in a high pressure ratio, two-stream nozzle notionally designed for supersonic business jet applications. Whereas previous analysis used a measured mass average pressure of the core and bypass streams, equal pressures were not exactly maintained in the experimental work and the effect of the imbalance is the primary motivation for the present study. The plug nozzle geometry used is a sub-scale model of a Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation concept that features an extended shroud. It uses two inlet streams, representing core and bypass streams from a turbofan engine. Nozzle pressure ratios range from unity to 6.23. Experimental measurements included pressure taps on the plug and shroud, schlieren and shadowgraph figures, mass flows for both streams, and thrust values. The computational analysis employed the General Equation and Mesh Solver, or GEMS code. Previous computational analysis was performed by Kapilavai, giving a basis analysis involving grid generation and refinement, error convergence studies, axisymmetric analysis, and unsteady computations. Unequal core and bypass stream pressure or swirl in the core stream is used to replicate experimental data and assess performance. The results of using these conditions were explored, including pressure on the plug and shroud, shock characteristics, separation and recirculation zones, mass flows and discharge coefficients, and thrust efficiencies.

  19. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet with Shock Interactions (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta, Shayan


    NASA and Industry are performing vehicle studies of configurations with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern configuration designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty in the aft signatures with often greater boundary layer effects and nozzle jet pressures. Wind tunnel testing at significantly lower Reynolds numbers than in flight and without inlet and nozzle jet pressures make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 1.6 to 2.0 will be used to assess the effects of shocks from components passing through nozzle jet plumes on the sonic boom pressure signature and provide datasets for comparison with CFD codes. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of wind tunnel test models with a variety of shock generators that simulate horizontal tails and aft decks have been studied to provide suitable models for sonic boom pressure measurements using a minimally intrusive pressure rail in the wind tunnel. The computational results are presented and the evolution of candidate wind tunnel models is summarized and discussed in this paper.

  20. Computational Investigation of Swirling Supersonic Jets Generated Through a Nozzle-Twisted Lance (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Li, Qiang; Zou, Zongshu; An, Xizhong


    The dynamic characteristics of supersonic swirling jets generated through a nozzle-twisted lance are numerically studied. The essential features of the swirling jets are identified by defining a deviation angle. The effects of nozzle twist angle (NTA) on swirling flow intensity, coalescence characteristics, and dynamic parameter distributions of the jets are discussed. The rotational flow characteristics are revealed. The results show that the jets from the nozzle-twisted lance are imparted to a circumferential rotating movement around the lance axis, and such swirling flow is enhanced by increasing NTA. The enhanced swirling flow causes weaker coalescence of the jets, faster attenuations of the axial velocity, and higher heat transfer rate between the jets and surroundings. The supersonic core length, however, is found to be less sensitive to the swirling flow intensity. The radial spreading of the jets, changing non-monotonically with NTA, arrives at its maximum at 5 deg of NTA. Furthermore, the swirling flow induces a considerable tangential velocity component, and as a result, a holistic and effective horizontal swirling flow field develops. The y-vorticity distribution range and the corresponding magnitude turn larger with increasing NTA, which promote the vortex motion of the local fluid element and thus intensify the local mixing.

  1. Ceramic micro-injection molded nozzles for serial femtosecond crystallography sample delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyerlein, K. R.; Heymann, M.; Kirian, R. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Adriano, L.; Bajt, S., E-mail: [Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Knoška, J. [Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wilde, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Chapman, H. N. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)


    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs) allows for room temperature protein structure determination without evidence of conventional radiation damage. In this method, a liquid suspension of protein microcrystals can be delivered to the X-ray beam in vacuum as a micro-jet, which replenishes the crystals at a rate that exceeds the current XFEL pulse repetition rate. Gas dynamic virtual nozzles produce the required micrometer-sized streams by the focusing action of a coaxial sheath gas and have been shown to be effective for SFX experiments. Here, we describe the design and characterization of such nozzles assembled from ceramic micro-injection molded outer gas-focusing capillaries. Trends of the emitted jet diameter and jet length as a function of supplied liquid and gas flow rates are measured by a fast imaging system. The observed trends are explained by derived relationships considering choked gas flow and liquid flow conservation. Finally, the performance of these nozzles in a SFX experiment is presented, including an analysis of the observed background.

  2. Ceramic micro-injection molded nozzles for serial femtosecond crystallography sample delivery (United States)

    Beyerlein, K. R.; Adriano, L.; Heymann, M.; Kirian, R.; Knoška, J.; Wilde, F.; Chapman, H. N.; Bajt, S.


    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs) allows for room temperature protein structure determination without evidence of conventional radiation damage. In this method, a liquid suspension of protein microcrystals can be delivered to the X-ray beam in vacuum as a micro-jet, which replenishes the crystals at a rate that exceeds the current XFEL pulse repetition rate. Gas dynamic virtual nozzles produce the required micrometer-sized streams by the focusing action of a coaxial sheath gas and have been shown to be effective for SFX experiments. Here, we describe the design and characterization of such nozzles assembled from ceramic micro-injection molded outer gas-focusing capillaries. Trends of the emitted jet diameter and jet length as a function of supplied liquid and gas flow rates are measured by a fast imaging system. The observed trends are explained by derived relationships considering choked gas flow and liquid flow conservation. Finally, the performance of these nozzles in a SFX experiment is presented, including an analysis of the observed background.

  3. The J-2X Fuel Turbopump - Turbine Nozzle Low Cycle Fatigue Acceptance Rationale (United States)

    Hawkins, Lakiesha V.; Duke, Gregory C.; Newman, Wesley R.; Reynolds, David C.


    The J-2X Fuel Turbopump (FTP) turbine, which drives the pump that feeds hydrogen to the J-2X engine for main combustion, is based on the J-2S design developed in the early 1970 s. Updated materials and manufacturing processes have been incorporated to meet current requirements. This paper addresses an analytical concern that the J-2X Fuel Turbine Nozzle Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) analysis did not meet safety factor requirements per program structural assessment criteria. High strains in the nozzle airfoil during engine transients were predicted to be caused by thermally induced stresses between the vane hub, vane shroud, and airfoil. The heritage J-2 nozzle was of a similar design and experienced cracks in the same area where analysis predicted cracks in the J-2X design. Redesign options that did not significantly impact the overall turbine configuration were unsuccessful. An approach using component tests and displacement controlled fracture mechanics analysis to evaluate LCF crack initiation and growth rate was developed. The results of this testing and analysis were used to define the level of inspection on development engine test units. The programmatic impact of developing crack initiation/growth rate/arrest data was significant for the J-2X program. Final Design Certification Review acceptance logic will ultimately be developed utilizing this test and analytical data.

  4. The effect of a variable diameter nozzle on starting jet formation and separation dynamics (United States)

    Krieg, Mike; Mohseni, Kamran


    As a jet is forced through a nozzle, the shear layer formed at the interface rolls back on itself forming a vortex ring. At a critical point the circulation of the leading vortex ring becomes saturated causing it to "pinch-off" from the trailing shear flow, which then forms a wake of trailing vortices. Jet separation occurs at a nearly universal formation time (Gharib et. al. 1998). Both squid and jellyfish utilize the large impulse transfer associated with vortex ring formation to propel. Both swimmers are also known to actively change the diameter of the fluid interface during jetting. It was predicted by Mohseni et. al. (2001) that changing the diameter of the shear layer during formation can delay the vortex ring separation. We fabricated a prototype vortex ring generator which controls the jet diameter and jet velocity independently. This device was configured to eject a jet through a nozzle which was both opened and closed at a constant rate. The fluid driving mechanism was configured to compensate for the nozzle deformation and maintain a constant jet velocity. The jet formation dynamics were captured using a high speed camera and commercial DPIV software. The temporal evolution of the invariants of motion (circulation, energy and impulse) was determined from the DPIV velocity field. The invariance principle demonstrated a high accuracy before ring saturation, with some losses due to viscosity.

  5. Performance of spray nozzles to control fusarium head blight and mycotoxin in the barley crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étore F. Reynaldo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the performance of spray nozzles to control fusarium head blight (FHB and mycotoxins in barley grains. The barley cultivar used in the test was ‘BRS Aliansa’, with a density of 300 plants m-2. Fungicide applications were performed using a mechanized set formed by a sprayer (Jacto, model Falcon Vortex and a tractor (Massey Ferguson, Model 283. The spray volume used was 150 L ha-1. The nozzles used were single fan, single fan with air induction, hollow cone and double fan. The assay was performed in strips, totaling an area of 350 m2 and the variables yield and concentration of mycotoxin in the grains were determined along the strips. The data were submitted to descriptive statistics; the results were compared by F test and the means were compared by Dunnett test, both at a minimum significance level of 0.05. The nozzle TurboDrop TD02 caused reduction of 9.18% in the mycotoxin concentrations in barley grains. There was significant difference in yield when specific control was performed for FHB and improved quality of the product.

  6. Highly Variable Cycle Nozzle Concept: Validation of Flow and Noise Predictions (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.


    Results from experimental and numerical studies of highly Variable Cycle (HVC) exhaust model were presented. The model was designed and fabricated under a Supersonics NRA awarded to Rolls-Royce. The model had a lobed mixer for the core stream nozzle, and elliptic fan stream nozzle, and an ejector. Experiments included far-field acoustic array, phased array, and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Numerical studies included flow simulations using the WIND-US code and far-field acoustic solutions using an acoustic analogy developed by Goldstein (2003) and Leib and Goldstein (2011). Far-field acoustic measurements showed increased noise levels over the round baseline nozzle when using non-static forward flight conditions. Phased array measurements showed noise sources near the ejector doors when tones were produced for small ejector door positions. Ejector door separation identified in the experiments was reproduced in the numerical flow simulations. Acoustic solutions were unable to match levels measured in the peak jet noise direction indicating additional development work is needed to predict noise from highly three-dimensional flows.

  7. C/C-SiC Composites for Nozzle of Solid Propellant Ramjet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lingling


    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced carbon and silicon carbide matrix composites for nozzle inner of solid propellant ramjet were prepared by using the hybrid process of "chemical vapor infiltration + precursor impregnation pyrolysis (CVI+PIP". The microstructure, flexural and anti-ablation properties of the C/C-SiC composites and hydraulic test and rocket motor hot firing test for nozzle inner of solid propellant ramjet were comprehensively investigated. The results show that when the flexural strength of the composite reachs 197 MPa, the fracture damage behavior of the composites presents typical toughness mode.Also the composites has excellent anti-ablative property, i.e., linear ablation rate is only 0.0063 mm·s-1 after 200 s ablation. The C/C-SiC component have excellent integral bearing performance with the hydraulic bursting pressure of 6.5 MPa, and the high temperature combination property of the C/C-SiC composite nozzle inner is verified through motor hot firing of solid propellant ramjet.

  8. Development of carbon and silica free immersion nozzle; Kabon oyobi shirikaresu shinshi nozuru no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasajima, Yasushi; Ando, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Shigeaki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Hironaka, Yoshio [TYK Corp., Gifu (Japan)


    Alumina adhesion to an immersion nozzle of AG (alumina, graphite, silica) material occurring in continuous casting of Al killed steel causes nozzle plugging, quality degradation and inclusion defects, and its protective measures are required. The previous paper reported carbon and silica free material as a measure, and this paper reports the test with a real immersion nozzle. From the examination results in the previous report, spinel had low reactivity with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, good surface smoothness and low alumina adhesion, but the thermal spalling resistance was poor. Thus, the main body was made of the AG material and the inner hollow part was lined with the spinel material. The spinel material had a lower erosion resistance than the AG material, but the level was not considered to be a problem. As a real scale test, a casting test was carried out with a silicaless C-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC based AG material A and with a material B using spinel as a silicaless material. Alumina adhesion was observed in A but no adhesion was observed in the inner hollow part of B, which confirmed the effectiveness of spinel. (NEDO)

  9. An Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Model with Temperature and Nozzle Aspect Ratio Effects (United States)

    Brown, Cliff


    An empirical model for jet-surface interaction (JSI) noise produced by a round jet near a flat plate is described and the resulting model evaluated. The model covers unheated and hot jet conditions (1 less than or equal to jet total temperature ratio less than or equal to 2.7) in the subsonic range (0.5 less than or equal to M(sub a) less than or equal to 0.9), surface lengths 0.6 less than or equal to (axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)/nozzle exit diameter) less than or equal to 10, and surface standoff distances (0 less than or equal to (radial distance from jet lipline to surface (inches)/axial distance from jet exit to surface trailing edge (inches)) less than or equal to 1) using only second-order polynomials to provide predictable behavior. The JSI noise model is combined with an existing jet mixing noise model to produce exhaust noise predictions. Fit quality metrics and comparisons to between the predicted and experimental data indicate that the model is suitable for many system level studies. A first-order correction to the JSI source model that accounts for the effect of nozzle aspect ratio is also explored. This correction is based on changes to the potential core length and frequency scaling associated with rectangular nozzles up to 8:1 aspect ratio. However, more work is needed to refine these findings into a formal model.

  10. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille


    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  11. Convex approximations of quantum channels (United States)

    Sacchi, Massimiliano F.; Sacchi, Tito


    We address the problem of optimally approximating the action of a desired and unavailable quantum channel Φ having at our disposal a single use of a given set of other channels {Ψi} . The problem is recast to look for the least distinguishable channel from Φ among the convex set ∑ipiΨi , and the corresponding optimal weights {pi} provide the optimal convex mixing of the available channels {Ψi} . For single-qubit channels we study specifically cases where the available convex set corresponds to covariant channels or to Pauli channels, and the desired target map is an arbitrary unitary transformation or a generalized damping channel.

  12. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  13. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris


    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  14. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane


    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  15. Imperfect Channel State Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Qin


    in a multiuser OFDM CR system. A simple back-off scheme is proposed, and simulation results are provided which show that the proposed scheme is very effective in mitigating the negative impact of channel estimation errors.

  16. Channelized Streams in Iowa (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  17. 28-Channel rotary transformer (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.


    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  18. Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Field in an Axial Flow Turbine Nozzle Passage (United States)

    Ristic, D.; Lakshminarayana, B.


    The objective of this investigation is experimental and computational study of three dimensional viscous flow field in the nozzle passage of an axial flow turbine stage. The nozzle passage flow field has been measured using a two sensor hot-wire probe at various axial and radial stations. In addition, two component LDV measurements at one axial station (x/c(sum m) = 0.56) were performed to measure the velocity field. Static pressure measurements and flow visualization, using a fluorescent oil technique, were also performed to obtain the location of transition and the endwall limiting streamlines. A three dimensional boundary layer code, with a simple intermittency transition model, was used to predict the viscous layers along the blade and endwall surfaces. The boundary layers on the blade surface were found to be very thin and mostly laminar, except on the suction surface downstream of 70% axial chord. Strong radial pressure gradient, especially close to the suction surface, induces strong cross flow components in the trailing edge regions of the blade. On the end-walls the boundary layers were much thicker, especially near the suction corner of the casing surface, caused by secondary flow. The secondary flow region near the suction-casing surface corner indicates the presence of the passage vortex detached from the blade surface. The corner vortex is found to be very weak. The presence of a closely spaced rotor downstream (20% of the nozzle vane chord) introduces unsteadiness in the blade passage. The measured instantaneous velocity signal was filtered using FFT square window to remove the periodic unsteadiness introduced by the downstream rotor and fans. The filtering decreased the free stream turbulence level from 2.1% to 0.9% but had no influence on the computed turbulence length scale. The computation of the three dimensional boundary layers is found to be accurate on the nozzle passage blade surfaces, away from the end-walls and the secondary flow region. On

  19. Nucleation of super-critical carbon dioxide in a venturi nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrahbashi, D., E-mail:; Pidaparti, S.R.; Ranjan, D.


    Highlights: • Nucleation of S-CO{sub 2} in a nozzle near critical point has been computationally studied. • The nucleation behavior is very sensitive to the inlet pressure and temperature. • After nucleation, high liquid-content two-phase mixture near wall travels downstream. - Abstract: Pressure reduction at the entrance of the compressor in supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles may cause nucleation and create a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets due to operation near the saturation conditions. Transient behavior of the flow after nucleation may cause serious issues in operation of the cycle and degrade the materials used in the design. The nucleation behavior of supercritical carbon-dioxide inside a venturi nozzle near the critical point is computationally studied. A transient compressible 3D Navier–Stokes solver, coupled with continuity, and energy equations have been implemented. In order to expedite the simulations, Fluid property Interpolation Tables (FIT) based on a piecewise biquintic spline interpolation of Helmholtz energy have been integrated with OpenFOAM to model S-CO{sub 2} properties. The mass fraction of vapor created in the venturi nozzle has been calculated using homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM). Nucleation behavior has been shown to be very sensitive to the inlet pressure, inlet temperature, and flow rate. The flow conditions that led to nucleation were identified. Nucleation was observed in the throat area and divergent section of the nozzle for mass flow rates from 0.050 kg/s to 0.065 kg/s, inlet pressure from 7.8 to 7.4 MPa for fixed exit pressure equal to 7.28 MPa. The inception of high-vapor-content nucleation was first observed in the throat area away from the side walls that remained confined to the throat region in later times. However, near the walls, a high liquid-content two-phase region was detected, first in the divergent section. At later times, the two-phase region was convected downstream toward the nozzle exit

  20. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten


    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  1. Ion Channels in Leukocytes (United States)


    state (170).-Single K, channel currents were blocked by gesting that the synthesis of new channel protein was external-Ba (2.5 mM) and, like whole...Hg, La, cells, NK cells, human 2M2, 267 nifedipine, and murine B-cells diltiazem, chlorpromazine , forskolin, trifluorperazine, noxiustoxin -K, (I...Cells that ultimately leads to an increase in DNA synthesis and cell division. T lymphocytes develop in the thymus and have both effector and

  2. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server


    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  3. Interacting divided channel method for compound channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huthoff, Freek; Roos, Pieter C.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.


    A new method to calculate flow in compound channels is proposed: the interacting divided channel method (IDCM), based on a new parametrization of the interface stress between adjacent flow compartments, typically between the main channel and floodplain of a two-stage channel. This expression is

  4. Fuel property and fuel temperature effects on internal nozzle flow, atomization and cyclic spray fluctuations of a direct injection spark ignition–injector


    Zigan, Lars; Shi, Jun-Mei; Krotow, Ivan; Schmitz, Ingo; Wensing, Michael; Leipertz, Alfred


    The effect of fuel properties and fuel temperature on the behaviour of the internal nozzle flow, atomization and cyclic spray fluctuations is examined for a three-hole direct injection spark ignition injector by combining numerical simulation of the nozzle flow with macroscopic and microscopic spray visualization techniques. A dominant influence of the liquid fuel viscosity on the highly unsteady, cavitating nozzle flow and spray formation was observed. A reduced viscosity (or larger Reynolds...

  5. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam


    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  6. Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development in Support of In-Space and Upper-Stage Liquid Rocket Engines (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Valentine, Peter G.


    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures, increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles, and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered to reduce weight impacts. Currently, the state-of-the-art is represented by the metallic and foreign composite nozzle extensions limited to approximately 2000 degrees F. used on the Atlas V, Delta IV, Falcon 9, and Ariane 5 launch vehicles. NASA and industry partners are working towards advancing the domestic supply chain for C-C composite nozzle extensions. These development efforts are primarily being conducted through the NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in addition to other low level internal research efforts. This has allowed for the initial material development and characterization, subscale hardware fabrication, and completion of hot-fire testing in relevant environments. NASA and industry partners have designed, fabricated and hot-fire tested several subscale domestically produced C-C extensions to advance the material and coatings fabrication technology for use with a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C-C materials and coatings, demonstrating the initial capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the initial material development, design and fabrication of the subscale carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work. The follow on work includes the fabrication of ultra-high temperature materials, larger C-C nozzle extensions, material characterization, sub-element testing and hot-fire testing at

  7. A Study on the Influence of Fuel Pipe on Fuel Injection Characteristics of Each Nozzle Hole in Diesel Injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Fuqiang


    Full Text Available The inner diameter of high pressure fuel pipe has a significant effect on the fuel injection process and the performance of a diesel engine. The spray impact force of each nozzle hole of a conventional injection system of pump-line-nozzle for diesel engine (based on the spray momentum flux and the injection pressure (on a fuel injection pump test rig were measured. With varying fuel injection quantities and pump speed, the effects of the inner diameter of the high pressure fuel pipe on fuel injection process and the fuel injection characteristics of each nozzle hole were analyzed. It was noted from experimental results that the fuel injection pressure changes with variations in the inner diameter of the high pressure fuel pipe and also the injection duration gradually increases with increase in the inner diameter. At low injection pump speed, even with the same geometric fuel deliver rate, the injection duration also increases gradually. Due to throttling effect and reduction in injection pressure, the fuel injection quantities of the injection nozzle were relatively minimal when the inner diameters of the high pressure fuel pipe were respectively small and large. The optimum injection pipe inner diameter for the right quantity for fuel injection falls between the two cases (between small and large. In addition, the injection rate of each nozzle hole increases with the decrease in angle between the needle axis and each of the nozzle hole axis. The fuel injection quantity of each nozzle hole increases while their relative difference decreases with increasing pump speed.

  8. Arthroscopic Airbrush-Assisted Cell Spraying for Cartilage Repair: Design, Development, and Characterization of Custom-Made Arthroscopic Spray Nozzles. (United States)

    Dijkstra, Koen; Hendriks, Jan; Karperien, Marcel; Vonk, Lucienne A; Saris, Daniël B F


    Airbrush-assisted cell spraying would facilitate fully arthroscopic filling of cartilage defects, thereby providing a minimally invasive procedure for cartilage repair. This study provides the development and characterization of custom-made spray nozzles that could serve as a foundation for the development of a BioAirbrush, a platform technology for the arthroscopic application of (cell laden) hydrogels. Custom-made spray nozzles were designed and produced with 3D printing technology. A commercially available spraying system was used for comparison. Sprays were characterized based on spray angle, cone width, droplet size, velocity, and density. This was performed with conventional and high-speed imaging. Furthermore, cell survival of chondrocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells, as well as the chondrogenic capacity of chondrocytes after spraying were evaluated. Changing nozzle design from internal to external mixing significantly increased cell survival after spraying. Custom-made spray nozzles provide larger droplets compared to the current commercially available technology, potentially improving cell survival. Sufficient mixing of two gel components was confirmed for the custom-made nozzles. Overall, custom-made nozzles improved cell survival after spraying, without significantly affecting the chondrogenic capacity of the cells. This study provides a platform for the development of a BioAirbrush for spray-assisted cell implantations in arthroscopic cartilage repair procedures. Evaluation of the fundamental characteristics of a spray as well as a study of cell survival after spraying have further expanded the knowledge regarding cell spraying for cartilage repair. Nozzle design and air pressure characteristics are essential parameters to consider for the clinical implementation of spray-assisted cell implantations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Darwis Isnaini


    Full Text Available Grid pejarak berfungsi secara mekanik untuk menambah kekuatan perangkat bahan bakar nuklir (BBN dari getaran yang ditimbulkan oleh aliran pendingin yang mengalir melalui celah subkanal di dalam perangkat BBN. Oleh sebab itu perlu dilakukan analisis termohidrolika reaktor AP1000 pada kondisi tunak untuk mengetahui pengaruh dipasangnya grid pejarak pada perangkat BBN. Metodologi yang dilakukan melakukan perhitungan penurunan tekanan teras, fluks massa dan koefisien hantaran kalor pada perangkat BBN tanpa grid pejarak dan variasi jumlah grid. Pada analisis subkanal terpanas (SKP ditekankan pada perbandingan termohidrolika reaktor AP1000 pada kondisi tunak antara SKP tanpa grid pejarak dan SKP dengan 8/2 grid-nozzle, dengan menggunakan kode COBRA-EN. Dibandingkan SKP tanpa grid pejarak, maka pemasangan 8/2 grid-nozzle menyebabkan penurunan tekanan teras meningkat 3,74 kali lipat dari 73,99 kPa menjadi 276,88 kPa, fluks massa pendingin dan koefisien hantaran kalor berfluktuasi pada daerah sekitar grid pejarak, menghasilkan proses pengambilan panas oleh pendingin menjadi lebih efektif. Penurunan tekanan yang semakin besar juga akan berakibat pada nilai fluks kalor kritis (CHF bertambah besar. Karena daya reaktor tidak berubah, maka fluks kalor cenderung berubah kecuali pada daerah grid, oleh sebab itu nilai DNBR menjadi bertambah besar yang berarti marjin keselamatannya juga bertambah besar. Perhitungan untuk SKP dengan 8/2 grid-nozzle dibandingkan dengan desain diperoleh hasil penurunan tekanan teras sebesar 276,88 kPa (perbedaan 0,68%, temperatur outlet pendingin sebesar 325,54oC (perbedaan 0,21%, fluks kalor maksimum sebesar 1635,16 kW/m2 (perbedaan 0,03% dan MDNBR sebesar 2,48 (lebih besar 14,06% dari batas minimum korelasi W-3. Penambahan 8/2 grid-nozzle memberikan angka keselamatan yang lebih tinggi. Kata kunci: Pengaruh grid pejarak dan nozzle, analisis termohidrolika, AP1000, COBRA-EN.   One of the spacer grids function was to increase the

  10. Development and Testing of a New Optimum Design Code for Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Nozzles, Including Boundary Layer, Turbulence, and Real Gas Effects (United States)


    Mach 12 Wind Tunnel Nozzle Profile .......... 165 7. SAIC CFD Mach 12 Nozzle Exit Pitot Pressure and Mach No. Profiles...Centerline Mach Number Distribution for Hypersonic Nozzle 0.30- 0.25’ ,0.20’ 0.10- 𔃽 0.06 -0 1 . Axt~el ODtotence (m) Fig. 6 AF WL Mach 12 Wind Tunnel Nozzle ... Profile 171 15.0 ... Laminar Turbulent a Oat& t0.0 1.0 " ami nar -. --- - - - 2..,. -0 as 0.0 0.0 6.0 400 1.0 204 0.0 500 300.0 Mach mumer Fig. 7 SAIC

  11. Channels with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Appiah


    Full Text Available The uteri, spontaneously active or Ca2+ (6 mM induced, were allowed to equilibrate, and to inhibit voltage-gated potassium ( channels 1 mM 4-amino pyridine (4-AP was applied for 15 min before adding H2O2 .  H2O2 was added cumulatively: 2 μM, 20 μM, 200 μM, 400 μM, and 3 mM. Average time for H2O2 concentrations (2, 20, 200, and 400 μM to reach its full effect was 15 min. H2O2 3 mM had a prolonged effect and therefore was left to act for 30 min. Two-way ANOVA showed significant differences in time dependency between spontaneous and Ca2+-induced rat uteri after applying 3 mM H2O2 (type of contraction, , but not 400 μM H2O2 (. Our results indicate that H2O2 oxidises channel intracellular thiol groups and activates the channel, inducing relaxation. Cell antioxidative defence system quickly activates glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx defence mechanism but not catalase (CAT defence mechanism. Intracellular redox mechanisms repair the oxidised sites and again establish deactivation of channels, recuperating contractility. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that channels can be altered in a time-dependent manner by reversible redox-dependent intracellular alterations.

  12. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.


    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  13. Channel Identification Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel A. Lazar


    Full Text Available We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  14. An electrospray/inductively coupled plasma dual-source time-of-flight mass spectrometer for rapid metallomic and speciation analysis. Part 1. Molecular channel characterization. (United States)

    Rogers, Duane A; Ray, Steven J; Hieftje, Gary M


    A new time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been developed that uses an electrospray source and an inductively coupled plasma to extract molecular, atomic, and isotopic information simultaneously from a single sample. This paper will focus on characterization of the ESI channel. Sensitivities are reported for hexadecyltrimethylammonium, tetrahexylammonium, tetraoctylammonium, myoglobin, insulin, cyanocobalamin, leucine enkephalin, and alcohol dehydrogenase. Skimmer-nozzle collisionally induced dissociation is explored for adduct removal and analyte fragmentation on the ESI channel for tetraoctylammonium ion and leucine enkephalin. Long-term and short-term spray stability is also examined.

  15. Chaos in quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang [Department of Physics, Stanford University,476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Roberts, Daniel A. [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yoshida, Beni [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)


    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  16. Nanoscale Vacuum Channel Transistor. (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Moon, Dong-Il; Meyyappan, M


    Vacuum tubes that sparked the electronics era had given way to semiconductor transistors. Despite their faster operation and better immunity to noise and radiation compared to the transistors, the vacuum device technology became extinct due to the high power consumption, integration difficulties, and short lifetime of the vacuum tubes. We combine the best of vacuum tubes and modern silicon nanofabrication technology here. The surround gate nanoscale vacuum channel transistor consists of sharp source and drain electrodes separated by sub-50 nm vacuum channel with a source to gate distance of 10 nm. This transistor performs at a low voltage (3 microamperes). The nanoscale vacuum channel transistor can be a possible alternative to semiconductor transistors beyond Moore's law.

  17. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle....... Understanding the structure/function relationship of TRPV4 is essential for future development of specific TRPV4 agonist for treatment of diseases causes by dysfunctional TRPV4. E.g. two inherited bone dysplasias have recently been demonstrated in humans to originate from TRPV4 mutations....

  18. Ionic Channels in Thunderclouds (United States)

    Losseva, T. V.; Fomenko, A. S.; Nemtchinov, I. V.


    We proceed to study the formation and propagation of ionic channels in thunderclouds in the framework of the model of the corona discharge wave propagation (Fomenko A.S., Losseva T.V., Nemtchinov I.V. The corona discharge waves in thunderclouds and formation of ionic channels // 2004 Fall Meeting. EOS Trans. AGU. 2004. V. 85. ¹ 47. Suppl. Abstract AE23A-0835.). In this model we proposed a hypothesis that the structure of a thundercloud becomes nonuniform due to corona discharge on the drops and ice particles and formation of ionic channels with higher conductivity than the surrounding air. When the onset strength of corona discharge becomes smaller than the electric field strength the corona discharge increases concentrations of ions in a small part of the cloud (a hot spot). An additional charge at opposite ends of the hot spot forms due to polarization process. The increased electric field initiates corona discharge in other parts of the cloud on ice particles and water drops with smaller sizes. The corona discharge front moves as a wave with the velocity of the order of ion drift and formes a highly conductive channel. We model this non-stationary problem with Poisson equation which is solved simultaneously with a simplified set of kinetic equations for ions, small charged particles and electrons (at high electric fields), including ionization due to electronic impact, attachment and formation of positive ions. By applying 3D numerical simulations we obtain the parameters of formed ionic channels with respect to onset electric fields both from large particles (in hot spot) and from small particles (surrounding hot spot), microscopic currents from particles with different sizes and the external electric field in the cloud. The interaction of ionic channels is also investigated. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Project No 07-05-00998-à).

  19. Preliminary study of the primary nozzle position of a supersonic air ejector with a constant-area mixing chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracik Jan


    Full Text Available This work aims at investigating the primary nozzle position in a proposed supersonic air ejector device. The ejector is primarily made up of a supersonic primary nozzle, which is located in the axis of the ejector, a suction chamber or secondary stream inlet, a mixing chamber and a diffuser. The ejector design allows to translate the primary nozzle in the axis direction and fix it in a chosen distance from the beginning of the mixing chamber and hence influence the secondary mass flow rate. In a limit case, it is possible to set the nozzle to such a position where no secondary flow occurs. If we ignore the case where no secondary flow occurs, five different nozzle distances have been investigated in this paper. Some cases seem to be alike and there are no significant dissimilarities between them. Courses of relative back-pressure ratio are carried out against the entrainment ratio and transition between on-design and off-design regimes is determined. Measurements of the mixed flow based on the standard ISO 5167 are performed by means of orifice plate method. In addition, a comparison between experiments and simulations performed by Ansys Fluent software is presented in order to indicate further improvements to the numerical model.

  20. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size (United States)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Sundarapandian, S.; Thangagiri, B.


    Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, fast and perfect air-biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV1) kirloskar 1500 rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. In this work, by varying different nozzles having spray holes of 3 (base, Ø = 0.280 mm), 4 (modified, Ø = 0.220 mm) and 5 (modified, Ø = 0.240 mm) holes, with standard static injection timing of 23° bTDC and nozzle opening pressure (NOP) of 250 bar maintained as constant throughout the experiment under steady state at full load condition of the engine. The effect of varying different nozzle configuration (number of holes), on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar. Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar.