WorldWideScience

Sample records for channel lateral mobility

  1. Mobile radio channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pätzold, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the modelling, analysis and simulation of mobile radio channels, this book gives a detailed understanding of fundamental issues and examines state-of-the-art techniques in mobile radio channel modelling. It analyses several mobile fading channels, including terrestrial and satellite flat-fading channels, various types of wideband channels and advanced MIMO channels, providing a fundamental understanding of the issues currently being investigated in the field. Important classes of narrowband, wideband, and space-time wireless channels are explored in deta

  2. Mobile-to-mobile wireless channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zajic, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    Present-day mobile communications systems can be classified as fixed-to-mobile because they allow mobility on only one end (e.g. the mobile phone to a fixed mobile operator's cell tower). In answer to the consumer demand for better coverage and quality of service, emerging mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communications systems allow mobile users or vehicles to directly communicate with each other. This practical book provides a detailed introduction to state-of-the-art M-to-M wireless propagation. Moreover, the book offers professionals guidance for rapid implementation of these communications syste

  3. Channel estimation in mobile wireless systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alli Idd, Pazi

    2012-01-01

    The demands of multimedia services from mobile user equipment (UE) for achieving high data rate, high capacity and reliable communication in modern mobile wireless systems are continually ever-growing. As a consequence, several technologies, such as the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), have been used to meet these challenges. However, due to the channel fading and the Doppler shifts caused by user mobility, a common problem i...

  4. Analytical admittance characterization of high mobility channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammeri, A. M.; Mahi, F. Z., E-mail: fati-zo-mahi2002@yahoo.fr [Institute of Science and Technology, University of Bechar (Algeria); Varani, L. [Institute of Electronics of the South (IES - CNRS UMR 5214), University of Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-30

    In this contribution, we investigate the small-signal admittance of the high electron mobility transistors field-effect channels under a continuation branching of the current between channel and gate by using an analytical model. The analytical approach takes into account the linearization of the 2D Poisson equation and the drift current along the channel. The analytical equations discuss the frequency dependence of the admittance at source and drain terminals on the geometrical transistor parameters.

  5. Mobile radio channel as a complex medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matic, Dusan; Prasad, Ramjee; Kalluri, Dikshitulu K.

    2001-01-01

    Optical fibres have almost unlimited capacity, but can not the address the users desire for mobility and ubiquitous access. The synergy of these two worlds can be seen in the direction of the Radio-over-Fibre. This paper presents to the reader an introduction for the mobile radio channel - basic...... physical phenomena, their implications on the transmitted signal, and how the radio channels are modelled. Special attention is given to the small-scale effects, such as multipath, and Rayleigh and Rice distributions of received signal, as these dominate in the case of indoor communication systems....

  6. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in dividing Xenopus eggs

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, S W; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1984-01-01

    The lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids was analyzed during first cleavage of Xaopus Levis eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements, using the lipid analogs 5-(N-hexadecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“HEDAF”) and 5-(N-tetradecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“TEDAF”) as probes. The preexisting plasma membrane of the animal side showed an inhomogeneous, dotted fluorescence pattern after labeling and the lateral mobility of both probes used was below the detection limits of the FP...

  7. Acceptable Channel Switching Delays for Mobile TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a user study investigating the acceptability of channel switching delays on mobile television systems. The authors first review the previous work in the area, then propose a study design and present results from its implementation, focusing on the overall acceptability threshold...

  8. Macroscopic lateral heterogeneity observed in a laterally mobile immiscible mixed polyelectrolyte-neutral polymer brush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Tsouris, Vasilios; Lim, Yunho; Mustafa, Rafid; Choi, Je; Choi, Yun Hwa; Park, Hae-Woong; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon [Purdue; (UC)

    2014-07-11

    We studied mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The question we attempted to answer was: when the chain grafting points are laterally mobile, how will this lateral mobility influence the structure and phase behavior of the mixed brush? Three different model mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brush systems were prepared: (1) a laterally mobile mixed brush by spreading onto the air–water interface a mixture of poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO–PnBA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PDMAEMA–PnBA) diblock copolymers (the specific diblock copolymers used will be denoted as PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100, where the subscripts refer to the number-average degrees of polymerization of the individual blocks), (2) a mobility-restricted (inseparable) version of the above mixed brush prepared using a PEO–PnBA–PDMAEMA triblock copolymer (denoted as PEO113–PnBA89–PDMAEMA120) having respective brush molecular weights matched with those of the diblock copolymers, and (3) a different laterally mobile mixed PEO and PDMAEMA brush prepared from a PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA200–PnBA103 diblock copolymer combination, which represents a further more height-mismatched mixed brush situation than described in (1). These three mixed brush systems were investigated by surface pressure–area isotherm and X-ray (XR) reflectivity measurements. These experimental data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of a continuum self-consistent field (SCF) polymer brush model. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest that the mobile mixed brush derived using the PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100 combination (i.e., mixed brush System #1) undergoes a lateral macroscopic phase separation

  9. MoCha, a model for distributed mobile channels

    OpenAIRE

    Guillen Scholten, Juan

    2004-01-01

    A mobile channel is a link that provides an asynchronous and anonymous means of communication between components in a distributed system. A channel is called mobile if either of its (channel-)ends can be moved from one component to another without the knowledge of the component at its other end. Such mobility allows dynamic reconfiguration of channel connections among the components in a system, a property that is very useful and even crucial in systems where the components themselves are mob...

  10. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in dividing Xenopus eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1984-01-01

    The lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids was analyzed during first cleavage of Xaopus Levis eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements, using the lipid analogs 5-(N-hexadecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“HEDAF”) and 5-(N-tetradecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“TEDAF”) as probes. The pre

  11. Channels, propagation and antennas for mobile communications

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Rodney; Bach Andersen, J

    2003-01-01

    This exceptional text introduces the reader to the theory and basis of antennas and propagation in the rapidly developing field of mobile communications. Topics covered include basic multipath mechanisms and propagation, and propagation modelling as well as short term channel behavior from two path and many path models and scenarios. Also, the basics of antenna design and operation are discussed including array antennas. This book promises to be a valuable reference work for many years to come, and will be an important addition to the bookshelves of telecommunications engineers and researcher

  12. PERFORMANCES OF ADAPTIVE MODULATION AND CODING IN SATELLITE MOBILE CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fangyuan; Yang Mingchuan; Guo Qing

    2011-01-01

    Given that satellite mobile channel is a time-varying channel,Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) was proposed to provide robust and spectrally efficient transmission over satellite mobile channel.Three different kinds of channel environment were considered in this paper:the urban area,the rural area,and the open space.Four combinations of modulation and coding were designed to meet reliable communication on time-varying channel,and spectral efficiency and system throughput of these three kinds of channel environment were simulated.Based on the simulation results,this paper analysed the results and compared the performances of AMC with non-AMC system in these three kinds of channel environment.At last,we come to the conclusions:a system with AMC can achieve higher spectral efficiency and better system throughput; and the spectral efficiency and system throughput of AMC system will be higher on better satellite mobile channel.

  13. A Survey of Fading Models for Mobile Radio Channel Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Arya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Future 3G and 4G mobile communication systems will be required to support wide range of data rates and quality of service matrix. For the efficient design of data link and transport protocols system designer needs knowledge of the statistical properties of physicallayer. Studies have shown that without proper characterization of the channel, blind application of existing protocols and transmission policy may results in disastrous performance unless proper measures are not being taken. Channel characterization also helps in llocation of resources, selection of transmission policy andprotocols. A feasible measure is to have an accurate and thoroughly reproducible optimum channel model which can mimic the mobile radio channel in diversities of fading error environments. Objective of channel model is to supply proper outputs for designing of upper layer protocol in such a fashion as if it were running on the actualphysical layer. The model should fit very well to the measured data and should easily handle analytically. Various approaches for characterization of fading mobile channels have appeared in iterature over last five decades. This article surveys the fading channel models for proper characterization of the radio channel andprovides approaches to classify the existing channel models. The paper also presents the contribution made by these channel models with their assumptions, suitability, applications, shortcomingsand further improvement issues. In present environment Markov Models are best suited for characterization of the fading radio channel. Inthese models radio channel is presented in terms of fading states and modeled as stochastic process. A proper constructed channel model may be valuable means to enhance the reliability and capacity of future mobile radio channel.

  14. MoCha : a framework for coordination using mobile channels

    OpenAIRE

    Arbab, Farhad; Boer, de, J.W.; Bonsangue, Marcello; Guillen Scholten, Juan

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe MoCha, an infrastructure for distributed communication and collaboration using mobile channels as its medium. Channels allow directed, anonymous, and peer-to-peer communication among entities, while mobility ensures that the structure of their connections can change over time in arbitrary ways. MoCha provides a distributed middle-ware designed for communication and collaboration without requiring central servers or fixed network infrastructures.

  15. Robust Control for Lateral and Longitudinal Channels of Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopters

    OpenAIRE

    Bao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Lateral and longitudinal channels are two closely related channels whose control stability influences flight performance of small-scale unmanned helicopters directly. This paper presents a robust control approach for lateral and longitudinal channels in the presence of parameter uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. The proposed control approach is performed by two steps. First, by performing system identification in frequency domain, system model of lateral and longitudinal channels can ...

  16. Strategies for sustainable channel relations in mobile telecom sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githa Heggde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The telecom sector in India largely comprises of wireless connections for phones. As of today, there are approximately 21 network providers in the country with about 7 per each circle, each offering competitive pricing to the consumers. The main objective of the study is to provide an accurate role for the company executive in developing channel relations. Further to this, the study explores the strategies which can sustain a good working relationship between the company and its channel members in the mobile telecom sector. The constructs identified for developing sustainable relationships were Setting distribution objectives, Channel design, Logistics, Image Building, Inventory management, Channel management, Payment & credit, Promotional assistance, Setting targets, Coverage frequency , Motivating channel members to perform. The sample selected contained distributors from the Mobile telecom sector and company executives/channel managers of leading telecom companies. Factor analysis and Friedman’s test was applied. The findings revealed a correlation in attitude between distributors and the executives. Motivating distributors was rated as the most important strategy by the company. The distributors felt that all channel partners needed to have positive attitude towards the channel while company executives felt that aggression made channel members perform effectively. Such findings will be of use to mobile telecom companies who are new entrants to the Indian market and to existing companies who plan to expand their coverage.

  17. Is entrepreneurship a channel of social mobility in Latin America?

    OpenAIRE

    Castellani, Francesca; Lora, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the findings contained in a forthcoming issue of the Latin American Journal of Economics on entrepreneurship in Latin America as a vehicle for upward social mobility, especially for the middle class. The income persistence coefficients estimated with pseudo-panel data for Colombia, Ecuador, and Uruguay indicate that entrepreneurial activity is a channel of intergenerational mobility, while the estimates of asset persistence for Mexico using a special survey sh...

  18. Giant Negative Mobility of Janus Particles in a Corrugated Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Pulak K; Marchesoni, Fabio; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    We numerically simulate the transport of elliptic Janus particles along narrow two-dimensional channels with reflecting walls. The self-propulsion velocity of the particle is oriented along either their major (prolate) or minor axis (oblate). In smooth channels, we observe long diffusion transients: ballistic for prolate particles and zero-diffusion for oblate particles. Placed in a rough channel, prolate particles tend to drift against an applied drive by tumbling over the wall protrusions; for appropriate aspect ratios, the modulus of their negative mobility grows exceedingly large (giant negative mobility). This suggests that a small external drive suffices to efficiently direct self-propulsion of rod-like Janus particles in rough channels.

  19. Giant negative mobility of Janus particles in a corrugated channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pulak K.; Hänggi, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio; Nori, Franco

    2014-06-01

    We numerically simulate the transport of elliptic Janus particles along narrow two-dimensional channels with reflecting walls. The self-propulsion velocity of the particle is oriented along either its major (prolate) or minor axis (oblate). In smooth channels, we observe long diffusion transients: ballistic for prolate particles and zero diffusion for oblate particles. Placed in a rough channel, prolate particles tend to drift against an applied drive by tumbling over the wall protrusions; for appropriate aspect ratios, the modulus of their negative mobility grows exceedingly large (giant negative mobility). This suggests that a small external drive suffices to efficiently direct self-propulsion of rod-like Janus particles in rough channels.

  20. Robust Control for Lateral and Longitudinal Channels of Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral and longitudinal channels are two closely related channels whose control stability influences flight performance of small-scale unmanned helicopters directly. This paper presents a robust control approach for lateral and longitudinal channels in the presence of parameter uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. The proposed control approach is performed by two steps. First, by performing system identification in frequency domain, system model of lateral and longitudinal channels can be accurately identified. Then, a robust H∞ state feedback controller is designed to stabilize the helicopter in lateral and longitudinal channels simultaneously under extraneous disturbances situation. The proposed approach takes advantages that it reduces order of the controller by preestimating some parameters (like flapping angles without sacrificing control accuracy. Numerical results show the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Immediate effects of anterior to posterior talocrural joint mobilizations following acute lateral ankle sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Cosby, Nicole L.; Koroch, Michael; Grindstaff, Terry L.; Parente, William; Hertel, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Restrictions in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) have been associated with decreased posterior talar glide in individuals with an acute lateral ankle sprain. Talocrural joint mobilizations may be used to restore joint arthrokinematics. Our purpose was to examine the effects of a single bout of anterior to posterior (AP) talocrural joint mobilization on self-reported function, dorsiflexion ROM, and posterior talar translation in individuals with an acute lateral ankle sprain. This sing...

  2. Research on Marketing Channel of Mobile Manufacturer Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Hui; LI Shi-ming; LAN Yong

    2006-01-01

    Research on "marketing channel" of mobile attracts much attention in these years,but there're only few articles referring to how to optimize the disposition of channel resources for mobile manufacturers. Based on a typically multiplex marketing channel system of mobile manufacturer, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) structure model is established. Through the judgment matrix, simple and total hierarchy arrangement, consistent test, this paper gets the weight of each kind of marketing channel of mobile manufacturer. It provides the practical reference value for mobile manufacturers to distribute resources of marketing channels.

  3. Lateral distributions of streamwise velocity in compound channels with partially vegetated floodplains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KNIGHT; Donald; W

    2009-01-01

    Natural rivers are commonly characterized by a main channel for primary flow conveyance and a floodplain, often partially covered with vegetation such as shrubs or trees, to carry extra flow during floods. The hydraulic resistance due to vegetation on the floodplain typically causes a further reduction of flow velocity and increases the velocity difference between the main channel and the floodplain. As a consequence a strong lateral shear layer leads to the exchange of mass and momentum between the main channel and floodplain, which in turn affects the overall channel conveyance and certain fluvial processes. The prediction of the lateral velocity distribution is important for many flood alleviation schemes, as well as for studies on sediment transport and dispersion in such channels. The present paper proposes a method for predicting the depth-averaged velocity in compound channels with partially vegetated floodplains, based on an analytical solution to the depth-integrated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a term included to account for the effects of vegetation. The vegetation is modelled via an additional term in the momentum equation to account for the additional drag force. The method includes the effects of bed friction, drag force, lateral turbulence and secondary flows, via four coefficients f, CD, λ & Γ respectively. The predicted lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity agree well with the experimental data. The analytical solutions can also be used to predict the distribution of boundary shear stresses, which adds additional weight to the method proposed.

  4. Discharge estimation in compound channels with fixed and mobile bed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galip Seckin; Mustafa Mamak; Serter Atabay; Mazen Omran

    2009-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) formulae for estimating discharge capacity of straight compound channels are reviewed and applied to overbank flows in straight fixed and mobile bed compound channels. The predictive capabilities of these formulae were evaluated using experimental data obtained from the small-scale University of Birmingham channel. Full details of these data and key references may be found at the following www.flowdata.bham.ac.uk (university website). 2-D formulae generally account for bed shear, lateral shear, and secondary flow effects via 3 coefficients f, and . In this paper, the secondary flow term() used within the 2-D methods analysed here is ignored in all applications. Two different 2-D formulae almost give practically the same results for the same data when the secondary flow term is ignored. For overall test cases, the value of dimensionless eddy viscosity used in 2-D formulae was kept at 0·13 as recommended for open channels. 2-D formulae gave good predictions for most of the data sets studied in comparison with the traditional 1-D methods, namely the Single Channel Method (SCM) and the Divided Channel Method (DCM). The accuracy of predictions of 2-D formulae was increased by calibrating of value where the calibration was needed. For overall data, the average errors for each method were Lateral Division Methods (LDMs), with value of 0·13, 2·8%, DCM 14·3% and SCM $−26·8$%. The average error was 0·5% for LDMs with the calibrated values of .

  5. Evaluation of Internet channels and their impacts on Irish mobile operators' business models

    OpenAIRE

    Ademowo, Adewale

    2013-01-01

    Ademowo, Adewale Adebayo Evaluation of Internet Channels and their impacts on Irish Mobile Operators' Business Models Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2013, 108 p. Mobile Technology and Business (Major in Information Systems Science), Master's Thesis Supervisor: Luoma, Eetu This study finds the impacts of the Internet channels on mobile operators’ business models with Ireland as a case. It reflects on the business model concepts, business models of mobile telecom indust...

  6. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of the longitudinal and lateral channel deformations in alluvial rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Junqiang; WANG Guangqian; WU Baosheng

    2004-01-01

    Two kinds of bank erosion mechanisms were analyzed, including fluvial and non-fluvial controlled mechanisms, and mechanical methods of simulating the erosion processes of cohesive, non-cohesive and composite riverbanks were improved. Then a two-dimensional numerical model of the channel deformation was developed, consisting of a 2D flow and sediment transport submodel and bank-erosion submodels of different soil riverbanks. In the model, a new technique for updating the bank geometry during the bed evolution was presented, which combines closely two kinds of submodels. The proposed model is capable of not only predicting the processes of flood routing and longitudinal channel deformation in natural rivers, but also simulating the processes of lateral channel deformation, especially the processes of lateral erosion and failure of cohesive, non-cohesive and composite riverbanks.

  7. Lateral distributions of streamwise velocity in compound channels with partially vegetated floodplains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG XiaoNan; KNIGHT Donald W

    2009-01-01

    Natural rivers are commonly characterized by a main channel for primary flow conveyance and a floodplain, often partially covered with vegetation such as shrubs or trees, to carry extra flow during floods.The hydraulic resistance due to vegetation on the floodplain typically causes a further reduction of flow velocity and increases the velocity difference between the main channel and the floodplain.As a consequence a strong lateral shear layer leads to the exchange of mass and momentum between the main channel and floodplain, which in turn affects the overall channel conveyance and certain fluvial processes.The prediction of the lateral velocity distribution is important for many flood alleviation schemes, as well as for studies on sediment transport and dispersion in such channels.The present paper proposes a method for predicting the depth-averaged velocity in compound channels with par-tially vegetated floodplains, based on an analytical solution to the depth-integrated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a term included to account for the effects of vegetation.The vegetation is modelled via an additional term in the momentum equation to account for the additional drag force.The method includes the effects of bed friction, drag force, lateral turbulence and secondary flows, via four coefficients f, C_D,λ & Г respectively.The predicted lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity agree well with the experimental data.The analytical solutions can also be used to predict the distribu-tion of boundary shear stresses, which adds additional weight to the method proposed.

  8. Outdoor Mobility, Place and Older People - Everyday Mobilities in later Life in a Swedish Neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    Stjernborg, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to offer an understanding of everyday mobilities outdoors among older persons from a place- and context-dependent perspective. The emphasis is to take a gentle approach towards an overall perspective with consideration to physical aspects (like the home neighbourhood), social aspects (like social networks and social participation) and mental aspects (like place images, mental maps and fear of crime). The thesis builds on three different studies with a mixed m...

  9. Evidence from lateral mobility studies for dynamic interactions of a mutant influenza hemagglutinin with coated pits

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Replacement of cysteine at position 543 by tyrosine in the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein enables the endocytosis of the mutant protein (Tyr 543) through coated pits (Lazarovits, J., and M. G. Roth. 1988. Cell. 53:743-752). To investigate the interactions between Tyr 543 and the clathrin coats in the plasma membrane of live cells, we performed fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements comparing the lateral mobilities of Tyr 543 (which enters coated pits) and wild- type HA ...

  10. Influence of receptor lateral mobility on adhesion strengthening between membranes containing LFA-3 and CD2

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    We have used an in vitro model system of glass-supported planar membranes to study the effects of lateral mobility of membrane-bound receptors on cell adhesion. Egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers were reconstituted with two anchorage isoforms of the adhesion molecule lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3). The diffusion coefficient of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored LFA-3 approached that of phospholipids in the bilayers, whereas the transmembrane (TM)-anchored isofor...

  11. 3D numerical investigation of turbulent flow through lateral intake in open channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow at a channel bifurcation is turbulent, highly three-dimensional (3D) and has many complex features. There is transverse motion accompanying the main flow and an extensive separation zone that develops in the branch channel. This zone causes hydraulic and sedimentation problems that must be known before designing the system. This necessitates a deeper insight into the flow patterns and shear stress distributions near the solid boundaries. This paper reports a 3D numerical investigation of flow pattern and shear stress distribution at a lateral intake in an open channel. Simulations are done on rectangular channel geometry, with smooth bed and sidewalls. The CFD model uses the standard k-ε and k-ω model of Wilcox turbulence closure schemes as implemented in the FLUENT code. The simulation results were compared with available experimental data. It was found that both turbulence models used accurately predicted velocity profiles in the main channel but in the branch channel, the k-ω model is performed better than the k-ε turbulence model. (author)

  12. Lateral erosion in an experimental bedrock channel: The influence of bed roughness on erosion by bed load impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Theodore K.; Gran, Karen B.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Paola, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Physical experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of bed load particle impacts as a mechanism of lateral bedrock erosion. In addition, we explored how changes in channel bed roughness, as would occur during development of an alluvial cover, influence rates of lateral erosion. Experimental channels were constructed to have erodible walls and a nonerodible bed using different mixtures of sand and cement. Bed roughness was varied along the length of the channel by embedding sediment particles of different size in the channel bed mixture. Lateral wall erosion from clear-water flow was negligible. Lateral erosion during periods in which bed load was supplied to the channel removed as much as 3% of the initial wetted cross-sectional area. The vertical distribution of erosion was limited to the base of the channel wall, producing channels with undercut banks. The addition of roughness elements to an otherwise smooth bed caused rates of lateral erosion to increase by as much as a factor of 7 during periods of bed load supply. However, a minimum roughness element diameter of approximately half the median bed load particle diameter was required before a substantial increase in erosion was observed. Beyond this minimum threshold size, further increases in the relative size of roughness elements did not substantially change the rate of wall erosion despite changes in total boundary shear stress. The deflection of saltating bed load particles into the channel wall by fixed roughness elements is hypothesized to be the driver of the observed increase in lateral erosion rates.

  13. Connectivity in Later Life: The Declining Age Divide in Mobile Cell Phone Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Gilleard; Ian Jones; Paul Higgs

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades changes in social connectivity have become key features in the changing contexts of later life. Communities of propinquity no longer seem to be as determining of social relationships as they once were. Mobile cell phone technology and the Internet have redefined what it means to ‘keep in touch’. Some authors have argued that these new forms of connectivity have created a ‘digital divide’ between those who have become active adopters of these technologies and those wh...

  14. Longitudinal and lateral slip control of autonomous wheeled mobile robot for trajectory tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamza KHAN; Jamshed IQBAL; Khelifa BAIZID; Teresa ZIELINSKA

    2015-01-01

    This research formulates a path-following control problem subjected to wheel slippage and skid and solves it using a logic-based control scheme for a wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The novelty of the proposed scheme lies in its methodology that considers both longitudinal and lateral slip components. Based on the derived slip model, the controller for longitudinal motion slip has been synthesized. Various control parameters have been studied to investigate their effects on the performance of the controller resulting in selection of their optimum values. The designed controller for lateral slip or skid is based on the proposed side friction model and skid check condition. Considering a car-like WMR, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. The robot successfully followed the desired circular trajectory in the presence of wheel slippage and skid. This research finds its potential in various applications involving WMR navigation and control.

  15. Performance analysis of replication ALOHA for fading mobile communications channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee; Clare, Loren P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an ALOHA random access protocol for fading communications channels. A two-state Markov model is used for the channel error process to account for the channel fading memory. The ALOHA protocol is modified to send multiple contiguous copies of a message at each transmission attempt. Both pure and slotted ALOHA channels are considered. The analysis is applicable to fading environments where the channel memory is short compared to the propagation delay. It is shown that smaller delay may be achieved using replications and, in noisy conditions, can also improve throughput.

  16. Adoption and Business Value of Mobile Retail Channel: A Dependency Perspective on Mobile Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yen-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Forrest Research estimated that revenues derived from mobile devices will grow at an annual rate of 39% to reach $31 billion by 2016. With the tremendous market growth, mobile banking, mobile marketing, and mobile retailing have been recently introduced to satisfy customer needs. Academic and practical articles have widely discussed unique…

  17. Reduction in lateral lipid mobility of lipid bilayer membrane by atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Tero, Ryugo; Yamashita, Ryuma; Yusa, Kota; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-03-01

    Plasma medicine is an emerging research field in which various applications of electrical discharge, especially in the form of nonequilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, are examined, for example, the application of plasma to biological targets for various purposes such as selective killing of tumor cells and blood stanching. We have focused on the behavior of an artificial cell membrane system at the solid-liquid interface. To evaluate the lateral lipid mobility, we measured the diffusion coefficient of the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that the diffusion coefficient was decreased by plasma irradiation and that the diffusion coefficient decreasing rate proceeded with increasing plasma power. We investigated the effects of stimulation with an equilibrium chemical, H2O2, on the SLB and confirmed that the diffusion coefficient did not change at least up to a H2O2 concentration of 5 mM. These results indicate that transient active species generated by plasma play critical roles in the reduction in SLB fluidity. The effects of the two generated major oxidized lipid species, hydroxyl- or hydroperoxy-phosphatidylcholine (PC) and acyl-chain-truncated PCs terminated with aldehyde or carboxyl group, on lateral lipid mobility are discussed.

  18. Giant Negative Mobility of Janus Particles in a Corrugated Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Pulak K.; Hanggi, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    We numerically simulate the transport of elliptic Janus particles along narrow two-dimensional channels with reflecting walls. The self-propulsion velocity of the particle is oriented along either their major (prolate) or minor axis (oblate). In smooth channels, we observe long diffusion transients: ballistic for prolate particles and zero-diffusion for oblate particles. Placed in a rough channel, prolate particles tend to drift against an applied drive by tumbling over the wall protrusions; ...

  19. The first discovered water channel protein, later called aquaporin 1: molecular characteristics, functions and medical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga, Gheorghe

    2012-01-01

    After a decade of work on the water permeability of red blood cells (RBC) Benga group in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, discovered in 1985 the first water channel protein in the RBC membrane. The discovery was reported in publications in 1986 and reviewed in subsequent years. The same protein was purified by chance by Agre group in Baltimore, USA, in 1988, who called in 1991 the protein CHIP28 (CHannel forming Integral membrane Protein of 28 kDa), suggesting that it may play a role in linkage of the membrane skeleton to the lipid bilayer. In 1992 the Agre group identified CHIP28's water transport property. One year later CHIP28 was named aquaporin 1, abbreviated as AQP1. In this review the molecular structure-function relationships of AQP1 are presented. In the natural or model membranes AQP1 is in the form of a homotetramer, however, each monomer has an independent water channel (pore). The three-dimensional structure of AQP1 is described, with a detailed description of the channel (pore), the molecular mechanisms of permeation through the channel of water molecules and exclusion of protons. The permeability of the pore to gases (CO(2), NH(3), NO, O(2)) and ions is also mentioned. I have also reviewed the functional roles and medical implications of AQP1 expressed in various organs and cells (microvascular endothelial cells, kidney, central nervous system, eye, lacrimal and salivary glands, respiratory apparatus, gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary compartments, female and male reproductive system, inner ear, skin). The role of AQP1 in cell migration and angiogenesis in relation with cancer, the genetics of AQP1 and mutations in human subjects are also mentioned. The role of AQP1 in red blood cells is discussed based on our comparative studies of water permeability in over 30 species. PMID:22705445

  20. MiCi: A Novel Micro-Level Temporal Channel Imploration for Mobile Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Snehasish; Mall, Rajib; Pradhan, Sateesh K

    2011-01-01

    The exponential increase of multimedia services by the mobile users requires seamless connectivity with cost effective Quality of Service QoS provisioning. For providing such on-demand QoS, the network needs to utilize the radio channels among the Mobile Hosts (MHs) effectively. We use vector genetic algorithm VGA for temporal imploration of sharable channel(s) from the neighbouring cells to fulfill the needs of a cell. We propose a new micro-level temporal channel imploration mechanism MiCi, which promptly allocates available borrowing channel s of the neighbouring cell(s) to the needy cell. The novelty of MiCi is scalability, high availability, and on demand allocation of the channels to the desired cells. The performance of our model has been tested by simulation against a standard FCA scheme as well as a Greedy Borrowing Heuristic. In all the test cases MiCi shows promising results in comparison to both the schemes.

  1. Electric field-induced lateral mobility of photosystem I in the photosynthetic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfeld, Vlad; Miller, Israel R.; Korenstein, Rafi

    1989-01-01

    Electrophoretic movement of photosystem I (PS I) along the photosynthetic membrane of hypotonically swollen thylakoid vesicles was studied by analyzing the electric field-stimulated delayed luminescence (electrophotoluminescence) emitted from PS I. The electrophoretic mobility was inferred from the differences in electrophotoluminescence (EPL) of the photosynthetic vesicles in presence and absence of trains of low amplitude (electric mobility, determined from the time course of EPL increase on one hemisphere or its decrease on the other one, as function of prepulse length and intensity was of the order of 3 · 10-5 cm2V-1s-1. The assymetric distribution of the PS I reached a steady state when the diffusional, electrostatic, and elastic forces balanced the electrophoretic driving force. A lateral diffusion coefficient of ∼5 · 10-9 cm2s-1 was found for the PS I complex from the diffusional relaxation after cessation of the electric field pulse train. Experimental conditions such as concentration, temperature, and viscosity of the aqueous solution were not critical for the effect. Between 23 and 150 electron charges per moving particle were estimated from the measured electrophoretic mobility. PMID:19431746

  2. Influence of receptor lateral mobility on adhesion strengthening between membranes containing LFA-3 and CD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P Y; Lawrence, M B; Dustin, M L; Ferguson, L M; Golan, D E; Springer, T A

    1991-10-01

    We have used an in vitro model system of glass-supported planar membranes to study the effects of lateral mobility of membrane-bound receptors on cell adhesion. Egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers were reconstituted with two anchorage isoforms of the adhesion molecule lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3). The diffusion coefficient of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored LFA-3 approached that of phospholipids in the bilayers, whereas the transmembrane (TM)-anchored isoform of LFA-3 was immobile. Both static and laminar flow assays were used to quantify the strength of adherence to the lipid bilayers of the T lymphoma cell line Jurkat that expresses the counter-receptor CD2. Cell adhesion was dependent on LFA-3 density and was more efficient on membranes containing the GPI isoform than the TM isoform. Kinetic measurements demonstrated an influence of contact time on the strength of adhesion to the GPI isoform at lower site densities (25-50 sites/microns2), showing that the mobility of LFA-3 is important in adhesion strengthening. At higher site densities (1,500 sites/microns2) and longer contact times (20 min), Jurkat cell binding to the TM and GPI isoforms of LFA-3 showed equivalent adhesion strengths, although adhesion strength of the GPI isoform developed twofold more rapidly than the TM isoform. Reduction of CD2 mobility on Jurkat cells at 5 degrees C greatly decreased the rate of adhesion strengthening with the TM isoform of LFA-3, resulting in a 30-fold difference between the two LFA-3 isoforms. Our results demonstrate that the ability of a membrane receptor and its membrane-bound counter-receptor to diffuse laterally enhances cell adhesion both by allowing accumulation of ligands in the cell contact area and by increasing the rate of receptor-ligand bond formation. PMID:1717480

  3. Breakdown mechanisms in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with different GaN channel thickness values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the off-state breakdown characteristics of two different AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), featuring a 50-nm and a 150-nm GaN thick channel layer, respectively, are compared. The HEMT with a thick channel exhibits a little larger pinch-off drain current but significantly enhanced off-state breakdown voltage (BVoff). Device simulation indicates that thickening the channel increases the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) but reduces the lateral electric field in the channel and buffer underneath the gate. The increase of BVoff in the thick channel device is due to the reduction of the electric field. These results demonstrate that it is necessary to select an appropriate channel thickness to balance DIBL and BVoff in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. (paper)

  4. Diversity of ion channels in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung Sun; Choi, Mi Ran; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Seunghyun; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Kyung Suk; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Yangmi; Chai, Young Gyu

    2008-12-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) represent a potentially valuable cell type for clinical therapeutic applications. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term culturing (up to 10(th) passages) of hBM-MSCs from eight individual amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, focusing on functional ion channels. All hBM-MSCs contain several MSCs markers with no significant differences, whereas the distribution of functional ion channels was shown to be different between cells. Four types of K(+) currents, including noise-like Ca(+2)-activated K(+) current (IK(Ca)), a transient outward K(+) current (I(to)), a delayed rectifier K(+) current (IK(DR)), and an inward-rectifier K(+) current (K(ir)) were heterogeneously present in these cells, and a TTX-sensitive Na(+) current (I(Na,TTX)) was also recorded. In the RT-PCR analysis, Kv1.1, heag1, Kv4.2, Kir2.1, MaxiK, and hNE-Na were detected. In particular, I(Na,TTX) showed a significant passage-dependent increase. This is the first report showing that functional ion channel profiling depend on the cellular passage of hBM-MSCs. PMID:19967076

  5. Strategies for sustainable channel relations in mobile telecom sector

    OpenAIRE

    Githa Heggde; Stuti Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The telecom sector in India largely comprises of wireless connections for phones. As of today, there are approximately 21 network providers in the country with about 7 per each circle, each offering competitive pricing to the consumers. The main objective of the study is to provide an accurate role for the company executive in developing channel relations. Further to this, the study explores the strategies which can sustain a good working relationship between the company and its channel membe...

  6. Reliability and normative values for the foot mobility magnitude: a composite measure of vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot

    OpenAIRE

    McPoil Thomas G; Vicenzino Bill; Cornwall Mark W; Collins Natalie; Warren Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A study was conducted to determine the reliability and minimal detectable change for a new composite measure of the vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot called the foot mobility magnitude. Methods Three hundred and forty-five healthy participants volunteered to take part in the study. The change in dorsal arch height between weight bearing and non-weight bearing as well as the change in midfoot width between weight bearing and non-weight bearing were measure...

  7. Physical Mobile Interaction in Omni-Channel Retailing : Using the customers’ smartphone to interact with smart objects in a store

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Johan

    2014-01-01

    While shopping in a retail store today the customers are often interacting with multiple sale channels when making a purchase. These channels can include in‑store terminals, the customers’ smartphone etc. This thesis looks at how physical mobile interaction can be implemented to enhance the experience when using different channels for a purchase. Physical mobile interaction is a way for a user to interact with real world objects using a mobile device. This thesis examines how some of these te...

  8. AN EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM FOR CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM IN WIRELESS MOBILE NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Shin Chia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The channel assignment problem in wireless mobile network is the assignment of appropriate frequency spectrum to incoming calls while maintaining a satisfactory level of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC constraints. An effective channel assignment strategy is important due to the limited capacity of frequency spectrum in wireless mobile network. Most of the existing channel assignment strategies are based on deterministic methods. In this paper, an adaptive genetic algorithm (GA based channel assignment strategy is introduced for resource management and to reduce the effect of EMC interferences. The most significant advantage of the proposed optimization method is its capability to handle both the reassignment of channels for existing calls as well as the allocation of channel to a new incoming call in an adaptive process to maximize the utility of the limited resources. It is capable to adapt the population size to the number of eligible channels for a particular cell upon new call arrivals to achieve reasonable convergence speed. The MATLAB simulation on a 49-cells network model for both uniform and nonuniform call traffic distributions showed that the proposed channel optimization method can always achieve a lower average new incoming call blocking probability compared to the deterministic based channel assignment strategy.

  9. MIMO channel measurements using optical links on small mobile terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanakiev, Boyan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2010-01-01

    presented here is specifically designed to fit in a very small volume and is optimized for low power consumption (runs on small battery), thus imitating the phone electronics. It can be used for anechoic chamber measurements, however it is designed for long range channel sounding measurements....

  10. Characterisation of mobile radio channels for small multiantenna terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotterman, Wim Anton Theo

    of large measurement campaigns have been held, in indoor situations, outdoor-to-indoor and outdoors, with users and at 2.14~GHz with approximately 10~MHz bandwidth (-6dB). The measured data have been processed and analysed, with respect to classical channel descriptions, diversity-specific properties...

  11. Radial Nerve Mobilization Reduces Lateral Elbow Pain and Provides Short-Term Relief in Computer Users§

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugam, Vanitha; Selvam, Senthil; MacDermid, Joy C

    2014-01-01

    Study Design : Prospective Experimental Study. Background : Computer users may be at risk of lateral elbow pain. It is theorized that adverse mechanical tension can arise in the radial nerve with sustained keyboarding due to sustained static work of the elbow extensor muscles. Neural mobilization has been suggested as a potential treatment. Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of neural mobilization of the radial nerve on a single occasion in terms of its ability to ...

  12. Channel-Specific Daily Patterns in Mobile Phone Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Aledavood, Talayeh; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Robin I M Dunbar; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans follow circadian rhythms, visible in their activity levels as well as physiological and psychological factors. Such rhythms are also visible in electronic communication records, where the aggregated activity levels of e.g. mobile telephone calls or Wikipedia edits are known to follow their own daily patterns. Here, we study the daily communication patterns of 24 individuals over 18 months, and show that each individual has a different, persistent communication pattern. These patterns m...

  13. Proposal of normally-off InN-channel high-electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose N-polar normally-off InN-channel high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). A calculated energy band diagram shows full depletion of a quantum well channel provided by a negative polarization charge at an InN-channel/GaN-cap junction. For a 100 nm long gate-length HEMT with a 3 nm thick InN channel, 0.4 nm GaN cap and 4 nm thick HfO2/ZrO2 insulator we calculate a threshold voltage VT = 0.5 V and a transconductance of 3 S mm−1. Selective plasma etching of the GaN cap over the InN channel may facilitate monolithic integration of normally-off and -on InN channel HEMTs in a new generation of extremely fast digital circuits. (paper)

  14. A Novel Criterion for Optimum MultilevelCoding Systems in Mobile Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Dongfeng; WANG Chengxiang; YAO Qi; CAO Zhigang

    2001-01-01

    A novel criterion that is "capac-ity rule" and "mapping rule" for the design of op-timum MLC scheme over mobile fading channels isproposed.According to this theory,the performanceof multilevel coding with multistage decoding schemes(MLC/MSD) in mobile fading channels is investi-gated,in which BCH codes are chosen as componentcodes,and three mapping strategies with 8ASK mod-ulation are used.Numerical results indicate that whencode rates of component codes in MLC scheme are de-signed based on "capacity rule",the performance ofthe system with block partitioning (BP) is optimumfor Rayleigh fading channels,while the performance ofthe system with Ungerboeck partioning (UP) is bestfor AWGN channels.

  15. Nonlinear Channel Estimation for OFDM System by Complex LS-SVM under High Mobility Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Charrada, Anis; 10.5121/ijwmn.2011.3412

    2011-01-01

    A nonlinear channel estimator using complex Least Square Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) is proposed for pilot-aided OFDM system and applied to Long Term Evolution (LTE) downlink under high mobility conditions. The estimation algorithm makes use of the reference signals to estimate the total frequency response of the highly selective multipath channel in the presence of non-Gaussian impulse noise interfering with pilot signals. Thus, the algorithm maps trained data into a high dimensional feature space and uses the structural risk minimization (SRM) principle to carry out the regression estimation for the frequency response function of the highly selective channel. The simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method which has good performance and high precision to track the variations of the fading channels compared to the conventional LS method and it is robust at high speed mobility.

  16. Physical understanding of electron mobility in asymmetrically strained InGaAs-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated by lateral strain relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, SangHyeon, E-mail: dadembyora@mosfet.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sh-kim@kist.re.kr; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Ikku, Yuki; Nakane, Ryosho; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ichikawa, Osamu; Osada, Takenori; Hata, Masahiko [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., 6 Kitahara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-3294 (Japan)

    2014-03-17

    In this paper, we fabricated asymmetrically tensile-strained In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As-on-insulator (-OI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) using a lateral strain relaxation technique. A stripe-like line structure, fabricated in biaxially strained In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As-OI can lead to the lateral strain relaxation and asymmetric strain configuration in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As-OI with the channel width of 100 nm. We have found that the effective mobility (μ{sub eff}) enhancement in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As-OI MOSFETs with uniaxial-like asymmetric strain becomes smaller than that in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As-OI MOSFETs with biaxial strain. We have clarified from a systematic analysis between the strain values and the μ{sub eff} characteristics that this mobility behavior can be understood by the change of the energy level of the conduction band minimum due to the lateral strain relaxation.

  17. A Mobile Agent Routing Algorithm in Dual-Channel Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hailin Feng; Sanyang Liu; Kui Liu

    2012-01-01

    A mobile agent routing algorithm (MARA) is presented in this paper, and then based on the dual-channel communication model, the two-layer network combination optimization strategy is also proposed. Since this strategy deals with the collision between packets and the multicast suppression in channel competitive process well, the blocking probability of network and the error rate of packet transmission can be cut down by utilizing this strategy. Furthermore, a restore rule for the failure optim...

  18. Channel estimation for MIMO-OFDM systems in wireless mobile channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhen; Ge Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    New training sequences and frame structure are proposed to estimate time-varying channel for multiple-input multiple-output and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems. The training sequences are modulatable orthogonal polyphase sequences, which have both good autocorrelations and cross-correlations. The channel impulse response (CIR) can be obtained by measuring the correlation between the received training sequence and the locally generated training sequence. The training sequences are used as guard interval instead of cyclic prefix, which not only improve the transmission efficiency but also enable the channel estimator to track time-varying channel. The simulation results show that the proposed method has about 2dB SNR gain over conventional methods in fast time-varying channel.

  19. Improved Mobility Performance in LTE Co-Channel HetNets Through Speed Differentiated Enhancements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Simone; Michaelsen, Per Henrik; Säily, Mikko; Pedersen, Klaus

    This paper analyzes the mobility performance of LTE (Long Term Evolution) co-channel heterogeneous networks (HetNet) with macro and pico cells. Improved methods for differentiating offload and mobility robustness as a function of the UE (User Equipment) mobility are proposed. The suggested solution...... comprises two key elements, namely enhanced UE MSE (Mobility State Estimation), as well as optimized methods such that high speed users are primarily kept at the macro layer, while the offload to pico cells for low speed users is maximized. The proposed methods are designed as UE autonomous solutions......, requiring minimum assistance and signaling from the network. Extensive system level simulations are used to quantify the benefits. Results confirm that the proposed solutions offer improvements in several mobility key performance indicators such as radio link failure, number of handovers, offload to pico...

  20. Reliability and normative values for the foot mobility magnitude: a composite measure of vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was conducted to determine the reliability and minimal detectable change for a new composite measure of the vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot called the foot mobility magnitude. Methods Three hundred and forty-five healthy participants volunteered to take part in the study. The change in dorsal arch height between weight bearing and non-weight bearing as well as the change in midfoot width between weight bearing and non-weight bearing were measured at 50% of total foot length and used to calculate the foot mobility magnitude. The reliability and minimal detectable change for the measurements were then determined based on the assessment of the measurements by three raters with different levels of clinical experience. Results The change in dorsal arch height between weight bearing and non-weight bearing, midfoot width between weight bearing and non-weight bearing, and the foot mobility magnitude were shown to have high levels of intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Normative data are provided for the left and right feet of both the female (n = 211 and male (n = 134 subjects. Conclusion While the measurements of navicular drop and drift have been used as a clinical method to assess both the vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot, poor to fair levels of inter-rater reliability have been reported. The results of the current study suggest that the foot mobility magnitude provides the clinician and researcher with a highly reliable measure of vertical and medial-lateral midfoot mobility.

  1. News Media Channels : Complements or Substitutes? Evidence from Mobile Phone Usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Jiao; Forman, Chris; Kim, Jun B.; Van Ittersum, Koert

    2014-01-01

    The media industry has undergone a fundamental shift over the past decade as new online distribution channels have proliferated in an unprecedented manner. Although mobile devices have experienced rapid adoption among consumers, their effect on consumer behavior and their subsequent implications for

  2. Channel estimation for MIMO-OFDM systems in mobile wireless channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yun; LUO Han-wen; SONG Wen-tao

    2008-01-01

    A channel estimation method is proposed for multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency di-vision multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems in time-varying fading channels. In this method, a decision-direct-ed space-ahernating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm is introduced to the tracking of time-varying fading. In order to improve the estimation performance of the SAGE algorithm, a low rank approxi-mation method is presented by using the signal subspaee of the channel frequency autocorrelation matrix. The study reveals that this method can be incorporated into the SAGE algorithm. Furthermore, a modified fast sub-space tracking algorithm is given to adaptively estimate the signal subspace by utilizing training OFDM blocks sent at regular interval. Simulation results demonstrate the considerable benefits of the proposed channel estima-tion method.

  3. A channel- and QoS-adaptive turbo coded modulation architecture for mobile multimedia communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Jiancun; Song Wentao; Luo Hanwen; Xu Youyun

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a cross-layer dual adaptive coded modulation architecture using turbo codes for mobile multimedia communication, which simultaneously adapted to both the varying channel characteristics and the quality of service (QoS) of various mobile multimedia services to increase the average system throughput substantially. A pragmatic channel-adaptive turbo coded modulation scheme, which comes within 2.5dB of the Shannon limit, was optimally designed, and then a QoS-adaptive scheme was superimposed to build the dual adaptive architecture. Simulation results show that the novel dual adaption reduces the difference with the fading channel capacity to 2dB when assuming different services occur in equal probability and the service duration follows the exponential distribution.

  4. Channel-Specific Daily Patterns in Mobile Phone Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Roberts, Sam G B; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I M; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans follow circadian rhythms, visible in their activity levels as well as physiological and psychological factors. Such rhythms are also visible in electronic communication records, where the aggregated activity levels of e.g. mobile telephone calls or Wikipedia edits are known to follow their own daily patterns. Here, we study the daily communication patterns of 24 individuals over 18 months, and show that each individual has a different, persistent communication pattern. These patterns may differ for calls and text messages, which points towards calls and texts serving a different role in communication. For both calls and texts, evenings play a special role. There are also differences in the daily patterns of males and females both for calls and texts, both in how they communicate with individuals of the same gender vs. opposite gender, and also in how communication is allocated at social ties of different nature (kin ties vs. non-kin ties). Taken together, our results show that there is an unexpected ri...

  5. Mobile operators as banks or vice-versa? and: the challenges of Mobile channels for banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis short paper addresses the strategic challenges of deposit banks, and payment clearinghouses, posed by the growing role of mobile operators as collectors and payment agents of flow of cash for themselves and third parties. Through analysis and data analysis from selected operators ,

  6. PEMBERIAN TEKNIK MULLIGAN DAN SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION LEBIH BAIK DARIPADA HANYA SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION DALAM MENINGKATKAN LINGKUP GERAK SENDI EKSTENSI, ROTASI, LATERAL FLEKSI CERVICAL PADA MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sudaryanto -

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical neck pain has the same high prevalence with low back pain, and commonly found in many of physiotherapy practice. Combination of Mulligan technique and Soft Tissue Mobilization are one of manual therapy technique highly effective and efficient to care the case of mechanical neck pain but still very rarely used by physiotherapist in fields of practice. This study aimed to know the effectiveness between Mulligan technique – Soft Tissue Mobilization and only Soft Tissue Mobilization to the increasing range of motion extension, rotation and side flexion cervical on the mechanical neck pain. The study design was a pre test – post test control group design using two group of samples are control groups that given intervention Soft Tissue Mobilization and treatment groups that given a combination of Mulligan technique and Soft Tissue Mobilization. Measuring instrument used for data collection was goniometer, that the goniometer was used to measure the range of motion extension, rotation and lateral flexion of the cervical either before the intervention and after the intervention. Sample of this study was 32 people who divided into 2 groups of samples were 16 people in the control group and 16 people in the treatment group. Samples in the control group had a mean age of 35,69 with male of 7 people (43,8% and female of 9 people (56,2% as well as limitations of the right direction were 12 people (75% and left direction were 4 people (25%. Whereas in the treatment group had e mean age of 35,94 with male of 10 people (62,5% and female of 6 people (37,5% as well as limitations of the right direction were 11 people (62,5% and left direction were 5 people (31,2%. The results of hypothesis testing using independent sampel t-test showed a significant difference between the mean post-intervention ROM extension, rotation, lateral flexion of the control groups and the mean post-intervention ROM extension, rotation, lateral flexion of the treatment

  7. Fundamental analysis and algorithms for development of a mobile fast-scan lateral migration radiography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhong

    Lateral migration radiography (LMR) is a unique x-ray Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) technique to image surface and subsurface, or internal structure of an object. An x-ray pencil beam scans the interrogated area and the backscattered photons are registered by detectors which have varying degrees of collimation. In early LMR applications, either the LMR systems or the imaged objects are moved on a rectangular grid, and at each node, the systems register backscattered photon energy deposition as pixel intensity in acquired images. The mechanical movement of the system or objects from pixel to pixel causes prolonged image scan time with a high percentage of system dead time. To avoid this drawback, a particular x-ray beam formation technique is proposed and analyzed. A corresponding mobile, fast-scan LMR system is designed, fabricated and tested. The results show a two orders-of-magnitude reduction in image scan time compared with those of previous systems. The x-ray beam formation technique, based on a rotating collimator in the LMR system, implements surface line scan by sampling an x-ray fan beam. This rotating collimator yields unique imaging effects compared to those for an x-ray beam with fixed collimation and perpendicular incidence: (1) the speed of the x-ray beam spot on the scanned surface is not uniform; (2) constant movement of the x-ray beam spot changes the resolution in the image raster direction; (3) x-ray beam spot size changes with location on the scanned surface; (4) the object image shows a squeezed effect in the raster scan direction; (5) under a uniform background, the Compton scatter angular distribution causes the x-ray backscatter field to be stronger, when the x-ray beam has greater incidence angle; and (6) the x-ray illumination spot trace on the scanned surface is skewed. The physics generating these effects is analyzed with Monte Carlo computer simulations and/or measurements. Image acquisition and image processing algorithms are

  8. Lateral mobility of integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) in the plasma membrane of a human megakaryocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootemeijer, A; van Willigen, G; van der Vuurst, H; Tertoolen, L G; De Laat, S W; Akkerman, J W

    1997-01-01

    The migration of integrins to sites of cell-cell and cell-matrix contact is thought to be important for adhesion strengthening. We studied the lateral diffusion of integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) in the plasma membrane of a cultured human megakaryocyte by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of FITC-labelled monovalent Fab fragments directed against the beta 3 subunit. The diffusion of beta 3 on the unstimulated megakaryocyte showed a lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of 0.37 x 10(-9) cm2/s and a mobile fraction of about 50%. Stimulation with ADP (20 microM) or alpha-thrombin (10 U/ml) at 22 degrees C induced transient decreases in both parameters reducing D to 0.21 x 10(-9) cm2/s and the mobile fraction to about 25%. The fall in D was observed within 1 min after stimulation but the fall in mobile fraction showed a lag phase of 5 min. The lag phase was absent in the presence of Calpain I inhibitor, where-as cytochalasin D completely abolished the decreased in mobile fraction. The data are compatible with the concept that cell activation induces anchorage of 50% of the mobile alpha IIb beta 3 (25% of the whole population of receptor) to the cytoplasmic actin filaments, although, as discussed, other rationals are not ruled out. PMID:9031465

  9. High-performance AlGaN /GaN lateral field-effect rectifiers compatible with high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanjun; Wong, King-Yuen; Huang, Wei; Chen, Kevin J.

    2008-06-01

    A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT)-compatible power lateral field-effect rectifier (L-FER) with low turn-on voltage is demonstrated using the same fabrication process as that for normally off AlGaN /GaN HEMT, providing a low-cost solution for GaN power integrated circuits. The power rectifier features a Schottky-gate-controlled two-dimensional electron gas channel between the cathode and anode. By tying up the Schottky gate and anode together, the forward turn-on voltage of the rectifier is determined by the threshold voltage of the channel instead of the Schottky barrier. The L-FER with a drift length of 10μm features a forward turn-on voltage of 0.63V at a current density of 100A/cm2. This device also exhibits a reverse breakdown voltage (BV) of 390V at a current level of 1mA/mm and a specific on resistance (RON,sp) of 1.4mΩcm2, yielding a figure of merit (BV2/RON,sp) of 108MW/cm2. The excellent device performance, coupled with the lateral device structure and process compatibility with AlGaN /GaN HEMT, make the proposed L-FER a promising candidate for GaN power integrated circuits.

  10. Study of protective properties of mobile elements in gamma-plants operating channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure radiation safety when designing radioisotope gamma plants, a possibility of using direct cylindrical channels improving the reliability of the source transport system construction is investigated. The experiments were carried out with an operating channel model. The 60Co standard source was used. Apparatus spectra of gamma radiation at the output of the operating channel model of the radiation - chemical facility are obtained. The values of exposure dose rate depending on thickness of mobile shielding, made of steel and lead cylinders are presented. The data are compared with the level of maximum permissible exposure dose rate. Mobile shields of lead encased in steel are the most effective; though is shields of steel spheres is the least effective. It is shown, that the mean rate of exposure dose at the channel output decreases as a result of random shifts in the position of mobile elements made as cylinders. The data obtained were used for optimization of the shields for K-300000 radiation-chemical facility

  11. Blind Adaptive Subcarrier Combining Technique for MC-CDMA Receiver in Mobile Rayleigh Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Shakya, Indu; Stipidis, Elias

    2011-01-01

    A new subcarrier combining technique is proposed for MC -CDMA receiver in mobile Rayleigh fading channel. It exploits the structure formed by repeating spreading sequences of users on different subcarriers to simultaneously suppress multiple access interference (MAI) and provide implicit channel tracking without any knowledge of the channel amplitudes or training sequences. This is achieved by adaptively weighting each subcarrier in each symbol period by employing a simple gradient descent algorithm to meet the constant modulus (CM) criterion with judicious selection of step-size. Improved BER and user capacity performance are shown with similar complexity in order of O(N) compared with conventional maximum ratio combining and equal gain combining techniques even under high channel Doppler rates.

  12. POTASSIUM CHANNELS AS DRUGS TARGETS IN THERAPY OF CARDIOVASCULAR DESEASES: 25 YEARS LATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium channels are the most variable ion channel group. They participate in numerous cardiovascular functions, for example regulation of vascular tone, maintenance of resting cardiac membrane potential and excitability of cardiac conduction tissue. Both drugs and endogenous ligands could modulate potassium channel function, belonging to the potassium channel blockers or openers. Modulation of potassium channels could be a therapeutic or adverse drug action. Class III antiarrhythmic agents block the potassium channels, thereby prolonging repolarization phase of action potential with resulting prolongation of effective refractory period. Their effectiveness against supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias should be weighted against their proarrhythmogenic potential. In addition, numerous other antiarrhythmic agents could modulate potassium channels as well. Diazoxide, minoxidil and nicorandil (well known arterial vasodilators, as well as numerous newly synthesized substances with still unknown therapeutic potential, belong to the potassium channel activators/ openers. Therapeutic use of such vasodilators may involve treatment of hypertension (diazoxide, minoxidil and stable angina (nicorandil. Their use might be accompanied with side effects, such as vasodilation, edema, hypotension and reflex tachycardia. Potassium channel openers have also an important role in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and pulmonary hypertension. In the future, drugs with selective effects on the vascular or cardiac potassium channels could be useful therapeutic agents.

  13. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, S W; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids were studied in unfertilized and fertilized Xenopus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein- -1abelled fatty acids HEDAF (5-(N-hexadecanoyl)- aminofluorescein) and TEDAF (5-(N-tetradecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) appear to distribute itself in the plasma membrane. Under all experimental conditions used these molecules s...

  14. Propagation model for the Land Mobile Satellite channel in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, M.; Dibernardo, G.; Cioni, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the major characteristics of a simulation package capable of performing a complete narrow and wideband analysis of the mobile satellite communication channel in urban environments for any given orbital configuration. The wavelength-to-average urban geometrical dimension ratio has required the use of the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD). For the RF frequency range, the model has been designed to be (1 up to 60 GHz) extended to include effects of non-perfect conductivity and surface roughness. Taking advantage of the inherent capabilities of such a high frequency method, we are able to provide a complete description of the electromagnetic field at the mobile terminal. Using the information made available at the ray-tracer and GTD solver outputs, the Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) urban model can also give a detailed description of the communication channel in terms of power delay profiles, Doppler spectra, channel scattering functions, and so forth. Statistical data, e.g. cumulative distribution functions, level crossing rates or distributions of fades are also provided. The user can access the simulation tool through a Design-CAD user-friendly interface by means of which she can effectively design her own urban layout and run consequently all the envisaged routines. The software is optimized in its execution time so that numerous runs can be achieved in a considerably short time.

  15. Performance analysis of the ALOHA protocol with replication in a fading channel for the Mobile Satellite Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, L. P.; Yan, T.-Y.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of the ALOHA random access protocol for communications channels with fading is presented. The protocol is modified to send multiple contiguous copies of a message at each transmission attempt. Both pure and slotted ALOHA channels are considered. A general two state model is used for the channel error process to account for the channel fading memory. It is shown that greater throughput and smaller delay may be achieved using repetitions. The model is applied to the analysis of the delay-throughput performance in a fading mobile communications environment. Numerical results are given for NASA's Mobile Satellite Experiment.

  16. Indoor positioning system using WLAN channel estimates as fingerprints for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Erick; Akopian, David

    2015-03-01

    With the growing integration of location based services (LBS) such as GPS in mobile devices, indoor position systems (IPS) have become an important role for research. There are several IPS methods such as AOA, TOA, TDOA, which use trilateration for indoor location estimation but are generally based on line-of-sight. Other methods rely on classification such as fingerprinting which uses WLAN indoor signals. This paper re-examines the classical WLAN fingerprinting accuracy which uses received signal strength (RSS) measurements by introducing channel estimates for improvements in the classification of indoor locations. The purpose of this paper is to improve existing classification algorithms used in fingerprinting by introducing channel estimates when there are a low number of APs available. The channel impulse response, or in this case the channel estimation from the receiver, should characterize a complex indoor area which usually has multipath, thus providing a unique signature for each location which proves useful for better pattern recognition. In this experiment, channel estimates are extracted from a Software-Defined Radio (SDR) environment, thus exploiting the benefits of SDR from a NI-USRP model and LabVIEW software. Measurements are taken from a known building, and several scenarios with one and two access points (APs) are used in this experiment. Also, three granularities in distance between locations are analyzed. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as the algorithm for pattern recognition of different locations based on the samples taken from RSS and channel estimation coefficients.

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILIZATION WITH MOVEMENT OF ELBOW COMPARED WITH MANIPULATION OF WRIST IN PATIENTS OF LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Patel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:To evaluate the effectiveness of mobilization with movement of elbow compared with manipulationof wr ist on pai n, strength and acti viti es of dai l y l i vi ng i n patients of l ateral epi condyl i tis.Methodology:An interventional comparative study was conducted on 30 patients having symptomatic lateralepicondylitis. They were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Group A (n=10 control group,Group B(n=10 Mobilization with movement group and Group C (n=10 wrist manipulation. All the 3 groups werereceivedconventional treatment of ultrasound, stretching and strengthening of wrist extensors. Baseline measurementsof pain (VAS score, functional status (PRTEE questionnaire and strength (maximal isometric grip strengthwere taken on day 1 and after 10thtreatment session.Results:The data analysis was performed with Graph PadInstat trial version 3 software. All three groups showed improvement in VAS, maximal isometrics gripstrengthand PRTEEquestionnaire. There isstatistically significant difference between groups B (Mobilization withmovement and Group C (Manipulation of wrist for VAS and PRTEEquestionnaire score. But No statisticallysignificant difference is found in maximal isometric grip strength. Mobilization with movement of elbow alongwith conventional therapy showed significant improvement in Pain and functional status as compared to wristmanipulation.Conclusion:It can be concluded that mobilization with movement of elbow along withconventional therapy program is effective in treating chronic lateral epicondylitis

  18. Modeling of high composition AlGaN channel high electron mobility transistors with large threshold voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the potential of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) consisting of high composition AlGaN channel and barrier layers for power switching applications. Detailed two-dimensional (2D) simulations show that threshold voltages in excess of 3 V can be achieved through the use of AlGaN channel layers. We also calculate the 2D electron gas mobility in AlGaN channel HEMTs and evaluate their power figures of merit as a function of device operating temperature and Al mole fraction in the channel. Our models show that power switching transistors with AlGaN channels would have comparable on-resistance to GaN-channel based transistors for the same operation voltage. The modeling in this paper shows the potential of high composition AlGaN as a channel material for future high threshold enhancement mode transistors

  19. Mobile Commerce Ventures in Stockholm : An analysis into the latest channel taking the retail industry by storm

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The mobile channel is becoming increasingly relevant within the retail industry and with that, new mobile technologies are being developed and adopted. Past research examines consumer adoption of new technology but rarely analyzes the business component, specifically those businesses developing  these new technologies. This research  seeks to complement past research by investigating mobile commerce ventures. Through a series of semi-structured Interviews with investors, retail experts, and m...

  20. Seamless Mapping of River Channels at High Resolution Using Mobile LiDAR and UAV-Photography

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Flener; Matti Vaaja; Anttoni Jaakkola; Anssi Krooks; Harri Kaartinen; Antero Kukko; Elina Kasvi; Hannu Hyyppä; Juha Hyyppä; Petteri Alho

    2013-01-01

    Accurate terrain models are a crucial component of studies of river channel evolution. In this paper we describe a new methodology for creating high-resolution seamless digital terrain models (DTM) of river channels and their floodplains. We combine mobile laser scanning and low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photography-based methods for creating both a digital bathymetric model of the inundated river channel and a DTM of a point bar of a meandering sub-arctic river. We evaluate mobi...

  1. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in a molluscan egg: Evidence for an animal/vegetal polarity

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, S W; Speksnijder, J E; Dohmen, M.R.; Zoelen, E. van; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Bluemink, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lateral diffusion of the lipid analog C₁₄-diI (3', 3'-dihexadecylindocarbocyanine iodide) was measured in the plasma membrane of early embryos of the mollusc Nassarius reticulatus using the FPR-(Fluorescence Photobleaching Recovery) method. At almost all stages measured (from fertilized egg up to 8-cell stage) the diffusion coefficient (D) of the mobile fraction (MF) of C₁₄-diI is significantly higher in the plasma membrane of the polar lobe as compared to the plasma membrane of the anima...

  2. T-type calcium channels promote predictive homeostasis of input-output relations in thalamocortical neurons of lateral geniculate nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Fiorillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A general theory views the function of all neurons as prediction, and one component of this theory is that of “predictive homeostasis” or “prediction error.” It is well established that sensory systems adapt so that neuronal output maintains sensitivity to sensory input, in accord with information theory. Predictive homeostasis applies the same principle at the cellular level, where the challenge is to maintain membrane excitability at the optimal homeostatic level so that spike generation is maximally sensitive to small gradations in synaptic drive. Negative feedback is a hallmark of homeostatic mechanisms, as exemplified by depolarization-activated potassium channels. However, T-type calcium channels exhibit positive feedback that appears at odds with the theory. In thalamocortical neurons of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, T-type channels are capable of causing bursts of spikes with an all-or-none character in response to excitation from a hyperpolarized potential. This “burst mode” would partially uncouple visual input from spike output and reduce the information spikes convey about gradations in visual input. However, past observations of T-type-driven bursts may have resulted from unnaturally high membrane excitability. By mimicking natural patterns of synaptic conductance that occur during vision, we found that T-type channels in rat brain slices did not cause bursts, but rather enabled retinogeniculate excitation to cause spikes despite sustained hyperpolarization, thereby restoring the homeostatic input-output relation observed at depolarized potentials. Our results suggest that T-type channels help to maintain a single optimal mode of transmission rather than creating a second mode. In addition, our results provide evidence for the general theory, which seeks to predict the properties of a neuron’s ion channels and synapses given knowledge of natural patterns of synaptic input.

  3. Blind Channel Estimation Enhancement for MIMO- OFDM Systems Under High Mobility Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Zaier

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an enhancement of a blind channel estimator based on a subspace approach in a MIMO OFDM context (Multi Input Multi Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing in high mobility scenario. As known, the combination between the MIMO context and the OFDM system has stimulated mainly the evolution of the fourth generation broadband wireless communications. The simulations results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach for a 16 QAM modulation scheme and had been evaluated in term of bit error rate BER and mean square error MSE versus the signal to noise ratio SNR.

  4. Blind Channel Estimation Enhancement for Mimo- OFDM Systems under High Mobility Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Zaier, Aida; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4115

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an enhancement of a blind channel estimator based on a subspace approach in a MIMO OFDM context (Multi Input Multi Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) in high mobility scenario. As known, the combination between the MIMO context and the OFDM system has stimulated mainly the evolution of the fourth generation broadband wireless communications. The simulations results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach for a 16 QAM modulation scheme and had been evaluated in term of bit error rate BER and mean square error MSE versus the signal to noise ratio SNR.

  5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF S-ALOHA USED AS A RANDOM ACCES CHANNEL ON MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Covarrubias

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effects of Rayleigh fading, shadowing, and spatial distribution of the Mobile Terminals(MTs on the operating performance of Slotted Aloha (S-Aloha used as a Random Access Channel (RACH. Thispaper also evaluates the capture probability in a channel exhibiting Rayleigh fading, shadowing, and the effect ofspatial distribution of the MTs. In addition, this work presents a different version of the steady-sate probabilities ofthe Markov chain of S-Aloha considering capture effect. This article simulates the stabilization of S-Aloha by utilizingan algorithm that dynamically controls the retransmission probabilities. Finally, this paper presents a numericalanalysis of these simulations and identifies the operating of parameters that have shown to degrade systemresponse.

  6. Reliability of high mobility SiGe channel MOSFETs for future CMOS applications

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Jacopo; Groeseneken, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Due to the ever increasing electric fields in scaled CMOS devices, reliability is becoming a showstopper for further scaled technology nodes. Although several groups have already demonstrated functional Si channel devices with aggressively scaled Equivalent Oxide Thickness (EOT) down to 5Å, a 10 year reliable device operation cannot be guaranteed anymore due to severe Negative Bias Temperature Instability. This book focuses on the reliability of the novel (Si)Ge channel quantum well pMOSFET technology. This technology is being considered for possible implementation in next CMOS technology nodes, thanks to its benefit in terms of carrier mobility and device threshold voltage tuning. We observe that it also opens a degree of freedom for device reliability optimization. By properly tuning the device gate stack, sufficiently reliable ultra-thin EOT devices with a 10 years lifetime at operating conditions are demonstrated. The extensive experimental datasets collected on a variety of processed 300mm wafers and pr...

  7. Polymer ferroelectric field-effect memory device with SnO channel layer exhibits record hole mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.

    2014-06-10

    Here we report for the first time a hybrid p-channel polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory device with record mobility. The memory device, fabricated at 200C on both plastic polyimide and glass substrates, uses ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) as the gate dielectric and transparent p-type oxide (SnO) as the active channel layer. A record mobility of 3.3 cm 2V-1s-1, large memory window (~16 V), low read voltages (~-1 V), and excellent retention characteristics up to 5000 sec have been achieved. The mobility achieved in our devices is over 10 times higher than previously reported polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistor memory with p-type channel. This demonstration opens the door for the development of non-volatile memory devices based on dual channel for emerging transparent and flexible electronic devices.

  8. Laterally Mobile, Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers at the Fluorous-Aqueous Interface in a Plug-Based Microfluidic System: Characterization and Testing with Membrane Protein Crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutz, Jason E.; Li, Liang; Roach, L. Spencer; Hatakeyama, Takuji; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method to generate functionalizable, mobile self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in plug-based microfluidics. Control of interfaces is advancing studies of biological interfaces, heterogeneous reactions, and nanotechnology. SAMs have been useful for such studies, but they are not laterally mobile. Lipid-based methods, though mobile, are not easily amenable to setting up the hundreds of experiments necessary for crystallization screening. Here we demonstrate a method, comple...

  9. Electric field-induced lateral mobility of photosystem I in the photosynthetic membrane: A study by electrophotoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfeld, V; Miller, I R; Korenstein, R

    1989-09-01

    Electrophoretic movement of photosystem I (PS I) along the photosynthetic membrane of hypotonically swollen thylakoid vesicles was studied by analyzing the electric field-stimulated delayed luminescence (electrophotoluminescence) emitted from PS I. The electrophoretic mobility was inferred from the differences in electrophotoluminescence (EPL) of the photosynthetic vesicles in presence and absence of trains of low amplitude (electric mobility, determined from the time course of EPL increase on one hemisphere or its decrease on the other one, as function of prepulse length and intensity was of the order of 3 . 10(-5) cm(2)V(-1)s(-1). The assymetric distribution of the PS I reached a steady state when the diffusional, electrostatic, and elastic forces balanced the electrophoretic driving force. A lateral diffusion coefficient of approximately 5 . 10(-9) cm(2)s(-1) was found for the PS I complex from the diffusional relaxation after cessation of the electric field pulse train. Experimental conditions such as concentration, temperature, and viscosity of the aqueous solution were not critical for the effect. Between 23 and 150 electron charges per moving particle were estimated from the measured electrophoretic mobility. PMID:19431746

  10. A New Approach for Sub-Channels Assignment in Downlink Fourth Generation Mobile Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhreddine Khelifa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We proposed a new heuristic method for subchannels allocation problem in the context. Approach: In this system, OFDM transmission method has been used, in order to reduce the effect of multipath fading, OFDMA to achieve multiple access schemes and flexibility in resource allocation. Results: An adaptive method for subchannels allocation is necessary in order to exploit the multiuser diversity, to respect real time constraints and to maximize the capacity system. The proposed algorithm is based in the Channel State Information (CSI of total mobiles stations present in the cell. The idea of this method is based in the statistic parameters of the gain of frequency response channel for every mobile station. These parameters are the key to organize the different MS’s and subchannels priority. Conclusion/Recommendations: Numerical results showed that the proposed algorithm outperforms an allocation scheme in terms of Bloc Error Rate, Higher system capacity and Fairness among active users, compared to others previous methods.

  11. Variable parameter McCarthy-Muskingum flow transport model for compound channels accounting for distributed non-uniform lateral flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ratnakar; Sahoo, Bhabagrahi

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the fully volume conservative simplified hydrodynamic-based variable parameter McCarthy-Muskingum (VPMM) flow transport model advocated by Perumal and Price in 2013 is extended to exclusively incorporate the distributed non-uniform lateral flow in the routing scheme accounting for compound river channel flows. The revised VPMM formulation is exclusively derived from the combined form of the de Saint-Venant's continuity and momentum equations with the spatiotemporally distributed lateral flow which is solved using the finite difference box scheme. This revised model could address the earlier model limitations of: (i) non-accounting non-uniformly distributed lateral flow, (ii) ignoring floodplain flow, and (iii) non-consideration of catchment dynamics of lateral flow generation restricting its real-time application. The efficacy of the revised formulation is tested to simulate 16 years (1980-1995) river runoff from real-time storm events under scarce morpho-hydrological data conditions in a tropical monsoon-type 48 km Bolani-Gomlai reach of the Brahmani River in eastern India. The spatiotemporally distributed lateral flows generated in real-time is computed by water balance approach accounting for catchment characteristics of normalized network area function, land use land cover classes, and soil textural classes; and hydro-meteorological variables of precipitation, soil moisture, minimum and maximum temperatures, wind speed, relative humidity, and solar radiation. The multiple error measures used in this study and the simulation results reveal that the revised VPMM model has a greater practical utility in estimating the event-based and long-term meso-scale river runoff (both discharge and its stage) at any ungauged site, enhancing its application for real-time flood estimation.

  12. Rubrene crystal field-effect mobility modulation via conducting channel wrinkling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Martinez, Marcos A; Crosby, Alfred J; Briseno, Alejandro L

    2015-01-01

    With the impending surge of flexible organic electronic technologies, it has become essential to understand how mechanical deformation affects the electrical performance of organic thin-film devices. Organic single crystals are ideal for the systematic study of strain effects on electrical properties without being concerned about grain boundaries and other defects. Here we investigate how the deformation affects the field-effect mobility of single crystals of the benchmark semiconductor rubrene. The wrinkling instability is used to apply local strains of different magnitudes along the conducting channel in field-effect transistors. We discover that the mobility changes as dictated by the net strain at the dielectric/semiconductor interface. We propose a model based on the plate bending theory to quantify the net strain in wrinkled transistors and predict the change in mobility. These contributions represent a significant step forward in structure-function relationships in organic semiconductors, critical for the development of the next generation of flexible electronic devices. PMID:25939864

  13. Fluid-particle interaction in turbulent open channel flow with fully-resolved mobile beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowinckel, Bernhard; Kempe, Tobias; Fröhlich, Jochen

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents Direct Numerical Simulations of an open channel flow laden with spherical particles at a bulk Reynolds number of 2941. The transport of thousands of mobile particles is simulated propagating over a rough bed which consists of immobile particles of the same size in hexagonal ordering. An Immersed Boundary Method is used for the numerical representation of the particles. With 22 points per diameter even the viscous scales of the flow are resolved at this Reynolds number. The reference run contains just as many fixed as mobile particles with a relative density slightly above the nominal threshold of incipient motion. Further runs were conducted with decreased mass loading and decreased Shields number together with a simulation containing only immobile particles. The variation of the parameters defining the mobile sediment yields a strong modification of particle-fluid as well as particle-particle interactions yielding different structures in space and time. This is assessed by means of appropriate statistical quantities addressing the continuous and the disperse phase. The results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations at higher Reynolds number.

  14. Analysis and modeling of flicker noise in lateral asymmetric channel MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Harshit; Kushwaha, Pragya; Gupta, Chetan; Khandelwal, Sourabh; Hu, Chenming; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, flicker noise behavior of lateral non-uniformly doped MOSFET is studied using impedance field method. Our study shows that Klaassen Prins (KP) method, which forms the basis of noise model in MOSFETs, underestimates flicker noise in such devices. The same KP method overestimates thermal noise by 2-3 orders of magnitude in similar devices as demonstrated in Roy et al. (2007). This apparent discrepancy between thermal and flicker noise behavior lies in origin of these noises, which leads to opposite trend of local noise power spectral density vs doping. We have modeled the physics behind such behavior, which also explain the trends observed in the measurements (Agarwal et al., 2015).

  15. Time-Frequency Based Channel Estimation for High-Mobility OFDM Systems—Part II: Cooperative Relaying Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önen Erol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the estimation of time-varying channels for Cooperative Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (CO-OFDM systems. In the next generation mobile wireless communication systems, significant Doppler frequency shifts are expected the channel frequency response to vary in time. A time-invariant channel is assumed during the transmission of a symbol in the previous studies on CO-OFDM systems, which is not valid in high mobility cases. Estimation of channel parameters is required at the receiver to improve the performance of the system. We estimate the model parameters of the channel from a time-frequency representation of the received signal. We present two approaches for the CO-OFDM channel estimation problem where in the first approach, individual channels are estimated at the relay and destination whereas in the second one, the cascaded source-relay-destination channel is estimated at the destination. Simulation results show that the individual channel estimation approach has better performance in terms of MSE and BER; however it has higher computational cost compared to the cascaded approach.

  16. Progress of p-channel bottom-gate poly-Si thin-film transistor by nickel silicide seed-induced lateral crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sol Kyu; Seok, Ki Hwan; Park, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Chae, Hee Jae; Jang, Gil Su; Lee, Yong Hee; Han, Ji Su; Joo, Seung Ki

    2016-06-01

    Excimer laser annealing (ELA) is known to be the most common crystallization technology for the fabrication of low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) in the mass production industry. This technology, however, cannot be applied to bottom-gate (BG) TFTs, which are well developed for the liquid-crystal display (LCD) back-planes, because strong laser energy of ELA can seriously damage the other layers. Here, we propose a novel high-performance BG poly-Si TFT using Ni silicide seed-induced lateral crystallization (SILC). The SILC technology renders it possible to ensure low damage in the layers, smooth surface, and longitudinal large grains in the channel. It was observed that the electrical properties exhibited a steep subthreshold slope of 110 mV/dec, high field-effect mobility of 304 cm2/Vsec, high I on/ I off ratio of 5.9 × 107, and a low threshold voltage of -3.9 V.

  17. Presynaptic GABAB receptors reduce transmission at parabrachial synapses in the lateral central amygdala by inhibiting N-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, A J; Crane, J W

    2016-01-01

    The nocioceptive information carried by neurons of the pontine parabrachial nucleus to neurons of the lateral division of the central amydala (CeA-L) is thought to contribute to the affective components of pain and is required for the formation of conditioned-fear memories. Importantly, excitatory transmission between parabrachial axon terminals and CeA-L neurons can be inhibited by a number of presynaptic receptors linked to Gi/o-type G-proteins, including α2-adrenoceptors and GABAB receptors. While the intracellular signalling pathway responsible for α2-adrenoceptor inhibition of synaptic transmission at this synapse is known, the mechanism by which GABAB receptors inhibits transmission has not been determined. The present study demonstrates that activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors reduces excitatory transmission between parabrachial axon terminals and CeA-L neurons by inhibiting N-type calcium channels. While the involvement of Gβγ subunits in mediating the inhibitory effects of GABAB receptors on N-type calcium channels is unclear, this inhibition does not involve Gβγ-independent activation of pp60C-src tyrosine kinase. The results of this study further enhance our understanding of the modulation of the excitatory input from parabrachial axon terminals to CeA-L neurons and indicate that presynaptic GABAB receptors at this synapse could be valuable therapeutic targets for the treatment of fear- and pain-related disorders. PMID:26755335

  18. Transformational Electronics: Towards Flexible Low-Cost High Mobility Channel Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2014-05-01

    For the last four decades, Si CMOS technology has been advancing with Moore’s law prediction, working itself down to the sub-20 nm regime. However, fundamental problems and limitations arise with the down-scaling of transistors and thus new innovations needed to be discovered in order to further improve device performance without compromising power consumption and size. Thus, a lot of studies have focused on the development of new CMOS compatible architectures as well as the discovery of new high mobility channel materials that will allow further miniaturization of CMOS transistors and improvement of device performance. Pushing the limits even further, flexible and foldable electronics seem to be the new attractive topic. By being able to make our devices flexible through a CMOS compatible process, one will be able to integrate hundreds of billions of more transistors in a small volumetric space, allowing to increase the performance and speed of our electronics all together with making things thinner, lighter, smaller and even interactive with the human skin. Thus, in this thesis, we introduce for the first time a cost-effective CMOS compatible approach to make high-k/metal gate devices on flexible Germanium (Ge) and Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) platforms. In the first part, we will look at the various approaches in the literature that has been developed to get flexible platforms, as well as we will give a brief overview about epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex films. We will also examine the electrical properties of the Si1-xGex alloys up to Ge (x=1) and discuss how strain affects the band structure diagram, and thus the mobility of the material. We will also review the material growth properties as well as the state-of-the-art results on high mobility metal-oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using strained SiGe films. Then, we will introduce the flexible process that we have developed, based on a cost-effective “trench-protect-release-reuse” approach, utilizing

  19. Optimization of MQAM Modulation Schemes in Mobile Communications(Ⅱ)--Analysis of MQAM BER Performance in Rayleigh Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The transmission error code performance of square MQAM and star MQAM modulation schemes for the AGWN Rayleigh fading channel is analyzed. The corresponding BER formulas and computer aided numeric results are given. Therefore it provides a theoretical basis for choosing MQAM modulation schemes in mobile communications.

  20. Seamless Mapping of River Channels at High Resolution Using Mobile LiDAR and UAV-Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Flener

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate terrain models are a crucial component of studies of river channel evolution. In this paper we describe a new methodology for creating high-resolution seamless digital terrain models (DTM of river channels and their floodplains. We combine mobile laser scanning and low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photography-based methods for creating both a digital bathymetric model of the inundated river channel and a DTM of a point bar of a meandering sub-arctic river. We evaluate mobile laser scanning and UAV-based photogrammetry point clouds against terrestrial laser scanning and combine these data with an optical bathymetric model to create a seamless DTM of two different measurement periods. Using this multi-temporal seamless data, we calculate a DTM of difference that allows a change detection of the meander bend over a one-year period.

  1. Development and field testing of a mobile backscatter x-ray lateral migration radiography land mine detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Edward T.; Jacobs, Alan M.; Su, Zhong; Houssay, Laurent; Ekdahl, Dan; Brygoo, Stephanie

    2002-08-01

    Lateral migration radiography (LMR), a new form of Compton backscatter x-ray imaging, is applied to the detection and identification of buried land mines. A mobile LMR land mine detection system was developed and field tested. Weight for this initial system was about 175 kg; weight for a prototype should be about 100 kg. X-ray generator power level was 750 watts; the power level requirement for a prototype should be about 300 watts. An innovative rotating collimator for the x-ray source beam was developed to provide rapid side-to-side scanning of the beam without having to move the x-ray generator in this direction. Acquisition of images of a 40 cm by 40 cm area takes from 30 to 60 seconds, depending on the desired resolution. The imaging capabilities of LMR make it well suited for use as a land mine detection confirmation sensor. This system was employed on the vehicular test lanes at Fort A.P. Hill in October, 2001. High quality images were obtained for a variety of buried land mines. The system was also used to scan 30 locations on one of the test lanes where GPR consistently yielded false alarms. In only two cases did the LMR image sets yield a signature that could be considered to possibly indicate a mine.

  2. Reducing interferences in wireless communication systems by mobile agents with recurrent neural networks-based adaptive channel equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beritelli, Francesco; Capizzi, Giacomo; Lo Sciuto, Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Tramontana, Emiliano; Woźniak, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Solving channel equalization problem in communication systems is based on adaptive filtering algorithms. Today, Mobile Agents (MAs) with Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) can be also adopted for effective interference reduction in modern wireless communication systems (WCSs). In this paper MAs with RNNs are proposed as novel computing algorithms for reducing interferences in WCSs performing an adaptive channel equalization. The method to provide it is so called MAs-RNNs. We perform the implementation of this new paradigm for interferences reduction. Simulations results and evaluations demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach and as better transmission performance in wireless communication network can be achieved by using the MAs-RNNs based adaptive filtering algorithm.

  3. Quick lateral movements of the trunk in a seated position reflect mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) function in frail elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Kimura, Daisuke; Okamoto, Kensuke; Arai, Shin; Iwata, Hiroshi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    A novel and safe performance test for measuring mobility is described. The test, which we have named the Seated Side Tapping test (Side Tapping test), requires the subjects to move their bodies laterally to the left and right in turn as quickly as possible whilst remaining in a seated position. We examined the associations between the results of the new test and those of other mobility tests, ADL, and the use of walking aids. The participants were 75 frail elderly people who were receiving rehabilitation services. Gait speed and the timed up and go (TUG) test were employed as mobility tests, and the participants' use of walking aids was recorded. The ADL score was assessed using the Barthel Index. Significant correlations were found between the side tapping test and gait speed (r=-0.59, pwalking aids. These results indicate that an ability to perform quick lateral trunk movements in a seated position reflects their mobility during standing. Thus, we concluded that since the side tapping test is simple and safe, it is useful for detecting mobility impairments, ADL levels, and the need for walking aids, especially in frail elderly individuals. PMID:23270712

  4. EFFICACY OF WEIGHT BEARING DISTAL TIBIOFIBULAR JOINT MOBILIZATION WITH MOVEMENT (MWM IN IMPROVING PAIN, DORSIFLEXION RANGE AND FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH POSTACUTE LATERAL ANKLE SPRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Nisha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various treatments in physiotherapy are available for ankle sprain with no consensus like taping, bracing, splinting, cryotherapy, electrotherapy modality like ultrasound, laser therapy, interferential therapy and HVGS, joint mobilization. Mulligan’s mobilizations-with movement (MWM have been proposed as novel manual therapy technique to improve joint ROM by combining physiological and accessory joint movements. He developed a suite of treatment techniques on the basis of his theory of positional faults and altered joint kinematics following injuries affecting spinal and peripheral joints. Objective: To find out the efficacy of distal tibiofibular joint MWM in conjunction with conventional treatment over conventional treatment alone for improving pain , dorsiflexion range and lower extremity function in patients with post acute lateral ankle sprain. Subject and methods: 30 lateral ankle sprain subjects were randomized into 2 groups:- Group 1(n=15 were received distal tibiofibular joint MWM along with conventional treatment and Group 2 (n=15 subjects were received conventional treatment only. Treatment consist of 3 sessions spread over 1 week, each session 48 hours apart and data is recorded at beginning and end of treatment regimen. Results: Independent t-test showed statistical significant improvement in only weight bearing lunge measure for dorsiflexion (p=0.008 in group 1 over group 2 and paired t-test was used for within group analysis which showed significant improvement in both the groups in all the outcome variables (p=0.000 Discussion and conclusion: Both the groups demonstrated significant improvement in pain, range and lower extremity function in lateral ankle sprain and distal tibiofibular joint mobilization with movement in conjunction with conventional treatment will be significantly more effective than conventional treatment alone in improving weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion range (Weight bearing lunge measure in

  5. Enhancement-Mode AIGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors Using a Nano-Channel Arrayy Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sheng-Hou; Cheng P. Wen; QIN Hua; ZHANG Bao-Shun; CAI Yong; GONG Ru-Min; WANG Jin-Yan; ZENG Chun-Hong; SHI Wen-Hua; FENG Zhi-Hong; WANG Jing-Jing; YIN Jia-Yun

    2011-01-01

    A nano-channel array (NCA) structure is applied to realize enhancement-mode (E-mode) A1GaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The fabricated NCA-HEMT,consisting of 1000 channels connected in parallel with a channel width of 64 nm,shows a threshold voltage of 0.15 V and a subthreshold slope of 78mY/dec,compared to -3.92 V and 99mV/dec for a conventional HEMT (C-HEMT),respectively.Both the NCA-HEMT and C-HEMT show similar gate leakage current,indicating no significant degradation in gate leakage characteristics for the NCA-HEMT.The surrounding-field effect and relieved polarization contribute to the very large positive threshold voltage shift,while the work function difference makes it positive.

  6. Enhancement-Mode AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors Using a Nano-Channel Array Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nano-channel array (NCA) structure is applied to realize enhancement-mode (E-mode) AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The fabricated NCA-HEMT, consisting of 1000 channels connected in parallel with a channel width of 64 nm, shows a threshold voltage of 0.15 V and a subthreshold slope of 78 mV/dec, compared to −3.92 V and 99 mV/dec for a conventional HEMT (C-HEMT), respectively Both the NCA-HEMT and C-HEMT show similar gate leakage current, indicating no significant degradation in gate leakage characteristics for the NCA-HEMT. The surrounding-field effect and relieved polarization contribute to the very large positive threshold voltage shift, while the work function difference makes it positive. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; de Laat, S W

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilizedxaqpus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids HEDAF (5-(N-hexadecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) and TEDAF (5-(N-tetradecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) appear to partition into the plasma membrane. Under all experimental conditions used these molecules show par...

  8. Calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channel activators in the 5β-cholanic acid-3α-ol analogue series with modifications in the lateral chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiya, Anna N; Patil, Shivaputra A; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane D; Dopico, Alex M

    2012-10-01

    Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels regulate various physiological processes and represent an attractive target for drug discovery. Numerous BK channel activators are available. However, these agents usually interact with the ubiquitously distributed channel-forming subunit and thus cannot selectively target a particular tissue. We performed a structure-activity relationship study of lithocholic acid (LCA), a cholane that activates BK channels via the accessory BK β1 subunit. The latter protein is highly abundant in smooth muscle but scarce in most other tissues. Modifications to the LCA lateral chain length and functional group yielded two novel smooth muscle BK channel activators in which the substituent at C24 has a small volume and a net negative charge. Our data provide detailed structural information that will be useful to advance a pharmacophore in search of β1 subunit-selective BK channel activators. These compounds are expected to evoke smooth muscle relaxation, which would be beneficial in the pharmacotherapy of prevalent human disorders associated with increased smooth muscle contraction, such as systemic hypertension, cerebral or coronary vasospasm, bronchial asthma, bladder hyperactivity, and erectile dysfunction. PMID:22945504

  9. Orientational preference and influence of rotation on methane mobility in one-dimensional channels

    OpenAIRE

    Bhide, Shreyas Y.; Yashonath, S.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular dynamics investigations of methane in one-dimensional channel systems of AlPO4-5 and the carbon nanotube are reported. Methane shows contrasting orientational preference over 1+3 and 2+2 orientations inside AlPO4-5 and the carbon nanotube. In AlPO4-5, 2+2 orientation is preferred in narrow parts of the channel while 1+3 orientation is predominant in the wider part of the channel. In the carbon nanotube 2+2 is preferred over 1+3 orientation throughout the channel. Thus, the orientati...

  10. Paraffin molecule mobility in channel clathrates of urea on spectroscopic NMR relaxation data

    CERN Document Server

    Kriger, Y G; Chekhova, G N

    2001-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the protons spin-lattice relaxation time (T sub I) in the channel clathrates of urea with paraffins are measured. The data on the T sub I are interpreted within the frames of the model of the paraffins molecules and their fragments orientation in the clathrate channels. The dynamics peculiarities are connected with the disproportion effects of these compounds

  11. Design and Evaluation of Smart Mobile Services for Cross-Channel Shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangji Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of smart mobile services to enhance online and offline shopping. Three prototypes were designed and implemented on smart phones and smart watches. Thirty young adults participated in the experiment to evaluate these prototypes. The results indicate that satisfaction with smart services is influenced by characteristics such as innovativeness, current shopping behavior, and design of prototypes. Positive feedback was generally given towards smart mobile services, but there were mixed attitudes towards key features. First, participants with a utilitarian motivation liked the indoor navigation feature, but those with a hedonic motivation enjoyed exploration. Second, in the area of big data, participants wanted more control over recommendations and more protection of privacy. Third, participants wanted to make mobile payments but were concerned about security. Finally, developers of new technology for smart mobile services should consider practicability.

  12. Using boat-based mobile terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in quantifying the flood-related changes in river channel morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasvi, E.; Alho, P.; Kukko, A.; Hyyppä, J.; Hyyppä, H.; Kaartinen, H.; Vaaja, M.

    2010-03-01

    Flooding has a major effect on their surrounding environment over time. Understanding the river system dynamics is important both in scientific manner and for societal purposes. Being able to map and quantify the flood-related erosion processes in a channel is essential for general understanding of the river dynamics as well as for improving flood protection and management. The variations in river bed material and the varying three dimensional flow conditions lead to asymmetries in the formation of the meanders and other channel formations and make the studying of the natural river channel dynamics challenging. To date, the detailed morphology of the fluvial landforms has been a challenge to measure. Field measurements for digital terrain model (DTM) creation based on traditional approaches are limited in riverine environment as steep river banks, curved point bars and dense vegetation create shadows on the sight of survey. Furthermore, these survey campaigns are usually rather time-consuming and might even be dangerous. Spatial or temporal coverage is rather diminished in these field measurements and consequently resolution of DTM is rather coarse. Therefore, new approaches for more detailed mapping of the flood-related geomorphologic changes in rivers are necessary in order to develop flood protection. In this study the boat-based, mobile mapping system (BoMMS) combined with a laser scanner was used to gather detailed, multi-temporal, pre- and post-flood topographical data in order to map the flood related geomorphic changes. The BoMMS- measurements were completed with static terrestrial LiDAR (Light Detection And Range) and mobile terrestrial LiDAR. The change detection was realized by subtracting the LiDAR-based DTMs. BoMMS-approach proved to be an effective and accurate way of mapping the river channel with only a small time-lag directly after flood. In addition, multi-temporal data set allowed a precise location and quantification of the flood-related erosion

  13. A Useful Metaheuristic for Dynamic Channel Assignment in Mobile Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective of a Channel Assignment Problem (CAP is to assign appropriate number of required channels to each cell in a way to achieve both efficient frequency spectrum utilization and minimization of interference effects (by satisfying a number of channel reuse constraints. Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA assigns the channels to the cells dynamically according to traffic demand, and hence, can provide higher capacity (or lower call blocking probability, fidelity and quality of service than the fixed assignment schemes. Channel assignment algorithms are formulated as combinatorial optimization problems and are NP-hard. Devising a DCA, that is practical, efficient, and which can generate high quality assignments, is challenging. Though Metaheuristic Search techniques like Evolutionary Algorithms, Differential Evolution, Particle Swarm Optimization prove effective in the solution of Fixed Channel Assignment (FCA problems but they still require high computational time and therefore may be inefficient for DCA. A number of approaches have been proposed for the solution of DCA problem but the high complexity of these proposed approaches makes them unsuitable/less efficient for practical use. Therefore, this paper presents an effective and efficient Hybrid Discrete Binary Differential Evolution Algorithm (HDB-DE for the solution of DCA Problem

  14. The comparison of anterior knee pain in severe and non severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella following a mobile bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoen, Boonchana; Reutiwarangkoon, Chaivet

    2016-01-01

    In the past, medial osteoarthritis (OA) knee with symptomatic patellofemoral (PF) arthritis has not been recommended for a unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). However, recent studies have reported that UKA has shown good results in patients with medial OA of the knee, including those with PF arthritis. The purpose of this study is to compare the results between patients with medial OA knees; those with severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella and patients without severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella following mobile bearing UKA. We have prospectively evaluated 104 patients (114 knees) who had undergone an Oxford mobile bearing UKA. The mean follow-up was 19.05 months (range 12.30-29.70 months). The patients were divided into two groups: group I consisted of eighty patients (88 knees) who did not have severe arthritis of the lateral facet (Outerbridge grade 0-2) and group II had twenty-four patients (26 knees) who had severe arthritis of the lateral facet (Outerbridge grade 3, 4). We recorded the incidence of anterior knee pain, knee scores, pain scores, and functional scores in comparison of the two groups. The visual analog scale (VAS) and incidence of post-operative anterior knee pain had not shown any significant differences. The VAS for post-operative anterior knee pain was 0.11 (SD 0.56, range 0-3 point) versus 0.12 (SD 0.59, range 0-3 point) for group I and group II patients, respectively (P = 0.98). The incidence of post-operative anterior knee pain was 4.5 versus 3.8 % for group I and group II patients, respectively (P = 0.88). The pain scores and functional scores had not exhibited any differences. However, the knee scores of patients with severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella was worse than those seen in patients without severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella with a statistical significance. It was scored as 96.78 (SD 4.56, range 85-100) versus 94.43 (SD 4.50, range 81-100) for group I

  15. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The selection will cover diverse topics such as theories, concepts, methods, and approaches as well as it will explore various modes of mobilities and the relationship to everyday life practices. The selection also covers the ‘politics of mobilities’ from local urban planning schemes to geopolitical...... issues of refugees and environmental degradation. The spaces and territories marked by mobilities as well as the sites marked by the bypassing of such are explored. Moreover, the architectural and technological dimensions to infrastructures and sites of mobilities will be included as well as the issues...... of power, social exclusion, consumption, surveillance and mobilities history to mention some of the many themes covered by this reference work. This new title will focus on the academic contributions to this understanding by primarily focusing on works and publications in the aftermath of the seminal...

  16. Laterally Mobile, Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers at the Fluorous−Aqueous Interface in a Plug-Based Microfluidic System: Characterization and Testing with Membrane Protein Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutz, Jason E.; Li, Liang; Roach, L. Spencer; Hatakeyama, Takuji; Ismagilov, Rustem F.; (UC)

    2009-11-04

    This paper describes a method to generate functionalizable, mobile self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in plug-based microfluidics. Control of interfaces is advancing studies of biological interfaces, heterogeneous reactions, and nanotechnology. SAMs have been useful for such studies, but they are not laterally mobile. Lipid-based methods, though mobile, are not easily amenable to setting up the hundreds of experiments necessary for crystallization screening. Here we demonstrate a method, complementary to current SAM and lipid methods, for rapidly generating mobile, functionalized SAMs. This method relies on plugs, droplets surrounded by a fluorous carrier fluid, to rapidly explore chemical space. Specifically, we implemented his-tag binding chemistry to design a new fluorinated amphiphile, RfNTA, using an improved one-step synthesis of RfOEG under Mitsunobu conditions. RfNTA introduces specific binding of protein at the fluorous-aqueous interface, which concentrates and orients proteins at the interface, even in the presence of other surfactants. We then applied this approach to the crystallization of a his-tagged membrane protein, Reaction Center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, performed 2400 crystallization trials, and showed that this approach can increase the range of crystal-producing conditions, the success rate at a given condition, the rate of nucleation, and the quality of the crystal formed.

  17. MAS-based auction for channel selection in mobile cognitive radio networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna Trigui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio network is a concept of wireless communication for mobile devices that offers the possibility to exploit the unused spectrum resources opportunistically. These networks bring out the need for new solutions that mitigate the spectrum management issue. However, existing works do not focus on devices mobility whereas serious problems arise when users are mobile specifically about their provided quality of services. In this work, we study spectrum sharing and spectrum handoff for mobile secondary users (SUs and we propose a novel approach that can be executed by a mobile SU when traveling through wireless networks. The proposed solution is inspired from multi-agent system auctions and integrates a learning module which accelerates SUs’ spectrum bands allocation. One of the main contributions of this paper is the realistic implementation of the learning based auction and the interesting results obtained through a network discrete event simulator. Results prove that our proposal enhances spectrum utilization and guarantees users satisfaction.  

  18. Flow dynamics and sedimentation of lateral accretion packages in sinuous deep-water channels: A 3D seismic case study from the northwestern South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengli; Gong, Chenglin

    2016-07-01

    The current study uses 3D seismic data to document architectural styles and flow dynamics of lateral accretion packages (LAPs) associated with sinuous deep-water channels, contributing to a better understanding of flow processes and sedimentation associated with LAPs. The documented LAPs underwent three main stages of architectural evolution, including the early incision stages characterized by intense downcutting, active migration stages characterized by active migration and avulsion of the individual channels, and late abandonment stages characterized by the termination of sediment gravity-flows and LAP growth. These three stages of LAP growth repeated through time, yielding a fining-upward pattern from sandy channel-fill turbidites, into sand-mud couplets, all capped by muddy turbidites. A river-reversed helical flow circulation was created by an imbalance, through the flow depth, of inwardly directed pressure gradient forces near the bed and outwardly directed centrifugal forces near the surface. It consists of low-velocity cores near the outer banks and low-velocity cores along the inner banks. Such river-reversed helical flow pattern is evidenced by volumetrically extensive LAPs and toplap and downlap terminations along the gentle banks and by aerially restricted, seismically unresolvable levees and truncation terminations near the steep banks. This river-reversed helical flow circulation favors asymmetric intra-channel deposition characterized by inner bank deposition versus outer bank erosion, and which, in turn, forced individual channels to consistently migrate towards outer banks, resulting in significant asymmetric cross-channel profiles with aerially extensive LAPs along inner banks.

  19. Rubrene crystal field-effect mobility modulation via conducting channel wrinkling

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Martinez, Marcos A.; Crosby, Alfred J.; Alejandro L. Briseno

    2015-01-01

    With the impending surge of flexible organic electronic technologies, it has become essential to understand how mechanical deformation affects the electrical performance of organic thin-film devices. Organic single crystals are ideal for the systematic study of strain effects on electrical properties without being concerned about grain boundaries and other defects. Here we investigate how the deformation affects the field-effect mobility of single crystals of the benchmark semiconductor rubre...

  20. On channel-adaptive multiple burst admission control for mobile computing based on wideband CDMA

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, VKN; Kwok, YK

    2001-01-01

    Mobile computing systems built using third generation wireless standards are mostly based on the wideband CDMA platform to support high bit rate packet data services. One important component offering packet data service in CDMA is a burst admission control algorithm. We formulate the multiple-burst admission control problem as an integer programming problem, which induces our novel jointly adaptive burst admission algorithm, called the jointly adaptive burst admission-spatial dimension algori...

  1. Secure and Usable Out-Of-Band Channels for Ad Hoc Mobile Device Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kainda, Ronald; Flechais, Ivan; Roscoe, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    Protocols for bootstrapping security in ad hoc mobile device interactions rely on users' ability to perform specific tasks such as transferring or comparing fingerprints of information between devices. The size of fingerprints depends on the level of technical security required by a given application but, at the same time, is limited by users' inability to deal with large amounts of data with high levels of accuracy. Large fingerprints provide high technical security but potentially reduce us...

  2. Electron Mobility Exceeding 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and Band-Like Charge Transport in Solution-Processed n-Channel Organic Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomin; Yao, Yifan; Shan, Bowen; Gu, Xiao; Liu, Danqing; Liu, Jinyu; Xu, Jianbin; Zhao, Ni; Hu, Wenping; Miao, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Solution-processed n-channel organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) that exhibit a field-effect mobility as high as 11 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature and a band-like temperature dependence of electron mobility are reported. By comparison of solution-processed OTFTs with vacuum-deposited OTFTs of the same organic semiconductor, it is found that grain boundaries are a key factor inhibiting band-like charge transport. PMID:27151777

  3. The channel-width dependence of the low-temperature hole mobility in Ge-rich narrow square quantum well studied by the band-bending method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employ the theory of band-bending effects to explain the channel-width dependence of the mobility of a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in narrow square Si/Si1-xGex/Si quantum well at high Ge content. The numerical calculation of scattering mechanism is shown in comparison with the ones from the previous computations. Our method enables a better quantitative description of recently measured data about the dependence of the 8 K mobility of holes in a Si/Sio.2 Geo.8/Si quantum well on the channel width varying from 25-70 A. (author)

  4. Improved Mobility and Bias Stability of Thin Film Transistors Using the Double-Layer a-InGaZnO/a-InGaZnO:N Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H; Zhang, L; Li, X H; Xu, H Y; Liu, Y C

    2016-04-01

    The amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) were demonstrated based on a double-layer channel structure, where the channel is composed of an ultrathin nitro-genated a-IGZO (a-IGZO:N) layer and an undoped a-IGZO layer. The double-layer channel device showed higher saturation mobility and lower threshold-voltage shift (5.74 cm2/Vs, 2.6 V) compared to its single-layer counterpart (0.17 cm2/Vs, 7.23 V). The improvement can be attributed to three aspects: (1) improved carrier transport properties of the channel by the a-IGZO:N layer with high carrier mobility and the a-IGZO layer with high carrier concentration, (2) reduced interfacial trap density between the active channel and the gate insulator, and (3) higher surface flatness of the double-layer channel. Our study reveals key insights into double-layer channel, involving selecting more suitable electrical property for back-channel layer and more suitable interface modification for active layer. Meanwhile, room temperature fabrication amorphous TFTs offer certain advantages on better flexibility and higher uniformity over a large area. PMID:27451684

  5. Shaping and reproduction patterns of power elites in former Yugoslavia II: Channels of vertical mobility: Education and political activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Slobodan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of this paper are analyzed effecting of main channels of social mobility for ascent on elite's positions in Serbia and Croatia. Special attention was paid to education and political activity. Survey data says that the patterns of ideological desirable social origin were developed in pattern of ideological desirable developing way of building individual career of members of power elite's across the time. Special importance in that process had high education acquirement. Political activity was necessary follower in the way of advance to the highest social positions. There was used log-linear analyze (hierarchical method because finding statistical importance between presented factors of education and political activity. Thanks to this method we can see details of complex relations of interdependence of this factors.

  6. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    and to investigate the potential for bed material movement along the same reach. The purpose of this report is to present information about the lateral and vertical movement of the Madison River from 1970 to 2006 for a 1-mile reach downstream from Earthquake Lake and for Raynolds Pass Bridge, and to provide an analysis of the potential for bed-material movement so that MADTAC can evaluate the applicability of the previously determined threshold streamflow for initiation of damaging erosion. As part of this study channel cross sections originally surveyed by the USGS in 1971 were resurveyed in 2006. Incremental channel-movement distances were determined by comparing the stream centerlines from 14 aerial photographs taken between 1970 and 2006. Depths of channel incision and aggregation were determined by comparing the 2006 and 1971 cross-section and water-surface data. Particle sizes of bed and bank materials were measured in 2006 and 2008 using the pebble-count method and sieve analyses. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model (HEC-RAS) was used to calculate mean boundary-shear stresses for various streamflows; these calculated boundary-shear stresses were compared to calculated critical-shear stresses for the bed materials to determine the potential for bed-material movement. A comparison of lateral channel movement distances with annual peak streamflows shows that streamflows higher than the 3,500-ft3/s threshold were followed by lateral channel movement except from 1991 to 1992 and possibly from 1996 to 1997. However, it was not possible to discern whether the channel moved gradually or suddenly, or in response to one peak flow, to several peak flows, or to sustained flows. The channel moved between 2002 and 2005 even when streamflows were less than the threshold streamflow of 3,500 ft3/s. Comparisons of cross sections and aerial photographs show that the channel has moved laterally and incised and aggraded to varying degrees. The channel has developed meander bends

  7. Optimization of MQAM Modulation Schemes in Mobile Communications(Ⅰ)--Analysis of MQAM BER Performance in AGWN Channel Based on Signal Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on signal space concepts, a transmission error code performance for MPSK, square MQAM and star MQAM modulation schemes on the AGWN channel is analyzed. The corresponding BER formulas and computer aided numeric results are also given. Therefore it provides a theoretical basis for choosing MQAM modulation schemes in mobile communications.

  8. Implication of lateral genetic transfer in the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates of epidemic outbreaks in channel catfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J Hossain

    Full Text Available To investigate the molecular basis of the emergence of Aeromonas hydrophila responsible for an epidemic outbreak of motile aeromonad septicemia of catfish in the Southeastern United States, we sequenced 11 A. hydrophila isolates that includes five reference and six recent epidemic isolates. Comparative genomics revealed that recent epidemic A. hydrophila isolates are highly clonal, whereas reference isolates are greatly diverse. We identified 55 epidemic-associated genetic regions with 313 predicted genes that are present in epidemic isolates but absent from reference isolates and 35% of these regions are located within genomic islands, suggesting their acquisition through lateral gene transfer. The epidemic-associated regions encode predicted prophage elements, pathogenicity islands, metabolic islands, fitness islands and genes of unknown functions, and 34 of the genes encoded in these regions were predicted as virulence factors. We found two pilus biogenesis gene clusters encoded within predicted pathogenicity islands. A functional metabolic island that encodes a complete pathway for myo-inositol catabolism was evident by the ability of epidemic A. hydrophila isolates to use myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Testing of A. hydrophila field isolates found a consistent correlation between myo-inositol utilization as a sole carbon source and the presence of an epidemic-specific genetic marker. All epidemic isolates and one reference isolate shared a novel O-antigen cluster. Altogether we identified four different O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters within the 11 sequenced A. hydrophila genomes. Our study reveals new insights into the evolutionary changes that have resulted in the emergence of recent epidemic A. hydrophila strains.

  9. Near-Channel Sources and Sinks along a Mountainous Stream: Establishing the Controls and Time Scales of the Lateral Transfer of Sediment and Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, J. D.; Renshaw, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    River channels exchange sediment, carbon, and other matter with hillslopes and floodplains. An ongoing challenge is to quantify the time and length scales of these lateral interactions, and to establish physical controls on direction of transfer. Here we investigate whether downstream changes in stream power (Ω) can predict near-channel sources or sinks of matter on decadal time scales in a case study of Mink Brook, a 50 km2 watershed in New Hampshire, USA. Building on the Exner equation, we hypothesize that reaches with downstream increases in stream power (Ω↑) exhibit near-channel deposition and accumulation of organic matter, and reaches of downstream decreases in stream power (Ω↓) exhibit near-channel erosion and stripping of organic matter. We measured 210Pbex inventory (an indicator of erosion versus deposition), organic matter inventory, grain size, and depth of alluvium/colluvium in 29 soil pits at 6 cross sections along the brook. Sites had equivalent total Ω for a given storm event. However, 3 cross sections exhibited Ω↑, and 3 exhibited Ω↓. All cross sections showed a general trend of stripping of organic matter and fine sediment particles in the channel, paired with loading of matter at the ~2-year flood elevation. From the ~2- to ~25-year flood elevation, a marked difference appeared between sites. The Ω↑ cross sections exhibited several locations of erosion and stripping of organic matter, as evidenced by low 210Pbex inventories (70 to 1,000 bq m-2), low organic matter inventories (17 to 219 kg m-2), and thin alluvial cover (average 23 cm). The low 210Pbex inventories, below the characteristic 6,000 bq m-2 of stable soil profiles in this region, suggest no areas had consistent deposition over the last century. In contrast, the Ω↓ cross sections exhibited deposition of fine particles and organic matter from the ~2- to ~25-year flood elevation, as evidenced by elevated 210Pbex inventories (up to 9,100 bq m-2), elevated organic matter

  10. DEPTH-INTEGRATED MODELING FOR AGGRADING/DEGRADING MOBILE CHANNELS I: MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-Tian LIN; Chih-Tsung HSU; Keh-Chia YEH

    2006-01-01

    A depth-integrated model has been developed to simulate the alluvial process of channel bed under overloading and under-loading sediment discharge conditions. The hydrodynamic sub-model based on the explicit-finite-analytic method is used to obtain the flow field. Then the sediment transport modes, including the bed-load and suspended load, are modeled with the aid of the empirically auxiliary relations. In the depth-integrated model, the sediment exchange rate is treated as a source term specified at the reference level, rather than a boundary condition as usually adopted in vertical 2-D or 3-D models. The deposition or erosion rate of the bed is then determined by comparing the flow-laden suspended-sediment concentration profile against the equilibrium concentration profile, and their difference is used to compute the sediment exchange rate for a given time interval. Assessment of the good accuracy of the proposed model is demonstrated by using van Rijn's (1981) experiment for the case of clear water passing a movable bed. In the companion paper, the verification and the field application of the proposed model are presented.

  11. Familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 mutated cav2.1 calcium channels alter inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lateral superior olive of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchauspe, Carlota González; Pilati, Nadia; Di Guilmi, Mariano N; Urbano, Francisco J; Ferrari, Michel D; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Forsythe, Ian D; Uchitel, Osvaldo D

    2015-01-01

    CaV2.1 Ca(2+) channels play a key role in triggering neurotransmitter release and mediating synaptic transmission. Familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 (FHM-1) is caused by missense mutations in the CACNA1A gene that encodes the α1A pore-forming subunit of CaV2.1 Ca(2+) channels. We used knock-in (KI) transgenic mice harbouring the pathogenic FHM-1 mutation R192Q to study inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission in the principle neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO) in the auditory brainstem. We tested if the R192Q FHM-1 mutation differentially affects excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, disturbing the normal balance between excitation and inhibition in this nucleus. Whole cell patch-clamp was used to measure neurotransmitter elicited excitatory (EPSCs) and inhibitory (IPSCs) postsynaptic currents in wild-type (WT) and R192Q KI mice. Our results showed that the FHM-1 mutation in CaV2.1 channels has multiple effects. Evoked EPSC amplitudes were smaller whereas evoked and miniature IPSC amplitudes were larger in R192Q KI compared to WT mice. In addition, in R192Q KI mice, the release probability was enhanced compared to WT, at both inhibitory (0.53 ± 0.02 vs. 0.44 ± 0.01, P = 2.10(-5), Student's t-test) and excitatory synapses (0.60 ± 0.03 vs. 0.45 ± 0.02, P = 4 10(-6), Student's t-test). Vesicle pool size was diminished in R192Q KI mice compared to WT mice (68 ± 6 vs 91 ± 7, P = 0.008, inhibitory; 104 ± 13 vs 335 ± 30, P = 10(-6), excitatory, Student's t-test). R192Q KI mice present enhanced short-term plasticity. Repetitive stimulation of the afferent axons caused short-term depression (STD) of E/IPSCs that recovered significantly faster in R192Q KI mice compared to WT. This supports the hypothesis of a gain-of-function of the CaV2.1 channels in R192Q KI mice, which alters the balance of excitatory/inhibitory inputs and could also have implications in the altered cortical excitability responsible for FHM

  12. The Current Collapse in AlGaN/GaN High-Electron Mobility Transistors Can Originate from the Energy Relaxation of Channel Electrons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Feng Mao

    Full Text Available Influence of the energy relaxation of the channel electrons on the performance of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs has been investigated using self-consistent solution to the coupled Schrödinger equation and Poisson equation. The first quantized energy level in the inversion layer rises and the average channel electron density decreases when the channel electric field increases from 20 kV/cm to 120 kV/cm. This research also demonstrates that the energy relaxation of the channel electrons can lead to current collapse and suggests that the energy relaxation should be considered in modeling the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs such as, the gate leakage current, threshold voltage, source-drain current, capacitance-voltage curve, etc.

  13. Joint Adaptive Modulation Coding and Cooperative ARQ over Relay Channels-Applications to Land Mobile Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Mardani, Morteza; Lahouti, Farshad; Eliasi, Behrouz

    2008-01-01

    In a cooperative relay network, a relay node (R) facilitates data transmission to the destination node (D), when the latter is unable to decode the source node (S) data correctly. This paper considers such a system model and presents a cross-layer approach to jointly design adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) at the physical layer and cooperative truncated automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol at the data link layer. We first derive a closed form expression for the spectral efficiency of the joint cooperative ARQ-AMC scheme. Aiming at maximizing this performance measure, we then optimize two AMC schemes for S-D and R-D links, which directly satisfy a prescribed packet loss rate constraint. As an interesting application, we also consider the problem of joint link adaptation and blockage mitigation in land mobile satellite communications (LMSC). We also present a new relay-assisted transmission protocol for LMSC, which delivers the source data to the destination via the relaying link, when the S-D channel is...

  14. Effective mobilities in pseudomorphic Si/SiGe/ p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with thin silicon capping layers

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, M. J.; Braithwaite, G.; Grasby, T. J.; Phillips, P J; Prest, M J; Parker, E H C; Whall, T E; Parry, C. P.; Waite, A. M.; Evans, A.G.R.; Roy, S; J. R. Watling; S. Kaya; Asenov, A

    2001-01-01

    The room-temperature effective mobilities of pseudomorphic Si/Si 0.64 Ge 0.36/Si p-metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors are reported. The peak mobility in the buried Si/Ge channel increases with silicon cap thickness. It is argued that SiO2/Si interface roughness is a major source of scattering in these devices, which is attenuated for thicker silicon caps. It is also suggested that segregated Ge in the silicon cap interferes with the oxidation process, leading to increased SiO2...

  15. Long-term exposure to mobile communication radiation: An analysis of time-variability of electric field level in GSM900 down-link channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest for knowing long-term human exposure levels due to mobile communications has increased in the last years. It has been shown that short-term exposure assessment made under standard procedural restrictions is not reliable when it comes to conclusions on long-term exposure levels. The present work is the result of a several week analysis of time variability of electric field level inside traffic and control channels of the GSM900 mobile communication down-link band and it indicates that a temporal model to allow future predictions of exposure on the long run is obtainable. Collecting, processing and statistically analysing the data provide expression of the maximum and weighted field strengths and their evolution in time. Specific electromagnetic footprints of the channels have been extracted, differentiations between their characteristics have been emphasised and practical advice is provided, with the scope of contributing to the development of reliable procedures for long-term exposure assessment. (authors)

  16. Hole mobility and remote scattering in strained InGaSb quantum well MOSFET channels with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Madisetti, Shailesh; Chidambaram, Thenappan; Nagaiah, Padmaja; Tokranov, Vadim; Yakimov, Michael; Oktyabrsky, Serge [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany - SUNY, 257 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Hall mobility and major scattering mechanisms in surface and buried MBE grown strained InGaSb quantum well (QW) MOSFET channels with in-situ grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide are analyzed as a function of sheet hole density, top-barrier thickness and temperature. Mobility dependence on Al{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}Sb top-barrier thickness shows that the relative contribution of interface-related scattering is as low as {proportional_to}30% in the surface QW channel. An InAs top capping layer reduces the interface scattering even further; the sample with 3 nm total top-barrier thickness demonstrates mobility of 980 cm{sup 2}/Vs giving sheet resistance of 4.3 k{Omega}/sq, very close to the minimum QW resistance in the bulk. The mobility-temperature dependences indicate that the interface-related scattering is dominated by remote Coulomb scattering at hole densities <1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Mobile Station Spatio-Temporal Multipath Clustering of an Estimated Wideband MIMO Double-Directional Channel of a Small Urban 4.5 GHz Macrocell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ichirou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multipath clusters in a wireless channel could act as additional channels for spatial multiplexing MIMO systems. However, identifying them in order to come up with better cluster channel models has been a hurdle due to how they are defined. This paper considers the identification of these clusters at the mobile station through a middle ground approach—combining a globally optimized automatic clustering approach and manual clustering of the physical scatterers. By including the scattering verification in the cluster identification, better insight into their behavior in wireless channels would be known, especially the physical realism and eventually a more satisfactorily accurate cluster channel model could be proposed. The results show that overlapping clusters make up the majority of the observed channel, which stems from automatic clustering, whereas only a few clusters have clear delineation of their dispersion. In addition, it is difficult to judge the physical realism of overlapping clusters. This further points to a need for the physical interpretation and verification of clustering results, which is an initial step taken in this paper. From the identification results, scattering mechanisms of the clusters are presented and also their selected first and second order statistics.

  18. Suppression of surface-originated gate lag by a dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, David A.; Storm, David F.; Scott Katzer, D.; Bass, R.; Meyer, David J.

    2016-08-01

    A dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) architecture is demonstrated that leverages ultra-thin epitaxial layers to suppress surface-related gate lag. Two high-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channels are utilized in an AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure wherein the top 2DEG serves as a quasi-equipotential that screens potential fluctuations resulting from distributed surface and interface states. The bottom channel serves as the transistor's modulated channel. Dual-channel AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. HEMTs fabricated with 300 nm long recessed gates demonstrated a gate lag ratio (GLR) of 0.88 with no degradation in drain current after bias stressed in subthreshold. These structures additionally achieved small signal metrics ft/fmax of 27/46 GHz. These performance results are contrasted with the non-recessed gate dual-channel HEMT with a GLR of 0.74 and 82 mA/mm current collapse with ft/fmax of 48/60 GHz.

  19. Increase in the electron mobility in the inversion channel of a Si-MOS transistor in the case of ion polarization of the gate oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective mobility of electrons μ* in the inversion n-type channel of a field-effect transistor increases appreciably (as a result of space-charge ion polarization of the gate oxide) from the typical values of ≅820 cm2 V-1 s-1 to the values of ≅2645 cm2 V-1 s-1, which exceed the electron mobility in bulk silicon. After polarization, the sheet concentration of Na+ ions at the SiO2/Si interface exceeds 6 x 1013 cm-2. The ions are almost completely neutralized by electrons in the inversion channel. As temperature T is decreased in the range from 293 to 203 K, μ* increases according to the law μ* ∝ T-0.82. Apparently, the observed dependence μ*(T) is caused by the combined scattering of electrons by roughness of the Si/SiO2 interface surface, phonons, and the interface states. Depolarization of the oxide reverts μ* to the initial value. Anomalously large values of μ* are assumed to be either a consequence of the origination of pronounced structural stresses in the surface Si layer due to the oxide polarization or a result of a phase reconstruction of the inversion-channel region due to hybridization of the wave functions of electrons localized at the Na+ ions with the wave functions of electrons in the inversion channel

  20. Ca2+- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channel activators in the 5β-cholanic acid-3α-ol analogue series with modifications in lateral chain

    OpenAIRE

    Bukiya, Anna N.; Patil, Shivaputra; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane; Dopico, Alex M.

    2012-01-01

    Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels regulate various physiological processes and represent an attractive target for drug discovery. Numerous BK channel activators are available. However, these agents usually interact with the ubiquitously distributed channel-forming subunit and thus cannot selectively target a particular tissue. Here, we performed structure-activity relationship study of lithocholic acid (LCA), a cholane that activates BK channels via the acc...

  1. Response of lateral channel dynamics of a lowland meandering river to engineering-derived adjustments - an example of the Morava River (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondruch, Jakub; Mácka, Zdenek

    2015-11-01

    Freely meandering (quasi)natural reaches of lowland rivers represent a rare phenomenon in Central Europe. Increasing attention is currently being paid to the dynamics of quasi-natural (artificially influenced) meandering rivers as this attention represents the basic prerequisite for the development of appropriate restoration strategies on regulated rivers. This study focused on a 5.5 km long reach of the Morava River in the Strážnické Pomoraví region, Czech Republic that is characterised by quasi-natural evolution after substantial engineering adjustments were made in the first decades of the twentieth century. Based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis of aerial photographs, the spatio-temporal dynamics of bank erosion and accretion rates were quantitatively described and variables that control channel migration rates were identified. High rates of lateral shifts were localised in high sinuosity segments (sinuosity 1.17-2.37), whereas segments with very low rates were straight or formed into slightly curved bends (sinuosity 1.05-1.18). As a key factor, engineering works that influenced local river bed slope and induced a dramatic increase in bank erosion rates were identified. River engineering works induced a dramatic increase in bank erosion rate (2.19 m/year for 1938-53 and 1.47 m/year for 1953-63). An interval of approximately 25 years was needed before the erosion rates dropped back to values documented before river regulation (0.35-1.09 m/year for 1841-1938). Other important controlling variables included radius of curvature, frequency and magnitude of floods and, locally, river bank material properties and floodplain land cover.

  2. Sol-gel modified poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices with high electroosmotic mobilities and hydrophilic channel wall characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gregory T; Hlaus, Tyler; Bass, Kevin J; Seelhammer, Todd G; Culbertson, Christopher T

    2005-03-01

    Using a sol-gel method, we have fabricated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips with SiO2 particles homogeneously distributed within the PDMS polymer matrix. These particles are approximately 10 nm in diameter. To fabricate such devices, PDMS (Sylgard 184) was cast against SU-8 molds. After curing, the chips were carefully removed from the mold and sealed against flat, cured pieces of PDMS to form enclosed channel manifolds. These chips were then solvated in tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), causing them to expand. Subsequently, the chips were placed in an aqueous solution containing 2.8% ethylamine and heated to form nanometer-sized SiO2 particles within the cross-linked PDMS polymer. The water contact angle for the PDMS-SiO2 chips was approximately 90.2 degrees compared to a water contact angle for Sylgard 184 of approximately 108.5 degrees . More importantly, the SiO2 modified PDMS chips showed no rhodamine B absorption after 4 h, indicating a substantially more hydrophilic and nonabsorptive surface than native PDMS. Initial electroosmotic mobilities (EOM) of (8.3+/-0.2)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=2.6% (RSD is relative standard deviation); n=10) were measured. This value was approximately twice that of native Sylgard 184 PDMS chips (4.21+/-0.09)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=2.2%; n=10) and 55% greater than glass chips (5.3+/-0.4)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=7.7%; n=5). After 60 days of dry storage, the EOM was (7.6+/-0.3)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=3.9%; n=3), a decrease of only 8% below that of the initially measured value. Separations performed on these devices generated 80,000-100,000 theoretical plates in 6-14 s for both tetramethylrhodamine succidimidyl ester and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate derivatized amino acids. The separation distance was 3.5 cm. Plots of peak variance vs analyte migration times gave diffusion coefficients which indicate that the separation efficiencies are within 15% of the diffusion limit. PMID:15732926

  3. Characterization of Series Resistance and Mobility Degradation Parameter and Optimizing Choice of Oxide Thickness in Thin Oxide N-Channel MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Maouhoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two methods to extract the series resistance and the mobility degradation parameter in short-channel MOSFETs. The principle of the first method is based on the comparison between the exponential model and the classical model of effective mobility and for the second method is based on directly calculating the two parameters by solving a system of two equations obtained by using two different points in strong inversion at small drain bias from the characteristic (. The results obtained by these techniques have shown a better agreement with data measurements and allowed in the same time to determine the surface roughness amplitude and its influence on the maximum drain current and give the optimal oxide thickness.

  4. Global structural changes of an ion channel during its gating are followed by ion mobility mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnenberg, Albert; Yilmaz, Duygu; Ingólfsson, Helgi I; Dimitrova, Anna; Marrink, Siewert J; Li, Zhuolun; Vénien-Bryan, Catherine; Sobott, Frank; Koçer, Armağan

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensitive ion channels are sensors probing membrane tension in all species; despite their importance and vital role in many cell functions, their gating mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we determined the conditions for releasing intact mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (M

  5. Measurement of brightness temperature of two-dimensional electron gas in channel of a high electron mobility transistor at ultralow dissipation power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, A. M.; Shulga, V. M.; Turutanov, O. G.; Shnyrkov, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    A technically simple and physically clear method is suggested for direct measurement of the brightness temperature of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the channel of a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). The usage of the method was demonstrated with the pseudomorphic HEMT as a specimen. The optimal HEMT dc regime, from the point of view of the "back action" problem, was found to belong to the unsaturated area of the static characteristics possibly corresponding to the ballistic electron transport mode. The proposed method is believed to be a convenient tool to explore the ballistic transport, electron diffusion, 2DEG properties and other electrophysical processes in heterostructures.

  6. Ultra-short channel GaN high electron mobility transistor-like Gunn diode with composite contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Lin' an, E-mail: layang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Chen, Qing; Huang, Yonghong; Dai, Yang; Chen, Haoran; Zhao, Hongliang; Hao, Yue [The State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2014-09-07

    We present a numerical analysis on an ultra-short channel AlGaN/GaN HEMT-like planar Gunn diode based on the velocity-field dependence of two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) channel accounting for the ballistic electron acceleration and the inter-valley transfer. In particular, we propose a Schottky-ohmic composite contact instead of traditional ohmic contact for the Gunn diode in order to significantly suppress the impact ionization at the anode side and shorten the “dead zone” at the cathode side, which is beneficial to the formation and propagation of dipole domain in the ultra-short 2-DEG channel and the promotion of conversion efficiency. The influence of the surface donor-like traps on the electron domain in the 2-DEG channel is also included in the simulation.

  7. High electron mobility recovery in AlGaN/GaN 2DEG channels regrown on etched surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports high two-dimensional electron gas mobility attained from the regrowth of the AlGaN gating layer on ex situ GaN surfaces. To repair etch-damaged GaN surfaces, various pretreatments were conducted via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, followed by a regrown AlGaN/GaN mobility test structure to evaluate the extent of recovery. The developed treatment process that was shown to significantly improve the electron mobility consisted of a N2 + NH3 pre-anneal plus an insertion of a 4 nm or thicker GaN interlayer prior to deposition of the AlGaN gating layer. Using the optimized process, a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was fabricated which exhibited a high mobility of 1450 cm2 V−1 s−1 (R sh = 574 ohm/sq) and low dispersion characteristics. The additional inclusion of an in situ Al2O3 dielectric into the regrowth process for MOS-HEMTs still preserved the transport properties near etch-impacted areas. (paper)

  8. Trap states in enhancement-mode double heterostructures AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with different GaN channel layer thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report on trap states in enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures high electron mobility transistors by fluorine plasma treatment with different GaN channel layer thicknesses. Compared with the thick GaN channel layer sample, the thin one has smaller 2DEG concentration, lower electron mobility, lower saturation current, and lower peak transconductance, but it has a higher threshold voltage of 1.2 V. Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements are used to obtain the accurate capture cross section of trap states. By frequency dependent capacitance and conductance measurements, the trap state density of (1.98–2.56) × 1012 cm−2 eV−1 is located at ET in a range of (0.37–0.44) eV in the thin sample, while the trap state density of (2.3–2.92) × 1012 cm−2 eV−1 is located at ET in a range of (0.33–0.38) eV in the thick one. It indicates that the trap states in the thin sample are deeper than those in the thick one

  9. Trap states in enhancement-mode double heterostructures AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with different GaN channel layer thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunlong; Li, Peixian; Wang, Chong; Li, Xiangdong; Zhao, Shenglei; Mi, Minhan; Pei, Jiuqing; Zhang, Jincheng; Ma, Xiaohua; Hao, Yue

    2015-08-01

    This is the report on trap states in enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures high electron mobility transistors by fluorine plasma treatment with different GaN channel layer thicknesses. Compared with the thick GaN channel layer sample, the thin one has smaller 2DEG concentration, lower electron mobility, lower saturation current, and lower peak transconductance, but it has a higher threshold voltage of 1.2 V. Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements are used to obtain the accurate capture cross section of trap states. By frequency dependent capacitance and conductance measurements, the trap state density of (1.98-2.56) × 1012 cm-2 eV-1 is located at ET in a range of (0.37-0.44) eV in the thin sample, while the trap state density of (2.3-2.92) × 1012 cm-2 eV-1 is located at ET in a range of (0.33-0.38) eV in the thick one. It indicates that the trap states in the thin sample are deeper than those in the thick one.

  10. EFFICACY OF WEIGHT BEARING DISTAL TIBIOFIBULAR JOINT MOBILIZATION WITH MOVEMENT (MWM) IN IMPROVING PAIN, DORSIFLEXION RANGE AND FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH POSTACUTE LATERAL ANKLE SPRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari Nisha; Nijhawan A. Megha; P. Paresh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various treatments in physiotherapy are available for ankle sprain with no consensus like taping, bracing, splinting, cryotherapy, electrotherapy modality like ultrasound, laser therapy, interferential therapy and HVGS, joint mobilization. Mulligan’s mobilizations-with movement (MWM) have been proposed as novel manual therapy technique to improve joint ROM by combining physiological and accessory joint movements. He developed a suite of treatment techniques on the basi...

  11. Right prefrontal laterality of Chinese boys during a Chinese high conflict Stroop task measured by multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Some studies have shown that native Chinese speakers have different laterality in matched Stroop tasks from native English speakers. Recently, many imaging data, which show left laterality of English-matched Stroop interference, have been reported. And a few functional imaging studies have been conducted to investigate the phenomenon of the Chinese version of Stroop task. In this study,functional activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex of a group of normal Chinese boys with functional near-infrared imaging during a Stroop color-word task was measured to show different Stroop interferences in the prefrontal cortex. The results show obvious fluctuation of the cerebral blood volume in the right prefrontal cortex in all boys, which agrees with the finding of previous studies, that is, Chinese native boys have right laterality in their brain when the Chinese version of Stroop color-word task is applied.

  12. Trends in Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Chocholová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to assess the state of the mobile marketing as of the first quarter of 2011 and to discuss various scenarios of the future development. This thesis defines the terms "mobile marketing" and "mobile advertising" and identifies the main players in the industry. It explores the main categories of mobile advertising such as mobile messaging, in-content and mobile internet advertising. Later, it analyzes the latest trends in the industry and describes in detail t...

  13. A Lateral Transzygomatic-Transtemporal Approach to the Infratemporal Fossa: Technical Note for Mobilization of the Second and Third Branches of the Trigeminal Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Terasaka, Shunsuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Goto, Shin; Fukushima, Takanori

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an alternative approach to the infratemporal fossa lesions through a lateral zygomato-temporal craniotemy, which modifies the extradural temporopolar technique for cavernous sinus surgery. First, an L-shaped osteotomy of the zygoma from the frontozygomatic suture attaching the zygomatre arch and low positioned temporal cramotomy are made. Through this zygomato-temporal craniotomy and orbitotemporal drilling, leaving the lateral orbital rim and orbital roof intact, skelet...

  14. Mobilities Mobilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pompeyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.John Urry (1946-, profesor en la Universidad de Lancaster, es un sociólogo de sobra conocido y altamente reputado en el panorama internacional de las ciencias sociales. Su dilatada carrera, aparentemente dispersa y diversificada, ha seguido senderos bastante bien definidos dejando tras de sí un catálogo extenso de obras sociológicas de primer nivel. Sus primeros trabajos se centraban en el campo de la teoría social y la filosofía de las ciencias sociales o de la sociología del poder [...

  15. Vectorial characterization of DVB-T propagation channel - Application to radio-Mobile communications : the CAVITE Project

    OpenAIRE

    Brousseau, Christian; Avrillon, Stéphane; Nivole, Franck; Bertel, Louis

    2007-01-01

    International audience In this paper, the whole project CAVITE is described. This project is proposed within the framework of sets of themes around "Sciences and Technologies of Information and Communication" for radio-mobile digital communication in order to increase the data rate or quality of transmission. One of the objectives is the reception of Digital Video Broadcasting on Terrestrial networks (DVB T) in vehicular condition (car, train ...).

  16. MOBILE MARKETING FUTURE TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    CĂTOIU, Iacob; GÂRDAN, Daniel Adrian; GÂRDAN, Doru Lucian

    2010-01-01

    The present article proposes an introspection into the field of a new marketing specialization – mobile marketing. The concept mainly refers to all marketing activities related to the new communication channel – Short Message Service, Multimedia Messaging Service, and internet access from mobile phone. The article provides, at the same time, a marketing perspective about future trends of mobile marketing and mobile media, and also a technical perspective related to the future mobile communica...

  17. The comparison of anterior knee pain in severe and non severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella following a mobile bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Pongcharoen, Boonchana; Reutiwarangkoon, Chaivet

    2016-01-01

    In the past, medial osteoarthritis (OA) knee with symptomatic patellofemoral (PF) arthritis has not been recommended for a unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). However, recent studies have reported that UKA has shown good results in patients with medial OA of the knee, including those with PF arthritis. The purpose of this study is to compare the results between patients with medial OA knees; those with severe arthritis of the lateral facet of the patella and patients without severe arth...

  18. Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current and threshold voltage degradation for thin layer silicon-on-insulator field P-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current (Idlin) and threshold voltage (Vth) degradations for the thin layer SOI field p-channel lateral double-diffused MOS (pLDMOS) are investigated. Two competition degradation mechanisms are revealed and the hot-carrier conductance modulation model is proposed. In the channel, hot-hole injection induced positive oxide trapped charge and interface trap gives rise to the Vth increasing and the channel conductance (Gch) decreasing, then reduces Idlin. In the p-drift region, hot-electron injection induced negative oxide trapped charge enhances the conductance of drift doping resistance (Gd), and then increases Idlin. Consequently, the eventual Idlin degradation is controlled by the competition of the two mechanisms due to conductance modulation in the both regions. Based on the model, it is explained that the measured Idlin anomalously increases while the Vth is increasing with power law. The thin layer field pLDMOS exhibits more severe Vth instability compared with thick SOI layer structure; as a result, it should be seriously evaluated in actual application in switching circuit

  19. Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current and threshold voltage degradation for thin layer silicon-on-insulator field P-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xin; Qiao, Ming; He, Yitao; Li, Zhaoji; Zhang, Bo, E-mail: bozhang@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China)

    2015-11-16

    Hot-carrier-induced linear drain current (I{sub dlin}) and threshold voltage (V{sub th}) degradations for the thin layer SOI field p-channel lateral double-diffused MOS (pLDMOS) are investigated. Two competition degradation mechanisms are revealed and the hot-carrier conductance modulation model is proposed. In the channel, hot-hole injection induced positive oxide trapped charge and interface trap gives rise to the V{sub th} increasing and the channel conductance (G{sub ch}) decreasing, then reduces I{sub dlin}. In the p-drift region, hot-electron injection induced negative oxide trapped charge enhances the conductance of drift doping resistance (G{sub d}), and then increases I{sub dlin}. Consequently, the eventual I{sub dlin} degradation is controlled by the competition of the two mechanisms due to conductance modulation in the both regions. Based on the model, it is explained that the measured I{sub dlin} anomalously increases while the V{sub th} is increasing with power law. The thin layer field pLDMOS exhibits more severe V{sub th} instability compared with thick SOI layer structure; as a result, it should be seriously evaluated in actual application in switching circuit.

  20. Phytoplankton functional and morphological groups as indicators of environmental variability in a lateral channel of the Upper Paraná River floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jascieli Carla Bortolini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Models of phytoplankton functional classification based on functional (FGs and morphological (MBFGs traits can be an important tool in aquatic monitoring. In this long-term study on phytoplankton, the goal was to use these two approaches to explain the changes in this community in an active channel of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, depending on the environmental conditions imposed by the hydrosedimentological regime. METHODS: Samples were taken between 2000 and 2013. RESULTS: 196 taxa were identified. Bacillariophyceae and Cyanobacteria showed higher contribution to biovolume. Were recorded 11 FGs (A, C, E, H1, J, Lo, M, MP, N, P and X1. The FGs C, Lo, M, MP, P and X1 were common to both periods. Already the FGs A, E, H1 and J occurred only in limnophase, while the FG N occurred only in potamophase. Were recorded seven MBFGs (I, II, III, IV, V, VI e VII. All seven MBFGs occurred in both hydrological periods, however the MBFGs III, VI and VII contributed with high biovolume values mainly in the limnophase. The FG P and MBFG VI were indicator of eutrophic status, while the FG M and MBFG VII were indicators of mesotrophic status. Only FGs reflected the environmental variability. CONCLUSION: The classification of phytoplankton in FGs and MBFGs represented an important tool for understanding of the behavior and dynamics of the species in relation to environmental conditions. However, the FGs appear to be more related to environmental variation this lotic channel than MBFGs. Probably this is related to the refinement of this classification, which reflected the changes in the community, in long-term scale, influenced by local and regional characteristics imposed by the hydrosedimentological regime of the Paraná River.

  1. Improving conveyance and distribution efficiency through conversion of an open channel lateral canal to a low pressure pipeline at Al-Hassa Irrigation Project, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a field case study on the use of a semi-buried poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) pipeline system in Al-Hassa oasis, Saudi Arabia and its contribution in improving water conservation. Deteriorated concrete canals at Al-Hassa irrigation project, enhanced irrigation water losses, and the annual cost of maintenance became uneconomical for the long term. The PVC pipes easy maintenance, durability, modification and flexibility give them the potential to be an economical alternative to replace a concrete lateral canal, P1H4, at Al-Hassa irrigation project. Due to the availability of PVC pipes at low cost in the Kingdom and their common use in irrigation, they were selected to construct a pipeline, 362 m in length. An energy head, 2.7 m of water, was used in determining the pipeline capacity and its internal diameter, using the continuity equation. Dismantling of the concrete canal and installing of the pipeline took place simultaneously without water stresses to the grown crops. The conveyance and distribution efficiencies increased by 25.3% and 25% respectively due to installation of pipeline. The water use with illegal extra siphons was reduced by 29.2% under the pipeline system. (author)

  2. Fabrication and characterization of InAlN/GaN-based double-channel high electron mobility transistors for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, JunShuai; Zhang, JinCheng; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Yi; Zhang, LinXia; Ma, XiaoHua; Li, XiaoGang; Meng, FanNa; Hao, Yue

    2012-06-01

    In our previous work [J. S. Xue et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013507 (2012)], superior electron-transport properties are obtained in InAlN/GaN/InAlN/GaN double-channel (DC) heterostructures grown by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PMOCVD). In this paper, we present a detailed fabrication and systematic characterization of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) fabricated on these heterostructures. The device exhibits distinct DC behavior concerning with both static-output and small-signal performance, demonstrating an improved maximum drain current density of 1059 mA/mm and an enhanced transconductance of 223 mS/mm. Such enhancement of device performance is attributed to the achieved low Ohmic contact resistance as low as 0.33 ± 0.05 Ω.mm. Moreover, very low gate diode reverse leakage current is observed due to the high quality of InAlN barrier layer deposited by PMOCVD. A current gain frequency of 10 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency 21 GHz are also observed, which are comparable to the state-of-the-art AlGaN/GaN-based DC HEMT found in the literature. The results demonstrate the great potential of PMOCVD for application in InAlN-related device's epitaxy.

  3. Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Semerád, David

    2011-01-01

    The mobile app market is one of the fastest growing in the world. The Apple company has become the most valuated company in the world, mainly due to its App Store. Considering the fact, that nearly all the trends from abroad are soon or later adapted in the Czech Republic, there is quite a big potential value for all the projects on mobile apps including the local market specifics. The subject of this thesis is to consider whether such an app could be successful in such an old school environm...

  4. Algorithm of Mobile Network Base Station Safe Bearing Load Channel Distribution and Reconstruction%移动网络基站安全承载信道分配重构算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷燕南

    2015-01-01

    The channel assignment in mobile network base station is dynamic, consider the safety bearing problem of base station nodes needed in the channel switch. Distribution reconfiguration algorithm of channel is of great significance to im⁃prove the reliability of mobile communication network of mobile network base station safety bearing. Multi hop base station access mode design of traditional algorithm, it is difficult to meet the needs of users. Put forward a kind of dynamic channel allocation algorithm based on channel handoff queue, safety bearing model design of mobile network base station, are ob⁃tained as follows the mapping relationship between the base station node, mobile network services and business component and service. The safety bearing reconstruction of channel assignment is realized. Define the safe load intensity reconstruc⁃tion of mobile communication network, determine the different security level need to base station deployment vector of node position, real-time distribution of all channel, implement the improved channel allocation and reconstruction algorithm of mobile network base station safety bearing. The simulation results show that the algorithm can effectively improve the load rate of communication network, and channel reconstruction in increasing network node average load rate under the condi⁃tion of network nodes can reduce the maximum load rate so as to make the network load balance, improve the communica⁃tion security and stability.%移动网络基站的信道分配具有动态性,在信道切换中需要考虑基站节点的安全承载问题。研究移动网络基站安全承载信道分配重构算法对提高移动通信组网的可靠性具有重要意义。传统算法设计多跳基站接入模式,难以满足用户需求。提出一种基于信道切换队列的动态信道分配算法,设计移动网络基站的安全承载模型,得到移动网络基站节点服务与构件之间、业务与服务之间存

  5. Leakage Current Suppression on Metal-Induced Laterally Crystallized Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors by Asymmetrically Deposited Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Chang Woo; Son, Se Wan; Lee, Yong Woo; Hyo Park, Jae; Vakilipour Takaloo, Ashkan; Joo, Seung Ki

    2013-10-01

    The electrical performance of low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by metal-induced lateral crystallization (MILC) is greatly affected by metal catalyst contaminations, such as Ni and Ni silicide trapped in the channel, since they concentrate in front of laterally grown crystallites. In the present work, the effect of the MILC/MILC boundary (MMB) on MILC polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) TFTs is investigated by the comparison of MILC poly-Si TFTs with MMB at the center of the channel, and equivalent TFTs with MMB at a position ejected from the channel. The MMB location was controlled by the Ni catalyst position. Both a low off-state leakage current and a free from short channel effect (kink effect) were observed in high electric-field conditions. Furthermore, the field-effect mobility and drain current noise were drastically improved by ejecting the MILC boundary in the source direction.

  6. Signal processing for mobile communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ibnkahla, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONSignal Processing for Future Mobile Communications Systems: Challenges and Perspectives; Quazi Mehbubar Rahman and Mohamed IbnkahlaCHANNEL MODELING AND ESTIMATIONMultipath Propagation Models for Broadband Wireless Systems; Andreas F. Molisch and Fredrik TufvessonModeling and Estimation of Mobile Channels; Jitendra K. TugnaitMobile Satellite Channels: Statistical Models and Performance Analysis; Giovanni E. Corazza, Alessandro Vanelli-Coralli, Raffaella Pedone, and Massimo NeriMobile Velocity Estimation for Wireless Communications; Bouchra Senadji, Ghazem Azemi, and Boualem Boashash

  7. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility is...

  8. Low mobility of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate underlies receptor specificity of Gq-mediated ion channel regulation in atrial myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hana; Kim, Yeon A; Yoon, Jin-Young; Lee, Doyun; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Suk Ho; Ho, Won-Kyung

    2005-01-01

    We have shown previously that cardiac G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels are inhibited by Gq protein-coupled receptors (GqPCRs) via phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) depletion in a receptor-specific manner. To investigate the mechanism of receptor specificity, we examined whether the activation of GqPCRs induces localized PIP2 depletion. When we applied endothelin-1 to the bath, GIRK channel activities recorded in cell-attached patches were not changed, implying...

  9. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  10. 集中式信道分配算法在WSN移动节点中的应用研究%Study on Centralized Channel Assignment Algorithm for Mobile Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 陈祥光; 刘春涛; 余向明; 岳彬

    2011-01-01

    为提高油料保障系统中信息采集的实时性和能量的高效性,使网关及时检测到移动设备的状态,降低无线网络间的干扰,提高网络的容量.以军用机场加油车为研究对象,提出了适用于快速移动节点的集中式信道分配算法和功率分级的能量控制方法.在无线网络节点上安装两个工作在不同频道上的网络接口,通过控制协商动态的切换数据信道,平衡网络负载,以增加总的带宽.实验结果表明,采用3条数据信道便可实现信道的集中式分配和发送功率的分级控制,有效地扩展了网络的容量和提高能量的高效性.%By investigating the working process of tanker trucks in a military airport, this paper proposes a centralized channel assignment algorithm and a power rating control method for fast-moving nodes to improve the real-time property and energy efficiency of the information collection, detect the state of mobile devices promptly, reduce interference between wireless networks and to increase network capacity in oil security systems. Considering the fact that IEEE 802. 11 wireless LAN standard defines a number of non-overlapping channels which could be used at the same time, two wireless network interfaces operating on different channels could be installed to every node. Through the negotiation on the control channel and switching the data channel dynamically, the balance of network loads could be fulfilled so as to increase the total bandwidth. Simulation and application results demonstrate that, only three data channels is needed to realize the centralized channel assignment and the power rating control, and the network capacity and energy efficiency could be improved effectively.

  11. Smart Mobility – Encouraging sustainable mobility behaviour by designing and implementing policies with citizen involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Maier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the theoretical concepts, design considerations and preliminary findings from Smart Mobility, a research project currently being undertaken with the City of St. Gallen. The project aims at designing measures to encourage the increased use of public and non-motorised transport by integrating behavioural economic principles into public policy. The extensive involvement of citizens and their participation in the design of the measures are to support their democratic legitimization and later acceptance. The paper describes the energy policies behind the project and outlines the theoretical framework for integrating behavioural insights into public policy. The strategies envisaged include participatory instruments and methods, especially the use of existing social media channels, capitalizing on social processes and norms to increase the motivation of individuals to use public transport, creating an open innovation space by means of crowdsourcing as well as the proper framing of political communication to achieve changes in mobility patterns.

  12. Influence of structural defects in subsurface layers of silicon on charge carrier mobility in the channel of MOS-transistors threshold voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of structural imperfections, the impurity composition, and the doping inhomogeneity on the basic parameters of the I - V characteristics of MOS-transistors has been found out with aid of modern research methods. Oxygen and carbon are the basic impurities in initial and oxidized silicons. Oxygen reveals electrical activity and influences the parameters of structural defects that, in turn, affect the charge carrier mobility and the threshold voltage

  13. High-mobility, air stable bottom-contact n-channel thin film transistors based on N,N′-ditridecyl perylene diimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom-gate bottom-contact (BGBC) organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) based on N,N′-ditridecyl perylene diimide exhibit electron mobility as high as 3.54 cm2 V−1 s−1 in nitrogen, higher than that (1 cm2 V−1 s−1) of bottom-gate top-contact devices. The better performance of BGBC configuration in N2 is attributed to lower contact resistance, which is further reduced by thermal annealing. After thermally annealing the BGBC OTFTs at 180 °C, electron mobility as high as 3.5 cm2 V−1 s−1, current on/off ratio of 106 and threshold voltage of 9 V are achieved in air, and the mobility retains above 1 cm2 V−1 s−1 after storage for two months in air. Thermal treatment enhanced crystalline grains, reduced grain boundaries, and suppressed the adsorption of H2O and O2, leading to excellent performance in air

  14. High-mobility, air stable bottom-contact n-channel thin film transistors based on N,N′-ditridecyl perylene diimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lanchao [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Guo, Yunlong; Wen, Yugeng; Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: xwzhan@iccas.ac.cn, E-mail: liuyq@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhan, Xiaowei, E-mail: xwzhan@iccas.ac.cn, E-mail: liuyq@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-11-11

    Bottom-gate bottom-contact (BGBC) organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) based on N,N′-ditridecyl perylene diimide exhibit electron mobility as high as 3.54 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} in nitrogen, higher than that (1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) of bottom-gate top-contact devices. The better performance of BGBC configuration in N{sub 2} is attributed to lower contact resistance, which is further reduced by thermal annealing. After thermally annealing the BGBC OTFTs at 180 °C, electron mobility as high as 3.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, current on/off ratio of 10{sup 6} and threshold voltage of 9 V are achieved in air, and the mobility retains above 1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} after storage for two months in air. Thermal treatment enhanced crystalline grains, reduced grain boundaries, and suppressed the adsorption of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}, leading to excellent performance in air.

  15. Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-κ dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11,000 cm(2)/V·s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Casey; Qaisi, Ramy; Liu, Zhihong; Yu, Qingkai; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-07-23

    Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-κ gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 μm stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11,000 cm(2)/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low tox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-κ dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance. PMID:23777434

  16. Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-κ dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11 000 cm2/V·s

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Casey

    2013-07-23

    Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-κ gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 μm stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11 000 cm 2/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low t ox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-κ dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. 如何利用移动互联网渠道销售电信运营商产品%How to Sale Telecom Operator’s Product by Mobile Internet Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伊婷

    2015-01-01

    通过分析移动互联网销售渠道介入电信运营商产品销售过程中存在的问题,提出了一种总部——省分二级架构的产品销售系统解决方案,以及一套提升产品订购成功率的措施及建议。通过具体的运营实践,已引入腾讯、百度、小米、猎豹浏览器等大中小渠道合作伙伴,涉及流量监控APP、银行、充值、团购等多个移动互联网领域,覆盖用户超4亿,产品订购成功率从30%提升至85%。%It analyzes the problems on using mobile Internet channel to sale telecom operators’products,provides sales system resolu-tion with headquarter-province branch architecture,and the measurements and suggestions on improving purchasing success rate. In the operating practice,it introduces channel operation partners such as Tencent,Baidu,MI and Cheetah browser,in-volves mobile Internet fields such as flow monitoring APP,bank,charging,group buying,covers more than 400 mil ion users. The purchasing success rate is improved from 30%to 85%.

  18. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...... communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across...

  19. Combining electron-neutral building blocks with intramolecular "conformational locks" affords stable, high-mobility p- and n-channel polymer semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Chen, Zhihua; Ponce Ortiz, Rocio; Newman, Christopher; Usta, Hakan; Lou, Sylvia; Youn, Jangdae; Noh, Yong-Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Chen, Lin X; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Marks, Tobin

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the relationship between molecular/macromolecular architecture and organic thin film transistor (TFT) performance is essential for realizing next-generation high-performance organic electronics. In this regard, planar π-conjugated, electron-neutral (i.e., neither highly electron-rich nor highly electron-deficient) building blocks represent a major goal for polymeric semiconductors, however their realization presents synthetic challenges. Here we report that an easily accessible (minimal synthetic steps), electron-neutral thienyl-vinylene (TVT)-based building block having weak intramolecular S···O "conformational locks" affords a new class of stable, structurally planar, solution-processable, high-mobility, molecular, and macromolecular semiconductors. The attraction of merging the weak TVT electron richness with supramolecular planarization is evident in the DFT-computed electronic structures, favorable MO energetics, X-ray diffraction-derived molecular structures, experimental lattice coehesion metrics, and excellent TFT performance. TVT-based polymer TFTs exhibit stable carrier mobilities in air as high as 0.5 and 0.05 cm(2)/V·s (n- and p-type, respectively). All-TVT polymer-based complementary inverter circuitry exhibiting high voltage gains (~50) and ring oscillator circuitry with high f(osc)(~1.25 kHz) is readily fabricated from these materials by simple inkjet printing. PMID:22679903

  20. Lateral orientation (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lateral orientation is a position away from the midline of the body. For instance, the arms are lateral to the ... ears are lateral to the head. A medial orientation is a position toward the midline of the ...

  1. Principles of mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2007-01-01

    Preface. 1. Introduction: Wireless Systems and Standards; Frequency Reuse and the Cellular Concept; Mobile Radio Propagation Environment; Co-channel Interference and Noise; Receiver Sensitivity and Link Budget; Coverage; Spectral Efficiency and Capacity. 2. Propagation Modeling: Frequency-Non-Selective (Flat) Multipath-Fading; Frequency-Selective Multipath-Fading; Laboratory Simulation of Multipath-Fading Channels; Shadowing; Path Loss Models. 3. Co-Channel Interference: Multiple Log-normal Interferers; Probability of Outage; Multiple Ricean-Rayleigh Interferers; Multiple Log-normal N

  2. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  3. Hydrogenation assisted nickel-induced lateral nano-crystallization of amorphous silicon on flexible plastic substrates at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report ultra low temperature lateral crystallization of amorphous silicon films on flexible plastic substrates suitable for the realization of thin-film transistors. A sequential hydrogenation and annealing is necessary to crystallize silicon films aided with an external mechanical stress at a temperature of 170 deg. C. Ni is used as the seed for the crystallization using a metal induced crystallization method. For the formation of polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors, a lateral crystallization is tried where the seed is placed on the source and drain regions and crystallization progresses from the seed regions towards the central parts of the channel of the thin-film transistor. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies were used to investigate the morphology and crystallinity of the layers. The fabricated lateral transistors show an on/off ratio of 2000 and an effective mobility of about 25 cm2/V s

  4. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  5. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have completely transformed the way we live, work, learn and conduct our everyday activities. Mobile phones have also changed the way users access lexicographic data. In fact, it can be argued that mobile phones and lexicography are not yet compatible. Modern users...... are already mobile – but lexicography is not yet fully ready for the mobile challenge, mobile users and mobile user situations. The article is based on empirical data from two surveys comprising 10 medical doctors, who were asked to look up five medical substances with the medical dictionary app...... mobile lexicography....

  6. The amine-containing cutaneous irritant heptylamine inhibits the volume-regulated anion channel and mobilizes intracellular calcium in normal human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoux, Matthieu; Colomban, Cécile; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

    2007-06-01

    Many amines are skin irritants and cause contact dermatitis. However, little is known about their mechanisms of action in keratinocytes except that they induce the release of the inflammatory mediators cytokines and ATP. Here, we tested whether volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) in primary cultures of normal human epidermal keratinocytes are modulated by the referenced amine-containing cutaneous irritant heptylamine. Under isotonic conditions, we isolated the VRAC current (I(VRAC)) from other conductances using a high Ca(2+)-buffering internal solution. I(VRAC) ran up after patch rupturing and reached a plateau within 15 min. It was reversibly and dose-dependently inhibited by heptylamine with an IC(50) value of 260 microM. Cell-swelling caused by the application of a hypotonic solution increased 2.7-fold I(VRAC) and reduced the inhibition of VRAC by heptylamine with a dose-response curve shifted approximately 10-fold to the right. In addition, we showed, using cell-attached patch recordings, that adding heptylamine to the bath inhibited VRAC activity. This suggests that heptylamine diffuses into the membrane to inhibit VRAC. Finally, we demonstrated that heptylamine induced Ca(2+)-store depletion and that VRAC inhibition was not caused by the increase in cytosolic Ca(2+). Taken together, these results identify heptylamine as a blocker of VRAC and suggest that Ca(2+)-store depletion may be involved in mechanisms of irritant contact dermatitis caused by heptylamine. PMID:17384225

  7. Mobile banking adoption: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Aijaz; Karjaluoto, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Electronic commerce (e-commerce) continues to have a profound impact on the global business environment, but technologies and applications also have begun to focus more on mobile computing, the wireless Web, and mobile commerce. Against this backdrop, mobile banking (m-banking) has emerged as an important distribution channel, with considerable research devoted to its adoption. However, this research st...

  8. Kelvin probe force microscopy study on operating In-Sn-O-channel ferroelectric-gate thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface potentials of an operating In-Sn-O channel ferroelectric-gate transistor (FGT) were mapped by Kelvin probe force microscopy. We clearly observed a gradual transition within the channel from linear potential profile to superlinear ones when drain voltage approaches and overcomes gate voltage, which is related to the physics of electronic transport under field-effect doping. The dependence of field-effect mobility on gate-bias and lateral field, as well as the effect of source/drain electrode materials on transport properties, was also elucidated. This study provides useful information for optimizing the FGT performance and for understanding its underlying physics

  9. Kelvin probe force microscopy study on operating In-Sn-O-channel ferroelectric-gate thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tue, P. T., E-mail: phan-tt@jaist.ac.jp; Tokumitsu, E.; Shimoda, T. [ERATO, Shimoda Nano-Liquid Process Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); Green Devices Research Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); Miyasako, T. [Yokkaichi Research Center, JSR Corporation, Yokkaichi 510-8552 (Japan)

    2014-03-14

    Surface potentials of an operating In-Sn-O channel ferroelectric-gate transistor (FGT) were mapped by Kelvin probe force microscopy. We clearly observed a gradual transition within the channel from linear potential profile to superlinear ones when drain voltage approaches and overcomes gate voltage, which is related to the physics of electronic transport under field-effect doping. The dependence of field-effect mobility on gate-bias and lateral field, as well as the effect of source/drain electrode materials on transport properties, was also elucidated. This study provides useful information for optimizing the FGT performance and for understanding its underlying physics.

  10. A Group Vehicular Mobility Model for Routing Protocol Analysis in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Shrirang Ambaji

    2010-01-01

    Performance of routing protocols in mobile ad-hoc networks is greatly affected by the dynamic nature of nodes, route failures, wireless channels with variable bandwidth and scalability issues. A mobility model imitates the real world movement of mobile nodes and is central component to simulation based studies. In this paper we consider mobility nodes which mimic the vehicular motion of nodes like Manhattan mobility model and City Section mobility model. We also propose a new Group Vehicular mobility model that takes the best features of group mobility models like Reference Point Group mobility model and applies it to vehicular models. We analyze the performance of our model known as Group Vehicular mobility model (GVMM) and other vehicular mobility models with various metrics. This analysis provides us with an insight about the impact of mobility models on the performance of routing protocols for ad-hoc networks. The routing protocols are simulated and measured for performance and finally we arrive at the co...

  11. Sexuality in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raquo Sexuality in Later Life Heath and Aging Sexuality in Later Life What Are Normal Changes? What ... Depression can be treated. What Else May Cause Sexuality Problems? Surgery. Many of us worry about having ...

  12. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can ...

  13. Antibody-free isolation of rare cancer cells from blood based on 3D lateral dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-Fang; Huang, Wei-Lun; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Liu, Chien-Wei; Lin, Yu-De; Su, Wu-Chou

    2015-07-21

    We present an antibody-free approach for the high-purity and high-throughput dielectrophoretic (DEP) isolation of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) from blood in a microfluidic chip. A hydrodynamic sheath flow is designed upstream in the chip to direct the suspension samples to the channel side walls, thus providing a queue to allow DEP-induced lateral displacements. High-throughput continuous cancer cell sorting (maximum flow rate: ~2.4 mL h(-1), linear velocity: ~4 mm s(-1)) is achieved with a sustained 3D lateral DEP (LDEP) particle force normal to the continuous through-flow. This design allows the continuous fractionation of micro/nanosized particles into different downstream subchannels based on the differences in their different critical negative DEP strengths/mobilities. The main advantage of this separation strategy is that increasing the channel length can effectively increase the throughput proportionally. The effective separation of rare cancer cells (<0.001%) from diluted human blood in a handheld chip is demonstrated. An enrichment factor of 10(5) and a recovery rate of ~85% from a 0.001% cancer cell sample are achieved at an optimal flow rate of 20 μL min(-1) passing through a 6 cm long LDEP channel with an appropriate voltage at a frequency of 10 kHz. A higher throughput of 2.4 mL h(-1) is also achieved with a 13 cm long metal-based microchannel. PMID:26085231

  14. N-channel field-effect mobility inversely proportional to the interface state density at the conduction band edges of SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yoshioka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of the interface state density (DIT at the interfaces between SiO2 and the Si-, C-, and a-faces of 4H-SiC in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors that were subjected to dry/nitridation and pyrogenic/hydrotreatment processes. The interface state density over a very shallow range from the conduction band edge (0.00 eV < EC − ET was evaluated on the basis of the subthreshold slope deterioration at low temperatures (11 K < T. The interface state density continued to increase toward EC, and DIT at EC was significantly higher than the value at the conventionally evaluated energies (EC − ET = 0.1–0.3 eV. The peak field-effect mobility at 300 K was clearly inversely proportional to DIT at 0.00 eV, regardless of the crystal faces and the oxidation/annealing processes.

  15. RFI channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceliece, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A class of channel models is presented which exhibit varying burst error severity much like channels encountered in practice. An information-theoretic analysis of these channel models is made, and conclusions are drawn that may aid in the design of coded communication systems for realistic noisy channels.

  16. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  17. EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF CHANNELS USING DYNAMIC GUARD CHANNEL ALLOCATION WITH CHANNEL BORROWING STRATEGY IN HANDOFFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagu S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available User mobility in wireless data networks is increasing because of technological advances and the desire for voice and multimedia applications. These applications, however, require fast handoffs between base stations to maintain the quality of the connections. In this paper, the authors describe the use of novel and efficient data structure which dynamically allocates guard channel for handoffs and introduces the concept of channel borrowing strategy. The proposed scheme allocates the guard channels for handoff requests dynamically, based on the traffic load for certain time period. A new originating call in the cell coverage area also uses these guard channels if they are unused. Our basic idea is to allow Guard channels to be shared between new calls and handoff calls. This approach maximizes the channel utilization. The simulation results prove that the channel borrowing scheme improves the overall throughput.

  18. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Conse...

  19. Mobile-ip Aeronautical Network Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Tran, Diepchi T.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AATT), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This report presents the results of a simulation study of mobile-ip for an aeronautical network. The study was performed to determine the performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP) in a mobile-ip environment and to gain an understanding of how long delays, handoffs, and noisy channels affect mobile-ip performance.

  20. Environmental monitoring systems: a new type of mobile laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facilities are obligated to monitor the environmental radiation in their vicinity, which is often fulfilled by monitoring cars, combined with fixed monitoring stations. The MOLAR Mobile Laboratory for Environmental Radiation Monitoring as described here is being used under normal and accident conditions as a spot check monitoring system or to perform continuous measurements along a driving track. The mobile laboratories are continuously connected with the control centre's CRCS Central Radiological Computer System, where the RIS Radiological Information System provides corresponding evaluation functions. The mobile labs contain measuring and controlling units like γ-dose rate monitors, γ-spectrometer with a HpGe High Purity Germanium detector, a lead shielded measuring cell and MCA Multi-Channel Analyser, portable β-contamination monitor, α/β/γ multipurpose quick measuring unit, aerosol and iodine sampling units. The collected samples are safely stored for the transport to the environmental laboratory for being analysed later. The geographical location of the moving car is continuously determined by the satellite based GPS Global Positioning System and transferred in the on-board rack mounted computer system for being stored and locally displayed. Real-time data transmission via radio and mobile phone is continuously performed to supply the RIS Radiological Information System in the control centre via radio and mobile phone. The latter also serves for voice communication. Currently three MOLAR systems can be operated parallel and independent from the control centre. The system is ready to be extended to more mobile labs. This combination of mobile monitoring, sample analysis and radiological assessment of environmental data in combination with process occurrences has turned out to be a powerful instrument for emergency preparedness and environmental supervising. (orig.)

  1. Lateral Beacons - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  2. Single molecule microscopy on Store-Operated Calcium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Store-Operated Calcium Entry is essential for many signaling processes in non-excitable cells. The best studied Store-Operated Calcium current is the Calcium-Release-Activated-Calcium (CRAC) current in T-cells and mast cells, with Orai1 representing the essential pore forming subunit. Functional CRAC channels in store-depleted cells are composed of four Orai1 subunits. However, the stoichiometric composition in resting cells is still discussed controversially: both a tetrameric and a dimeric stoichiometry of resting-state Orai1 have been reported for immobilized or immobile Orai1 proteins. The aim of this thesis was to design a more versatile approach that allows reliable determination of the subunit stoichiometry of mobile Orai1 channels. The motive for this approach is that mobile sub-fractions of the entire Orai1 population provide the cleanest pool of data, devoid of contributions e.g. from immobile Orai1 clusters or Orai1-loaded vesicles attached to the plasma membrane. Moreover, resting-state Orai1 is predominantly mobile, and mobility appears critical for the lateral redistribution which occurs upon store depletion. The method per se is based on single molecule fluorescence microscopy and brightness analysis. Orai1 proteins were fused to a monomeric variant of Green Fluorescent Protein (mGFP) and over-expressed in a human cell line (T24). The 1:1 labeling stoichiometry allows using the brightness of individual Orai1-mGFP channels as a direct measure of the pore stoichiometry. Due to over-expression a potential mixing with endogenous Orai1 can be neglected. However, over-expression of Orai1-mGFP results in channel densities that are too high to allow for resolving single channels using diffraction limited optical microscopy. In order to overcome this challenge, I developed an experimental strategy that allows reduction of the density of actively fluorescent Orai1-mGFP channels without altering the labeling stoichiometry. In order to reduce the surface density

  3. Mobile payment

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Paying with mobile devices such as mobile phones or smart phones will expand worldwide in the coming years. This development provides opportunities for various industries (banking, telecommunications, credit card business, manufacturers, suppliers, retail) and for consumers.

  4. Business Models for Mobile Media Services : A case study in China mainland market

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Mobile media OTT service such as mobile music and mobile video is believed to be the next big revenue driver for mobile operator’s mobile broadband business. The media industry is willing to take mobile distribution channel to increase the content value. In Europe, there are already several successful cooperation cases between online media service provider and mobile operator, such as Spotify and Telia. However, with more complicated market and business environment in China, the mobile media ...

  5. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Švarc, Ondřej

    2010-01-01

    The goal of bachelor's thesis on the theme "Mobile marketing" is to outline its development and why is this new phenomen so important for all modern companies around the world. The work is not about simple description of mobile marketing media but it vividly informs about the latest trends and news from the world of mobile apps and games. It presents the most successful mobile apps which registered more than billion downloads and from their unique characteristics it unveils great potential of...

  6. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  7. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact that...

  8. Mobile Phone Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  9. Elastic Calculator : A Mobile Application for windows mobile using Mobile Cloud Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Lakshmi Narayanan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is highly significant in this era as it always shows a way to increase the capacity or to add an additional features on the go and also it is worthy to extend these services to mobiledevices. It is proposed to design and implement Elastic Calculator for mobile cloud services with virtual machines. The system comprises of a flexible application that was developed partly on own machine andpartly on the cloud. Application is developed in two parts, with the front end and user interface at the mobile device and all the execution part is moved to the server running on the cloud. At runtime, the process execution is suspended at the mobile device and migrated from mobile device at a particular point to the cloud to perform all the computation and is later re-integrated back to the mobile device. This technique helps applications in achieving high processing efficiency with reduced energy on the mobile devices.

  10. Introduction to digital mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Akaiwa, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduces digital mobile communications with an emphasis on digital transmission methods This book presents mathematical analyses of signals, mobile radio channels, and digital modulation methods. The new edition covers the evolution of wireless communications technologies and systems. The major new topics are OFDM (orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing), MIMO (multi-input multi-output) systems, frequency-domain equalization, the turbo codes, LDPC (low density parity check code), ACELP (algebraic code excited linear predictive) voice coding, dynamic scheduling for wireless packet data t

  11. Analysis of mobile applications market

    OpenAIRE

    Cirok, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor's thesis is the analysis of mobile applications market. The thesis introduces the largest companies on mobile market and their distribution channels, which it examines further. It is divided into an introductory theoretical part and an analytical part. The target is to form an image of the state of the market, its development and possible future. The data for the analysis are derived from the reports of analytic firms and other internet sources. A summary of requi...

  12. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled......, provided a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the...

  13. RoCoMAR: Robots’ Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Seokhoon Yoon; Hoon Oh; Duc Van Le

    2013-01-01

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots’ Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes’ controllable mobility. R...

  14. Consumers’ Attitudes Towards Mobile Marketing and Mobile Commerce in Consumer Markets

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Advances in information and communication technologies are not only offering new marketing channels to companies but also significantly influencing the ways in which companies conduct their businesses and marketing activities. This paper analyses the possible significant impacts of mobile phone technology developments on marketing, and offers insights into mobile commerce and mobile marketing, which have not previously been investigated in Turkey. In the survey, mobile phone users' attitudes ...

  15. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  16. Understanding consumers' channel choice in omni-channel retail environments - case Tokmanni

    OpenAIRE

    Lehikoinen, Iida-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The retailing landscape has been evolving drastically over the past years due to technological developments and changes in consumer behavior. As a result, many retailers have increased the number of retail channels as they seek to reach consumers through, for example, online and mobile channels in addition to the traditional brick-and-mortar stores. The current theoretical paradigm of omni-channel retailing is based on seamless, perfectly integrated channel mixes where the bou...

  17. USE OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGY IN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIN ISAC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology and applications of mobile phones offer many opportunities for businesses, they also presenting a continuous development and new challenges. Although this service is currently viewed with reluctance by customers, banks need to overcome this drawback and understand how this service can be combined with other alternative channels such as social media, to create value for customers. In this paper I presented information about present and perspectives in mobile applications industry, what can a mobile application do in banking, banking mobile applications in Romania, mobile banking applications worldwide.

  18. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without e...

  19. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration by......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts of...... constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  20. The Emotional and Behavioural Implications of Mobile Commerce Design

    OpenAIRE

    Magrath, Victoria C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the implications of mobile commerce designvariables on the consumer’s emotional and behavioural responses. With mobile and tablet commerce becoming as popular as desktop usage, fashion retailers must ensure that they have designed a mobile channel that will produce the most positive responses. The objective of the research was to therefore study the individual stimuli in the mobile environment and to investigate their effect upon the mobile consumer.Th...

  1. Mobile Communication Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboye Bamidele Moses

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, there is a wide establishment of mobile computing across the globe and the number of subscribers worldwide including Nigeria is on the increase every day. It started with mobile voice communication and has gradually been extended to the capability of sending and receiving data across the cellular networks. Also, the coming of this technology has changed the face of business all over the world and will soon dominate all strata of the society. Therefore, this paper is looking at the past, present and the future of this technology, the areas of applications and vectors of mobility that are likely to shape the future of the technology. The reviews of the mobile computing technology from the First generation (1G to fourth (4G are presented. The relationships of the generations were presented. The issues relating to the emergence of new technology are also reviewed. The interworking of the technologies and how they helped in promoting the mobile technologies were also reviewed. The deployments issues from First generation (1G to 3G and later to 4G are presented. The paper has reviewed how each of the technology came to being and thus served as an eye opener to those people that are not acquainted with these technologies.

  2. Mobile Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter aims to understand the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The chapter explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. What takes place is a...... ‘mobile sense making’ where signs and materially situated meanings connect to the moving human body and thus create particular challenges and complexities of making sense of the world. The chapter includes notions of mobility systems and socio-technical networks in order to show how a ‘semiotic layer’ may...

  3. Mobil marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Engelová, Kateřina

    2006-01-01

    Mobil marketing - reklama a podpora prodeje prostřednictvím mobilních telefonů. Technologické a kulturní předpoklady vzniku tohoto odvětví. Mobil marketing a marketingový mix, možnosti synergie. Nástroje mobil marketingu - reklamní SMS a MMS, lokační služby, soutěže, ankety a hlasování, věrnostní systémy, mobilní obsah. Subjekty mobil marketingu. M-komerce. Využití pro podnikové aplikace.

  4. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile...... examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept of...

  5. A Survey on Mobile Payment Systems Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Esmaeili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing use of mobile devices and the emergence of new technologies have changed mobile commerce and mobile payment in all over the world. Although many attempts have been made to implement secure mobile payment systems and services, growing forgery, fraud and other related electronic crimes as well as security attacks and threats prove the necessity of paying special attention to security issues for development and extension of such systems. In this paper, we investigate classification of security threats and attacks in mobile payment and discuss security issues in three related areas of mobile payment; including network security, transmission security and mobile device security. Network security includes WLAN and WWAN security; transmission security includes WAP, SMS, wave channel and USSD security; and mobile device security includes hardware and software platforms and operating system security.

  6. Next Step Mobile: Strategy, Services, & PRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2012-01-01

    As emerging information technologies have driven demand for new library communication channels, there has been increased interest in the use of mobile tools to promote interaction, expand outreach, market programs, and enhance the library experience. Libraries today are at widely different levels of mobile engagement, a gap poised to grow as…

  7. MIS-Grid for Future Mobile Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-guo; XING Ling; LI Zai-ming

    2004-01-01

    The dilemma of modern mobile communications technology is analyzed. Aiming at some problems in the 3G systems, a new network architecture is proposed on the principle of mobile information sharing grid (MIS-Grid). The essence of MIS-Grid is to transfer the hot wide band information with cheap unidirectional broadcasting channels and the personalized services with relatively expensive interactive networks.

  8. Mobile Semiotics - signs and mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper is about how to comprehend the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The paper explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. The theoretical scope is...... therefore an attempt to mobilize semiotics by drawing on a central body of theory within and adjacent to the discipline. For instance the founding works of C. S. Peirce will be related to the contemporary notions of ‘geosemiotics’ by Scollon & Scollon. The paper’s theoretical claim is that semiotics hold a...... potential for mobilities studies if the awareness of seeing the environment as a semiotic layer and system can be sensitized to the insights of the ‘mobilities turn’. Empirically the paper tentatively explores the usefulness of a mobile semiotics approach to cases such as street signage, airport design, and...

  9. Mobile phones and mobile communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Donner, Jonathan

    With staggering swiftness, the mobile phone has become a fixture of daily life in almost every society on earth. In 2007, the world had over 3 billion mobile subscriptions. Prosperous nations boast of having more subscriptions than people. In the developing world, hundreds of millions of people who...... could never afford a landline telephone now have a mobile number of their own. With a mobile in our hand many of us feel safer, more productive, and more connected to loved ones, but perhaps also more distracted and less involved with things happening immediately around us. Written by two leading...... researchers in the field, this volume presents an overview of the mobile telephone as a social and cultural phenomenon. Research is summarized and made accessible though detailed descriptions of ten mobile users from around the world. These illustrate popular debates, as well as deeper social forces at work...

  10. Mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  11. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    exclusion and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument in...

  12. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences...... well as policy-making. The paper proposes that increased understanding of the material affordances facilitated through design provides important insight to planning and policymaking that at times might be in risk of becoming too detached from the everyday life of the mobile subject within contemporary...

  13. Intensive mobilities:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...... with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this...

  14. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    How is the width of the pavement shaping the urban experience? How is the material design of transport infrastructure and mobile technology affording social interaction in everyday life spaces? How do people inhabit these spaces with their bodies and in accordance to social and cultural norms......? These are some of the questions that this book raises in order to explore how the design of mobile sites and situations affect people's everyday life. The book takes point of departure in the author's book 'Staging Mobilities' (Routledge, 2013) in which it is argued that mobility is much more than...... mundane acts of moving in the city. 'Designing Mobilities' is based on more than a decade of academic research by Professor of Urban Theory, Ole B. Jensen and a must-read for students and scholars with an interest in urban studies, urban design, architecture, urban planning, transport planning and...

  15. A MOBILITY MODEL FOR MOSFET DEVICE DIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, A.; Woerlee, P.

    1988-01-01

    The device characteristics of sub-micron MOS transistors depend strongly on the mobility of the charge carriers in the inversion layer. A new low lateral field mobility model for the normal field dependence will be presented. Good agreement was found between the predicted and measured mobilities for a large variety of samples. The model was successfully incorporated into a two - dimensional device simulation program which gave predictions agreeing well with experimental data.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF MULLIGAN MOBILISATION WITH MOVEMENT COMPARED TO SUPERVISED EXERCISE PROGRAM IN SUBJECTS WITH LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Hafizur Rahman; Pilladi A Charturvedi; Patchava Apparao; Pilladi R Srithulasi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Lateral epicondylitis commonly referred to as lateral elbow Tendinopathy or tennis elbow is one of the most common lesions of the arm. Men and women are equally affected. There are many treatment options available for tennis elbow; an exercise program is used as the first treatment option. Mulligan has proposed the use of mobilization with movement for lateral epicondylitis. The main Purpose of the study is to compare the effects of mulligan mobilization with movement ...

  17. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  18. Estimating the Capacity of the Location-Based Advertising Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Larsen, Hans Ravnkjær; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    Delivering "relevant" advertisements to consumers carrying mobile devices is regarded by many as one of the most promising mobile business opportunities. The relevance of a mobile ad depends on at least two factors: (1) the proximity of the mobile consumer to the product or service being advertised......, and (2) the match between the product or service and the interest of the mobile consumer. The interest of the mobile consumer can be either explicit (expressed by the mobile consumer) or implicit (inferred from user characteristics). This paper tries to empirically estimate the capacity of the mobile...... advertising channel, i.e., the number of relevant ads that can be delivered to mobile consumers. The estimations are based on a simulated mobile consumer population and simulated mobile ads. Both of the simulated data sets are realistic and derived based on real world data sources about population geo...

  19. Direct imaging of lateral movements of AMPA receptors inside synapses

    CERN Document Server

    Tardin, Catherine; Bats, Cécile; Lounis, Brahim; Choquet, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Trafficking of AMPA receptors in and out of synapses is crucial for synaptic plasticity. Previous studies have focused on the role of endo/exocytosis processes or that of lateral diffusion of extra-synaptic receptors. We have now directly imaged AMPAR movements inside and outside synapses of live neurons using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. Inside individual synapses, we found immobile and mobile receptors, which display restricted diffusion. Extra-synaptic receptors display free diffusion. Receptors could also exchange between these membrane compartments through lateral diffusion. Glutamate application increased both receptor mobility inside synapses and the fraction of mobile receptors present in a juxtasynaptic region. Block of inhibitory transmission to favor excitatory synaptic activity induced a transient increase in the fraction of mobile receptors and a decrease in the proportion of juxtasynaptic receptors. Altogether, our data show that rapid exchange of receptors between a synaptic and ext...

  20. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability. The...

  1. Performance Analysis of GSM System Using SUI Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Christin Nabonita Halder Jui; Kazi Firoz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe protocols for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones. A channel is used to convey the information signals. SUI channel model are an extension of the previously work by AT&T Wireless and Ercegetal. The main objective of this paper is to get better performance of GSM system using SUI channel model. Considering this goal, ...

  2. Going Mobile?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tallon, Loic; Froes, Isabel Cristina G.

    2011-01-01

    If the future is mobile, how is the museum community developing within that future? What are the challenges museums face within it? In which directions should we be seeking to evolve our collective knowledge share? It was to gain observations on questions such as these that the 2011 Museums & Mob...... & Mobile survey was developed: 660 museum professionals responded. In this paper the authors highlight nine survey observations that they believe are important to the museum community’s increased understanding of and continued progress within mobile interpretation....

  3. Mobile museology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    selection of blog posts from the research project blog with three research articles: ‘Museum metamorphosis à la mode’, proposing a fashion perspective on ongoing museum developments; ‘Augmenting the agora: media and civic engagement in museums’, questioning the idea of social media holding a vital potential...... fashionable, the ephemeral, and towards an (ideal) state of change and changeability. This orientation is characterised with the triplet concepts of mobile, mobility, and mobilisation, as related to mobile media and movability; to ‘trans - museal’ mediation; and to the mobilisation of collections, audiences...

  4. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Users are already mobile, but the question is to which extent knowledge-based dictionary apps are designed for the mobile user situation. The objective of this article is to analyse the characteristics of the mobile user situation and to look further into the stationary user situation and the...... looked up the same five medical terms while walking around a hospital bed. The data collected during the two tests include external and internal recordings, think-aloud data and interview data. The data were analysed by means of the information scientific star model, cf. (Simonsen 2011:565), and it was...

  5. Solomon Islands Tsunami, One Year Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Brian G.; Fritz, Hermann; Jackson, Kelly L.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Kruger, Jens; Bonte-Grapentin, Michael; Moore, Andrew L.; Rafiau, Wilson B.; Billy, Douglas; Tiano, Braddley

    2008-04-01

    The geologic and economic effects of the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake and tsunami are distinctly visible a little more than a year after the event. Coral reef colonies that were sheared off and uplifted are slowly recovering, and many new earthquake-triggered landslides remain mobile. Large volumes of sediment created by the earthquake and mobilized by the tsunami have been flushed from the lagoons between the reef and shoreline into deeper water, although significant quantities remain on land. Sediment from the lagoons covers piles of shattered coral that the tsunami moved from the lagoons to the base of channels in the barrier reef. These shattered corals have a higher chance of preservation as paleotsunami deposits than the material deposited on land.

  6. Mobile Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Enache

    2016-01-01

    Mobile commerce, or m-commerce, refers to the use of wireless digital devices to enable transactions on the Web. Described more fully in Chapter 3, m-commerce involves the use of wireless networks to connect cell phones, handheld devices such Blackberries, and personal computers to the Web. Once connected, mobile consumers can conduct transactions, including stock trades, in-store price comparisons, banking, travel reservations, and more.

  7. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  8. Incentive Mechanisms for Mobile Music Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Marco; Montangero, Manuela

    The mobile digital world is seen as an important business opportunity for two main reasons: the widespread usage of cellphones (more than two billions [30], most of them with sound features) and the pervasiveness of mobile technologies. As a result, music industry and telecoms are bringing the successful Internet-based music market strategy into the mobile scenario: record labels are setting up agreements with cellphone network providers (Sprint, Verizon, Vodafone, Orange just to name a few) to offer a download music service also in the mobile scenario. The strategy is to use wireless channels to distribute music contents in the attempt of replicating the success of the Internet-based download scenario.

  9. Self-Assembled Organic Single Crystalline Nanosheet for Solution Processed High-Performance n-Channel Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jong H; Whang, Dong Ryeol; Yoon, Won Sik; Park, Soo Young

    2016-07-01

    Submillimeter sized n-channel organic single crystalline nanosheet based on dicyanodistyrylbenzene derivative, (2E,2'E)-3,3'-(2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-pheny-lene)bis(2-(5-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile) (Me-4-TFPTA), is developed. Strong π-π interaction, hydrogen bonding interactions derived from cyano group (CN) as well as solvent inclusion along the lateral direction play a key role in forming nanosheet morphology. Me-4-TFPTA nanosheets exhibit excellent field-effect electron mobility of up to 7.81 cm(2) v(-1) s(-1) . PMID:27165653

  10. Brownian transport in corrugated channels with inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Hänggi, P.; Marchesoni, F.; Nori, F.; Schmid, G.

    2012-08-01

    Transport of suspended Brownian particles dc driven along corrugated narrow channels is numerically investigated in the regime of finite damping. We show that inertial corrections cannot be neglected as long as the width of the channel bottlenecks is smaller than an appropriate particle diffusion length, which depends on the the channel corrugation and the drive intensity. With such a diffusion length being inversely proportional to the damping constant, transport through sufficiently narrow obstructions turns out to be always sensitive to the viscosity of the suspension fluid. The inertia corrections to the transport quantifiers, mobility, and diffusivity markedly differ for smoothly and sharply corrugated channels.

  11. Brownian transport in corrugated channels with inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, P K; Marchesoni, F; Nori, F; Schmid, G; 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.021112

    2012-01-01

    The transport of suspended Brownian particles dc-driven along corrugated narrow channels is numerically investigated in the regime of finite damping. We show that inertial corrections cannot be neglected as long as the width of the channel bottlenecks is smaller than an appropriate particle diffusion length, which depends on the the channel corrugation and the drive intensity. Being such a diffusion length inversely proportional to the damping constant, transport through sufficiently narrow obstructions turns out to be always sensitive to the viscosity of the suspension fluid. The inertia corrections to the transport quantifiers, mobility and diffusivity, markedly differ for smoothly and sharply corrugated channels.

  12. The System for Secure Mobile PaymentTransactions

    OpenAIRE

    Pouralinazar, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Secure mobile payment methods are typically needed in mobile access channels, it is vital toapply them when using mobile payment applications, which have arisen as a result of the increase of e-commerce. Currently, there are some payment methods that most of them can be used when conducting transactions but, they differ in terms of functionality, usability, costs or security. What makes mobile payment system more useful and necessary are the features and functionalities which are essentially ...

  13. An Analytical Approach for Mobility Load Balancing in Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhan M. Musa; Mir, Nader F.

    2011-01-01

    Management of mobility especially balancing the load of handoff for wireless networks is an essential parameter for wireless network design and traffic study. In this paper, we present analytical mobility management in high speed wireless mobile networks focusing on factors such as the number of channel slots and offered load. We demonstrate the performance of handoffs with mobility consideration using several metrics including the alteration of states prior to reaching a cell boundary, the s...

  14. Usability design of Short Message Service (SMS) mobile phone banking

    OpenAIRE

    Peevers, Gareth James

    2010-01-01

    The financial services sector is investing considerable sums of money into mobile banking services, but the uptake by customers has been low. The cost to benefit ratio of mobile banking is highly unsatisfactory when the costs of developing and managing the channel are considered. Many of the advantages of Internet banking are shared by mobile banking e.g. control and time saving. Mobile banking also offers higher convenience with the ability to carry out banking whenever and ...

  15. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    practices. Everyday life mobilities take place in complex socio-technical systems where the over-layering of hard infrastructures, with design codes and protocols shapes the ‘mobile biotopes’ of the everyday life. By exploring the very tangible and concrete designs of for example everyday life transit...... spaces, mobilitiy technologies or urban sites of movement we get much closer to understanding the meaning of mobilities to social interaction and culture. The cases are still representing work-in-progress but will be reported in the book ‘Designing Mobilites’ (Jensen 2013b) and will cover the four cases...... of: motorway ecologies, bicycle systems design, urban shopping malls and a train transit hub....

  16. Characterization and optimization of liquid electrodes for lateral dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demierre, Nicolas; Braschler, Thomas; Linderholm, Pontus; Seger, Urban; van Lintel, Harald; Renaud, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Using the concept of insulator-based "electrodeless" dielectrophoresis, we present a novel geometry for shaping electric fields to achieve lateral deviation of particles in liquid flows. The field is generated by lateral planar metal electrodes and is guided along access channels to the active area in the main channel. The equipotential surfaces at the apertures of the access channels behave as vertical "liquid" electrodes injecting the current into the main channel. The field between a pair of adjacent liquid electrodes generates the lateral dielectrophoretic force necessary for particle manipulation. We use this force for high-speed deviation of particles. By adding a second pair of liquid electrodes, we focus a particle stream. The position of the focused stream can be swept across the channel by adjusting the ratio of the voltages applied to the two pairs. Based on conformal mapping, we provide an analytical model for estimating the potential at the liquid electrodes and the field distribution in the main channel. We show that the simulated particle trajectories agree with observations. Finally, we show that the model can be used to optimize the device geometry in different applications. PMID:17330167

  17. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  18. Creativity in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

  19. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Březinová; Michael Rost

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with one of the modern trends in marketing communication, which is mobile marketing. Towards the end of 2008, several projects which use mobile phones for target marketing communication were launched. Commercial SMS´s are sent on the base of agreement or registration of the consumers on special websites, for example hellomobil.cz. The benefit for the consumers is the bonus which can have more forms - not only sending money to the account, free SMS´s/MMS´s and minutes but al...

  20. Barcode Payment System in Trusted Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Kaw Raina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile payment is an application of mobile commerce which facilitates mobile commerce transactions by providing the mobile customer with a convenient means to pay. Many mobile payment methods have been proposed and implemented like user friendly, customer centric, merchant centric where security concerns are highly addressed. This paper proposes a mobile payment model with barcodes for mobile users to improve mobile user experience in mobile payment. Unlike other existing mobile payment systems, the proposed payment solution provides distinct advantages to support buy-and-sale products and services based on 2D Barcodes. The aim of this work is to integrate a model of payment with the financial services, including payment and banking ones, based on two primary capabilities: the use of computational resources of a trusted mobile device and the establishment of a user controlled channel with the customer’s bank. The proposed architecture is characterized bank-centric, since the bank acts consultatively, informatively and protectively for the end user and it offers flexibility, adaptability and continuous extendibility to open technologies.

  1. Delivering Live Multimedia Streams to Mobile Hosts in a Wireless Internet with Multiple Content Aggregators

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselman, Cristian; Eertink, Henk; Widya, Ing; Huizer, Erik; G. Bianchi; Kermani, P.; Lee, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the distribution of channels of live multimedia content (e.g., radio or TV broadcasts) via multiple content aggregators. In our work, an aggregator receives channels from content sources and redistributes them to a potentially large number of mobile hosts. Each aggregator can offer a channel in various configurations to cater for different wireless links, mobile hosts, and user preferences. As a result, a mobile host can generally choose from different configurations of the same c...

  2. Clay mineral variations near Pennsylvanian sandstone channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large linear sandstone bodies in the Illinois Basin have been interpreted as representing fresh water river channels that flowed through generally marine to brackish Pennsylvanian deltaic environments; fresh water from such channels could have affected deposition of adjacent coal-bearing rocks. Low-sulfur coals are commonly associated with the sandstone bodies, which may also host petroleum, uranium, fresh water, or other resources. Thus techniques to locate such channels would be economically useful. Previous studies have shown that clay mineral distributions and bulk chemistries of clay-rich sediments are affected when fresh waters mix with sea water. Such changes associated laterally with freshwater channels might have caused distinctive clay mineral or chemical patterns to develop around the channels. Mineralogies and chemical compositions of more than 500 mudrock samples taken immediately above the springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation from 52 sections located from channel margins to 63 miles distant were determined to discern patterns that could aid in finding channels

  3. Surface optical phonon scattering in N-polar GaN quantum well channels

    OpenAIRE

    Singisetti, Uttam

    2013-01-01

    N-polar GaN channel mobility is important for high frequency device applications. In this Letter, we report the theoretical calculations on the surface optical (SO) phonon scattering rate of two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) in N-polar GaN quantum well channels with high-k dielectrics. The effect of SO phonons on 2-DEG mobility was found to be small at >5 nm channel thickness. However, the SO mobility in 3 nm N-polar GaN channels with high-k dielectrics is low and limits the total mobility...

  4. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part of th...

  5. Sustainable Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

    This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired by mob...

  6. Mobil nationalisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2006-01-01

    , varer, mennesker og kapital men derimod en integreret del af disse tendenser. Gennem begrebet mobil nationalisme argumenteres der for en analytisk optik, hvor nationalisme forstås som en proces hvorigennem skiftende relationer og bevægelser mellem forskellige socio-rumlige skalaer som kroppen...

  7. Lateral Control”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens;

    2010-01-01

    in cytokinins and auxin (IAA). After bud excision, ZRP increased dramatically in the subapical stem within 1 h, followed by ZR within 1 week. Supernormal levels of ZR were maintained through autumn and persisted in spring in the destipitated trees, but had returned to normal in the decapitated trees...... pattern changes followed from destipitation, but few from decapitation. Growth reactions suggest that resource allocation to main branch buds inhibits leader growth in normal trees, a kind of “lateral control.” Auxin and ABA content in buds and stems was largely unaffected by treatments. Data suggest...... that subapical leader tissues beneath the apical bud group are a primary source of cytokinin regulation. Keywords ABA - Apical control - Auxin - Bud development - Cytokinin - Plant architecture...

  8. Laterality and language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood. PMID:16882556

  9. An empirical study on adoption of mobile money transfer application in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Enkovaara, Miikka

    2014-01-01

    The objecive of this study was to understand better what factors have the biggest impact on adoption of mobile applications, especially in mobile banking and mobile money transfer application MobilePay. Another objective of the study was to evaluate the possible influence of the adoption channel to the adoption factors. Adoption channels were divided to advertisements and friends/acquintances. The conceptual model used in this study is based on most important models and factors found in t...

  10. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for spine surgery called XLIF, extreme lateral interbody fusion. Dr. Juan Uribe will perform the procedure. Dr. ... A better term would be extreme lateral interbody fusion. This is a procedure that has been performed ...

  11. Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

  12. Use of Mobile Technology in Banking Services

    OpenAIRE

    ALIN ISAC

    2013-01-01

    Technology and applications of mobile phones offer many opportunities for businesses, they also presenting a continuous development and new challenges. Although this service is currently viewed with reluctance by customers, banks need to overcome this drawback and understand how this service can be combined with other alternative channels such as social media, to create value for customers. In this paper I presented information about present and perspectives in mobile applications industry, w...

  13. Mobile Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEBASTIAN COHEN

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 1984, US computer manufacturer Apple spent almost USD 1.5 million on a lavish, Ridley Scott-directed commercial for its new Macintosh 128k personal computer. A year later, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows for IBM PC, signaling the start of the battle for domi-nation of the personal computer market which has waged ever since.

  14. Mobile Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryana, Bijan; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a country specific comparative mobile usability study is presented, using Iran and Turkey as the two chosen emerging/emergent nation exemplars of smartphone usage and adoption. In a focus group study, three mobile applications were selected by first-time users of smartphones....... In both countries, the music player application was tested, wherein common patterns of accessing and sorting songs emerged. Whereas the Iranian users appeared to be more interested in social networking via use of an SMS service, the Turkish users tended to prefer to apply hierarchies to their own daily...... personal contacts. The results and analysis establish the existence of country specific issues and concerns, as well as reveal generic usability issues. The article concludes that the source of these issues is most likely due to a combination of certain contextual features endemic to both Iran and Turkey...

  15. Lateral-coupling coplanar-gate oxide-based thin-film transistors on bare paper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For conventional thin-film transistors (TFTs), bottom-gate or top-gate configuration is always adopted because the channel current is generally controlled by vertical capacitive coupling. In this article, depending on huge lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitor induced by spatial movement of protons in phosphosilicate glass (PSG) solid electrolyte dielectrics, coplanar-gate indium–zinc–oxide (IZO)-TFTs based on the lateral capacitive coupling were fabricated on bare paper substrates. The PSG solid electrolyte films here were used at the same time as gate dielectrics and smooth buffer layers. These TFTs showed a low-voltage operation of only 1 V with a large field-effect mobility of 13.4 cm2 V−1·s, a high current on/off ratio of 6  ×  106 and a small subthreshold swing of 75 mV/decade. Furthermore, with introducing another coplanar gate, AND logic operation was also demonstrated on the coplanar dual-gate TFTs. These simple lateral-coupling coplanar-gate IZO-TFTs on bare paper substrates are very promising for low-cost portable sensors and bio-electronics. (paper)

  16. Lateral-coupling coplanar-gate oxide-based thin-film transistors on bare paper substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guodong; Wan, Xiang; Yang, Yi; Jiang, Shuanghe

    2014-11-01

    For conventional thin-film transistors (TFTs), bottom-gate or top-gate configuration is always adopted because the channel current is generally controlled by vertical capacitive coupling. In this article, depending on huge lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitor induced by spatial movement of protons in phosphosilicate glass (PSG) solid electrolyte dielectrics, coplanar-gate indium-zinc-oxide (IZO)-TFTs based on the lateral capacitive coupling were fabricated on bare paper substrates. The PSG solid electrolyte films here were used at the same time as gate dielectrics and smooth buffer layers. These TFTs showed a low-voltage operation of only 1 V with a large field-effect mobility of 13.4 cm2 V-1·s, a high current on/off ratio of 6  ×  106 and a small subthreshold swing of 75 mV/decade. Furthermore, with introducing another coplanar gate, AND logic operation was also demonstrated on the coplanar dual-gate TFTs. These simple lateral-coupling coplanar-gate IZO-TFTs on bare paper substrates are very promising for low-cost portable sensors and bio-electronics.

  17. Promotion and monetization in publishing mobile applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peinado Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The road to new technologies and digital systems of transmission of the message produce unpublished business channels to support the media management current. And the printed media can benefit since they can find greater advantages in this new channel of increasing consumption: mobile greater advantages in this new channel of increasing consumption: mobile applications. The modern editor coexists with these new technologies, scheduled or native applications on web languages that offer multiple possibilities of loyalty, monetization, distribution and synergies with the channels already considered classics. The study of apps to generate revenue in the media can be the new contextual paradigm of the Periodismo and establish the key factors for a better profitability of the participants this industry, increasingly weakened financially and business by the accelerated arrival of technology in publishing groups accustomed to changes of slow evolution.

  18. Mobile Misfortune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    termination of the mobility it enables. This article, thus, looks at the motives and manners in which young men in Bissau become caught up in transnational flows of cocaine. It shows how motion is emotively anchored and affectively bound: tied to and directed toward a feeling of worth and realisation of being......, and how migration from the global South often has negative potentiality as an end-point via the ascription of illegality and condition of deportability that shade it....

  19. The African Mobile Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks......This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks...

  20. Assessing mobility of household organic hazardous chemicals in landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal components of these hazardous materials are motor oils, detergents, paints and pesticides. Occurrence of their ingredients in landfill leachate follows source release function that determines their discharge rate to groundwater. Five compounds were identified very mobile in the landfill based on mobility index calculations. They were phenolate for the motor oil group, ethylene oxide and thylene glycol from detergent group, and formaldehyde and methylethyl ketone (MEK) from the paint group. These five chemicals were used as tracing compounds for quantitative assessment of their emission to the groundwater. An analytical solution to a one dimensional convective-diffusion transport equation was used to model their transport in the landfill. The model into which the channeled flow was incorporated considered adsorption-desorption and degradation. Leachate from earlier stage of leaching had significantly higher concentrations of the tracing compounds in comparison to that produced later. Contaminant concentrations in leachate decreased with time and the decreases occurred in order of formaldehyde ≥ phenol > MEK ≥ ethylene glycol > ethylene oxide. Concentrations of phenol, formaldehyde, and ethylene glycol were less than 0.02 g/L, which is about 0.1% of initial concentration, after 11 weeks. It took 22 weeks for MEK to be reduced to the same concentration at a velocity of 6 pore volumes per year

  1. Radial dependence of the carrier mobility in semiconductor nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mobility of charge carriers in a semiconductor nanowire is explored as a function of increasing radius, assuming low temperatures where impurity scattering dominates. The competition between increased cross-section and the concurrent increase in available scattering channels causes strongly non-monotonic dependence of the mobility on the radius. The inter-band scattering causes sharp declines in the mobility at the wire radii at which each new channel becomes available. At intermediate radii with the number of channels unchanged the mobility is seen to maintain an exponential growth even with multiple channels. We also compare the effects of changing the radial scaling of the impurity distribution. We use transverse carrier wavefunctions that are consistent with boundary conditions and demonstrate that the δ-function approximate transverse profile leads to errors in the case of remote impurities

  2. Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rigon, Riccardo

    This review proceeds from Luna Leopold's and Ronald Shreve's lasting accomplishments dealing with the study of random-walk and topologically random channel networks. According to the random perspective, which has had a profound influence on the interpretation of natural landforms, nature's resiliency in producing recurrent networks and landforms was interpreted to be the consequence of chance. In fact, central to models of topologically random networks is the assumption of equal likelihood of any tree-like configuration. However, a general framework of analysis exists that argues that all possible network configurations draining a fixed area are not necessarily equally likely. Rather, a probability P(s) is assigned to a particular spanning tree configuration, say s, which can be generally assumed to obey a Boltzmann distribution: P(s) % e^-H(s)/T, where T is a parameter and H(s) is a global property of the network configuration s related to energetic characters, i.e. its Hamiltonian. One extreme case is the random topology model where all trees are equally likely, i.e. the limit case for T6 4 . The other extreme case is T 6 0, and this corresponds to network configurations that tend to minimize their total energy dissipation to improve their likelihood. Networks obtained in this manner are termed optimal channel networks (OCNs). Observational evidence suggests that the characters of real river networks are reproduced extremely well by OCNs. Scaling properties of energy and entropy of OCNs suggest that large network development is likely to effectively occur at zero temperature (i.e. minimizing its Hamiltonian). We suggest a corollary of dynamic accessibility of a network configuration and speculate towards a thermodynamics of critical self-organization. We thus conclude that both chance and necessity are equally important ingredients for the dynamic origin of channel networks---and perhaps of the geometry of nature.

  3. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  4. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Jun; Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-07-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  5. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  6. Mobile Payments : Comparison of Mobile Wallet Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Srikant

    2013-01-01

    Mobile payments are an emerging trend and an alternative to traditional payment methods. Mobile payments involve the usage of the mobile phone to handle credit transfers during purchase of goods and peer to peer money transfers referred to as mobile wallet service, instead of depending on bank cards and cash. In this scenario, while the mobile wallet industry still being in its infancy there exist a few drivers of mobile wallet solutions aiming to create a de-facto standard in the mobile mark...

  7. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  8. Lateral variability of sediment transport in the Delaware Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jacqueline M.; Chant, Robert J.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral processes contribute significantly to circulation and material transport in estuaries. The mechanisms controlling transport may vary spatially such that shallow and deep regions of an estuary contribute differently to the total transport. An observational study was conducted to explore the importance of lateral variability in sediment transport mechanisms in the Delaware Estuary. Seven moorings were deployed across the channel in the region of the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) zone from April to August 2011. Time series of along-channel sediment transport reveal a consistent pattern of sediment export across the entire estuary during periods of high river discharge, followed by a transition to import within the channel and export on the flanks during low river flow. There is a persistent divergence of across-channel sediment fluxes on the Delaware side, where sediment from the flank is transported toward both the channel and wetland coast. Decomposition of the fluxes highlight that across-channel sediment transport is driven by mean lateral circulation, whereas along-channel transport is driven primarily by mean advection, with tidal pumping contributing to about 30% of total transport. The spatial and temporal variability of mean advection and tidal pumping were generally complementary, with both contributing to the observed sediment transport pathways. Tidal pumping, linked to tidal asymmetries in stratification and sediment resuspension, was shown to drive both ebb-driven export and flood-driven import depending on the tidal variability of stratification. The spatiotemporal patterns of sediment transport highlight the three-dimensional structure of the ETM and shed light on the variability of sediment transport mechanisms.

  9. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Luengo Cascudo, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es explicar y entender la importancia del Mobile Marketing como nueva herramienta de negocio en el Marketing empresarial. Para ello, el primer objetivo es entender los dos factores que para mí son la clave de su importancia: la evolución del entorno tecnológico y el cambio en los hábitos del consumidor. Debido a la novedad de esta nueva forma de Marketing y al hecho de que está en constante definición, es básico exponer de la forma más cla...

  10. Robotique Mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Filliat, David

    2011-01-01

    1 Introduction I Les bases de la navigation 2 Les différents types de navigation 3 Les sources d'information 4 Matériels courants en robotique mobile II Navigation réactive 5 Navigation vers un but 6 Évitement d'obstacles 7 Apprentissage par renforcement III Navigation utilisant une carte 8 Localisation, Cartographie et Planification 9 Les représentations de l'environne 10 Localisation 11 Cartographie 12 Planification École d'ingénieur

  11. Efficient Mobile Client Caching Supporting Transaction Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IlYoung Chung

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In mobile client-server database systems, caching of frequently accessed data is an important technique that will reduce the contention on the narrow bandwidth wireless channel. As the server in mobile environments may not have any information about the state of its clients' cache(stateless server, using broadcasting approach to transmit the updated data lists to numerous concurrent mobile clients is an attractive approach. In this paper, a caching policy is proposed to maintain cache consistency for mobile computers. The proposed protocol adopts asynchronous(non-periodic broadcasting as the cache invalidation scheme, and supports transaction semantics in mobile environments. With the asynchronous broadcasting approach, the proposed protocol can improve the throughput by reducing the abortion of transactions with low communication costs. We study the performance of the protocol by means of simulation experiments.

  12. Mobile Web - Strategy for Enterprise Success

    CERN Document Server

    Maan, Jitendra

    2012-01-01

    Today, enterprises are faced with increased global competition in an environment where customers are demanding faster delivery, better service and also want to gain significant and immediate business value by increasing productivity and reducing operational cost. Spurred by unprecedented customer demand, each Industry cluster has developed its own source of comparative advantage. Even within a single organization, the business value chain is geographically fragmented. Such diversification and fragmentation of value chain drives the need for cross-platform Web applications over mobile channel. Mobile Web is the next logical transition in this evolutionary process and Mobile Web applications will continue to gain more prominence in the enterprises not just to improve the return on investment in their existing system landscape, but also to expand global reach and improve operational efficiency of their mobile workforce. This paper outlines the critical business needs to rapidly create flexible Mobile web solutio...

  13. Data Dissemination in Mobile Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr A. Venugopal Reddy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Data dissemination in asymmetrical communicationenvironment, where the downlink communication capacity ismuch greater than the uplink communication capacity, is bestsuited for mobile environment. In this architecture there will bea stationary server continuously broadcasting different dataitems over the air. The mobile clients continuously listen to thechannel and access the data of their interest whenever itappears on the channel and download the same. The typicalapplications of such architecture are stock market information,weather information, traffic information etc. The importantissue that is to be addressed in this type of data disseminationis – how quickly the mobile clients access the data item of theirinterest i.e. minimum access time so that the mobile clients savethe precious battery power while they are on mobile. Thispaper reviews the various techniques for achieving theminimum access time. The advantages and disadvantages arediscussed and explored different research areas for achievingthe minimum access time.

  14. Mobility Impact on Performance of Mobile Grids

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Nandeppanavar,; M. N. Birje,; S. S. Manvi,; Shridhar

    2010-01-01

    Wireless mobile grids are one of the emerging grid types, which help to pool the resources of several willing and cooperative mobile devices to resolve a computationally intensive task. The mobile grids exhibit stronger challenges like mobility management of devices, providing transparent access to grid resources, task management and handling of limited resources so that resources are shared efficiently. Task execution on these devices should not be affected by their mobility. The proposed wo...

  15. Optimum Mobility Performance with Mobile IP & SIP

    OpenAIRE

    B. Naresh Kumar; DR. R. V. KRISHNAIAH

    2013-01-01

    Mobility will place an efficient role in now days in the wireless communications. Mobile IP andSIP provide the mobility service to the handset users. The problems in Mobile IP and SIP s are triangular,handoff, Intra domain problems. These problems create signal lose and improper signalling to the user. Toovercome these we provide add of service to the Mobile IP and SIP with the integration of the two services.This service provides optimum performance of the system.

  16. The Sustainable Interventions for Mobile Phone′s Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil MV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are universally popular due to its convenience. Mobile phones solve problems and offer new channels of communication and just by using a device small enough to fit into one hand. On the other hand, mobile phones are harmful to the environment and the society which makes health problems, pollution problems via discharge of its radiations. Mobile phones have recently fallen into the examine on their sustainability and their potential effects on the environment. This study discusses the issues relating to the risks of the mobile phones and addresses the sustainable concerns rectify those issues.

  17. Mobile Security with Smartcards

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian-Kehr, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Mobility in conjunction with communication facilities in the form of mobile telephony seems to be one of the major technology trends observed throughout the last decade. Many experts and analysts expect that the arrival of mobile services such as mobile commerce, location-based services, multi-media messaging, and mobile gaming in the third generation of mobile networks will be the next step in this success story. However, protecting service providers from fraud and mobile users from new thre...

  18. Small Terminal MIMO Channels with User Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.;

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of results obtained from measurements of different types of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. For the indoor case measurements were made at 5.8 GHz from access points (APs) to mobile stations (MSs) at different places in a large open office type room...

  19. Multi-channel electric aerosol spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirme, A.; Noppel, M.; Peil, I.; Salm, J.; Tamm, E.; Tammet, H.

    Multi-channel electric mobility spectrometry is a most efficient technique for the rapid measurement of an unstable aerosol particle size spectrum. The measuring range of the spectrometer from 10 microns to 10 microns is achieved by applying diffusional and field charging mechanisms simultaneously. On-line data processing is carried out with a microcomputer. Experimental calibration ensures correctness of measurement.

  20. Tonoplast Aquaporins Facilitate Lateral Root Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Beebo, Azeez; Swarup, Kamal; Voß, Ute; Bouhidel, Karim; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Schjoerring, Jan K; Bennett, Malcolm J; Chaumont, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence. PMID:26802038

  1. Exploring technology acceptance for mobile services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Phan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mobile phone industries are no longer relying on voice services. It is predicted that data services are expected to be a remediation for the declining of average revenue per user (ARPU in telecommunication market. The purpose of this paper is to find the factors that influence the acceptance/adoption of mobile services.Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes quantitative method. Questionnaire were distributed to collect the data. The questionnaires are designed specifically to address the factors related to mobile services. Later on, this paper uses Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP and Cluster analysis to identify the factors that influence the adoption of mobile services.Findings: The results show that ease of use and usefulness are top two factors that influence the adoption of mobile services.Research limitations/implications: The sample for the study is relatively small. For future research, the sample should be increased. The data collection should also look into different devices and operating system of mobile phones to find if there is any significant difference in adopting mobile services.Practical implications: This framework is expected to be able to help the mobile services provider to design better mobile services that can attract users to adopt them. Originality/value: This is the follow on research on the previous study that employed different method. This study is to confirm and support the findings from previous study.

  2. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... So the opening that I have on the working channel is approximately two centimeters by one and a half centimeters that you can see, so we were to use more channel, but everything that we do is just to minimize the postoperative pain and the muscle injury that is in the short term the biggest ...

  3. Mobile Learning Application Based on RSS Feed Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanna, Mahmoud; Capus, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile learning application for a learning course at higher education level. Based on the RSS feed technology, the presented mobile application establishes an in-time communication channel between the instructor and his/her students to keep them up-to-date with all course important dates, instructions and information in…

  4. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  5. 47 CFR 22.905 - Channels for cellular service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for cellular service. 22.905 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.905 Channels for cellular service. The following frequency bands are allocated for assignment to service providers in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service....

  6. Temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a metamorphic InGaAs/InAlAs high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a 100 nm-long InGaAs/InAlAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor designed for millimeter-wavelength RF applications. To extract the temperature dependence of quasi-ballistic mobility, our experiment involves measurements of the effective mobility in the low-bias linear region of the transistor and of the collision-dominated Hall mobility using a gated Hall bar of the same epitaxial structure. The data measured from the experiment are consistent with that of modeled ballistic mobility based on ballistic transport theory. These results advance the understanding of ballistic transport in various transistors with a nano-scale channel length that is comparable to the carrier's mean free path in the channel.

  7. ESeal Calculus: A Secure Mobile Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Rong; Chen Xin-meng; Liu Ping

    2003-01-01

    The ESeal Calculus is a secure mobile calculus based on Seal Calculus. By using open-channels, ESeal Calculus makes it possible to communicate between any two arbitrary seals with some secure restrictions. It improves the expression ability and efficiency of Seal calculus without losing security.

  8. ESeal Calculus: A Secure Mobile Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengRong; UuPing

    2003-01-01

    The ESeal Calculus is a secure mobile calculus based on Seal Calculus. By using open-channels,ESeal Calculus makes it possible to communicate between any two arbitrary seals with some secure restrictions. It improves the expression ability and efficiency of Seal calculus without losing security.

  9. Mobile authoring of Open Educational Resources for authentic learning scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuenca, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Mobile authoring tools enable learners and teachers to foster universal access to educational resources not only providing channels to share, remix or re contextualize these, but also capturing the context in-situ and in-time. The contribution of this presentation is threefold: first, the main barriers for ubiquitous and mobile authoring of educational resources are identified; second, the design of a mobile environment to author educational resources (MAT4ARLearn) is presented; third, conclu...

  10. Evaluating humanoid embodied conversational agents in mobile guide applications

    OpenAIRE

    Doumanis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Evolution in the area of mobile computing has been phenomenal in the last few years. The exploding increase in hardware power has enabled multimodal mobile interfaces to be developed. These interfaces differ from the traditional graphical user interface (GUI), in that they enable a more “natural” communication with mobile devices, through the use of multiple communication channels (e.g., multi-touch, speech recognition, etc.). As a result, a new generation of applications has emerged that pro...

  11. THE POTENTIAL OF MOBILE APPLICATIONSIN ORGANIZATION AND PROMOTION

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Pajnic; Davor Bosnjakovic; Ivan Kelic

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of mobile marketing and wide acceptance of the technology among end users through smartphone devices, the conditions are ripe for developing new promotional channels. According to some estimates, smartphone sales have exceeded one billion units, with no signs of slowing down. Through mobile applications, these devices allow for two-way communication between business entities and consumers. Initially, mobile applications were intended mostly for entertainment and were simple ap...

  12. Conference for Mobility Trainers and Technologists; Proceedings (Massachusetts Institute of Technology Faculty Club, December 14-15, 1967).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge. Sensory Aids Evaluation and Development Center.

    Ten articles treat mobility aids and training for the blind. The following subjects are discussed: "Development of Mobility Programs Which Used Canes as Aids,""Expansion of Mobility Training to Children and Aged,""Basic Techniques Essential to Orientation and Mobility,""Long Cane Training: Its Advantages and Problems,""The Cane as a Channel for…

  13. Telemedicine using mobile satellite communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, H; Shimizu, K; Yamamoto, K; Mikami, T; Hoshimiya, N; Kondo, K

    1994-05-01

    With a view to providing paramedical care within moving vehicles, a telemedicine technique using mobile satellite communication was proposed. With this technique, the diagnosis from a specialist and the emergency care under his/her instructions would be available on the spot without unnecessary delay. The characteristic problems of this technique were identified as: channel capacity, size of the system, reliability of vital sign transmission, real-time operation and electromagnetic interference. Measures against these problems were devised, and their effectiveness was analyzed. A data format was designed and an experimental system was developed. The system can simultaneously transmit a color image, an audio signal, 3 channels ECG and blood pressures from a mobile station to a ground station. It can transmit an audio signal and error control signals from a ground station to a mobile station in a full duplex mode. Fundamental transmission characteristics were measured in a fixed station. Finally, experiments of medical data transmission were conducted with a navigating ship and an aircraft flying an international route. The measured threshold values of C/N(o) to guarantee satisfactory data reception were well below the lower boundary of C/N(o) of the communication link. Consequently, the feasibility of this technique was verified. PMID:8070809

  14. Strictly homogeneous laterally complete modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilin, V. I.; Karimov, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Let A be a laterally complete commutative regular algebra and X be a laterally complete A-module. In this paper we introduce a notion of homogeneous and strictly homogeneous A-modules. It is proved that any homogeneous A-module is strictly homogeneous A-module, if the Boolean algebra of all idempotents in A is multi-σ-finite.

  15. Mobile shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalms, Michael; Jueptner, Werner

    2005-04-01

    By reason of their sensitivity, accuracy and non-contact as well as non-destructive characteristics, modern optical methods such as digital speckle shearography have found an increasing interest for NDT applications on the factory floor. With new carbon filter technologies and other lightweight constructions in aircraft and automotive manufacturing, adapted examination designs and especially developed testing methods are necessary. Shearography as a coherent optical method has been widely accepted as an useful NDT tool. It is a robust interferometric method to determine locations with maximum stress on various material structures. However, limitations of this technique can be found in the bulky equipment components, the interpretation of the complex sherographic result images and at the work with non-cooperative surfaces (dark absorber, bright shining reflectors). We report a mobile shearography system that was especially designed for investigations at aircraft and automotive constructions.

  16. Mobile video with mobile IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil

  17. The role of non-traditional sales channels in Finnish companies' sales channel portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Ahovuo, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    The launch of the Internet has changed the environment of the markets where businesses operate today. Sales and purchasing are less tied to place and time, and thus, mobility characterizes the markets where the companies and consumers operate. In response to the change new sales channel models have developed in order to better serve the new needs. These so called non-traditional sales channels offer alternative solutions for companies' market entry and expansion, but until the current moment ...

  18. Reviewing the Role of Media Attributes in Mobilizing Protest Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.A. van den; Ehrenhard, M.L.; Langley, D.J.; Groen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Activist groups increasingly use computer-mediated communication (CMC) channels to mobilize large groups of consumers to persuade incumbent firms to change their contested strategies or practices. The attributes of CMC channels change the effectiveness of persuasion processes in organizations. Simil

  19. Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sanchita

    2013-01-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) and Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) are important decision-making problems in mobile cellular communication systems. Current research in mobile communication considers them as two independent problems, although the former greatly depends on the resulting free channels obtained as the outcome of the latter. This book provides a solution to the CAC problem, considering DCA as an integral part of decision-making for call admission. Further, current technical resources ignore movement issues of mobile stations and fluctuation in network load (incoming calls) in the control strategy used for call admission. In addition, the present techniques on call admission offers solution globally for the entire network, instead of considering the cells independently.      CAC here has been formulated by two alternative approaches. The first approach aimed at handling the uncertainty in the CAC problem by employing fuzzy comparators.  The second approach is concerned with formulation of CAC ...

  20. Effectiveness of mobile in-game banner advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Satokangas, S. (Saara)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out the effectiveness of banner advertising in mobile games. The matter has been approached by examining the attitudes consumers have towards mobile in-game banner advertising (IGBA) and the intention they have to click on these advertisements. The existing literature considering banner advertising, mobile advertising and in-game advertising is gone through rather extensively and based on it, a theoretical framework was formed and later on tested with empir...

  1. A Transport Model of Mobile Agent Based on Secure Hybrid Encryption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNZhixin; CHENZhixian; WANGRuchuan

    2005-01-01

    The solution of security problems of mobile agents is a key issue, which will decide whether mobile agents can be widely used. The paper analyzes main security problems, which currently are confronted with mobile agent systems and existing protection solutions. And then the paper presents a Security Transport model of mobile agents based on a hybrid encryption algorithm (TMSHE).Meanwhile, it expatiates on implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm of TMSHE model mainly consists of two parts, i.e., employing a hybrid encryption algorithm to encrypt mobile agents and using Transport layer security (TLS) to encrypt communication channel. Mobile agents by hybrid encryption move through communication channels, which are encrypted by TLS. The simulation results indicate that the model can protect mobile agents' security effectively, and consequently the security and steadiness of the whole mobile agent system are also improved. The model has succeeded in getting application in a prototypesystem- Intrusion detection system based on mobile agents.

  2. Enabling Adaptive Rate and Relay Selection for 802.11 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Neil; Wang, Wenye

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring wireless networks that lack permanent infrastructure and are formed among mobile nodes on demand. Rapid node mobility results in dramatic channel variation, or fading, that degrades MANET performance. Employing channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter can improve the throughput of routing and medium access control (MAC) protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Several routing algorithms in the literature explicitly incorporate the fading signal strength into the routing metric, thus selecting the routes with strong channel conditions. While these studies show that adaptation to the time-variant channel gain is beneficial in MANETs, they do not address the effect of the outdated fading CSI at the transmitter. For realistic mobile node speeds, the channel gain is rapidly varying, and becomes quickly outdated due the feedback delay. We analyze the link throughput of joint rate adaptation and adaptive relay selection in the presence of imperfect CSI. Mor...

  3. Mobility and territorializing regimes in the Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    The chapter discusses how space is constituted and produced at the margins of states by taking the case of Peruvian Andean society in Latin America. Peasant society has been 'invaded' in recent years first by Maoist insurgents and later by the military sent by the state. The chapter explores what...... implications these events have had for previous patterns of mobility...

  4. Lateral Mass Fixation in Subaxial Cervical Spine: Anatomic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Elrahmany; Ihab, Zidan; Moaz, Anwar; Ayman, Nabawi; Haitham, Abo-elw

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The cervical spine is a highly mobile segment of the spinal column, liable to a variety of diseases and susceptible to trauma. It is a complex region where many vital structures lie in close proximity. Lateral mass screw fixation has become the method of choice in stabilizing subaxial cervical spine among other posterior cervical fixation techniques whenever the posterior elements are absent or compromised. Objective This study examined cervical specimens of cadavers and cervical...

  5. An aberrant right lateral branch from right internal thoracic artery

    OpenAIRE

    Salve VM; Ratnaprabha C

    2010-01-01

    The internal thoracic artery is the largest artery of the thoracic wall. The internal thoracic artery is often mobilized for coronary artery bypass grafting. During routine dissection (MBBS Batch 2009-2010) of a middle aged male cadaver at Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Foundation, Gannavaram, (INDIA); an aberrant right lateral branch from right internal thoracic artery was found. It arose from right internal thoracic artery behind right first rib. It ran ...

  6. Channel Estimation for MIMO MC-CDMA Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sureshkumar, K; Vetrikanimozhi, A

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of MIMO MC-CDMA are not new but the new technologies to improve their functioning are an emerging area of research. In general, most mobile communication systems transmit bits of information in the radio space to the receiver. The radio channels in mobile radio systems are usually multipath fading channels, which cause inter-symbol interference (ISI) in the received signal. To remove ISI from the signal, there is a need of strong equalizer. In this thesis we have focused on simulating the MIMO MC-CDMA systems in MATLAB and designed the channel estimation for them.

  7. Micro Mobility Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik; Skov, Mikael B.

    2008-01-01

    Mobile marketing refers to marketing of services or goods using mobile technology and mobile marketing holds potentially great economical opportunities. Traditionally, mobile marketing has been viewed as mobility in the large taking place virtually anywhere, anytime. Further, research shows...... similarities and differences between micro mobility marketing and the traditional mobile marketing in the large. Finally, we suggest areas for further study.Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing (2007) 16, 68-77. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jt.5750058; published online 24 December 2007...... considerable number of studies on push-based SMS mobile marketing campaigns. This paper explores a related yet different form of mobile marketing namely micro mobility marketing. Micro mobility marketing denotes mobility in the small, meaning that promotion of goods takes place within a circumscribed location...

  8. Mobile OS Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian

    2013-01-01

    In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.

  9. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  10. Mobile Search and Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lovitskii, Vladimir; McCaffery, Colin; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David; Wright, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mobile advertising is a rapidly growing sector providing brands and marketing agencies the opportunity to connect with consumers beyond traditional and digital media and instead communicate directly on their mobile phones. Mobile advertising will be intrinsically linked with mobile search, which has transported from the internet to the mobile and is identified as an area of potential growth. The result of mobile searching show that as a general rule such search result exceed 1...

  11. Mobile Schools for a Mobile World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, independent schools are embracing mobile devices--laptops, iPads or other tablets, and smartphones--to enhance teaching and learning. This article describes the results of the "NAIS 2012 Mobile Learning Survey." Among its findings were that 75 percent of NAIS-member schools currently use mobile learning devices in at…

  12. The Effect of Current Trends in Mobile Marketing on Traditional Marketing Communications and Customer Relationship Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    As consumers increasingly prefer mobile devices as their main communication and entertainment channel, it becomes more and more important for marketers as well. Mobile marketing today does not only include sending SMS and E-mail but rather is becoming a whole new interactive, rich-media marketing channel with possibilities for direct engagement with ads and brands like never before. This research attempts to provide a greater understanding about the effects of current trends in mobile mark...

  13. Dynamic Simulation for Government Policy Effects of the Mobile Telecom Industry in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Tung Hsiao; Pao-Long Chang; Shu-Ping Ho

    2010-01-01

    The applying, cancelling and changing of the radio channel licenses and the radio base station establishment need to be managed by the government because radio channel has scarce characteristic of resource. In order to carry out "Mobil Taiwan" plan and telecom liberalization, Taiwan official opened the business licenses of the third generation (3G) mobile phone in 2002 and the business licenses of the fourth generation (4G) WiMAX in 2007. The telecom market of mobile phone leads to a diversif...

  14. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... perform the discectomy and place a lot of screws from behind. Well, it's complicated. And both surgeries ... adequate, we can even place a plate and screws from the lateral approach. That also will give ...

  15. Lateral Asymmetries in Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Bradshaw; Nettleton, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Lateral asymmetries are not confined to humans. Palaeozoic trilobites and calcichordates are now known to have been asymmetrical; song control in passerines is vested in the left cerebral hemisphere; learning which is lateralized to the left forebrain of chicks includes imprinting, visual discrimination learning and auditory habituation, while responses to novelty, attack and copulation are activated by the right; in rats the right hemisphere is involved in emotional behavior and spatial disc...

  16. Possibilities of B2C buying and selling using mobile devices in comparison with Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia San Martín Gutiérrez; Blanca López Catalán

    2010-01-01

    New technologies have involved a great opportunity to improve business management. On the one hand, Internet is beginning to be a selling channel that is valid and complementary of the traditional channel, apart from being a channel to search information and socialize. On the other hand and recently, mobile marketing is useful in a commercial sense: the mobile phone incorporates television, camera, radio, chat and now firms are introducing in the issue of advertising and in other regions in s...

  17. Possibilities of B2C buying and selling using mobile devices in comparison with Inter.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia San Martín Gutiérrez; Blanca López Catalán

    2010-01-01

    New technologies have involved a great opportunity to improve business management. On the one hand, Internet is beginning to be a selling channel that is valid and complementary of the traditional channel, apart from being a channel to search information and socialize. On the other hand and recently, mobile marketing is useful in a commercial sense: the mobile phone incorporates television, camera, radio, chat and now firms are introducing in the issue of advertising and in other regions in s...

  18. Evaluation of anisotropic charge carrier mobility of perylene single crystals by time-of-flight method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougo, Junichi; Ishikawa, Ken

    2016-03-01

    The charge carrier mobilities along the vertical and lateral directions of perylene platelet single crystals were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. In the lateral directional measurement, the entire region between electrodes was irradiated to obtain measurable signals. The transient photocurrent was different from the conventional TOF measurements; hence, we developed an analytic method for lateral directional measurement. The electron mobilities along the thickness and lateral directions were 0.33 and 2.0 cm2·V-1·s-1 and the hole mobilities were 0.12 and 0.6 cm2·V-1·s-1, respectively.

  19. Channel strategy adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Rangan, V. Kasturi; Nueno, Jose L

    1999-01-01

    Using transaction cost theory, considerable research in marketing has focused on the conditions under which firms would use direct or vertically integrated versus indirect or arms length channels of distribution. Data from the field, however, indicate that channel configurations are more varied and complex, with multiple channels and composite channels being just as common as direct and indirect channels. In an attempt to explain this variety, this paper revisits the influence on channel stru...

  20. Cross platform Mobile Applications Development: Mobile Apps Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Redda, Yonathan Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the mobile computing sector has been having quite a revolution.Mobile computing devices have shed loads of weight, gone slim, achieved mass popularityand a great market penetration. But one of the challenges that has been part ofmobile computing is technology and device fragmentation leaving application developersfor mobile phones bewildered. Platform developers, device manufacturers comewith so many features and functionalities that it has been dicult to provide developerswi...

  1. Mobile commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Παπαδανιήλ, Βασίλειος

    2014-01-01

    Η συνεχής ανάπτυξη των mobile συσκευών και συστημάτων, η εκτεταμένη χρήση του Διαδικτύου, οι ραγδαίες εξελίξεις στις ασύρματες τεχνολογίες, η αυξημένη ζήτηση για υψηλής ταχύτητας διαδραστικές υπηρεσίες πολυμέσων καθώς και η αυξανόμενη ανάγκη για ασφαλή ασύρματη επικοινωνία, οδήγησε στην ανάπτυξη του mobile commerce και στην καθιέρωση του στον επιχειρηματικό κόσμο. Η συνεχής βελτίωση των ασύρματων τεχνολογιών, ιδιαίτερα ως προς την ευελιξία και την ευχρηστία, οδήγησε στην παροχή διαφόρων υπηρε...

  2. Mobile Operating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kamboj

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are used by every people in today’s life. We use mobile phones without knowing the different factors that a mobile used including its technology, operating system, CPU ,RAM etc. Many types of operating system are used by different mobile. Every operating system has their advantage

  3. TYPOLOGIES OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Ivan; Alin Zamfiroiu2; Dragoş Palaghiţă3

    2013-01-01

    Mobile applications and their particularities are analyzed. Mobile application specific characteristics are defined. Types of applications are identified and analyzed. The paper established differences between mobile applications and mobile application categories. For each identified type the specific structures and development model are identified.

  4. Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vipin Kamboj; Hitesh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones are used by every people in today’s life. We use mobile phones without knowing the different factors that a mobile used including its technology, operating system, CPU ,RAM etc. Many types of operating system are used by different mobile. Every operating system has their advantage

  5. RAC-Multi: Reader Anti-Collision Algorithm for Multichannel Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangcheol Shin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, RFID is installed on mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs and provides a means to obtain information about objects equipped with an RFID tag over a multi-channeled telecommunication networks. To use mobile RFIDs, reader collision problems should be addressed given that readers are continuously moving. Moreover, in a multichannel environment for mobile RFIDs, interference between adjacent channels should be considered. This work first defines a new concept of a reader collision problem between adjacent channels and then suggests a novel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID readers that use multiple channels. To avoid interference with adjacent channels, the suggested algorithm separates data channels into odd and even numbered channels and allocates odd-numbered channels first to readers. It also sets an unused channel between the control channel and data channels to ensure that control messages and the signal of the adjacent channel experience no interference. Experimental results show that suggested algorithm shows throughput improvements ranging from 29% to 46% for tag identifications compared to the GENTLE reader anti-collision algorithm for multichannel RFID networks.

  6. RAC-Multi: Reader Anti-Collision Algorithm for Multichannel Mobile RFID Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwangcheol; Song, Wonil

    2010-01-01

    At present, RFID is installed on mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs and provides a means to obtain information about objects equipped with an RFID tag over a multi-channeled telecommunication networks. To use mobile RFIDs, reader collision problems should be addressed given that readers are continuously moving. Moreover, in a multichannel environment for mobile RFIDs, interference between adjacent channels should be considered. This work first defines a new concept of a reader collision problem between adjacent channels and then suggests a novel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID readers that use multiple channels. To avoid interference with adjacent channels, the suggested algorithm separates data channels into odd and even numbered channels and allocates odd-numbered channels first to readers. It also sets an unused channel between the control channel and data channels to ensure that control messages and the signal of the adjacent channel experience no interference. Experimental results show that suggested algorithm shows throughput improvements ranging from 29% to 46% for tag identifications compared to the GENTLE reader anti-collision algorithm for multichannel RFID networks. PMID:22315528

  7. Geometric pumping in autophoretic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelin, Sebastien; Montenegro Johnson, Thomas; de Canio, Gabriele; Lobatto-Dauzier, Nicolas; Lauga, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Pumping at the microscale has important applications from biological fluid handling to lab-on-a-chip systems. It can be achieved either from a global (e.g. imposed pressure gradient) or local forcing (e.g. ciliary pumping). Phoretic slip flows generated from concentration or temperature gradients are examples of such local flow forcing. Autophoresis is currently receiving much attention for the design of self-propelled particles achieving force- and torque-free locomotion by combining two essential surface properties: (i) an activity that modifies the solute content of the particle's environment (e.g. catalytic reaction or solute release), and (ii) a mobility that generates a slip flow from the resulting local concentration gradients. Recent work showed that geometric asymmetry is sufficient for a chemically-homogeneous particle to self-propel. Here we extend this idea to micro-pumping in active channels whose walls possess both chemical activity and phoretic mobility. Using a combination of theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, we show that geometrically-asymmetric but chemically-homogeneous channels can generate pumping and analyze the resulting flow patterns.

  8. Testing of DVB-H Mobile Terminals Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kratochvil

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the transmission of digital television to the DVB-H mobile terminals and interaction of DVB-H system with GSM/UMTS network. The mobile terminals testing approach is introduced including the testing transmission system in the laboratory of digital television and mobile communications at the Department of Radio Electronics, Brno University of Technology. This system can be used for efficient analysis in research and development of near future commercial DVB-H networks. The task of the DVB-H providers is to offer commercial mobile terminals capable to operate in DVB-H network with GSM/UMTS interactivity channel.

  9. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Barquero, David

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  10. Predicting Facies Patterns within Fluvial Channel Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, B. J.; Sech, R.; Sun, T.; Pyrcz, M.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs (aquifers) in fluvial channel belt sandstones can have very different subsurface flow behavior depending on the degree and distribution of internal heterogeneities. Fluvial channel belts are composed of multiple "storeys" formed as individual channel segments increase in sinuosity and then are cut off and abandoned. Heterogeneities are defined by depositional variations across storeys and inter-story connectivity patterns along the channel belt. Although commonly inferred to reflect the formative river pattern (sinuosity & braiding), the spatial arrangement of facies depend most directly on the relative preservation of deposits formed within different areas of the migrating channels and the lateral stacking arrangement of storeys due to style of bend cutoff. Grains are poorly sorted across the inner bank along upstream parts of channel bends and become better sorted laterally in downstream areas adjacent to a deeper thalweg scour. If deposition occurs evenly along the entire inner bank (bar), this grain size pattern leads to an elliptical body in planview with weak vertical grain size trends upstream and more fining-upward trend downstream. As channel bend segments migrate to a greater extent downstream, preserved inner-bank-bar deposits are increasingly dominated by upward-fining deposits and more outer-bank-deposits are preserved ("concave bank" deposits). Although concave bank deposits have highly variable character in different systems, vertical-grainsize trends tend to be weaker in straighter systems dominated by downstream-accretion, and more strongly upward-fining in higher sinuosity systems where these deposits form by eddy accretion or low flow aggradation. River cutoffs of straighter channel segments abandon slowly, leading to more gradual vertical fining. Subsurface heterogeneity prediction requires documentation of shape and character of deposits preserved in different zones within the channel (upstream and downstream inner bank, concave bank

  11. Controls on plan-form evolution of submarine channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, J.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Vertically aggrading sinuous channels constitute a basic building block of modern submarine fans and the greater continental slope. Interpretation of seismically imaged channels reveals a significant diversity in internal architecture, as well as important similarities and differences in the evolution of submarine channels relative to better studied rivers. Many submarine channel cross sections possess a 'gull wing' shape. Successive stacking of such channels demonstrates that systematic bank erosion is not required in order for lateral migration to occur. The lateral shift of such aggrading channels, however, is expected to be much less dynamic than in the case of terrestrial rivers. Recent high-resolution 3D seismic data from offshore Angola and an upstream segment of the Bengal Submarine Fan show intensely meandering channels that experience considerable lateral shifting during periods of active migration within submarine valleys. The cross sections of the actively migrating channels are similar to meandering river channels characterized by an outer cut-bank and inner-bank accretion. In submarine channels, the orientation of the secondary flow can be river-like or river-reverse depending on the channel gradient, cross sectional shape, and the adaptation length of the channel bend. In river channels, a single circulation cell commonly occupies the entire channel relief, redistributing the bed-load sediment across the channel, and influencing the thread of high velocity and thus the plan-form evolution of the channel. In submarine environments, the height of the circulation cell will be significantly smaller than channel relief, thus leading to development of lower relief point bars from bed-load transport. Nevertheless these "underfit" bars may play an important role in plan-form evolution of submarine channels. In rivers and submarine channels, the inclined surface accretion can be constructed via pure bed-load, suspended-load, or a combination of both transport

  12. Mobile platform security

    CERN Document Server

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  13. Tenured Public Servant Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Pauron

    2003-01-01

    The mobility of tenured public servants is studied from three points of view: geographic mobility (defined by a change of regional study and planning area (ZEAT) or department within a ZEAT), socio-economic mobility (change of socio-economic group) and structural mobility (change of ministry or service within a ministry). Geographic mobility is the most frequent, concerning an average 4.2% of staff every year. Not including upgrading (from grade D to grade C and from primary school teacher to...

  14. ON MOBILE MESH NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Namiot, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in mobile computing technologies and the growth of the Net, mobile mesh networks are going through a set of important evolutionary steps. In this paper, we survey architectural aspects of mobile mesh networks and their use cases and deployment models. Also, we survey challenging areas of mobile mesh networks and describe our vision of promising mobile services. This paper presents a basic introductory material for Masters of Open Information Technologies Lab, interested in m...

  15. Factors affecting blind mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Clark-Carter, David

    1985-01-01

    This thesis contains a survey of the mobility problems of blind people, experimental analysis and evaluation of these problems and suggestions for ways in which the evaluation of mobility performance and the design of mobility aids may be improved. The survey revealed a low level of mobility among blind people, with no significant improvement since a comparable survey in 1967. A group of self taught cane users were identified and their mobility was shown to be poor or potentially dangero...

  16. Service Level Agreement for the QoS Guaranteed Mobile IPTV Services over Mobile WiMAX Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Mostafa Zaman; Trung, Bui Minh; Jang, Yeong Min; Kim, Young-il; Ryu, Won

    2011-01-01

    While mobile IPTV services are supported through the mobile WiMAX networks, there must need some guaranteed bandwidth for the IPTV services especially if IPTV and non-IPTV services are simultaneously supported by the mobile WiMAX networks. The quality of an IPTV service definitely depends on the allocated bandwidth for that channel. However, due to the high quality IPTV services and to support of huge non-IPTV traffic over mobile WiMAX networks, it is not possible to guarantee the sufficient ...

  17. Video quality measure for mobile IPTV service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjun; Kim, Changick

    2008-08-01

    Mobile IPTV is a multimedia service based on wireless networks with interactivity and mobility. Under mobile IPTV scenarios, people can watch various contents whenever they want and even deliver their request to service providers through the network. However, the frequent change of the wireless channel bandwidth may hinder the quality of service. In this paper, we propose an objective video quality measure (VQM) for mobile IPTV services, which is focused on the jitter measurement. Jitter is the result of frame repetition during the delay and one of the most severe impairments in the video transmission via mobile channels. We first employ YUV color space to compute the duration and occurrences of jitter and the motion activity. Then the VQM is modeled by the combination of these three factors and the result of subjective assessment. Since the proposed VQM is based on no-reference (NR) model, it can be applied for real-time applications. Experimental results show that the proposed VQM highly correlates to subjective evaluation.

  18. The Sociability of Mobile TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, David

    Both mobile phones and television are known for the social practices they enable. Television has been a social medium since its introduction in households all over the world. Although its main aim is entertaining and informing its viewers, people often watch television together with close relatives or good friends, talk about what is going on while watching television or even structure their social activities around a television show (e.g., eating dinner while watching the news) (Lull 1980). But television programs are also part of social interactions away from the television set, when discussing favorite television programs around the water cooler at work, or recommending shows to watch to good friends. The main function of mobile phones on the other hand has always been social from the start: communicating with other people, when and wherever you want, first using voice communication and later also with text messages and video communication. So what happens when these two social media are combined? It is clear that mobile TV cannot be successful without taking social practices when watching TV on a mobile device into account. Although one approach could be to let the users appropriate the device in their social environment, as happened with text messaging, the risk that it does not match their current practices is too big. A better approach is to design mobile TV applications that take direct advantage of the social aspects of each medium, which means adding interactive features that will enable and support social interaction between users on different levels. In order to get an idea of the possibilities, it is interesting to look at recent research in the closely related domain of interactive television.

  19. Modulation of spin accumulation by nanoscale confinement using electromigration in a metallic lateral spin valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masourakis, Emmanouil; Arzubiaga, Libe; Mihajlović, Goran; Villamor, Estitxu; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2016-03-01

    We study spin transport in lateral spin valves with constricted channels. Using electromigration, we modulate the spin accumulation by continuously varying the width of the non-magnetic (NM) channel at a single location. By fitting the non-local spin signal data as a function of the NM channel resistance, we extract all the relevant parameters regarding spin transport from a single device. Simulations show that constricting the channel blocks the diffusion of the accumulated spins rather than causing spin flipping. This result could be used to improve the design of future spintronic devices devoted to information processing.

  20. A Study on the Measuring of Consumers’ Perception towards the Mobile Marketing Campaigns in Air Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Atalik; Fatma Selin Sak; Eren Sezgen

    2015-01-01

    A widespread usage of mobile devices in our age creates a new marketing channel for the corporations to reach the consumers in an effective way. Being effective, personalized marketing tool, mobile marketing attracts the aviation sector, whose aim is to create an environment for the users so that they can require any product and service or pay and learn about them with their mobile devices from anywhere they want. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to measure the mobile technology usag...

  1. Factors Affecting Isfahanian Mobile Banking Adoption Based on the Technology Acceptance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hossien Rezaei Dolat Abadi; Nastaran Kabiry; Mohammad Hossein Forghani

    2013-01-01

    With the convergence of banking services and mobile technologies, users are able to conduct banking services at any place and at any time through mobile banking (Gu, Lee and Suh, 2009). The term "Mobile Banking" refers to application of cell phone as a channel to provide and deliver the bank services which include both traditional services such as cash transferring and new services such as online or electronic payments. Mobile Banking services got a growing trend ahead so that economic expert...

  2. An Empirical Study of the Effect of Internet Services on the Preferential Adoption of Mobile Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdalla Nour

    2014-01-01

    The revolution in wireless and cellular communications has led to a remarkable growth in smart mobile cellular devices capable of Internet access and mobile web browsing. This study empirically examined the emerging role of the mobile Internet as an alternative access channel for a growing list of applications and services. Based on a survey of 220 undergraduate students in a major university in the Middle East, we developed and tested a model where the mobile advantage of e-communication, e-...

  3. A NOVEL MODULATION FOR MOBILE SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Zhidong; Bian Dongming; Hu Jing; Sun Qian

    2011-01-01

    It is a challenging problem to design a high performance modulation for mobile satellite communications due to the limited power and bandwidth resource.The paper improves Feher patented Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (FQPSK) by redefining the waveform.The novel FQPSK,with constant envelope,can be used to improve the power efficiency and frequency efficiency of mobile satellite communication.The study shows that the improved FQPSK outperforms conventional FQPSK over AWGN and is immune to the non-linearity of high power amplifier.At last,the impact of flat fading and multi-path fading of channel on the BER performance of improved modulation is analyzed.

  4. Mobile Notes: Mobile Devices in Creative Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Lars; Juarez, Guillermo; Hoppe, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    The trendy notion of "mobile learning" has different connotations: On the one hand, it can be understood as "learning on the move" - often referred to as "learning any time anywhere". Of course this interpretation relies on specific kinds of technological enabling, but the definition aims at the general setting of learning activities. Particularly, it includes informal learning settings (cf. [1]). A second interpretation sees mobile learning somewhat more pragmatically as learning with mobile...

  5. MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND MOBILE HEALTH DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Meghisan; Georgeta-Madalina Meghisan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the potential of mobile health devices with a positive impact on the public health care system from Romania. More people monitoring their health situation with the help of mobile health applications could lead to less money spent by the public health sector with treating more advanced diseases. Approach/ methodology. The analysis of the Romanian mobile telecommunications market and health situation of the population from Romania was based on s...

  6. Wireless-Uplinks-Based Energy-Efficient Scheduling in Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile cloud computing (MCC combines cloud computing and mobile internet to improve the computational capabilities of resource-constrained mobile devices (MDs. In MCC, mobile users could not only improve the computational capability of MDs but also save operation consumption by offloading the mobile applications to the cloud. However, MCC faces the problem of energy efficiency because of time-varying channels when the offloading is being executed. In this paper, we address the issue of energy-efficient scheduling for wireless uplink in MCC. By introducing Lyapunov optimization, we first propose a scheduling algorithm that can dynamically choose channel to transmit data based on queue backlog and channel statistics. Then, we show that the proposed scheduling algorithm can make a tradeoff between queue backlog and energy consumption in a channel-aware MCC system. Simulation results show that the proposed scheduling algorithm can reduce the time average energy consumption for offloading compared to the existing algorithm.

  7. Abrechnung mobiler Dienste im Mobile-Payment-Referenzmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  8. STRATEGIC IMPACT OF MOBILITY ON ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Golovkova

    2014-01-01

    finding their feet in almost every sector and it has a profound impact on both customers as well as employees. Mobility solutions are growing across business portfolios of company and driving by the need to increase productivity. They improve decision making, with increased near real-time access through mobile channels that help to improve internal employee interaction, customer collaboration, network building and information sharing.

  9. Channel nut tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Marvin

    2016-01-12

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  10. Mobile Scientific Calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrahim Hamdi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mobile and wireless industry is entering an exciting time. Demand for mobile technology is growing at a tremendous rate. Corporations are deploying mobile applications that provide substantial business benefits, and consumers are readily adopting mobile data applications. We present scientific application for mobile phone in steps of software engineering project starting from data gathering, data analysis, designing, coding, packaging, testing and deploying, Mobile Scientific Calculator (MSC enable user to compute any mathematical operation by using this application in mobile phone without needing to use the calculator. Scientific calculator offers three keys the four mathematic operations, the four systems of digits and offering many of functions such as angles functions, power, factorial and other functions. Scientific calculator is suitable for many mobile phones which don t have scientific calculator in its applications, it provide simple design for dealing with its functions for all users. It operated on more than one mobile phone model.

  11. MRI of discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed the MR examinations of 10 patients (17 knees) with surgically documented discoid lateral meniscus of the knee joint. As MRI of the knee is being used more often, the criteria for diagnosis of this entity with MRI need to be established. We tried to define MRI criteria for the detection of discoid menisci by performing numerical measurements of MR images on a display screen. The transverse diameter of the midbody of a discoid lateral meniscus averaged 21.9 mm (normal control: 8.6 mm), and its proportion to the transverse width of the tibia averaged 29.4% (normal control: 12.0%). The measurable difference in height between the discoid and the medial meniscus was negligible. The number of sagittal sections on which the anterior and posterior horns connected varied from two to five in cases of discoid lateral meniscus, and from zero to two in normal controls. Among these parameters, the transverse diameter and its proportion of the transverse width of the tibia proved to be the most reliable. We concluded that a discoid meniscus is indicated if a transverse diameter of a lateral meniscus exceeds 15 mm (proportion to the tibia: 20%). (author)

  12. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This muscle is really important for us to work around, and we have to go through that ... levels to approach from the lateral approach. It works really well at L4/5, L3/4, L2/ ...

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS. PMID:27326363

  14. Lateral repair of parastomal hernia.

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, S. N.; Armitage, N. C.; Abercrombie, J. F.; Scholefield, J H

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parastomal hernia is a common complication of stoma construction. Although the majority of patients are asymptomatic, about 10% require surgical correction. AIMS: We describe a new surgical approach for the repair of parastomal hernias, which avoids both the need for laparotomy and stoma mobilization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine patients (4 female) with parastomal hernia underwent surgical repair. Median age was 55 years (range 38-73 years). There were 8 para-ileostomy herniae an...

  15. Evolution of Channels Draining Mount St. Helens: Linking Non-Linear and Rapid, Threshold Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    triggered a debris flow which cutoff tributary channels to Glacier Creek and redirected Step and Loowit Creeks thereby forcing enhanced flow volumes through the main channel. Very coarse, armored bed materials were mobilized allowing for deep incision into the substrate. Incision continues today at slower rates but it is again the lateral shifting and widening of the channels that is dominant. Low and moderate flows undercut the toe of 30 m-high pyroclastic flow deposits causing significant erosion. As the channel continues to widen incision will attenuate non-linearly. Channels such as the multiple Step Creek channels will coalesce as narrow ridges erode by undercutting and mass failure much as reaches of lower Loowit Creek did in the late 1980’s. The resulting enlarged and over-widened sections will then again (as in downstream reaches) have lowered transporting power.

  16. Mobile Portal Implementation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Ping; Damsgaard, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Mobile portal plays an important role in mobile commerce market. Current literature focuses on static analysis on the value chain of mobile portals. This article provides a dynamic perspective on mobile portal strategy. Drawing upon network economics, we describe mobile portal implementation...... as a fourphase process. In different phase, a portal provider has various challenges to overcome and adopt diverse strategies, and correspondingly the regulator has different foci. The conceptual framework proposed in this article offers a basis for further analyses on the market dynamics of mobile commerce...

  17. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  18. Mobile Router Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  19. A Versatile Propagation Channel Simulator for MIMO Link Level Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrat Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a propagation channel simulator for polarized bidirectional wideband propagation channels. The generic channel model implemented in the simulator is a set of rays described by geometrical and propagation features such as the delay, 3D direction at the base station and mobile station and the polarization matrix. Thus, most of the wideband channel models including tapped delay line models, tap directional models, scatterer or geometrical models, ray-tracing or ray-launching results can be simulated. The simulator is composed of two major parts: firstly the channel complex impulse responses (CIR generation and secondly the channel filtering. CIRs (or CIR matrices for MIMO configurations are processed by specifying a propagation model, an antenna array configuration, a mobile direction, and a spatial sampling factor. For each sensor, independent arbitrary 3D vectorial antenna patterns can be defined. The channel filtering is based on the overlap-and-add method. The time-efficiency and parameterization of this method are discussed with realistic simulation setups. The global processing time for the CIR generation and the channel filtering is also evaluated for realistic configuration. A simulation example based on a bidirectional wideband channel model in urban environments illustrates the usefulness of the simulator.

  20. Multi-channel Provisioning of Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Aagesen, Gustav

    2012-01-01

    Information technology facilitates a continuous change in how public services are organised and provided. Influenced by external and internal requirements, the changes are step-wise and non-linear, each step facilitating the next. Examples of requirements are related to supporting e-services, multi-channel provisioning, transparency, citizencentricity, mobility, and globalisation. Information infrastructures define the capabilities of a public agency for efficient service delivery, both inter...

  1. The Earliest Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, A.; Wilson, M. A.; Wei, C.

    2009-12-01

    Supplying protocells with ions required assistance from channels spanning their membrane walls. The earliest channels were most likely short proteins that formed transmembrane helical bundles surrounding a water-filled pore. These simple aggregates were capable of transporting ions with efficiencies comparable to those of complex, contemporary ion channels. Channels with wide pores exhibited little ion selectivity but also imposed only modest constraints on amino acid sequences of channel-forming proteins. Channels with small pores could have been selective but also might have required a more precisely defined sequence of amino acids. In contrast to modern channels, their protocellular ancestors had only limited capabilities to regulate ion flux. It is postulated that subsequent evolution of ion channels progressed primarily to acquire precise regulation, and not high efficiency or selectivity. It is further proposed that channels and the surrounding membranes co-evolved.

  2. Gramicidin Channels: Versatile Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Olaf S.; Koeppe, Roger E., II; Roux, Benoît

    Gramicidin channels are miniproteins in which two tryptophan-rich subunits associate by means of transbilayer dimerization to form the conducting channels. That is, in contrast to other ion channels, gramicidin channels do not open and close; they appear and disappear. Each subunit in the bilayer-spanning channel is tied to the bilayer/solution interface through hydrogen bonds that involve the indole NH groups as donors andwater or the phospholipid backbone as acceptors. The channel's permeability characteristics are well-defined: gramicidin channels are selective for monovalent cations, with no measurable permeability to anions or polyvalent cations; ions and water move through a pore whose wall is formed by the peptide backbone; and the single-channel conductance and cation selectivity vary when the amino acid sequence is varied, even though the permeating ions make no contact with the amino acid side chains. Given the plethora of available experimental information—for not only the wild-type channels but also for channels formed by amino acid-substituted gramicidin analogues—gramicidin channels continue to provide important insights into the microphysics of ion permeation through bilayer-spanning channels. For similar reasons, gramicidin channels constitute a system of choice for evaluating computational strategies for obtaining mechanistic insights into ion permeation through the more complex channels formed by integral membrane proteins.

  3. Service Level Agreement for the QoS Guaranteed Mobile IPTV Services over Mobile WiMAX Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Mostafa Zaman; Jang, Yeong Min; Kim, Young-Il; Ryu, Won

    2011-01-01

    While mobile IPTV services are supported through the mobile WiMAX networks, there must need some guaranteed bandwidth for the IPTV services especially if IPTV and non-IPTV services are simultaneously supported by the mobile WiMAX networks. The quality of an IPTV service definitely depends on the allocated bandwidth for that channel. However, due to the high quality IPTV services and to support of huge non-IPTV traffic over mobile WiMAX networks, it is not possible to guarantee the sufficient amount of the limited mobile WiMAX bandwidth for the mobile IPTV services every time. A Service Level Agreement (SLA) between the mobile IPTV service provider and mobile WiMAX network operator to reserve sufficient bandwidth for the IPTV calls can increase the satisfaction level of the mobile IPTV users. In this paper, we propose a SLA negotiation procedure for mobile IPTV users over mobile WiMAX networks. The Bandwidth Broker controls the allocated bandwidth for IPTV and non-IPTV users. The proposed dynamically reserved ...

  4. Multi-Channel Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Morschett, Dr.,

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel retailing entails the parallel use by retailing enterprises of several sales channels. The results of an online buyer survey which has been conducted to investigate the impact of multi-channel retailing (i.e. the use of several retail channels by one retail company on consumer behaviour show that the frequently expressed concern that the application of multi-channel systems in retailing would be associated with cannibalization effects, has proven unfounded. Indeed, the appropriate degree of similarity, consistency, integration and agreement achieves the exact opposite. Different channels create different advantages for consumers. Therefore the total benefit an enterprise which has a multi-channel system can offer to its consumers is larger, the greater the number of available channels. The use of multi-channel systems is associated with additional purchases in the different channels. Such systems are thus superior to those offering only one sales channel to their customers. Furthermore, multi-channel systems with integrated channels are superior to those in which the channels are essentially autonomous and independent of one another. In integrated systems, consumers can achieve synergy effects in the use of sales-channel systems. Accordingly, when appropriately formulated, multi-channel systems in retailing impact positively on consumers. They use the channels more frequently, buy more from them and there is a positive customer-loyalty impact. Multi-channel systems are strategic options for achieving customer loyalty, exploiting customer potential and for winning new customers. They are thus well suited for approaching differing and varied target groups.

  5. Exploring the Mobility of Mobile Phone Users

    CERN Document Server

    Csáji, Balázs Cs; Traag, V A; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread ...

  6. Mobile Phones on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春宝

    2007-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, more and more people have mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile phone users. By the year 2005 the number has reached up to 30 million.

  7. Tandem mobile robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  8. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  9. Mobile Multilayer IPsec protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Gayathri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A mobile user moves around and switches between wireless cells, subnets and domains, it needs to maintain the session continuity. At the same time security of signaling and transport media should not be compromised. A multi-layer security framework involving user authentication, packet based encryption and access control mechanism can provide the desired level of security to the mobile users. Supporting streaming traffic in a mobile wireless Internet is faced with several challenges due to continuous handoff experienced by a mobile user. These challenges include dynamic binding, location management, quality of service and end-to-end security for signaling and transport. Mobile users will use heterogeneous radio access networking technologies. Mobile multilayer IPsec protocol (MML IPSec extends ML-IPSec to deal with mobility and make it suitable for wireless networks. MML-IPSec is integration of ML-IPSec and mobile IP.

  10. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Börner, D. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presented at Mobile Learning in Context Symposium at the Open University of the Netherlands. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  11. Get Mobile – The Smartphone Brain Scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    This demonstration will provide live-interaction with a smartphone brain scanner consisting of a low-cost wireless 14-channel EEG headset (Emotiv Epoc) and a mobile device. With our system it is possible to perform real-time functional brain imaging on a smartphone device, including stimulus delivery, data acquisition, logging, brain state decoding, and 3D visualization of the cortical EEG sources. Implementation of the smartphone brain scanner is based on the Qt framework and benefits from t...

  12. Get Mobile – The Smartphone Brain Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Petersen, Michael Kai;

    This demonstration will provide live-interaction with a smartphone brain scanner consisting of a low-cost wireless 14-channel EEG headset (Emotiv Epoc) and a mobile device. With our system it is possible to perform real-time functional brain imaging on a smartphone device, including stimulus deli......) that are based on Linux operating systems. Thus our system runs on multiple platforms, including Maemo/MeeGo based smartphones, Android-based smartphones and tablet devices....

  13. Card, Internet and mobile payments in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrkönen, Hanna; Paunonen, Heli

    2004-01-01

    Retail payment methods are in a stage of rapid development. New service providers and technological developments enable new payment services through a variety of channels. Payment solutions are being developed based eg on the Internet and on mobile phones. Presumably, the use of paper-based payment instruments will decrease further in the future thanks to electronification in the retail payment area. In this paper we focus on card payments in Finland and certain other countries. We also look ...

  14. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care. PMID:27456751

  15. Usefulness of Prone Cross-Table Lateral Radiographs in Vertebral Compression Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jae Hwan; Shin, Sang Ik; Lee, Jae Hyup; Yeom, Jin Sup; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Background Dynamic radiographs are recommended to investigate non-healing evidence such as the dynamic mobility or intravertebral clefts in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). However, it is difficult to examine standing flexion and extension lateral radiographs due to severe pain. The use of prone cross-table lateral radiographs (PrLRs) as a diagnostic tool has never been proposed to our knowledge. The purpose of this study is to clarify the usefulness of PrLRs in diagnosis ...

  16. BEHAVIOR OF LATERALLY LOADED PILE

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Mehta; P.D.Pachpor

    2010-01-01

    A finite element analysis is done to predict the responses for single pile subjected to lateral load in layered soils, with consideration of pile soil interaction. Pile and soil are simulated by Solid-3D element. In the computational model, contact surfaces between pile and soil are created. The displacements are determined for pile soil system with linearly constants and linearly varying with depth cases is considered. The engineering properties for soil and pile are considered as variable f...

  17. Depression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    ATASSI, NAZEM; Cook, Amanda; PINEDA, CRISTIANA M. E.; YERRAMILLI-RAO, PADMAJA; PULLEY, DARLENE; Cudkowicz, Merit

    2010-01-01

    Depression is an under-recognized comorbidity associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The goals of this study were to prospectively estimate the prevalence of depression and other ALS related symptoms and to study the impact of depression on enrollment in research studies. One hundred and twenty-seven people with ALS completed the ALS Depression Inventory (ADI-12) and answered questions about ALS related symptoms and research study enrollment preferences. Demographics, ALS sympto...

  18. Test for mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Li Kheng

    2014-01-01

    Mobile application testing is a process by which application software developed for mobile devices is tested, in aspects as functionality, usability and consistency. These applications can be pre-installed or installed from distribution platforms for mobile software. Due mobile devices have witnessed of a phenomenal growth in recent years (a study by Yankee Group predicted to generate $ 4.2 billion in revenue for 2013 through 7000 million downloads of applications the U.S.), it is necesary te...

  19. PSiS Mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Anacleto, Ricardo; Luz, Nuno; Figueiredo, Lino

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a state of the art on applications of mobile devices to support decision of a tourist running on a trip. We focus on two types of applications, tourism recommendation and tourism guide, making a brief description of the main characteristics of each one of them. We also refer the main problems encountered on the development of applications for mobile devices, and present PSiS (Personalized Sightseeing Tours Recommendation System) Mobile, our proposal to a mobile recom...

  20. Mobile internet protocol analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brachfeld, Lawrence J.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is a proposed standard that builds on the current Internet Protocol by making the fact that a user is mobile transparent to applications and higher level protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet while maintaining any current conne...

  1. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  2. Mobile social gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Coulton, Paul; Čopič Pucihar, Klen; Bamford, William

    2008-01-01

    After ten years of game design practices routed within traditional PC and console development aimed at hardcore gamers, the mobile games industry has embraced the realization that these have limited value for mobile, and new approaches need to be considered. In particular the greater utilization of social factors within games would embrace the social practices in which mobile phones often engage. Whilst this has led some to propose MMOGs for mobile, the behavior of players of these games sugg...

  3. Mobile connections : curator's statement.

    OpenAIRE

    Hemment, Drew

    2004-01-01

    The Mobile Connections exhibition at the Futuresonic 2004 festival explored how mobile and locative media reconfigure social, cultural and information space. It looked beyond computing in its current form, towards the social and cultural possibilities opened by a new generation of networked, location-aware media. It sought an art of mobile communications: asking, are there any forms of expression that are intrinsic or unique to mobile and locative media?

  4. Focus on personal mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Harms, Peter Jorritsma, Nelly Kalfs

    2011-01-01

    Focus on personal mobilityVarious important societal trends, including aging, immigration, individualization and re-urbanization, influence the mobility of Dutch people. In future, these trends will lead to further (yet slowing) growth in car use, to public transport being used less in rural regions and more in urban areas, and to bicycle use claiming a smaller share of total mobility. In 'Focus on personal mobility', the Kim Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis focuses on the ...

  5. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  6. Mobile Services Adoption Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Ghannam, Bashar

    2011-01-01

    This research presents an explanatory model for consumers' adoption of mobile services. This model uses the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology presented by Venkatesh in 2003 as a baseline and integrates the Perceived Enjoyment, Mobile Affinity, Perceived Price of Service and the Frequency of Mobile Usage as to investigate the Attitude and the Intention to Use mobile services. The proposed model was empirically tested using data collected from a field survey where 1095 responde...

  7. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  8. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  9. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  10. Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés; Clawson, James; Lyons, Kent;

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets were originally conceived and have traditionally been utilized for individual use. Research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices, thus...

  11. Prediction of the eigenvectors for spatial multiplexing MIMO systems in time-varying channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Leus, Geert; Khaled, Nadia

    : In mobile communications, time varying channels make the available channel information out of date. Timely updating the channel state is an obvious solution to improve the system performance in a time varying channel. However, a better knowledge of the channel comes at the cost of a decrease in...... the system throughput. Thus, predicting the future channel conditions can improve not only the performance but also the throughput of many types of wireless systems. This is especially true for a wireless system where multiple antennas are applied at both link ends. In this paper we propose and...

  12. Droplet sorting in a loop of flat microfluidic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by recent experiments, we numerically study the droplet traffic in microfluidic channels forming an asymmetric loop with a long and a short arm. The loop is connected to an inlet and an outlet channel by two right angled T-junctions. Assuming flat channels, we employ the boundary element method (BEM) to numerically solve the two-dimensional Darcy equation that governs two phase flow in the Hele-Shaw limit. The occurrence of different sorting regimes is summarized in sorting diagrams in terms of droplet size, distance between consecutive droplets in the inlet channel, and loop asymmetry for mobility ratios of the liquid phases larger and smaller than one. For large droplet distances, the traffic is regulated by the ratio of the total hydraulic resistances of the long and short arms. At high droplet densities and below a critical droplet size, droplet–droplet collisions are observed for both mobility ratios. (paper)

  13. Flow visualization by mobile phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierpka, Christian; Hain, Rainer; Buchmann, Nicolas A.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile smart phones were completely changing people's communication within the last ten years. However, these devices do not only offer communication through different channels but also devices and applications for fun and recreation. In this respect, mobile phone cameras include now relatively fast (up to 240 Hz) cameras to capture high-speed videos of sport events or other fast processes. The article therefore explores the possibility to make use of this development and the wide spread availability of these cameras in the terms of velocity measurements for industrial or technical applications and fluid dynamics education in high schools and at universities. The requirements for a simplistic PIV (particle image velocimetry) system are discussed. A model experiment of a free water jet was used to prove the concept and shed some light on the achievable quality and determine bottle necks by comparing the results obtained with a mobile phone camera with data taken by a high-speed camera suited for scientific experiments.

  14. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS

  15. Globalstar communications payload for global mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Ming; Monte, Paul; Tyner, Randy; Rouffet, Denis; Gilhousen, Klein S.

    1992-03-01

    The Globalstar LEO satellite-based mobile-communications system is evaluated with respect to its potential for global digital communications and for radio-determination satellite service. The significant novel attributes of the Globalsat payload are examined including code-division multiple-access technologies, beam-hopping and time-domain-duplexing (TDD) capabilities, and six elliptical spot-beam L/S-band antennas. The antennas are designed to address the 'near-far' problem associated with mobile systems through the use of the Isoflux design. The Isoflux beams provide gain contours that compensate for differences in the spacecraft/earth slant range and that provide low spillover illumination. Two candidate payloads are presented - one which incorporates TDD and beam hopping - and found to provide efficient global mobile-communications services for the Globalstar system. A single satellite can provide up to 2800 full-duplex voice channels, and TDD allows uplink and downlink signals to share the same frequency.

  16. MOBILE BUSINESS APPROACH BASED ON MOBILE AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Aloui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Users today want the opportunity to make (or manage a businesses in anytime and anywhere via their mobile devices. This paper proposes the architecture with mobile agent for the mobile businesses (m-business. M-business appeared as the promising approach to drive the vague following one of electronic business (e-business. Most of the e-busines [9] applications uses the traditional model client/server in which a commercial operation requires generally a link of stable communication being established between the customer and the server, and the traditional approach client/server [8] constitutes an obstacle to the development of application of m-business. The proposed architecture introduces several advantages: in the first place, allow the consumers to manage their commercial business driven by types of mobile devices (phones, PDAs, etc. .... at any time and wherever. Secondly, minimize the waiting time of the customer, and the quantity of transferring information. Third, this architecture addresses the problem of time limited and expensive connection for mobile users. The Mobile agents will be used on a single level: research agent. Every research mobile agent will be used to visit the target server site of the application to collect the information’s for his client, which allows it to interact locally with a server, and so to reduce the traffic on the network by transmitting only the useful data.

  17. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  18. Distributed mobility management - framework & analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Seite, P.; Karagiannis, G.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile operators consider the distribution of mobility anchors to enable offloading some traffic from their core network. The Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) Working Group is investigating the impact of decentralized mobility management to existing protocol solutions, while taking into account

  19. Dynamic channel allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminsky, Andrew D.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) offers the possibility of capturing unused channel capacity by allocating unused resources between competing network nodes. This can reduce or possibly eliminate channels sitting idle while information awaits transmission. This holds potential for increasing throughput on bandwidth constrained networks. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the techniques used to allocate channels on demand and acc...

  20. Dielectrophoretic mobility determination in DC insulator-based dielectrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Noah G.; Jones, Paul V.; Mahanti, Prasun; Chen, Kang Ping; Taylor, Thomas J.; Hayes, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Insulator based dielectrophoresis is powerful tool for separating and charactering particles, yet it is limited by a lack of quantitative characterizations. Here this limitation is addressed by employing a method capable of quantifying the dielectrophoretic mobility of particles. Using streak-based velocimetry the particle properties are deduced from their motion in a microfluidic channel with a constant electric field gradient. From this approach the dielectrophoretic mobility of 1 μm polyst...

  1. Customer Acquisition and Retention System Using Mobile and Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Karuppusamy, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    In a modern world, growing number of people is getting connected through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn. In other side, more and more people have started using mobile phones to find, view and share information about products and services of businesses. This brings the unique opportunity for business owners to establish new customer channels and engage existing customers on their brand by using social media and mobile technologies. Despite business owners underst...

  2. MOBILE MARKETING - TRENDS ON THE ROMANIAN ADVERTISING MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Dinu Cristina; Iatagan Mariana; Natalia Manea

    2010-01-01

    In these times of economic crisis, the advertising market goes through a difficult period, as companies reduce marketing budgets drastically trying to reduce their costs. For some companies, mobile phone can be a very effective communication channel because mobile adds are much cheaper than classic advertising, offers many advantages as a means to promote and may become an "ally" of those companies that support sustainable development and social responsibility. The article present a SWOT anal...

  3. Performance of TCP over UMTS common and dedicated channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Anthony; Heijenk, Geert; Bruma, Cezar; Gameiro, A.

    2003-01-01

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third-generation cellular network that enables high-speed wireless Internet access. This paper investigates the performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over UMTS utilizing a common and four dedicated transport channels with bit rates up to 2 Mb/s. The performance of TCP was examined under varying channel conditions. Bulk data transfer and interactive traffic was considered in the simulation. The simulation results show that the...

  4. ARQ schemes for data transmission in mobile radio systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comroe, R. A.; Costello, D. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of providing data communications over a land mobile radio channel is considered, taking into account error detection combined with retransmission on request as a means of obtaining reliability in digital data transmission. The considered systems are referred to as automatic RQ (repeat-request) or ARQ. It is pointed out that the distinguishing features of a land mobile radio (LMR) system, as far as the ARQ protocol is concerned, are a frequency or pair of frequencies shared by a large population of half-duplex users which cannot transmit and receive simultaneously. A description is presented of those variations of ARQ which are adaptable to an LMR system. A new channel model for a fading LMR channel is developed, and several ARQ protocols and some new protocol combinations are described. The relationships are developed for a description of the various protocols in terms of channel failure probabilities. Undetected error probabilities are developed and compared.

  5. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  6. Do we value mobility?

    OpenAIRE

    Amiel, Yoram; Bernasconi, Michele; Cowell, Frank; Dardanoni, Valentino

    2015-01-01

    Is there a trade-off between people's preference for income equality and income mobility? Testing for the existence of such a trade-off is difficult because mobility is a multifaceted concept. We analyse results from a questionnaire experiment based on simple precise concepts of income inequality and income mobility. We fnd no direct trade-off in preference between mobility and equality, but an indirect trade-off, applying when more income mobility can only be obtained at the expense of some ...

  7. Mobile intention recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Intention Recognition addresses problems of practical relevance for mobile system engineers: how can we make mobile assistance systems more intelligent? How can we model and recognize patterns of human behavior which span more than a limited spatial context? This text provides an overview on plan and intention recognition, ranging from the late 1970s to very recent approaches. This overview is unique as it discusses approaches with respect to the specificities of mobile intention recognition. This book covers problems from research on mobile assistance systems using methods from artific

  8. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  9. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  10. Quantum Multiple Access Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯广; 黄民信; 张永德

    2002-01-01

    We consider the transmission of classical information over a quantum channel by many senders, which is a generalization of the two-sender case. The channel capacity region is shown to be a convex hull bound by the yon Neumann entropy and the conditional yon Neumann entropies. The result allows a reasonable distribution of channel capacity over the senders.

  11. Desynched channels on IRCnet

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe what a desynchronised channel on IRC is. We give procedures on how to create such a channel and how to remove desynchronisation. We explain which types of desynchronisation there are, what properties desynchronised channels have, and which properties can be exploited.

  12. Lateral spread of implanted ion distributions in 6H-SiC: simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvan, E.; Flores, D.; Vellvehi, M.; Rebollo, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Centro Nacional de Microelectronica; Mestres, N. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials (CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Pascual, J. [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-07-30

    In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation, using improved models for electronic stopping and 3D damage accumulation has been carried out to calculate the lateral distribution of ions implanted into 6H-SiC crystal. Two dimensional concentration contour plots are used to show the lateral spread of implanted Al{sup +} ions at mask edges. It appears that channeling strongly influences the shape of lateral distributions due to the capture of random implanted ions by axial channels lying parallel to the (0001) surface of 6H-SiC which appears alternatively every 30 around the left angle 0001 right angle axis, according to the symmetry of the 6H-SiC crystal. This phenomenon, if confirmed by SIMS 2D profiling, could have important consequences on the behavior of ion implanted lateral junctions of SiC devices. (orig.)

  13. TRANSVERSE MIXING IN A TRAPEZOIDAL COMPOUND OPEN CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yu-hong; HUAI Wen-xin; GUYMER I

    2008-01-01

    Transverse mixing characteristics of solute in the open channel flow can provide useful information for river environmental management. The lateral mixing coefficient is a crucial parameter for reproducing the transverse mixing either by numerical simulation or by analytical prediction. Since the solute mixing can be greatly affected by the lateral variations in water depth, mixing coefficient should be determined in each sub-section (i.e., the main channel, side slope and flood plain) separately. In this article, the transverse mixing in a symmetric trapezoidal compound channel was studied based on laboratory measurement of longitudinal and transverse velocity components and lateral distribution of solute concentration. The lateral mixing coefficient was estimated by adopting different Schmidt numbers in different sub-sections divided according to the developing trend of the eddy viscosity, and finally a piecewise linear profile of mixing coefficient was adopted to analytically predict the transverse solute concentration. The comparison between the analytically predicted data and the measuring solute concentration proved that this is an effective way to estimate the lateral mixing in the open channel flow with lateral variations in water depth.

  14. Mobility Charters and Manifestos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explore a number of different cases of articulating notions of ‘correct’ mobility behavior and practice by looking into charters, manifestos and codes of mobility regulation. Within such discourses of ‘correct mobility’ more or less subtle expressions of power as well as normative and...... ethical positions on mobility prevail. Such ‘imagined correct mobility behavior’ are drawing on larger issues of societal change that need to be brought out in a critical analysis and discussion reflecting the attempts to control, design and orchestrate mobility patterns. The paper therefore argues within...... 2007, the English ‘Highway Code Booklets’ from the 1930’s, 40’s and 50’s, the ‘City Slow Charter’, the ‘New Urbanism Charter’ as attempts to codify and order mobility and mobile practices....

  15. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. M. Greeter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep, allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta.

  16. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeter, Jeremy S M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2016-01-01

    We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. 'sideslips', of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  17. Detecting lateral genetic material transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Calderón, C; Mireles, V; Miramontes, P

    2012-01-01

    The bioinformatical methods to detect lateral gene transfer events are mainly based on functional coding DNA characteristics. In this paper, we propose the use of DNA traits not depending on protein coding requirements. We introduce several semilocal variables that depend on DNA primary sequence and that reflect thermodynamic as well as physico-chemical magnitudes that are able to tell apart the genome of different organisms. After combining these variables in a neural classificator, we obtain results whose power of resolution go as far as to detect the exchange of genomic material between bacteria that are phylogenetically close.

  18. School Mobility and Developmental Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Herbers, Janette E.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Chen, Chin-Chih

    2013-01-01

    School mobility has been shown to increase the risk of poor achievement, behavior problems, grade retention, and high school drop-out. Using data over 25 years from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, we investigated the unique risk of school moves on a variety of young adult outcomes including educational attainment, occupational prestige, depression symptoms, and criminal arrests. We also investigated how the timing of school mobility, whether earlier or later in the academic career, may differ...

  19. Capacities of Grassmann channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bradler, Kamil; Jauregui, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    A new class of quantum channels called Grassmann channels is introduced and their classical and quantum capacity is calculated. The channel class appears in a study of the two-mode squeezing operator constructed from operators satisfying the fermionic algebra. We compare Grassmann channels with the channels induced by the bosonic two-mode squeezing operator. Among other results, we challenge the relevance of calculating entanglement measures to assess or compare the ability of bosonic and fermionic states to send quantum information to uniformly accelerated frames.

  20. Channel Estimation Based in Comb-Type Pilots Arrangement for OFDM System over Time Varying Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Mahmoud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has been recently applied widely in wireless communication systems, due to its high data rate, transmission capability with high bandwidth, efficiency and its robustness to multipath delay .Channel estimation is an essential problem in OFDM system. Pilot-aided channel estimation has been used; a good choice of the pilot pattern should match the channel behavior both in time and frequency domains. We explored comb pilot arrangements. The advantage for comb type pilots arrangement in channel estimation is the ability to track the variation of the channel caused by doppler frequency, it is observed that the doppler effect can be reduced, and so this will increase the system mobility. Kalman and Least Square (LS estimators have been proposed to estimate the Channel Frequency Response (CFR at the pilots location, then CFR at data sub channels are obtained by mean of interpolation between estimates at pilot locations. Different types of interpolations have been used such as; low pass interpolation; spline cubic interpolation and linear interpolation. Kalman estimation has better performance than LS estimation. The estimators perform about the same for SNR lower than 10 dB. The performances of all schemes have been compared by finding Bit Error Rate (BER, where BPSK modulation scheme was used.

  1. Source and Channel Coding for Correlated Sources Over Multiuser Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Gunduz, Deniz; Erkip, Elza; Goldsmith, Andrea; Poor, H. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Source and channel coding over multiuser channels in which receivers have access to correlated source side information is considered. For several multiuser channel models necessary and sufficient conditions for optimal separation of the source and channel codes are obtained. In particular, the multiple access channel, the compound multiple access channel, the interference channel and the two-way channel with correlated sources and correlated receiver side information are considered, and the o...

  2. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  3. Mobile VLE vs. Mobile PLE: How Informal is Mobile Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wen-Pin; Millard, David; Wills, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Mobile Learning Systems are often described as supporting informal learning; as such they are a good fit to the idea of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs), software systems that users choose and tailor to fit their own learning preferences. This paper explores the question of whether existing m-learning research is more in the spirit of PLEs or Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs). To do this we survey the mobile learning systems presented at M-Learn 2007 in order to see if they might be r...

  4. The 4C´s of Mobile News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Oscar; Nel, Francois

    2012-01-01

    processes and products. However, growing digital revenue streams to match, if not surpass, the losses in print circulation and advertising incomes has proved difficult. A bright or at least not quite so dim*spot glows from mobile devices. Drawing on data from an annual audit conducted in 2008, 2009, 2010...... and 2011, this article examines how 66 metropolitan newspapers in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have performed with respect to channels, content, conversation and commerce (4C’s) of mobile news. While findings show the expansion of newspapers’ mobile endeavours, these are uneven and...

  5. A Timed Calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengying Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop a timed calculus for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks embodying the peculiarities of local broadcast, node mobility and communication interference. We present a Reduction Semantics and a Labelled Transition Semantics and prove the equivalence between them. We then apply our calculus to model and study some MAC-layer protocols with special emphasis on node mobility and communication interference. A main purpose of the semantics is to describe the various forms of interference while nodes change their locations in the network. Such interference only occurs when a node is simultaneously reached by more than one ongoing transmission over the same channel.

  6. Radio resource management for next generation mobile communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua

    The key feature of next generation (4G) mobile communication system is the ability to deliver a variety of multimedia services with different Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. Compared to the third generation (3G) mobile communication systems, 4G mobile communication system introduces several...... technological novelties. Those technological breaks impose significant challenges on the design of advanced and completely new Radio Resource Management (RRM) algorithms, such as channel assignments and packet scheduling. Among the emerging technologies for broadband wireless access, special attention has been...

  7. Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Wireless Mobile Computing and Networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Yanwei Wu; Fan Li; Bin Xu; Teresa Dahlberg

    2011-01-01

    Recent convergence of information communications technology and computing is creating new demands and opportunities for ubiquitous computing via wireless and mobile equipments.The demanding networking environment of wireless communications and the fast-growing number of mobile users impose several challenges in terms of channel estimation,network protocol design,resource management,systematic design,application development,and security.The objective of this special issue is to gather recent advances addressing networks,systems,algorithms,and applications that support the symbiosis of mobile computers and wireless networks.

  8. Mobile healthcare informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siau, Keng; Shen, Zixing

    2006-06-01

    Advances in wireless technology give pace to the rapid development of mobile applications. The coming mobile revolution will bring dramatic and fundamental changes to our daily life. It will influence the way we live, the way we do things, and the way we take care of our health. For the healthcare industry, mobile applications provide a new frontier in offering better care and services to patients, and a more flexible and mobile way of communicating with suppliers and patients. Mobile applications will provide important real time data for patients, physicians, insurers, and suppliers. In addition, it will revolutionalize the way information is managed in the healthcare industry and redefine the doctor - patient communication. This paper discusses different aspects of mobile healthcare. Specifically, it presents mobile applications in healthcare, and discusses possible challenges facing the development of mobile applications. Obstacles in developing mobile healthcare applications include mobile device limitations, wireless networking problems, infrastructure constraints, security concerns, and user distrust. Research issues in resolving or alleviating these problems are also discussed in the paper. PMID:16777784

  9. Social mobility and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarda, J D; Billy, J O

    1985-01-01

    This review examines 4 possible causal links between social mobility and fertility: 1) fertility affects social mobility; 2) social mobility affects fertility; 3) fertility and social mobility simultaneously affect each other; and 4) social mobility and fertility are unrelated. Due to the lack of systematic theory guiding the research, conceptualizations and measures of social mobility and fertility vary markedly from study to study, leading to inconsistent findings. The review focuses on theoretical perspectives underpinning the research, causal operators proposed to interpret observed associations, and analytical methods used. The selectivity perspective is based on the contention that a family must be small in order to rise on the social scale. This has found little support, however. In fact, studies suggest that children induce slightly higher levels of status achievement and family responsibilities may stimulate the energy and ambition of some so that they achieve more than they would have done without a family. Most studies have concerned the hypothesis that social mobility affects fertility. 4 theoretical perspectives have emerged: status enhancement; relative economic status; social isolation; and stress and disorientation. At any time in a couple's reproductive life cycle the decision or actual experience of either social mobility or fertility may influence the decision or actual experience of the other variable. Mobility-fertility research has defined an individual's or couple's position in terms of income, education, or occupation with occupation used most often as a single index of social class and indexes of social mobility developed by comparing persons' changes in occupational position. A common theme in much of the research literature is that the existence of an effect of social mobility on fertility depends on the societal conditions of a given population. Most studies through the mid-60s used a common measurement method to assess whether a

  10. Geo-based Mobility Control for Mobile Traffic Simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Most mobile traffic simulators of today depend on the user to supply the mobility behavior of the simulated UEs. This becomes a problem when certain wanted mobility characteristics are to be tested, since the user have to go trough a trial-and-error procedure to come up with the proper mobility behavior. This thesis presents two approaches to mobility control, where the aim is to control UE mobility based on certain mobility characteristics supplied by the end user. The first approach introdu...

  11. Multicast Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Comparative Survey and Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Badarneh OsamahS; Kadoch Michel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Multicasting plays a crucial role in many applications of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). It can significantly improve the performance of these networks, the channel capacity (in mobile ad hoc networks, especially single-channel ones, capacity is a more appropriate term than bandwidth, capacity is measured in bits/s and bandwidth in Hz) and battery power of which are limited. In the past couple of years, a number of multicast routing protocols have been proposed. In spite of being d...

  12. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... red triangular daymarks, while buoys are red nun or pillar buoys. (c) Preferred channel marks indicate... channel. Beacons would have triangular daymarks, while buoys would be nun or pillar buoys. (d) The...

  13. Omni-channel retail in SMEs: How do SMEs employ omni-channel retail strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Fingerroos, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Continuously present through mediums such as e-commerce, mobile applications and social networks, digitalization has disrupted the retail industry in revolutionizing not only the ways consumers shop and what they expect but also the way retailers operate. Although multichannel retail is well researched, only limited studies have focused on omni-channel retail, thus clearly indicating a need for further academic study. Furthermore, prior research has mainly focuse...

  14. Lateral lower face and neck contouring following burn injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrollah Motamed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The neck is normally a concave and highly mobile structure. Facial and cervical skin is prone to burn scar contracture because of its thin nature. The goal of treatment is to reconstruct this region to achieve a good aesthetic outcome and also normal neck and chin mobilization. This study was conducted to compare the effect of one row of suture and three rows of suture in critical points of the neck to recreate cervicomandibular angle for better contouring of the neck. A cross-sectional study was performed from July 2006 until August 2010. A total of 65 patients underwent lower lateral face and neck burn scar contracture reconstruction. The mean age of participants was 25.5 years old. After designing a local flap, in 31 patients we applied one row of suture. In 34 patients, we used three rows of suture on each side of the neck incorporation with  the recipient bed and the flap dermis or capsule to recreate a natural lower lateral face and neck contour (P<0.001. The standard deviation in hospitalization was 7 ± 2 days for group A and 6 ± 1 days for group B. In a two years follow-up, no blunting of cervicomandibular angle occurred and three rows of suture were superior according to present findings.

  15. Misbehavior in Mobile Application Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Mobile application markets facilitate the distribution of applications and thus help developers advertise their work and customers find useful applications. In addition, the operators of mobile application markets can control the quality and the content of the applications. These markets are growing rapidly with more than 300'000 application in the App Store of Apple and more than 100'000 in the Android Market of Google. This is not only a great opportunity for phone manufacturers to earn money but also for indie developers (single or small teams of developers with small financial support) who can thus have a great distribution channel. Steve Demeter, the Trim game developer for iPhone, became millionaire with a single puzzle game . Obviously, as new markets generate a lot of money, the temptation of misbehavior to steal part of the benefits is big. The first famous case was the one of Molinker who self-rated his applications with 5 stars to pump up his ranking in order to increase its revenue stream. In this...

  16. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  17. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  18. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    The societal norms of ageing and old age are changing in society today, due to demographic changes that favour a pedagogicalization of society, focusing on the management of human resources throughout the entire lifespan. The discourse on active ageing mot only reveals ‘better’ ways of ageing but...... it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified......? ‘Active’ is to be understood according to the interpretations available in different knowledge perspectives in order to discipline the future knowledge production of ageing and control the processes of subjectification in later life as the disciplining of ‘Population Ageing’: Becoming a subject to active...

  19. Embodied Cultures of Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    particular emphasis is put on how mobilities produce and re-produce norms, meanings and cultures in relation to the Everyday life perspective. By looking into walking, running, cycling, driving and mass transit mobilities different modes of embodied mobility is identified. The theoretical framework is based...... material artifacts. The paper target the complex relationship between the moving, sensing body and the material and built environment of infrastructures and mobility modes in order to explore what norms, and meanings, and everyday life mobility cultures are being produced and re-produced in this process. A...... and interaction (Lynch). The argument is thus that understanding embodied cultures of mobilities from the vantage point of this paper lend is self to new interpretations, explorations and understandings of what it means to move within and between other social agents in particular material and physical...

  20. Making Everyday Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon

    Based upon a qualitative PhD study of 11 families everyday mobility, this paper inquiries into the everyday mobility of families with children in the Greater Copenhagen Area and the role mobility plays in contributing to coping in the families’ everyday life. Drawing on Mobilities theory (Jensen...... 2013; Urry 2007) and family theory (Holdsworth 2013; Morgan 2011), it is argued that family mobility is far from only an instrumental phenomenon, displacing family members back and forth between activities and doings, but also a type of family practice (Morgan, 2011) carrying social and emotional...... practices. Specific heterogeneous configurations in mobility practices facilitate instrumental movement of family members, but can also engender care, quality time of togetherness, recreational and productive in-betweens, as well as sensorial and emotional experiences through the orchestration of affective...

  1. CERN Mobility Survey

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Shipping and Transport of the University of the Aegean and the National Technical University of Athens are partners with CERN in a study of mobility patterns between and within the CERN sites and to that effect have realized a mobility survey dedicated to the CERN community.         The study aims to understand: How you presently get around the CERN sites; What problems you encounter regarding mobility; What your needs are; What improvements you’d like to see; What measures you would like to see implemented most. The replies we receive will enable us to define a general policy promoting the diversity of mobility at CERN and to establish and quantify the strategic actions to be implemented for both the short and medium term. The objectives of the transport mobility plans are to: Facilitate mobility within and between the CERN sites by identifying adequate solutions in response to individual ...

  2. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm......'. According to this, pastoral mobility is a means to balance variability in dryland resources; hence, 'nature' is the point of departure. Another knowledge system is local pastoral knowledge. For the pastoralists, the well-being of their animals is the point of departure and mobility is used to ensure that...... the livestock are in good condition. The paper shows that it is important to distinguish between mobility of pastoralists and of their herd; even though the pastoralists of northern Senegal have become semi-sedentary, their herds are still quite mobile. The pastoralists are willing to move around...

  3. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm......'. According to this, pastoral mobility is a means to balance variability in dryland resources; hence, 'nature' is the point of departure. Another knowledge system is local pastoral knowledge. For the pastoralists, the well-being of their animals is the point of departure and mobility is used to ensure that...... within a small territory, which they consider their place, but are unwilling to employ large-scale mobility themselves. Mobility is not of importance for their ethnic identity and some use paid herders to care for their livestock. By looking at both knowledge systems, we achieve a better understanding of...

  4. Development of eStudent iOS mobile application

    OpenAIRE

    Mladjan Antic; Slobodan Jovanovic; Svetlana Cvetanovic

    2013-01-01

    Abstract— iOS is the Apple mobile operating system, for Apple mobile devices. Initially developed for iPhone, and later for iPod Touch, iPad, AppleTV. The Metropolitan University has a Web application titled eStudent, which enables students by Web to get information about their marks for all subjects, their financies, exam scheduling, professors and assistents, and send exam registration and feedback about teaching, etc. This paper explains the development of the mobile application eStudent o...

  5. Mobile MSN Messenger: Still a Complement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nyberg

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand how mobile instant messaging services can fit into the users’ current communication behavior, Ericsson Research performed a qualitative user study in Sweden in May 2007. The results showed that the respondents were positive towards (free of charge mobile MSN Messenger and perceived it as an ex¬tension of the computer-based version that could be used anywhere. However, although MSN Messenger on the com¬puter definitely was considered as a ‘must-have’ application, the mobile version was only perceived as a ‘nice-to-have’ application and a complement to text mes¬saging (SMS. Almost one year later, in April 2008, Ericsson Research performed a short qualita¬tive follow-up study with the same set of respondents to un¬derstand if and how the mobile MSN Messenger usage had changed. The results actually revealed that none of the re¬spondents used mobile MSN Messenger anymore as the application no longer was free of charge. On a general level, the study highlights important considera¬tions when intro¬ducing computer-based concepts and Internet services in a mo¬bile environment.

  6. Mobile Learning Project Report

    OpenAIRE

    Folley, Susan; Jabbar, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Mobile learning is not a new concept, learning whilst on the move or away from formal educational settings has been happening a long time with the use of books, journal articles, television, radio etc. However what is new is the vast array of devices now available to access learning and to take advantage of being mobile but still being able to capture information and share, collaborate and upload it to a worldwide audience. Mobile learning (mlearning) is a growing area of pedagogic res...

  7. Mobile Exergaming Heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Monika Patrice

    2014-01-01

    An alarming number of adolescents experience obesity and related health issues, in part because of a lack of exercise. Increased mobile technology availability can have negative effects on amount of exercise, but they can have positive effects as well. Leveraging mobile technology to encourage and motivate exercise has potential to decrease unhealthy lifestyles, especially among young people. Mobile exergaming is an emerging field that has the potential to motivate users to exercise while als...

  8. Mobile Cranes Models Review

    OpenAIRE

    Škaloud, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with mobile cranes with a lifting capacity of 50 tonnes. The introduction describes the basic concepts related to these machines. Followed by a general cranes overview. This thesis focuses on a brief description of wheeled and tracked mobile cranes. It describes the undercarriage of the wheeled cranes and undercarriage of the tracked crane and crawler crane with it’s basic elements. After that is described the structure of the upper rotating wheel and track mobile truck crane...

  9. Crossword solving mobile application

    OpenAIRE

    Pencelj, Andraž

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes development of crossword solving mobile application with PhoneGap framework. The emphasis is on application development for Android platform. Thesis describes only application which runs on mobile devices without server-side part. First part of thesis describes crosswords and their history. It also describes technologies which were used. Emphasis is on describing PhoneGap framework and mobile web browsers. PhoneGap framework is used to develop native applications for m...

  10. Inequality and Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    John Hassler; José Vicente Rodríguez Mora; Joseph Zeira

    2003-01-01

    We use a general equilibrium OLG model to analyse the relation between intergenerational social mobility and wage inequality. We show that the correlation between mobility and inequality depends on which factor caused the change in inequality. The model can thus help discriminate between different competing explanations of the recent rise in US wage inequality. Under reasonable assumptions, skill-biased technical change tends to increase upward mobility, thereby causing a positive correlation...

  11. Inequality and Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Mora, Sevi; Hassler, John; Zeira, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    We use a general equilibrium OLG model to analyse the relation between intergenerational social mobility and wage inequality. We show that the correlation between mobility and inequality depends on which factor caused the change in inequality. The model can thus help discriminate between different competing explanations of the recent rise in US wage inequality. Under reasonable assumptions, skill-biased technical change tends to increase upward mobility, thereby causing a positive correlation...

  12. Mobile computing for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffermann, William F; Chetlen, Alison L; Sharma, Arjun; Colucci, Andrew T; DeQuesada, Ivan M; Grajo, Joseph R; Kung, Justin W; Loehfelm, Thomas W; Sherry, Steven J

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advances in mobile computing technology have the potential to change the way radiology and medicine as a whole are practiced. Several mobile computing advances have not yet found application to the practice of radiology, while others have already been applied to radiology but are not in widespread clinical use. This review addresses several areas where radiology and medicine in general may benefit from adoption of the latest mobile computing technologies and speculates on potential future applications. PMID:24200475

  13. Mobile learning in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  14. Mobile Trillium Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Mobile trillium engine development, integration and deployment in clustered environment“The air transport industry has a constantly growing mobile workforce and a complex, dynamic workflow that requires workers to access and act on the real time information. Rapid mobilization and automation of the key workflow process will allow air transport industry to reduce business cost, better management and improved customer services.” [1]The aim of this thesis is to develop a backend system that inte...

  15. Perancangan Dashboard Mobil Pedesaan Multiguna

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Madinah; I Made Londen Batan

    2013-01-01

    Mobil GEA yang merupakan mobil nasional akan dikembangkan menjadi mobil pedesaan multiguna. Salah satu bagian dalam mobil GEA yang menjadi perhatian adalah dashboard. Selama ini dashboard mobil GEA diproduksi secara manual, yaitu menggunakan proses wet lay-up dengan bahan komposit. Rencana ke depan produksi mobil pedesaan multiguna adalah produksi massa. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut dirancang proses cetakan injeksi plastik (injection molding) untuk pembuatan dashboard mobil pedesaan mult...

  16. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna Regina; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to pro...... promote mobility in old age.......Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to...

  17. Exploring the mobility of mobile phone users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáji, Balázs Cs.; Browet, Arnaud; Traag, V. A.; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D.

    2013-03-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100,000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread of users’ frequent locations and show that commuting distances can be reasonably well explained by a gravity model.

  18. Development of eStudent iOS mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladjan Antic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— iOS is the Apple mobile operating system, for Apple mobile devices. Initially developed for iPhone, and later for iPod Touch, iPad, AppleTV. The Metropolitan University has a Web application titled eStudent, which enables students by Web to get information about their marks for all subjects, their financies, exam scheduling, professors and assistents, and send exam registration and feedback about teaching, etc. This paper explains the development of the mobile application eStudent on the iOS platform. This application enables students whenever they want, by using their iPhone mobile phone, to get access to the information from the eStudent Web application, and to present it on their iPhone User Interface (UI. This paper explains in details software requirements analysis, system architecture, system modelling, and UI of the eStudent iOS mobile application.

  19. Trust in Mobile Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Kounelis, Ioannis; Loeschner, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how a citizen, in our case a user of a mobile phone, is confronted with several aspects of trust when he/she uses different mobile commercial objects in a digital world. In particular, the topic of m-commerce and how a client mitigates trust all the way from his/her mobile device to the merchant is dealt with. To assess the trust chain, especially in respect to privacy and data protection, objects (for example a voucher) are used to model the mobile commerce domain.

  20. Programming the Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Firtman, Maximiliano

    2010-01-01

    Today's market for mobile apps goes beyond the iPhone to include BlackBerry, Nokia, Windows Phone, and smartphones powered by Android, webOS, and other platforms. If you're an experienced web developer, this book shows you how to build a standard app core that you can extend to work with specific devices. You'll learn the particulars and pitfalls of building mobile apps with HTML, CSS, and other standard web tools. You'll also explore platform variations, finicky mobile browsers, Ajax design patterns for mobile, and much more. Before you know it, you'll be able to create mashups using Web 2.

  1. Test for mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile application testing is a process by which application software developed for mobile devices is tested, in aspects as functionality, usability and consistency. These applications can be pre-installed or installed from distribution platforms for mobile software. Due mobile devices have witnessed of a phenomenal growth in recent years (a study by Yankee Group predicted to generate $ 4.2 billion in revenue for 2013 through 7000 million downloads of applications the U.S., it is necesary test engineers increasingly specialize. In this article are described the types of applications, the challenges of testing, and its automation.

  2. Mobile sentiment analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, L.; Tromp, E.; Pechenizkiy, M.; M. Gaber

    2012-01-01

    Mobile devices play a significant part in a user’s communication methods and much data that they read and write is received and sent via mobile phones, for instance SMS messages, e-mails, Twitter tweets and social media networking feeds. One of the main goals is to make people aware of how much negative and positive content they read and write via their mobile phones. Existing sentiment analysis applications perform sentiment analysis on downloaded data from mobile phones or use an applicatio...

  3. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  4. Mobile computing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyas, Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE COMPUTING Wearable Computing,A. Smailagic and D.P. Siewiorek Developing Mobile Applications: A Lime Primer,G.P. Picco, A.L. Murphy, and G.-C. Roman Pervasive Application Development: Approaches and Pitfalls,G. Banavar, N. Cohen, and D. Soroker ISAM, Joining Context-Awareness and Mobility to Building Pervasive Applications,I. Augustin, A. Corrêa Yamin, J.L. Victória Barbosa, L. Cavalheiro da Silva, R. Araújo Real, G. Frainer, G.G. Honrich Cavalheiro, and C.F. Resin Geyer Integrating Mobile Wireless Devices into the Computational Grid,T. Phan, L. Huan

  5. Doctors going mobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Ron; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Having a Web page and a blog site are the minimum requirements for an Internet presence in the new millennium. However, a Web page that loads on a personal computer or a laptop will be ineffective on a mobile or cellular phone. Today, with more existing and potential patients having access to cellular technology, it is necessary to reconfigure the appearance of your Web site that appears on a mobile phone. This article discusses mobile computing and suggestions for improving the appearance of your Web site on a mobile or cellular phone. PMID:25807610

  6. Secure Mobile Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Varun; Amjad, Fareeha; Sharma, Ashlesh; Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan

    2016-01-01

    The unique identities of every mobile user (phone number,IMSI) and device (IMEI) are far from secure and are increasingly vulnerable to a variety of network-level threats. The exceedingly high reliance on the weak SIM authentication layer does not present any notion of end-to-end security for mobile users. We propose the design and implementation of Secure Mobile Identities (SMI), a repetitive key-exchange protocol that uses this weak SIM authentication as a foundation to enable mobile users ...

  7. Guest Editorial ~ Mobile Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ally

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This special IRRODL issue on mobile learning is timely because of the proliferation of mobile technology in society, globalization, and the need to re-examine how learning materials are designed and delivered for the new generation of learners. In today’s world, people are on the move and are demanding access to learning materials and information anytime and anywhere. At the same time, there is increasing use of mobile technology in different sectors of society to meet the needs of people on the move. In business, there is increasing use of mobile technologies for individuals to conduct their business anywhere and anytime. In healthcare, medical staff are using mobile technologies to access just-in-time information and to enter information in real time. People working in the field away from the central office use mobile technologies to access information and to communicate with other workers. Also, younger generations of learners are using mobile technologies for entertainment and socialization. These learners are using mobile devices to access information and multimedia materials and to communicate with friends. These new generations of learners do not see technology as something foreign. They readily accept technology and consider technology to be part of their lives. Moreover, the use of mobile technology is a 21st Century skill that students and workers must have to function in society.

  8. Disability and mobile Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Goggin, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    As the World Wide Web turns 25, it is an appropriate time to ask: where are we are now with disability and the Internet? A good place to look is in the burgeoning area of Internet and mobile technology. Accordingly, this paper explores the issues and prospect for disability and mobile Internet. It provides a brief history of the entwined nature of the rise of disability and the Internet, discusses the emergence of mobile Internets, and then turns to a discussion of mobile Web accessibility. I...

  9. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi;

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  10. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  11. Channel capacity and error exponents of variable rate adaptive channel coding for Rayleigh fading channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, KN

    1999-01-01

    We have evaluated the information theoretical performance of variable rate adaptive channel coding for Rayleigh fading channels. The channel states are detected at the receiver and fed back to the transmitter by means of a noiseless feedback link. Based on the channel state informations, the transmitter can adjust the channel coding scheme accordingly. Coherent channel and arbitrary channel symbols with a fixed average transmitted power constraint are assumed. The channel capacity and the err...

  12. Direct Numerical Simulation Sediment Transport in Horizontal Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We numerically simulate turbulent flow in a horizontal plane channel over a bed of mobile particles. All scales of fluid motion are resolved without modeling and the phase interface is accurately represented. Our results indicate a possible scenario for the onset of erosion through collective motion induced by buffer-layer streaks. (Author) 27 refs

  13. Quantum broadcast channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yard, J; Devetak, I; Yard, Jon; Hayden, Patrick; Devetak, Igor

    2006-01-01

    We analyze quantum broadcast channels, which are quantum channels with a single sender and many receivers. Focusing on channels with two receivers for simplicity, we generalize a number of results from the network Shannon theory literature which give the rates at which two senders can receive a common message, while a personalized one is sent to one of them. Our first collection of results applies to channels with a classical input and quantum outputs. The second class of theorems we prove concern sending a common classical message over a quantum broadcast channel, while sending quantum information to one of the receivers. The third group of results we obtain concern communication over an isometry, giving the rates at quantum information can be sent to one receiver, while common quantum information is sent to both, in the sense that tripartite GHZ entanglement is established. For each scenario, we provide an additivity proof for an appropriate class of channels, yielding single-letter characterizations of the...

  14. An Intelligent Software Workflow Process Design for Location Management on Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Mallikharjuna

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the technologies of networking, wireless communication and trimness of computers lead to the rapid development in mobile communication infrastructure, and have drastically changed information processing on mobile devices. Users carrying portable devices can freely move around, while still connected to the network. This provides flexibility in accessing information anywhere at any time. For improving more flexibility on mobile device, the new challenges in designing software systems for mobile networks include location and mobility management, channel allocation, power saving and security. In this paper, we are proposing intelligent software tool for software design on mobile devices to fulfill the new challenges on mobile location and mobility management. In this study, the proposed Business Process Redesign (BPR) concept is aims at an extension of the capabilities of an existing, widely used process modeling tool in industry with 'Intelligent' capabilities to suggest favorable alternatives to an ...

  15. Bias-free lateral terahertz emitters—A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzner, R.; Polyakov, V. M.; Cimalla, V.; Ambacher, O.; Schwierz, F.

    2015-07-01

    The design and performance of bias-free InN-based THz emitters that exploit lateral photocurrents is studied by means of numerical simulations. We use a drift-diffusion model with adjusted carrier temperatures and mobilities. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated by a comparison with results from Monte-Carlo simulations. We consider a simple but robust lateral emitter concept using metal stripes with two different thicknesses with one of them being thin enough to be transparent for THz radiation. This arrangement can be easily multiplexed and the efficiency of this concept has already been demonstrated by experiment for GaAs substrates. In the present study, we consider InN, which is known to be an efficient photo-Dember emitter because of its superior transport properties. Our main focus is on the impact of the emitter design on the emission efficiency assuming different operation principles. Both the lateral photo-Dember (LPD) effect and built-in lateral field effects are considered. The appropriate choice of the metal stripe and window geometry as well as the impact of surface Fermi level pinning are investigated in detail, and design guidelines for efficient large area emitters using multiplexed structures are provided. We find that InN LPD emitters do not suffer from Fermi level pinning at the InN surface. The optimum emission efficiency is found for LPD emitter structures having 200 nm wide illumination windows and mask stripes. Emitter structures in which lateral electric fields are induced by the metal mask contacts can have a considerably higher efficiency than pure LPD emitters. In the best case, the THz emission of such structures is increased by one order of magnitude. Their optimum window size is 1 μm without the necessity of a partially transparent set of mask stripes.

  16. Lateralization in Insects: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a variety of left–right asymmetries among vertebrates and invertebrates. In many species, left- and right-lateralized individuals coexist, but in unequal numbers (‘population-level’ lateralization). It has been argued that brain lateralization increases individual efficiency (e.g. avoiding unnecessary duplication of neural circuitry and reducing interference between functions), thus counteracting the ecological disadvantages of lateral biases in behaviour (making ...

  17. Open-channel hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text discusses the following: concepts of fluid flow; the momentum principle; computation of uniform flow; design of channels; and turbulent diffusion and dispersion in steady open-channel flow. Emphasis is concerned only with the flow of water in channels where the water is not transporting significant quantities of air or sediment. The text contains quite a few examples demonstrating the application of the presented principles

  18. Bank Liabilities Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Quadrini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The financial intermediation sector is important not only for channeling resources from agents in excess of funds to agents in need of funds (lending channel). By issuing liabilities it also creates financial assets held by other sectors of the economy for insurance purpose. When the intermediation sector creates less liabilities or their value falls, agents are less willing to engage in activities that are individually risky but desirable in aggregate (bank liabilities channel). The paper st...

  19. Bank Liabilities Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Quadrini

    2015-01-01

    The financial intermediation sector is important not only for channeling resources from agents in excess of funds to agents in need of funds (lending channel). By issuing liabilities it also creates financial assets held by other sectors of the economy for insurance purpose. When the intermediation sector creates less liabilities or their value falls, agents are less willing to engage in activities that are individually risky but desirable in aggregate (bank liabilities channel). The paper st...

  20. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background