WorldWideScience

Sample records for channel lateral mobility

  1. Fluvial bevelling of topography controlled by lateral channel mobility and uplift rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufe, Aaron; Paola, Chris; Burbank, Douglas W.

    2016-09-01

    Valley morphologies of rivers crossing zones of active uplift range from narrow canyons to broad alluvial surfaces. They provide illuminating examples of the fundamental, but poorly understood, competition between relief creation and landscape flattening. Motivated by a field example of abandoned kilometre-wide, fluvially eroded platforms on active detachment folds in the Tian Shan foreland, we present physical experiments investigating the controls on the area of a growing fold that is reworked by antecedent rivers. These experiments reproduce the range of observed field morphologies, varying from wholesale bevelling of the uplifting fold to the formation of narrow, steep-walled canyons. A log-linear fit to a simple dimensionless parameter shows that the competition between lateral channel mobility and rock-uplift rate explains >95% of the variance in the bevelled fraction of the folds. Our data suggest that lateral bedrock erosion rates of 0.5-40 m yr-1 are required to explain the formation of extensive platforms in the Tian Shan foreland and imply that varying water and sediment fluxes can cause striking changes in the degree of landscape flattening by influencing the lateral erosion rate.

  2. Mobile radio channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pätzold, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the modelling, analysis and simulation of mobile radio channels, this book gives a detailed understanding of fundamental issues and examines state-of-the-art techniques in mobile radio channel modelling. It analyses several mobile fading channels, including terrestrial and satellite flat-fading channels, various types of wideband channels and advanced MIMO channels, providing a fundamental understanding of the issues currently being investigated in the field. Important classes of narrowband, wideband, and space-time wireless channels are explored in deta

  3. Unifying Theories of Mobile Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Ekembe Ngondi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the denotational semantics for channel mobility in the Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP semantics framework. The basis for the model is the UTP theory of reactive processes (precisely, the UTP semantics for Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP, which is slightly extended to allow the mobility of channels: the set of actions in which a process is authorised to participate, originally static or constant (set during the process's definition, is now made dynamic or variable: it can change during the process's execution. A channel is thus moved around by communicating it via other channels and then allowing the receiving process to extend its alphabet with the received channel. New healthiness conditions are stated to ensure an appropriate use of mobile channels.

  4. Mobile-to-mobile wireless channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zajic, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    Present-day mobile communications systems can be classified as fixed-to-mobile because they allow mobility on only one end (e.g. the mobile phone to a fixed mobile operator's cell tower). In answer to the consumer demand for better coverage and quality of service, emerging mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communications systems allow mobile users or vehicles to directly communicate with each other. This practical book provides a detailed introduction to state-of-the-art M-to-M wireless propagation. Moreover, the book offers professionals guidance for rapid implementation of these communications syste

  5. 33 CFR 165.835 - Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. 165.835 Section 165.835 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.835 Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. (a) Definition. As used...

  6. Mobile radio channel as a complex medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matic, Dusan; Prasad, Ramjee; Kalluri, Dikshitulu K.

    2001-01-01

    Optical fibres have almost unlimited capacity, but can not the address the users desire for mobility and ubiquitous access. The synergy of these two worlds can be seen in the direction of the Radio-over-Fibre. This paper presents to the reader an introduction for the mobile radio channel - basic...... physical phenomena, their implications on the transmitted signal, and how the radio channels are modelled. Special attention is given to the small-scale effects, such as multipath, and Rayleigh and Rice distributions of received signal, as these dominate in the case of indoor communication systems....

  7. INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION FOR MOBILE DISPERSIVE CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazi Takpaya

    2003-01-01

    A robust interference canceller for Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access(MC-CDMA) using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) in Rayleigh fading isproposed. This interference canceller is robust in the sense that it cancels Inter-Carriers Inter-ference (ICI) and is suitable for use in dispersive channels. To come up the effects of the signaldispersion, Doppler shifts and delay spreads on the performance of MC-CDMA systems over mo-bile fading channels, this interference canceller exploits the merit of the orthogonal signaling andpilot signals to evaluate the channel parameters. This interface canceller is well suited to work initerative turbo interference cancellation.

  8. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in dividing Xenopus eggs

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, S W; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1984-01-01

    The lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids was analyzed during first cleavage of Xaopus Levis eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements, using the lipid analogs 5-(N-hexadecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“HEDAF”) and 5-(N-tetradecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“TEDAF”) as probes. The preexisting plasma membrane of the animal side showed an inhomogeneous, dotted fluorescence pattern after labeling and the lateral mobility of both probes used was below the detection limits of the FP...

  9. Mobility of protozoa through narrow channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shor, Leslie M; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Wikswo, John P; Kosson, David S

    2005-08-01

    Microbes in the environment are profoundly affected by chemical and physical heterogeneities occurring on a spatial scale of millimeters to micrometers. Physical refuges are critical for maintaining stable bacterial populations in the presence of high predation pressure by protozoa. The effects of microscale heterogeneity, however, are difficult to replicate and observe using conventional experimental techniques. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of spatial constraints on the mobility of six species of marine protozoa. Microfluidic devices were created with small channels similar in size to pore spaces in soil or sediment systems. Individuals from each species of protozoa tested were able to rapidly discover and move within these channels. The time required for locating the channel entrance from the source well increased with protozoan size and decreased with channel height. Protozoa of every species were able to pass constrictions with dimensions equal to or smaller than the individual's unconstrained cross-sectional area. Channel geometry was also an important factor affecting protozoan mobility. Linear rates of motion for various species of protozoa varied by channel size. In relatively wide channels, typical rates of motion were 300 to 500 microm s(-1) (or about 1 m per hour). As the channel dimensions decreased, however, motilities slowed more than an order of magnitude to 20 microm s(-1). Protozoa were consistently observed to exhibit several strategies for successfully traversing channel reductions. The empirical results and qualitative observations resulting from this research help define the physical limitations on protozoan grazing, a critical process affecting microbes in the environment.

  10. A Group Communication Approach for Mobile Computing Mobile Channel: An ISIS Tool for Mobile Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    of mobile hosts. However, these approaches require complicated protocols for handshaking and buffering , and fault-tolerance is not often addressed. On...view layer I sis 4- channel layer -- I~•• Network Newr IVF (U°P1 VF (uUPl channel to other servers to another client Figure 1.1 MobileChannel...necessary for any communication. When multiple processes need to synchronize, a handshake of two processes introduces a handshake time, and thus, buffering

  11. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in dividing Xenopus eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1984-01-01

    The lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids was analyzed during first cleavage of Xaopus Levis eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements, using the lipid analogs 5-(N-hexadecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“HEDAF”) and 5-(N-tetradecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“TEDAF”) as probes. The pre

  12. PERFORMANCES OF ADAPTIVE MODULATION AND CODING IN SATELLITE MOBILE CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fangyuan; Yang Mingchuan; Guo Qing

    2011-01-01

    Given that satellite mobile channel is a time-varying channel,Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) was proposed to provide robust and spectrally efficient transmission over satellite mobile channel.Three different kinds of channel environment were considered in this paper:the urban area,the rural area,and the open space.Four combinations of modulation and coding were designed to meet reliable communication on time-varying channel,and spectral efficiency and system throughput of these three kinds of channel environment were simulated.Based on the simulation results,this paper analysed the results and compared the performances of AMC with non-AMC system in these three kinds of channel environment.At last,we come to the conclusions:a system with AMC can achieve higher spectral efficiency and better system throughput; and the spectral efficiency and system throughput of AMC system will be higher on better satellite mobile channel.

  13. A Survey of Fading Models for Mobile Radio Channel Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Arya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Future 3G and 4G mobile communication systems will be required to support wide range of data rates and quality of service matrix. For the efficient design of data link and transport protocols system designer needs knowledge of the statistical properties of physicallayer. Studies have shown that without proper characterization of the channel, blind application of existing protocols and transmission policy may results in disastrous performance unless proper measures are not being taken. Channel characterization also helps in llocation of resources, selection of transmission policy andprotocols. A feasible measure is to have an accurate and thoroughly reproducible optimum channel model which can mimic the mobile radio channel in diversities of fading error environments. Objective of channel model is to supply proper outputs for designing of upper layer protocol in such a fashion as if it were running on the actualphysical layer. The model should fit very well to the measured data and should easily handle analytically. Various approaches for characterization of fading mobile channels have appeared in iterature over last five decades. This article surveys the fading channel models for proper characterization of the radio channel andprovides approaches to classify the existing channel models. The paper also presents the contribution made by these channel models with their assumptions, suitability, applications, shortcomingsand further improvement issues. In present environment Markov Models are best suited for characterization of the fading radio channel. Inthese models radio channel is presented in terms of fading states and modeled as stochastic process. A proper constructed channel model may be valuable means to enhance the reliability and capacity of future mobile radio channel.

  14. Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Satellite Channels: The ACKPrime Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Keith; Czetty, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Satellite Channels: The ACKPrime Approach" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) TCP over mobile satellite links; 2) ways of breaking the control loop at the groundstation; 3) ACK implementation; and 4) ACK performance.

  15. Characterisation of mobile radio channels for small multiantenna terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotterman, Wim Anton Theo

    The Ph.D. thesis "Characterisation of mobile radio channels for small multiantenna terminals" discusses the work on and presents the results of the Ph.D. project "Smart antennas for small terminals". The scope of the project was to determine whether the use of multiple antennas on small handheld...... mobile terminals could improve the transmission quality and throughput of mobile communication links under typical usage conditions. That is, using multiple antennas of typical design, handled by users in typical ways in typical environments as handling by users has a strong influence on channel...

  16. Narrowband and wideband characterisation of satellite mobile/PCN channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, G.; Parks, M. A. N.; Evans, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents models characterizing satellite mobile channel. Statistical narrowband models based on the CSER high elevation angle channel measurement campaign are reported. Such models are understood to be useful for communication system simulations. It has been shown from the modelling results that for the mobile satellite links at high elevation angles line-of-sight (LOS) signal is available most of the time, even under the heavy shadowing conditions. Wideband measurement campaign which CSER is about to undertake, and subsequently the modelling approach to be adopted is also discussed. It is noted that a wideband channel model is expected to provide a useful tool in investigating CDMA applications.

  17. Strategies for sustainable channel relations in mobile telecom sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githa Heggde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The telecom sector in India largely comprises of wireless connections for phones. As of today, there are approximately 21 network providers in the country with about 7 per each circle, each offering competitive pricing to the consumers. The main objective of the study is to provide an accurate role for the company executive in developing channel relations. Further to this, the study explores the strategies which can sustain a good working relationship between the company and its channel members in the mobile telecom sector. The constructs identified for developing sustainable relationships were Setting distribution objectives, Channel design, Logistics, Image Building, Inventory management, Channel management, Payment & credit, Promotional assistance, Setting targets, Coverage frequency , Motivating channel members to perform. The sample selected contained distributors from the Mobile telecom sector and company executives/channel managers of leading telecom companies. Factor analysis and Friedman’s test was applied. The findings revealed a correlation in attitude between distributors and the executives. Motivating distributors was rated as the most important strategy by the company. The distributors felt that all channel partners needed to have positive attitude towards the channel while company executives felt that aggression made channel members perform effectively. Such findings will be of use to mobile telecom companies who are new entrants to the Indian market and to existing companies who plan to expand their coverage.

  18. Misfolded amyloid ion channels present mobile beta-sheet subunits in contrast to conventional ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunbum; Arce, Fernando Teran; Capone, Ricardo; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Lal, Ratnesh; Nussinov, Ruth

    2009-12-02

    In Alzheimer's disease, calcium permeability through cellular membranes appears to underlie neuronal cell death. It is increasingly accepted that calcium permeability involves toxic ion channels. We modeled Alzheimer's disease ion channels of different sizes (12-mer to 36-mer) in the lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations. Our Abeta channels consist of the solid-state NMR-based U-shaped beta-strand-turn-beta-strand motif. In the simulations we obtain ion-permeable channels whose subunit morphologies and shapes are consistent with electron microscopy/atomic force microscopy. In agreement with imaged channels, the simulations indicate that beta-sheet channels break into loosely associated mobile beta-sheet subunits. The preferred channel sizes (16- to 24-mer) are compatible with electron microscopy/atomic force microscopy-derived dimensions. Mobile subunits were also observed for beta-sheet channels formed by cytolytic PG-1 beta-hairpins. The emerging picture from our large-scale simulations is that toxic ion channels formed by beta-sheets spontaneously break into loosely interacting dynamic units that associate and dissociate leading to toxic ionic flux. This sharply contrasts intact conventional gated ion channels that consist of tightly interacting alpha-helices that robustly prevent ion leakage, rather than hydrogen-bonded beta-strands. The simulations suggest why conventional gated channels evolved to consist of interacting alpha-helices rather than hydrogen-bonded beta-strands that tend to break in fluidic bilayers. Nature designs folded channels but not misfolded toxic channels.

  19. Electron mobility enhancement in (100) oxygen-inserted silicon channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Nuo; King Liu, Tsu-Jae [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Takeuchi, Hideki; Hytha, Marek; Cody, Nyles W.; Stephenson, Robert J.; Mears, Robert J. [Mears Technologies, Inc., Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts 02481 (United States); Kwak, Byungil; Cha, Seon Yong [SK Hynix, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 467-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-21

    High performance improvement (+88% in peak G{sub m} and >30% in linear and saturation region drain currents) was observed for N-MOSFETs with Oxygen-Inserted (OI) Si channel. From TCAD analysis of the C-V measurement data, the improvement was confirmed to be due to electron mobility enhancement of the OI Si channel (+75% at N{sub inv} = 4.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} and +25% at N{sub inv} = 8.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}). Raman and high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements confirmed that negligible strain is induced in the OI Si layer, and hence, it cannot be used to explain the origin of mobility improvement. Poisson-Schrödinger based quantum mechanical simulation was performed, taking into account phonon, surface roughness and Coulomb scatterings. The OI layer was modeled as a “quasi barrier” region with reference to the Si conduction band edge to confine inversion electrons. Simulation explains the measured electron mobility enhancement as the confinement effect of inversion electrons while the formation of an super-steep retrograde well doping profile in the channel (as a result of dopant diffusion blocking effect accompanied by introduction of the OI layer) also contributes 50%–60% of the mobility improvement.

  20. Research on Marketing Channel of Mobile Manufacturer Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Hui; LI Shi-ming; LAN Yong

    2006-01-01

    Research on "marketing channel" of mobile attracts much attention in these years,but there're only few articles referring to how to optimize the disposition of channel resources for mobile manufacturers. Based on a typically multiplex marketing channel system of mobile manufacturer, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) structure model is established. Through the judgment matrix, simple and total hierarchy arrangement, consistent test, this paper gets the weight of each kind of marketing channel of mobile manufacturer. It provides the practical reference value for mobile manufacturers to distribute resources of marketing channels.

  1. Multipath Parameter Estimation from OFDM Signals in Mobile Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Letzepis, Nick; Haley, David

    2010-01-01

    We study multipath parameter estimation from orthogonal frequency division multiplex signals transmitted over doubly dispersive mobile radio channels. We are interested in cases where the transmission is long enough to suffer time selectivity, but short enough such that the time variation can be accurately modeled as depending only on per-tap linear phase variations due to Doppler effects. We therefore concentrate on the estimation of the complex gain, delay and Doppler offset of each tap of the multipath channel impulse response. We show that the frequency domain channel coefficients for an entire packet can be expressed as the superimposition of two-dimensional complex sinusoids. The maximum likelihood estimate requires solution of a multidimensional non-linear least squares problem, which is computationally infeasible in practice. We therefore propose a low complexity suboptimal solution based on iterative successive and parallel cancellation. First, initial delay/Doppler estimates are obtained via success...

  2. Electron channel mobility in silicon-doped Ga2O3 MOSFETs with a resistive buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man Hoi; Sasaki, Kohei; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Higashiwaki, Masataka

    2016-12-01

    The electron mobility in depletion-mode lateral β-Ga2O3(010) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with an n-channel formed by Si-ion (Si+) implantation doping was extracted using low-field electrical measurements on FET structures. An undoped Ga2O3 buffer layer protected the channel against charge compensation by suppressing outdiffusion of deep Fe acceptors from the semi-insulating substrate. The molecular beam epitaxy growth temperature was identified as a key process parameter for eliminating parasitic conduction at the buffer/substrate growth interface. Devices with a resistive buffer showed room temperature channel mobilities of 90-100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at carrier concentrations of low- to mid-1017 cm-3, with small in-plane mobility anisotropy of 10-15% ascribable to anisotropic carrier scattering.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of MIMO Mobile-to-Mobile Wireless Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and design of multielement antenna systems in mobile fading channels require a model for the space-time cross-correlation among the links of the underlying multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO Mobile-to-Mobile (M-to-M communication channels. In this paper, we propose the modified geometrical two-ring model, a MIMO channel reference model for M-to-M communication systems. This model is based on the extension of single-bounce two-ring scattering model for flat fading channel under the assumption that the transmitter and the receiver are moving. Assuming single-bounce scattering model in both isotropic and nonisotropic environment, a closed-form expression for the space-time cross-correlation function (CCF between any two subchannels is derived. The proposed model provides an important framework in M-to-M system design, where includes many existing correlation models as special cases. Also, two realizable statistical simulation models are proposed for simulating both isotropic and nonisotropic reference model. The realizable simulation models are based on Sum-of-Sinusoids (SoS simulation model. Finally, the correctness of the proposed simulation models is shown via different simulation scenarios.

  4. An aberrant vascular channel in the petrous bone: persistent lateral capital vein?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermans, Robert [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Rensburg, Leon J. van [University of the Western Cape, Department of Radiology and Diagnostics, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    An aberrant channel was identified on CT in the petrous bone in four patients presenting with unrelated otological symptoms. These channels occurred unilaterally in each case. In two patients, the channel was seen to run between the sigmoid sinus sulcus and the superior petrosal sinus sulcus; in one of these patients, a vascular structure was identified within this channel on MRI, connecting the sigmoid sinus and the superior petrosal sinus. In the two other patients, an aberrant channel was seen between the superior petrosal sinus sulcus and the posterior genu of the facial nerve canal. There were no symptoms that could be attributed to the presence of these channels. We postulate that these aberrant vascular channels correspond to a persistent embryological vein, the lateral capital vein. (orig.)

  5. Lateral distributions of streamwise velocity in compound channels with partially vegetated floodplains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KNIGHT; Donald; W

    2009-01-01

    Natural rivers are commonly characterized by a main channel for primary flow conveyance and a floodplain, often partially covered with vegetation such as shrubs or trees, to carry extra flow during floods. The hydraulic resistance due to vegetation on the floodplain typically causes a further reduction of flow velocity and increases the velocity difference between the main channel and the floodplain. As a consequence a strong lateral shear layer leads to the exchange of mass and momentum between the main channel and floodplain, which in turn affects the overall channel conveyance and certain fluvial processes. The prediction of the lateral velocity distribution is important for many flood alleviation schemes, as well as for studies on sediment transport and dispersion in such channels. The present paper proposes a method for predicting the depth-averaged velocity in compound channels with partially vegetated floodplains, based on an analytical solution to the depth-integrated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a term included to account for the effects of vegetation. The vegetation is modelled via an additional term in the momentum equation to account for the additional drag force. The method includes the effects of bed friction, drag force, lateral turbulence and secondary flows, via four coefficients f, CD, λ & Γ respectively. The predicted lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity agree well with the experimental data. The analytical solutions can also be used to predict the distribution of boundary shear stresses, which adds additional weight to the method proposed.

  6. A Simplified Geometric Channel Model for Mobile-to-Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Baltzis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile-to-Mobile (M2M communications, the communicating nodes are surrounded by scatterers and equipped with low elevation antennas. This paper proposes a simple 2-D geometric scattering model for M2M channels. The model is also applicable in cellular systems when we employ low height base station antennas. In our approach, the scatterers are uniformly distributed in ellipses with arbitrary size and orientation around each communicating node. We provide simple formulas for the calculation of the angular spread and delay variation of the propagating signal. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the model. In order to validate the generalization of the approach, we compare it against notable models in the literature. As an application example, we investigate the impact of scatterer distribution and separation between mobiles on the angle and time of arrival statistics of the multipaths.

  7. Discharge estimation in compound channels with fixed and mobile bed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galip Seckin; Mustafa Mamak; Serter Atabay; Mazen Omran

    2009-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) formulae for estimating discharge capacity of straight compound channels are reviewed and applied to overbank flows in straight fixed and mobile bed compound channels. The predictive capabilities of these formulae were evaluated using experimental data obtained from the small-scale University of Birmingham channel. Full details of these data and key references may be found at the following www.flowdata.bham.ac.uk (university website). 2-D formulae generally account for bed shear, lateral shear, and secondary flow effects via 3 coefficients f, and . In this paper, the secondary flow term() used within the 2-D methods analysed here is ignored in all applications. Two different 2-D formulae almost give practically the same results for the same data when the secondary flow term is ignored. For overall test cases, the value of dimensionless eddy viscosity used in 2-D formulae was kept at 0·13 as recommended for open channels. 2-D formulae gave good predictions for most of the data sets studied in comparison with the traditional 1-D methods, namely the Single Channel Method (SCM) and the Divided Channel Method (DCM). The accuracy of predictions of 2-D formulae was increased by calibrating of value where the calibration was needed. For overall data, the average errors for each method were Lateral Division Methods (LDMs), with value of 0·13, 2·8%, DCM 14·3% and SCM $−26·8$%. The average error was 0·5% for LDMs with the calibrated values of .

  8. Leishmania donovani infection enhances lateral mobility of macrophage membrane protein which is reversed by liposomal cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Ghosh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani (LD reduces cellular cholesterol of the host possibly for its own benefit. Cholesterol is mostly present in the specialized compartment of the plasma membrane. The relation between mobility of membrane proteins and cholesterol depletion from membrane continues to be an important issue. The notion that leishmania infection alters the mobility of membrane proteins stems from our previous study where we showed that the distance between subunits of IFNγ receptor (R1 and R2 on the cell surface of LD infected cell is increased, but is restored to normal by liposomal cholesterol treatment.We determined the lateral mobility of a membrane protein in normal, LD infected and liposome treated LD infected cells using GFP-tagged PLCδ1 as a probe. The mobility of PLCδ1 was computationally analyzed from the time lapse experiment using boundary distance plot and radial profile movement. Our results showed that the lateral mobility of the membrane protein, which is increased in infection, is restored to normal upon liposomal cholesterol treatment. The results of FRAP experiment lent further credence to the above notion. The membrane proteins are intimately linked with cellular actin and alteration of cellular actin may influence lateral mobility. We found that F-actin is decreased in infection but is restored to normal upon liposomal cholesterol treatment as evident from phalloidin staining and also from biochemical analysis by immunoblotting.To our knowledge this is the first direct demonstration that LD parasites during their intracellular life cycle increases lateral mobility of membrane proteins and decreases F-actin level in infected macrophages. Such defects may contribute to ineffective intracellular signaling and other cellular functions.

  9. Kinetics of low threshold calcium channels of relay cells in cat lateral geniculate nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茀荪; S.M.Sherman

    1996-01-01

    Kinetics of the low threshold T-type Ca2+ channel is studied with single electrode voltage damp technique on brain slices of the cat lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Space damp is dramatically improved by blocking various K+ and Na+ channels, decreasing Ca2+ current and selecting proper holding potentials. Results from this study are similar to those obtained from acutely dissociated LGN neurons of the rat, indicating that the kinetics of T-Ca2+ channels of the cat LGN neurons is the same as that of the rat LGN. The result reported previously on the cat LGN may result from a defect in space damp.

  10. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of the longitudinal and lateral channel deformations in alluvial rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Junqiang; WANG Guangqian; WU Baosheng

    2004-01-01

    Two kinds of bank erosion mechanisms were analyzed, including fluvial and non-fluvial controlled mechanisms, and mechanical methods of simulating the erosion processes of cohesive, non-cohesive and composite riverbanks were improved. Then a two-dimensional numerical model of the channel deformation was developed, consisting of a 2D flow and sediment transport submodel and bank-erosion submodels of different soil riverbanks. In the model, a new technique for updating the bank geometry during the bed evolution was presented, which combines closely two kinds of submodels. The proposed model is capable of not only predicting the processes of flood routing and longitudinal channel deformation in natural rivers, but also simulating the processes of lateral channel deformation, especially the processes of lateral erosion and failure of cohesive, non-cohesive and composite riverbanks.

  11. Lateral distributions of streamwise velocity in compound channels with partially vegetated floodplains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG XiaoNan; KNIGHT Donald W

    2009-01-01

    Natural rivers are commonly characterized by a main channel for primary flow conveyance and a floodplain, often partially covered with vegetation such as shrubs or trees, to carry extra flow during floods.The hydraulic resistance due to vegetation on the floodplain typically causes a further reduction of flow velocity and increases the velocity difference between the main channel and the floodplain.As a consequence a strong lateral shear layer leads to the exchange of mass and momentum between the main channel and floodplain, which in turn affects the overall channel conveyance and certain fluvial processes.The prediction of the lateral velocity distribution is important for many flood alleviation schemes, as well as for studies on sediment transport and dispersion in such channels.The present paper proposes a method for predicting the depth-averaged velocity in compound channels with par-tially vegetated floodplains, based on an analytical solution to the depth-integrated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a term included to account for the effects of vegetation.The vegetation is modelled via an additional term in the momentum equation to account for the additional drag force.The method includes the effects of bed friction, drag force, lateral turbulence and secondary flows, via four coefficients f, C_D,λ & Г respectively.The predicted lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity agree well with the experimental data.The analytical solutions can also be used to predict the distribu-tion of boundary shear stresses, which adds additional weight to the method proposed.

  12. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, T. M.; Laroche, D.; Huang, S.-H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J.-Y.; Liu, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm−2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm−2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential. PMID:26865160

  13. Longitudinal and lateral slip control of autonomous wheeled mobile robot for trajectory tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamza KHAN; Jamshed IQBAL; Khelifa BAIZID; Teresa ZIELINSKA

    2015-01-01

    This research formulates a path-following control problem subjected to wheel slippage and skid and solves it using a logic-based control scheme for a wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The novelty of the proposed scheme lies in its methodology that considers both longitudinal and lateral slip components. Based on the derived slip model, the controller for longitudinal motion slip has been synthesized. Various control parameters have been studied to investigate their effects on the performance of the controller resulting in selection of their optimum values. The designed controller for lateral slip or skid is based on the proposed side friction model and skid check condition. Considering a car-like WMR, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. The robot successfully followed the desired circular trajectory in the presence of wheel slippage and skid. This research finds its potential in various applications involving WMR navigation and control.

  14. Enhancement of QoS in Mobile Network through Channel Allocation using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Muchhal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades the demand for mobile hosts is increasing rapidly. One of the biggest challenges in cellular systems is to fulfill the mobile user demand under the constraint of the limited spectrum. Some of the most common methods to increase the channel allocation and utilization are resource allocation schemes. Various channel allocation schemes have been proposed to provide Quality of Service (QoS and efficient channel utilization in cellular networks. This paper proposes architecture of Multi-agent system consisting of software agents to implement distributed dynamic channel allocation strategy. The strategy is based on the channel reassignment within the cell boundary and chained channel borrowing in neighboring cell areas. The QoS parameters analyzed are Call dropping probability and Call blocking probability.

  15. Adoption and Business Value of Mobile Retail Channel: A Dependency Perspective on Mobile Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yen-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Forrest Research estimated that revenues derived from mobile devices will grow at an annual rate of 39% to reach $31 billion by 2016. With the tremendous market growth, mobile banking, mobile marketing, and mobile retailing have been recently introduced to satisfy customer needs. Academic and practical articles have widely discussed unique…

  16. Breakdown mechanisms in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with different GaN channel thickness values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓华; 张亚嫚; 王鑫华; 袁婷婷; 庞磊; 陈伟伟; 刘新宇

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the off-state breakdown characteristics of two different AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), featuring a 50-nm and a 150-nm GaN thick channel layer, respectively, are compared. HEMT with thick channel exhibits a little larger pinch-off drain current but significantly enhanced off-state breakdown voltage (BVoff). Device simu-lation indicates that thickening channel increases the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) but reduces the lateral electric field in the channel and buffer underneath the gate. The increase of BVoff in thick channel device is due to the reduction of the electric field. These results demonstrate that it is necessary to select an appropriate channel thickness to balance DIBL and BVoff in AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

  17. Securing Interactive Sessions Using Mobile Device through Visual Channel and Visual Inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Chengfang; Chang, Ee-Chien

    2010-01-01

    Communication channel established from a display to a device's camera is known as visual channel, and it is helpful in securing key exchange protocol. In this paper, we study how visual channel can be exploited by a network terminal and mobile device to jointly verify information in an interactive session, and how such information can be jointly presented in a user-friendly manner, taking into account that the mobile device can only capture and display a small region, and the user may only wa...

  18. Reduction in lateral lipid mobility of lipid bilayer membrane by atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Tero, Ryugo; Yamashita, Ryuma; Yusa, Kota; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-03-01

    Plasma medicine is an emerging research field in which various applications of electrical discharge, especially in the form of nonequilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, are examined, for example, the application of plasma to biological targets for various purposes such as selective killing of tumor cells and blood stanching. We have focused on the behavior of an artificial cell membrane system at the solid-liquid interface. To evaluate the lateral lipid mobility, we measured the diffusion coefficient of the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that the diffusion coefficient was decreased by plasma irradiation and that the diffusion coefficient decreasing rate proceeded with increasing plasma power. We investigated the effects of stimulation with an equilibrium chemical, H2O2, on the SLB and confirmed that the diffusion coefficient did not change at least up to a H2O2 concentration of 5 mM. These results indicate that transient active species generated by plasma play critical roles in the reduction in SLB fluidity. The effects of the two generated major oxidized lipid species, hydroxyl- or hydroperoxy-phosphatidylcholine (PC) and acyl-chain-truncated PCs terminated with aldehyde or carboxyl group, on lateral lipid mobility are discussed.

  19. Misfolded Amyloid Ion Channels Present Mobile β-Sheet Subunits in Contrast to Conventional Ion Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hyunbum; Arce, Fernando Teran; Capone, Ricardo; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Lal, Ratnesh; Nussinov, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease, calcium permeability through cellular membranes appears to underlie neuronal cell death. It is increasingly accepted that calcium permeability involves toxic ion channels. We modeled Alzheimer's disease ion channels of different sizes (12-mer to 36-mer) in the lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations. Our Aβ channels consist of the solid-state NMR-based U-shaped β-strand-turn-β-strand motif. In the simulations we obtain ion-permeable channels whose subunit mo...

  20. AN EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM FOR CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM IN WIRELESS MOBILE NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Shin Chia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The channel assignment problem in wireless mobile network is the assignment of appropriate frequency spectrum to incoming calls while maintaining a satisfactory level of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC constraints. An effective channel assignment strategy is important due to the limited capacity of frequency spectrum in wireless mobile network. Most of the existing channel assignment strategies are based on deterministic methods. In this paper, an adaptive genetic algorithm (GA based channel assignment strategy is introduced for resource management and to reduce the effect of EMC interferences. The most significant advantage of the proposed optimization method is its capability to handle both the reassignment of channels for existing calls as well as the allocation of channel to a new incoming call in an adaptive process to maximize the utility of the limited resources. It is capable to adapt the population size to the number of eligible channels for a particular cell upon new call arrivals to achieve reasonable convergence speed. The MATLAB simulation on a 49-cells network model for both uniform and nonuniform call traffic distributions showed that the proposed channel optimization method can always achieve a lower average new incoming call blocking probability compared to the deterministic based channel assignment strategy.

  1. MIMO channel measurements using optical links on small mobile terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at a novel measurement device for propagation channel measurements using a fiber optic link. Although the idea of using optical links is not new, most of the developments in the area are either too big [5], short range [6] or suitable for anechoic chamber only [7]. The device...... presented here is specifically designed to fit in a very small volume and is optimized for low power consumption (runs on small battery), thus imitating the phone electronics. It can be used for anechoic chamber measurements, however it is designed for long range channel sounding measurements....

  2. Agraphia in Mobile Text Messages in a Case of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis with Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kengo; Shiraishi, Tomoyuki; Idehara, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe the case of a woman with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) showing errors in her choice of Japanese kana characters in her mobile text messages and agraphia of the kana in her handwriting in spite of the absence of weakness, ataxia, or apraxia of her hands. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the atrophy of the frontal lobes. Single-photon emission computed tomography revealed hypoperfusion of the frontal lobes including Exner's area. Although patients with bulbar-onset ALS have been reported to show agraphia of handwriting, in this case the basis of her agraphia might have been the disturbance of the pathway converting phones to graphemes in series, by which errors of spelling or writing would appear in any modality of output.

  3. Differences in ichthyofauna feeding habits among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G; Casatti, L

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated differences in feeding habits of small-sized ichthyofauna among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir. The study was performed in four lagoons and in one sampling site of the main channel in Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River, Brazil. The samples were taken in September and November of 2004 and in January, March, May, and August of 2005. Fish were sampled with a 7.5 m2 hand net. Five manual throws were made toward aquatic macrophytes stands. The sampling design favored the collection of small-sized fish fauna (juveniles/small-sized species). The stomach contents of 42 species were analyzed. A total of 183 different items were consumed by fish. These items were grouped in 11 food categories, which were used to classify fish into seven trophic guilds. Aquatic insects were consumed by 32 species and were the predominant feeding item. In the river, the most consumed items were aquatic insects, cladocerans, and phytoplankton, whereas in the lagoons aquatic insects, copepods, and cladocerans were the main items. By comparing each trophic guild, the number of insectivores, algivores, and zooplanktivores species was higher in the lagoons than in the river, and the opposite was found only for omnivore fish. Low niche width in all sites indicates high trophic specialization and low niche overlap between pairs of species. Fish assemblage in the lateral lagoons presents feeding habits distinct from those of the river species, indicating that the coexistence and high abundance of small-sized fish in the sampling sites are explained by their high feeding adaptability, which includes a tendency toward dietary specialization, low feeding overlap, and resource partitioning, along with different temporal resource uses.

  4. Differences in ichthyofauna feeding habits among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrareze

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated differences in feeding habits of small-sized ichthyofauna among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir. The study was performed in four lagoons and in one sampling site of the main channel in Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River, Brazil. The samples were taken in September and November of 2004 and in January, March, May, and August of 2005. Fish were sampled with a 7.5 m2 hand net. Five manual throws were made toward aquatic macrophytes stands. The sampling design favored the collection of small-sized fish fauna (juveniles/small-sized species. The stomach contents of 42 species were analyzed. A total of 183 different items were consumed by fish. These items were grouped in 11 food categories, which were used to classify fish into seven trophic guilds. Aquatic insects were consumed by 32 species and were the predominant feeding item. In the river, the most consumed items were aquatic insects, cladocerans, and phytoplankton, whereas in the lagoons aquatic insects, copepods, and cladocerans were the main items. By comparing each trophic guild, the number of insectivores, algivores, and zooplanktivores species was higher in the lagoons than in the river, and the opposite was found only for omnivore fish. Low niche width in all sites indicates high trophic specialization and low niche overlap between pairs of species. Fish assemblage in the lateral lagoons presents feeding habits distinct from those of the river species, indicating that the coexistence and high abundance of small-sized fish in the sampling sites are explained by their high feeding adaptability, which includes a tendency toward dietary specialization, low feeding overlap, and resource partitioning, along with different temporal resource uses.

  5. Ship Navigation Simulator Study Upper Mobile Bay Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    Garner III of the Mathematical Modeling Group, under the general supervision of Messrs. Henry B. Simmons and Frank A. Herrmann , Jr., former and successive...CHANNEL. SHIP AT COAL TERMINAL tee - .. . . . . ,STARO,.o--. ,, ;,’,: . . 0- NED ARIGO CHANEL SHI -AT: ,.. CA- TERMINA -e is* * %o*p -. I- a 4 a 6 10 18 14

  6. A Novel Criterion for Optimum MultilevelCoding Systems in Mobile Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Dongfeng; WANG Chengxiang; YAO Qi; CAO Zhigang

    2001-01-01

    A novel criterion that is "capac-ity rule" and "mapping rule" for the design of op-timum MLC scheme over mobile fading channels isproposed.According to this theory,the performanceof multilevel coding with multistage decoding schemes(MLC/MSD) in mobile fading channels is investi-gated,in which BCH codes are chosen as componentcodes,and three mapping strategies with 8ASK mod-ulation are used.Numerical results indicate that whencode rates of component codes in MLC scheme are de-signed based on "capacity rule",the performance ofthe system with block partitioning (BP) is optimumfor Rayleigh fading channels,while the performance ofthe system with Ungerboeck partioning (UP) is bestfor AWGN channels.

  7. Nonlinear Channel Estimation for OFDM System by Complex LS-SVM under High Mobility Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Charrada, Anis; 10.5121/ijwmn.2011.3412

    2011-01-01

    A nonlinear channel estimator using complex Least Square Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) is proposed for pilot-aided OFDM system and applied to Long Term Evolution (LTE) downlink under high mobility conditions. The estimation algorithm makes use of the reference signals to estimate the total frequency response of the highly selective multipath channel in the presence of non-Gaussian impulse noise interfering with pilot signals. Thus, the algorithm maps trained data into a high dimensional feature space and uses the structural risk minimization (SRM) principle to carry out the regression estimation for the frequency response function of the highly selective channel. The simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method which has good performance and high precision to track the variations of the fading channels compared to the conventional LS method and it is robust at high speed mobility.

  8. DVB-T/H Portable and Mobile TV Performance in the New Channel Profiles Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíl, Tomáš

    This paper deals with an experimental laboratory assessment of new channel profile modes in the transmission of DVB-T/H portable and mobile TV over fading channels. These new profiles called PI (Pedestrian Indoor), PO (Pedestrian Outdoor), VU (Vehicular Urban) and MR (Motorway Rural) are originally from the Celtic Wing TV project. The DVB-T/H performance was tested in a laboratory environment using R&S test and measurements equipments. The results of the BER before and BER after Viterbi decoding and MER (Modulation Error Rate) were evaluated as the objective criteria for the DVB-T/H portable and mobile TV reception.

  9. A Simulation Study on Channel Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Based Beyond 3G Mobile Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Chang-chuan; ZHAO Xue-yuan; HOU Xiao-lin; YUE Guang-xin

    2005-01-01

    Multi-Input Multi-Output antennas based Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) has been chosen as the air interface technology for China's beyond 3G Time-Division Duplex (TDD) mobile system in the FuTURE research project. Channel estimation plays a key role on the performance of the MIMO-OFDM receiver. In this paper, we present five channel estimation algorithms and study their performance in a simulated beyond 3G TDD mobile system. Simulation results show that the adaptive 2D-LMS algorithm we proposed recently has the best performance when the signal to noise ratio is lower than 8 dB.

  10. Frequency Diversity for OFDM Mobile Communication via Underwater Acoustic Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Qiao; Wei Wang; Ran Guo; Rehan Khan; Yue Wang

    2012-01-01

    The major constraint on the performance of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based underwater acoustic (UWA) communication is to keep subcarriers orthogonal.In this paper,Doppler estimation and the respective compensation technique along with various diversity techniques were deliberated for OFDM-based systems best suited for underwater wireless information exchange.In practice,for mobile communication,adjustment and tuning of transducers in order to get spatial diversity is extremely difficult.Considering the relatively low coherence bandwidth in UWA,the frequency diversity design with the Doppler compensation function was elaborated here.The outfield experiments of mobile underwater acoustic communication (UWAC) based on OFDM were carried out with 0.17 bit/(s.Hz) spectral efficiency.The validity and the dependability of the scheme were also analyzed.

  11. Channel estimation for MIMO-OFDM systems in wireless mobile channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhen; Ge Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    New training sequences and frame structure are proposed to estimate time-varying channel for multiple-input multiple-output and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems. The training sequences are modulatable orthogonal polyphase sequences, which have both good autocorrelations and cross-correlations. The channel impulse response (CIR) can be obtained by measuring the correlation between the received training sequence and the locally generated training sequence. The training sequences are used as guard interval instead of cyclic prefix, which not only improve the transmission efficiency but also enable the channel estimator to track time-varying channel. The simulation results show that the proposed method has about 2dB SNR gain over conventional methods in fast time-varying channel.

  12. Improved Mobility Performance in LTE Co-Channel HetNets Through Speed Differentiated Enhancements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Simone; Michaelsen, Per Henrik; Säily, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mobility performance of LTE (Long Term Evolution) co-channel heterogeneous networks (HetNet) with macro and pico cells. Improved methods for differentiating offload and mobility robustness as a function of the UE (User Equipment) mobility are proposed. The suggested solution...... comprises two key elements, namely enhanced UE MSE (Mobility State Estimation), as well as optimized methods such that high speed users are primarily kept at the macro layer, while the offload to pico cells for low speed users is maximized. The proposed methods are designed as UE autonomous solutions......, requiring minimum assistance and signaling from the network. Extensive system level simulations are used to quantify the benefits. Results confirm that the proposed solutions offer improvements in several mobility key performance indicators such as radio link failure, number of handovers, offload to pico...

  13. News Media Channels : Complements or Substitutes? Evidence from Mobile Phone Usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Jiao; Forman, Chris; Kim, Jun B.; Van Ittersum, Koert

    2014-01-01

    The media industry has undergone a fundamental shift over the past decade as new online distribution channels have proliferated in an unprecedented manner. Although mobile devices have experienced rapid adoption among consumers, their effect on consumer behavior and their subsequent implications for

  14. Method for Evaluation of Outage Probability on Random Access Channel in Mobile Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollár, Martin

    2012-05-01

    In order to access the cell in all mobile communication technologies a so called random-access procedure is used. For example in GSM this is represented by sending the CHANNEL REQUEST message from Mobile Station (MS) to Base Transceiver Station (BTS) which is consequently forwarded as an CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the Base Station Controller (BSC). If the BTS decodes some noise on the Random Access Channel (RACH) as random access by mistake (so- called ‘phantom RACH') then it is a question of pure coincidence which èstablishment cause’ the BTS thinks to have recognized. A typical invalid channel access request or phantom RACH is characterized by an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT procedure (assignment of an SDCCH or TCH) which is not followed by sending an ESTABLISH INDICATION from MS to BTS. In this paper a mathematical model for evaluation of the Power RACH Busy Threshold (RACHBT) in order to guaranty in advance determined outage probability on RACH is described and discussed as well. It focuses on Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) however the obtained results can be generalized on remaining mobile technologies (ie WCDMA and LTE).

  15. Memory and computation reduction for least-square channel estimation of mobile OFDM systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, T.; Tang, Z.; Lu, H.; Leuken, R van

    2012-01-01

    Mobile OFDM refers to OFDM systems with fast moving transceivers, contrastive to traditional OFDM systems whose transceivers are stationary or have a low velocity. In this paper, we use Basis Expansion Models (BEM) to model the time-variation of channels, based on which two least-squares (LS) channe

  16. Trap states in AlGaN channel high-electron-mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, ShengLei; Zhang, Kai; Ha, Wei; Chen, YongHe; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Ma, XiaoHua, E-mail: xhma@xidian.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2013-11-18

    Frequency dependent capacitance and conductance measurements were performed to analyze the trap states in the AlGaN channel high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). The trap state density in the AlGaN channel HEMTs decreases from 1.26 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} at the energy of 0.33 eV to 4.35 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} at 0.40 eV. Compared with GaN channel HEMTs, the trap states in the AlGaN channel HEMTs have deeper energy levels. The trap with deeper energy levels in the AlGaN channel HEMTs is another reason for the reduction of the reverse gate leakage current besides the higher Schottky barrier height.

  17. Channel estimation for MIMO-OFDM systems in mobile wireless channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yun; LUO Han-wen; SONG Wen-tao

    2008-01-01

    A channel estimation method is proposed for multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency di-vision multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems in time-varying fading channels. In this method, a decision-direct-ed space-ahernating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm is introduced to the tracking of time-varying fading. In order to improve the estimation performance of the SAGE algorithm, a low rank approxi-mation method is presented by using the signal subspaee of the channel frequency autocorrelation matrix. The study reveals that this method can be incorporated into the SAGE algorithm. Furthermore, a modified fast sub-space tracking algorithm is given to adaptively estimate the signal subspace by utilizing training OFDM blocks sent at regular interval. Simulation results demonstrate the considerable benefits of the proposed channel estima-tion method.

  18. Multiple trellis coded modulation (MTCM) performance on a fading mobile satellite channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush

    1987-01-01

    The author recently introduced the notion of multiple trellis coding, in which more than one channel symbol per trellis branch is transmitted. He showed that on the ideal additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, the combination of multiple trellis coding with M-ary modulation yields a performance gain with symmetric signal sets comparable to and in some cases better than that previously achieved only with signal constellation asymmetry. The combination of conventional trellis coding with multiple phase-shift-keyed (MPSK) signaling has recently been shown by the author to be a well-suited modulation/coding scheme for transmission over the fading mobile satellite channel. In particular, a rate 2/3 coded 8-PSK scheme operating at 4800 b/s is currently under development for use in NASA's Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). The author applies the multiple trellis-coded modulation technique in the same fading mobile satellite environment, extending the analysis results previously found for its performance over the AWGN channel to the MSAT-X channel.

  19. Microclimate-induced Lateral Channel Migration as a Driver for Hillslope Asymmetry in Semi-arid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, P. W.; Perron, J. T.; Miller, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    North-facing slopes in semi-arid regions of the northern hemisphere are commonly steeper than south-facing slopes, whereas the converse is observed in the southern hemisphere. In the absence of a structural cause, the most common explanations for topographic asymmetry ultimately invoke aspect-related microclimate. Landscapes with asymmetric topography are therefore potential natural laboratories for investigating the sensitivity of surface processes to climate. However, the specific mechanisms driving asymmetry are not well understood, and studies using asymmetric topography to investigate landscape climate sensitivity may have to consider multiple origins of the asymmetry. Two leading hypotheses have emerged. One states that small differences in microclimate cause differences in the efficiency of erosional processes on slopes with different aspect. The more efficiently eroding slope erodes faster until the resulting slope asymmetry compensates for the difference in erosional efficiency. According to the other hypothesis, the difference in erosional efficiency is not sufficient to create the observed topographic asymmetry. Instead, sediment aggradation at the foot of the more quickly eroding slope forces lateral channel migration and undercutting of the opposing slope. These two explanations for topographic asymmetry predict different trajectories of long-term landscape evolution - sustained migration of asymmetric valleys would drive stream capture and drainage reorganization, whereas the mechanism without lateral channel migration would not - but there is no existing test capable of distinguishing between them. We develop such a test using a landscape evolution model that simulates different asymmetry-forming mechanisms, including asymmetric runoff production, channel incision threshold, soil creep, and lateral channel migration. For the case of topographic asymmetry produced by lateral channel migration, the model predicts that north-facing hilltops should be

  20. Channels of Social Mobility of Russian Society: World War I influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim M. Rynkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with World War I influence on dynamics of social processes in Russia. The subject of the research is limited by the channels of social mobility, which mean horizontal or mainly horizontal movement in social space. The conclusions are based on studying statistic sources and modern historiography. In 1914–1917 due to war influence severe deformation of previously stable working channels of social mobility took place. Large groups of people who had not had any prerequisites of social status change started to migrate. Some channels almost stopped working, such as agrarian migration, seasonal work, but some new ones emerged, such as refugees, captivity, desertion. The war effaced estates boundaries and deformed class groups. Produced by war, the processes of society restructuring are characterized by high level of social entropy – the most important prerequisite of revolutionary explosion of 1917.

  1. A channel- and QoS-adaptive turbo coded modulation architecture for mobile multimedia communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Jiancun; Song Wentao; Luo Hanwen; Xu Youyun

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a cross-layer dual adaptive coded modulation architecture using turbo codes for mobile multimedia communication, which simultaneously adapted to both the varying channel characteristics and the quality of service (QoS) of various mobile multimedia services to increase the average system throughput substantially. A pragmatic channel-adaptive turbo coded modulation scheme, which comes within 2.5dB of the Shannon limit, was optimally designed, and then a QoS-adaptive scheme was superimposed to build the dual adaptive architecture. Simulation results show that the novel dual adaption reduces the difference with the fading channel capacity to 2dB when assuming different services occur in equal probability and the service duration follows the exponential distribution.

  2. Channel-Specific Daily Patterns in Mobile Phone Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Roberts, Sam G B; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I M; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans follow circadian rhythms, visible in their activity levels as well as physiological and psychological factors. Such rhythms are also visible in electronic communication records, where the aggregated activity levels of e.g. mobile telephone calls or Wikipedia edits are known to follow their own daily patterns. Here, we study the daily communication patterns of 24 individuals over 18 months, and show that each individual has a different, persistent communication pattern. These patterns may differ for calls and text messages, which points towards calls and texts serving a different role in communication. For both calls and texts, evenings play a special role. There are also differences in the daily patterns of males and females both for calls and texts, both in how they communicate with individuals of the same gender vs. opposite gender, and also in how communication is allocated at social ties of different nature (kin ties vs. non-kin ties). Taken together, our results show that there is an unexpected ri...

  3. Mobile operators as banks or vice-versa? and: the challenges of Mobile channels for banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis short paper addresses the strategic challenges of deposit banks, and payment clearinghouses, posed by the growing role of mobile operators as collectors and payment agents of flow of cash for themselves and third parties. Through analysis and data analysis from selected operators ,

  4. Blind Adaptive Subcarrier Combining Technique for MC-CDMA Receiver in Mobile Rayleigh Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Shakya, Indu; Stipidis, Elias

    2011-01-01

    A new subcarrier combining technique is proposed for MC -CDMA receiver in mobile Rayleigh fading channel. It exploits the structure formed by repeating spreading sequences of users on different subcarriers to simultaneously suppress multiple access interference (MAI) and provide implicit channel tracking without any knowledge of the channel amplitudes or training sequences. This is achieved by adaptively weighting each subcarrier in each symbol period by employing a simple gradient descent algorithm to meet the constant modulus (CM) criterion with judicious selection of step-size. Improved BER and user capacity performance are shown with similar complexity in order of O(N) compared with conventional maximum ratio combining and equal gain combining techniques even under high channel Doppler rates.

  5. PEMBERIAN TEKNIK MULLIGAN DAN SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION LEBIH BAIK DARIPADA HANYA SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION DALAM MENINGKATKAN LINGKUP GERAK SENDI EKSTENSI, ROTASI, LATERAL FLEKSI CERVICAL PADA MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sudaryanto -

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical neck pain has the same high prevalence with low back pain, and commonly found in many of physiotherapy practice. Combination of Mulligan technique and Soft Tissue Mobilization are one of manual therapy technique highly effective and efficient to care the case of mechanical neck pain but still very rarely used by physiotherapist in fields of practice. This study aimed to know the effectiveness between Mulligan technique – Soft Tissue Mobilization and only Soft Tissue Mobilization to the increasing range of motion extension, rotation and side flexion cervical on the mechanical neck pain. The study design was a pre test – post test control group design using two group of samples are control groups that given intervention Soft Tissue Mobilization and treatment groups that given a combination of Mulligan technique and Soft Tissue Mobilization. Measuring instrument used for data collection was goniometer, that the goniometer was used to measure the range of motion extension, rotation and lateral flexion of the cervical either before the intervention and after the intervention. Sample of this study was 32 people who divided into 2 groups of samples were 16 people in the control group and 16 people in the treatment group. Samples in the control group had a mean age of 35,69 with male of 7 people (43,8% and female of 9 people (56,2% as well as limitations of the right direction were 12 people (75% and left direction were 4 people (25%. Whereas in the treatment group had e mean age of 35,94 with male of 10 people (62,5% and female of 6 people (37,5% as well as limitations of the right direction were 11 people (62,5% and left direction were 5 people (31,2%. The results of hypothesis testing using independent sampel t-test showed a significant difference between the mean post-intervention ROM extension, rotation, lateral flexion of the control groups and the mean post-intervention ROM extension, rotation, lateral flexion of the treatment

  6. Acid sensing ion channel 1 in lateral hypothalamus contributes to breathing control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Song

    Full Text Available Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are present in neurons and may contribute to chemoreception. Among six subunits of ASICs, ASIC1 is mainly expressed in the central nervous system. Recently, multiple sites in the brain including the lateral hypothalamus (LH have been found to be sensitive to extracellular acidification. Since LH contains orexin neurons and innervates the medulla respiratory center, we hypothesize that ASIC1 is expressed on the orexin neuron and contributes to acid-induced increase in respiratory drive. To test this hypothesis, we used double immunofluorescence to determine whether ASIC1 is expressed on orexin neurons in the LH, and assessed integrated phrenic nerve discharge (iPND in intact rats in response to acidification of the LH. We found that ASIC1 was co-localized with orexinA in the LH. Microinjection of acidified artificial cerebrospinal fluid increased the amplitude of iPND by 70% (pH 7.4 v.s. pH 6.5:1.05±0.12 v.s. 1.70±0.10, n = 6, P<0.001 and increased the respiratory drive (peak amplitude of iPND/inspiratory time, PA/Ti by 40% (1.10±0.23 v.s. 1.50±0.38, P<0.05. This stimulatory effect was abolished by blocking ASIC1 with a nonselective inhibitor (amiloride 10 mM, a selective inhibitor (PcTX1, 10 nM or by damaging orexin neurons in the LH. Current results support our hypothesis that the orexin neuron in the LH can exert an excitation on respiration via ASIC1 during local acidosis. Since central acidification is involved in breathing dysfunction in a variety of pulmonary diseases, understanding its underlying mechanism may improve patient management.

  7. A Gibbs Sampling Based MAP Detection Algorithm for OFDM Over Rapidly Varying Mobile Radio Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Panayirci, Erdal; Poor, H Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems operating over rapidly time-varying channels, the orthogonality between subcarriers is destroyed leading to inter-carrier interference (ICI) and resulting in an irreducible error floor. In this paper, a new and low-complexity maximum {\\em a posteriori} probability (MAP) detection algorithm is proposed for OFDM systems operating over rapidly time-varying multipath channels. The detection algorithm exploits the banded structure of the frequency-domain channel matrix whose bandwidth is a parameter to be adjusted according to the speed of the mobile terminal. Based on this assumption, the received signal vector is decomposed into reduced dimensional sub-observations in such a way that all components of the observation vector contributing to the symbol to be detected are included in the decomposed observation model. The data symbols are then detected by the MAP algorithm by means of a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique in an optimal and computatio...

  8. Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel inactivation contributes to spike broadening during repetitive firing in the rat lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, E S Louise; Sah, Pankaj

    2003-10-15

    In many neurons, trains of action potentials show frequency-dependent broadening. This broadening results from the voltage-dependent inactivation of K+ currents that contribute to action potential repolarisation. In different neuronal cell types these K+ currents have been shown to be either slowly inactivating delayed rectifier type currents or rapidly inactivating A-type voltage-gated K+ currents. Recent findings show that inactivation of a Ca2+-dependent K+ current, mediated by large conductance BK-type channels, also contributes to spike broadening. Here, using whole-cell recordings in acute slices, we examine spike broadening in lateral amygdala projection neurons. Spike broadening is frequency dependent and is reversed by brief hyperpolarisations. This broadening is reduced by blockade of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and BK channels. In contrast, broadening is not blocked by high concentrations of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or alpha-dendrotoxin. We conclude that while inactivation of BK-type Ca2+-activated K+ channels contributes to spike broadening in lateral amygdala neurons, inactivation of another as yet unidentified outward current also plays a role.

  9. Coupling Optical and Electrical Measurements in Artificial Membranes: Lateral Diffusion of Lipids and Channel Forming Peptides in Planar Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duclohier H

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Planar lipid bilayers (PLB were prepared by the Montal-Mueller technique in a FRAP system designed to simultaneously measure conductivity across, and lateral diffusion of, the bilayer. In the first stage of the project the FRAP system was used to characterise the lateral dynamics of bilayer lipids with regards to phospholipid composition (headgroup, chain unsaturation etc., presence of cholesterol and the effect of divalent cations on negatively-charged bilayers. In the second stage of the project, lateral diffusion of two fluorescently-labelled voltage-dependent pore-forming peptides (alamethicin and S4s from Shaker K+ channel was determined at rest and in the conducting state. This study demonstrates the feasibility of such experiments with PLBs, amenable to physical constraints, and thus offers new opportunities for systematic studies of structure-function relationships in membrane-associating molecules.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILIZATION WITH MOVEMENT OF ELBOW COMPARED WITH MANIPULATION OF WRIST IN PATIENTS OF LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Patel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:To evaluate the effectiveness of mobilization with movement of elbow compared with manipulationof wr ist on pai n, strength and acti viti es of dai l y l i vi ng i n patients of l ateral epi condyl i tis.Methodology:An interventional comparative study was conducted on 30 patients having symptomatic lateralepicondylitis. They were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Group A (n=10 control group,Group B(n=10 Mobilization with movement group and Group C (n=10 wrist manipulation. All the 3 groups werereceivedconventional treatment of ultrasound, stretching and strengthening of wrist extensors. Baseline measurementsof pain (VAS score, functional status (PRTEE questionnaire and strength (maximal isometric grip strengthwere taken on day 1 and after 10thtreatment session.Results:The data analysis was performed with Graph PadInstat trial version 3 software. All three groups showed improvement in VAS, maximal isometrics gripstrengthand PRTEEquestionnaire. There isstatistically significant difference between groups B (Mobilization withmovement and Group C (Manipulation of wrist for VAS and PRTEEquestionnaire score. But No statisticallysignificant difference is found in maximal isometric grip strength. Mobilization with movement of elbow alongwith conventional therapy showed significant improvement in Pain and functional status as compared to wristmanipulation.Conclusion:It can be concluded that mobilization with movement of elbow along withconventional therapy program is effective in treating chronic lateral epicondylitis

  11. Channeling at the base of the lithosphere during the lateral flow of plume material beneath flow line hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2008-08-01

    Chains of volcanic edifices lie along flow lines between plume-fed hot spots and the thin lithosphere at ridge axes. Discovery and Euterpe/Musicians Seamounts are two examples. An attractive hypothesis is that buoyant plume material flows along the base of the lithosphere perpendicular to isochrons. The plume material may conceivably flow in a broad front or flow within channels convectively eroded into the base to the lithosphere. A necessary but not sufficient condition for convective channeling is that the expected stagnant-lid heat flow for the maximum temperature of the plume material is comparable to the half-space surface heat flow of the oceanic lithosphere. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical calculations confirm this inference. A second criterion for significant convective erosion is that it needs to occur before the plume material thins by lateral spreading. Scaling relationships indicate spreading and convection are closely related. Mathematically, the Nusselt number (ratio of convective to conductive heat flow in the plume material) scales with the flux (volume per time per length of flow front) of the plume material. A blob of unconfined plume material thus spreads before the lithosphere thins much and evolves to a slowly spreading and slowly convecting warm region in equilibrium with conduction into the base of the overlying lithosphere. Three-dimensional calculations illustrate this long-lasting (and hence observable) state of plume material away from its plume source. A different flow domain occurs around a stationary hot plume that continuously supplies hot material. The plume convectively erodes the overlying lithosphere, trapping the plume material near its orifice. The region of lithosphere underlain by plume material grows toward the ridge axis and laterally by convective thinning of the lithosphere at its edges. The hottest plume material channels along flow lines. Geologically, the regions of lithosphere underlain by either warm

  12. T-type calcium channels promote predictive homeostasis of input-output relations in thalamocortical neurons of lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Su Z; Kim, Haram R; Fiorillo, Christopher D

    2014-01-01

    A general theory views the function of all neurons as prediction, and one component of this theory is that of "predictive homeostasis" or "prediction error." It is well established that sensory systems adapt so that neuronal output maintains sensitivity to sensory input, in accord with information theory. Predictive homeostasis applies the same principle at the cellular level, where the challenge is to maintain membrane excitability at the optimal homeostatic level so that spike generation is maximally sensitive to small gradations in synaptic drive. Negative feedback is a hallmark of homeostatic mechanisms, as exemplified by depolarization-activated potassium channels. In contrast, T-type calcium channels exhibit positive feedback that appears at odds with the theory. In thalamocortical neurons of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), T-type channels are capable of causing bursts of spikes with an all-or-none character in response to excitation from a hyperpolarized potential. This "burst mode" would partially uncouple visual input from spike output and reduce the information spikes convey about gradations in visual input. However, past observations of T-type-driven bursts may have resulted from unnaturally high membrane excitability. Here we have mimicked within rat brain slices the patterns of synaptic conductance that occur naturally during vision. In support of the theory of predictive homeostasis, we found that T-type channels restored excitability toward its homeostatic level during periods of hyperpolarization. Thus, activation of T-type channels allowed two retinal input spikes to cause one output spike on average, and we observed almost no instances in which output count exceeded input count (a "burst"). T-type calcium channels therefore help to maintain a single optimal mode of transmission rather than creating a second mode. More fundamentally our results support the general theory, which seeks to predict the properties of a neuron's ion channels and

  13. The membrane lateral pressure-perturbing capacity of parabens and their effects on the mechanosensitive channel directly correlate with hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraju, Kishore; Sukharev, Sergei

    2008-10-07

    Lipid bilayers provide a natural anisotropic environment for membrane proteins and can serve as apolar reservoirs for lipid-derived second messengers or lipophilic drugs. Partitioning of lipophilic agents changes the lateral pressure distribution in the bilayer, affecting integral proteins. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) are amphipathic compounds widely used as food and cosmetics preservatives, but the mechanisms of their broad antibacterial action are unknown. Here we describe effects of ethyl, propyl, and butyl parabens on the gating of the bacterial mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) and compare them with the surface activity and lateral pressure changes measured in lipid monolayers in the presence of these substances. Near the bilayer-monolayer equivalence pressure of 35 mN/m, ethyl, propyl, or butyl paraben present in the subphase at 1 mM increased the surface pressure of the monolayer by 5, 12.5, or 20%, respectively. No spontaneous activation of MscS channels was observed in patch-clamp experiments with parabens added from either the cytoplasmic or periplasmic side. Increasing concentrations of parabens on the cytoplasmic side of excised patches shifted activation curves of MscS toward higher tensions. A good correlation between the pressure increases in monolayers and shifts in activation midpoints in patch-clamp experiments suggested that the more hydrophobic parabens partition more strongly into the lipid and exert larger effects on channel gating through changes in lateral pressure. We show that cytoplasmically presented ethyl or butyl parabens both hasten the process of desensitization of MscS and influence inactivation differently. The higher rate of desensitization is likely due to increased lateral pressure in the cytoplasmic leaflet surrounding the gate. Neither of the parabens strongly affects the rate of recovery and does not seem to penetrate the TM2-TM3 interhelical clefts in MscS. We conclude that the bacterial

  14. Reliability of high mobility SiGe channel MOSFETs for future CMOS applications

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Jacopo; Groeseneken, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Due to the ever increasing electric fields in scaled CMOS devices, reliability is becoming a showstopper for further scaled technology nodes. Although several groups have already demonstrated functional Si channel devices with aggressively scaled Equivalent Oxide Thickness (EOT) down to 5Å, a 10 year reliable device operation cannot be guaranteed anymore due to severe Negative Bias Temperature Instability. This book focuses on the reliability of the novel (Si)Ge channel quantum well pMOSFET technology. This technology is being considered for possible implementation in next CMOS technology nodes, thanks to its benefit in terms of carrier mobility and device threshold voltage tuning. We observe that it also opens a degree of freedom for device reliability optimization. By properly tuning the device gate stack, sufficiently reliable ultra-thin EOT devices with a 10 years lifetime at operating conditions are demonstrated. The extensive experimental datasets collected on a variety of processed 300mm wafers and pr...

  15. Polymer ferroelectric field-effect memory device with SnO channel layer exhibits record hole mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Khan, M. A.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2014-06-01

    Here we report for the first time a hybrid p-channel polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory device with record mobility. The memory device, fabricated at 200°C on both plastic polyimide and glass substrates, uses ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) as the gate dielectric and transparent p-type oxide (SnO) as the active channel layer. A record mobility of 3.3 cm2V-1s-1, large memory window (~16 V), low read voltages (~-1 V), and excellent retention characteristics up to 5000 sec have been achieved. The mobility achieved in our devices is over 10 times higher than previously reported polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory with p-type channel. This demonstration opens the door for the development of non-volatile memory devices based on dual channel for emerging transparent and flexible electronic devices.

  16. Polymer ferroelectric field-effect memory device with SnO channel layer exhibits record hole mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.

    2014-06-10

    Here we report for the first time a hybrid p-channel polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory device with record mobility. The memory device, fabricated at 200C on both plastic polyimide and glass substrates, uses ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) as the gate dielectric and transparent p-type oxide (SnO) as the active channel layer. A record mobility of 3.3 cm 2V-1s-1, large memory window (~16 V), low read voltages (~-1 V), and excellent retention characteristics up to 5000 sec have been achieved. The mobility achieved in our devices is over 10 times higher than previously reported polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory with p-type channel. This demonstration opens the door for the development of non-volatile memory devices based on dual channel for emerging transparent and flexible electronic devices.

  17. Effective Handing over of Mobile Nodes for Optimal Utilization of Channel Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Regin Bose

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Users expect quality communication without any interruption even during their travel. Handover occurs when the ongoing communication is transferred from one cell to another. If the new base station to which the signal is to be handed over is having sufficient frequency channel capacity then handover occurs smoothly. Instead if the frequency channel capacity of new BS is fully occupied, then the mobile device searches for another BS, which consumes more time and also lead to dropage of data packets. If another BS with sufficient frequency channel capacity is not found, then it leads to reduced quality of service and break in communication. In the proposed procedure, when a BS has to take over an approaching node, the controller checks the availability of frequency channel capacity in that BS as well as in the neighbouring BSs and hands over some nodes in the current BS to another and accept a few nodes from others, including the approaching node. This procedure not only reduces congestion but also avoids interruption and packet drops for an incoming node. This procedure utilizes the bandwidth efficiently with better QoS.

  18. Regional differences in the lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in a molluscan embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, J.E.; Dohmen, M.R.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Laat, S.W. de

    1985-01-01

    Regional and temporal differences in plasma membrane lipid mobility have been analyzed during the first three cleavage cycles of the embryo of the polar-lobe-forming mollusc Nassarius reticulatus by the fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) method, using 1,1′-ditetradecyl 3,3,3′,3′-tetramethyli

  19. Refining measurements of lateral channel movement from image time series by quantifying spatial variations in registration error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Devin M.; Legleiter, Carl J.

    2016-04-01

    Remotely sensed data provides information on river morphology useful for examining channel change at yearly-to-decadal time scales. Although previous studies have emphasized the need to distinguish true geomorphic change from errors associated with image registration, standard metrics for assessing and summarizing these errors, such as the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and 90th percentile of the distribution of ground control point (GCP) error, fail to incorporate the spatial structure of this uncertainty. In this study, we introduce a framework for evaluating whether observations of lateral channel migration along a meandering channel are statistically significant, given the spatial distribution of registration error. An iterative leave-one-out cross-validation approach was used to produce local error metrics for an image time series from Savery Creek, Wyoming, USA, and to evaluate various transformation equations, interpolation methods, and GCP placement strategies. Interpolated error surfaces then were used to create error ellipses representing spatially variable buffers of detectable change. Our results show that, for all five sequential image pairs we examined, spatially distributed estimates of registration error enabled detection of a greater number of statistically significant lateral migration vectors than the spatially uniform RMSE or 90th percentile of GCP error. Conversely, spatially distributed error metrics prevented changes from being mistaken as real in areas of greater registration error. Our results also support the findings of previous studies: second-order polynomial functions on average yield the lowest RMSE, and errors are reduced by placing GCPs on the floodplain rather than on hillslopes. This study highlights the importance of characterizing the spatial distribution of image registration errors in the analysis of channel change.

  20. GLOBAL APPROACH OF CHANNEL MODELING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS INCLUDING SECOND ORDER STATISTICS AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile L. AGBA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET are very difficult to design in terms of scenarios specification and propagation modeling. All these aspects must be taken into account when designing MANET. For cost-effective designing, powerful and accurate simulation tools are needed. Our first contribution in this paper is to provide a global approach process (GAP in channel modeling combining scenarios and propagation in order to have a better analysis of the physical layer, and finally to improve performances of the whole network. The GAP is implemented in an integrated simulation tool, Ad-SMPro. Moreover, channel statistics, throughput and delay are some key points to be considered when studying a mobile wireless networks. A carefully analysis of mobility effects over second order channel statistics and system performances is made based on our optimized simulation tool, Ad-SMProl. The channel is modeled by large scale fading and small scale fading including Doppler spectrum due to the double mobility of the nodes. Level Cross Rate and Average Duration of Fade are simulated as function of double mobility degree, a defined to be the ratio of the nodes' speeds. These results are compared to the theoretical predictions. We demonstrate that, in mobile ad hoc networks, flat fading channels and frequency-selective fading channels are differently affected. In addition, Bit Error rate is analysed as function of the ratio of the average bit energy to thermal noise density. Other performances (such as throughput, delay and routing traffic are analysed and conclusions related to the proposed simulation model and the mobility effects are drawn.

  1. Adaptive threshold determination for efficient channel sensing in cognitive radio network using mobile sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, M. N.; Khatun, S.; Kamarudin, L. M.; Aljunid, S. A.; Ahmad, R. B.; Zakaria, A.; Fakir, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    Spectrum saturation problem is a major issue in wireless communication systems all over the world. Huge number of users is joining each day to the existing fixed band frequency but the bandwidth is not increasing. These requirements demand for efficient and intelligent use of spectrum. To solve this issue, the Cognitive Radio (CR) is the best choice. Spectrum sensing of a wireless heterogeneous network is a fundamental issue to detect the presence of primary users' signals in CR networks. In order to protect primary users (PUs) from harmful interference, the spectrum sensing scheme is required to perform well even in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments. Meanwhile, the sensing period is usually required to be short enough so that secondary (unlicensed) users (SUs) can fully utilize the available spectrum. CR networks can be designed to manage the radio spectrum more efficiently by utilizing the spectrum holes in primary user's licensed frequency bands. In this paper, we have proposed an adaptive threshold detection method to detect presence of PU signal using free space path loss (FSPL) model in 2.4 GHz WLAN network. The model is designed for mobile sensors embedded in smartphones. The mobile sensors acts as SU while the existing WLAN network (channels) works as PU. The theoretical results show that the desired threshold range detection of mobile sensors mainly depends on the noise floor level of the location in consideration.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of ballistic transport in high-mobility channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatini, G; Marinchio, H; Palermo, C; Varani, L; Daoud, T; Teissier, R [Institut d' Electronique du Sud (CNRS UMR 5214) - Universite Montpellier II (France); Rodilla, H; Gonzalez, T; Mateos, J, E-mail: sabatini@ies.univ-montp2.f [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada - Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    By means of Monte Carlo simulations coupled with a two-dimensional Poisson solver, we evaluate directly the possibility to use high mobility materials in ultra fast devices exploiting ballistic transport. To this purpose, we have calculated specific physical quantities such as the transit time, the transit velocity, the free flight time and the mean free path as functions of applied voltage in InAs channels with different lengths, from 2000 nm down to 50 nm. In this way the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport is carefully described. We remark a high value of the mean transit velocity with a maximum of 14x10{sup 5} m/s for a 50 nm-long channel and a transit time shorter than 0.1 ps, corresponding to a cutoff frequency in the terahertz domain. The percentage of ballistic electrons and the number of scatterings as functions of distance are also reported, showing the strong influence of quasi-ballistic transport in the shorter channels.

  3. Distribution and lateral mobility of DC-SIGN on immature dendritic cells--implications for pathogen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Aaron K; Thompson, Nancy L; Jacobson, Ken

    2008-03-01

    The receptor C-type lectin DC-SIGN (CD209) is expressed by immature dendritic cells, functioning as an antigen capture receptor and cell adhesion molecule. Various microbes, including HIV-1, can exploit binding to DC-SIGN to gain entry to dendritic cells. DC-SIGN forms discrete nanoscale clusters on immature dendritic cells that are thought to be important for viral binding. We confirmed that these DC-SIGN clusters also exist both in live dendritic cells and in cell lines that ectopically express DC-SIGN. Moreover, DC-SIGN has an unusual polarized lateral distribution in the plasma membrane of dendritic cells and other cells: the receptor is preferentially localized to the leading edge of the dendritic cell lamellipod and largely excluded from the ventral plasma membrane. Colocalization of DC-SIGN clusters with endocytic activity demonstrated that surface DC-SIGN clusters are enriched near the leading edge, whereas endocytosis of these clusters occurred preferentially at lamellar sites posterior to the leading edge. Therefore, we predicted that DC-SIGN clusters move from the leading edge to zones of internalization. Two modes of lateral mobility were evident from the trajectories of DC-SIGN clusters at the leading edge, directed and non-directed mobility. Clusters with directed mobility moved in a highly linear fashion from the leading edge to rearward locations in the lamella at remarkably high velocity (1420+/-260 nm/second). Based on these data, we propose that DC-SIGN clusters move from the leading edge--where the dendritic cell is likely to encounter pathogens in tissue--to a medial lamellar site where clusters enter the cell via endocytosis. Immature dendritic cells may acquire and internalize HIV and other pathogens by this process.

  4. Lateral Mobility and Nanoscale Spatial Arrangement of Chemokine-activated α4β1 Integrins on T Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Costa, Alberto; Isern de Val, Sol; Sevilla-Movilla, Silvia; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine stimulation of integrin α4β1-dependent T lymphocyte adhesion is a key step during lymphocyte trafficking. A central question regarding α4β1 function is how its lateral mobility and organization influence its affinity and avidity following cell stimulation with chemokines and/or ligands. Using single particle tracking and superresolution imaging approaches, we explored the lateral mobility and spatial arrangement of individual α4β1integrins on T cells exposed to different activating stimuli. We show that CXCL12 stimulation leads to rapid and transient α4β1activation, measured by induction of the activation epitope recognized by the HUTS-21 anti-β1antibody and by increased talin-β1 association. CXCL12-dependent α4β1 activation directly correlated with restricted lateral diffusion and integrin immobilization. Moreover, co-stimulation by CXCL12 together with soluble VCAM-1 potentiated integrin immobilization with a 5-fold increase in immobile integrins compared with unstimulated conditions. Our data indicate that docking by talin of the chemokine-activated α4β1 to the actin cytoskeleton favors integrin immobilization, which likely facilitates ligand interaction and increased adhesiveness. Superresolution imaging showed that the nanoscale organization of high-affinity α4β1 remains unaffected following chemokine and/or ligand addition. Instead, newly activated α4β1 integrins organize on the cell membrane as independent units without joining pre-established integrin sites to contribute to cluster formation. Altogether, our results provide a rationale to understand how the spatiotemporal organization of activated α4β1 integrins regulates T lymphocyte adhesion. PMID:27481944

  5. Impact of the intermixed phase and the channel network on the carrier mobility of nanostructured solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woellner, Cristiano F; Freire, José A

    2016-02-28

    We analyzed the impact of the complex channel network of donor and acceptor domains in nanostructured solar cells on the mobility of the charge carriers moving by thermally activated hopping. Particular attention was given to the so called intermixed phase, or interface roughness, that has recently been shown to promote an increase in the cell efficiency. The domains were obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation of a two-species lattice gas. We generated domain morphologies with controllable channel size and interface roughness. The field and density dependence of the carrier hopping mobility in different morphologies was obtained by solving a master equation. Our results show that the mobility decreases with roughness and increases with typical channel sizes. The deleterious effect of the roughness on the mobility is quite dramatic at low carrier densities and high fields. The complex channel network is shown to be directly responsible for two potentially harmful effects to the cell performance: a remarkable decrease of the mobility with increasing field and the accumulation of charge at the domains interface, which leads to recombination losses.

  6. Progress of p-channel bottom-gate poly-Si thin-film transistor by nickel silicide seed-induced lateral crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sol Kyu; Seok, Ki Hwan; Park, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Chae, Hee Jae; Jang, Gil Su; Lee, Yong Hee; Han, Ji Su; Joo, Seung Ki

    2016-06-01

    Excimer laser annealing (ELA) is known to be the most common crystallization technology for the fabrication of low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) in the mass production industry. This technology, however, cannot be applied to bottom-gate (BG) TFTs, which are well developed for the liquid-crystal display (LCD) back-planes, because strong laser energy of ELA can seriously damage the other layers. Here, we propose a novel high-performance BG poly-Si TFT using Ni silicide seed-induced lateral crystallization (SILC). The SILC technology renders it possible to ensure low damage in the layers, smooth surface, and longitudinal large grains in the channel. It was observed that the electrical properties exhibited a steep subthreshold slope of 110 mV/dec, high field-effect mobility of 304 cm2/Vsec, high I on/ I off ratio of 5.9 × 107, and a low threshold voltage of -3.9 V.

  7. Investigation of the UHF mobile-radio propagation channel in a temperate-zone forested environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kenneth J.

    1986-08-01

    Experimental verification of the stochastic power-spectral-density theory of radio propagation, as applied to a mobile receiver in a forested environment, is presented. Using a novel technique to achieve fractional-hertz resolution of the diffuse and direct wave components of the Doppler-spread received spectrum, the resultant data taken at 432 MHz shows that the angle of arrival of the diffuse component of the incident energy at the receive antenna is described by an uniform probability density function for both vertical and horizontal polarizations. Given an 8.8 km transmission path with the signal penetrating 1.3 km of forest just before reaching the receiver, the ratio of coherent (direct wave) intensity to total received signal power is 42% for horizontal polarization and 5% for vertical polarization. The results of the research indicate that long transmission paths in foliage are better characterized by a forward-scattering mechanism than by a lateral wave model.

  8. Transformational Electronics: Towards Flexible Low-Cost High Mobility Channel Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2014-05-01

    For the last four decades, Si CMOS technology has been advancing with Moore’s law prediction, working itself down to the sub-20 nm regime. However, fundamental problems and limitations arise with the down-scaling of transistors and thus new innovations needed to be discovered in order to further improve device performance without compromising power consumption and size. Thus, a lot of studies have focused on the development of new CMOS compatible architectures as well as the discovery of new high mobility channel materials that will allow further miniaturization of CMOS transistors and improvement of device performance. Pushing the limits even further, flexible and foldable electronics seem to be the new attractive topic. By being able to make our devices flexible through a CMOS compatible process, one will be able to integrate hundreds of billions of more transistors in a small volumetric space, allowing to increase the performance and speed of our electronics all together with making things thinner, lighter, smaller and even interactive with the human skin. Thus, in this thesis, we introduce for the first time a cost-effective CMOS compatible approach to make high-k/metal gate devices on flexible Germanium (Ge) and Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) platforms. In the first part, we will look at the various approaches in the literature that has been developed to get flexible platforms, as well as we will give a brief overview about epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex films. We will also examine the electrical properties of the Si1-xGex alloys up to Ge (x=1) and discuss how strain affects the band structure diagram, and thus the mobility of the material. We will also review the material growth properties as well as the state-of-the-art results on high mobility metal-oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using strained SiGe films. Then, we will introduce the flexible process that we have developed, based on a cost-effective “trench-protect-release-reuse” approach, utilizing

  9. Time-Frequency Based Channel Estimation for High-Mobility OFDM Systems-Part I: MIMO Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önen, Erol; Akan, Aydın; Chaparro, LuisF

    2010-12-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems hold the potential to drastically improve the spectral efficiency and link reliability in future wireless communications systems. A particularly promising candidate for next-generation fixed and mobile wireless systems is the combination of MIMO technology with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM has become the standard method because of its advantages over single carrier modulation schemes on multipath, frequency selective fading channels. Doppler frequency shifts are expected in fast-moving environments, causing the channel to vary in time, that degrades the performance of OFDM systems. In this paper, we present a time-varying channel modeling and estimation method based on the Discrete Evolutionary Transform to obtain a complete characterization of MIMO-OFDM channels. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated and compared on different levels of channel noise and Doppler frequency shifts.

  10. Influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement in patient with lateral epicondylalgia: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cervera, Francisco Vicente; Olteanu, Theodor Emanuel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Díaz-Pulido, Belén; Ferrer-Peña, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of expectations plus mobilization with movement (MWM) in kinesiophobia, perceived disability and sensorimotor variables in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. A pilot randomized controlled trial in 24 patients with lateral epicondylalgia was conducted. Perceived pain, pain-free grip strength, pressure pain detection threshold, kinesiophobia measured with the short version of Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, perceived disability of the upper limb measured with disability of the arm, hand and shoulder questionnaire, and perceived disability specifically for the elbow joint measured with patient-rating tennis elbow evaluation, and also satisfaction were assessed. Participants were randomized to receive written instructions in order to create positive expectations regarding the technique in one group (n=12) or neutral expectations in the other one (n=12). All patients were treated for three sessions with the MWM technique. Measures were recorded before and after treatment. The effect size was calculated by Rosenthal “r” for nonparametrical tests. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between groups after receiving the treatment for none of the physical analyzed variables. The Wilcoxon test showed statistically significant changes in kinesiophobia (Z=−2.278, r=0.47, P=0.023) and perceived disability (Z= −2.934, r=0.61, P=0.003) within positive expectations group. In conclusion this pilot study shows that a positive expectation almost given in a sealed envelope before treatment plus MWM produced changes in kinesiophobia and perceived disability in the immediate term, in patients with lateral epicondylalgia. PMID:28349041

  11. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Laat, S.W. de

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilizedxaqpus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids HEDAF

  12. Channels of the corpus callosum. Evidence from simple reaction times to lateralized flashes in the normal and the split brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, M; Zaidel, E

    1995-06-01

    We studied 75 normal subjects and three commissurotomized patients using unimanual simple reaction times to lateralized flashes as a behavioural estimate of interhemispheric transmission time. Three different versions of the paradigm were performed: (i) the basic task; (ii) a motor task, with an increased complexity of the motor response; and (iii) a visual task, with an increased complexity of the visual stimulus presentation. We tested two hypotheses. First, that the new versions of the simple reaction time task result in shifts in hemispheric specialization for processing motor output (indicated by a main effect of response hand) or visual input (indicated by a main effect of visual field) alone, without affecting callosal transmission. In that case normals and split brain patients would show no significant task by response hand by visual field interaction and no significant task by crossed-uncrossed difference interaction. Secondly, that the new versions of the task affect callosal transfer. In that case, normals, but not split brain patients, would show a significant task by response hand by visual field interaction and a significant task by crossed-uncrossed difference interaction. Results are consistent with the latter hypothesis, showing that the motor task significantly changed the response hand by visual field interaction and the crossed-uncrossed difference, but only in normal subjects, perhaps producing a switch in the callosal channel subserving the interhemispheric transfer.

  13. The effects of surfactants on the lateral migration of bubbles and the bubble clustering phenomenon in a bubbly channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shu; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2004-11-01

    The behaviors of bubbles in an upward channel flow are experimentally investigated. Two kinds of surfactant, 3-pentanol and Triton X-100 are added in the bubbly flow. Addition of surfactant prevents the bubble coalescence and mono-dispersed 1mm spherical bubbles were obtained, although these surfactants do not modify the single-phase turbulence statistics. At the condition of high Reynolds number (Re=8200) with 20-60ppm 3-Pentanol, bubbles migrated towards the wall. These bubbles highly accumulated near the wall and formed crescent like shaped horizontal bubble clusters of 10-40mm length. On the other hand, bubble clusters did not appear in the 2ppm Triton-X100 aqueous solution. By the addition of the small amount of Triton-X100, bubble coalescences were also preventable and the bubble size and its distribution became almost the same as in the case of 60ppm 3-Pentanol aqueous solution. However, the tendency of the lateral migration of bubbles towards the wall weakened and the bubbles did not accumulated near the wall. And this is the main reason of the disapperance of bubble cluster. We discuss this phenomenon, related to the lift force acting on bubbles and particles.

  14. Reducing interferences in wireless communication systems by mobile agents with recurrent neural networks-based adaptive channel equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beritelli, Francesco; Capizzi, Giacomo; Lo Sciuto, Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Tramontana, Emiliano; Woźniak, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Solving channel equalization problem in communication systems is based on adaptive filtering algorithms. Today, Mobile Agents (MAs) with Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) can be also adopted for effective interference reduction in modern wireless communication systems (WCSs). In this paper MAs with RNNs are proposed as novel computing algorithms for reducing interferences in WCSs performing an adaptive channel equalization. The method to provide it is so called MAs-RNNs. We perform the implementation of this new paradigm for interferences reduction. Simulations results and evaluations demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach and as better transmission performance in wireless communication network can be achieved by using the MAs-RNNs based adaptive filtering algorithm.

  15. Enhancement-Mode AIGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors Using a Nano-Channel Arrayy Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sheng-Hou; Cheng P. Wen; QIN Hua; ZHANG Bao-Shun; CAI Yong; GONG Ru-Min; WANG Jin-Yan; ZENG Chun-Hong; SHI Wen-Hua; FENG Zhi-Hong; WANG Jing-Jing; YIN Jia-Yun

    2011-01-01

    A nano-channel array (NCA) structure is applied to realize enhancement-mode (E-mode) A1GaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The fabricated NCA-HEMT,consisting of 1000 channels connected in parallel with a channel width of 64 nm,shows a threshold voltage of 0.15 V and a subthreshold slope of 78mY/dec,compared to -3.92 V and 99mV/dec for a conventional HEMT (C-HEMT),respectively.Both the NCA-HEMT and C-HEMT show similar gate leakage current,indicating no significant degradation in gate leakage characteristics for the NCA-HEMT.The surrounding-field effect and relieved polarization contribute to the very large positive threshold voltage shift,while the work function difference makes it positive.

  16. EFFICACY OF WEIGHT BEARING DISTAL TIBIOFIBULAR JOINT MOBILIZATION WITH MOVEMENT (MWM IN IMPROVING PAIN, DORSIFLEXION RANGE AND FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH POSTACUTE LATERAL ANKLE SPRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Nisha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various treatments in physiotherapy are available for ankle sprain with no consensus like taping, bracing, splinting, cryotherapy, electrotherapy modality like ultrasound, laser therapy, interferential therapy and HVGS, joint mobilization. Mulligan’s mobilizations-with movement (MWM have been proposed as novel manual therapy technique to improve joint ROM by combining physiological and accessory joint movements. He developed a suite of treatment techniques on the basis of his theory of positional faults and altered joint kinematics following injuries affecting spinal and peripheral joints. Objective: To find out the efficacy of distal tibiofibular joint MWM in conjunction with conventional treatment over conventional treatment alone for improving pain , dorsiflexion range and lower extremity function in patients with post acute lateral ankle sprain. Subject and methods: 30 lateral ankle sprain subjects were randomized into 2 groups:- Group 1(n=15 were received distal tibiofibular joint MWM along with conventional treatment and Group 2 (n=15 subjects were received conventional treatment only. Treatment consist of 3 sessions spread over 1 week, each session 48 hours apart and data is recorded at beginning and end of treatment regimen. Results: Independent t-test showed statistical significant improvement in only weight bearing lunge measure for dorsiflexion (p=0.008 in group 1 over group 2 and paired t-test was used for within group analysis which showed significant improvement in both the groups in all the outcome variables (p=0.000 Discussion and conclusion: Both the groups demonstrated significant improvement in pain, range and lower extremity function in lateral ankle sprain and distal tibiofibular joint mobilization with movement in conjunction with conventional treatment will be significantly more effective than conventional treatment alone in improving weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion range (Weight bearing lunge measure in

  17. Monoclonal antibodies directed against protoplasts of soybean cells: analysis of the lateral mobility of plasma membrane-bound antibody MVS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, T N; Villanueva, M A; Schindler, M; Wang, J L

    1986-04-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MVS-1) was used to monitor the lateral mobility of a defined component (Mr approximately 400,000) of the plasma membrane of soybean protoplasts prepared from suspension cultures of Glycine max (SB-1 cell line). The diffusion coefficient (D) of antibody MVS-1 bound to its target was determined (D = 3.2 X 10(-10) cm2/s) by fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching. Pretreatment of the protoplasts with soybean agglutinin (SBA) resulted in a 10-fold reduction of the lateral mobility of antibody MVS-1 (D = 4.1 X 10(-11) cm2/s). This lectin-induced modulation could be partially reversed by prior treatment of the protoplasts with either colchicine or cytochalasin B. When used together, these drugs completely reversed the modulation effect induced by SBA. These results have refined our previous analysis of the effect of SBA on receptor mobility to the level of a defined receptor and suggest that the binding of SBA to the plasma membrane results in alterations in the plasma membrane such that the lateral diffusion of other receptors is restricted. These effects are most likely mediated by the cytoskeletal components of the plant cell.

  18. New distribution channels for advertising through computer games and mobile devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Sivagnanasuntharam, Sivasathees

    2008-01-01

    The development in advertising industry has lately gone from open advertising through few, major distribution channels to a hidden and targeting advertising integrated into everyday life. Advertisers grow increasingly unhappy with the value delivered by the traditional mediums. They turn to alternative distribution channels in order to increase the success rate of advertising campaigns. Channels seen as unattractively with little purchasing power previously are attracting advertisers attenti...

  19. A STUDY ON THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT FOR THE LESS CHANNELLING TO USAGE HUTCH MOBILE SERVICE PROVIDER IN MATARA DISTRICT, SRI LANKA 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeraratne N.C.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the hypothesis on the enabling factors that affect for the less channeling to usage hutch mobile service provider in Matara District, Sri Lanka. The objective was helpful in providing a clear picture as to what were the reasons behind for the minimum market share holder of mobile communication service providers in Matara District, Sri Lanka. The study was a cross-sectional survey among a representative sample of 200 male and female from the Matara District with varying socio-economic status and varying levels of occupation status from selected Divisional Secretariats in Matara District. A number of major influential factors that affected for the less channeling to the hutch mobile connection in Matara District, Sri Lanka were examined through this research study. The study highlighted less market share for Hutch mobile connection in Matara District, Sri Lanka. In the present study, Hutch mobile connection demand rate among peoples in the Matara District, Sri Lanka, was found to be 9.5%. The channeling to usage Hutch mobile service provider university students was found to be high. The principal factors affecting the Hutch usage of these people in terms of magnitude were new schemes or up gradation of the hutch mobile connection, network problems on the hutch mobile connection and level of knowledge about the facilities of the hutch mobile connection

  20. Paraffin molecule mobility in channel clathrates of urea on spectroscopic NMR relaxation data

    CERN Document Server

    Kriger, Y G; Chekhova, G N

    2001-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the protons spin-lattice relaxation time (T sub I) in the channel clathrates of urea with paraffins are measured. The data on the T sub I are interpreted within the frames of the model of the paraffins molecules and their fragments orientation in the clathrate channels. The dynamics peculiarities are connected with the disproportion effects of these compounds

  1. Preferential use of unobstructed lateral portals as the access route to the pore of human ATP-gated ion channels (P2X receptors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samways, Damien S K; Khakh, Baljit S; Dutertre, Sébastien; Egan, Terrance M

    2011-08-16

    P2X receptors are trimeric cation channels with widespread roles in health and disease. The recent crystal structure of a P2X4 receptor provides a 3D view of their topology and architecture. A key unresolved issue is how ions gain access to the pore, because the structure reveals two different pathways within the extracellular domain. One of these is the central pathway spanning the entire length of the extracellular domain and covering a distance of ≈70 Å. The second consists of three lateral portals, adjacent to the membrane and connected to the transmembrane pore by short tunnels. Here, we demonstrate the preferential use of the lateral portals. Owing to their favorable diameters and equivalent spacing, the lateral portals split the task of ion supply threefold and minimize an ion's diffusive path before it succumbs to transmembrane electrochemical gradients.

  2. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to social networks, personal identities, and our relationship to the built environment. The omnipresence of mobilities within everyday life, high politics, technology, and tourism (to mention but a few) all point to a key insight harnessed by the ‘mobilities turn’. Namely that mobilities is much more than...... simple movements of people, goods, and information from A to B. The ‘mobilities turn’ has made it its hallmark to explore the ‘more than’ effects of a world increasingly on the move. This new title in the Routledge Series ‘Critical Concepts in Built Environment’ creates a state-of-the-art reference work...... will cover diverse topics such as theories, concepts, methods, and approaches as well as it will explore various modes of mobilities and the relationship to everyday life practices. The selection also covers the ‘politics of mobilities’ from local urban planning schemes to geopolitical issues of refugees...

  3. IgG from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Increases Current Through P-Type Calcium Channels in Mammalian Cerebellar Purkinje Cells and in Isolated Channel Protein in Lipid Bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, R.; Sugimori, M.; Cherksey, B. D.; Smith, R. Glenn; Delbono, O.; Stefani, E.; Appel, S.

    1993-12-01

    The effect of the IgG from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients was tested on the voltage-dependent barium currents (IBa) in mammalian dissociated Purkinje cells and in isolated P-type calcium channels in lipid bilayers. Whole cell clamp of Purkinje cells demonstrates that ALS IgG increases the amplitude of IBa without modifying their voltage kinetics. This increased IBa could be blocked by a purified nonpeptide toxin from Agelenopsis aperta venom (purified funnel-web spider toxin) or by a synthetic polyamine analog (synthetic funnel-web spider toxin) and by a peptide toxin from the same spider venom, ω-Aga-IVA. Similar results were obtained on single-channel recordings from purified P channel protein. The addition of ALS IgG increased single-channel IBa open time without affecting slope conductance. The results described above were not seen with normal human IgG nor with boiled ALS IgG. It is concluded that ALS IgG enhances inward current through P-type calcium channels. Since P-type Ca2+ channels are present in motoneuron axon terminals, we propose that the enhanced calcium current triggered by ALS IgG may contribute to neuronal damage in ALS.

  4. Design and Evaluation of Smart Mobile Services for Cross-Channel Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangji Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of smart mobile services to enhance online and offline shopping. Three prototypes were designed and implemented on smart phones and smart watches. Thirty young adults participated in the experiment to evaluate these prototypes. The results indicate that satisfaction with smart services is influenced by characteristics such as innovativeness, current shopping behavior, and design of prototypes. Positive feedback was generally given towards smart mobile services, but there were mixed attitudes towards key features. First, participants with a utilitarian motivation liked the indoor navigation feature, but those with a hedonic motivation enjoyed exploration. Second, in the area of big data, participants wanted more control over recommendations and more protection of privacy. Third, participants wanted to make mobile payments but were concerned about security. Finally, developers of new technology for smart mobile services should consider practicability.

  5. Priming by chemokines restricts lateral mobility of the adhesion receptor LFA-1 and restores adhesion to ICAM-1 nano-aggregates on human mature dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra J E Borgman

    Full Text Available LFA-1 is a leukocyte specific β2 integrin that plays a major role in regulating adhesion and migration of different immune cells. Recent data suggest that LFA-1 on mature dendritic cells (mDCs may function as a chemokine-inducible anchor during homing of DCs through the afferent lymphatics into the lymph nodes, by transiently switching its molecular conformational state. However, the role of LFA-1 mobility in this process is not yet known, despite that the importance of lateral organization and dynamics for LFA-1-mediated adhesion regulation is broadly recognized. Using single particle tracking approaches we here show that LFA-1 exhibits higher mobility on resting mDCs compared to monocytes. Lymphoid chemokine CCL21 stimulation of the LFA-1 high affinity state on mDCs, led to a significant reduction of mobility and an increase on the fraction of stationary receptors, consistent with re-activation of the receptor. Addition of soluble monomeric ICAM-1 in the presence of CCL21 did not alter the diffusion profile of LFA-1 while soluble ICAM-1 nano-aggregates in the presence of CCL21 further reduced LFA-1 mobility and readily bound to the receptor. Overall, our results emphasize the importance of LFA-1 lateral mobility across the membrane on the regulation of integrin activation and its function as adhesion receptor. Importantly, our data show that chemokines alone are not sufficient to trigger the high affinity state of the integrin based on the strict definition that affinity refers to the adhesion capacity of a single receptor to its ligand in solution. Instead our data indicate that nanoclustering of the receptor, induced by multi-ligand binding, is required to maintain stable cell adhesion once LFA-1 high affinity state is transiently triggered by inside-out signals.

  6. Priming by chemokines restricts lateral mobility of the adhesion receptor LFA-1 and restores adhesion to ICAM-1 nano-aggregates on human mature dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgman, Kyra J E; van Zanten, Thomas S; Manzo, Carlo; Cabezón, Raquel; Cambi, Alessandra; Benítez-Ribas, Daniel; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F

    2014-01-01

    LFA-1 is a leukocyte specific β2 integrin that plays a major role in regulating adhesion and migration of different immune cells. Recent data suggest that LFA-1 on mature dendritic cells (mDCs) may function as a chemokine-inducible anchor during homing of DCs through the afferent lymphatics into the lymph nodes, by transiently switching its molecular conformational state. However, the role of LFA-1 mobility in this process is not yet known, despite that the importance of lateral organization and dynamics for LFA-1-mediated adhesion regulation is broadly recognized. Using single particle tracking approaches we here show that LFA-1 exhibits higher mobility on resting mDCs compared to monocytes. Lymphoid chemokine CCL21 stimulation of the LFA-1 high affinity state on mDCs, led to a significant reduction of mobility and an increase on the fraction of stationary receptors, consistent with re-activation of the receptor. Addition of soluble monomeric ICAM-1 in the presence of CCL21 did not alter the diffusion profile of LFA-1 while soluble ICAM-1 nano-aggregates in the presence of CCL21 further reduced LFA-1 mobility and readily bound to the receptor. Overall, our results emphasize the importance of LFA-1 lateral mobility across the membrane on the regulation of integrin activation and its function as adhesion receptor. Importantly, our data show that chemokines alone are not sufficient to trigger the high affinity state of the integrin based on the strict definition that affinity refers to the adhesion capacity of a single receptor to its ligand in solution. Instead our data indicate that nanoclustering of the receptor, induced by multi-ligand binding, is required to maintain stable cell adhesion once LFA-1 high affinity state is transiently triggered by inside-out signals.

  7. Mobility of the ankle joint: recording of rotatory movements in the talocrural joint in vitro with and without the lateral collateral ligaments of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, O; Tovborg-Jensen, I

    1982-02-01

    A method for graphic recording of rotatory movements in osteoligamentous ankle preparations is described. By this method it is possible to record characteristic mobility patterns in two planes at the same time. The ankle is affected by a known torque, so that the individual mobility patterns are reproducible with unchanged condition of the ligaments. Six amputated legs were investigated in the sagittal and horizontal planes and another six in the sagittal and frontal planes. Mobility patterns were recorded with intact ligaments and after successive cutting of the lateral collateral ligaments of the ankle in the anteroposterior direction. In the sagittal plane increased dorsiflexion was observed after total cutting of the lateral ligaments, while plantar flexion remained unchanged. In the horizontal plane the internal rotation of the talus increased in step with increasing injury to the ligament, particularly when the ankle was plantar flexed. When all collateral ligaments had been cut, an increase in external rotation occurred, especially in dorsiflexion. In the frontal plane the talar tilt increased gradually with increasing injury to the ligaments. Talar tilt was at a maximum in the neutral position of the ankle or in plantar flexion. After total severing of the collateral ligaments, however, talar tilt was most marked in dorsiflexion of the ankle.

  8. Sediment Mobilization and Storage Dynamics of a Debris Flow Impacted Stream Channel using Multi-Temporal Structure from Motion Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T. L.; Sutherland-Montoya, D.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution topographic analysis methods have become important tools in geomorphology. Structure from Motion photogrammetry offers a compelling vehicle for geomorphic change detection in fluvial environments. This process can produce arbitrarily high resolution, geographically registered spectral and topographic coverages from a collection of overlapping digital imagery from consumer cameras. Cuneo Creek has had three historically observed episodes of rapid aggradation (1955, 1964, and 1997). The debris flow deposits continue to be major sources of sediment sixty years after the initial slope failure. Previous studies have monitored the sediment storage volume and particle size since 1976 (in 1976, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1998, 2003). We reoccupied 3 previously surveyed stream cross sections on Sept 30, 2014 and March 30, 2015, and produced photogrammetric point clouds using a pole mounted camera with a remote view finder to take nadir view images from 4.3 meters above the channel bed. Ground control points were registered using survey grade GPS and typical cross sections used over 100 images to build the structure model. This process simultaneously collects channel geometry and we used it to also generate surface texture metrics, and produced DEMs with point cloud densities above 5000 points / m2. In the period between the surveys, a five year recurrence interval discharge of 20 m3/s scoured the channel. Surface particle size distribution has been determined for each observation period using image segmentation algorithms based on spectral distance and compactness. Topographic differencing between the point clouds shows substantial channel bed mobilization and reorganization. The net decline in sediment storage is in excess of 4 x 10^5 cubic meters since the 1964 aggradation peak, with associated coarsening of surface particle sizes. These new methods provide a promising rapid assessment tool for measurement of channel responses to sediment inputs.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILIZATION WITH MOVEMENT OF ELBOW COMPARED WITH MANIPULATION OF WRIST IN PATIENTS OF LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Namrata Patel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:To evaluate the effectiveness of mobilization with movement of elbow compared with manipulationof wr ist on pai n, strength and acti viti es of dai l y l i vi ng i n patients of l ateral epi condyl i tis.Methodology:An interventional comparative study was conducted on 30 patients having symptomatic lateralepicondylitis. They were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Group A (n=10) control group,Group B(n=10) Mobilization with movement group and Group C (n=10) wrist manipulati...

  10. Airport mobile marketing as a channel to promote cross-selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Florido-Benítez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the airport mobile marketing and what elements have had a positive or negative influence in cross-selling via an airport app.  Design/methodology: For this analysis, a survey was conducted to users that use the Schiphol Amsterdam Airport app. A total of 103 questionnaires were analyzed using structural equation modeling.  Findings: This study found that security/control factor supplied by the mobile marketing tool to passengers at the airport, it has been demonstrated that it favours an increase in cross-selling. in addition, if an airport is perceived to have a good brand image, it will have a positive effect in cross-selling.  Originality/value: This paper is the first research that examines the impact of mobile marketing in airports. Smelling multiple products and services to the same client before, during, and post consumption  is a marketing technique that intends to (1 satisfy a client’s need and (2 increase a company’s profit by using cross-selling and other complementary services. Airline companies are experts in carrying out this activity, and airports have found that mobile applications are the perfect tool to increase their commercial profits. Offering complementary products and services is a very lucrative business, and a mobile device or smartphone are -- and will become -- the ideal medium to meet users’ demands as well as to improve the passenger experience.  Keywords: mobile marketing, cross-selling, information, security-control, image-perception, satisfaction, WOM

  11. Structure-dependent mobility of a dry aqueous foam flowing along two parallel channels

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Sian A; Méheust, Yves; Cox, Simon J; Cantat, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    The velocity of a two-dimensional aqueous foam has been measured as it flows through two parallel channels, at a constant overall volumetric flow rate. The flux distribution between the two channels is studied as a function of the ratio of their widths. A peculiar dependence of the velocity ratio on the width ratio is observed when the foam structure in the narrower channel is either single staircase or bamboo. In particular, discontinuities in the velocity ratios are observed at the transitions between double and single staircase and between single staircase and bamboo. A theoretical model accounting for the viscous dissipation at the solid wall and the capillary pressure across a film pinned at the channel outlet predicts the observed non-monotonic evolution of the velocity ratio as a function of the width ratio. It also predicts quantitatively the intermittent temporal evolution of the velocity in the narrower channel when it is so narrow that film pinning at its outlet repeatedly brings the flow to a near...

  12. Application of neural networks to channel assignment for cellular CDMA networks with multiple services and mobile base stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    1996-03-01

    The use of artificial neural networks to the channel assignment problem for cellular code- division multiple access (CDMA) telecommunications systems is considered. CDMA takes advantage of voice activity and spatial isolation because its capacity is only interference limited, unlike time-division multiple access (TDMA) and frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) where capacities are bandwidth limited. Any reduction in interference in CDMA translates linearly into increased capacity. FDMA and TDMA use a frequency reuse pattern as a method to increase capacity, while CDMA reuses the same frequency for all cells and gains a reuse efficiency by means of orthogonal codes. The latter method can improve system capacity by factors of four to six over digital TDMA or FDMA. Cellular carriers are planning to provide multiple communication services using CDMA in the next generation cellular system infrastructure. The approach of this study is the use of neural network methods for automatic and local network control, based on traffic behavior in specific cell cites and demand history. The goal is to address certain problems associated with the management of mobile and personal communication services in a cellular radio communications environment. In planning a cellular radio network, the operator assigns channels to the radio cells so that the probability of the processed carrier-to-interference ratio, CII, exceeding a predefined value is sufficiently low. The RF propagation, determined from the topography and infrastructure in the operating area, is used in conjunction with the densities of expected communications traffic to formulate interference constraints. These constraints state which radio cells may use the same code (channel) or adjacent channels at a time. The traffic loading and the number of service grades can also be used to calculate the number of required channels (codes) for each cell. The general assignment problem is the task of assigning the required number

  13. Lateral and perpendicular interaction forces involved in mobile and immobile adhesion of microorganism on model solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; Poortinga, AT; Bos, R.R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Gliding and near-surface swimming of microorganisms are described as a mobile form of microbial adhesion that need not necessarily be reversible. It is argued that the reversibility of microbial adhesion depends on the depth of the secondary interaction minimum, calculated from the forces between an

  14. [An autopsy case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with prominent muscle cramps, fasciculation, and high titer of anti-voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Aki; Sakai, Naoko; Shinbo, Junsuke; Hashidate, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Yamazaki, Motoyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 55-year-old male who had prominent fasciculation and muscle cramps. Muscle weakness and atrophy of the trunk, respiratory system, and extremities gradually progressed. On the basis of these features, we diagnosed this patient as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), however, the upper motor neuron signs were not significant. Following the detection of the anti-voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody at 907.5 pM (normal VGKC complex antibody in the development of cramp-fasciculation syndrome has been speculated. In this ALS patient, the antibodies might be associated with pathomechanisms underlying the characteristic symptoms.

  15. Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    istic and romantic emotionalism that typifies this genre. Longino, James C., et al. “A Study of World War Procurement and Industrial Mobilization...States. Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing Co., 1941. CARL 355.22 J72b. Written in rough prose , this World War II era document explains the

  16. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in a molluscan egg: Evidence for an animal/vegetal polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Speksnijder, J.E.; Dohmen, M.R.; Zoelen, E. van; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Bluemink, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lateral diffusion of the lipid analog C₁₄-diI (3', 3'-dihexadecylindocarbocyanine iodide) was measured in the plasma membrane of early embryos of the mollusc Nassarius reticulatus using the FPR-(Fluorescence Photobleaching Recovery) method. At almost all stages measured (from fertilized egg up t

  17. Performance Analysis of Mobile WiMAX System using Turbo Coding Technique for Different Modulation Schemes under AWGN and Rayleigh Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Samundiswary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In wireless communication, future demands must be met using more data throughput wireless technologies. Since bandwidth is limited and user demand continues to grow. This problem could be solved by WiMAX technology based on IEEE 802.16e specifications, which provides high data services on mobile environment. So, to support high data rate traffic, the error correction could be enhanced by incorporating a better channel coding technique in mobile WiMAX physical layer. Further, coding technique is used for providing reliable information through the transmission channel to the user. It is used to reduce the level of noise and interferences in electronic medium. The amount of error detection and correction required and its effectiveness depends on the signal to noise ratio. The advantages of Forward Error Correction (FEC are that a back-channel is not required, or that retransmission of data can often be avoided, at the cost of higher bandwidth requirements on average. In this paper, the performance of mobile WiMAX system with convolutional turbo coding is determined and analyzed for various modulation schemes under different channels. The BER performance of mobile WiMAX system using convolutional turbo Coding is determined and compared with the existing concatenated Reed Solomon(RS coding in the presence of AWGN and Rayleigh Channel. From the simulation results, it is verified that convolutional turbo coding provides better BER performance than concatenated RS coding

  18. No Free Charge Theorem: a Covert Channel via USB Charging Cable on Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Spolaor, Riccardo; Abudahi, Laila; Moonsamy, Veelasha; Conti, Mauro; Poovendran, Radha

    2016-01-01

    More and more people are regularly using mobile and battery-powered handsets, such as smartphones and tablets. At the same time, thanks to the technological innovation and to the high user demands, those devices are integrating extensive functionalities and developers are writing battery-draining apps, which results in a surge of energy consumption of these devices. This scenario leads many people to often look for opportunities to charge their devices at public charging stations: the presenc...

  19. Reduced thermal resistance in AlGaN/GaN multi-mesa-channel high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asubar, Joel T., E-mail: joel@rciqe.hokudai.ac.jp; Yatabe, Zenji; Hashizume, Tamotsu [Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE) and Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 102-0075 Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-08-04

    Dramatic reduction of thermal resistance was achieved in AlGaN/GaN Multi-Mesa-Channel (MMC) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on sapphire substrates. Compared with the conventional planar device, the MMC HEMT exhibits much less negative slope of the I{sub D}-V{sub DS} curves at high V{sub DS} regime, indicating less self-heating. Using a method proposed by Menozzi and co-workers, we obtained a thermal resistance of 4.8 K-mm/W at ambient temperature of ∼350 K and power dissipation of ∼9 W/mm. This value compares well to 4.1 K-mm/W, which is the thermal resistance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on expensive single crystal diamond substrates and the lowest reported value in literature.

  20. Shaping and reproduction patterns of power elites in former Yugoslavia II: Channels of vertical mobility: Education and political activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Slobodan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of this paper are analyzed effecting of main channels of social mobility for ascent on elite's positions in Serbia and Croatia. Special attention was paid to education and political activity. Survey data says that the patterns of ideological desirable social origin were developed in pattern of ideological desirable developing way of building individual career of members of power elite's across the time. Special importance in that process had high education acquirement. Political activity was necessary follower in the way of advance to the highest social positions. There was used log-linear analyze (hierarchical method because finding statistical importance between presented factors of education and political activity. Thanks to this method we can see details of complex relations of interdependence of this factors.

  1. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    and to investigate the potential for bed material movement along the same reach. The purpose of this report is to present information about the lateral and vertical movement of the Madison River from 1970 to 2006 for a 1-mile reach downstream from Earthquake Lake and for Raynolds Pass Bridge, and to provide an analysis of the potential for bed-material movement so that MADTAC can evaluate the applicability of the previously determined threshold streamflow for initiation of damaging erosion. As part of this study channel cross sections originally surveyed by the USGS in 1971 were resurveyed in 2006. Incremental channel-movement distances were determined by comparing the stream centerlines from 14 aerial photographs taken between 1970 and 2006. Depths of channel incision and aggregation were determined by comparing the 2006 and 1971 cross-section and water-surface data. Particle sizes of bed and bank materials were measured in 2006 and 2008 using the pebble-count method and sieve analyses. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model (HEC-RAS) was used to calculate mean boundary-shear stresses for various streamflows; these calculated boundary-shear stresses were compared to calculated critical-shear stresses for the bed materials to determine the potential for bed-material movement. A comparison of lateral channel movement distances with annual peak streamflows shows that streamflows higher than the 3,500-ft3/s threshold were followed by lateral channel movement except from 1991 to 1992 and possibly from 1996 to 1997. However, it was not possible to discern whether the channel moved gradually or suddenly, or in response to one peak flow, to several peak flows, or to sustained flows. The channel moved between 2002 and 2005 even when streamflows were less than the threshold streamflow of 3,500 ft3/s. Comparisons of cross sections and aerial photographs show that the channel has moved laterally and incised and aggraded to varying degrees. The channel has developed meander bends

  2. Impact of Mobile phone in the Air and Random Access Channel RACH with Time Division Multiple Access TDMA Noise in Aircraft Avionics

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Siow Shyong

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phone 1800MHz band already allowed to be used in some airlines. Many studies talked about lower the mobile phone output power to the lowest of 0dBm, but seldom talk about the Random Access Channel RACH, which will emit at the highest power of 30dBm at the instant of call making and is not controllable until the connection between the Base Station and mobile is made.Hence the impact of RACH and TDMA noise generated in the aircraft.

  3. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    and to investigate the potential for bed material movement along the same reach. The purpose of this report is to present information about the lateral and vertical movement of the Madison River from 1970 to 2006 for a 1-mile reach downstream from Earthquake Lake and for Raynolds Pass Bridge, and to provide an analysis of the potential for bed-material movement so that MADTAC can evaluate the applicability of the previously determined threshold streamflow for initiation of damaging erosion. As part of this study channel cross sections originally surveyed by the USGS in 1971 were resurveyed in 2006. Incremental channel-movement distances were determined by comparing the stream centerlines from 14 aerial photographs taken between 1970 and 2006. Depths of channel incision and aggregation were determined by comparing the 2006 and 1971 cross-section and water-surface data. Particle sizes of bed and bank materials were measured in 2006 and 2008 using the pebble-count method and sieve analyses. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model (HEC-RAS) was used to calculate mean boundary-shear stresses for various streamflows; these calculated boundary-shear stresses were compared to calculated critical-shear stresses for the bed materials to determine the potential for bed-material movement. A comparison of lateral channel movement distances with annual peak streamflows shows that streamflows higher than the 3,500-ft3/s threshold were followed by lateral channel movement except from 1991 to 1992 and possibly from 1996 to 1997. However, it was not possible to discern whether the channel moved gradually or suddenly, or in response to one peak flow, to several peak flows, or to sustained flows. The channel moved between 2002 and 2005 even when streamflows were less than the threshold streamflow of 3,500 ft3/s. Comparisons of cross sections and aerial photographs show that the channel has moved laterally and incised and aggraded to varying degrees. The channel has developed meander bends

  4. Regulation of presynaptic strength by controlling Ca2+ channel mobility: effects of cholesterol depletion on release at the cone ribbon synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Aaron J; Szalewski, Robert J; Jackman, Skyler L; Van Hook, Matthew J; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2012-06-01

    Synaptic communication requires proper coupling between voltage-gated Ca(2+) (Ca(V)) channels and synaptic vesicles. In photoreceptors, L-type Ca(V) channels are clustered close to synaptic ribbon release sites. Although clustered, Ca(V) channels move continuously within a confined domain slightly larger than the base of the ribbon. We hypothesized that expanding Ca(V) channel confinement domains should increase the number of channel openings needed to trigger vesicle release. Using single-particle tracking techniques, we measured the expansion of Ca(V) channel confinement domains caused by depletion of membrane cholesterol with cholesterol oxidase or methyl-β-cyclodextrin. With paired whole cell recordings from cones and horizontal cells, we then determined the number of Ca(V) channel openings contributing to cone Ca(V) currents (I(Ca)) and the number of vesicle fusion events contributing to horizontal cell excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) following cholesterol depletion. Expansion of Ca(V) channel confinement domains reduced the peak efficiency of release, decreasing the number of vesicle fusion events accompanying opening of each Ca(V) channel. Cholesterol depletion also inhibited exocytotic capacitance increases evoked by brief depolarizing steps. Changes in efficiency were not due to changes in I(Ca) amplitude or glutamate receptor properties. Replenishing cholesterol restored Ca(V) channel domain size and release efficiency to control levels. These results indicate that cholesterol is important for organizing the cone active zone. Furthermore, the finding that cholesterol depletion impairs coupling between channel opening and vesicle release by allowing Ca(V) channels to move further from release sites shows that changes in presynaptic Ca(V) channel mobility can be a mechanism for adjusting synaptic strength.

  5. Engineering the (In, Al, Ga)N back-barrier to achieve high channel-conductivity for extremely scaled channel-thicknesses in N-polar GaN high-electron-mobility-transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jing, E-mail: jing@ece.ucsb.edu; Zheng, Xun; Guidry, Matthew; Denninghoff, Dan; Ahmadi, Elahe; Lal, Shalini; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); DenBaars, Steven P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-03

    Scaling down the channel-thickness (t{sub ch}) in GaN/(In, Al, Ga)N high-electron-mobility-transistors (HEMTs) is essential to eliminating short-channel effects in sub 100 nm gate length HEMTs. However, this scaling can degrade both charge density (n{sub s}) and mobility (μ), thereby reducing channel-conductivity. In this study, the back-barrier design in N-polar GaN/(In, Al, Ga)N was engineered to achieve highly conductive-channels with t{sub ch} < 5-nm using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Compositional-grading was found to be the most effective approach in reducing channel-conductivity for structures with t{sub ch} ∼ 3-nm. For a HEMT with 3-nm-thick-channel, a sheet-resistance of 329 Ω/◻ and a peak-transconductance of 718 mS/mm were demonstrated.

  6. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J Hossain

    Full Text Available To investigate the molecular basis of the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila responsible for an epidemic outbreak of motile aeromonad septicemia of catfish in the Southeastern United States, we sequenced 11 A. hydrophila isolates that includes five reference and six recent epidemic isolates. Comparative genomics revealed that recent epidemic A. hydrophila isolates are highly clonal, whereas reference isolates are greatly diverse. We identified 55 epidemic-associated genetic regions with 313 predicted genes that are present in epidemic isolates but absent from reference isolates and 35% of these regions are located within genomic islands, suggesting their acquisition through lateral gene transfer. The epidemic-associated regions encode predicted prophage elements, pathogenicity islands, metabolic islands, fitness islands and genes of unknown functions, and 34 of the genes encoded in these regions were predicted as virulence factors. We found two pilus biogenesis gene clusters encoded within predicted pathogenicity islands. A functional metabolic island that encodes a complete pathway for myo-inositol catabolism was evident by the ability of epidemic A. hydrophila isolates to use myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Testing of A. hydrophila field isolates found a consistent correlation between myo-inositol utilization as a sole carbon source and the presence of an epidemic-specific genetic marker. All epidemic isolates and one reference isolate shared a novel O-antigen cluster. Altogether we identified four different O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters within the 11 sequenced A. hydrophila genomes. Our study reveals new insights into the evolutionary changes that have resulted in the emergence of recent epidemic A. hydrophila strains.

  7. DEPTH-INTEGRATED MODELING FOR AGGRADING/DEGRADING MOBILE CHANNELS I: MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-Tian LIN; Chih-Tsung HSU; Keh-Chia YEH

    2006-01-01

    A depth-integrated model has been developed to simulate the alluvial process of channel bed under overloading and under-loading sediment discharge conditions. The hydrodynamic sub-model based on the explicit-finite-analytic method is used to obtain the flow field. Then the sediment transport modes, including the bed-load and suspended load, are modeled with the aid of the empirically auxiliary relations. In the depth-integrated model, the sediment exchange rate is treated as a source term specified at the reference level, rather than a boundary condition as usually adopted in vertical 2-D or 3-D models. The deposition or erosion rate of the bed is then determined by comparing the flow-laden suspended-sediment concentration profile against the equilibrium concentration profile, and their difference is used to compute the sediment exchange rate for a given time interval. Assessment of the good accuracy of the proposed model is demonstrated by using van Rijn's (1981) experiment for the case of clear water passing a movable bed. In the companion paper, the verification and the field application of the proposed model are presented.

  8. Simulation of pollutant transport in mobile water-flow channels in permafrost environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Debolskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A common problem for the Arctic region is pollution by persistent organic compounds and other substances that have accumulated over the years in these areas. With temperature increasing, these substances can get out of the snow, ice, permafrost in the human environment. With climate warming and permafrost degradation the risk of toxic substances from the burial sites of chemical and radioactive waste increases. The work is devoted to research the pollution propagation in the rivers flowing in the permafrost taking into account the possible deformations of the channels caused by the melting of the permafrost with increasing temperature of the river flow water. We also consider the distribution of pollutants released during erosion of the coastal slopes, caused thermal erosion. Numerical experiments confirmed the quantitative assessment obtained from the field observations of the erosion rate increases with increasing temperature. Study the impact of thermal and mechanical erosion of the distribution of impurities led to the conclusion that as a result of the formation of taliks uniform flow conditions are violated, resulting in a non-stationary distribution of impurities. The increase in the volume of the test section of the river due to the appearance of cavities in the coastal slope leads to an increase in impurity concentration. Analysis of the results of modeling the spread of contamination during thawing sources in the frozen shores, demonstrated the relationship in the process of distribution of impurities from the position of the source and allowed to give a preliminary quantitative assessment.

  9. Serotonin stimulates lateral habenula via activation of the post-synaptic serotonin 2/3 receptors and transient receptor potential channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wanhong; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Guiqin; Gregor, Danielle; Bekker, Alex; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2016-02-01

    There is growing interest on the role of the lateral habenula (LHb) in depression, because it closely and bilaterally connects with the serotoninergic raphe nuclei. The LHb sends glutamate efferents to the raphe nuclei, while it receives serotoninergic afferents, and expresses a high density of serotonin (5-HT) receptors. Recent studies suggest that 5-HT receptors exist both in the presynaptic and postsynaptic sites of LHb neurons, and activation of these receptors may have different effects on the activity of LHb neurons. The current study focused on the effect of 5-HT on the postsynaptic membrane. We found that 5-HT initiated a depolarizing inward current (I((5-HTi))) and accelerated spontaneous firing in ∼80% of LHb neurons in rat brain slices. I((5-HTi)) was also induced by the 5-HT uptake blocker citalopram, indicating activity of endogenous 5-HT. I((5-HTi)) was diminished by 5-HT(2/3) receptor antagonists (ritanserin, SB-200646 or ondansetron), and activated by the selective 5-HT(2/3) agonists 1-(3-Chlorophenyl) piperazine hydrochloride or 1-(3-Chlorophenyl) biguanide hydrochloride. Furthermore, I((5-HTi)) was attenuated by 2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate, a blocker of transient receptor potential channels, and an IP3 receptor inhibitor, indicating the involvement of transient receptor potential channels. These results demonstrate that the reciprocal connection between the LHb and the 5-HT system highlights a key role for 5-HT stimulation of LHb neurons that may be important in the pathogenesis of depression.

  10. Rapid multiplex detection of 10 foodborne pathogens with an up-converting phosphor technology-based 10-channel lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Haoran; Zhang, Pingping; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Xiaochen; Wang, Xinrui; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Chengbin; Zhou, Lei

    2016-02-17

    The rapid high-throughput detection of foodborne pathogens is essential in controlling food safety. In this study, a 10-channel up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (TC-UPT-LF) assay was established for the rapid and simultaneous detection of 10 epidemic foodborne pathogens. Ten different single-target UPT-LF strips were developed and integrated into one TC-UPT-LF disc with optimization. Without enrichment the TC-UPT-LF assay had a detection sensitivity of 10(4) CFU mL(-1) or 10(5) CFU mL(-1) for each pathogen, and after sample enrichment it was 10 CFU/0.6 mg. The assay also showed good linearity, allowing quantitative detection, with a linear fitting coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.916-0.998. The 10 detection channels did not cross-react, so multiple targets could be specifically detected. When 279 real food samples were tested, the assay was highly consistent (100%) with culture-based methods. The results for 110 food samples artificially contaminated with single or multiple targets showed a high detection rate (≥ 80%) for most target bacteria. Overall, the TC-UPT-LF assay allows the rapid, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of 10 kinds of foodborne pathogens within 20 min, and is especially suitable for the rapid detection and surveillance of foodborne pathogens in food and water.

  11. The Current Collapse in AlGaN/GaN High-Electron Mobility Transistors Can Originate from the Energy Relaxation of Channel Electrons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, Huan-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Influence of the energy relaxation of the channel electrons on the performance of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) has been investigated using self-consistent solution to the coupled Schrödinger equation and Poisson equation. The first quantized energy level in the inversion layer rises and the average channel electron density decreases when the channel electric field increases from 20 kV/cm to 120 kV/cm. This research also demonstrates that the energy relaxation of the channel electrons can lead to current collapse and suggests that the energy relaxation should be considered in modeling the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs such as, the gate leakage current, threshold voltage, source-drain current, capacitance-voltage curve, etc. PMID:26039589

  12. Effect of fish oil on lateral mobility of prostaglandin F2α (FP) receptors and spatial distribution of lipid microdomains in bovine luteal cell plasma membrane in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewes, M R; Burns, P D; Graham, P E; Hyslop, R M; Barisas, B G

    2017-01-01

    Lipid microdomains are ordered regions on the plasma membrane of cells, rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, ranging in size from 10 to 200 nm in diameter. These lipid-ordered domains may serve as platforms to facilitate colocalization of intracellular signaling proteins during agonist-induced signal transduction. It is hypothesized that fish oil will disrupt the lipid microdomains, increasing spatial distribution of these lipid-ordered domains and lateral mobility of the prostaglandin (PG) F2α (FP) receptors in bovine luteal cells. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of fish oil on (1) the spatial distribution of lipid microdomains, (2) lateral mobility of FP receptors, and (3) lateral mobility of FP receptors in the presence of PGF2α on the plasma membrane of bovine luteal cells in vitro. Bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir and corpora lutea were digested using collagenase. In experiment 1, lipid microdomains were labeled using cholera toxin subunit B Alexa Fluor 555. Domains were detected as distinct patches on the plasma membrane of mixed luteal cells. Fish oil treatment decreased fluorescent intensity in a dose-dependent manner (P oil treatment on lateral mobility of FP receptors. Fish oil treatment increased microdiffusion and macrodiffusion coefficients of FP receptors as compared to control cells (P oil-treated cells (P oil treatment. Lateral mobility of receptors was decreased within 5 min following the addition of ligand for control cells (P oil-treated cells (P > 0.10). The data presented provide strong evidence that fish oil causes a disruption in lipid microdomains and affects lateral mobility of FP receptors in the absence and presence of PGF2α.

  13. High Electron Mobility Ge n-Channel Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Fabricated by the Gate-Last Process with the Solid Source Diffusion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; Morita, Yukinori; Takagi, Shinichi

    2010-06-01

    We fabricate high-k/Ge n-channel metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) by the gate-last process with the thermal solid source diffusion to achieve both of high quality source/drain (S/D) and gate stack. The n+/p junction formed by solid source diffusion technique of Sb dopant shows the excellent diode characteristics of ˜1.5×105 on/off ratio between +1 and -1 V and the quite low reverse current density of ˜4.1×10-4 A/cm2 at +1 V after the fabrication of high-k/Ge n-channel MISFETs that enable us to observe well-behaved transistor performances. The extracted electron mobility with the peak of 891 cm2/(V.s) is high enough to be superior to the Si universal electron mobility especially in low Eeff.

  14. Long-term exposure to mobile communication radiation: an analysis of time-variability of electric field level in GSM900 downlink channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclaus, Simona; Bechet, Paul; Gheorghevici, Marius

    2013-04-01

    Interest for knowing long-term human exposure levels due to mobile communications has increased in the last years. It has been shown that short-term exposure assessment made under standard procedural restrictions is not reliable when it comes to conclusions on long-term exposure levels. The present work is the result of a several week analysis of time variability of electric field level inside traffic and control channels of the GSM900 mobile communication downlink band and it indicates that a temporal model to allow future predictions of exposure on the long run is obtainable. Collecting, processing and statistically analysing the data provide expression of the maximum and weighted field strengths and their evolution in time. Specific electromagnetic footprints of the channels have been extracted, differentiations between their characteristics have been emphasised and practical advice is provided, with the scope of contributing to the development of reliable procedures for long-term exposure assessment.

  15. Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Accumulation in the Spinal Cord Is Independent of Peripheral Mobilization in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Kyle; Manning, John; Lewis, Coral-Ann; Tran, Kevin; Rossi, Fabio; Krieger, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) are capable of migrating across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and accumulating in the central nervous system (CNS) when transplanted into recipients conditioned with whole-body irradiation or chemotherapy. We used the chemotherapeutic agents busulfan and treosulfan to condition recipient mice for transplantation with bone marrow (BM) cells isolated from donor mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein. We attempted to increase the accumulation of BMDCs in the CNS by mobilization of BMDCs using either, or both, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) or plerixafor (AMD3100). We also used several concentrations of busulfan. We hypothesized that higher concentrations of busulfan and BMDC mobilization would increase numbers of GFP+ cells in the CNS. The doses of busulfan employed (60–125 mg/kg) all resulted in high levels of sustained chimerism (>85% 1 year post-transplant) in both the blood and BM of wild-type (WT) mice and an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse model. Moreover, cells accumulated within the CNS in a dose-, time-, and disease-dependent manner. Conditioning with the hydrophilic busulfan analog treosulfan, which is unable to cross the BBB efficiently, also resulted in a high degree of BM chimerism. However, few GFP+ BMDCs were found within the CNS of WT or ALS mice of treosulfan-conditioned mice. Mobilization of BMDCs into the circulation using GCSF and/or AMD3100 did not lead to increased accumulation of GFP+ BMDCs within the CNS of WT or ALS mice. Weekly analysis of BMDC accumulation revealed that BMDCs accumulated more rapidly and to a greater extent in the CNS of ALS mice conditioned with a high dose (125 mg/kg) of busulfan compared to a lower dose (80 mg/kg). The number of GFP+ BMDCs in the CNS labeling with the proliferation marker Ki67 increased in parallel with BMDC accumulation within the CNS. Our results indicate that establishment of high levels of blood and BM chimerism

  16. Suppression of surface-originated gate lag by a dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, David A.; Storm, David F.; Scott Katzer, D.; Bass, R.; Meyer, David J.

    2016-08-01

    A dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) architecture is demonstrated that leverages ultra-thin epitaxial layers to suppress surface-related gate lag. Two high-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channels are utilized in an AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure wherein the top 2DEG serves as a quasi-equipotential that screens potential fluctuations resulting from distributed surface and interface states. The bottom channel serves as the transistor's modulated channel. Dual-channel AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. HEMTs fabricated with 300 nm long recessed gates demonstrated a gate lag ratio (GLR) of 0.88 with no degradation in drain current after bias stressed in subthreshold. These structures additionally achieved small signal metrics ft/fmax of 27/46 GHz. These performance results are contrasted with the non-recessed gate dual-channel HEMT with a GLR of 0.74 and 82 mA/mm current collapse with ft/fmax of 48/60 GHz.

  17. Estimating associations of mobile phone use and brain tumours taking into account laterality: a comparison and theoretical evaluation of applied methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Kirsten; Deltour, Isabelle; Schüz, Joachim

    2012-12-10

    Estimating exposure-outcome associations using laterality information on exposure and on outcome is an issue, when estimating associations of mobile phone use and brain tumour risk. The exposure is localized; therefore, a potential risk is expected to exist primarily on the side of the head, where the phone is usually held (ipsilateral exposure), and to a lesser extent at the opposite side of the head (contralateral exposure). Several measures of the associations with ipsilateral and contralateral exposure, dealing with different sampling designs, have been presented in the literature. This paper presents a general framework for the analysis of such studies using a likelihood-based approach in a competing risks model setting. The approach clarifies the implicit assumptions required for the validity of the presented estimators, particularly that in some approaches the risk with contralateral exposure is assumed to be zero. The performance of the estimators is illustrated in a simulation study showing for instance that while in some scenarios there is a loss of statistical power, others - in case of a positive ipsilateral exposure-outcome association - would result in a negatively biased estimate of the contralateral exposure parameter, irrespective of any additional recall bias. In conclusion, our theoretical evaluations and results from the simulation study emphasize the importance of setting up a formal model, which furthermore allows for estimation in more complicated and perhaps more realistic exposure settings, such as taking into account exposure to both sides of the head.

  18. Study of Electron Mobility in 4H-SiC Buried-Channel MOSFETs%4H-SiC隐埋沟道MOSFET迁移率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜锦侠; 张义门; 张玉明

    2006-01-01

    The effects of several factors on mobility in 4H-SiC buried-channel (BC) MOSFETs are studied. A simple model that gives a quantitative analysis of series resistance effects on the effective mobility and field-effect mobility is proposed. A series resistance not only decreases field-effect mobility but also reduces the gate voltage corresponding to the peak field-effect mobility. The dependence of the peak field-effect mobility on series resistance follows a simple quadratic polynomial. The effects of uniform and exponential interface state distributions in the forbidden band on field-effect mobility are analyzed with an analytical model. The effects of non-uniform interface states can be ignored at lower gate voltages but become more obvious as the gate bias increases.%研究了几种因素对4H-SiC隐埋沟道MOSFET沟道迁移率的影响.提出了一个简单的模型用来定量分析串联电阻对迁移率的影响.串联电阻不仅会使迁移率降低,还会使峰值场效应迁移率所对应的栅压减小.峰值场效应迁移率和串联电阻的关系可用一个二次多项式来准确描述.详细分析了均匀分布和不均匀分布的界面态对场效应迁移率的影响.对于指数分布的界面态,低栅压下界面态的影响基本上可以忽略不计,随着栅压的增加,界面态的影响越来越显著.

  19. Polarization-mediated Debye-screening of surface potential fluctuations in dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, David A.; Miller, Ross A.; Osinsky, Andrei V.; Downey, Brian P.; Storm, David F.; Meyer, David J.; Scott Katzer, D.; Nepal, Neeraj

    2016-12-01

    A dual-channel AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) architecture is proposed, simulated, and demonstrated that suppresses gate lag due to surface-originated trapped charge. Dual two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channels are utilized such that the top 2DEG serves as an equipotential that screens potential fluctuations resulting from surface trapped charge. The bottom channel serves as the transistor's modulated channel. Two device modeling approaches have been performed as a means to guide the device design and to elucidate the relationship between the design and performance metrics. The modeling efforts include a self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger solution for electrostatic simulation as well as hydrodynamic three-dimensional device modeling for three-dimensional electrostatics, steady-state, and transient simulations. Experimental results validated the HEMT design whereby homo-epitaxial growth on free-standing GaN substrates and fabrication of the same-wafer dual-channel and recessed-gate AlN/GaN HEMTs have been demonstrated. Notable pulsed-gate performance has been achieved by the fabricated HEMTs through a gate lag ratio of 0.86 with minimal drain current collapse while maintaining high levels of dc and rf performance.

  20. Sol-gel modified poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices with high electroosmotic mobilities and hydrophilic channel wall characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gregory T; Hlaus, Tyler; Bass, Kevin J; Seelhammer, Todd G; Culbertson, Christopher T

    2005-03-01

    Using a sol-gel method, we have fabricated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips with SiO2 particles homogeneously distributed within the PDMS polymer matrix. These particles are approximately 10 nm in diameter. To fabricate such devices, PDMS (Sylgard 184) was cast against SU-8 molds. After curing, the chips were carefully removed from the mold and sealed against flat, cured pieces of PDMS to form enclosed channel manifolds. These chips were then solvated in tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), causing them to expand. Subsequently, the chips were placed in an aqueous solution containing 2.8% ethylamine and heated to form nanometer-sized SiO2 particles within the cross-linked PDMS polymer. The water contact angle for the PDMS-SiO2 chips was approximately 90.2 degrees compared to a water contact angle for Sylgard 184 of approximately 108.5 degrees . More importantly, the SiO2 modified PDMS chips showed no rhodamine B absorption after 4 h, indicating a substantially more hydrophilic and nonabsorptive surface than native PDMS. Initial electroosmotic mobilities (EOM) of (8.3+/-0.2)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=2.6% (RSD is relative standard deviation); n=10) were measured. This value was approximately twice that of native Sylgard 184 PDMS chips (4.21+/-0.09)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=2.2%; n=10) and 55% greater than glass chips (5.3+/-0.4)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=7.7%; n=5). After 60 days of dry storage, the EOM was (7.6+/-0.3)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=3.9%; n=3), a decrease of only 8% below that of the initially measured value. Separations performed on these devices generated 80,000-100,000 theoretical plates in 6-14 s for both tetramethylrhodamine succidimidyl ester and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate derivatized amino acids. The separation distance was 3.5 cm. Plots of peak variance vs analyte migration times gave diffusion coefficients which indicate that the separation efficiencies are within 15% of the diffusion limit.

  1. Strained Germanium-Tin (GeSn) P-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Featuring High Effective Hole Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yan, Jing; Wang, Hongjuan; Cheng, Buwen; Han, Genquan

    2015-06-01

    Compressively strained and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are fabricated with low-temperature surface passivation. High crystallinity GeSn films epitaxially grown on a Ge(001) substrate are used for the device fabrication. The impacts of the Sn composition on the subthreshold swing , threshold voltage , on-state current , and effective hole mobility of the devices are investigated. GeSn pMOSFETs with different Sn compositions show a similar , indicating almost the same midgap density of interface states . A positive shift of with an increase of the Sn composition is observed. A pMOSFET exhibits a significant improvement in as compared to a device with a lower Sn composition, which is due to the superior hole mobility in a device with a higher Sn composition. pMOSFETs achieve a peak effective hole mobility of , which is much higher than that of devices. The enhancement of the compressive strain and chemical effect in the channel region with increased Sn composition leads to an improvement of.

  2. Response of lateral channel dynamics of a lowland meandering river to engineering-derived adjustments - an example of the Morava River (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondruch, Jakub; Mácka, Zdenek

    2015-11-01

    Freely meandering (quasi)natural reaches of lowland rivers represent a rare phenomenon in Central Europe. Increasing attention is currently being paid to the dynamics of quasi-natural (artificially influenced) meandering rivers as this attention represents the basic prerequisite for the development of appropriate restoration strategies on regulated rivers. This study focused on a 5.5 km long reach of the Morava River in the Strážnické Pomoraví region, Czech Republic that is characterised by quasi-natural evolution after substantial engineering adjustments were made in the first decades of the twentieth century. Based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis of aerial photographs, the spatio-temporal dynamics of bank erosion and accretion rates were quantitatively described and variables that control channel migration rates were identified. High rates of lateral shifts were localised in high sinuosity segments (sinuosity 1.17-2.37), whereas segments with very low rates were straight or formed into slightly curved bends (sinuosity 1.05-1.18). As a key factor, engineering works that influenced local river bed slope and induced a dramatic increase in bank erosion rates were identified. River engineering works induced a dramatic increase in bank erosion rate (2.19 m/year for 1938-53 and 1.47 m/year for 1953-63). An interval of approximately 25 years was needed before the erosion rates dropped back to values documented before river regulation (0.35-1.09 m/year for 1841-1938). Other important controlling variables included radius of curvature, frequency and magnitude of floods and, locally, river bank material properties and floodplain land cover.

  3. Lateral diffusion, function, and expression of the slow channel congenital myasthenia syndrome αC418W nicotinic receptor mutation with changes in lipid raft components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Ballester, Leomar; Baéz-Pagán, Carlos A; Martínez, Hernán L; Vélez-Arroyo, Karla P; Quesada, Orestes; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2015-10-30

    Lipid rafts, specialized membrane microdomains in the plasma membrane rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, are hot spots for a number of important cellular processes. The novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mutation αC418W, the first lipid-exposed mutation identified in a patient that causes slow channel congenital myasthenia syndrome was shown to be cholesterol-sensitive and to accumulate in microdomains rich in the membrane raft marker protein caveolin-1. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the mechanism by which lateral segregation into specialized raft membrane microdomains regulates the activable pool of nAChRs. We performed fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), quantitative RT-PCR, and whole cell patch clamp recordings of GFP-encoding Mus musculus nAChRs transfected into HEK 293 cells to assess the role of cholesterol and caveolin-1 (CAV-1) in the diffusion, expression, and functionality of the nAChR (WT and αC418W). Our findings support the hypothesis that a cholesterol-sensitive nAChR might reside in specialized membrane microdomains that upon cholesterol depletion become disrupted and release the cholesterol-sensitive nAChRs to the pool of activable receptors. In addition, our results in HEK 293 cells show an interdependence between CAV-1 and αC418W that could confer end plates rich in αC418W nAChRs to a susceptibility to changes in cholesterol levels that could cause adverse drug reactions to cholesterol-lowering drugs such as statins. The current work suggests that the interplay between cholesterol and CAV-1 provides the molecular basis for modulating the function and dynamics of the cholesterol-sensitive αC418W nAChR.

  4. Hybrid complementary circuits based on p-channel organic and n-channel metal oxide transistors with balanced carrier mobilities of up to 10 cm2/Vs

    KAUST Repository

    Isakov, Ivan

    2016-12-29

    We report the development of hybrid complementary inverters based on p-channel organic and n-channel metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) both processed from solution at <200 °C. For the organic TFTs, a ternary blend consisting of the small-molecule 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene, the polymer indacenodithiophene-benzothiadiazole (CIDT-BT) and the p-type dopant CF was employed, whereas the isotype InO/ZnO heterojunction was used for the n-channel TFTs. When integrated on the same substrate, p- and n-channel devices exhibited balanced carrier mobilities up to 10 cm/Vs. Hybrid complementary inverters based on these devices show high signal gain (>30 V/V) and wide noise margins (70%). The moderate processing temperatures employed and the achieved level of device performance highlight the tremendous potential of the technology for application in the emerging sector of large-area microelectronics.

  5. Characterization of Series Resistance and Mobility Degradation Parameter and Optimizing Choice of Oxide Thickness in Thin Oxide N-Channel MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Maouhoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two methods to extract the series resistance and the mobility degradation parameter in short-channel MOSFETs. The principle of the first method is based on the comparison between the exponential model and the classical model of effective mobility and for the second method is based on directly calculating the two parameters by solving a system of two equations obtained by using two different points in strong inversion at small drain bias from the characteristic (. The results obtained by these techniques have shown a better agreement with data measurements and allowed in the same time to determine the surface roughness amplitude and its influence on the maximum drain current and give the optimal oxide thickness.

  6. Spectrally Efficient Communication over Time-Varying Frequency-Selective Mobile Channels: Variable-Size Burst Construction and Adaptive Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Francis Minhthang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for providing good spectral efficiency, without disadvantaging the delivered quality of service (QoS, in time-varying fading channels are presented. The key idea is to allocate system resources according to the encountered channel. Two approaches are examined: variable-size burst construction, and adaptive modulation. The first approach adapts the burst size according to the channel rate of change. In doing so, the available training symbols are efficiently utilized. The second adaptation approach tracks the operating channel quality, so that the most efficient modulation mode can be invoked while guaranteeing a target QoS. It is shown that these two methods can be effectively combined in a common framework for improving system efficiency, while guaranteeing good QoS. The proposed framework is especially applicable to multistate channels, in which at least one state can be considered sufficiently slowly varying. For such environments, the obtained simulation results demonstrate improved system performance and spectral efficiency.

  7. Analysis of China Mobile Sales Channel Strategy in 4rd Generation Era%4G时代中国移动渠道策略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲玲

    2015-01-01

    In December, 2013, 4rd Generation communications business mobile network licences were issued means China's telecom industry entered the era of 4rd Generation. Compared with 3rd Generation, 4rd Generation has certain advantages no matter in speed, bearing, content or commercial, technical. China Mobile is the ifrst to launch 4rd Generation services test the water, then in the era of 4rd Generation, China mobile should be how to clear their advantages and disadvantages in the 4rd Generation environment, and how to formulate the corresponding channel strategy based on the advantages and disadvantages of 4rd Generation, so as to get more market share. This article analyzes the macro environment of the big background of China Mobile in the era of 4rd Generation, and made a SWOT analysis on the development of Chinese mobile channel, and based on this, puts forward the corresponding channel strategy.%2013年12月,4G通讯业务牌照的正式发放意味着我国电信行业进入了4G时代。4G相比于3G,无论在速度上、承载上、内容上或者商用上、技术上都有一定的优势。中国移动是启动4G业务的最先试水者,那么在4G时代,中国移动应如何清晰自己在4G环境中的优劣势,并基于4G的优劣势来制定相应的渠道策略,从而得到更大的市场份额获得胜利。文章分析了中国移动在4G时代这个大背景下的宏观环境,并对中国移动渠道发展做了SWOT分析,在此基础上提出相应的渠道策略。

  8. Ultra-short channel GaN high electron mobility transistor-like Gunn diode with composite contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Lin' an, E-mail: layang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Chen, Qing; Huang, Yonghong; Dai, Yang; Chen, Haoran; Zhao, Hongliang; Hao, Yue [The State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2014-09-07

    We present a numerical analysis on an ultra-short channel AlGaN/GaN HEMT-like planar Gunn diode based on the velocity-field dependence of two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) channel accounting for the ballistic electron acceleration and the inter-valley transfer. In particular, we propose a Schottky-ohmic composite contact instead of traditional ohmic contact for the Gunn diode in order to significantly suppress the impact ionization at the anode side and shorten the “dead zone” at the cathode side, which is beneficial to the formation and propagation of dipole domain in the ultra-short 2-DEG channel and the promotion of conversion efficiency. The influence of the surface donor-like traps on the electron domain in the 2-DEG channel is also included in the simulation.

  9. Ultra-short channel GaN high electron mobility transistor-like Gunn diode with composite contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Lin'an; Wang, Zhizhe; Chen, Qing; Huang, Yonghong; Dai, Yang; Chen, Haoran; Zhao, Hongliang; Hao, Yue

    2014-09-01

    We present a numerical analysis on an ultra-short channel AlGaN/GaN HEMT-like planar Gunn diode based on the velocity-field dependence of two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) channel accounting for the ballistic electron acceleration and the inter-valley transfer. In particular, we propose a Schottky-ohmic composite contact instead of traditional ohmic contact for the Gunn diode in order to significantly suppress the impact ionization at the anode side and shorten the "dead zone" at the cathode side, which is beneficial to the formation and propagation of dipole domain in the ultra-short 2-DEG channel and the promotion of conversion efficiency. The influence of the surface donor-like traps on the electron domain in the 2-DEG channel is also included in the simulation.

  10. Trap states in enhancement-mode double heterostructures AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with different GaN channel layer thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yunlong; Wang, Chong, E-mail: chongw@xidian.edu.cn; Li, Xiangdong; Zhao, Shenglei; Mi, Minhan; Pei, Jiuqing; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Li, Peixian, E-mail: pxli@mail.xidian.edu.cn [School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Ma, Xiaohua [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2015-08-10

    This is the report on trap states in enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures high electron mobility transistors by fluorine plasma treatment with different GaN channel layer thicknesses. Compared with the thick GaN channel layer sample, the thin one has smaller 2DEG concentration, lower electron mobility, lower saturation current, and lower peak transconductance, but it has a higher threshold voltage of 1.2 V. Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements are used to obtain the accurate capture cross section of trap states. By frequency dependent capacitance and conductance measurements, the trap state density of (1.98–2.56) × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} is located at E{sub T} in a range of (0.37–0.44) eV in the thin sample, while the trap state density of (2.3–2.92) × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} is located at E{sub T} in a range of (0.33–0.38) eV in the thick one. It indicates that the trap states in the thin sample are deeper than those in the thick one.

  11. High electron mobility recovery in AlGaN/GaN 2DEG channels regrown on etched surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Keller, Stacia; Tahhan, Maher; Li, Haoran; Romanczyk, Brian; DenBaars, Steven P.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports high two-dimensional electron gas mobility attained from the regrowth of the AlGaN gating layer on ex situ GaN surfaces. To repair etch-damaged GaN surfaces, various pretreatments were conducted via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, followed by a regrown AlGaN/GaN mobility test structure to evaluate the extent of recovery. The developed treatment process that was shown to significantly improve the electron mobility consisted of a N2 + NH3 pre-anneal plus an insertion of a 4 nm or thicker GaN interlayer prior to deposition of the AlGaN gating layer. Using the optimized process, a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was fabricated which exhibited a high mobility of 1450 cm2 V-1 s-1 (R sh = 574 ohm/sq) and low dispersion characteristics. The additional inclusion of an in situ Al2O3 dielectric into the regrowth process for MOS-HEMTs still preserved the transport properties near etch-impacted areas.

  12. Modulation of oxidative stress and Ca(2+) mobilization through TRPM2 channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neuron by Hypericum perforatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazıroğlu, M; Çiğ, B; Özgül, C

    2014-03-28

    A main component of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum, HP) is hyperforin which has antioxidant properties in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, due to its ability to modulate NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C. Recent reports indicate that oxidative stress through NADPH oxidase activates TRPM2 channels. HP may be a useful treatment for Ca(2+) entry and oxidative stress through modulation of TRPM2 channels in the DRG. We aimed to investigate the protective role of HP on Ca(2+) entry and oxidative stress through TRPM2 channels in DRG neurons of rats. The native rat DRG neurons were used in whole-cell patch-clamp, Fura-2 and antioxidant experiments. Appropriate, nontoxic concentrations and incubation times for HP were determined in the DRG neurons by assessing cell viability. The H2O2-induced TRPM2 currents were inhibited by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB) and N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA). TRPM2 current densities and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration in the neurons were also reduced by HP (2 and 24h). In Fura-2 experiments, cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization was reduced by voltage-gated calcium channel blockers (verapamil+diltiazem, V+D) and HP. Glutathione peroxidase activity and GSH values in the DRG were high in HP, 2-APB and V+D groups although lipid peroxidation level was low in the groups. In conclusion, we observed a protective role for HP on Ca(2+) entry through a TRPM2 channel in the DRG neurons. Since over-production of oxidative stress and Ca(2+) entry are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain and neuronal inflammation, our findings may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of neuropathology in DRG neurons.

  13. Forest Management Effects on Channel Wood and Wood-Channel Interactions in Caspar Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S.

    2006-12-01

    First-cycle logging in much of California's redwood region converted streams with some of the highest known wood volumes and piece sizes to efficient log transport channels. A century later, second-growth trees are still much smaller than old growth, and later logging and stream cleaning have further affected potential wood inputs and large woody debris (LWD) volumes in channels. At Caspar Creek, a 50-year paired watershed study creates an opportunity to compare the effects of two second-growth forest management strategies on wood dynamics in these channels, and to examine how the resulting differences in LWD affect channel form and process. Both the North and South Forks of Caspar Creek started the 20th century with almost no in-channel wood and little potential LWD as a result of clearcut logging, burning, and channel clearing. Stands had partially regrown by 1968, when near-channel roadbuilding and selective logging in the 424-ha South Fork watershed again reduced potential channel LWD. Trees that fell into the channel during logging were removed, along with some instream wood. Logging began in the 384-ha North Fork in 1989 using ridgetop roads; buffer strips were left between the mainstem channel and upslope clearcuts. Potential LWD in the buffer strips was reduced by selective cutting, but channel LWD was not immediately affected. LWD mapping, inventories, and tagging, channel cross-sections and photos, and pool mapping and volume measurements show differences in channel wood and LWD-channel interactions between the two watersheds. Windthrow from buffer strips increased the total channel LWD volume in the North Fork in the mid 1990's while reducing potential future LWD. These higher LWD loads increased pool volumes and enabled increased sediment storage, particularly upstream of logjams. In the South Fork, total LWD volumes are lower and a higher proportion of the wood is residual old growth pieces, some of which entered the channel during the 1970's logging

  14. Trends in Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Chocholová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to assess the state of the mobile marketing as of the first quarter of 2011 and to discuss various scenarios of the future development. This thesis defines the terms "mobile marketing" and "mobile advertising" and identifies the main players in the industry. It explores the main categories of mobile advertising such as mobile messaging, in-content and mobile internet advertising. Later, it analyzes the latest trends in the industry and describes in detail t...

  15. Right prefrontal laterality of Chinese boys during a Chinese high conflict Stroop task measured by multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Some studies have shown that native Chinese speakers have different laterality in matched Stroop tasks from native English speakers. Recently, many imaging data, which show left laterality of English-matched Stroop interference, have been reported. And a few functional imaging studies have been conducted to investigate the phenomenon of the Chinese version of Stroop task. In this study,functional activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex of a group of normal Chinese boys with functional near-infrared imaging during a Stroop color-word task was measured to show different Stroop interferences in the prefrontal cortex. The results show obvious fluctuation of the cerebral blood volume in the right prefrontal cortex in all boys, which agrees with the finding of previous studies, that is, Chinese native boys have right laterality in their brain when the Chinese version of Stroop color-word task is applied.

  16. Mobilities Mobilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pompeyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.John Urry (1946-, profesor en la Universidad de Lancaster, es un sociólogo de sobra conocido y altamente reputado en el panorama internacional de las ciencias sociales. Su dilatada carrera, aparentemente dispersa y diversificada, ha seguido senderos bastante bien definidos dejando tras de sí un catálogo extenso de obras sociológicas de primer nivel. Sus primeros trabajos se centraban en el campo de la teoría social y la filosofía de las ciencias sociales o de la sociología del poder [...

  17. Research of Nakagami fading channel model in mine mobile communica-tion%矿井移动通信中Nakagami衰落信道模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长森; 张艳芳

    2014-01-01

    According to the current development status of mine mobile communication, aiming at the variability of statistical characteristics of fast fading multipath signal amplitude in a mine wireless channel, this paper puts forward a Nakagami amplitude statistics fading channel simulation model based on the Matlab. And using this model, the transceiver at the same transmission distance in the straight empty roadway, simulated fading effect of Nakagami for 900 MHz, 1 800 MHz and 2.45 GHz bands of the electromagnetic wave, simulation model is verified by using QPSK signal which is inputted. The results demonstrate that the model has the advantages of simple process, strong operability and more precise description of mine mobile communication channel fading process, the model is of great reference value to improvement in the overall performance of the mine mobile communication.%根据目前矿井移动通信的发展状况,针对矿井无线信道快衰落多径信号幅度统计特性的可变性,提出了一种基于Matlab的Nakagami幅度统计衰落信道仿真模型。利用该模型,对空直巷道中收发信机在相同传输距离下,针对900 MHz、1800 MHz和2.45 GHz频段的电磁波对Nakagami衰落的影响进行了仿真,并将QPSK信号作为输入信号进一步的验证。结果表明,该模型具有创建过程简单,可操作性强,对矿井移动通信信道衰落过程描述较为精确等优点,这对矿井移动通信整体性能的提高具有较大的参考价值。

  18. Combined effects of grain size, flow volume and channel width on geophysical flow mobility: three-dimensional discrete element modeling of dry and dense flows of angular rock fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnoli, Bruno; Piersanti, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We have carried out new three-dimensional numerical simulations by using a discrete element method (DEM) to study the mobility of dry granular flows of angular rock fragments. These simulations are relevant for geophysical flows such as rock avalanches and pyroclastic flows. The model is validated by previous laboratory experiments. We confirm that (1) the finer the grain size, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows; (2) the smaller the flow volume, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows and (3) the wider the channel, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows. The grain size effect is due to the fact that finer grain size flows dissipate intrinsically less energy. This volume effect is the opposite of that experienced by the flow fronts. The original contribution of this paper consists of providing a comparison of the mobility of granular flows in six channels with a different cross section each. This results in a new scaling parameter χ that has the product of grain size and the cubic root of flow volume as the numerator and the product of channel width and flow length as the denominator. The linear correlation between the reciprocal of mobility and parameter χ is statistically highly significant. Parameter χ confirms that the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows is an increasing function of the ratio of the number of fragments per unit of flow mass to the total number of fragments in the flow. These are two characteristic numbers of particles whose effect on mobility is scale invariant.

  19. Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current and threshold voltage degradation for thin layer silicon-on-insulator field P-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xin; Qiao, Ming; He, Yitao; Li, Zhaoji; Zhang, Bo, E-mail: bozhang@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China)

    2015-11-16

    Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current (I{sub dlin}) and threshold voltage (V{sub th}) degradations for the thin layer SOI field p-channel lateral double-diffused MOS (pLDMOS) are investigated. Two competition degradation mechanisms are revealed and the hot-carrier conductance modulation model is proposed. In the channel, hot-hole injection induced positive oxide trapped charge and interface trap gives rise to the V{sub th} increasing and the channel conductance (G{sub ch}) decreasing, then reduces I{sub dlin}. In the p-drift region, hot-electron injection induced negative oxide trapped charge enhances the conductance of drift doping resistance (G{sub d}), and then increases I{sub dlin}. Consequently, the eventual I{sub dlin} degradation is controlled by the competition of the two mechanisms due to conductance modulation in the both regions. Based on the model, it is explained that the measured I{sub dlin} anomalously increases while the V{sub th} is increasing with power law. The thin layer field pLDMOS exhibits more severe V{sub th} instability compared with thick SOI layer structure; as a result, it should be seriously evaluated in actual application in switching circuit.

  20. Research channel estimation for IEEE 802.16d in mobile environment%移动环境中IEEE 802.16d系统的信道估计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何招旺; 陈辉; 易淼

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzed the channel estimation algortihms in the IEEE802.16d mobile system.In order to enhance the mobility of the system , porposed an linear model to approximate the time-varying characteristic of channel impulse response in the frequency domain during each frame.The simulation results show that the proposed methods can still provide accurate channel information even in large Doppler frequency shift as well as poor channel environment,it can be good support the access of mobile terminal in the system.%对在移动环境中的IEEE 802.16d系统中的信道估计进行了分析.为了增强系统对移动性的支持,提出了一种利用线性模型预测的方法来跟踪每帧中时变信道的频域信息.仿真结果表明,采用该方法可以在有较大多普勒频移以及恶劣的信道环境下仍能精确地得到信道信息,能很好地支持系统中移动终端的接入.

  1. 在卫星移动信道中不同条件下 Turbo码的纠错性能研究%Study on error-correction performance of Turbo codes in mobile satellite channel under different fading conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童新海; 甘仲民; 杨喜根

    2001-01-01

    研究了采用Turbo码技术的抗衰落性能,首先分析了Turbo码在卫星移动遮蔽Rician衰落信道下的误差纠错性能限,然后通过计算机仿真模拟了三种不同的卫星移动衰落信道下Turbo码的性能,研究了不同衰落信道特性对Turbo码性能的影响情况,同时还讨论了在衰落信道下Turbo码的子码约束长度和交织器长度两个主要参数对性能的影响情况。%In this paper, theoretical analysis of error rate performance about Turbocode on Mobile satellite shadowed Rician fading channel is presented. And comparison with the performance on AWGN is discussed. The simulation results by computer on three different mobile satellite fading channel is also presented. The influence on Turbocode performance of different fading channel characteristic is highlighted. In the meantime, the roles of two Turbocode main parametersconstitute code constraint length and the interleaver lengthon Mobile satellite shadowed fading channel is discussed.

  2. Two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate tunnel FETs with interface trapped charges including effects of channel mobile charge carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huifang; Dai, Yuehua

    2017-02-01

    A two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate (DG) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) with interface trapped charges is proposed in this paper. The influence of the channel mobile charges on the potential profile is also taken into account in order to improve the accuracy of the models. On the basis of potential profile, the electric field is derived and the expression for the drain current is obtained by integrating the BTBT generation rate. The model can be used to study the impact of interface trapped charges on the surface potential, the shortest tunneling length, the drain current and the threshold voltage for varying interface trapped charge densities, length of damaged region as well as the structural parameters of the DG TFET and can also be utilized to design the charge trapped memory devices based on TFET. The biggest advantage of this model is that it is more accurate, and in its expression there are no fitting parameters with small calculating amount. Very good agreements for both the potential, drain current and threshold voltage are observed between the model calculations and the simulated results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376106), the University Natural Science Research Key Project of Anhui Province (No. KJ2016A169), and the Introduced Talents Project of Anhui Science and Technology University.

  3. Lateral Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end with a brief illustration and discussion of how lateral conceptualization can re-orient STS modes of inquiry, and why this matters.

  4. WIDE BAND MOBILE CHANNEL CARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    EDUARDO JAVIER ARANCIBIA VASQUEZ

    2000-01-01

    Com o advento da tecnologia digital nas comunicações móveis, passa a ser de grande importância a caracterização em faixa larga do ambiente. O canal rádio móvel é descrito como um sistema linear variante no tempo e através de técnicas apropriadas determina-se a sua função de transferência. As duas técnicas de sondagem mais conhecidas são estudadas e implementadas para medir a resposta impulsiva em algumas regioões da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Esta cidade apresen...

  5. Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    being made on their analysis. A process we became very curious about was the separation of tendrils of warm salty water from the north wall figure 7...structure, and to remove the effect of internal waves by mapping this structure onto isopycnals. This has been very successful in elucidating lateral...we passed through the same water on multiple passes, and that changes in the horizontal structure of the water mas should be readily apparent from

  6. Flight dynamics model and system identification of longitudinal and lateral channels for a small-scale coaxial helicopter%小型共轴式直升机纵横向动力学建模与辨识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂资; 陈铭; 李仁府

    2012-01-01

    Using perturbation approach, a linearized flight dynamics model was formulated for the non-linear coaxial helicopter flight control problem. Based on mathematical parametric model of the rotorcraft, the system identification model was obtained by utilizing the input and output data of longitudinal and lateral channel in flight test. The analysis and validation of the above two models in the time domain was given by computer simulation. The stability derivatives, control derivatives and the system eigenvalues were computed for the stability analysis of the helicopter. Results show that the mathematical model can reflect the dynamic characteristics of the longitudinal and lateral channels, based on which the system identification model can be a mathematical model for autonomous flight control system design.%运用经典的叶素法和一阶谐波理论,建立了悬停状态下某小型共轴式直升机纵横向通道的理论计算模型;同时根据飞行试验中采集的直升机输入输出数据,以参数化理论模型为基础,运用系统辨识的方法得到了该机纵横向通道模型.通过计算机仿真,分别对理论计算模型和系统辨识模型进行了时域验证和分析,并比较了2种模型的稳定性导数、操纵导数及特征根,对该直升机的稳定性进行了分析.研究表明:所建立的小型共轴式直升机纵横向通道的理论计算模型能够反映该机悬停状态下纵横向通道的动态特性,以此为基础建立的系统辨识模型可以作为飞行控制系统纵横向通道控制的数学模型.

  7. Signal processing for mobile communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ibnkahla, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONSignal Processing for Future Mobile Communications Systems: Challenges and Perspectives; Quazi Mehbubar Rahman and Mohamed IbnkahlaCHANNEL MODELING AND ESTIMATIONMultipath Propagation Models for Broadband Wireless Systems; Andreas F. Molisch and Fredrik TufvessonModeling and Estimation of Mobile Channels; Jitendra K. TugnaitMobile Satellite Channels: Statistical Models and Performance Analysis; Giovanni E. Corazza, Alessandro Vanelli-Coralli, Raffaella Pedone, and Massimo NeriMobile Velocity Estimation for Wireless Communications; Bouchra Senadji, Ghazem Azemi, and Boualem Boashash

  8. Treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Greg W; Cadwallader, Kara; Scheffel, Scot B; Epperly, Ted D

    2007-09-15

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common overuse syndrome of the extensor tendons of the forearm. It is sometimes called tennis elbow, although it can occur with many activities. The condition affects men and women equally and is more common in persons 40 years or older. Despite the prevalence of lateral epicondylitis and the numerous treatment strategies available, relatively few high-quality clinical trials support many of these treatment options; watchful waiting is a reasonable option. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, ultrasonography, and iontophoresis with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs appear to provide short-term benefits. Use of an inelastic, nonarticular, proximal forearm strap (tennis elbow brace) may improve function during daily activities. Progressive resistance exercises may confer modest intermediate-term results. Evidence is mixed on oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, mobilization, and acupuncture. Patients with refractory symptoms may benefit from surgical intervention. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy, laser treatment, and electromagnetic field therapy do not appear to be effective.

  9. Seasonal variability of the phytoplankton community of a lateral channel (Cortado of the Upper Paraná River Dinâmica sazonal da comunidade fitoplanctônica de um canal lateral (Canal Cortado do Alto Rio Paraná (PR, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Divina de Oliveira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the phytoplanktonic community was studied in one lateral channel of the Upper Paraná River. The extensive samplings (monthly were taken in three stations in the Cortado Channel (22º47‘30”S, 53º24‘37”W from March of 1993 to February of 1994. Temporal changes in taxonomic composition, density, biomass, diversity and dominance were analyzed in relation to regional climate and hydrology, and to the physical and chemical factors of the water column. The phytoplanktonic community was composed of 95 taxa. The classes Cyanophyceae (Anabaena circinalis and Bacillariophyceae (Aulacoseira granulata were the most abundant, being responsible for the biomass peaks that occurred. The temporal variation in density and biomass did not show a clear seasonality, however, the highest biomass occurred in the late low waters (limnophase, with dominance of microplankton. Nanoplanktonic species, C-strategists common in Paraná River, mainly Cryptomonas brasiliensis, were abundant throughout the study periodFoi estudada a variabilidade sazonal da comunidade fitoplanctônica de um canal lateral do Alto Rio Paraná. As amostragens extensivas (mensais foram efetuadas em três estações no canal Cortado (22º47‘30”S, 53º24‘37”W no período de março de 1993 a fevereiro de 1994. As flutuações temporais na composição taxonômica, densidade, biomassa, diversidade e dominância foram analisadas em relação aos fatores climáticos e hidrológicos regionais e aos fatores físicos e químicos da água. A comunidade fitoplanctônica esteve representada por 95 táxons. As classes Cyanophyceae (Anabaena circinalis e Bacillariophyceae (Aulacoseira granulata foram as mais abundantes, sendo responsáveis pelos picos de biomassa registrados. As variações temporais na densidade, diversidade e biomassa não apresentaram conspícua sazonalidade. A máxima biomassa, entretanto, ocorreu ao término do período de águas baixas (limnofase

  10. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived...... as people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility...... asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites...

  11. Fade-Free Mobile Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for mobile communication reduces multipath fading and interference between adjacent channels. Proposed communication system lends itself to almost completely digital implementation, eliminating costly and bulky crystal filters. Scheme suitable for satellite-aided or terrestrial mobile communication, including cellular mobile telephony, at frequencies in 150-to-900-MHz range.

  12. ``Just Another Distribution Channel?''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Wolter; de Leeuw, Gerd-Jan; van de Kar, Els; Brand, Paul

    The telecommunications-centric business model of mobile operators is under attack due to technological convergence in the communication and content industries. This has resulted in a plethora of academic contributions on the design of new business models and service platform architectures. However, a discussion of the challenges that operators are facing in adopting these models is lacking. We assess these challenges by considering the mobile network as part of the value system of the content industry. We will argue that from the perspective of a content provider the mobile network is ‘just another’ distribution channel. Strategic options available for the mobile communication operators are to deliver an excellent distribution channel for content delivery or to move upwards in the value chain by becoming a content aggregator. To become a mobile content aggregator operators will have to develop or acquire complementary resources and capabilities. Whether this strategic option is sustainable remains open.

  13. Mobile marketing for mobile games

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Giang

    2016-01-01

    Highly developed mobile technology and devices enable the rise of mobile game industry and mobile marketing. Hence mobile marketing for mobile game is an essential key for a mobile game success. Even though there are many articles on marketing for mobile games, there is a need of highly understanding mobile marketing strategies, how to launch a mobile campaign for a mobile game. Besides that, it is essential to understand the relationship between mobile advertising and users behaviours. There...

  14. A preliminary study of mobilization with movement in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis%动态关节松动术治疗肱骨外上髁炎的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾; 张顺喜; 王新亮; 鞠洪斌; 邓卫兵; 刘月萍; 王东山; 华学锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the short-tenn effect of mobilization with movement (MWM) on patients with lateral epicondylitis. Method: Twenty-seven subjects with lateral epicondylitis were enrolled and divided into MWM group (15 cases) and control group (12 cases). The MWM group were treated with single MWM, while the control group were treated with ultrashort wave ( USW) and single ultrasonic wave management Pain-free grip strength (PFG) and maximum grip strength ( MGS) were measured before and after a single intervention. The visual analogue scales ( VAS) of suffering limbs before and after treatments were also recorded. Result: In the MWM group, the PFG affected /MGS unaffected after MWM was much higher than before MWM (0. 80 ±0. 18 vs. 0. 55 ±0. 20, P <0. 05) , and also much higher than the traditional physiotherapy treatment group (0. 80 ± 0. 18 vs. 0. 58 ±0. 18, P <0. 05 ). The VAS of MWM group was much lower than of the traditional physiotherapy treatment group (3.25 ±1.09 vs. 4.29 ±0.61, P<0.05). Conclusion: MWM is effective in reducing pain, increasing active range of motion and promoting strength for patients with lateral epicondylalgia.%目的:初步探讨动态关节松动术( MWM)治疗肱骨外上髁炎的短期疗效.方法:将27例肱骨外上髁炎患者随机分为MWM组(15例)和对照组(12例).MWM组予单次MWM治疗,对照组予传统物理治疗——单次超短波和超声波治疗.检测两组治疗前后的患侧无痛握力及健、患侧最大握力,取其比值(无痛握力患侧/最大握力健补、最大握力患侧/最大握力健侧)作为参数进行比较.并比较两组治疗前后患肢的视觉模拟评分(VAS).结果:MWM组患者治疗后的无痛握力患侧/最大握力健侧较治疗前显著提高(0.80±0.18对比0.55±0.20,P<0.05),也明显高于治疗后的对照组(0.80 +0.18对比0.58±0.18,P<0.05).MWM组治疗后VAS明显低于对照组(3.25±1.09对比4.29±0.61,P<0.05).结论:MWM可快速缓解肱骨外

  15. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  16. High-mobility n-type conjugated polymers based on electron-deficient tetraazabenzodifluoranthene diimide for organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Kim, Felix Sunjoo; Ren, Guoqiang; Jenekhe, Samson A

    2013-10-09

    High-mobility p-type and ambipolar conjugated polymers have been widely reported. However, high-mobility n-type conjugated polymers are still rare. Herein we present poly(tetraazabenzodifluoranthene diimide)s, PBFI-T and PBFI-BT, which exhibit a novel two-dimensional (2D) π-conjugation along the main chain and in the lateral direction, leading to high-mobility unipolar n-channel transport in field-effect transistors. The n-type polymers exhibit electron mobilities of up to 0.30 cm(2)/(V s), which is among the highest values for unipolar n-type conjugated polymers. Complementary inverters incorporating n-channel PBFI-T transistors produced nearly perfect switching characteristics with a high gain of 107.

  17. Probing channel temperature profiles in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistors on 200 mm diameter Si(111) by optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyaw, L. M., E-mail: a0048661@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology, and Research), Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Bera, L. K.; Dolmanan, S. B.; Tan, H. R.; Bhat, T. N.; Tripathy, S., E-mail: tripathy-sudhiranjan@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology, and Research), Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Liu, Y.; Bera, M. K.; Singh, S. P.; Chor, E. F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-08-18

    Using micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) techniques, the channel temperature profile is probed in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) fabricated on a 200 mm diameter Si(111) substrate. In particular, RuO{sub x}-based gate is used due to the semitransparent nature to the optical excitation wavelengths, thus allowing much accurate thermal investigations underneath the gate. To determine the channel temperature profile in devices subjected to different electrical bias voltages, the GaN band-edge PL peak shift calibration with respect to temperature is used. PL analyses show a maximum channel temperature up to 435 K underneath the gate edge between gate and drain, where the estimated thermal resistance in such a HEMT structure is about 13.7 KmmW{sup −1} at a power dissipation of ∼10 W/mm. The temperature profiles from micro-Raman measurements are also addressed from the E{sub 2}-high optical phonon peak shift of GaN, and this method also probes the temperature-induced peak shifts of optical phonon from Si thus showing the nature of thermal characteristics at the AlN/Si substrate interface.

  18. 集中式信道分配算法在WSN移动节点中的应用研究%Study on Centralized Channel Assignment Algorithm for Mobile Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 陈祥光; 刘春涛; 余向明; 岳彬

    2011-01-01

    为提高油料保障系统中信息采集的实时性和能量的高效性,使网关及时检测到移动设备的状态,降低无线网络间的干扰,提高网络的容量.以军用机场加油车为研究对象,提出了适用于快速移动节点的集中式信道分配算法和功率分级的能量控制方法.在无线网络节点上安装两个工作在不同频道上的网络接口,通过控制协商动态的切换数据信道,平衡网络负载,以增加总的带宽.实验结果表明,采用3条数据信道便可实现信道的集中式分配和发送功率的分级控制,有效地扩展了网络的容量和提高能量的高效性.%By investigating the working process of tanker trucks in a military airport, this paper proposes a centralized channel assignment algorithm and a power rating control method for fast-moving nodes to improve the real-time property and energy efficiency of the information collection, detect the state of mobile devices promptly, reduce interference between wireless networks and to increase network capacity in oil security systems. Considering the fact that IEEE 802. 11 wireless LAN standard defines a number of non-overlapping channels which could be used at the same time, two wireless network interfaces operating on different channels could be installed to every node. Through the negotiation on the control channel and switching the data channel dynamically, the balance of network loads could be fulfilled so as to increase the total bandwidth. Simulation and application results demonstrate that, only three data channels is needed to realize the centralized channel assignment and the power rating control, and the network capacity and energy efficiency could be improved effectively.

  19. Smart Mobility – Encouraging sustainable mobility behaviour by designing and implementing policies with citizen involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Maier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the theoretical concepts, design considerations and preliminary findings from Smart Mobility, a research project currently being undertaken with the City of St. Gallen. The project aims at designing measures to encourage the increased use of public and non-motorised transport by integrating behavioural economic principles into public policy. The extensive involvement of citizens and their participation in the design of the measures are to support their democratic legitimization and later acceptance. The paper describes the energy policies behind the project and outlines the theoretical framework for integrating behavioural insights into public policy. The strategies envisaged include participatory instruments and methods, especially the use of existing social media channels, capitalizing on social processes and norms to increase the motivation of individuals to use public transport, creating an open innovation space by means of crowdsourcing as well as the proper framing of political communication to achieve changes in mobility patterns.

  20. The role of proton mobility in determining the energy-resolved vibrational activation/dissociation channels of N-glycopeptide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Venkata; Roth, Heidi A; De La Cruz, Gabriela; Fernando, Ganga S; Dodds, Eric D

    2015-10-01

    Site-specific glycoproteomic analysis largely hinges on the use of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to identify glycopeptides. Experiments of this type are usually aimed at drawing connections between individual oligosaccharide structures and their specific sites of attachment to the polypeptide chain. These determinations inherently require ion dissociation methods capable of interrogating both the monosaccharide and amino acid connectivity of the glycopeptide. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) shows potential to satisfy this requirement, as the vibrational activation/dissociation of protonated N-glycopeptides has been observed to access cleavage of either glycosidic bonds of the glycan or amide bonds of the peptide in an energy-resolved manner. Nevertheless, the relative energy requirement for these fragmentation pathways varies considerably among analytes. This research addresses the influence of proton mobility on the vibrational energy necessary to achieve either glycan or peptide cleavage in a collection of protonated N-glycopeptide ions. While greater proton mobility of the precursor ion was found to correlate with lower energy requirements for precursor ion depletion and appearance of glycosidic fragments, the vibrational energy deposition necessary for appearance of peptide backbone fragments showed no relation to the precursor ion proton mobility. These results are consistent with observations suggesting that peptide fragments arise from an intermediate fragment which is generally of lower proton mobility than the precursor ion. Such findings have potential to facilitate the rational selection of CID conditions which are best suited to provide either glycan or peptide cleavage products in MS/MS based N-glycoproteomic analysis.

  1. High-mobility, air stable bottom-contact n-channel thin film transistors based on N,N′-ditridecyl perylene diimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lanchao [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Guo, Yunlong; Wen, Yugeng; Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: xwzhan@iccas.ac.cn, E-mail: liuyq@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhan, Xiaowei, E-mail: xwzhan@iccas.ac.cn, E-mail: liuyq@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-11-11

    Bottom-gate bottom-contact (BGBC) organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) based on N,N′-ditridecyl perylene diimide exhibit electron mobility as high as 3.54 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} in nitrogen, higher than that (1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) of bottom-gate top-contact devices. The better performance of BGBC configuration in N{sub 2} is attributed to lower contact resistance, which is further reduced by thermal annealing. After thermally annealing the BGBC OTFTs at 180 °C, electron mobility as high as 3.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, current on/off ratio of 10{sup 6} and threshold voltage of 9 V are achieved in air, and the mobility retains above 1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} after storage for two months in air. Thermal treatment enhanced crystalline grains, reduced grain boundaries, and suppressed the adsorption of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}, leading to excellent performance in air.

  2. Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiğ, Bilal; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    TRPV1 is a Ca2+ permeable channel and gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). Some reports have indicated that non-ionized electromagnetic radiation (EMR)-induces heat and oxidative stress effects. We aimed to investigate the effects of distance from sources on calcium signaling, cytosolic ROS production, cell viability, apoptosis, plus caspase-3 and -9 values induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines were divided into A, B, C and D groups as control, 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz groups, respectively. Cells in Group A were used as control and were kept in cell culture conditions without EMR exposure. Groups B, C and D were exposed to the EMR frequencies at different distances (0 cm, 1 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm) for 1h before CAP stimulation. The cytosolic ROS production, Ca2+ concentrations, apoptosis, caspase-3 and caspase-9 values were higher in groups B, C and D than in A group at 0 cm, 1 cm and 5 cm distances although cell viability (MTT) values were increased by the distances. There was no statistically significant difference in the values between control, 20 and 25 cm. Wi-Fi and mobile phone EMR placed within 10 cm of the cells induced excessive oxidative responses and apoptosis via TRPV1-induced cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in the cancer cells. Using cell phones and Wi-Fi sources which are farther away than 10 cm may provide useful protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis and overload of intracellular Ca2+. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  3. Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-κ dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11 000 cm2/V·s

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Casey

    2013-07-23

    Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-κ gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 μm stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11 000 cm 2/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low t ox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-κ dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. 如何利用移动互联网渠道销售电信运营商产品%How to Sale Telecom Operator’s Product by Mobile Internet Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伊婷

    2015-01-01

    通过分析移动互联网销售渠道介入电信运营商产品销售过程中存在的问题,提出了一种总部——省分二级架构的产品销售系统解决方案,以及一套提升产品订购成功率的措施及建议。通过具体的运营实践,已引入腾讯、百度、小米、猎豹浏览器等大中小渠道合作伙伴,涉及流量监控APP、银行、充值、团购等多个移动互联网领域,覆盖用户超4亿,产品订购成功率从30%提升至85%。%It analyzes the problems on using mobile Internet channel to sale telecom operators’products,provides sales system resolu-tion with headquarter-province branch architecture,and the measurements and suggestions on improving purchasing success rate. In the operating practice,it introduces channel operation partners such as Tencent,Baidu,MI and Cheetah browser,in-volves mobile Internet fields such as flow monitoring APP,bank,charging,group buying,covers more than 400 mil ion users. The purchasing success rate is improved from 30%to 85%.

  5. Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-κ dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11,000 cm(2)/V·s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Casey; Qaisi, Ramy; Liu, Zhihong; Yu, Qingkai; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-07-23

    Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-κ gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 μm stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11,000 cm(2)/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low tox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-κ dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance.

  6. Modeling C-Band Co-Channel Interference From AeroMACS Omni-Directional Antennas to Mobile Satellite Service Feeder Uplinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    A new C-band (5091 to 5150 MHz) airport communications system designated as Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being planned under the Federal Aviation Administration s NextGen program. An interference analysis software program, Visualyse Professional (Transfinite Systems Ltd), is being utilized to provide guidelines on limitations for AeroMACS transmitters to avoid interference with other systems. A scenario consisting of a single omni-directional transmitting antenna at each of the major contiguous United States airports is modeled and the steps required to build the model are reported. The results are shown to agree very well with a previous study.

  7. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...... communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across...

  8. Low Threshold Voltage and High Mobility N-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Using Hf-Si/HfO2 Gate Stack Fabricated by Gate-Last Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takashi; Hirano, Tomoyuki; Tai, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Shinpei; Yoshida, Shinichi; Iwamoto, Hayato; Kadomura, Shingo; Watanabe, Heiji

    2010-01-01

    Systematic characterization of Hf-Si/HfO2 gate stacks revealed two mobility degradation modes. One is carrier scattering by fixed charges and/or trapped charges induced by the crystallization in the thick HfO2 case (inversion oxide thickness, Tinv> 1.6 nm). The other is the Hf penetration into the interfacial layer with the Si substrate in the thin HfO2 case (Tinv< 1.6 nm) for the Hf-rich electrode. It was demonstrated that careful optimization of the HfO2 thickness and the Hf-Si composition can suppress both modes. As a result, a high electron mobility equivalent to that of n+polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si)/SiO2 (248 cm2 V-1 s-1 at Eeff=1 MV/cm) was obtained at Tinv of 1.47 nm. Moreover, the effective work function of the optimized Hf-Si/HfO2 gate stack is located within 50 mV from the Si band edge (Ec). An extremely high Ion of 1165 µA/µm (at Ioff = 81 nA/µm) at Vdd=1.0 V was demonstrated for a 45 nm gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (n-MOSFET) without strain enhanced technology.

  9. Hypericum perforatum modulates apoptosis and calcium mobilization through voltage-gated and TRPM2 calcium channels in neutrophil of patients with Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Sahin, Mehmet; Ciğ, Bilal; Aykur, Mehmet; Erturan, Ijlal; Ugan, Yunus

    2014-03-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic, inflammatory, and multisystemic condition although its pathogenesis is uncertain. Main component of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum, HP) is hyperforin and induces antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We aimed to investigate effects of HP on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cytosolic-free Ca²⁺ [Ca²⁺](i) concentration in neutrophil of BD patients. Nine new-diagnosed active patients with BD and nine control subjects were included in the study. Disease activity was considered by clinical findings. Neutrophil samples were obtained from the patients and controls. The neutrophils from patients were divided into three subgroups and were incubated with HP, voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blockers, (verapamil+dilitiazem) and non-specific TRPM2 channel blocker (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate, 2-APB), respectively. The neutrophils were stimulated by fMLP as a Ca²⁺-concentration agonist and oxidative stress former. Caspase-3, caspase-9, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and [Ca²⁺](i) values were high in the patient groups, although cell viability, glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) values were low in patient group. However, the [Ca²⁺](i), caspase-3, and caspase-9 values decreased markedly in patient+HP group although GSH and GSH-Px values increased in the group. The [Ca²⁺](i) concentration was also decreased in the patient group by V+D, 2-APB, and HP incubations. In conclusion, we observed the importance of neutrophil Ca²⁺ entry, apoptosis, and oxidative stress through gating VGCC and TRPM2 channels in the neutrophils in the pathogenesis and activation of the patients with BD. HP induced protective effects on oxidative stress by modulating Ca²⁺ influx in BD patients.

  10. Mobility in geometrically confined membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanov, Yegor A; Aimon, Sophie; Toombes, Gilman E S; Renner, Marianne; Quemeneur, François; Triller, Antoine; Turner, Matthew S; Bassereau, Patricia

    2011-08-02

    Lipid and protein lateral mobility is essential for biological function. Our theoretical understanding of this mobility can be traced to the seminal work of Saffman and Delbrück, who predicted a logarithmic dependence of the protein diffusion coefficient (i) on the inverse of the size of the protein and (ii) on the "membrane size" for membranes of finite size [Saffman P, Delbrück M (1975) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:3111-3113]. Although the experimental proof of the first prediction is a matter of debate, the second has not previously been thought to be experimentally accessible. Here, we construct just such a geometrically confined membrane by forming lipid bilayer nanotubes of controlled radii connected to giant liposomes. We followed the diffusion of individual molecules in the tubular membrane using single particle tracking of quantum dots coupled to lipids or voltage-gated potassium channels KvAP, while changing the membrane tube radius from approximately 250 to 10 nm. We found that both lipid and protein diffusion was slower in tubular membranes with smaller radii. The protein diffusion coefficient decreased as much as 5-fold compared to diffusion on the effectively flat membrane of the giant liposomes. Both lipid and protein diffusion data are consistent with the predictions of a hydrodynamic theory that extends the work of Saffman and Delbrück to cylindrical geometries. This study therefore provides strong experimental support for the ubiquitous Saffman-Delbrück theory and elucidates the role of membrane geometry and size in regulating lateral diffusion.

  11. Channel temperature determination of a multifinger AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor using a micro-Raman technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Li-Yuan; Xue Xiao-Yong; Zhang Kai; Zheng Xue-Feng; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue

    2012-01-01

    Self-heating in a multifinger AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy.The device temperature is probed on the die as a function of applied bias.The operating temperature of the AIGaN/GaN HEMT is estimated from the calibration curve of a passively heated AIGaN/GaN structure.A linear increase of junction temperature is observed when direct current dissipated power is increased.When the power dissipation is 12.75 W at a drain voltage of 15 V,a peak temperature of 69.1 ℃ is observed at the gate edge on the drain side of the central finger.The position of the highest temperature corresponds to the high-field region at the gate edge.

  12. Characterization and Modeling of 4H-SiC Lateral MOSFETs for Integrated Circuit Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudholkar, M; Mantooth, HA

    2013-06-01

    A new process in 4H-SiC is developed that features n-type buried and inversion channel lateral MOSFETs that are fabricated with several different channel lengths (2-8 mu m) and widths (8-32 mu m) and characterized over a wide temperature range (25 degrees C-225 degrees C). It is shown that the on-resistance of enhancement-mode SiC MOSFETs reduces with temperature despite a reduction in inversion mobility because of the interaction of interface states with temperature. To enable integrated circuit development using the developed MOSFETs, their electrical characteristics are modeled over geometry and temperature using the industry standard PSP MOSFET model. A new mathematical formulation to describe the presence of the interface states is also developed and implemented in the PSP model, and excellent agreement is shown between measurement and simulation using the modified PSP model.

  13. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  14. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  15. Spin relaxation through lateral spin transport in heavily doped n -type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M.; Oka, T.; Fujita, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Saito, Y.; Hamaya, K.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally study temperature-dependent spin relaxation including lateral spin diffusion in heavily doped n -type silicon (n+-Si ) layers by measuring nonlocal magnetoresistance in small-sized CoFe/MgO/Si lateral spin-valve (LSV) devices. Even at room temperature, we observe large spin signals, 50-fold the magnitude of those in previous works on n+-Si . By measuring spin signals in LSVs with various center-to-center distances between contacts, we reliably evaluate the temperature-dependent spin diffusion length (λSi) and spin lifetime (τSi). We find that the temperature dependence of τSi is affected by that of the diffusion constant in the n+-Si layers, meaning that it is important to understand the temperature dependence of the channel mobility. A possible origin of the temperature dependence of τSi is discussed in terms of the recent theories by Dery and co-workers.

  16. Prefabrication Design Technology for Partition Wall of Lateral Smoke Extraction Channel in Double-Decked Shield Tunnel%双层盾构隧道侧向排烟通道隔墙预制化设计技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 赵爽; 李勇; 赵光; 张忠宇; 马明

    2013-01-01

    The Nanjing Wei San River-crossing channel engineering is the longest double-decked shield tunnel. To meet the ventilation requirement, the smoke extraction channel is designed. Cast-in-place formwork method is used while designing the partition wall of the the smoke extraction channel. To increase the construction speed, prefabrication design technology for the partition wall of smoke extraction channel is studied. Design of a prefabrication partition wall, which is constructed by prefabricated concrete panel and supported by steel keel, is used for the smoke extraction channel. Details of the precast partition wall slab and the steel keel support structure are designed. In this paper, the structure of the prefabrication partition wall is analyzed. The deformation, the bearing capacity and the durability of the prefabrication partition wall meet the requirement of normal usage. Compared with the cast-in-place formwork method, the prefabrication partition wall design method has more flexibility of construction, and can effectively increase the construction speed, which brings more technical and economic advantages.%南京市纬三路过江通道是目前国内最长的双管双层盾构隧道,为满足通风及防灾要求,隧道内部设有排烟通道.排烟通道设计时采用了传统现浇混凝土隔墙,现场工作量大,作业人员多,其施工进度是隧道总工期的控制性因素之一.为加快施工速度,本文针对排烟通道隔墙进行了预制化设计研究,提出了采用有钢结构支撑的预制配筋混凝土墙板作为隔墙结构的设计方法,并设计了预制隔墙板和钢龙骨支撑结构.经分析,排烟通道隔墙采用预制化设计技术,满足使用功能、承载力和耐久性要求,可以有效提高施工灵活性,加快施工速度,与现浇混凝土结构相比有较大的技术经济优势.

  17. Mobility management in mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medidi, Sirisha; Golshani, Forouzan

    2002-07-01

    There is an emerging interest in integrating mobile wireless communication with the Internet based on the Ipv6 technology. Many issues introduced by the mobility of users arise when such an integration is attempted. This paper addresses the problem of mobility management, i.e., that of tracking the current IP addresses of mobile terminals and sustaining active IP connections as mobiles move. The paper presents some architectural and mobility management options for integrating wireless access to the Internet. We then present performance results for Mobile IPv4, route optimization and Mobile IPv6.

  18. The Deployment of the Future Mobile Network

    OpenAIRE

    Eba’ Hamad AlMousa; Feda’ AlShahwan; Rana Alhajri

    2016-01-01

    With the explosion of mobile services and the continuouse increase demand for a higher data traffic, a new high speed communication networks are required. Mobile networks are developing to increase the data speed and channels bandwidth inorder to meet the subscriber needs. Many attempts have been carried out to achieve the main demands of faster connectivity and download. 5G technolgy which refers to the 5th Generation Mobile Tecnology is the new mobile network that will provide the users wit...

  19. Territory, Rights and Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    looks at two different notions of territory – a statist one and a networked one – that are visible in the official discourses, yet it highlights the fact that the technologies that are supposed to produce each type of territoriality often converge. Thus I read the politics of Eurostar and the Channel...... attention to the excessive forms of mobility that challenge and break with the official formulation of free movement rights. Thus we turn to the intricate relationship between mobility and citizenship in Europe following our dialogical approach: focusing on the rationalities implied in the government...

  20. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can cause ...

  1. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mistaken for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spastic paraplegia. Most neurologists follow an affected individual's clinical course ... mistaken for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spastic paraplegia. Most neurologists follow an affected individual's clinical course ...

  2. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    that of ‘mobilities design’. The book revolves around the following research question: How are design decisions and interventions staging mobilities? It builds upon the Staging Mobilities model (Jensen 2013) in an explorative inquiry into the problems and potentials of the design of mobilities. The exchange value...... between mobilities and design research is twofold. To mobilities research this means getting closer to the ‘material’, and to engage in the creative, explorative and experimental approaches of the design world which offer new potentials for innovative research. Design research, on the other hand, might...... enter into a fruitful relationship with mobilities research, offering a relational and mobile design thinking and a valuable base for a reflective design practice around the ubiquitous structures, spaces and systems of mobilities....

  3. Analysis of Handoff Mechanisms in Mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Maria Nadine Simonel; Issac, Biju; Haldar, Manas Kumar

    2011-06-01

    One of the most important challenges in mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is to provide service for a mobile node to maintain its connectivity to network when it moves from one domain to another. IP is responsible for routing packets across network. The first major version of IP is the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). It is one of the dominant protocols relevant to wireless network. Later a newer version of IP called the IPv6 was proposed. Mobile IPv6 is mainly introduced for the purpose of mobility. Mobility management enables network to locate roaming nodes in order to deliver packets and maintain connections with them when moving into new domains. Handoff occurs when a mobile node moves from one network to another. It is a key factor of mobility because a mobile node can trigger several handoffs during a session. This paper briefly explains on mobile IP and its handoff issues, along with the drawbacks of mobile IP.

  4. Mobile payment

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Paying with mobile devices such as mobile phones or smart phones will expand worldwide in the coming years. This development provides opportunities for various industries (banking, telecommunications, credit card business, manufacturers, suppliers, retail) and for consumers.

  5. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have completely transformed the way we live, work, learn and conduct our everyday activities. Mobile phones have also changed the way users access lexicographic data. In fact, it can be argued that mobile phones and lexicography are not yet compatible. Modern users...... are already mobile – but lexicography is not yet fully ready for the mobile challenge, mobile users and mobile user situations. The article is based on empirical data from two surveys comprising 10 medical doctors, who were asked to look up five medical substances with the medical dictionary app Medicin...... and that lexicographic innovation is needed. A new type of users, new user situations and new access methods call for new lexicographic solutions, and this article proposes a six-pointed hexagram model, which can be used during dictionary app design to lexicographically calibrate the six dimensions in mobile...

  6. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments...... are increasingly becoming ‘second nature’ but also expressions of power, exclusion, and difference. In this talk I will be applying a perspective of ‘mobile situationism’ illustrating how mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from above’ in planning and policy frameworks, design codes and architectural...... designs, but also how the situated and embodied mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from below’ in concrete acts of choice concerning modes of mobilities, ways of moving and interacting. The ‘staging mobilites’ framework opens up to an understanding of the meaning of ‘mobilities design...

  7. Lateral Beacons - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  8. Wireless Fading Channel Models: From Classical to Stochastic Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Charalambous, Prof. Charalambos [University of Cyprus

    2010-01-01

    later expanded to three-dimensions (3D) by Aulin. An indoor STF was introduced. Most of these STF models provide information on the frequency response of the channel, described by the Doppler power spectral density (DPSD). Aulin presented a methodology to find the Doppler power spectrum by computing the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function of the channel impulse response with respect to time. A different approach, leading to the same Doppler power spectrum relation was presented by Gans. These STF models suggest various distributions for the received signal amplitude such as Rayleigh, Rician, or Nakagami. Models based on autoregressive and moving averages (AR) are proposed. However, these models assume that the channel state is completely observable, which in reality is not the case due to additive noise, and requires long observation intervals. First order Markov models for Raleigh fading have been proposed, and the usefulness of a finite-state Markov channel model is argued. Mobile-to-mobile (or ad hoc) wireless networks comprise nodes that freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and/or temporary network topology without any fixed infrastructure support. They require direct communication between a mobile transmitter and a mobile receiver over a wireless medium. Such mobile-to-mobile communication systems differ from the conventional cellular systems, where one terminal, the base station, is stationary, and only the mobile station is moving. As a consequence, the statistical properties of mobile-to-mobile links are different from cellular ones. Copious ad hoc networking research exists on layers in the open system interconnection (OSI) model above the physical layer. However, neglecting the physical layer while modeling wireless environment is error prone and should be considered more carefully. The experimental results show that the factors at the physical layer not only affect the absolute performance of a protocol, but because their impact

  9. Design Of An Omnidirectional Mobile Robot For Rough Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    rough terrain, isotropy, mobile robots , design I. INTRODUCTION Mobile robots are finding increasing use in military [1], disaster recovery [2], and...exploration applications [3]. These applications frequently require operation in rough, unstructured terrain. Currently, most mobile robots designed...perform some maneuvers, such as lateral displacement. Omnidirectional mobile robots could potentially navigate faster and more robustly through

  10. Mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, W.J.; Marquina, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a conference on mobile robots. Topics the conference included are the following: mobility systems for robotic vehicles; detection and control of mobile robot motion by real-time computer vision, obstacle avoidance algorithms for an autonomous land vehicle; hierarchical processor and matched filters for range image processing; asynchronous distributed control system for a mobile robot, and, planning in a hierarchical nested autonomous control system.

  11. Mobile Phone Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  12. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Users are already mobile, but the question is to which extent knowledge-based dictionary apps are designed for the mobile user situation. The objective of this article is to analyse the characteristics of the mobile user situation and to look further into the stationary user situation and the mob...

  13. Introduction to digital mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Akaiwa, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduces digital mobile communications with an emphasis on digital transmission methods This book presents mathematical analyses of signals, mobile radio channels, and digital modulation methods. The new edition covers the evolution of wireless communications technologies and systems. The major new topics are OFDM (orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing), MIMO (multi-input multi-output) systems, frequency-domain equalization, the turbo codes, LDPC (low density parity check code), ACELP (algebraic code excited linear predictive) voice coding, dynamic scheduling for wireless packet data t

  14. Elastic Calculator : A Mobile Application for windows mobile using Mobile Cloud Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Lakshmi Narayanan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is highly significant in this era as it always shows a way to increase the capacity or to add an additional features on the go and also it is worthy to extend these services to mobiledevices. It is proposed to design and implement Elastic Calculator for mobile cloud services with virtual machines. The system comprises of a flexible application that was developed partly on own machine andpartly on the cloud. Application is developed in two parts, with the front end and user interface at the mobile device and all the execution part is moved to the server running on the cloud. At runtime, the process execution is suspended at the mobile device and migrated from mobile device at a particular point to the cloud to perform all the computation and is later re-integrated back to the mobile device. This technique helps applications in achieving high processing efficiency with reduced energy on the mobile devices.

  15. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided......In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  16. Ion Channels in Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravir; Kumar, Dhiraj; Jha, Saurabh Kumar; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Ambasta, Rashmi K

    2016-01-01

    The convergent endeavors of the neuroscientist to establish a link between clinical neurology, genetics, loss of function of an important protein, and channelopathies behind neurological disorders are quite intriguing. Growing evidence reveals the impact of ion channels dysfunctioning in neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). Many neurological/neuromuscular disorders, viz, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and age-related disorders are caused due to altered function or mutation in ion channels. To maintain cell homeostasis, ion channels are playing a crucial role which is a large transmembrane protein. Further, these channels are important as it determines the membrane potential and playing critically in the secretion of neurotransmitter. Behind NDDs, losses of pathological proteins and defective ion channels have been reported and are found to aggravate the disease symptoms. Moreover, ion channel dysfunctions are eliciting a range of symptoms, including memory loss, movement disabilities, neuromuscular sprains, and strokes. Since the possible mechanistic role played by aberrant ion channels, their receptor and associated factors in neurodegeneration remained elusive; therefore, it is a challenging task for the neuroscientist to implement the therapeutics for targeting NDDs. This chapter reviews the potential role of the ion channels in membrane physiology and brain homeostasis, where ion channels and their associated factors have been characterized with their functional consequences in neurological diseases. Moreover, mechanistic role of perturbed ion channels has been identified in various NDDs, and finally, ion channel modulators have been investigated for their therapeutic intervention in treating common NDDs.

  17. Residential mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Tim; Manley, David; Sabel, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Research into health disparities has long recognised the importance of residential mobility as a crucial factor in determining health outcomes. However, a lack of connectivity between the health and mobility literatures has led to a stagnation of theory and application on the health side, which...... lacks the detail and temporal perspectives now seen as critical to understanding residential mobility decisions. Through a critical re-think of mobility processes with respect to health outcomes and an exploitation of longitudinal analytical techniques we argue that health geographers have the potential...... to better understand and identify the relationship that residential mobility has with health....

  18. Mobile Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter aims to understand the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The chapter explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. What takes place...... is a ‘mobile sense making’ where signs and materially situated meanings connect to the moving human body and thus create particular challenges and complexities of making sense of the world. The chapter includes notions of mobility systems and socio-technical networks in order to show how a ‘semiotic layer’ may...... work to afford or restrict mobile practices....

  19. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Users are already mobile, but the question is to which extent knowledge-based dictionary apps are designed for the mobile user situation. The objective of this article is to analyse the characteristics of the mobile user situation and to look further into the stationary user situation...... and the mobile user situation. The analysis is based on an empirical survey involving ten medical doctors and a monolingual app designed to support cognitive lexicographic functions, cf. (Tarp 2006:61-64). In test A the doctors looked up five medical terms while sitting down at a desk and in test B the doctors......:565), and it was found that the information access success of the mobile user situation is lower than that of the stationary user situation, primarily because users navigate in the physical world and in the mobile device at the same time. The data also suggest that the mobile user situation is not fully compatible...

  20. USE OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGY IN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIN ISAC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology and applications of mobile phones offer many opportunities for businesses, they also presenting a continuous development and new challenges. Although this service is currently viewed with reluctance by customers, banks need to overcome this drawback and understand how this service can be combined with other alternative channels such as social media, to create value for customers. In this paper I presented information about present and perspectives in mobile applications industry, what can a mobile application do in banking, banking mobile applications in Romania, mobile banking applications worldwide.

  1. Virtual Network Connection using Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haripriya. S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile cloud computing provides a solution to meet the increasing functionality demands of end -users, as all application logic is executed on distant servers and only user interface functionalities reside on the mobile device. The mobile device acts as a remote display, capturing user input and rendering the display updates received from the distant server. Varying wireless channel conditions, short battery lifetime and interaction latency introduce major challenges for the remote display of cloud applications on mobile devices. In this paper discussed a number of adequate solutions that have recently been proposed to tackle the main issues associated with the re mote display of cloud services on mobile devices.

  2. Virtual Network Connection using Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haripriya. S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile cloud computing provides a solution to meet the increasing functionality demands of end-users, as all application logic is executed on distant servers and only user interface functionalities reside on the mobile device. The mobile device acts as a remote display, capturing user input and rendering the display updates received from the distant server. Varying wireless channel conditions, short battery lifetime and interaction latency introduce major challenges for the remote display of cloud applications on mobile devices. In this paper discussed a number of adequate solutions that have recently been proposed to tackle the main issues associated with the remote display of cloud services on mobile devices.

  3. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration...... by constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  4. Mobile Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter aims to understand the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The chapter explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. What takes place is a ‘mob......This chapter aims to understand the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The chapter explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. What takes place...... is a ‘mobile sense making’ where signs and materially situated meanings connect to the moving human body and thus create particular challenges and complexities of making sense of the world. The chapter includes notions of mobility systems and socio-technical networks in order to show how a ‘semiotic layer’ may...

  5. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    of departure in the sociological perspective termed ‘Staging Mobilities’ (Jensen 2013a) and utilizes this as an analytical frame for exploring cases of mobility design. The paper put focus on how the material shape, design and architectures of technologies, spaces and sites influence mobilities practices......, mobilitiy technologies or urban sites of movement we get much closer to understanding the meaning of mobilities to social interaction and culture. The cases are still representing work-in-progress but will be reported in the book ‘Designing Mobilites’ (Jensen 2013b) and will cover the four cases of......Within the so-called ‘mobilities turn’ (Adey 2010; Cresswell 2006; Urry 2007) much research has taken place during the last decade bringing mobilities into the centre of sociological analysis. However, the materiality and spatiality of artefacts, infrastructures, and sites hosting mobilities...

  6. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences of contemporary......-making. The paper proposes that increased understanding of the material affordances facilitated through design provides important insight to planning and policymaking that at times might be in risk of becoming too detached from the everyday life of the mobile subject within contemporary mobilities landscapes....

  7. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences of contemporary...... sites of mobilities and technology. Furthermore, the paper argues that heightened material sensitivity with an acute focus on situations and the multi-sensorial dimensions of human mobilities is largely under-prioritised within much contemporary city planning and transport planning as well as policy...

  8. Lateral Buoys - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic navigation charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be aware...

  9. A Survey on Mobile Payment Systems Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Esmaeili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing use of mobile devices and the emergence of new technologies have changed mobile commerce and mobile payment in all over the world. Although many attempts have been made to implement secure mobile payment systems and services, growing forgery, fraud and other related electronic crimes as well as security attacks and threats prove the necessity of paying special attention to security issues for development and extension of such systems. In this paper, we investigate classification of security threats and attacks in mobile payment and discuss security issues in three related areas of mobile payment; including network security, transmission security and mobile device security. Network security includes WLAN and WWAN security; transmission security includes WAP, SMS, wave channel and USSD security; and mobile device security includes hardware and software platforms and operating system security.

  10. Next Step Mobile: Strategy, Services, & PRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2012-01-01

    As emerging information technologies have driven demand for new library communication channels, there has been increased interest in the use of mobile tools to promote interaction, expand outreach, market programs, and enhance the library experience. Libraries today are at widely different levels of mobile engagement, a gap poised to grow as…

  11. Adaptation Methods in Mobile Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Wieser

    2003-01-01

    Adaptation methods are the main tool for transmission rate maximization through the mobile channel and today the great attention is directed to them not only in theoretical domain but in standardization process, too. The review of adaptation methods for system and technical parameters of mobile cellular networks (2.5G and 3G) is carricd out.

  12. MIS-Grid for Future Mobile Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-guo; XING Ling; LI Zai-ming

    2004-01-01

    The dilemma of modern mobile communications technology is analyzed. Aiming at some problems in the 3G systems, a new network architecture is proposed on the principle of mobile information sharing grid (MIS-Grid). The essence of MIS-Grid is to transfer the hot wide band information with cheap unidirectional broadcasting channels and the personalized services with relatively expensive interactive networks.

  13. Electron velocity of 6 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at 300 K in stress engineered InAlN/GaN nano-channel high-electron-mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulkumaran, S., E-mail: SArulkumaran@pmail.ntu.edu.sg; Manoj Kumar, C. M.; Ranjan, K.; Teo, K. L. [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Ng, G. I., E-mail: eging@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Shoron, O. F.; Rajan, S. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Bin Dolmanan, S.; Tripathy, S. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology, and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2015-02-02

    A stress engineered three dimensional (3D) Triple T-gate (TT-gate) on lattice matched In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN nano-channel (NC) Fin-High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (Fin-HEMT) with significantly enhanced device performance was achieved that is promising for high-speed device applications. The Fin-HEMT with 200-nm effective fin-width (W{sub eff}) exhibited a very high I{sub Dmax} of 3940 mA/mm and a highest g{sub m} of 1417 mS/mm. This dramatic increase of I{sub D} and g{sub m} in the 3D TT-gate In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT translated to an extracted highest electron velocity (v{sub e}) of 6.0 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s, which is ∼1.89× higher than that of the conventional In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN HEMT (3.17 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s). The v{sub e} in the conventional III-nitride transistors are typically limited by highly efficient optical-phonon emission. However, the unusually high v{sub e} at 300 K in the 3D TT-gate In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMT is attributed to the increase of in-plane tensile stress component by SiN passivation in the formed NC which is also verified by micro-photoluminescence (0.47 ± 0.02 GPa) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (0.39 ± 0.12 GPa) measurements. The ability to reach the v{sub e} = 6 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at 300 K by a stress engineered 3D TT-gate lattice-matched In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN NC Fin-HEMTs shows they are promising for next-generation ultra-scaled high-speed device applications.

  14. Mobile museology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    Drawing together perspectives from museology, digital culture studies and fashion theory, this thesis considers changes in and challenges for current - day museums as related to ‘mobile museology’. This concept is developed for and elucidated in the thesis to describe an orientation towards...... the fashionable, the ephemeral, and towards an (ideal) state of change and changeability. This orientation is characterised with the triplet concepts of mobile, mobility, and mobilisation, as related to mobile media and movability; to ‘trans - museal’ mediation; and to the mobilisation of collections, audiences...

  15. Research on High Efficiency Channel Borrowing Algorithm in Wireless Mobile Communication System%无线移动通信系统中的高效信道借用算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦好亮; 曹达仲

    2001-01-01

    本文将固定信道分配(Fixed Channel Assignment)和动态信道分配(Dynamic Channel Assignment)相结合,提出了一种高效信道借用算法HEBCA(High Efficiency Channel Borrowing Algorithm).它利用预期信道可用率(Expected FutureChannel Availahility Rate)衡量信道借用对周围小区的影响,针对信道借用发生和信道借用结束设计了两种重排操作.计算机仿真表明,本算法的阻塞概率低于BDCL(Borrowing with Directional Channel Locking),对改善FCA在业务量低端的性能很有帮助.本算法的信道重排比率(Channel Reallocation Ratto)也明显低于BDCL.

  16. Mobile Semiotics - signs and mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper is about how to comprehend the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The paper explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. The theoretical scope...... is therefore an attempt to mobilize semiotics by drawing on a central body of theory within and adjacent to the discipline. For instance the founding works of C. S. Peirce will be related to the contemporary notions of ‘geosemiotics’ by Scollon & Scollon. The paper’s theoretical claim is that semiotics hold...... a potential for mobilities studies if the awareness of seeing the environment as a semiotic layer and system can be sensitized to the insights of the ‘mobilities turn’. Empirically the paper tentatively explores the usefulness of a mobile semiotics approach to cases such as street signage, airport design...

  17. Mobile phones and mobile communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Donner, Jonathan

    With staggering swiftness, the mobile phone has become a fixture of daily life in almost every society on earth. In 2007, the world had over 3 billion mobile subscriptions. Prosperous nations boast of having more subscriptions than people. In the developing world, hundreds of millions of people who...... could never afford a landline telephone now have a mobile number of their own. With a mobile in our hand many of us feel safer, more productive, and more connected to loved ones, but perhaps also more distracted and less involved with things happening immediately around us. Written by two leading...... researchers in the field, this volume presents an overview of the mobile telephone as a social and cultural phenomenon. Research is summarized and made accessible though detailed descriptions of ten mobile users from around the world. These illustrate popular debates, as well as deeper social forces at work...

  18. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALS Neurons' broken machinery piles up in ALS Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica Dormant viral genes may awaken to ... Dementia Information Page Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Muscular Dystrophy Information Page Myasthenia ...

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou Gehrig disease; ALS; Upper and lower motor neuron disease; Motor neuron disease ... 98. Shaw PJ. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other motor neuron diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  20. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept...

  1. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    How is the width of the pavement shaping the urban experience? How is the material design of transport infrastructure and mobile technology affording social interaction in everyday life spaces? How do people inhabit these spaces with their bodies and in accordance to social and cultural norms......? These are some of the questions that this book raises in order to explore how the design of mobile sites and situations affect people's everyday life. The book takes point of departure in the author's book 'Staging Mobilities' (Routledge, 2013) in which it is argued that mobility is much more than simple...... acts of moving in the city. 'Designing Mobilities' is based on more than a decade of academic research by Professor of Urban Theory, Ole B. Jensen and a must-read for students and scholars with an interest in urban studies, urban design, architecture, urban planning, transport planning and geography...

  2. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...

  3. Shape effect of nanochannels on water mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Guo-Xi; Wang, Yu; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Confinement can induce unusual behaviors of water. Inspired by the fabrication of carbon nanotubes with noncircular cross sections, we performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the mobilities of water confined in carbon nanochannels with circular, square, and equilateral triangular cross sections over a variety of dimensions. We find that water exhibits disparate mobilities across different types of channels below 0.796 nm2. Notably, compared with the other two channels, water in equilateral triangular channels displays the greatest mobilities. Moreover, at 0.425 nm2, different ordered structures are found in the three channels, and water inside the square channel exhibits an extremely low mobility. It is also found that above 0.796 nm2, the mobilities along the tube axis of water converge to that of the bulk. These phenomena are understood by analyzing the structure, dynamics, and hydrogen bonding of water. Our work explores the mobilities of water across noncircular carbon nanochannels, which may expand the prospect of noncircular nanochannels in scientific studies and practical applications, such as desalination and drug delivery.

  4. Interface Engineering for Precise Threshold Voltage Control in Multilayer-Channel Thin Film Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihoon

    2016-11-29

    Multilayer channel structure is used to effectively manipulate the threshold voltage of zinc oxide transistors without degrading its field-effect mobility. Transistors operating in enhancement mode with good mobility are fabricated by optimizing the structure of the multilayer channel. The optimization is attributed to the formation of additional channel and suppression of the diffusion of absorbed water molecules and oxygen vacancies.

  5. Mechanosensitive Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinac, Boris

    Living cells are exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli acting throughout the biosphere. The range of the stimuli extends from thermal molecular agitation to potentially destructive cell swelling caused by osmotic pressure gradients. Cellular membranes present a major target for these stimuli. To detect mechanical forces acting upon them cell membranes are equipped with mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Functioning as molecular mechanoelectrical transducers of mechanical forces into electrical and/or chemical intracellular signals these channels play a critical role in the physiology of mechanotransduction. Studies of prokaryotic MS channels and recent work on MS channels of eukaryotes have significantly increased our understanding of their gating mechanism, physiological functions, and evolutionary origins as well as their role in the pathology of disease.

  6. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  7. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  8. Mobile museology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    posts from the research project blog with three research articles: ‘Museum metamorphosis à la mode’, proposing a fashion perspective on ongoing museum developments; ‘Augmenting the agora: media and civic engagement in museums’, questioning the idea of social media holding a vital potential......Drawing together perspectives from museology, digital culture studies and fashion theory, this thesis considers changes in and challenges for current - day museums as related to ‘mobile museology’. This concept is developed for and elucidated in the thesis to describe an orientation towards...... the fashionable, the ephemeral, and towards an (ideal) state of change and changeability. This orientation is characterised with the triplet concepts of mobile, mobility, and mobilisation, as related to mobile media and movability; to ‘trans - museal’ mediation; and to the mobilisation of collections, audiences...

  9. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  10. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part of th...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region.......This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...

  11. Proceedings of the Mobile Satellite Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, William

    1988-01-01

    A satellite-based mobile communications system provides voice and data communications to mobile users over a vast geographic area. The technical and service characteristics of mobile satellite systems (MSSs) are presented and form an in-depth view of the current MSS status at the system and subsystem levels. Major emphasis is placed on developments, current and future, in the following critical MSS technology areas: vehicle antennas, networking, modulation and coding, speech compression, channel characterization, space segment technology and MSS experiments. Also, the mobile satellite communications needs of government agencies are addressed, as is the MSS potential to fulfill them.

  12. Incentive Mechanisms for Mobile Music Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Marco; Montangero, Manuela

    The mobile digital world is seen as an important business opportunity for two main reasons: the widespread usage of cellphones (more than two billions [30], most of them with sound features) and the pervasiveness of mobile technologies. As a result, music industry and telecoms are bringing the successful Internet-based music market strategy into the mobile scenario: record labels are setting up agreements with cellphone network providers (Sprint, Verizon, Vodafone, Orange just to name a few) to offer a download music service also in the mobile scenario. The strategy is to use wireless channels to distribute music contents in the attempt of replicating the success of the Internet-based download scenario.

  13. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  14. Brownian transport in corrugated channels with inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, P K; Marchesoni, F; Nori, F; Schmid, G; 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.021112

    2012-01-01

    The transport of suspended Brownian particles dc-driven along corrugated narrow channels is numerically investigated in the regime of finite damping. We show that inertial corrections cannot be neglected as long as the width of the channel bottlenecks is smaller than an appropriate particle diffusion length, which depends on the the channel corrugation and the drive intensity. Being such a diffusion length inversely proportional to the damping constant, transport through sufficiently narrow obstructions turns out to be always sensitive to the viscosity of the suspension fluid. The inertia corrections to the transport quantifiers, mobility and diffusivity, markedly differ for smoothly and sharply corrugated channels.

  15. Usability design of Short Message Service (SMS) mobile phone banking

    OpenAIRE

    Peevers, Gareth James

    2010-01-01

    The financial services sector is investing considerable sums of money into mobile banking services, but the uptake by customers has been low. The cost to benefit ratio of mobile banking is highly unsatisfactory when the costs of developing and managing the channel are considered. Many of the advantages of Internet banking are shared by mobile banking e.g. control and time saving. Mobile banking also offers higher convenience with the ability to carry out banking whenever and ...

  16. Vocoders in mobile satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriedte, W.; Canavesio, F.; dal Degan, N.; Pirani, G.; Rusina, F.; Usai, P.

    Owing to the power constraints that characterize onboard transmission sections, low-bit-rate coders seem suitable for speech communications inside mobile satellite systems. Vocoders that operate at rates below 4.8 kbit/s could therefore be a desirable solution for this application, providing also the redundancy that must be added to cope with the channel error rate. After reviewing the mobile-satellite-systems aspects, the paper outlines the features of two different types of vocoders that are likely to be employed, and the relevant methods of assessing their performances. Finally, some results from computer simulations of the speech transmission systems are reported.

  17. [Lateral lumbar disk herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deburge, A; Barre, E; Guigui, P

    A retrospective study of 41 lateral discal hernias observed between 1984 and 1991 were studied among the 1080 discal hernias treated during this period. CT scan, performed in all cases, distinguished several different types of hernia: foramen hernias (26), extraforamen hernias (12), mixed forms (5) associated with canal component (11). Thirteen disco scans were required. Nucleolysis was performed in 24 patients (58%) and surgical treatment was the first intention choice in 17 (41%). Outcome, evaluated with a function score developed in the unit were good in the 17 surgery cases (100%). In the nucleolysis patients results were good or excellent in 13, average in 4, and poor in 7. Five of the nucleolysis failures were later operated leading to good results in 3, average in 1 and no change in 1. Indications for surgery are more frequent in this type of discal hernia and results in our surgical series were better than those for chemonucleolysis.

  18. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.

  19. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences....

  20. Lateral Control”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    pattern changes followed from destipitation, but few from decapitation. Growth reactions suggest that resource allocation to main branch buds inhibits leader growth in normal trees, a kind of “lateral control.” Auxin and ABA content in buds and stems was largely unaffected by treatments. Data suggest...... that subapical leader tissues beneath the apical bud group are a primary source of cytokinin regulation. Keywords ABA - Apical control - Auxin - Bud development - Cytokinin - Plant architecture...

  1. Intensive mobilities:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of facto....... By exploring how experiences of long-distance workers become constituted by a range of different material forces enables us to more sensitively consider the practical, technical, and political implications of this increasingly prevalent yet underexplored regime of work....... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...... with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience...

  2. Mobile healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stephen A; Agee, Nancy Howell

    2012-01-01

    Mobile technology's presence in healthcare has exploded over the past five years. The increased use of mobile devices by all segments of the US population has driven healthcare systems, providers, and payers to accept this new form of communication and to develop strategies to implement and leverage the use of mobile healthcare (mHealth) within their organizations and practices. As healthcare systems move toward a more value-driven model of care, patient centeredness and engagement are the keys to success. Mobile healthcare will provide the medium to allow patients to participate more in their care. Financially, mHealth brings to providers the ability to improve efficiency and deliver savings to both them and the healthcare consumer. However, mHealth is not without challenges. Healthcare IT departments have been reluctant to embrace this shift in technology without fully addressing security and privacy concerns. Providers have been hesitant to adopt mHealth as a form of communication with patients because it breaks with traditional models. Our healthcare system has just started the journey toward the development of mHealth. We offer an overview of the mobile healthcare environment and our approach to solving the challenges it brings to healthcare organizations.

  3. Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhabra, Gev; Wang, Allan; Ebert, Jay R.; Edwards, Peter; Zheng, Monica; Zheng, Ming H.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral elbow tendinopathy, commonly known as tennis elbow, is a condition that can cause significant functional impairment in working-age patients. The term tendinopathy is used to describe chronic overuse tendon disorders encompassing a group of pathologies, a spectrum of disease. This review details the pathophysiology of tendinopathy and tendon healing as an introduction for a system grading the severity of tendinopathy, with each of the 4 grades displaying distinct histopathological features. Currently, there are a large number of nonoperative treatments available for lateral elbow tendinopathy, with little guidance as to when and how to use them. In fact, an appraisal of the clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses studying these treatment modalities reveals that no single treatment reliably achieves outstanding results. This may be due in part to the majority of clinical studies to date including all patients with chronic tendinopathy rather than attempting to categorize patients according to the severity of disease. We relate the pathophysiology of the different grades of tendinopathy to the basic science principles that underpin the mechanisms of action of the nonoperative treatments available to propose a treatment algorithm guiding the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy depending on severity. We believe that this system will be useful both in clinical practice and for the future investigation of the efficacy of treatments. PMID:27833925

  4. Mobile Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryana, Bijan; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a country specific comparative mobile usability study is presented, using Iran and Turkey as the two chosen emerging/emergent nation exemplars of smartphone usage and adoption. In a focus group study, three mobile applications were selected by first-time users of smartphones....... In both countries, the music player application was tested, wherein common patterns of accessing and sorting songs emerged. Whereas the Iranian users appeared to be more interested in social networking via use of an SMS service, the Turkish users tended to prefer to apply hierarchies to their own daily...

  5. Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Ichiro

    Mobile agents are autonomous programs that can travel from computer to computer in a network, at times and to places of their own choosing. The state of the running program is saved, by being transmitted to the destination. The program is resumed at the destination continuing its processing with the saved state. They can provide a convenient, efficient, and robust framework for implementing distributed applications and smart environments for several reasons, including improvements to the latency and bandwidth of client-server applications and reducing vulnerability to network disconnection. In fact, mobile agents have several advantages in the development of various services in smart environments in addition to distributed applications.

  6. Mobile Misfortune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    for themselves and their families, it shows how involvement in the cocaine trade is both a curse and a catalyst. Though trading the drug may facilitate migration and mobility, generating social being and worth in the process, it is an activity that is haunted by the threat of deportation and the termination...... of the mobility it enables. This article, thus, looks at the motives and manners in which young men in Bissau become caught up in transnational flows of cocaine. It shows how motion is emotively anchored and affectively bound: tied to and directed toward a feeling of worth and realisation of being, and how...

  7. Barcode Payment System in Trusted Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Kaw Raina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile payment is an application of mobile commerce which facilitates mobile commerce transactions by providing the mobile customer with a convenient means to pay. Many mobile payment methods have been proposed and implemented like user friendly, customer centric, merchant centric where security concerns are highly addressed. This paper proposes a mobile payment model with barcodes for mobile users to improve mobile user experience in mobile payment. Unlike other existing mobile payment systems, the proposed payment solution provides distinct advantages to support buy-and-sale products and services based on 2D Barcodes. The aim of this work is to integrate a model of payment with the financial services, including payment and banking ones, based on two primary capabilities: the use of computational resources of a trusted mobile device and the establishment of a user controlled channel with the customer’s bank. The proposed architecture is characterized bank-centric, since the bank acts consultatively, informatively and protectively for the end user and it offers flexibility, adaptability and continuous extendibility to open technologies.

  8. Brands & Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Yang

    2009-01-01

    @@ "Brands" and "Channels" are the two most important things in Ku-Hai Chen's eyes when doing business with Main-land China. Ku-Hai Chen, Executive Director of the International Trade Institute of Taiwan External Trade Development Council (TAITRA), flies frequently between Chinese Taipei and Mainland China, and was in Beijing earlier this month for his seminar.

  9. Positron Channeling

    CERN Document Server

    Badikyan, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of channeling the low-energy relativistic positrons around separate crystallographic axes with coaxial symmetry of negative ions in some types of crystals is shown. The process of annihilation of positrons with electrons of medium was studied in detail.

  10. The lateral line microcosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysen, Alain; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The lateral-line system is a simple sensory system comprising a number of discrete sense organs, the neuromasts, distributed over the body of fish and amphibians in species-specific patterns. Its development involves fundamental biological processes such as long-range cell migration, planar cell polarity, regeneration, and post-embryonic remodeling. These aspects have been extensively studied in amphibians by experimental embryologists, but it is only recently that the genetic bases of this development have been explored in zebrafish. This review discusses progress made over the past few years in this field.

  11. Wearable sensor network to study laterality of brain functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Gabriela B; Girao, Pedro S; Postolache, Octavian A

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade researches on laterality of brain functions have been reinvigorated. New models of lateralization of brain functions were proposed and new methods for understanding mechanisms of asymmetry between right and left brain functions were described. We design a system to study laterality of motor and autonomic nervous system based on wearable sensors network. A mobile application was developed for analysis of upper and lower limbs movements, cardiac and respiratory function. The functionalities and experience gained with deployment of the system are described.

  12. Mobile IP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Sallent, S.; Pras, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Internet is growing exponentially, both in the amount of traffic carried, and in the amount of hosts connected. IP technology is becoming more and more important, in company networks (Intranets), and also in the core networks for the next generation mobile networks. Further, wireless access to I

  13. Mobil nationalisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2006-01-01

    , varer, mennesker og kapital men derimod en integreret del af disse tendenser. Gennem begrebet mobil nationalisme argumenteres der for en analytisk optik, hvor nationalisme forstås som en proces hvorigennem skiftende relationer og bevægelser mellem forskellige socio-rumlige skalaer som kroppen...

  14. Sustainable Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

    This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired...

  15. Mobile Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍万杰

    2004-01-01

    Your mobile phone rings.and instead of usual electronic signals,it's playing your favorite music.A friend sends your favorite song to cheer you up.One day,a record company might forward new records and music videos to your phone.

  16. Dynamics of laterally confined marine ice sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Pegler, Samuel S.; Worster, M. Grae

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Cambridge University Press via http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2016.37 We present an experimental and theoretical study of the dynamics of laterally confined marine ice sheets in the natural limit in which the long, narrow channel into which they flow is wider than the depth of the ice. A marine ice sheet comprises a grounded ice sheet in contact with bedrock that floats away from the bedrock at a ‘grounding line’ t...

  17. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key compon

  18. Creativity in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.

  19. Brainmining emotive lateral solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Scaltsas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BrainMining is a theory of creative thinking that shows how we should exploit the mind’s spontaneous natural disposition to use old solutions to address new problems – our Anchoring Cognitive Bias. BrainMining develops a simple and straightforward method to transform recalcitrant problems into types of problems which we have solved before, and then apply an old type of solution to them. The transformation makes the thinking lateral by matching up disparate types of problem and solution. It emphasises the role of emotive judgements that the agent makes, when she discerns whether a change of the values or the emotions and feelings in a situation, which would expand the space of solutions available for the problem at hand, would be acceptable or appropriate in the situation. A lateral solution for an intractable problem is thus spontaneously brainmined from the agent’s old solutions, to solve a transformed version of the intractable problem, possibly involving changes in the value system or the emotional profile of the situation, which the agent judges, emotively, will be acceptable, and even appropriate in the circumstances.

  20. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  1. Security Aware Mobile Web Service Provisioning

    CERN Document Server

    Srirama, Satish Narayana; Prinz, Wolfgang; Pendyala, Kiran

    2010-01-01

    Mobile data services in combination with profluent web services are seemingly the path breaking domain in current information research. Effectively, these mobile web services will pave the way for exciting performance and security challenges, the core need-to-be-addressed issues. On security front, though a lot of standardized security specifications and implementations exist for web services in the wired networks, not much has been analysed and standardized in the wireless environments. This paper addresses some of the critical challenges in providing security to the mobile web service domain. We first explore mobile web services and their key security issues, with special focus on provisioning based on a mobile web service provider realized by us. Later we discuss state-of-the-art security awareness in the wired and wireless web services, and finally address the realization of security for the mobile web service provisioning with performance analysis results.

  2. Deblocking of mobile stereo video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzari, Lucio; Gotchev, Atanas; Egiazarian, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Most of candidate methods for compression of mobile stereo video apply block-transform based compression based on the H-264 standard with quantization of transform coefficients driven by quantization parameter (QP). The compression ratio and the resulting bit rate are directly determined by the QP level and high compression is achieved for the price of visually noticeable blocking artifacts. Previous studies on perceived quality of mobile stereo video have revealed that blocking artifacts are the most annoying and most influential in the acceptance/rejection of mobile stereo video and can even completely cancel the 3D effect and the corresponding quality added value. In this work, we address the problem of deblocking of mobile stereo video. We modify a powerful non-local transform-domain collaborative filtering method originally developed for denoising of images and video. The method employs grouping of similar block patches residing in spatial and temporal vicinity of a reference block in filtering them collaboratively in a suitable transform domain. We study the most suitable way of finding similar patches in both channels of stereo video and suggest a hybrid four-dimensional transform to process the collected synchronized (stereo) volumes of grouped blocks. The results benefit from the additional correlation available between the left and right channel of the stereo video. Furthermore, addition sharpening is applied through an embedded alpha-rooting in transform domain, which improve the visual appearance of the deblocked frames.

  3. USE OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGY IN BANKING SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    ALIN ISAC

    2013-01-01

    Technology and applications of mobile phones offer many opportunities for businesses, they also presenting a continuous development and new challenges. Although this service is currently viewed with reluctance by customers, banks need to overcome this drawback and understand how this service can be combined with other alternative channels such as social media, to create value for customers. In this paper I presented information about present and perspectives in mobile applications industry, w...

  4. Promotion and monetization in publishing mobile applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peinado Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The road to new technologies and digital systems of transmission of the message produce unpublished business channels to support the media management current. And the printed media can benefit since they can find greater advantages in this new channel of increasing consumption: mobile greater advantages in this new channel of increasing consumption: mobile applications. The modern editor coexists with these new technologies, scheduled or native applications on web languages that offer multiple possibilities of loyalty, monetization, distribution and synergies with the channels already considered classics. The study of apps to generate revenue in the media can be the new contextual paradigm of the Periodismo and establish the key factors for a better profitability of the participants this industry, increasingly weakened financially and business by the accelerated arrival of technology in publishing groups accustomed to changes of slow evolution.

  5. Nonlinear channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K.; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R.; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  6. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen,Marcio; Motta Filho,Geraldo da Rocha

    2012-01-01

    A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasm...

  7. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  8. Mobile Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEBASTIAN COHEN

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 1984, US computer manufacturer Apple spent almost USD 1.5 million on a lavish, Ridley Scott-directed commercial for its new Macintosh 128k personal computer. A year later, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows for IBM PC, signaling the start of the battle for domi-nation of the personal computer market which has waged ever since.

  9. The African Mobile Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks......This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks...

  10. Mobility Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    military vehicle mobility; shock absorbers; springs; suspension systems; vehicle performance; wheels 44. AU - Singh, D.V. TI - Stability of Rajdoot Scooter ...1972 IT - computer simulation; snow vehicles; suspension systems; vehicle dynamics; vibration 81 IJ 222. AU - Hazzard, H.I. TI - The McCulloch BP-399... suspension - a high speed motion picture study SO - Society of Automotive Engineers Technical Paper No. 710667 IT - snow vehicles; suspension systems

  11. Robotique Mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Filliat, David

    2011-01-01

    1 Introduction I Les bases de la navigation 2 Les différents types de navigation 3 Les sources d'information 4 Matériels courants en robotique mobile II Navigation réactive 5 Navigation vers un but 6 Évitement d'obstacles 7 Apprentissage par renforcement III Navigation utilisant une carte 8 Localisation, Cartographie et Planification 9 Les représentations de l'environne 10 Localisation 11 Cartographie 12 Planification; Engineering school

  12. Going mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Eric

    1987-12-01

    By 1990, all metropolitan areas in the U.S. and rural areas close to major cities or towns are expected to have cellular telephone service; 22 Canadian cities also feature cellular service. To supply mobile telecommunication services to sparsely-populated rural areas, a mobile satellite service (MSS) is now being developed. In this paper the projected possibilities of the MSS system are discussed, including a possibility that a piggyback-MSS payload be added to the GSTAR-4 satellite which is scheduled for a launch in 1988 or 1989; one in which some of the hardware from aborted direct-broadcast satellites would be used; and the possibility of building a new MSS satellite with large servicing capacity. Canada is planning to launch its own mobile satellite, MSAT, in the early 1990s. The MSS is expected to be 'generic', serving not only people on land but maritime and aeronautical users as well. It will also offer major benefits to truck and automobile drivers, making it possible for them to conduct business or to call for assistance from locations beyond the range of cellular systems.

  13. Network Mobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamali Masoud Alfrgani .Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are becoming increasingly popular for delivering multimedia content, particularly by means of streaming. The main disadvantage of these devices is their limited battery life. Unfortunately, streaming of multimedia content causes the battery of the device to discharge very fast, often causing the battery to deplete before the streaming task finishes, resulting in user dissatisfaction. It is generally not possible to charge the device while on the go as electricity socket and charger are required. Therefore, to avoid this user dissatisfaction, it is necessary to find ways to prolong the battery lifetime and to support the completion of the multimedia streaming tasks. A typical architecture for mobile multimedia streaming is presented In this architecture, a wired server streams multimedia content over a wireless IP network to a number of client devices. These devices could be PDAs, smartphones or any other mobile device with 802.11 connectivity. In relation to possible power savings, the multimedia streaming process can be described as consisting of three stages: reception, decoding and playing. Other researchers have shown that energy savings can be made in each stage, for example by using pre-buffering in the reception stage, feedback control during decoding and backlight adjustment for playing. However, it is not a common practice to combine energy savings in the three stages in order to achieve the best

  14. Architectural models of ambient-PRISMA in channel ambient calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nour; Tuosto, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ambient-PRISMA is an architectural approach for specifying aspect-oriented software architecture and generating code of distributed and mobile systems. Ambient-PRISMA lacks a precise semantics due to the fact that it is based only on a metamodel. In this paper, Ambient-PRISMA is mapped into a formal language called Channel Ambient Calculus, a process algebra for specifying mobile applications that provides channels and ambients as first-class citizens. We...

  15. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  16. [Lateral lumbar disk hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monod, A; Desmoineaux, P; Deburge, A

    1990-01-01

    Lateral lumbar disc herniations (L.D.H.) develop in the foramen, and compress the nerve root against the overlying vertebral pedicle. In our study of L.D.H. from the clinical, radiographical, and therapeutical aspects, we reviewed 23 cases selected from the 590 patients treated for discal herniation from 1984 to 1987. The frequency of L.D.H. in this series was 3.8 per cent. The clinical pattern brings out some suggestive signs of L.D.H. (frequency of cruralgia, a seldom very positive Lasegue's test, the paucity of spinal signs, non impulsive pain). Saccoradiculography and discography rarely evidenced the L.D.H.. The T.D.M. was the investigation of choice on condition that it was correctly used. When the image was doubtful, disco-CT confirmation should be proceeded too. This latter method of investigation enabled the possibility of sequestration to be explored. 14 patients were treated by chemonucleolysis, with 9 successful outcomes. The 5 failures were cases where chemonucleolysis should not have been indicated, mainly due to associated osseous stenosis. 9 patients underwent immediate surgery with good results in each case.

  17. Clinical neurorestorative progress in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lin Chen,1,2,5 Hongyun Huang,3 Haitao Xi,4,5 Gengsheng Mao3 1Medical Center, Tsinghua University, 2Tsinghua University Yuquan Hospital, 3General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces, 4Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital of Capital Medical University, 5Beijing Hongtianji Neuroscience Academy, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive paralysis and motor neuron death. In addition to symptomatic managements such as ventilation and nutritional support, neurorestorative therapies have demonstrated anti-neurodegenerative potential and may improve quality of life for patients. Currently, clinical neurorestorative strategies include pharmacological management (granulocyte colony stimulating factor, neuromodulatory intervention (repetitive transcranial magnetic and cortical stimulation, cell transplantation (bone marrow stromal cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stromal cells, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, neural stem/progenitor cells, CD133+ cells and CD34+ cells, bioengineering and tissue engineering therapy, and combined neurorehabilitative treatment. In this review, we describe the latest progress in clinical neurorestorative management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and discuss the underlying evidence base. Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, neurorestorative treatment, cell transplantation, clinical trial

  18. Wavy Channel architecture thin film transistor (TFT) using amorphous zinc oxide for high-performance and low-power semiconductor circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2015-08-12

    We report a Wavy Channel (WC) architecture thin film transistor (TFT) for extended device width by integrating continuous vertical fin like features with lateral continuous plane in the substrate. For a WC TFT which has 50% larger device width, the enhancement in the output drive current is 100%, when compared to a conventional planar TFT consuming the same chip area. This current increase is attributed to both the extra width and enhanced field effect mobility due to corner effects. This shows the potential of WC architecture to boast circuit performance without the need for aggressive gate length scaling. © 2015 IEEE.

  19. The Deployment of the Future Mobile Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba’ Hamad AlMousa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of mobile services and the continuouse increase demand for a higher data traffic, a new high speed communication networks are required. Mobile networks are developing to increase the data speed and channels bandwidth inorder to meet the subscriber needs. Many attempts have been carried out to achieve the main demands of faster connectivity and download. 5G technolgy which refers to the 5th Generation Mobile Tecnology is the new mobile network that will provide the users with more features and effeciency at the finest QoS (Quality of Service. This study presents most of the experemints  and researches to deploy the new Mobile Network 5G, however it is still in its infancy stage and lacks standardization. Some of the proposed potential architecture for 5G are described in this article.

  20. Mobile Web - Strategy for Enterprise Success

    CERN Document Server

    Maan, Jitendra

    2012-01-01

    Today, enterprises are faced with increased global competition in an environment where customers are demanding faster delivery, better service and also want to gain significant and immediate business value by increasing productivity and reducing operational cost. Spurred by unprecedented customer demand, each Industry cluster has developed its own source of comparative advantage. Even within a single organization, the business value chain is geographically fragmented. Such diversification and fragmentation of value chain drives the need for cross-platform Web applications over mobile channel. Mobile Web is the next logical transition in this evolutionary process and Mobile Web applications will continue to gain more prominence in the enterprises not just to improve the return on investment in their existing system landscape, but also to expand global reach and improve operational efficiency of their mobile workforce. This paper outlines the critical business needs to rapidly create flexible Mobile web solutio...

  1. Mobility Helps Peer-to-Peer Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Buttyan, Levente

    2006-01-01

    We propose a straightforward technique to provide peer-to-peer security in mobile networks. We show that far from being a hurdle, mobility can be exploited to set up security associations among users. We leverage on the temporary vicinity of users, during which appropriate cryptographic protocols...... are run. We illustrate the operation of the solution in two scenarios, both in the framework of mobile ad hoc networks. In the first scenario, we assume the presence of an offline certification authority and we show how mobility helps to set up security associations for secure routing; in this case...... by visual contact and by the activation of an appropriate secure side channel of their personal device; we show that the process can be fuelled by taking advantage of trusted acquaintances. We then show that the proposed solution is generic: It can be deployed on any mobile network and it can be implemented...

  2. Data Dissemination in Mobile Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr A. Venugopal Reddy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Data dissemination in asymmetrical communicationenvironment, where the downlink communication capacity ismuch greater than the uplink communication capacity, is bestsuited for mobile environment. In this architecture there will bea stationary server continuously broadcasting different dataitems over the air. The mobile clients continuously listen to thechannel and access the data of their interest whenever itappears on the channel and download the same. The typicalapplications of such architecture are stock market information,weather information, traffic information etc. The importantissue that is to be addressed in this type of data disseminationis – how quickly the mobile clients access the data item of theirinterest i.e. minimum access time so that the mobile clients savethe precious battery power while they are on mobile. Thispaper reviews the various techniques for achieving theminimum access time. The advantages and disadvantages arediscussed and explored different research areas for achievingthe minimum access time.

  3. State of Mobile Banking in Tanzania and Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossi Masamila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile technology offers an unprecedented growth op portunity for banking industry in Tanzania. As the economy continues to prosper, increasingly affluent consumers and underbanked segments create demand for new financial products and services. Many consu mers in Tanzania have mobile phones, but not bank accounts. Therefore, the mobile channel presents an effective way to connect them to the national fina ncial grid. For the local banks, going mobile may increas e banks opportunities to unlock the inherent potent ial of underbanked segments. This paper addresses the c urrent state, future prospects, and security challe nges to the usage of mobile banking in Tanzania.

  4. The Sustainable Interventions for Mobile Phone′s Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil MV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are universally popular due to its convenience. Mobile phones solve problems and offer new channels of communication and just by using a device small enough to fit into one hand. On the other hand, mobile phones are harmful to the environment and the society which makes health problems, pollution problems via discharge of its radiations. Mobile phones have recently fallen into the examine on their sustainability and their potential effects on the environment. This study discusses the issues relating to the risks of the mobile phones and addresses the sustainable concerns rectify those issues.

  5. NETWORK MOBILITY SUPPORTED PROXY MOBILE IPV6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthi Jebaseeli SamuelRaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6 is a network-based mobility management protocol, designed to keep track of individual mobile node’s movement. So a mobile node can easily roam in PMIPV6 network without changing it’s IP address. Network Mobility-Basic Support Protocol (NEMO-BSP, based on MIPV6, is the protocol designed for mobility management of NEMO in MPIV6 network. But NEMO-BSP cannot be directly used in PMIPV6 due to differences in the underlying protocols. To make PMIPV6 as a complete mobility management protocol, functionality of PMIPV6 should be enhanced to support network mobility in PMIPV6. This work enhances functionality of PMIPV6 and NEMO-BSP protocols and proposes a new architecture called NEMO supported PMIPV6 that supports movement of mobile nodes as well as network mobility in PMIPV6 network.

  6. Polyamine triggering of exocytosis in Paramecium involves an extracellular Ca(2+)/(polyvalent cation)-sensing receptor, subplasmalemmal Ca-store mobilization and store-operated Ca(2+)-influx via unspecific cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, N; Blanchard, M; Plattner, H

    2000-03-15

    The polyamine secretagogue, aminoethyldextran (AED), causes a cortical [Ca(2+)] transient in Paramecium cells, as analyzed by fluorochrome imaging. Our most essential findings are: (i) Cortical Ca(2+) signals also occur when AED is applied in presence of the fast Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA. (ii) Extracellular La(3+) application causes within seconds a rapid, reversible fluorescence signal whose reversibility can be attributed to a physiological [Ca(2+)](i) transient (while injected La(3+) causes a sustained fluorescence signal). (iii) Simply increasing [Ca(2+)](o) causes a similar rapid, short-lived [Ca(2+)](i) transient. All these phenomena, (i-iii), are compatible with activation of an extracellular "Ca(2+)/(polyvalent cation)-sensing receptor" known from some higher eukaryotic systems, where this sensor (responding to Ca(2+), La(3+) and some multiply charged cations) is linked to cortical calcium stores which, thus, are activated. In Paramecium, such subplasmalemmal stores ("alveolar sacs") are physically linked to the cell membrane and they can also be activated by the Ca(2+) releasing agent, 4-chloro-m-cresol, just like in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum. Since this drug causes a cortical Ca(2+) signal also in absence of Ca(2+)(o) we largely exclude a "Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release" (CICR) mechanism. Our finding of increased cortical Ca(2+) signals after store depletion and re-addition of extracellular Ca(2+) can be explained by a "store-operated Ca(2+) influx" (SOC), i.e., a Ca(2+) influx superimposing store activation. AED stimulation in presence of Mn(2+)(o) causes fluorescence quenching in Fura-2 loaded cells, indicating involvement of unspecific cation channels. Such channels, known to occur in Paramecium, share some general characteristics of SOC-type Ca(2+) influx channels. In conclusion, we assume the following sequence of events during AED stimulated exocytosis: (i) activation of an extracellular Ca(2+)/polyamine-sensing receptor, (ii) release of Ca(2+) from

  7. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  8. Reo: A Channel-based Coordination Model for Component Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present Reo, which forms a paradigm for composition of software components based on the notion of mobile channels. Reo is a channel-based exogenous coordination model in which complex coordinators, called connectors, are compositionally built out of simpler ones. The simplest conne

  9. A channel-based coordination model for component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present $P epsilon omega$, a paradigm for composition of software components based on the notion of mobile channels. $P repsilon omega$ is a channel-based exogenous coordination model wherein complex coordinators, called {em connectors are compositionally built out of simpler ones.

  10. Mobile Learning Application Based on RSS Feed Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanna, Mahmoud; Capus, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile learning application for a learning course at higher education level. Based on the RSS feed technology, the presented mobile application establishes an in-time communication channel between the instructor and his/her students to keep them up-to-date with all course important dates, instructions and information in…

  11. Lateral Thoracic Osteoplastic Rib-Sparing Technique Used for Lateral Spine Surgery: Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisahn, Christian; Tubbs, R. Shane; Page, Jeni; Rice, Richard; Paulson, David; Kazemi, Noojan; Hanscom, David; Oskouian, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    Of patients who have undergone lateral approaches to the thoracic spine, surgical site postoperative pain appears to be greater among those who have undergone transection and removal of a rib segment than those who have not. Therefore, techniques that conserve anatomical position and minimize tissue disruption would theoretically result in less pain and a quicker recovery. Herein, we describe a rib-sparing osteoplastic technique used when rib segments need to be displaced in order to create an unobscured corridor to the operative target. Our approach minimizes soft tissue disruption and restores the anatomical function of the rib. Based on our experience, these patients report less pain, mobilize earlier, and are discharged sooner than those who have had rib segments sacrificed as part of a lateral approach to the spine. PMID:27551648

  12. Mobile Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-110 mission, deployed this railcar, called the Mobile Transporter, and an initial 43-foot section of track, the S0 (S-zero) truss, preparing the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks. The first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The 27,000-pound S0 truss is the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002. STS-110's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station.

  13. Channel Wall Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  15. ESeal Calculus: A Secure Mobile Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengRong; UuPing

    2003-01-01

    The ESeal Calculus is a secure mobile calculus based on Seal Calculus. By using open-channels,ESeal Calculus makes it possible to communicate between any two arbitrary seals with some secure restrictions. It improves the expression ability and efficiency of Seal calculus without losing security.

  16. ESeal Calculus: A Secure Mobile Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Rong; Chen Xin-meng; Liu Ping

    2003-01-01

    The ESeal Calculus is a secure mobile calculus based on Seal Calculus. By using open-channels, ESeal Calculus makes it possible to communicate between any two arbitrary seals with some secure restrictions. It improves the expression ability and efficiency of Seal calculus without losing security.

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  18. Vector Broadcast Channels: Optimal Threshold Selection Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Tharaka; Evans, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Threshold feedback policies are well known and provably rate-wise optimal selective feedback techniques for communication systems requiring partial channel state information (CSI). However, optimal selection of thresholds at mobile users to maximize information theoretic data rates subject to feedback constraints is an open problem. In this paper, we focus on the optimal threshold selection problem, and provide a solution for this problem for finite feedback systems. Rather surprisingly, we show that using the same threshold values at all mobile users is not always a rate-wise optimal feedback strategy, even for a system with identical users experiencing statistically the same channel conditions. By utilizing the theory of majorization, we identify an underlying Schur-concave structure in the rate function and obtain sufficient conditions for a homogenous threshold feedback policy to be optimal. Our results hold for most fading channel models, and we illustrate an application of our results to familiar Raylei...

  19. Design of lateral heterostructure from arsenene and antimonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Ma, Yandong; Yin, Na; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2016-09-01

    Lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks have opened up exciting realms in material science and device physics. Identifying suitable materials for creating such heterostructures is urgently needed for the next-generation devices. Here, we demonstrate a novel type of seamless lateral heterostructures with excellent stabilities formed within pristine arsenene and antimonene. We find that these heterostructures could possess direct and reduced energy gaps without any modulations. Moreover, the highly coveted type-II alignment and the high carrier mobility are also identified, marking the enhanced quantum efficiency. The tensile strain can result in efficient bandgap engineering. Besides, the proposed critical condition for favored direct energy gaps would have a guiding significance on the subsequent works. Generally, our predictions not only introduce new vitality into lateral heterostructures, enriching available candidate materials in this field, but also highlight the potential of these lateral heterostructures as appealing materials for future devices.

  20. Reviewing the Role of Media Attributes in Mobilizing Protest Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.A. van den; Ehrenhard, M.L.; Langley, D.J.; Groen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Activist groups increasingly use computer-mediated communication (CMC) channels to mobilize large groups of consumers to persuade incumbent firms to change their contested strategies or practices. The attributes of CMC channels change the effectiveness of persuasion processes in organizations. Simil

  1. Criteria for the Depths of Dredged Navigational Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    240,000 DWT supertanker Lepton sailing in the Eurooport channels. Extensive investigations were also made in the Chao Phraya River , Bangkok, and along...increasing the probability of grounding or striking bottom. The panel emphasizes that these results *Calcasieu River (inner and outer channels), Lower...Columbia River , Delaware River , Mobile Harbor, Norfolk Harbor, Oakland Harbor, San Francisco Bay, Thimble Shoal, and Galveston Channel 6L E-3 are more

  2. Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sanchita

    2013-01-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) and Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) are important decision-making problems in mobile cellular communication systems. Current research in mobile communication considers them as two independent problems, although the former greatly depends on the resulting free channels obtained as the outcome of the latter. This book provides a solution to the CAC problem, considering DCA as an integral part of decision-making for call admission. Further, current technical resources ignore movement issues of mobile stations and fluctuation in network load (incoming calls) in the control strategy used for call admission. In addition, the present techniques on call admission offers solution globally for the entire network, instead of considering the cells independently.      CAC here has been formulated by two alternative approaches. The first approach aimed at handling the uncertainty in the CAC problem by employing fuzzy comparators.  The second approach is concerned with formulation of CAC ...

  3. Enabling Adaptive Rate and Relay Selection for 802.11 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Neil; Wang, Wenye

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring wireless networks that lack permanent infrastructure and are formed among mobile nodes on demand. Rapid node mobility results in dramatic channel variation, or fading, that degrades MANET performance. Employing channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter can improve the throughput of routing and medium access control (MAC) protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Several routing algorithms in the literature explicitly incorporate the fading signal strength into the routing metric, thus selecting the routes with strong channel conditions. While these studies show that adaptation to the time-variant channel gain is beneficial in MANETs, they do not address the effect of the outdated fading CSI at the transmitter. For realistic mobile node speeds, the channel gain is rapidly varying, and becomes quickly outdated due the feedback delay. We analyze the link throughput of joint rate adaptation and adaptive relay selection in the presence of imperfect CSI. Mor...

  4. Mobile video with mobile IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil

  5. Tonoplast Aquaporins Facilitate Lateral Root Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Beebo, Azeez; Swarup, Kamal; Voß, Ute; Bouhidel, Karim; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Schjoerring, Jan K; Bennett, Malcolm J; Chaumont, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence.

  6. Channel Estimation for MIMO MC-CDMA Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sureshkumar, K; Vetrikanimozhi, A

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of MIMO MC-CDMA are not new but the new technologies to improve their functioning are an emerging area of research. In general, most mobile communication systems transmit bits of information in the radio space to the receiver. The radio channels in mobile radio systems are usually multipath fading channels, which cause inter-symbol interference (ISI) in the received signal. To remove ISI from the signal, there is a need of strong equalizer. In this thesis we have focused on simulating the MIMO MC-CDMA systems in MATLAB and designed the channel estimation for them.

  7. Transient Receptor Potential Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) and Two-pore Channels Are Functionally Independent Organellar Ion Channels*

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    NAADP is a potent second messenger that mobilizes Ca2+ from acidic organelles such as endosomes and lysosomes. The molecular basis for Ca2+ release by NAADP, however, is uncertain. TRP mucolipins (TRPMLs) and two-pore channels (TPCs) are Ca2+-permeable ion channels present within the endolysosomal system. Both have been proposed as targets for NAADP. In the present study, we probed possible physical and functional association of these ion channels. Exogenously expressed TRPML1 showed near com...

  8. A Transport Model of Mobile Agent Based on Secure Hybrid Encryption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNZhixin; CHENZhixian; WANGRuchuan

    2005-01-01

    The solution of security problems of mobile agents is a key issue, which will decide whether mobile agents can be widely used. The paper analyzes main security problems, which currently are confronted with mobile agent systems and existing protection solutions. And then the paper presents a Security Transport model of mobile agents based on a hybrid encryption algorithm (TMSHE).Meanwhile, it expatiates on implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm of TMSHE model mainly consists of two parts, i.e., employing a hybrid encryption algorithm to encrypt mobile agents and using Transport layer security (TLS) to encrypt communication channel. Mobile agents by hybrid encryption move through communication channels, which are encrypted by TLS. The simulation results indicate that the model can protect mobile agents' security effectively, and consequently the security and steadiness of the whole mobile agent system are also improved. The model has succeeded in getting application in a prototypesystem- Intrusion detection system based on mobile agents.

  9. Ideal Channel Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    transistors and composite channel InAlAs/InGaAs/lnP/InAlAs high electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ), which have taken the full advantage of the matched...lattice constant (or pseudomorphic growth). However, for the most popular wide bandgap semiconductor GaN and SiC, the lattice mismatch between GaN ...critical thickness of InN on GaN is about one monolayer. To marry the advantages offered by both narrow bandgap and wide bandgap semiconductors, we

  10. Description of interacting channel gating using a stochastic Markovian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, K; Mathias, R T; Gudowska-Nowak, E

    1996-01-01

    Single-channel recordings from membrane patches frequently exhibit multiple conductance levels. In some preparations, the steady-state probabilities of observing these levels do not follow a binomial distribution. This behavior has been reported in sodium channels, potassium channels, acetylcholine receptor channels and gap junction channels. A non-binomial distribution suggests interaction of the channels or the presence of channels or the presence of channels with different open probabilities. However, the current trace sometimes exhibits single transitions spanning several levels. Since the probability of simultaneous transitions of independent channels is infinitesimally small, such observations strongly suggest a cooperative gating behavior. We present a Markov model to describe the cooperative gating of channels using only the all-points current amplitude histograms for the probability of observing the various conductance levels. We investigate the steady-state (or equilibrium) properties of a system of N channels and provide a scheme to express all the probabilities in terms of just two parameters. The main feature of our model is that lateral interaction of channels gives rise to cooperative gating. Another useful feature is the introduction of the language of graph theory which can potentially provide a different avenue to study ion channel kinetics. We write down explicit expressions for systems of two, three and four channels and provide a procedure to describe the system of N channels.

  11. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  12. MOBILITY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola I. Striuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the problem of mobility in the socio-educational and technical systems was carried out: the evolution of the concept of mobility in scientific sources of XIX–XXI centuries was analyzed and the new sources on the issue of mobility introduced into scientific circulation, the interrelation of the types of mobility in the socio-pedagogical and technical systems are theoretically grounded, an integrative model of mobility in the information society is proposed. The major trends in academic mobility are identified (the transition from student mobility to mobility programs and educational services providers, the new mobility programs (franchising, double/joint degrees, combinations, nostrification etc. are characterized. The new types of mobility providers are reviewed and attention is focused on virtual universities that are now the basis of virtual mobility of students and activities which are based on the use of new ICT in higher education, especially – the Internet and mobile learning environments.

  13. Cooperating mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  14. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  15. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  16. Mobile Schools for a Mobile World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, independent schools are embracing mobile devices--laptops, iPads or other tablets, and smartphones--to enhance teaching and learning. This article describes the results of the "NAIS 2012 Mobile Learning Survey." Among its findings were that 75 percent of NAIS-member schools currently use mobile learning devices in at…

  17. Pharmacological modulation of SK3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, M; Jespersen, Thomas; Angelo, K;

    2001-01-01

    of 512 microM and 6 microM, respectively) at concentrations lower than those used for brain slice recordings. Riluzole, a potent neuroprotective drug with anti-ischemic, anticonvulsant and sedative effects currently used in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, activates SK3 channels...

  18. RAC-Multi: Reader Anti-Collision Algorithm for Multichannel Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangcheol Shin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, RFID is installed on mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs and provides a means to obtain information about objects equipped with an RFID tag over a multi-channeled telecommunication networks. To use mobile RFIDs, reader collision problems should be addressed given that readers are continuously moving. Moreover, in a multichannel environment for mobile RFIDs, interference between adjacent channels should be considered. This work first defines a new concept of a reader collision problem between adjacent channels and then suggests a novel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID readers that use multiple channels. To avoid interference with adjacent channels, the suggested algorithm separates data channels into odd and even numbered channels and allocates odd-numbered channels first to readers. It also sets an unused channel between the control channel and data channels to ensure that control messages and the signal of the adjacent channel experience no interference. Experimental results show that suggested algorithm shows throughput improvements ranging from 29% to 46% for tag identifications compared to the GENTLE reader anti-collision algorithm for multichannel RFID networks.

  19. Controls on plan-form evolution of submarine channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, J.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Vertically aggrading sinuous channels constitute a basic building block of modern submarine fans and the greater continental slope. Interpretation of seismically imaged channels reveals a significant diversity in internal architecture, as well as important similarities and differences in the evolution of submarine channels relative to better studied rivers. Many submarine channel cross sections possess a 'gull wing' shape. Successive stacking of such channels demonstrates that systematic bank erosion is not required in order for lateral migration to occur. The lateral shift of such aggrading channels, however, is expected to be much less dynamic than in the case of terrestrial rivers. Recent high-resolution 3D seismic data from offshore Angola and an upstream segment of the Bengal Submarine Fan show intensely meandering channels that experience considerable lateral shifting during periods of active migration within submarine valleys. The cross sections of the actively migrating channels are similar to meandering river channels characterized by an outer cut-bank and inner-bank accretion. In submarine channels, the orientation of the secondary flow can be river-like or river-reverse depending on the channel gradient, cross sectional shape, and the adaptation length of the channel bend. In river channels, a single circulation cell commonly occupies the entire channel relief, redistributing the bed-load sediment across the channel, and influencing the thread of high velocity and thus the plan-form evolution of the channel. In submarine environments, the height of the circulation cell will be significantly smaller than channel relief, thus leading to development of lower relief point bars from bed-load transport. Nevertheless these "underfit" bars may play an important role in plan-form evolution of submarine channels. In rivers and submarine channels, the inclined surface accretion can be constructed via pure bed-load, suspended-load, or a combination of both transport

  20. Channel Floor Yardangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 19 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. The yardangs in this image are forming in channel floor deposits. The channel itself is funneling the wind to cause the erosion. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 4.5, Longitude 229.7 East (133.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from

  1. MOBILITY DEVICES FOR THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru KAMATA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose the use of micro-electric vehicles called “silver vehicles” (SV as mobility devices for older drivers who have difficulty driving automobiles. Previous reports have described research on characteristics of the elderly, proposed the SV concept and evaluated it in townmobility field tests. This report addresses feasibility of the SV concept and issues of town planning through a follow-up study of characteristics of the elderly three years later, long-term in-use testing of SV-comparable production vehicles, and investigations of elderly driver characteristics and trailing behavior in mixed traffic situations.

  2. Testing of DVB-H Mobile Terminals Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kratochvil

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the transmission of digital television to the DVB-H mobile terminals and interaction of DVB-H system with GSM/UMTS network. The mobile terminals testing approach is introduced including the testing transmission system in the laboratory of digital television and mobile communications at the Department of Radio Electronics, Brno University of Technology. This system can be used for efficient analysis in research and development of near future commercial DVB-H networks. The task of the DVB-H providers is to offer commercial mobile terminals capable to operate in DVB-H network with GSM/UMTS interactivity channel.

  3. Mobility Control for Machine-to-Machine LTE Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Beom Hee

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficient mobility control algorithm for the downlink multi-cell orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access (OFDMA) system for co-channel interference reduction. It divides each cell into several areas. The mobile nodes in each area find their own optimal position according to their present location. Both the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) and the capacity for each node are increased by the proposed mobility control algorithm. Simulation results say that, even the frequency reuse factor (FRF) is equal to 1, the average capacity is improved after applying the mobility control algorithm, compared to existing partial frequency reuse (PFR) scheme.

  4. Study on resistance coefficient in compound channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kejun Yang; Shuyou Cao; Xingnian Liu; Ron Marshall

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a further study of the Manning and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficients, as they play a significant role in assessing the cross-sectional mean velocity, conveyance capacity and determining the lateral distribution of depth mean velocity and local boundary shear stress in compound channels. The relationships between the local, zonal and overall resistance coefficients, and a wide range of geometries and different roughness between the main channel and the flood plain are established by analyzing a vast amount of experimental data from a British Science and Engineering Research Council Flood Channel Facility (SERC-FCF). And the experimental results also show that the overall Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient for a compound channel is the function of Reynolds number, but the function relationship is different from that for a single channel. By comparing and analyzing the conventional methods with the experimental data to predict composite roughness in compound channels, it is found that these methods are not suitable for compound channels. Moreover, the reason why the conventional methods cannot assess correctly the conveyance capacity of com pound channels is also analyzed in this paper.

  5. Lateral inhibition during nociceptive processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quevedo, Alexandre S.; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2017-01-01

    of skin. Thus, the stimulation of the skin region between the endpoints of the lines appears to produce inhibition. These findings indicate that lateral inhibition limits spatial summation of pain and is an intrinsic component of nociceptive information processing. Disruption of such lateral inhibition......Spatial summation of pain is the increase of perceived intensity that occurs as the stimulated area increases. Spatial summation of pain is sub-additive in that increasing the stimulus area produces a disproportionately small increase in the perceived intensity of pain. A possible explanation...... for sub-additive summation may be that convergent excitatory information is modulated by lateral inhibition. To test the hypothesis that lateral inhibition may limit spatial summation of pain, we delivered different patterns of noxious thermal stimuli to the abdomens of 15 subjects using a computer...

  6. Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement, reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patterson, M.D.; Szollosi, G.; Daubin, V.; Tannier, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Models of ancestral gene order reconstruction have progressively integrated different evolutionary patterns and processes such as unequal gene content, gene duplications, and implicitly sequence evolution via reconciled gene trees. These models have so far ignored lateral gene transfer,

  7. Diagnosing and treating lateral epicondylitis.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is often encountered in primary care. Although its diagnosis can be fairly straightforward, its treatment is often difficult. This review examines the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of tennis elbow. Management options are discussed.

  8. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  9. TYPOLOGIES OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Ivan; Alin Zamfiroiu; Dragoş Palaghiţă3

    2013-01-01

    Mobile applications and their particularities are analyzed. Mobile application specific characteristics are defined. Types of applications are identified and analyzed. The paper established differences between mobile applications and mobile application categories. For each identified type the specific structures and development model are identified.

  10. Lateral Asymmetries in Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Bradshaw; Nettleton, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Lateral asymmetries are not confined to humans. Palaeozoic trilobites and calcichordates are now known to have been asymmetrical; song control in passerines is vested in the left cerebral hemisphere; learning which is lateralized to the left forebrain of chicks includes imprinting, visual discrimination learning and auditory habituation, while responses to novelty, attack and copulation are activated by the right; in rats the right hemisphere is involved in emotional behavior and spatial disc...

  11. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Barquero, David

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  12. Mobile platform security

    CERN Document Server

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  13. LTE mobile network technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sladič, Klemen

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is an introduction to long term evolution of fourth generation mobile networks based on LTE mobile network standard. Fourth generation mobile networks are currently one of the most developed technology in the world of mobile communications and are somewhere already available for commercial use. At the beginning is a short history of mobile networks evolution, for easier understanding. In the history you can find information from first researches of magnetic...

  14. MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    RAJGURU P. V. DR. DESHMUKH S. D

    2011-01-01

    Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, ...

  15. ON MOBILE MESH NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in mobile computing technologies and the growth of the Net, mobile mesh networks are going through a set of important evolutionary steps. In this paper, we survey architectural aspects of mobile mesh networks and their use cases and deployment models. Also, we survey challenging areas of mobile mesh networks and describe our vision of promising mobile services. This paper presents a basic introductory material for Masters of Open Information Technologies Lab, interested in m...

  16. Programmable Baseband Filter for Multistandard Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Glarborg; Christensen, Kåre Tais; Bruun, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a channel selection filter for mobile communication systems using a direct down conversion architecture. The filter can be programmed to meet the requirements of different communication standards, including GSM (Global System for Mobile communication), WCDMA (Wideband Code...... Division Multiple Access), and Bluetooth. The filter includes a novel DC offset compensation circuit that combines offset sampling in GSM mode with high pass filtering in WCDMA mode. The filter can be programmed to different noise performance levels by programming the impedance level and power consumption...

  17. Channel nut tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Marvin

    2016-01-12

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  18. Secrecy Outage Capacity of Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Gungor, Onur; Koksal, C Emre; Gamal, Hesham El; Shroff, Ness B

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers point to point secure communication over flat fading channels under an outage constraint. More specifically, we extend the definition of outage capacity to account for the secrecy constraint and obtain sharp characterizations of the corresponding fundamental limits under two different assumptions on the transmitter CSI (Channel state information). First, we find the outage secrecy capacity assuming that the transmitter has perfect knowledge of the legitimate and eavesdropper channel gains. In this scenario, the capacity achieving scheme relies on opportunistically exchanging private keys between the legitimate nodes. These keys are stored in a key buffer and later used to secure delay sensitive data using the Vernam's one time pad technique. We then extend our results to the more practical scenario where the transmitter is assumed to know only the legitimate channel gain. Here, our achievability arguments rely on privacy amplification techniques to generate secret key bits. In the two cas...

  19. Measurement of laterally induced optical forces at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Rajaei, Mohsen; Almajhadi, Mohammad; Kumar Wickramasinghe, H.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the measurement of laterally induced optical forces using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The lateral electric field distribution between a gold coated AFM probe and a single nano-aperture in a gold film is mapped by measuring the lateral optical force between the apex of the AFM probe and the nano-aperture. The fundamental torsional eigen-mode of an AFM cantilever probe was used to detect the laterally induced optical forces. We engineered the cantilever shape using focused ion beam milling to improve the detected signal to noise ratio. The measured distributions of lateral optical force agree well with electromagnetic simulations of the metal coated AFM probe interacting with the nano-aperture. This technique can be extended to simultaneously detect both lateral and longitudinal optical forces at the nanoscale by using an AFM cantilever as a multi-channel detector. This will enable simultaneous Photon Induced Force Microscopy detection of molecular responses with different incident field polarizations. The technique can be implemented on both cantilever and tuning fork based AFMs.

  20. STRATEGIC IMPACT OF MOBILITY ON ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Golovkova

    2014-01-01

    finding their feet in almost every sector and it has a profound impact on both customers as well as employees. Mobility solutions are growing across business portfolios of company and driving by the need to increase productivity. They improve decision making, with increased near real-time access through mobile channels that help to improve internal employee interaction, customer collaboration, network building and information sharing.

  1. Evolution of Channels Draining Mount St. Helens: Linking Non-Linear and Rapid, Threshold Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    triggered a debris flow which cutoff tributary channels to Glacier Creek and redirected Step and Loowit Creeks thereby forcing enhanced flow volumes through the main channel. Very coarse, armored bed materials were mobilized allowing for deep incision into the substrate. Incision continues today at slower rates but it is again the lateral shifting and widening of the channels that is dominant. Low and moderate flows undercut the toe of 30 m-high pyroclastic flow deposits causing significant erosion. As the channel continues to widen incision will attenuate non-linearly. Channels such as the multiple Step Creek channels will coalesce as narrow ridges erode by undercutting and mass failure much as reaches of lower Loowit Creek did in the late 1980’s. The resulting enlarged and over-widened sections will then again (as in downstream reaches) have lowered transporting power.

  2. Abrechnung mobiler Dienste im Mobile-Payment-Referenzmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  3. Charging of mobile services by mobile payment reference model

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  4. Optineurin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2013-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating disease, and thus it is important to identify the causative gene and resolve the mechanism of the disease. We identified optineurin as a causative gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We found three types of mutations: a homozygous deletion of exon 5, a homozygous Q398X nonsense mutation and a heterozygous E478G missense mutation within its ubiquitin-binding domain. Optineurin negatively regulates the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Nonsense and missense mutations abolished this function. Mutations related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also negated the inhibition of interferon regulatory factor-3. The missense mutation showed a cyotoplasmic distribution different from that of the wild type. There are no specific clinical symptoms related to optineurin. However, severe brain atrophy was detected in patients with homozygous deletion. Neuropathologically, an E478G patient showed transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa-positive neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions in the spinal and medullary motor neurons. Furthermore, Golgi fragmentation was identified in 73% of this patient's anterior horn cells. In addition, optineurin is colocalized with fused in sarcoma in the basophilic inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with fused in sarcoma mutations, and in basophilic inclusion body disease. These findings strongly suggest that optineurin is involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  5. Mobility Charters and Manifestos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    and ethical positions on mobility prevail. Such ‘imagined correct mobility behavior’ are drawing on larger issues of societal change that need to be brought out in a critical analysis and discussion reflecting the attempts to control, design and orchestrate mobility patterns. The paper therefore argues within......This paper explore a number of different cases of articulating notions of ‘correct’ mobility behavior and practice by looking into charters, manifestos and codes of mobility regulation. Within such discourses of ‘correct mobility’ more or less subtle expressions of power as well as normative...... the ‘mobility turn’ that mobility is much more than movement from A to B. Seeing the cultural dimension as well as the underpinning power plays of normative mobility discourses opens up the reflection about imagined futures and imagined mobile subjects. Theoretically the paper bridges discourse studies...

  6. Children's velo-mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable mobilities play a dominate role in low carbon futures and cycling is an integral element. Children are heirs of transport cultures and crucial for future sustainable mobility. Moreover cycling is important for children’s independent mobility and geographical experience. Dominating app...... the paper inform a discussion of urban planning and transport policy measures important for stabilizing sustainable mobility.......Sustainable mobilities play a dominate role in low carbon futures and cycling is an integral element. Children are heirs of transport cultures and crucial for future sustainable mobility. Moreover cycling is important for children’s independent mobility and geographical experience. Dominating...... approaches in transport research, including cycling, understand travel behaviour individualistic and lack to grasp the relational complexities, which are inevitable when considering children’s mobilities. Furthermore has children’s cycling largely been studied as independent mobility and active school travel...

  7. Excitation of fluorescent nanoparticles by channel plasmon polaritons propagating in V-grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta, Irene Fernandez; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2009-01-01

    Recently, it has been proven that light can be squeezed into metallic channels with subwavelength lateral dimensions. Here, we present the study of the propagation of channel plasmon polaritons confined in gold V-grooves, filled with fluorescent particles. In this way, channel plasmon polaritons ...

  8. Small Terminal MIMO Channels with User Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of results obtained from measurements of different types of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. For the indoor case measurements were made at 5.8 GHz from access points (APs) to mobile stations (MSs) at different places in a large open office type room. Th...... an investigation of the potentials for communication between cars approaching as well as in convoy and from inside and outside the car....

  9. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches.

  10. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  11. Mobile Portal Implementation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Ping; Damsgaard, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Mobile portal plays an important role in mobile commerce market. Current literature focuses on static analysis on the value chain of mobile portals. This article provides a dynamic perspective on mobile portal strategy. Drawing upon network economics, we describe mobile portal implementation...... as a fourphase process. In different phase, a portal provider has various challenges to overcome and adopt diverse strategies, and correspondingly the regulator has different foci. The conceptual framework proposed in this article offers a basis for further analyses on the market dynamics of mobile commerce......, and can be generalized to studying other networked technologies...

  12. Mobile Router Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  13. Multi-Channel Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Morschett, Dr.,

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel retailing entails the parallel use by retailing enterprises of several sales channels. The results of an online buyer survey which has been conducted to investigate the impact of multi-channel retailing (i.e. the use of several retail channels by one retail company on consumer behaviour show that the frequently expressed concern that the application of multi-channel systems in retailing would be associated with cannibalization effects, has proven unfounded. Indeed, the appropriate degree of similarity, consistency, integration and agreement achieves the exact opposite. Different channels create different advantages for consumers. Therefore the total benefit an enterprise which has a multi-channel system can offer to its consumers is larger, the greater the number of available channels. The use of multi-channel systems is associated with additional purchases in the different channels. Such systems are thus superior to those offering only one sales channel to their customers. Furthermore, multi-channel systems with integrated channels are superior to those in which the channels are essentially autonomous and independent of one another. In integrated systems, consumers can achieve synergy effects in the use of sales-channel systems. Accordingly, when appropriately formulated, multi-channel systems in retailing impact positively on consumers. They use the channels more frequently, buy more from them and there is a positive customer-loyalty impact. Multi-channel systems are strategic options for achieving customer loyalty, exploiting customer potential and for winning new customers. They are thus well suited for approaching differing and varied target groups.

  14. Service Level Agreement for the QoS Guaranteed Mobile IPTV Services over Mobile WiMAX Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Mostafa Zaman; Jang, Yeong Min; Kim, Young-Il; Ryu, Won

    2011-01-01

    While mobile IPTV services are supported through the mobile WiMAX networks, there must need some guaranteed bandwidth for the IPTV services especially if IPTV and non-IPTV services are simultaneously supported by the mobile WiMAX networks. The quality of an IPTV service definitely depends on the allocated bandwidth for that channel. However, due to the high quality IPTV services and to support of huge non-IPTV traffic over mobile WiMAX networks, it is not possible to guarantee the sufficient amount of the limited mobile WiMAX bandwidth for the mobile IPTV services every time. A Service Level Agreement (SLA) between the mobile IPTV service provider and mobile WiMAX network operator to reserve sufficient bandwidth for the IPTV calls can increase the satisfaction level of the mobile IPTV users. In this paper, we propose a SLA negotiation procedure for mobile IPTV users over mobile WiMAX networks. The Bandwidth Broker controls the allocated bandwidth for IPTV and non-IPTV users. The proposed dynamically reserved ...

  15. Bathymetric controls on sediment transport in the Hudson River estuary: Lateral asymmetry and frontal trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, David K.; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Warner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of field observations and numerical model results have identified that sediment transport in the Hudson River estuary is laterally segregated between channel and shoals, features frontal trapping at multiple locations along the estuary, and varies significantly over the spring-neap tidal cycle. Lateral gradients in depth, and therefore baroclinic pressure gradient and stratification, control the lateral distribution of sediment transport. Within the saline estuary, sediment fluxes are strongly landward in the channel and seaward on the shoals. At multiple locations, bottom salinity fronts form at bathymetric transitions in width or depth. Sediment convergences near the fronts create local maxima in suspended-sediment concentration and deposition, providing a general mechanism for creation of secondary estuarine turbidity maxima at bathymetric transitions. The lateral bathymetry also affects the spring-neap cycle of sediment suspension and deposition. In regions with broad, shallow shoals, the shoals are erosional and the channel is depositional during neap tides, with the opposite pattern during spring tides. Narrower, deeper shoals are depositional during neaps and erosional during springs. In each case, the lateral transfer is from regions of higher to lower bed stress, and depends on the elevation of the pycnocline relative to the bed. Collectively, the results indicate that lateral and along-channel gradients in bathymetry and thus stratification, bed stress, and sediment flux lead to an unsteady, heterogeneous distribution of sediment transport and trapping along the estuary rather than trapping solely at a turbidity maximum at the limit of the salinity intrusion.

  16. Secure and reliable routing in mobile adhoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Haboub, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    The growing diffusion of wireless-enabled portable devices and the recent advances in Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs) open new scenarios where users can benefit from anywhere and at any time for impromptu collaboration. However, energy constrained nodes, low channel bandwidth, node mobility, high channel error rates, channel variability and packet loss are some of the limitations of MANETs. MANETs presents also security challenges. These networks are prone to malicious users attack, because any device within the frequency range can get access to the MANET. There is a need for security mechanisms aware of these challenges. Thus, this work aims to provide a secure MANET by changing the frequency of data transmission. This security approach was tested, and the results shows an interesting decreased of throughput from malicious node when the number of frequency used is increased, that way the MANET will not waste it's resources treating malicious packets. The other contribution of this work is a mobility aware ro...

  17. Narrowband coherent data transmission-mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, A.; McGeehan, JP

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigate the practical realization of pilot-based channel equalization systems, their integration into coherent data demodulation techniques, and their performance as compared with coherent data systems utilizing the data signal alone. Most of the analysis is associated with the land mobile environment, which is arguably the most hostile environment for data transmission. However many of the results and remarks made are equally applicable to the aeronautical, sea, and satellite...

  18. Get Mobile – The Smartphone Brain Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Petersen, Michael Kai

    This demonstration will provide live-interaction with a smartphone brain scanner consisting of a low-cost wireless 14-channel EEG headset (Emotiv Epoc) and a mobile device. With our system it is possible to perform real-time functional brain imaging on a smartphone device, including stimulus deli......) that are based on Linux operating systems. Thus our system runs on multiple platforms, including Maemo/MeeGo based smartphones, Android-based smartphones and tablet devices....

  19. 6.1 channel general planar surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2001-01-01

    A new 6.1 channel surround sound system and its two signal mixing methods are proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system is able to recreate 360°sound image in horizontal plane. Especially, compared with current 5.1 channel system, lateral and rear image of the new system is improved obviously. Therefore it is suitable to be used as a general surround sound system. It is also proved that, the new system is fully compatible with 5.1 channel system, and current methods are available to record 6.1 channel signals.

  20. Spatial DCT-Based Channel Estimation in Multi-Antenna Multi-Cell Interference Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alodeh, Maha; Chatzinotas, Symeon; Ottersten, Bjorn

    2015-03-01

    This work addresses channel estimation in multiple antenna multicell interference-limited networks. Channel state information (CSI) acquisition is vital for interference mitigation. Wireless networks often suffer from multicell interference, which can be mitigated by deploying beamforming to spatially direct the transmissions. The accuracy of the estimated CSI plays an important role in designing accurate beamformers that can control the amount of interference created from simultaneous spatial transmissions to mobile users. Therefore, a new technique based on the structure of the spatial covariance matrix and the discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed to enhance channel estimation in the presence of interference. Bayesian estimation and Least Squares estimation frameworks are introduced by utilizing the DCT to separate the overlapping spatial paths that create the interference. The spatial domain is thus exploited to mitigate the contamination which is able to discriminate across interfering users. Gains over conventional channel estimation techniques are presented in our simulations which are also valid for a small number of antennas.

  1. Non-linear plasma transport in graphene channels and application to the detection of terahertz signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg

    2012-02-01

    The non-linear electron plasma response to electromagnetic signal applied to a gated graphene conduction channel can be used to make a graphene based Dyakonov-Shur terahertz detector. The hydrodynamic model predicts a resonance response to electromagnetic radiation at the plasma oscillation frequency. With less damping and higher mobility, the graphene conduction channels may provide higher quality plasma response than possible with semiconductor channels. Our analysis of plasma oscillations in a graphene channel is based on the hydrodynamic equations which we derive from the Boltzmann equation accounting for both electrons and holes, and including the effects of viscosity and finite mobility.

  2. Exploring the Mobility of Mobile Phone Users

    CERN Document Server

    Csáji, Balázs Cs; Traag, V A; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread ...

  3. Pollute first, clean up later?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Hossein; Verheijke, Gijs; Witlox, Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing concern with regard to sustainability in emerging economies like China. The Chinese growth is characterized by a strategy which is known as "pollute first, clean up later". Here we show that based on this strategy, the pollution alarm can often be postponed by a tremendous economi

  4. Later Zhou Sejong's Cultural Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Qing

    2015-01-01

    Sejong wanted to stabilize the control. He paid attention to strengthen cultural enlightenment and implement cultural policy from educating people, choosing capable person, repairing history, limiting Buddhism, respecting Confucianism and other aspects. The wind of literature rise gradually. It is conducive to research the developmental trajectory of Later Zhou Dynasty.

  5. NUMERICAL MODELING OF COMPOUND CHANNEL FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model capable of predicting flow characteristics in a compound channel was established with the 3-D steady continuity and momentum equations along with the transport equations for turbulence kinetic energy and dissipation rate. Closure was achieved with the aid of algebraic relations for turbulent shear stresses. The above equations were discretized with implicit difference approach and solved with a step method along the flow direction. The computational results showing the lateral distribution of vertical average velocities and the latio of total flow in the compound channel agree well with the available experimental data.

  6. ECG by mobile technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Malik, Marek

    Mobile electrocardiographs consist of three components: a mobile device (e.g. a smartphone), an electrocardiographic device or accessory, and a mobile application. Mobile platforms are small computers with sufficient computational power, good quality display, suitable data storage, and several possibilities of data transmission. Electrocardiographic electrodes and sensors for mobile use utilize unconventional materials, e.g. rubber, e-textile, and inkjet-printed nanoparticle electrodes. Mobile devices can be handheld, worn as vests or T-shirts, or attached to patient's skin as biopatches. Mobile electrocardiographic devices and accessories may additionally record other signals including respiratory rate, activity level, and geolocation. Large-scale clinical studies that utilize electrocardiography are easier to conduct using mobile technologies and the collected data are suitable for "big data" processing. This is expected to reveal phenomena so far inaccessible by standard electrocardiographic techniques.

  7. Making Everyday Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon

    repercussions. Moreover, family mobility does not simply happen, rather the successful performance of everyday mobility is a creative process that requires labour, skill and knowledge (Vannini 2012). It is proposed that families cope with everyday life through the on-going making and performance of mobility......Based upon a qualitative PhD study of 11 families everyday mobility, this paper inquiries into the everyday mobility of families with children in the Greater Copenhagen Area and the role mobility plays in contributing to coping in the families’ everyday life. Drawing on Mobilities theory (Jensen...... practices. Specific heterogeneous configurations in mobility practices facilitate instrumental movement of family members, but can also engender care, quality time of togetherness, recreational and productive in-betweens, as well as sensorial and emotional experiences through the orchestration of affective...

  8. Mobile Phones on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春宝

    2007-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, more and more people have mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile phone users. By the year 2005 the number has reached up to 30 million.

  9. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Börner, D. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presented at Mobile Learning in Context Symposium at the Open University of the Netherlands. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  10. Tandem mobile robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Shirey, David L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hayward, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  11. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  12. Mobile systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Kristiansen, Martin Lund; Kammersgaard, Marc N.

    2007-01-01

    Development of mobile software is Surrounded by much uncertainty. Immature software platforms on mobile clients, a highly competitive market calling for innovation, efficiency and effectiveness in the development life cycle, and lacking end-user adoption are just some of the realities facing...... development teams in the mobile software industry. By taking a process view on development of mobile systems we seek to explore the strengths and limitations of eXtreme Programming (XP) in the context of mobile software development. Following an experimental approach a mobile systems development project...... running for four months is conducted. Experiences from the project are used for analysis and discussion of the fit of XP in mobile systems development. First, requirements for mobile systems development projects are proposed. Second, these are analysed and compared to the prescribed principles suggested...

  13. Mobile IP: Security & application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuquerres, Gloria; Salvador, Marcos Rogério; Sprenkels, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As required in the TGS Mobile IP Advanced Module, this paper presents a survey of common security threats which mobile IP networks are exposed to as well as some proposed solutions to deal with such threats.

  14. USACE Navigation Channels 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  15. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  16. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  17. Mobile Learning Applications Audit

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    While mobile learning (m-learning) applications have proven their value in educational activities, there is a need to measure their reliability, accessibility and further more their trustworthiness. Mobile devices are far more vulnerable then classic computers and present inconvenient interfaces due to their size, hardware limitations and their mobile connectivity. Mobile learning applications should be audited to determine if they should be trusted or not, while multimedia contents like auto...

  18. A Hot Knife Through Ice-Cream: Earthflow Response to Channel Incision (Or Channel Response to Earthflows?), Eel River Canyon, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, B. H.; Roering, J. J.; McKean, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Abundant glacier-like earthflow features are recognized as a primary erosional process in the highly erodable Franciscan Melange of the Eel River Basin, CA. Despite their prominence in this "melting ice-cream" topography, many questions regarding their effects on the long term sediment flux from this rapidly eroding basin remain unresolved. For example, does an earthflow's basal shear zone propagate vertically downwards with vertical river incision? What controls the upslope and lateral extent of individual earthflows? How does the erosive power of a river influence the rate of earthflow movement, or conversely do earthflow toe deposits regulate the rate of river incision? Here we present preliminary findings derived from study of 200km2 of lidar data (1m resolution) covering hillslopes adjacent to 30km of the Eel River. Lidar allows detailed analysis of the interaction between earthflows and the drainage network, and we document how inferred changes in local base level are propagated throughout adjacent hillslopes via earthflow movement. The most active earthflows (determined by field surveying and analysis of aerial photos rectified using lidar- generated digital topography) coincide with locally steep sections of channel, while downstream of the most active flows we frequently observe less-active or dormant earthflows. This observation supports the idea that the locations of the most active earthflows coincide with headward propagating knickpoints in the channel. The rate of earthflow movement appears to slow when an earthflow exhausts the upslope area of easily mobilized sediment. Earthflow toes can protrude directly into the channel, causing the channel to narrow and steepen, and even undercut the opposite bank. Large resistant boulders (>2m diameter) transported by the earthflow accumulate in the streambed and appear to both act as a check on further channel incision and earthflow movement. In contrast, areas adjacent to active earthflows exhibit smooth

  19. Adaptive Channel-Tracking Method and Equalization for MC-CDMA Systems over Rapidly Fading Channel under Colored Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bor-Sen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recursive maximum-likelihood (RML algorithm for channel estimation under rapidly fading channel and colored noise in a multicarrier code-division multiple-access (MC-CDMA system is proposed in this paper. A moving-average model with exogenous input (MAX is given to describe the transmission channel and colored noise. Based on the pseudoregression method, the proposed RML algorithm can simultaneously estimate the parameters of channel and colored noise. Following the estimation results, these parameters can be used to enhance the minimum mean-square error (MMSE equalizer. Considering high-speed mobile stations, a one-step linear trend predictor is added to improve symbol detection. Simulation results indicate that the proposed RML estimator can track the channel more precisely than the conventional estimator. Meanwhile, the performance of the proposed enhanced MMSE equalizer is robust to the rapidly Rayleigh fading channel under colored noise in the MC-CDMA systems.

  20. LDPC Decoding on GPU for Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A flexible software LDPC decoder that exploits data parallelism for simultaneous multicode words decoding on the mobile device is proposed in this paper, supported by multithreading on OpenCL based graphics processing units. By dividing the check matrix into several parts to make full use of both the local memory and private memory on GPU and properly modify the code capacity each time, our implementation on a mobile phone shows throughputs above 100 Mbps and delay is less than 1.6 millisecond in decoding, which make high-speed communication like video calling possible. To realize efficient software LDPC decoding on the mobile device, the LDPC decoding feature on communication baseband chip should be replaced to save the cost and make it easier to upgrade decoder to be compatible with a variety of channel access schemes.

  1. Flow visualization by mobile phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierpka, Christian; Hain, Rainer; Buchmann, Nicolas A.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile smart phones were completely changing people's communication within the last ten years. However, these devices do not only offer communication through different channels but also devices and applications for fun and recreation. In this respect, mobile phone cameras include now relatively fast (up to 240 Hz) cameras to capture high-speed videos of sport events or other fast processes. The article therefore explores the possibility to make use of this development and the wide spread availability of these cameras in the terms of velocity measurements for industrial or technical applications and fluid dynamics education in high schools and at universities. The requirements for a simplistic PIV (particle image velocimetry) system are discussed. A model experiment of a free water jet was used to prove the concept and shed some light on the achievable quality and determine bottle necks by comparing the results obtained with a mobile phone camera with data taken by a high-speed camera suited for scientific experiments.

  2. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DWTBASED MULTICARRIER SYSTEM IN TIME VARYING CHANNELS

    OpenAIRE

    Meenu S Kumar; Sandra Prasad; Ramanathan R

    2015-01-01

    With an increase in user mobility, data rate and carrier frequencies we have to consider time variant channels. In order to overcome the impairments of the time varying channel on conventional OFDM system, a wavelet based OFDM system is investigated in place of FFT based system and its BER performance is analyzed for different Doppler frequencies. The results show that DWT based OFDM gives better performance compared to conventional OFDM system.

  4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DWTBASED MULTICARRIER SYSTEM IN TIME VARYING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu S Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in user mobility, data rate and carrier frequencies we have to consider time variant channels. In order to overcome the impairments of the time varying channel on conventional OFDM system, a wavelet based OFDM system is investigated in place of FFT based system and its BER performance is analyzed for different Doppler frequencies. The results show that DWT based OFDM gives better performance compared to conventional OFDM system.

  5. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  6. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...

  7. LATERAL DOWNFLOWS IN SUNSPOT PENUMBRAL FILAMENTS AND THEIR TEMPORAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban Pozuelo, S.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apdo. 3004, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz, E-mail: sesteban@iaa.es [Institute for Solar Physics, Dept. of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-04-20

    We study the temporal evolution of downflows observed at the lateral edges of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located very close to the disk center. Our analysis is based on a sequence of nearly diffraction-limited scans of the Fe i 617.3 nm line taken with the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. We compute Dopplergrams from the observed intensity profiles using line bisectors and filter the resulting velocity maps for subsonic oscillations. Lateral downflows appear everywhere in the center-side penumbra as small, weak patches of redshifts next to or along the edges of blueshifted flow channels. These patches have an intermittent life and undergo mergings and fragmentations quite frequently. The lateral downflows move together with the hosting filaments and react to their shape variations, very much resembling the evolution of granular convection in the quiet Sun. There is a good relation between brightness and velocity in the center-side penumbra, with downflows being darker than upflows on average, which is again reminiscent of quiet Sun convection. These results point to the existence of overturning convection in sunspot penumbrae, with elongated cells forming filaments where the flow is upward but very inclined, and weak lateral downward flows. In general, the circular polarization profiles emerging from the lateral downflows do not show sign reversals, although sometimes we detect three-lobed profiles that are suggestive of opposite magnetic polarities in the pixel.

  8. Prospects for the Use of Mobile Marketing Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Stalmach

    2010-01-01

    Mobile marketing has some undeniable advantages over other communication channels, such as interactivity, location based services and impulsiveness (spontaneity). However, a cell phone and other mobile devices are treated by users as personal devices in relation to which they are reluctant to see the interference from outside. The challenge for the industry is therefore a good understanding of the restrictions associated with this form of communication. Factors specific to m-marketing include...

  9. Back-gate effects and mobility characterization in junctionless transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Mukta Singh; Liu, Fanyu; Navarro, Carlos; Barraud, Sylvain; Bawedin, Maryline; Ionica, Irina; Kranti, Abhinav; Cristoloveanu, Sorin

    2016-11-01

    This work addresses the effect of inter-gate coupling on back-channel characteristics of planar accumulation-mode junctionless (JL) MOSFETs, fabricated with advanced Fully Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (FDSOI) technology. A systematic methodology to extract and distinguish the contributions of bulk and accumulation-mode mobility has been developed. Front-gate voltage strongly controls the transport properties of back channel in ultra-thin heavily doped JL devices. It is demonstrated that both volume and accumulation-layer mobility values increase when the front interface is in accumulation.

  10. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  11. Quantum Multiple Access Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯广; 黄民信; 张永德

    2002-01-01

    We consider the transmission of classical information over a quantum channel by many senders, which is a generalization of the two-sender case. The channel capacity region is shown to be a convex hull bound by the yon Neumann entropy and the conditional yon Neumann entropies. The result allows a reasonable distribution of channel capacity over the senders.

  12. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...

  13. Riluzole exerts central and peripheral modulating effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Steve; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi; Cheah, Benjamin C; Murray, Jenna; Menon, Parvathi; Krishnan, Arun V; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2013-05-01

    Riluzole, a benzothiazole derivative, has been shown to be effective in prolonging survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The mechanisms by which riluzole exerts neuroprotective effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains to be fully elucidated, although inhibition of glutamatergic transmission and modulation of Na+ channel function have been proposed. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms by which riluzole exerts neuroprotective effects, in particular to dissect the relative contributions of inhibition of glutamatergic transmission and Na+ channel modulation, the present study utilized a combination of cortical and peripheral axonal excitability approaches to monitor changes in excitability and function in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cortical assessment was undertaken by utilising the threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique and combined with peripheral axonal excitability studies in 25 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Studies were performed at baseline and repeated when patients were receiving riluzole 100 mg/day. At the time of second testing all patients were tolerating the medication well. Motor evoked potential and compound muscle action potential responses were recorded over the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. At baseline, features of cortical hyperexcitability were evident in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, indicated by marked reduction in short interval intracortical inhibition (P amyotrophic lateral sclerosis had significant increases in depolarizing threshold electrotonus [amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline TEd (90-100 ms) 49.1 ± 1.8%; controlsTEd (90-100 ms) 45.2 ± 0.6%, P amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline 30.1 ± 2.3%; control subjects 23.4 ± 1.0%, P amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline 30.1 ± 2.3%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosisON riluzole 27.3 ± 2.3%, P amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline 98.7 ± 10.7%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosisON riluzole 67.8 ± 9

  14. Performance implications of chemical mobilization after microchannel IEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Augusto M; Herr, Amy E

    2014-05-01

    Chemical mobilization following IEF enables single-point detection of an ideally stationary equilibrium electrophoresis mode. Despite prior studies exploring optimization of chemical mobilization conditions and recent insight from numerical simulations, understanding of both chemical mobilization mechanisms and the implications of mobilization on IEF analytical performance remains limited. In this study, we utilize full-field imaging of microchannel IEF to assess the performance of a range of canonical chemical mobilization schemes. We empirically demonstrate and characterize key areas where limited understanding of performance implications exists, including: the effects of mobilization solution pH and ion concentration, differences between ionic and zwitterionic mobilization, and diffusion as a source of zone broadening. We utilize Simul5 simulations to gain insight into the sources of the measured performance differences. Measurements of the location, linearity, and slope of the IEF pH gradient (via fluorescent pH markers imaged before and during mobilization) as well as mobilization-associated broadening of focused analytes were performed to quantify performance and determine the dominant sources of variability. Our results suggest that nonuniform broadening of the pH gradient and changes in the pH gradient linearity stem from conductivity nonuniformities in the separation channel and not diffusion-associated band broadening during mobilization.

  15. Broadband channel measurement and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming; ZHANG Jian-hua; JIANG Jun; ZHANG Ping; WU Yu-fei

    2006-01-01

    An outdoor propagation measurement campaign for beyond 3G (B3G) as well as a wide-band indoor measurement campaign have been performed recently in Beijing, China, in which the sounding signals are transmitted by an one-antenna base station and received by a two-antenna mobile receiver operated at 3.49~3.51 GHz bandwidth. Different scenarios:stationary line-of-sight (LoS), stationary non-LoS (NLoS)scenarios, and dynamic NLoS are deliberately chosen in a classic urban environment and office environment. The initial results are presented in this article. Parameters including vector channel impulse response, path loss, rays number, excess delay spread etc. are extracted, analyzed, and briefly reported here.

  16. 47 CFR 90.717 - Channels available for nationwide systems in the 220-222 MHz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., commercial Phase I systems. (c) Channels 111-115 and 116-120 are 5-channel blocks available for Government... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels available for nationwide systems in... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations...

  17. TRANSVERSE MIXING IN A TRAPEZOIDAL COMPOUND OPEN CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yu-hong; HUAI Wen-xin; GUYMER I

    2008-01-01

    Transverse mixing characteristics of solute in the open channel flow can provide useful information for river environmental management. The lateral mixing coefficient is a crucial parameter for reproducing the transverse mixing either by numerical simulation or by analytical prediction. Since the solute mixing can be greatly affected by the lateral variations in water depth, mixing coefficient should be determined in each sub-section (i.e., the main channel, side slope and flood plain) separately. In this article, the transverse mixing in a symmetric trapezoidal compound channel was studied based on laboratory measurement of longitudinal and transverse velocity components and lateral distribution of solute concentration. The lateral mixing coefficient was estimated by adopting different Schmidt numbers in different sub-sections divided according to the developing trend of the eddy viscosity, and finally a piecewise linear profile of mixing coefficient was adopted to analytically predict the transverse solute concentration. The comparison between the analytically predicted data and the measuring solute concentration proved that this is an effective way to estimate the lateral mixing in the open channel flow with lateral variations in water depth.

  18. Differences between main-channel and off-channel food webs in the upper Mississippi River revealed by fatty acid profiles of consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Bartsch, Michelle; Gutreuter, Steve; Knights, Brent C.; Bartsch, Lynn; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jonathan M.; Arts, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Large river systems are often thought to contain a mosaic of patches with different habitat characteristics driven by differences in flow and mixing environments. Off-channel habitats (e.g., backwater areas, secondary channels) can become semi-isolated from main-channel water inputs, leading to the development of distinct biogeochemical environments. Observations of adult bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in the main channel of the Mississippi River led to speculation that the main channel offered superior food resources relative to off-channel areas. One important aspect of food quality is the quantity and composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We sampled consumers from main-channel and backwater habitats to determine whether they differed in PUFA content. Main-channel individuals for relatively immobile species (young-of-year bluegill, zebra mussels [Dreissena polymorpha], and plain pocketbook mussels [Lampsilis cardium]) had significantly greater PUFA content than off-channel individuals. No difference in PUFA was observed for the more mobile gizzard shad (Dorsoma cepedianum), which may move between main-channel and off-channel habitats even at early life-history stages. As off-channel habitats become isolated from main-channel waters, flow and water column nitrogen decrease, potentially improving conditions for nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and vascular plants that, in turn, have low PUFA content. We conclude that main-channel food webs of the upper Mississippi River provide higher quality food resources for some riverine consumers as compared to food webs in off-channel habitats.

  19. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    but it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified? ‘Active......’ is to be understood according to the interpretations available in different knowledge perspectives in order to discipline the future knowledge production of ageing and control the processes of subjectification in later life as the disciplining of ‘Population Ageing’: Becoming a subject to active ageing. Dominant...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....

  20. Channel Estimation Based in Comb-Type Pilots Arrangement for OFDM System over Time Varying Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Mahmoud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has been recently applied widely in wireless communication systems, due to its high data rate, transmission capability with high bandwidth, efficiency and its robustness to multipath delay .Channel estimation is an essential problem in OFDM system. Pilot-aided channel estimation has been used; a good choice of the pilot pattern should match the channel behavior both in time and frequency domains. We explored comb pilot arrangements. The advantage for comb type pilots arrangement in channel estimation is the ability to track the variation of the channel caused by doppler frequency, it is observed that the doppler effect can be reduced, and so this will increase the system mobility. Kalman and Least Square (LS estimators have been proposed to estimate the Channel Frequency Response (CFR at the pilots location, then CFR at data sub channels are obtained by mean of interpolation between estimates at pilot locations. Different types of interpolations have been used such as; low pass interpolation; spline cubic interpolation and linear interpolation. Kalman estimation has better performance than LS estimation. The estimators perform about the same for SNR lower than 10 dB. The performances of all schemes have been compared by finding Bit Error Rate (BER, where BPSK modulation scheme was used.

  1. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  2. Mobile intention recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Intention Recognition addresses problems of practical relevance for mobile system engineers: how can we make mobile assistance systems more intelligent? How can we model and recognize patterns of human behavior which span more than a limited spatial context? This text provides an overview on plan and intention recognition, ranging from the late 1970s to very recent approaches. This overview is unique as it discusses approaches with respect to the specificities of mobile intention recognition. This book covers problems from research on mobile assistance systems using methods from artific

  3. Residential mobility microsimulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Wu, Lun

    2010-09-01

    Residential mobility refers to the spatial movement of individuals and households between dwellings within an urban area. This considerable amount of intra-urban movement affects the urban structure and has significant repercussions for urban transportation. In order to understand and project related impacts, a considerable number of residential mobility models has been developed and used in the regional planning process. Within this context, the history and state-of-art residential mobility models are discussed and indicated. Meanwhile, a residential mobility Microsimulation model, called URM-Microsim (Urban Residential Mobility Microsimulation), is introduced and discussed.

  4. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests...... in the laboratory show ultimate resistances close to the estimated limits and p - y curves close to curves based on test results from full-scale piles. Rough and smooth piles with circular and square cross sections are investigated....

  5. Modeling of Ad-hoc and Infrastructure Dual Mode Mobile Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Hung Chen; Hui-Nien Hung; Yi-Bing Lin; Nan-Fu Peng

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates a mobile telecommunications system that supports both ad hoc and infrastructure mode operations. Based on analytic and simulation models, our study investigates how base station (BS) and ad hoc channel capacity, and the mobility and locality of mobile stations affect the performance of a dual mode system. We show that a dual mode system can significantly outperform a single mode (infrastructure) system when the degree of locality is high. Furthermore, a dual mode system can support much faster mobile users with less BS channels in comparison to an infrastructure mode system. Our study quantitatively identifies the threshold value for the number of ad hoc channels such that beyond this threshold, increasing ad hoc channel capacity will not improve the performance of a dual mode system.

  6. Engaging with mobile methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2014-01-01

    This chapter showcases how mobile methods are more than calibrated techniques awaiting application by tourism researchers, but productive in the enactment of the mobile (Law and Urry, 2004). Drawing upon recent findings deriving from a PhD course on mobility and mobile methods it reveals...... the conceptual ambiguousness of the term ‘mobile methods’. In order to explore this ambiguousness the chapter provides a number of examples deriving from tourism research, to explore how mobile methods are always entangled in ideologies, predispositions, conventions and practice-realities. Accordingly......, the engagements with methods are acknowledged to be always political and contextual, reminding us to avoid essentialist discussions regarding research methods. Finally, the chapter draws on recent fieldwork to extend developments in mobilities-oriented tourism research, by employing auto-ethnography to call...

  7. Efficient video-on-demand services over mobile datacast channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENKA(C) Hrvoje; STOCKHAMMER Thomas; XU Wen; ABDEL SAMAD Wissam

    2006-01-01

    The integration of reliable Video-on-Demand (VoD) broadcasting schemes in the DVB-h transmission system is studied, exemplary for Pyramid Broadcasting (PB). Sophisticated VoD broadcasting schemes such as PB allow receivers to tune into the ongoing transmission of a video-stream at arbitrary time, while still being able to receive the multimedia sequence from the beginning to end, after a short initial playout latency. Raptor coding, integrated in the FLUTE protocol, is combined with the traditional PB scheme in order to provide high service and presentation reliability. We give a short overview on the DVB-h transmission system as well as on the FLUTE protocol. We present and discuss options for the integration of VoD broadcasting schemes in combination with Raptor coding. We achieve backward-compatibility even with terminals not supporting Raptor coding. Simulation results show the benefits of the discussed VoD scheme compared to existing carousel approaches in DVB-h.

  8. Communications by vocoder on a mobile satellite fading channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    dal Degan, N.; Perosino, F.; Rusina, F.

    The performance of a LPC vocoder system is analyzed under various bit rate and fading errors. The error generation model developed to estimate error probability, and length of error bursts and distributions is described. Two algorithms that will improve burst are proposed. The evaluation of the spectral distance measures of the voice coding system is examined. The intelligibility, quality, and acceptability of the system are assessed using the mean opinion scores method.

  9. Protocol channels as a new design alternative of covert channels

    CERN Document Server

    Wendzel, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Covert channel techniques are used by attackers to transfer hidden data. There are two main categories of covert channels: timing channels and storage channels. This paper introduces a third category called protocol channels. A protocol channel switches one of at least two protocols to send a bit combination to a destination while sent packets include no hidden information themselves.

  10. Surface vacancy channels through ion channeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redinger, Alex; Standop, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M. [Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Damage patterns of single ion impacts on Pt(111) have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). Low temperature experiments, where surface diffusion is absent, have been performed for argon and xenon ions with energies between 1 keV and 15 keV at an angle of incidence of 86 {sup circle} measured with respect to the surface normal. Ions hitting preexisting illuminated step edges penetrate into the crystal and are guided in open crystallographic directions, one or more layers underneath the surface (subsurface channeling). In the case of argon channeling the resulting surface damage consists of adatom and vacancy pairs aligned in ion beam direction. After xenon channeling thin surface vacancy trenches along the ion trajectories - surface vacancy channels - are observed. They result from very efficient sputtering and adatom production along the ion trajectory. This phenomena is well reproduced in molecular dynamics simulations of single ion impacts at 0 K. The damage patterns of Argon and Xenon impacts can be traced back to the different energy losses of the particles in the channel. Channeling distances exceeding 1000 A for 15 keV xenon impacts are observed.

  11. Mobile Phones as Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz

    on expanding our capabilities in collecting, handling, processing, and using data collected about human beings to create an integrated view of social systems. The goal of the thesis has been threefold. The first part of the thesis focuses on the need, design, and implementation of large-scale sensor...... the importance of the proposed approach and deployed implementation. The second part of the thesis deals with expanding our capabilities to sense the cognitive and emotional state of the users through development of a system for mobile brain imaging—the Smartphone Brain Scanner. A developed framework allows......-driven human data collection studies. Social networks can be measured with high resolution and on multiple channels, such as face-toface meetings, social networks, or phone calls, in order to generate a more comprehensive picture of social systems. The largest study to date measuring large-scale social system...

  12. Radio resource management for next generation mobile communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua

    The key feature of next generation (4G) mobile communication system is the ability to deliver a variety of multimedia services with different Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. Compared to the third generation (3G) mobile communication systems, 4G mobile communication system introduces several...... technological novelties. Those technological breaks impose significant challenges on the design of advanced and completely new Radio Resource Management (RRM) algorithms, such as channel assignments and packet scheduling. Among the emerging technologies for broadband wireless access, special attention has been...

  13. A Timed Calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengying Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop a timed calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks embodying the peculiarities of local broadcast, node mobility and communication interference. We present a Reduction Semantics and a Labelled Transition Semantics and prove the equivalence between them. We then apply our calculus to model and study some MAC-layer protocols with special emphasis on node mobility and communication interference. A main purpose of the semantics is to describe the various forms of interference while nodes change their locations in the network. Such interference only occurs when a node is simultaneously reached by more than one ongoing transmission over the same channel.

  14. The 4C´s of Mobile News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Oscar; Nel, Francois

    2012-01-01

    processes and products. However, growing digital revenue streams to match, if not surpass, the losses in print circulation and advertising incomes has proved difficult. A bright or at least not quite so dim*spot glows from mobile devices. Drawing on data from an annual audit conducted in 2008, 2009, 2010...... and 2011, this article examines how 66 metropolitan newspapers in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have performed with respect to channels, content, conversation and commerce (4C’s) of mobile news. While findings show the expansion of newspapers’ mobile endeavours, these are uneven...

  15. Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Wireless Mobile Computing and Networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Yanwei Wu; Fan Li; Bin Xu; Teresa Dahlberg

    2011-01-01

    Recent convergence of information communications technology and computing is creating new demands and opportunities for ubiquitous computing via wireless and mobile equipments.The demanding networking environment of wireless communications and the fast-growing number of mobile users impose several challenges in terms of channel estimation,network protocol design,resource management,systematic design,application development,and security.The objective of this special issue is to gather recent advances addressing networks,systems,algorithms,and applications that support the symbiosis of mobile computers and wireless networks.

  16. Throughput of Cellular Systems with Conferencing Mobiles and Cooperative Base Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Somekh O; Poor HV; Shamai (Shitz) S; Kramer G.; Simeone O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers an enhancement to multicell processing for the uplink of a cellular system, whereby the mobile stations are allowed to exchange messages on orthogonal channels of fixed capacity (conferencing). Both conferencing among mobile stations in different cells and in the same cell (inter- and intracell conferencing, resp.) are studied. For both cases, it is shown that a rate-splitting transmission strategy, where part of the message is exchanged on the conferencing channels and ...

  17. Sensitivity of mobile devices to doppler shifts and poor synchronization between UMTS transmitters

    OpenAIRE

    Belmonte Batlle, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Projecte final de carrera fet en col.laboració amb Technische Universiteit Eindhoven UMTS network, also known as Third Generation (3G) mobile radio system, aims to provide services such as: mobile communication, data streaming, internet and driving guidance. The UMTS signal uses the frequency channel of 2GHz. This channel introduces some propagation difficulties like multipath effect, Doppler shifts and fading. UMTS improves the well known hard-handover process from 2G netwo...

  18. Quasi-two-dimensional subthreshold current model of deep submicrometer SOI drive-in gate controlled hybrid transistors with lateral non-uniform doping profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the operating mechanism of the novel deep submicrometer SOI drive-in gate controlled hybrid transistor (DGCHT), which can effectively alleviate the contradiction between speed enhancement and power reduction in conventional MOS devices and can improve the output resistance. On the basis of this, the subthreshold current model of DGCHTs is proposed. The model takes into account the impact of lateral non-uniform doping profile on body effect, short-channel effect and carrier mobility. Considering the mobile charge, two-dimensional Poisson equation is solved with quasi-two-dimensional analysis and parabolic approximation of surface potential. With the surface potential obtained, the subthreshold current is figured out, including both the diffusion and drift component. The calculated results are in good agreement with the MEDICI numerical simulation results, indicating the correct description of the current characteristics of SOI DGCHT by the presented model. The model can also be considered as an important reference to the current simulation of deep submicrometer MOSFET with pocket implantation.

  19. Mobile assistive technologies for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Lilit; Lumsden, Jo; O'Sullivan, Dympna; Bartlett, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    There are around 285 million visually impaired people worldwide, and around 370,000 people are registered as blind or partially sighted in the UK. Ongoing advances in information technology (IT) are increasing the scope for IT-based mobile assistive technologies to facilitate the independence, safety, and improved quality of life of the visually impaired. Research is being directed at making mobile phones and other handheld devices accessible via our haptic (touch) and audio sensory channels. We review research and innovation within the field of mobile assistive technology for the visually impaired and, in so doing, highlight the need for successful collaboration between clinical expertise, computer science, and domain users to realize fully the potential benefits of such technologies. We initially reflect on research that has been conducted to make mobile phones more accessible to people with vision loss. We then discuss innovative assistive applications designed for the visually impaired that are either delivered via mainstream devices and can be used while in motion (e.g., mobile phones) or are embedded within an environment that may be in motion (e.g., public transport) or within which the user may be in motion (e.g., smart homes).

  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: clinical features and current treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Tulay Koca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also known as Lou Gehring's disease, is the most common motor neuron disease characterized by motor neuron degeneration in the primary cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. This leads to widespread paralysis, respiratory insufficiency and death within an average of 3-5 years from disease onset. Majority of cases is sporadic and only 10% have a family story. One of the most interesting discovery in the field of neurodegeneration in recent years is genetic mutation in the C9orf72 (chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 gene, the most common mutation found to be causative of frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and concomitant of these two diseases. Currently curative therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is lacking. To date, one medication, Riluzole, has been proved to prolong survival, approximately 3-5 months, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Researches aim to slow disease progression by targeting known pathophysiological pathways or genetics defects. Only symptomatic care to improve quality of life and survival is suggested. These includes respiratory and nutrition support; dysphagia and gastrostomy management; communication and mobility programs; spasticity prevention; pain medication; management of cognitive dysfunction, depression, mood dysorders (especially apathy, fatigue, sleep disturbance and prevention of deep venous thrombosis. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(2.000: 182-194

  1. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. M. Greeter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep, allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta.

  2. Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, L P

    1998-10-01

    This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), paraneoplastic syndromes, lymphoproliferative disease, radiation damage, monomelic amyotrophy (Hirayama syndrome), as well as an association with parkinsonism, dementia and multisystem disorders of the central nervous system.

  3. Detecting lateral genetic material transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Calderón, C; Mireles, V; Miramontes, P

    2012-01-01

    The bioinformatical methods to detect lateral gene transfer events are mainly based on functional coding DNA characteristics. In this paper, we propose the use of DNA traits not depending on protein coding requirements. We introduce several semilocal variables that depend on DNA primary sequence and that reflect thermodynamic as well as physico-chemical magnitudes that are able to tell apart the genome of different organisms. After combining these variables in a neural classificator, we obtain results whose power of resolution go as far as to detect the exchange of genomic material between bacteria that are phylogenetically close.

  4. Lateral Thoracic Maningocele : Anaesthetic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeer Ahmed K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Meningomyelocele is a broad term representing herniation of extracranial contents through a congenital defect in the vertebral column. If only cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and meninges herniate, it is termed as a meningocele. A meningoencephalocele is herniation of neural elements along with meninges. Anaesthetic challenges in management of thoracic meningomyelocele include securing the airway with intubation in lateral or supine position, intraoperative prone position with its associated complications and accurate assessment of blood loss and prevention of hypothermia. We report a case of a thoracic meningocele posted for resection and discuss its anaesthetic implications

  5. Misbehavior in Mobile Application Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Mobile application markets facilitate the distribution of applications and thus help developers advertise their work and customers find useful applications. In addition, the operators of mobile application markets can control the quality and the content of the applications. These markets are growing rapidly with more than 300'000 application in the App Store of Apple and more than 100'000 in the Android Market of Google. This is not only a great opportunity for phone manufacturers to earn money but also for indie developers (single or small teams of developers with small financial support) who can thus have a great distribution channel. Steve Demeter, the Trim game developer for iPhone, became millionaire with a single puzzle game . Obviously, as new markets generate a lot of money, the temptation of misbehavior to steal part of the benefits is big. The first famous case was the one of Molinker who self-rated his applications with 5 stars to pump up his ranking in order to increase its revenue stream. In this...

  6. Removing lateral chromatic aberration in bright field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Altamirano, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio

    2015-06-01

    We present an efficient alternative to remove lateral chromatic aberration (LCA) in bright field light microscopy images. Our procedure is based on error calibration using time-sequential acquisition at different wavelengths, and error correction through digital image warping. Measurement of the displacements of fiducial marks in the red and green images relative to blue provide calibration factors that are subsequently used in test images to realign color channels digitally. We demonstrate quantitative improvement in the position and boundaries of objects in target slides and in the color content and morphology of specimens in stained biological samples. Our results show a reduction of LCA content below the 0.1% level.

  7. Multichannel MAC Layer In Mobile Ad—Hoc Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logesh, K.; Rao, Samba Siva

    2010-11-01

    This paper we presented the design objectives and technical challenges in Multichannel MAC protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. In IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standards allow use of multiple channels, only a single channel is popularly used, due to the lack of efficient protocols that enable use of Multiple Channels. Even though complex environments in ad hoc networks require a combined control of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers resources in order to optimize performance. And also we discuss the characteristics of cross-layer frame and give a multichannel MAC approach.

  8. Direct Numerical Simulation Sediment Transport in Horizontal Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, M.

    2006-07-01

    We numerically simulate turbulent flow in a horizontal plane channel over a bed of mobile particles. All scales of fluid motion are resolved without modeling and the phase interface is accurately represented. Our results indicate a possible scenario for the onset of erosion through collective motion induced by buffer-layer streaks. (Author) 27 refs.

  9. Optimal channel utilization and service protection in cellular communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk

    1997-01-01

    In mobile communications an efficient utilization of the channels is of great importance.In this paper we consider the basic principles for obtaining the maximum utilization, and we study strategies for obtaining these limits.In general a high degree of sharing is efficient, but requires service...

  10. Lateral Diffusion of Membrane Proteins : Consequences of Hydrophobic Mismatch and Lipid Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramadurai, Sivaramakrishnan; Duurkens, Hinderika; Krasnikov, Victor V.; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Biological membranes are composed of a large number lipid species differing in hydrophobic length, degree of saturation, and charge and size of the headgroup. We now present data on the effect of hydrocarbon chain length of the lipids and headgroup composition on the lateral mobility of the proteins

  11. CERN Mobility Survey

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Shipping and Transport of the University of the Aegean and the National Technical University of Athens are partners with CERN in a study of mobility patterns between and within the CERN sites and to that effect have realized a mobility survey dedicated to the CERN community.         The study aims to understand: How you presently get around the CERN sites; What problems you encounter regarding mobility; What your needs are; What improvements you’d like to see; What measures you would like to see implemented most. The replies we receive will enable us to define a general policy promoting the diversity of mobility at CERN and to establish and quantify the strategic actions to be implemented for both the short and medium term. The objectives of the transport mobility plans are to: Facilitate mobility within and between the CERN sites by identifying adequate solutions in response to individual ...

  12. Embodied Cultures of Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    contemporary theorists understanding bodily movement, material sites of mobility, and social interactions must be consulted along the road (e.g. Latour’s work on objects and ANT, Thrift’s work on the body and ‘non-representational theory, and Massumi’s notions of affects and emotions related to bodily mobility....... A particular emphasis is put on how mobilities produce and re-produce norms, meanings and cultures in relation to the Everyday life perspective. By looking into walking, running, cycling, driving and mass transit mobilities different modes of embodied mobility is identified. The theoretical framework is based...... and interaction (Lynch). The argument is thus that understanding embodied cultures of mobilities from the vantage point of this paper lend is self to new interpretations, explorations and understandings of what it means to move within and between other social agents in particular material and physical...

  13. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm......'. According to this, pastoral mobility is a means to balance variability in dryland resources; hence, 'nature' is the point of departure. Another knowledge system is local pastoral knowledge. For the pastoralists, the well-being of their animals is the point of departure and mobility is used to ensure...... that the livestock are in good condition. The paper shows that it is important to distinguish between mobility of pastoralists and of their herd; even though the pastoralists of northern Senegal have become semi-sedentary, their herds are still quite mobile. The pastoralists are willing to move around within a small...

  14. Quantum broadcast channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yard, J; Devetak, I; Yard, Jon; Hayden, Patrick; Devetak, Igor

    2006-01-01

    We analyze quantum broadcast channels, which are quantum channels with a single sender and many receivers. Focusing on channels with two receivers for simplicity, we generalize a number of results from the network Shannon theory literature which give the rates at which two senders can receive a common message, while a personalized one is sent to one of them. Our first collection of results applies to channels with a classical input and quantum outputs. The second class of theorems we prove concern sending a common classical message over a quantum broadcast channel, while sending quantum information to one of the receivers. The third group of results we obtain concern communication over an isometry, giving the rates at quantum information can be sent to one receiver, while common quantum information is sent to both, in the sense that tripartite GHZ entanglement is established. For each scenario, we provide an additivity proof for an appropriate class of channels, yielding single-letter characterizations of the...

  15. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  16. Mobile learning in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  17. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna Regina; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to pro...... to promote mobility in old age.......Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways...

  18. An Intelligent Software Workflow Process Design for Location Management on Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Mallikharjuna

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the technologies of networking, wireless communication and trimness of computers lead to the rapid development in mobile communication infrastructure, and have drastically changed information processing on mobile devices. Users carrying portable devices can freely move around, while still connected to the network. This provides flexibility in accessing information anywhere at any time. For improving more flexibility on mobile device, the new challenges in designing software systems for mobile networks include location and mobility management, channel allocation, power saving and security. In this paper, we are proposing intelligent software tool for software design on mobile devices to fulfill the new challenges on mobile location and mobility management. In this study, the proposed Business Process Redesign (BPR) concept is aims at an extension of the capabilities of an existing, widely used process modeling tool in industry with 'Intelligent' capabilities to suggest favorable alternatives to an ...

  19. Branding and Channel Issues in E-commerce from an Information System’s Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rina; Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce has matured and become mainstream. The fashion industry is now competing strongly in the digital markets. Beside traditional web-shops, new sales and branding channels are emerging e.g. M-commerce (mobile); social commerce; marketplaces; gaming etc. E-commerce and multi-channel retailing...

  20. On Antenna Design Objectives and the Channel Capacity of MIMO Handsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del;

    2014-01-01

    The branch correlation coefficient (BCC), the branch power ratio (BPR), and the total mean power (TMP) are often used to characterize the mobile multiple-input multiple- output (MIMO) channel. This work investigates to which degree these parameters are useful for maximizing the channel capacity o...

  1. Data Transfer Throughput Research Over Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Žvinys

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses communication channel settings of UMTS technology, which are related with a data transfer throughput. The paper describes the measurement equipment that is suitable for measuring parameters of a mobile network channel. Besides, it analyses the suitability of this equipment and issue of parameter values that are associated with data throughput. Further, the study includes the selection of the most specific parameters, which are crucial for data speed. Using these parameters, models were developed for prediction of data transfer throughput. To build the model, the linear and nonlinear forecasting methods were used. The linear prediction was made by using linear regression, nonlinear — neural networks. Using the linear prediction model, 77.83% forecast accuracy was achieved, while the accuracy of forecasted nonlinear transmission rate amounted to 76.19%. The accuracy of prediction models was obtained using eight parameters of the communication channel. Finally, the paper presents the data throughput prediction models that allow predicting data speed with the help of channel parameters presented by a standard terminal. The list of these channel parameters is derived from five UE‘s of different manufacturers. The expected most accurate data transfer rate can be predicted using a set of parameters issued by Nokia device.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Exploring the mobility of mobile phone users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáji, Balázs Cs.; Browet, Arnaud; Traag, V. A.; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D.

    2013-03-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100,000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread of users’ frequent locations and show that commuting distances can be reasonably well explained by a gravity model.

  3. In-service communication channel sensing based on reflectometry for TWDM-PON systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Daisuke; Kuwano, Shigeru; Terada, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Many base stations are accommodated in TWDM-PON based mobile backhaul and fronthaul networks for future radio access, and failed connections in an optical network unit (ONU) wavelength channel severely degrade system performance. A cost effective in-service ONU wavelength channel monitor is essential to ensure proper system operation without failed connections. To address this issue we propose a reflectometry-based remote sensing method that provides wavelength channel information with the optical line terminal (OLT)-ONU distance. The method realizes real-time monitoring of ONU wavelength channels without signal quality degradation. Experimental results show it achieves wavelength channel distinction with high distance resolution.

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: AlGaN/GaN double-channel HEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Quan; Yue, Hao; Xiaohua, Ma; Pengtian, Zheng; Yuanbin, Xie

    2010-04-01

    The fabrication of AlGaN/GaN double-channel high electron mobility transistors on sapphire substrates is reported. Two carrier channels are formed in an AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN/GaN multilayer structure. The DC performance of the resulting double-channel HEMT shows a wider high transconductance region compared with single-channel HEMT. Simulations provide an explanation for the influence of the double-channel on the high transconductance region. The buffer trap is suggested to be related to the wide region of high transconductance. The RF characteristics are also studied.

  5. Programming the Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Firtman, Maximiliano

    2010-01-01

    Today's market for mobile apps goes beyond the iPhone to include BlackBerry, Nokia, Windows Phone, and smartphones powered by Android, webOS, and other platforms. If you're an experienced web developer, this book shows you how to build a standard app core that you can extend to work with specific devices. You'll learn the particulars and pitfalls of building mobile apps with HTML, CSS, and other standard web tools. You'll also explore platform variations, finicky mobile browsers, Ajax design patterns for mobile, and much more. Before you know it, you'll be able to create mashups using Web 2.

  6. Guest Editorial ~ Mobile Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ally

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This special IRRODL issue on mobile learning is timely because of the proliferation of mobile technology in society, globalization, and the need to re-examine how learning materials are designed and delivered for the new generation of learners. In today’s world, people are on the move and are demanding access to learning materials and information anytime and anywhere. At the same time, there is increasing use of mobile technology in different sectors of society to meet the needs of people on the move. In business, there is increasing use of mobile technologies for individuals to conduct their business anywhere and anytime. In healthcare, medical staff are using mobile technologies to access just-in-time information and to enter information in real time. People working in the field away from the central office use mobile technologies to access information and to communicate with other workers. Also, younger generations of learners are using mobile technologies for entertainment and socialization. These learners are using mobile devices to access information and multimedia materials and to communicate with friends. These new generations of learners do not see technology as something foreign. They readily accept technology and consider technology to be part of their lives. Moreover, the use of mobile technology is a 21st Century skill that students and workers must have to function in society.

  7. Mobile Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin BOJA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the development of new communication and data transfer technologies, the mobile solutions for the management process have been able to provide new ways to conduct management actions. This environment describes methods and tools available only here, which will bring information, speed and efficiency to any stage and component of the management process. The paper takes into discussion the impact of the technological development on the management process paradigm. The paper presents the main aspects regarding the business and management models used in mobile management. The role of mobile multimedia informatics applications in mobile management is highlighted.

  8. Mobile computing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyas, Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE COMPUTING Wearable Computing,A. Smailagic and D.P. Siewiorek Developing Mobile Applications: A Lime Primer,G.P. Picco, A.L. Murphy, and G.-C. Roman Pervasive Application Development: Approaches and Pitfalls,G. Banavar, N. Cohen, and D. Soroker ISAM, Joining Context-Awareness and Mobility to Building Pervasive Applications,I. Augustin, A. Corrêa Yamin, J.L. Victória Barbosa, L. Cavalheiro da Silva, R. Araújo Real, G. Frainer, G.G. Honrich Cavalheiro, and C.F. Resin Geyer Integrating Mobile Wireless Devices into the Computational Grid,T. Phan, L. Huan

  9. The Mobilization Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Research Visibility, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Approaches to training hard-to-employ'' populations by the Mobilization for Youth Experimental Manpower Laboratory. Manpower Research Visibility is a supplement to American Vocational Journal. (Editor)

  10. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  11. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  12. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  13. Proxemic Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés; Quigley, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    and their digital devices (i.e. the proxemic relationships). Building on the ideas of proxemic interactions, this workshop is motivated by the concept of ‘proxemic mobile collocated interactions’, to harness new or existing technologies to create engaging and interactionally relevant experiences. Such approaches......Recent research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices. However, existing practices fail to fully account for the culturally-dependent spatial relationships between people...... in exploring proxemics and mobile collocated interactions....

  14. Quantum feedback channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, G

    2002-01-01

    In classical information theory the capacity of a noisy communication channel cannot be increased by the use of feedback. In quantum information theory the no-cloning theorem means that noiseless copying and feedback of quantum information cannot be achieved. In this paper, quantum feedback is defined as the unlimited use of a noiseless quantum channel from receiver to sender. Given such quantum feedback, it is shown to provide no increase in the entanglement-assisted capacities of a noisy quantum channel, in direct analogy to the classical case. It is also shown that in various cases of non-assisted capacities, feedback can increase the capacity of many quantum channels.

  15. Ion channels in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Miguel A; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Jung, Carole; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Vicente, Rubén

    2011-09-23

    Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that permit the passive flow of ions following their electrochemical gradients. In the airways, ion channels participate in the production of epithelium-based hydroelectrolytic secretions and in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) levels that will ultimately activate almost all lung cells, either resident or circulating. Thus, ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthma pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. In this minireview, we focus on molecular, genetic, and animal model studies associating ion channels with asthma.

  16. TRP channels in schistosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is effectively the only drug currently available for treatment and control of schistosomiasis, a disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Many anthelmintics, likely including PZQ, target ion channels, membrane protein complexes essential for normal functioning of the neuromusculature and other tissues. Despite this fact, only a few classes of parasitic helminth ion channels have been assessed for their pharmacological properties or for their roles in parasite physiology. One such overlooked group of ion channels is the transient receptor potential (TRP channel superfamily. TRP channels share a common core structure, but are widely diverse in their activation mechanisms and ion selectivity. They are critical to transducing sensory signals, responding to a wide range of external stimuli. They are also involved in other functions, such as regulating intracellular calcium and organellar ion homeostasis and trafficking. Here, we review current literature on parasitic helminth TRP channels, focusing on those in schistosomes. We discuss the likely roles of these channels in sensory and locomotor activity, including the possible significance of a class of TRP channels (TRPV that is absent in schistosomes. We also focus on evidence indicating that at least one schistosome TRP channel (SmTRPA has atypical, TRPV1-like pharmacological sensitivities that could potentially be exploited for future therapeutic targeting.

  17. Development of eStudent iOS mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladjan Antic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— iOS is the Apple mobile operating system, for Apple mobile devices. Initially developed for iPhone, and later for iPod Touch, iPad, AppleTV. The Metropolitan University has a Web application titled eStudent, which enables students by Web to get information about their marks for all subjects, their financies, exam scheduling, professors and assistents, and send exam registration and feedback about teaching, etc. This paper explains the development of the mobile application eStudent on the iOS platform. This application enables students whenever they want, by using their iPhone mobile phone, to get access to the information from the eStudent Web application, and to present it on their iPhone User Interface (UI. This paper explains in details software requirements analysis, system architecture, system modelling, and UI of the eStudent iOS mobile application.

  18. Mobile lifestyles : Conceptualizing heterogeneity in mobile youth culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanden Abeele, M.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ characteristic understanding and use of mobile phones have led observers to speak of a “mobile youth culture.” This article explores whether we can differentiate lifestyles within mobile youth culture. We construct a user typology of Flemish adolescent mobile phone users based on mobile

  19. The setup of a mobile mobility panel for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, K.T.; Veenstra, S.A.; Thomas, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the setup of the Dutch Mobile Mobility Panel project, in which GPS-enabled mobile phones (smartphones) are used as a passive multiple-week and multiple-year travel behaviour data collection tool. The data collection methodology used in the Dutch Mobile Mobility Panel comprised f

  20. Propagation and deposition of stony debris flows at channel confluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancanelli, L. M.; Lanzoni, S.; Foti, E.

    2015-07-01

    The fluid dynamics of stony debris flows generated in two small tributaries adjacent to each other and flowing into a main receiving channel was analyzed experimentally at a laboratory scale. The analysis on the propagation along the tributaries and deposition in the main channel provide information about sediment-water mobility, dangerous damming, and potential hazard. Debris flows were generated by releasing a preset water discharge over an erodible layer of saturated gravels material. As a consequence, the debris flow sediment concentration varied accordingly to the entrainment rate which, in turn, was strongly controlled by the tributary slope. The data collected by acoustic level sensors, pore fluid pressure transducers, and a load cell were used to characterize the evolution of bulk density and solid concentration of the sediment-water mixture. These two parameters were relevant to assess the stony debris flow mobility which contributes to determine the shape of sediment deposits in the main channel. The detailed bed topography surveys carried out in the main channel at the end of each experiment provided information on the morphology of these deposits and on the interplay of adjacent confluences. The influences of confluence angle, tributary slopes, and triggering conditions have been investigated, for a total of 18 different configurations. Within the investigated range of parameters, the slope angle was the parameter that mainly influences the stony debris flow mobility while, for adjacent confluences, the degree of obstruction within the receiving channel was strongly influenced by the triggering scenario.

  1. Mobile authoring of Open Educational Resources for authentic learning scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Mobile authoring tools enable learners and teachers to foster universal access to educational resources not only providing channels to share, remix or re contextualize these, but also capturing the context in-situ and in-time. The contribution of this presentation is threefold: first, the main barri

  2. A generalized transmultiplexer and its application to mobile satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyoshi, Osamu

    A generalization of digital transmultiplexer technology is presented. The proposed method can realize transmultiplexer (TMUX) and transdemultiplexer (TDUX) filter banks whose element filters have bandwidths greater than the channel spacing frequency. This feature is useful in many communications applications. As an example, a satellite switched (SS) Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) system is proposed for spot beam satellite communications, particularly for mobile satellite communications.

  3. Understanding Use Situated in Real-world Mobile Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    where the activity is happening) by leveraging three keyenablers: (1) the high penetration of smart phones, (2) their easy programmability and (3) the large-scale distribution channels for mobile applications that come with the platforms. My approach suggests a triggered response solicitation, which...

  4. Do Affective Variables Make a Difference in Consumers Behavior Toward Mobile Advertising?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Ruiz,María Pilar; Izquierdo-Yusta, Alicia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Reinares-Lara, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Research into permission-based mobile marketing is increasingly common due to the widespread adoption of mobile technology and its use as a communication channel. Yet few studies have attempted to analyze the factors that determine attitudes toward mobile advertising while simultaneously considering: the links among them and consumers' intentions, behavior, and/or cognitive and affective variables simultaneously. The present research therefore sought to deepen understanding of the antecedents...

  5. Hybrid ion mobility and mass spectrometry as a separation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Michael A; Glover, Matthew S; Clemmer, David E

    2016-03-25

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) has seen spectacular growth over the last two decades. Increasing IMS sensitivity and capacity with improvements in MS instrumentation have driven this growth. As a result, a diverse new set of techniques for separating ions by their mobility have arisen, each with characteristics that make them favorable for some experiments and some mass spectrometers. Ion mobility techniques can be broken down into dispersive and selective techniques based upon whether they pass through all mobilities for later analysis by mass spectrometry or select ions by mobility or a related characteristic. How ion mobility techniques fit within a more complicated separation including mass spectrometry and other techniques such as liquid chromatography is of fundamental interest to separations scientists. In this review we explore the multitude of ion mobility techniques hybridized to different mass spectrometers, detailing current challenges and opportunities for each ion mobility technique and for what experiments one technique might be chosen over another. The underlying principles of ion mobility separations, including: considerations regarding separation capabilities, ion transmission, signal intensity and sensitivity, and the impact that the separation has upon the ion structure (i.e., the possibility of configurational changes due to ion heating) are discussed.

  6. Hd3a promotes lateral branching in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Chika; Tamaki, Shojiro; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro; Kyozuka, Junko; Shimamoto, Ko

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is the mobile floral signal known as florigen. A rice FT homolog, Heading date 3a (Hd3a), is transported from the phloem to shoot apical cells, where it interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and transcription factor OsFD1 to form a florigen activation complex (FAC) that activates a rice homolog of the floral identity gene APETALA1. Recent studies showed that florigen has roles in plant development beyond flowering; however, the exact nature of these roles is not well understood. It is not clear whether FT is transported to organs outside the shoot apex, and whether FAC formation is required for processes other than flowering. We show here that the Hd3a protein accumulates in axillary meristems to promote branching, and that FAC formation is required. Analysis of transgenic plants revealed that Hd3a promotes branching through lateral bud outgrowth. Hd3a protein produced in the phloem reached the axillary meristem in the lateral bud, and its transport was required for promotion of branching. Moreover, mutant Hd3a proteins defective in FAC formation but competent with respect to transport did not promote branching. Finally, we show that Hd3a promotes branching independently from strigolactone and FC1, a transcription factor that inhibits branching in rice. Together, these results suggest that Hd3a functions as a mobile signal for branching in rice.

  7. Analysis of mobile devices as a support tool for professional medical education in the university school

    OpenAIRE

    Briz Ponce, Laura; Juanes Méndez, Juan Antonio; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    [EN] According to the report of International Telecommunications Union (ITU), there are approximately 6.800 millions of users in the world with a mobile device. The fast evolution of these mobile devices for the last two decades has made the mobile phone become a minicomputer with a data connection. Because of the use of these mobile phones, the mobile applications appeared just one year later that the launching of the first iPhone and now the number of these applications reach more than 1 mi...

  8. Adaptive Mobile Positioning in WCDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new technique for mobile tracking in wideband code-division multiple-access (WCDMA systems employing multiple receive antennas. To achieve a high estimation accuracy, the algorithm utilizes the time difference of arrival (TDOA measurements in the forward link pilot channel, the angle of arrival (AOA measurements in the reverse-link pilot channel, as well as the received signal strength. The mobility dynamic is modelled by a first-order autoregressive (AR vector process with an additional discrete state variable as the motion offset, which evolves according to a discrete-time Markov chain. It is assumed that the parameters in this model are unknown and must be jointly estimated by the tracking algorithm. By viewing a nonlinear dynamic system such as a jump-Markov model, we develop an efficient auxiliary particle filtering algorithm to track both the discrete and continuous state variables of this system as well as the associated system parameters. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed adaptive mobile positioning algorithm in WCDMA networks.

  9. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2012-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  10. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism.

  11. A linearization of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  12. Predictors of Social Mobilization Speed

    CERN Document Server

    Alstott, Jeff; Velu, Chander

    2013-01-01

    Mobilization across social networks is becoming increasingly influential, but little is known about what traits of individuals and their relationships affect their speed of mobilization between them. We ran a global social mobilization contest and recorded personal traits of the participants and those they mobilized. We examined how those traits influenced the speed of mobilization. Individuals mobilized faster when they heard about the contest directly from the contest organization, and decreased in speed when hearing from less personal source types (e.g. family vs. media). Mobilization was faster when the mobilizer and the mobilized heard about the contest through the same source type, and slower when both individuals were in different countries. Females mobilized other females faster than males mobilized other males. Mobilization was faster with young recruiters and old recruits, and slower with old recruiters and young recruits. These findings suggest ways to optimize the speed of social mobilization.

  13. Ion channels in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2010-08-01

    Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of active compounds from chilli, are some of the processes in which ion channels have an important role. Regulation of ion channels by several chemicals including those found in air, water and soil represents an interesting potential link between environmental pollution and human diseases; for instance, de novo expression of ion channels in response to exposure to carcinogens is being considered as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Non-specific binding of several drugs to ion channels is responsible for a huge number of undesirable side-effects, and testing guidelines for several drugs now require ion channel screening for pharmaceutical safety. Animal toxins targeting human ion channels have serious effects on the population and have also provided a remarkable tool to study the molecular structure and function of ion channels. In this review, we will summarize the participation of ion channels in biological processes extensively used in toxicological studies, including cardiac function, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Major findings on the adverse effects of drugs on ion channels as well as the regulation of these proteins by different chemicals, including some pesticides, are also reviewed. Association of ion channels and toxicology in several biological processes strongly suggests these proteins to be excellent candidates to follow the toxic effects of xenobiotics, and as potential early indicators of life-threatening situations including chronic degenerative diseases.

  14. Comparison of mobility extraction methods based on field-effect measurements for graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrier mobility extraction methods for graphene based on field-effect measurements are explored and compared according to theoretical analysis and experimental results. A group of graphene devices with different channel lengths were fabricated and measured, and carrier mobility is extracted from those electrical transfer curves using three different methods. Accuracy and applicability of those methods were compared. Transfer length method (TLM can obtain accurate density dependent mobility and contact resistance at relative high carrier density based on data from a group of devices, and then can act as a standard method to verify other methods. As two of the most popular methods, direct transconductance method (DTM and fitting method (FTM can extract mobility easily based on transfer curve of a sole graphene device. DTM offers an underestimated mobility at any carrier density owing to the neglect of contact resistances, and the accuracy can be improved through fabricating field-effect transistors with long channel and good contacts. FTM assumes a constant mobility independent on carrier density, and then can obtain mobility, contact resistance and residual density stimulations through fitting a transfer curve. However, FTM tends to obtain a mobility value near Dirac point and then overestimates carrier mobility of graphene. Comparing with the DTM and FTM, TLM could offer a much more accurate and carrier density dependent mobility, that reflects the complete properties of graphene carrier mobility.

  15. An Integrated Mobile Phone Payment System Based on 3G Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihui Dai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with globally approaching of the 3G era, the progress of mobile communication technology and the development of mobile terminal devices will rapidly promote the mobilization development of traditional E-commerce. In order to ensure it to achieve further development, secure, flexible and reliable mobile payment system is becoming more and more important. Compared with the payment pattern of ordinary commerce, there will be profound changes in the mobile payment, such as special payment channel, payment carrier and etc. After deep studying about previous payment methods and future 3G communication technology, this paper introduces a new mobile payment model by combining with IC chip, mobile phone and mobile internet, and then gives some improvement measures for current settlement mechanisms in the network transaction, which is entirely around payment channel, payment carrier, security authentication and other key issues in 3G environment. The real time processing of information flow, capital flow and logistics in mobile environment can be easily achieved, forming a complete and reliable business operation for mobile users, which can bring some great conveniences and profound influences for mobile payment industry.

  16. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  17. River channel patterns: Braided, meandering, and straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna B.; Wolman, M. Gordon

    1957-01-01

    Channel pattern is used to describe the plan view of a reach of river as seen from an airplane, and includes meandering, braiding, or relatively straight channels. Natural channels characteristically exhibit alternating pools or deep reaches and riffles or shallow reaches, regardless of the type of pattern. The length of the pool or distance between riffles in a straight channel equals the straight line distance between successive points of inflection in the wave pattern of a meandering river of the same width. The points of inflection are also shallow points and correspond to riffles in the straight channel. This distance, which is half the wavelength of the meander, varies approximately as a linear function of channel width. In the data we analysed the meander wavelength, or twice the distance between successive riffles, is from 7 to 12 times the channel width. It is concluded that the mechanics which may lead to meandering operate in straight channels. River braiding is characterized by channel division around alluvial islands. The growth of an island begins as the deposition of a central bar which results from sorting and deposition of the coarser fractions of the load which locally cannot be transported. The bar grows downstream and in height by continued deposition on its surface, forcing the water into the flanking channels, which, to carry the flow, deepen and cut laterally into the original banks. Such deepening locally lowers the water surface and the central bar emerges as an island which becomes stabilized by vegetation. Braiding was observed in a small river in a laboratory. Measurements of the adjustments of velocity, depth, width, and slope associated with island development lead to the conclusion that braiding is one of the many patterns which can maintain quasi-equilibrium among discharge, load, and transporting ability. Braiding does not necessarily indicate an excess of total load. Channel cross section and pattern are ultimately controlled by

  18. Determination of channel change for selected streams, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capesius, Joseph P.; Lehman, Ted W.

    2002-01-01

    In Maricopa County, Arizona, 10 sites on seven streams were studied to determine the lateral and vertical change of the channel. Channel change was studied over time scales ranging from individual floods to decades using cross-section surveys, discharge measurements, changes in the point of zero flow, and repeat photography. All of the channels showed some change in cross-section area or hydraulic radius over the time scales studied, but the direction and mag-nitude of change varied considerably from one flow, or series of flows, to another. The documentation of cross-section geometry for streams in Maricopa County for long-term monitoring was begun in this study.

  19. Mobile communication security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, F.M.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Security of the mobile network Fabian van den Broek We looked at the security of the wireless connection between mobile phone and cell towers and suggested possible improvements. The security was analysed on a design level, by looking at the protocols and encryption techniques, but also on an impl

  20. Mastering Mobile Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Without proper security, mobile devices are easy targets for worms, viruses, and so-called robot ("bot") networks. Hackers increasingly use bot networks to launch massive attacks against eCommerce websites--potentially targeting one's online tuition payment or fundraising/financial development systems. How can one defend his mobile systems against…