WorldWideScience

Sample records for channel insert applications

  1. DC electrical conductivity of silicon carbide ceramics and composites for flow channel insert applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Y.; Kondo, S.; Snead, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    High purity chemically vapor-deposited silicon carbide (SiC) and 2D continuous SiC fiber, chemically vapor-infiltrated SiC matrix composites with pyrocarbon interphases were examined. Specifically, temperature dependent (RT to 800 deg. C) electrical conductivity and the influence of neutron irradiation were measured. The influence of neutron irradiation on electrical properties appeared very strong for the SiC of this study, typically resulting in orders lower ambient conductivity and steeper temperature dependency of this conductivity. For the 2D composites, through-thickness (normal to the fiber axis') electrical conductivity was dominated by bypass conduction via interphase network at relatively low temperatures, whereas conduction through SiC constituents dominated at higher temperatures. Through-thickness electrical conductivity of neutron-irradiated 2D SiC composites with thin PyC interphase, currently envisioned for flow channel insert application, will likely in the order of 10 S/m at the appropriate operating temperature. Mechanisms of electrical conduction in the composites and irradiation-induced modification of electrical conductivity of the composites and their constituents are discussed.

  2. Insertion Modeling and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Letichevsky; Oleksandr Letychevskyi; Vladimir Peschanenko

    2016-01-01

    The paper relates to the theoretical and practical aspects of insertion modeling. Insertion modeling is a theory of agents and environments interaction where an environment is considered as agent with a special insertion function. The main notions of insertion modeling are presented. Insertion Modeling System is described as a tool for development of different kinds of insertion machines. The research and industrial applications of Insertion Modeling System are presented.

  3. Testing of porous SiC with dense coating under relevant conditions for Flow Channel Insert application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordás, N., E-mail: nordas@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Bereciartu, A.; García-Rosales, C. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Moroño, A.; Malo, M.; Hodgson, E.R. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abellà, J.; Colominas, S. [Institut Químic de Sarrià, University Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, L. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Porous SiC coated by CVD with a dense coating was developed for Flow Channel Inserts (FCI) in dual-coolant blanket concept. • Porous SiC was obtained following the sacrificial template technique, using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering additives. • Flexural strength, thermal and electrical conductivity, and microstructure of uncoated and coated porous SiC are presented. • Adhesion of coating to porous SiC and its corrosion behavior under Pb-17.5Li at 700 °C are shown. - Abstract: Thermally and electrically insulating porous SiC ceramics are attractive candidates for Flow Channel Inserts (FCI) in dual-coolant blanket concepts thanks to its relatively inexpensive manufacturing route. To prevent tritium permeation and corrosion by Pb-15.7 a dense coating has to be applied on the porous SiC. Despite not having structural function, FCI must exhibit sufficient mechanical strength to withstand strong thermal gradients and thermo-electrical stresses during operation. This work summarizes the results on the development of coated porous SiC for FCI. Porous SiC was obtained following the sacrificial template technique, using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering additives and a carbonaceous phase as pore former. Sintering was performed in inert gas at 1850–1950 °C during 15 min to 3 h, followed by oxidation at 650 °C to eliminate the carbonaceous phase. The most promising bulk materials were coated with a ∼30 μm thick dense SiC by CVD. Results on porosity, bending tests, thermal and electrical conductivity are presented. The microstructure of the coating, its adhesion to the porous SiC and its corrosion behavior under Pb-17.5Li are also shown.

  4. Development of supported biomimetic membranes for insertion of aquaporin protein water channels for novel water filtration applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard

    ). This constitutes a new methodology to correctly and functionally reconstitute membrane proteins in controllable amounts into giant vesicles. The method for formation of giant protein vesicles subsequently led to the first functional prototype of an aquaporin-membrane water filtration device.......Aquaporins represent a class of membrane protein channels found in all living organisms that selectively transport water molecules across biological membranes. The work presented in this thesis was motivated by the conceptual idea of incorporating aquaporin water channels into biomimetic membranes...... to develop novel water separation technologies. To accomplish this, it is necessary to construct an efficient platform to handle biomimetic membranes. Moreover, general methods are required to reliable and controllable reconstitute membrane proteins into artificially made model membranes...

  5. A study on heat transfer enhancement using flow channel inserts for thermoelectric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, Frédéric J.; Sempels, Éric V.; Lalande-Bertrand, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal enhancement in a thermoelectric liquid generator is tested. • Thermal enhancement is brought upon by flow impeding inserts. • CFD simulations attribute thermal enhancement to velocity field alterations. • Thermoelectric power enhancement is measured and discussed. • Power enhancement relative to adverse pressure drop is investigated. - Abstract: Thermoelectric power production has many potential applications that range from microelectronics heat management to large scale industrial waste-heat recovery. A low thermoelectric conversion efficiency of the current state of the art prevents wide spread use of thermoelectric modules. The difficulties lie in material conversion efficiency, module design, and thermal system management. The present study investigates thermoelectric power improvement due to heat transfer enhancement at the channel walls of a liquid-to-liquid thermoelectric generator brought upon by flow turbulating inserts. Care is taken to measure the adverse pressure drop due to the presence of flow impeding obstacles in order to measure the net thermoelectric power enhancement relative to an absence of inserts. The results illustrate the power enhancement performance of three different geometric forms fitted into the channels of a thermoelectric generator. Spiral inserts are shown to offer a minimal improvement in thermoelectric power production whereas inserts with protruding panels are shown to be the most effective. Measurements of the thermal enhancement factor which represents the ratio of heat flux into heat flux out of a channel and numerical simulations of the internal flow velocity field attribute the thermal enhancement resulting in the thermoelectric power improvement to thermal and velocity field synergy

  6. Electron mobility enhancement in (100) oxygen-inserted silicon channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Nuo; King Liu, Tsu-Jae [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Takeuchi, Hideki; Hytha, Marek; Cody, Nyles W.; Stephenson, Robert J.; Mears, Robert J. [Mears Technologies, Inc., Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts 02481 (United States); Kwak, Byungil; Cha, Seon Yong [SK Hynix, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 467-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-21

    High performance improvement (+88% in peak G{sub m} and >30% in linear and saturation region drain currents) was observed for N-MOSFETs with Oxygen-Inserted (OI) Si channel. From TCAD analysis of the C-V measurement data, the improvement was confirmed to be due to electron mobility enhancement of the OI Si channel (+75% at N{sub inv} = 4.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} and +25% at N{sub inv} = 8.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}). Raman and high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements confirmed that negligible strain is induced in the OI Si layer, and hence, it cannot be used to explain the origin of mobility improvement. Poisson-Schrödinger based quantum mechanical simulation was performed, taking into account phonon, surface roughness and Coulomb scatterings. The OI layer was modeled as a “quasi barrier” region with reference to the Si conduction band edge to confine inversion electrons. Simulation explains the measured electron mobility enhancement as the confinement effect of inversion electrons while the formation of an super-steep retrograde well doping profile in the channel (as a result of dopant diffusion blocking effect accompanied by introduction of the OI layer) also contributes 50%–60% of the mobility improvement.

  7. Heat Transport Enhancement of Turbulent Thermal Convection by Inserted Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke-Qing; Zhang, Lu

    2017-11-01

    We report an experimental study on the heat transport properties of turbulent Rayleigh Benard Convection (RBC) in a rectangular cell with two types of 3D-printed structures inserted inside. The first one splits the original rectangular cell into 60 identical sub cells whose aspect ratio is 1:1:10 (length, width, height). The second one splits the cell into 30 sub cells, each with a 1:2:10 aspect ratio and a baffle in the center. We find that for large Rayleigh numbers (Ra), the Nusselt numbers (Nu) of both structures increase compared with that of the empty rectangular cell. An enhancement in Nu as much as 20% is found for the second type of insertion at Rayleigh number 2 ×109 . Moreover, the Nu-Ra scaling shows a transition with both geometries. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement within a single sub unit indicates that the transition may be related to the laminar to turbulent transition in flow field. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) confirm the experimental results. Our results demonstrate the potential in using insertions to enhance passive heat transfer. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council (RGC) of HKSAR (Nos. CUHK404513 and CUHK14301115).

  8. Determining the effects of thermal conductivity on epoxy molds using profiled cooling channels with metal inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Khurram; Rani, Abdul Ahmad Majdi; Ahmad, Faiz; Baharom, Masri; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer injection molds are generally manufactured with metallic materials, such as tool steel, which provide reliable working of molds and extended service life. The manufacture of injection molds with steel is a prolonged process because of the strength of steel. For a short prototype production run, one of the suitable choices could be the use of aluminum-filled epoxy material, which can produce a functional mold in a short time as compared with a conventionally machined tool. Aluminum-filled epoxy tooling is a good choice for short production runs for engineering applications, yet works best for relatively simple shapes. The advantages in relation to the fabrication of injection molds with epoxy-based materials include time saving in producing the mold, epoxy curing at ambient temperature, and ease of machining and post processing. Nevertheless, one major drawback of epoxy material is its poor thermal conductivity, which results in a relatively longer cooling time for epoxy injection molds. This study investigates some of the innovative ideas for enhancing the thermal conductivity for epoxy molds. The basic concept behind these ideas was to embed a highly thermally conductive metal insert within the mold between cavities with an innovative design of cooling channels called profiled cooling channels. This technique will increase the effective thermal conductivity of the epoxy mold, leading to the reduction in cooling time for the injection molded polymer part. Experimental analysis conducted in the current study also verified that the mold with profiled cooling channels and embedded metal insert has significantly reduced the cooling time

  9. Determining the effects of thermal conductivity on epoxy molds using profiled cooling channels with metal inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altaf, Khurram; Rani, Abdul Ahmad Majdi; Ahmad, Faiz; Baharom, Masri [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Raghavan, Vijay R. [OYL Manufacturing, Sungai Buloh (Malaysia)

    2016-11-15

    Polymer injection molds are generally manufactured with metallic materials, such as tool steel, which provide reliable working of molds and extended service life. The manufacture of injection molds with steel is a prolonged process because of the strength of steel. For a short prototype production run, one of the suitable choices could be the use of aluminum-filled epoxy material, which can produce a functional mold in a short time as compared with a conventionally machined tool. Aluminum-filled epoxy tooling is a good choice for short production runs for engineering applications, yet works best for relatively simple shapes. The advantages in relation to the fabrication of injection molds with epoxy-based materials include time saving in producing the mold, epoxy curing at ambient temperature, and ease of machining and post processing. Nevertheless, one major drawback of epoxy material is its poor thermal conductivity, which results in a relatively longer cooling time for epoxy injection molds. This study investigates some of the innovative ideas for enhancing the thermal conductivity for epoxy molds. The basic concept behind these ideas was to embed a highly thermally conductive metal insert within the mold between cavities with an innovative design of cooling channels called profiled cooling channels. This technique will increase the effective thermal conductivity of the epoxy mold, leading to the reduction in cooling time for the injection molded polymer part. Experimental analysis conducted in the current study also verified that the mold with profiled cooling channels and embedded metal insert has significantly reduced the cooling time.

  10. Oxidation promotes insertion of the CLIC1 chloride intracellular channel into the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Sophia C; Howell, Michael W; Cordina, Nicole M; Littler, Dene R; Breit, Samuel N; Curmi, Paul M G; Brown, Louise Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Members of the chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) family exist primarily as soluble proteins but can also auto-insert into cellular membranes to form ion channels. While little is known about the process of CLIC membrane insertion, a unique feature of mammalian CLIC1 is its ability to undergo a dramatic structural metamorphosis between a monomeric glutathione-S-transferase homolog and an all-helical dimer upon oxidation in solution. Whether this oxidation-induced metamorphosis facilitates CLIC1 membrane insertion is unclear. In this work, we have sought to characterise the role of oxidation in the process of CLIC1 membrane insertion. We examined how redox conditions modify the ability of CLIC1 to associate with and insert into the membrane using fluorescence quenching studies and a sucrose-loaded vesicle sedimentation assay to measure membrane binding. Our results suggest that oxidation of monomeric CLIC1, in the presence of membranes, promotes insertion into the bilayer more effectively than the oxidised CLIC1 dimer.

  11. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  12. Topotactic Fluorine Insertion into the Channels of FeSb2O4-Related Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laune, Benjamin P; Rees, Gregory J; Marco, José F; Hah, Hien-Yoong; Johnson, Charles E; Johnson, Jacqueline A; Berry, Frank J; Hanna, John V; Greaves, Colin

    2017-08-21

    This paper discusses the fluorination characteristics of phases related to FeSb 2 O 4 , by reporting the results of a detailed study of Mg 0.50 Fe 0.50 Sb 2 O 4 and Co 0.50 Fe 0.50 Sb 2 O 4 . Reaction with fluorine gas at low temperatures (typically 230 °C) results in topotactic insertion of fluorine into the channels, which are an inherent feature of the structure. Neutron powder diffraction and solid state NMR studies show that the interstitial fluoride ions are bonded to antimony within the channel walls to form Sb-F-Sb bridges. To date, these reactions have been observed only when Fe 2+ ions are present within the chains of edge-linked octahedra (FeO 6 in FeSb 2 O 4 ) that form the structural channels. Oxidation of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ is primarily responsible for balancing the increased negative charge associated with the presence of the fluoride ions within the channels. For the two phases studied, the creation of Fe 3+ ions within the chains of octahedra modify the magnetic exchange interactions to change the ground-state magnetic symmetry to C-type magnetic order in contrast to the A-type order observed for the unfluorinated oxide parents.

  13. Micro Machining of Injection Mold Inserts for Fluidic Channel of Polymeric Biochips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong-Woo Cho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the polymeric micro-fluidic biochip, often called LOC (lab-on-a-chip, has been focused as a cheap, rapid and simplified method to replace the existing biochemical laboratory works. It becomes possible to form miniaturized lab functionalities on a chip with the development of MEMS technologies. The micro-fluidic chips contain many micro-channels for the flow of sample and reagents, mixing, and detection tasks. Typical substrate materials for the chip are glass and polymers. Typical techniques for micro-fluidic chip fabrication are utilizing various micro pattern forming methods, such as wet-etching, micro-contact printing, and hot-embossing, micro injection molding, LIGA, and micro powder blasting processes, etc. In this study, to establish the basis of the micro pattern fabrication and mass production of polymeric micro-fluidic chips using injection molding process, micro machining method was applied to form micro-channels on the LOC molds. In the research, a series of machining experiments using micro end-mills were performed to determine optimum machining conditions to improve surface roughness and shape accuracy of designed simplified micro-channels. Obtained conditions were used to machine required mold inserts for micro-channels using micro end-mills. Test injection processes using machined molds and COC polymer were performed, and then the results were investigated.

  14. Degenerate RFID Channel Modeling for Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Povalac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.

  15. Manufacturing and characterization of porous SiC for flow channel inserts in dual-coolant blanket designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereciartu, Ainhoa; Ordas, Nerea; Garcia-Rosales, Carmen; Morono, Alejandro; Malo, Marta; Hodgson, Eric R.; Abella, Jordi; Sedano, Luis

    2011-01-01

    SiC is the primary candidate for the flow channel inserts in dual-coolant blanket concepts. Porous SiC ceramics are attractive candidates for this non-structural application, since they can satisfy the required properties through a low cost manufacturing route, compared to SiC f /SiC. This work shows first results of the manufacturing of porous SiC ceramics prepared with different amounts of Y 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 as sintering additives. C powders were used as pore-formers by their burnout during oxidation after sintering. Comparison of microstructure, porosity, flexural strength, thermal and electrical conductivity and corrosion under Pb-15.7Li of porous SiC without and with sintering additives is presented. The addition of 2.5 wt.% of Y 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 improves the mechanical properties, and reduces the thermal and electrical conductivity down to reasonable values. Preliminary corrosion tests under Pb-15.7 Li at 500 deg. C show that the absence of a dense coating on porous SiC leads to poor corrosion behavior.

  16. Manufacturing and characterization of porous SiC for flow channel inserts in dual-coolant blanket designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereciartu, Ainhoa [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Ordas, Nerea, E-mail: nordas@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Garcia-Rosales, Carmen [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Morono, Alejandro; Malo, Marta; Hodgson, Eric R. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abella, Jordi [Institut Quimic de Sarria, University Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, Luis [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    SiC is the primary candidate for the flow channel inserts in dual-coolant blanket concepts. Porous SiC ceramics are attractive candidates for this non-structural application, since they can satisfy the required properties through a low cost manufacturing route, compared to SiC{sub f}/SiC. This work shows first results of the manufacturing of porous SiC ceramics prepared with different amounts of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering additives. C powders were used as pore-formers by their burnout during oxidation after sintering. Comparison of microstructure, porosity, flexural strength, thermal and electrical conductivity and corrosion under Pb-15.7Li of porous SiC without and with sintering additives is presented. The addition of 2.5 wt.% of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} improves the mechanical properties, and reduces the thermal and electrical conductivity down to reasonable values. Preliminary corrosion tests under Pb-15.7 Li at 500 deg. C show that the absence of a dense coating on porous SiC leads to poor corrosion behavior.

  17. Enhanced electrical properties of oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors with high conductivity thin layer insertion for the channel region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Cam Phu Thi; Raja, Jayapal; Kim, Sunbo; Jang, Kyungsoo; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin, E-mail: junsin@skku.edu

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The characteristics of thin film transistors using double active layers are examined. • Electrical characteristics have been improved for the double active layers devices. • The total trap density can be decreased by insert-ion of ultrathin ITO film. - Abstract: This study examined the performance and the stability of indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) by inserting an ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO) layer at the active/insulator interface. The electrical properties of the double channel device (ITO thickness of 5 nm) were improved in comparison with the single channel ITZO or ITO devices. The TFT characteristics of the device with an ITO thickness of less than 5 nm were degraded due to the formation of an island-like morphology and the carriers scattering at the active/insulator interface. The 5 nm-thick ITO inserted ITZO TFTs (optimal condition) exhibited a superior field effect mobility (∼95 cm{sup 2}/V·s) compared with the ITZO-only TFTs (∼34 cm{sup 2}/V·s). The best characteristics of the TFT devices with double channel layer are due to the lowest surface roughness (0.14 nm) and contact angle (50.1°) that result in the highest hydrophicility, and the most effective adhesion at the surface. Furthermore, the threshold voltage shifts for the ITO/ITZO double layer device decreased to 0.80 and −2.39 V compared with 6.10 and −6.79 V (for the ITZO only device) under positive and negative bias stress, respectively. The falling rates of E{sub A} were 0.38 eV/V and 0.54 eV/V for the ITZO and ITO/ITZO bi-layer devices, respectively. The faster falling rate of the double channel devices suggests that the trap density, including interface trap and semiconductor bulk trap, can be decreased by the ion insertion of a very thin ITO film into the ITZO/SiO{sub 2} reference device. These results demonstrate that the double active layer TFT can potentially be applied to the flat panel display.

  18. Insertion of linear 8.4 μm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Paras R.; Na, Kyounghwan; Zhang, Huanan; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Yoon, Euisik; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Single carbon fiber electrodes (d=8.4 μm) insulated with parylene-c and functionalized with PEDOT:pTS have been shown to record single unit activity but manual implantation of these devices with forceps can be difficult. Without an improvement in the insertion method any increase in the channel count by fabricating carbon fiber arrays would be impractical. In this study, we utilize a water soluble coating and structural backbones that allow us to create, implant, and record from fully functionalized arrays of carbon fibers with ~150 μm pitch. Approach Two approaches were tested for the insertion of carbon fiber arrays. The first method used a PEG coating that temporarily stiffened the fibers while leaving a small portion at the tip exposed. The small exposed portion (500 μm – 1 mm) readily penetrated the brain allowing for an insertion that did not require the handling of each fiber by forceps. The second method involved the fabrication of silicon support structures with individual shanks spaced 150 μm apart. Each shank consisted of a small groove that held an individual carbon fiber. Main results Our results showed that the PEG coating allowed for the chronic implantation of carbon fiber arrays in 5 rats with unit activity detected at 31 days post-implant. The silicon support structures recorded single unit activity in 3 acute rat surgeries. In one of those surgeries a stacked device with 3 layers of silicon support structures and carbon fibers was built and shown to readily insert into the brain with unit activity on select sites. Significance From these studies we have found that carbon fibers spaced at ~150 μm readily insert into the brain. This greatly increases the recording density of chronic neural probes and paves the way for even higher density devices that have a minimal scarring response. PMID:26035638

  19. The topogenic function of S4 promotes membrane insertion of the voltage-sensor domain in the KvAP channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Eriko; Sato, Yoko; Nanatani, Kei; Hoshi, Naomi; Lee, Jong-Kook; Schiller, Nina; von Heijne, Gunnar; Sakaguchi, Masao; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    Voltage-dependent K + (K V ) channels control K + permeability in response to shifts in the membrane potential. Voltage sensing in K V channels is mediated by the positively charged transmembrane domain S4. The best-characterized K V channel, KvAP, lacks the distinct hydrophilic region corresponding to the S3-S4 extracellular loop that is found in other K + channels. In the present study, we evaluated the topogenic properties of the transmembrane regions within the voltage-sensing domain in KvAP. S3 had low membrane insertion activity, whereas S4 possessed a unique type-I signal anchor (SA-I) function, which enabled it to insert into the membrane by itself. S4 was also found to function as a stop-transfer signal for retention in the membrane. The length and structural nature of the extracellular S3-S4 loop affected the membrane insertion of S3 and S4, suggesting that S3 membrane insertion was dependent on S4. Replacement of charged residues within the transmembrane regions with residues of opposite charge revealed that Asp 72 in S2 and Glu 93 in S3 contributed to membrane insertion of S3 and S4, and increased the stability of S4 in the membrane. These results indicate that the SA-I function of S4, unique among K + channels studied to date, promotes the insertion of S3 into the membrane, and that the charged residues essential for voltage sensing contribute to the membrane-insertion of the voltage sensor domain in KvAP. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Superior quality diamond heel inserts improve cutting structure and seal life in abrasive and directional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Tyler; Scott, Dan; Nelms, Derek [Society of Petroleum Engineers (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, continuous improvements over the last century have led to the development of increasingly efficient drilling equipment. Among the new technologies is the polycrystalline diamond compact bit which has become more efficient than roller cone bits for several applications; the utilization of roller cone bits is now restricted to tough applications such as directional drilling and drilling through hard and abrasive formations. The aim of this paper is to present the development of improved roller cone bits using new designs and diamond inserts of superior quality. Two case studies on the use of improved roller cone bits are presented herein. Results showed that the novel diamond inserts combined with the design improvements provide better wear resistance. This paper demonstrated that roller cone bits have achieved greater reliability and longevity thanks to the new generation of diamond inserts and to design improvements.

  1. Clinical Application of Insertion Force Sensor System for Coil Embolization of Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Noriaki; Miyachi, Shigeru; Izumi, Takashi; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Marui, Naoki; Ota, Keisuke; Tajima, Hayato; Shintai, Kazunori; Ito, Masashi; Imai, Tasuku; Nishihori, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    In endovascular embolization for intracranial aneurysms, it is important to properly control the coil insertion force. However, the force can only be subjectively detected by the subtle feedback experienced by neurointerventionists at their fingertips. The authors envisioned a system that would objectively sense and quantify that force. In this article, coil insertion force was measured in cases of intracranial aneurysm using this sensor, and its actual clinical application was investigated. The sensor consists of a hemostatic valve (Y-connector). A little flexure was intentionally added in the device, and it creates a bend in the delivery wire. The sensor measures the change in the position of the bent wire depending on the insertion force and translates it into a force value. Using this, embolization was performed for 10 unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The sensor adequately recorded the force, and it reflected the operators' usual clinical experience. The presence of the sensor did not affect the procedures. The sensor enabled the operators to objectively note and evaluate the insertion force and better cooperative handling was possible. Additionally, other members of the intervention team shared the information. Force records demonstrated the characteristic patterns according to every stage of coiling (framing, filling, and finishing). The force sensor system adequately measured coil insertion force in intracranial aneurysm coil embolization procedures. The safety of this sensor was demonstrated in clinical application for the limited number of patients. This system is useful adjunct for assisting during coil embolization for an intracranial aneurysm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selected applications of planar permanent magnet multipoles in FEL insertion device design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.

    1993-08-01

    In recent work, a new class of magnetic multipoles based on planar configurations of permanent magnet (PM) material has been developed. These structures, in particular the quadrupole and sextupole, feature fully open horizontal apertures, and are comparable in effectiveness to conventional iron multipole structures. In this paper results of recent measurements of planar PM quadrupoles and sextupoles are reported and selected applications to FEL insertion device design are considered

  3. Insertion Process of Ceramic Nanoporous Microneedles by Means of a Novel Mechanical Applicator Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier H. M. Hartmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of microneedles (MNAs are integrated in an out-of-plane fashion with a base plate and can serve as patches for the release of drugs and vaccines. We used soft-lithography and micromolding to manufacture ceramic nanoporous (npMNAs. Failure modes of ceramic npMNAs are as yet poorly understood and the question remained: is our npMNA platform technology ready for microneedle (MN assembly into patches? We investigated npMNAs by microindentation, yielding average crack fracture forces above the required insertion force for a single MN to penetrate human skin. We further developed a thumb pressure-actuated applicator-assisted npMNA insertion method, which enables anchoring of MNs in the skin by an adhesive in one handling step. Using a set of simple artificial skin models, we found a puncture efficiency of this insertion method a factor three times higher than by applying thumb pressure on the npMNA base plate directly. In addition, this new method facilitated zero MN-breakage due to a well-defined force distribution exerted onto the MNs and the closely surrounding area prior to bringing the adhesive into contact with the skin. Owing to the fact that such parameter space exists, we can conclude that npMNAs by soft lithography are a platform technology for MN assembly into a patch.

  4. Radiation doses to the personnel at insertion of gynaecological implants and cleaning of radioactive applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lax, I.

    1975-11-01

    The measurements of the radiation doses to the personnel consisted of dose measurements on the fingers and on the body. The radiation doses to the fingers and to different parts of the body at on one hand the insertion of gynecological implanta and on the other the cleaning of them have been measured before at the wards of gynecological application at the department of oncology (Radiumhemmet), the Caroline Institute. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to measure the radiation doses to the finger tips. The dimensions of these dosemeters are nowadays so small that they are no hindrance to the work. (M.S.)

  5. Radiation doses to the personnel at insertion of gynaecological implants and cleaning of radioactive applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lax, I

    1975-11-01

    The measurements of the radiation doses to the personnel consisted of dose measurements on the fingers and on the body. The radiation doses to the fingers and to different parts of the body at on one hand the insertion of gynecological implanta and on the other the cleaning of them have been measured before at the wards of gynecological application at the department of oncology (Radiumhemmet), the Caroline Institute. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to measure the radiation doses to the finger tips. The dimensions of these dosemeters are nowadays so small that they are no hindrance to the work.

  6. Reversibility conditions for quantum channels and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, M E [Steklov Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    Conditions for a quantum channel (noncommutative Markov operator) to be reversible with respect to complete families of quantum states with bounded rank are obtained. A description of all quantum channels reversible with respect to a given (orthogonal or nonorthogonal) complete family of pure states is given. Some applications in quantum information theory are considered. Bibliography: 20 titles.

  7. The Channel Network model and field applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1999-01-01

    The Channel Network model describes the fluid flow and solute transport in fractured media. The model is based on field observations, which indicate that flow and transport take place in a three-dimensional network of connected channels. The channels are generated in the model from observed stochastic distributions and solute transport is modeled taking into account advection and rock interactions, such as matrix diffusion and sorption within the rock. The most important site-specific data for the Channel Network model are the conductance distribution of the channels and the flow-wetted surface. The latter is the surface area of the rock in contact with the flowing water. These parameters may be estimated from hydraulic measurements. For the Aespoe site, several borehole data sets are available, where a packer distance of 3 meters was used. Numerical experiments were performed in order to study the uncertainties in the determination of the flow-wetted surface and conductance distribution. Synthetic data were generated along a borehole and hydraulic tests with different packer distances were simulated. The model has previously been used to study the Long-term Pumping and Tracer Test (LPT2) carried out in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden, where the distance travelled by the tracers was of the order hundreds of meters. Recently, the model has been used to simulate the tracer tests performed in the TRUE experiment at HRL, with travel distance of the order of tens of meters. Several tracer tests with non-sorbing and sorbing species have been performed

  8. Integrated synchronous receiver channel for optical instrumentation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benten, Harold G. P. H.; Ruotsalainen, Tarmo; Maekynen, Anssi J.; Rahkonen, Timo E.; Kopola, Harri K.

    1997-09-01

    A two-channel synchronous receiver circuit for optical instrumentation applications has been designed and implemented. Each receiver channel comprises a.o. transimpedance preamplifier, voltage amplifiers, programmable feedback networks, and a synchronous detector. The function of the channel is to extract the slowly varying information carrying signal from a modulated carrier which is accompanied by relatively high levels of noise. As a whole, the channel can be characterized as a narrow band filter around the frequency of interest. Medical applications include arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) measurement and dental pulp vitality measurement. In both cases, two optical signals with different frequencies are received by a single photodiode. The measured performance of the optical receiver shows its suitability for the above mentioned applications. Therefore the circuit will be used in a small sized, battery-operated sensor prototype to test the sensing method in a clinical environment. Other applications include the signal processing of optical position-sensitive detectors. A summary of measured receiver channel performance: input reduced noise current spectral density between 0.20 and 0.30 pA/(root)Hz at all relevant frequencies, total programmable channel transimpedance between 7 M(Omega) and 500 M(Omega) , lower -3 dB frequency of at least 50 Hz, upper -3 dB frequency of 40 kHz, maximum voltage swing at the demodulator output of 2.4 V.

  9. Channel Measurements and Characteristics for Cooperative Positioning Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Steinböck, Gerhard; Jost, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted an indoor channel measurement campaign to characterize the propagation channel for the development of cooperative positioning algorithms. The campaign focused particularly on the characteristics of multi-link channels with applications to positioning. In this contribution we...... present the measurement campaign and preliminary results on correlation characteristics of the received power. It is observed that the link-pair log power is uncorrelated. Moreover, the received log power can be modeled by realizations of independent Gaussian distributions for each link, based...... on the measured results....

  10. High-resolution orientation and depth of insertion of the voltage-sensing S4 helix of a potassium channel in lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tim; Su, Yongchao; Hong, Mei

    2010-08-27

    The opening and closing of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are controlled by several conserved Arg residues in the S4 helix of the voltage-sensing domain. The interaction of these positively charged Arg residues with the lipid membrane has been of intense interest for understanding how membrane proteins fold to allow charged residues to insert into lipid bilayers against free-energy barriers. Using solid-state NMR, we have now determined the orientation and insertion depth of the S4 peptide of the KvAP channel in lipid bilayers. Two-dimensional (15)N correlation experiments of macroscopically oriented S4 peptide in phospholipid bilayers revealed a tilt angle of 40 degrees and two possible rotation angles differing by 180 degrees around the helix axis. Remarkably, the tilt angle and one of the two rotation angles are identical to those of the S4 helix in the intact voltage-sensing domain, suggesting that interactions between the S4 segment and other helices of the voltage-sensing domain are not essential for the membrane topology of the S4 helix. (13)C-(31)P distances between the S4 backbone and the lipid (31)P indicate a approximately 9 A local thinning and 2 A average thinning of the DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphochloline)/DMPG (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol) bilayer, consistent with neutron diffraction data. Moreover, a short distance of 4.6 A from the guanidinium C(zeta) of the second Arg to (31)P indicates the existence of guanidinium phosphate hydrogen bonding and salt bridges. These data suggest that the structure of the Kv gating helix is mainly determined by protein-lipid interactions instead of interhelical protein-protein interactions, and the S4 amino acid sequence encodes sufficient information for the membrane topology of this crucial gating helix. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Art of Multi-channel Hypermedia Application Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Synodinos, Dionysios G.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2003-01-01

    The plethora of networked devices and platforms that continuously come to light, as well as the emergence of alternative ways to access the internet, have increased the demand for multi-channel access to hypermedia applications. Researchers and practitioners nowadays not only have to deal with the

  12. Increasing of the cutting power at inserts for application in the area of power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulemova, Jaroslava; Janda, Zdenek [University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Faculty of mechanical engineering, Department of Machining technology, Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    This article deals with the influence of cutting edge preparation on tool life, cutting forces and the roughness of machined surface. The cutting edge preparation was done on the inserts with wiper geometry which are used during machining of dividing plane at a steam turbine casing. This cutting inserts were prepared by the technology of drag finishing on the edge radius 5, 10 and 15 µ m. The work piece material was ferritic – martensitic steel with the content of 9%Mo and 1%Cr and the material of cutting inserts was submicron sintered carbide. There was used only one cutting insert in the milling cutter. Key words: edge radius, milling, tool life, roughness, forces.

  13. Computer models for fading channels with applications to digital transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Chun; Secord, Norman

    1991-11-01

    The authors describe computer models for Rayleigh, Rician, log-normal, and land-mobile-satellite fading channels. All computer models for the fading channels are based on the manipulation of a white Gaussian random process. This process is approximated by a sum of sinusoids with random phase angle. These models compare very well with analytical models in terms of their probability distribution of envelope and phase of the fading signal. For the land mobile satellite fading channel, results of level crossing rate and average fade duration are given. These results show that the computer models can provide a good coarse estimate of the time statistic of the faded signal. Also, for the land-mobile-satellite fading channel, the results show that a 3-pole Butterworth shaping filter should be used with the model. An example of the application of the land-mobile-satellite fading-channel model to predict the performance of a differential phase-shift keying signal is described.

  14. Numerical modeling of first experiments on PbLi MHD flows in a rectangular duct with foam-based SiC flow channel insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolentsev, S., E-mail: sergey@fusion.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Courtessole, C.; Abdou, M.; Sharafat, S. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Sahu, S. [Institute of Plasma Research (India); Sketchley, T. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Numerical studies were performed as a pre-experimental analysis to the experiment on MHD PbLi flows in a rectangular duct with a flow channel insert (FCI). • Dynamic testing of foam-based SiC foam-based CVD coated FCI has been performed using MaPLE facility at UCLA. • Two physical models were proposed to explain the experimental results and 3D and 2D computations performed using COMSOL, HIMAG and UCLA codes. • The obtained results suggest that more work on FCI development, fabrication and testing has to be done to assure good hermetic properties before the implementation in a fusion device. - Abstract: A flow channel insert (FCI) is the key element of the DCLL blanket concept. The FCI serves as electrical and thermal insulator to reduce the MHD pressure drop and to decouple the temperature-limited ferritic structure from the flowing hot lead-lithium (PbLi) alloy. The main focus of the paper is on numerical computations to simulate MHD flows in the first experiments on PbLi flows in a stainless steel rectangular duct with a foam-based silicon carbide (SiC) FCI. A single uninterrupted long-term (∼6500 h) test has recently been performed on a CVD coated FCI sample in the flowing PbLi in a magnetic field up to 1.5 T at the PbLi temperature of 300 °C using the MaPLE loop at UCLA. An unexpectedly high MHD pressure drop measured in this experiment suggests that a PbLi ingress into the FCI occurred in the course of the experiment, resulting in degradation of electroinsulating FCI properties. The ingress through the protective CVD layer was further confirmed by the post-experimental microscopic analysis of the FCI. The numerical modeling included 2D and 3D computations using HIMAG, COMSOL and a UCLA research code to address important flow features associated with the FCI finite length, fringing magnetic field, rounded FCI corners and also to predict changes in the MHD pressure drop in the unwanted event of a PbLi ingress. Two physical

  15. Plasmatron with expanding channel of outlet electrode and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnov, V.F.; Isakajev, E.Kh.; Ivanov, P.P.; Sinkevich, O.A.; Tyuftyaev, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    A serious industrial application is found for the plasmatron with expanding channel of outlet electrode - hardening and nitriding surface treatment of railway wheels. Several plasma installations are under operation at the engine houses of Moscow Railways. More than 12 000 wheel sets have been treated up to now. Results are evident: wheel life doubles due to plasma treatment. The plasmatron developed essentially in an empiric way is now under heavy investigation both theoretically and experimentally. High precision measurements of nitrogen emission spectra are expected to be used directly for accurate calculation of radiation heat loss term in a quasi-one dimensional flow code. (Authors)

  16. EHF channel sounding for telecommunications applications via HAPs and balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianca, E.; Lucente, M.; Rossi, T.; Stallo, C.; Ruggieri, M.; Morelli, E.

    During the last few years, the growth of innovative multimedia services demanding for more and more bandwidth have led towards the need to explore higher and higher frequency bands for communication services, such as Q-V band (35-50 GHz and 50-75 GHz, respectively) and also W band (75-110 GHz), especially for satellite applications. The Italian scientific community has so far gained a leading position in the use of higher frequency bands for satellite communications and has also funded studies for the design of communication payload in W band. To keep this leading position one fundamental step to properly design an operative communication payload is the propagation channel characterisation. Whilst there are data for characterising the propagation channel in Q-V bands, there are no experimental data for proper characterisation in W band. A feasibility study has been recently funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to use a manned aircraft flying at 20 km, for preliminary channel characterisation. In this paper we investigate the possibility to use balloons for experiments aiming to collect data for channel characterisation. Main advantages and drawbacks of using this platform for the proposed experiment with respect to alternatives such as manned aircrafts and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites for such a experiment are outlined. We start presenting the main results of the Aero-WAVE mission, funded by ASI and aiming to design a payload for setting up an experiment for preliminary channel characterisation of W band. This will guide us in defining the main advantages and drawbacks of the alternatives solution represented by the balloons. We can conclude that it would be possible and convenient to use balloons for the proposed experiment. Some issues arise but solutions can be easily implemented. The data that could be collected from the proposed experiment represent a very interesting results at international level for further developments in W band communications. The

  17. Experimental insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Kycia, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the eight identical experimental insertions for the planned ISABELLE storage rings. Four sets of quadrupole doublets are used to match the β functions in the insertions to the values in the cells, and the total free space available at the crossing point is 40 meters. An asymmetric beam energy operation is planned, which will be useful in a number of experiments

  18. Bioinspired microneedle insertion for deep and precise skin penetration with low force: Why the application of mechanophysical stimuli should be considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghun; Park, Sungmin; Nam, Gyungmok; Choi, Young; Woo, Seungpyo; Yoon, Sang-Hee

    2018-02-01

    A mosquito is known to precisely and easily insert its proboscis to the human skin by pressing down a labium and vibrating a fascicle bundle. Its advanced skin-piercing mechanisms indicate that skin resistance to the insertion of needle-like objects can be changed by the application of mechanophysical stimuli. Here, we characterize the effect of the application of mechanophysical stimuli on skin resistance to microneedle insertion to find clues for inserting a microneedle in a deep and precise fashion with low force. Microneedles with a diameter of 60-140µm are inserted at a velocity of 0.1-2.0mm/s to full-thickness porcine skins while either uniaxial/equibiaxial stretch of 0-20% or mechanical vibration at a frequency of 1 to 1000Hz and an amplitude of 1-10µm is applied to the skins as static or dynamic mechanophysical stimulus, respectively. The values of force and depth at two events of skin puncture and maximum penetration are measured to explore changes in skin resistance induced by the application of external stimuli. The static mechanophysical stimulus applied to the skin mainly affects the precision of microneedle insertion; the application of dynamic mechanophysical stimulus controls the value and deviation of skin resistance to microneedle insertion. The application of mechanophysical stimuli, inspired from a mosquito, therefore allows a microneedle to be deeply and easily inserted to the skin in a controlled way. The findings will have broad impacts on microneedle-mediated applications and lead to an in-depth understanding of skin biomechanics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated insertion of sequences into a ribosomal RNA alignment: An application of computational linguistics in molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Ronald C. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This thesis involved the construction of (1) a grammar that incorporates knowledge on base invariancy and secondary structure in a molecule and (2) a parser engine that uses the grammar to position bases into the structural subunits of the molecule. These concepts were combined with a novel pinning technique to form a tool that semi-automates insertion of a new species into the alignment for the 16S rRNA molecule (a component of the ribosome) maintained by Dr. Carl Woese`s group at the University of Illinois at Urbana. The tool was tested on species extracted from the alignment and on a group of entirely new species. The results were very encouraging, and the tool should be substantial aid to the curators of the 16S alignment. The construction of the grammar was itself automated, allowing application of the tool to alignments for other molecules. The logic programming language Prolog was used to construct all programs involved. The computational linguistics approach used here was found to be a useful way to attach the problem of insertion into an alignment.

  20. Automated insertion of sequences into a ribosomal RNA alignment: An application of computational linguistics in molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.C.

    1991-11-01

    This thesis involved the construction of (1) a grammar that incorporates knowledge on base invariancy and secondary structure in a molecule and (2) a parser engine that uses the grammar to position bases into the structural subunits of the molecule. These concepts were combined with a novel pinning technique to form a tool that semi-automates insertion of a new species into the alignment for the 16S rRNA molecule (a component of the ribosome) maintained by Dr. Carl Woese's group at the University of Illinois at Urbana. The tool was tested on species extracted from the alignment and on a group of entirely new species. The results were very encouraging, and the tool should be substantial aid to the curators of the 16S alignment. The construction of the grammar was itself automated, allowing application of the tool to alignments for other molecules. The logic programming language Prolog was used to construct all programs involved. The computational linguistics approach used here was found to be a useful way to attach the problem of insertion into an alignment.

  1. Biological Membrane Ion Channels Dynamics, Structure, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Shin-Ho; Krishnamurthy, Vikram

    2007-01-01

    Ion channels are biological nanotubes that are formed by membrane proteins. Because ion channels regulate all electrical activities in living cells, understanding their mechanisms at a molecular level is a fundamental problem in biology. This book deals with recent breakthroughs in ion-channel research that have been brought about by the combined effort of experimental biophysicists and computational physicists, who together are beginning to unravel the story of these exquisitely designed biomolecules. With chapters by leading experts, the book is aimed at researchers in nanodevices and biosensors, as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate students in biology and the physical sciences. Key Features Presents the latest information on the molecular mechanisms of ion permeation through membrane ion channels Uses schematic diagrams to illustrate important concepts in biophysics Written by leading researchers in the area of ion channel investigations

  2. Effect of insertion method and postinsertion time interval prior to force application on the removal torque of orthodontic miniscrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Maryam; Ghassemi, Amirreza; Bayani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Success of orthodontic miniscrews in providing stable anchorage is dependent on their stability. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of insertion method and postinsertion time interval on the removal torque of miniscrews as an indicator of their stability. Seventy-two miniscrews (Jeil Medical) were inserted into the femoral bones of three male German Shepherd dogs and assigned to nine groups of eight miniscrews. Three insertion methods, including hand-driven, motor-driven with 5.0-Ncm insertion torque, and motor-driven with 20.0-Ncm insertion torque, were tested. Three time intervals of 0, 2, and 6 weeks between miniscrew insertion and removal were tested as well. Removal torque values were measured in newton centimeters by a removal torque tester (IMADA). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test at a .05 level of significance. A miniscrew survival rate of 93% was observed in this study. The highest mean value of removal torque among the three postinsertion intervals (2.4 ± 0.59 Ncm) was obtained immediately after miniscrew insertion with a statistically significant difference from the other two time intervals (P torque values were obtained immediately after insertion.

  3. Training sequence design for MIMO channels : An application-oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katselis, D.; Rojas, C.R.; Bengtsson, M.; Bjornson, E.; Bombois, X.; Shariati, N.; Jansson, M.; Hjalmarsson, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of training optimization for estimating a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) flat fading channel in the presence of spatially and temporally correlated Gaussian noise is studied in an application-oriented setup. So far, the problem of MIMO channel estimation has mostly

  4. The renormalization of several composite operator insertions, Wilson expansions of composite operators, and the applications to short-distance behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collecott, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    The renormalization of composite operator insertions is examined within a normal product framework, and various identities between composite operator insertions are proved. In particular a proof of the Wilson expansion of composite operators in the presence of other composite operators is given. The analysis necessitates a re-examination of several physical processes, and it is shown in particular why the results for deep inelastic scattering still hold. (Auth.)

  5. The second advanced lead lithium blanket concept using ODS steel as structural material and SiCf/SiC flow channel inserts as electrical and thermal insulators (Task PPA 2.5). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Buehler, L.; Fischer, U.

    1999-12-01

    Preparatory work on the advanced dual coolant (A-DCL) blanket concept using SiC f /SiC flow channel inserts as electrical and thermal insulators has been carried out at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in co-operation with CEA as a conceptual design proposal to the EU fusion power plant study planned to be launched in 2000 within the framework of the EU fusion programme with the main objective of specifying the characteristics of an attractive and viable commercial D-T fusion power plant. The basic principles and design characteristics of this A-DCL blanket concept are presented and its potential with regard to performance (neutron wall load, lifetime, availability) is discussed in this report. The results of this study show that the A-DCL blanket concept has a high potential for further development due to its high thermal efficiency and its simple concept solution. (orig.) [de

  6. Field applications of the channel network model, CHAN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Gylling, B.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1998-01-01

    The Channel Network model and its computer implementation, CHAN3D, was developed to simulate fluid flow and transport of solutes in fractured media. The model has been used to interpret field experiments of flow and transport in small and in large scale. It may also be used for safety assessments of repositories for nuclear and other hazardous wastes. In this case, CHAN3D has been coupled to a compartment model, NUCTRAN, to describe the near field of the repository. The model is based on field observations, which indicate that the flow and solute transport take place in a three-dimensional network of connected channels. The channels have very different properties and they are generated in the model from observed stochastic distributions. This allows us to represent the large heterogeneity of the flow distribution commonly observed in fractured media. Solute transport is modelled considering advection and rock interactions such as matrix diffusion and sorption within the interior of the rock. Objects such as fracture zones, tunnels and release sources can be incorporated in the model

  7. Application of Deep Cryogenic Treatment to Uncoated Tungsten Carbide Inserts in the Turning of AISI 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Nursel Altan; Çİçek, Adem; Gülesİn, Mahmut; Özbek, Onur

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on the wear performance of uncoated tungsten carbide inserts. AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel, widely used in industry, was selected as the workpiece material. Cutting experiments showed that the amount of wear significantly increased with increasing cutting speed. In addition, it was found that DCT contributed to the wear resistance of the turning inserts. The treated turning inserts were less worn by 48 and 38 pct in terms of crater wear and notch wear, respectively, whereas they exhibited up to 18 pct superior wear performance in terms of flank wear. This was attributed to the precipitation of new and finer η-carbides and their homogeneous distribution in the microstructure of the tungsten carbide material after deep cryogenic treatment. Analyses via image processing, hardness measurements, and SEM observations confirmed these findings.

  8. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  9. Hydrogen-bonding-mediated synthesis of atomically thin TiO2 films with exposed (001) facets and applications in fast lithium insertion/extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongye; Yang, Zhenzhen; Gan, Wei; Zhao, Yanfei; Yu, Bo; Xu, Huanjun; Ma, Zhishuang; Hao, Leiduan; Chen, Dechao; Miao, Shiding; Liu, Zhimin

    2015-10-05

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystalline materials show high specific surface area (SA) of high energy (HE) facets, imparting a significant improvement in their performances. Herein we report a novel route to synthesize TiO2 nanofilms (NFs) with atomic thickness (lithium insertion/extraction, demonstrating foreseeable applications in the energy storage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Application of the Evidence Procedure to the Estimation of Wireless Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleury Bernard H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the application of the Bayesian evidence procedure to the estimation of wireless channels. The proposed scheme is based on relevance vector machines (RVM originally proposed by M. Tipping. RVMs allow to estimate channel parameters as well as to assess the number of multipath components constituting the channel within the Bayesian framework by locally maximizing the evidence integral. We show that, in the case of channel sounding using pulse-compression techniques, it is possible to cast the channel model as a general linear model, thus allowing RVM methods to be applied. We extend the original RVM algorithm to the multiple-observation/multiple-sensor scenario by proposing a new graphical model to represent multipath components. Through the analysis of the evidence procedure we develop a thresholding algorithm that is used in estimating the number of components. We also discuss the relationship of the evidence procedure to the standard minimum description length (MDL criterion. We show that the maximum of the evidence corresponds to the minimum of the MDL criterion. The applicability of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with synthetic as well as real-world channel measurements, and a performance increase over the conventional MDL criterion applied to maximum-likelihood estimates of the channel parameters is observed.

  11. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  12. Postselection technique for quantum channels with applications to quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christandl, Matthias; König, Robert; Renner, Renato

    2009-01-16

    We propose a general method for studying properties of quantum channels acting on an n-partite system, whose action is invariant under permutations of the subsystems. Our main result is that, in order to prove that a certain property holds for an arbitrary input, it is sufficient to consider the case where the input is a particular de Finetti-type state, i.e., a state which consists of n identical and independent copies of an (unknown) state on a single subsystem. Our technique can be applied to the analysis of information-theoretic problems. For example, in quantum cryptography, we get a simple proof for the fact that security of a discrete-variable quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks implies security of the protocol against the most general attacks. The resulting security bounds are tighter than previously known bounds obtained with help of the exponential de Finetti theorem.

  13. Detection-Guided Fast Affine Projection Channel Estimator for Speech Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu Jennifer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In various adaptive estimation applications, such as acoustic echo cancellation within teleconferencing systems, the input signal is a highly correlated speech. This, in general, leads to extremely slow convergence of the NLMS adaptive FIR estimator. As a result, for such applications, the affine projection algorithm (APA or the low-complexity version, the fast affine projection (FAP algorithm, is commonly employed instead of the NLMS algorithm. In such applications, the signal propagation channel may have a relatively low-dimensional impulse response structure, that is, the number m of active or significant taps within the (discrete-time modelled channel impulse response is much less than the overall tap length n of the channel impulse response. For such cases, we investigate the inclusion of an active-parameter detection-guided concept within the fast affine projection FIR channel estimator. Simulation results indicate that the proposed detection-guided fast affine projection channel estimator has improved convergence speed and has lead to better steady-state performance than the standard fast affine projection channel estimator, especially in the important case of highly correlated speech input signals.

  14. Forty-five-degree or higher insertion angles are required to penetrate the opposite cortex in bicortical applications of Kirschner wires: an in vitro study on sheep bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet; Gurer, Burak; Sungur, Mehmet Ali; Eskandari, Metin Manouchehr

    2012-04-01

    Slippage of the wires over the opposite cortex from the endosteal side is frequent and can lead to insufficient stability. This in vitro biomechanical study was planned to investigate the angle of wire insertion that leads to trans cortex perforation. Long bones of sheep were cut longitudinally into two pieces and half bones were stabilised on a frame. Three orthopaedic surgeons performed the experiment using ten wires of four different diameters at two different drilling speeds. Each wire was introduced from the endosteal side at angles starting at 30° in 5° increments until perforation. When perforation was achieved, the angle was recorded. To determinate the critical angle of perforation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses was performed. Two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical comparisons. Kirschner-wire insertion angles of ≥ 45° provided perforation with a percentage of 83.9 %. Wire diameter, drilling speed and surgeon variables had no effect on perforation angles (p > 0.05). If preoperative evaluation of fractures to be fixed by K wires reveals the need for oblique wire insertion angle < 45°, a standard trocar-tip K wire application would lead to slippage of the wire tip on the endosteal surface of the opposite cortex. According to this study, the operative plan should be changed if such obliquity of the K wire is mandatory during bicortical applications.

  15. Enhanced optical and electrical properties of Ni inserted ITO/Ni/AZO tri-layer structure for photoelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M. Melvin David; Kim, Hyunki [Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yun Chang [Measurement and Analysis Division, National Nanofab Center (NNFC), Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joondong, E-mail: joonkim@incheon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Ni-embedding transparent conductor effectively reduces the resistivity. • Ni insertion improves the carrier mobility and collection efficiencies. • ITO/Ni/AZO is effective to improve photo-responses compared to ITO/AZO. - Abstract: A thin Ni layer of 5 nm thickness was deposited in between indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped-zinc oxide (AZO) layers of 50 nm thickness each. The Ni inserting tri-layer structure (ITO/Ni/AZO) showed lower resistivity of 5.51 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm which is nearly 20 times lesser than 97.9 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm of bilayer structure (ITO/AZO). A thin Ni layer in between ITO and AZO enhanced the carrier concentration, mobility and photoresponse behaviors so that figure of merit (FOM) value of ITO/Ni/AZO device was greater than that of ITO/AZO device. ITO/Ni/AZO structure showed improved quantum efficiencies over a broad range of wavelengths (∼350–950 nm) compared to that of ITO/AZO bilayer structure, resulting in enhanced photoresponses. These results show that the optical, electrical and photoresponse properties of ITO/AZO structure could be enhanced by inserting Ni layer of 5 nm thickness in between ITO and AZO layers.

  16. The pseudo-harmonics method: an application involving perturbations caused by control rod insertion in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Alvim, A.C.M.; Thome, Z.D.

    1988-08-01

    The objective of this work is to stydy the effect of intense perturbations, such as control rod insertion in the core of PWR reactors, through a perturbation approach consisting of a modified version of the pseudo-harmonics method. A typical one-dimensional PWR reactor model was used as a reference state, from which two perturbations were imposed, simulation gray and black control rod insertion. In the first case, eigenvalue convergence was achieved with the eighth order of approximation approximation and perturbed fluxes and eigenvalue estimates agreed very well with direct calculation results. The second case tested represents a very intense localized perturbation. Oscillation in keff were observed er of approximation increased and the method failed to converge. Results obtained indicate that the pseudo-harmonics method can be used to compute 2 group fluxes and fundamental eigenvalue of perturbated states resulting from gray control rod insertion in PWR reactors. The method is limited, however, by perturbation intensity, as other perturbation methods are. (author) [pt

  17. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  18. Multiuser MIMO: Principle, Performance in Measured Channels and Applicable Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauch, Gerhard; Tejera, Pedro; Utschick, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The exploitation of multiuser diversity and the application of multiple antennas at transmitter and receiver are considered to be key technologies for future highly bandwidthefficient wireless systems. We combine both ideas in a downlink multicarrier transmission scheme where multiple users compe...

  19. Testing the applicability of Nernst-Planck theory in ion channels: comparisons with Brownian dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Song

    Full Text Available The macroscopic Nernst-Planck (NP theory has often been used for predicting ion channel currents in recent years, but the validity of this theory at the microscopic scale has not been tested. In this study we systematically tested the ability of the NP theory to accurately predict channel currents by combining and comparing the results with those of Brownian dynamics (BD simulations. To thoroughly test the theory in a range of situations, calculations were made in a series of simplified cylindrical channels with radii ranging from 3 to 15 Å, in a more complex 'catenary' channel, and in a realistic model of the mechanosensitive channel MscS. The extensive tests indicate that the NP equation is applicable in narrow ion channels provided that accurate concentrations and potentials can be input as the currents obtained from the combination of BD and NP match well with those obtained directly from BD simulations, although some discrepancies are seen when the ion concentrations are not radially uniform. This finding opens a door to utilising the results of microscopic simulations in continuum theory, something that is likely to be useful in the investigation of a range of biophysical and nano-scale applications and should stimulate further studies in this direction.

  20. Testing the applicability of Nernst-Planck theory in ion channels: comparisons with Brownian dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Corry, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The macroscopic Nernst-Planck (NP) theory has often been used for predicting ion channel currents in recent years, but the validity of this theory at the microscopic scale has not been tested. In this study we systematically tested the ability of the NP theory to accurately predict channel currents by combining and comparing the results with those of Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. To thoroughly test the theory in a range of situations, calculations were made in a series of simplified cylindrical channels with radii ranging from 3 to 15 Å, in a more complex 'catenary' channel, and in a realistic model of the mechanosensitive channel MscS. The extensive tests indicate that the NP equation is applicable in narrow ion channels provided that accurate concentrations and potentials can be input as the currents obtained from the combination of BD and NP match well with those obtained directly from BD simulations, although some discrepancies are seen when the ion concentrations are not radially uniform. This finding opens a door to utilising the results of microscopic simulations in continuum theory, something that is likely to be useful in the investigation of a range of biophysical and nano-scale applications and should stimulate further studies in this direction.

  1. A Two-Channel Training Algorithm for Hidden Markov Model and Its Application to Lip Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foo Say Wei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidden Markov model (HMM has been a popular mathematical approach for sequence classification such as speech recognition since 1980s. In this paper, a novel two-channel training strategy is proposed for discriminative training of HMM. For the proposed training strategy, a novel separable-distance function that measures the difference between a pair of training samples is adopted as the criterion function. The symbol emission matrix of an HMM is split into two channels: a static channel to maintain the validity of the HMM and a dynamic channel that is modified to maximize the separable distance. The parameters of the two-channel HMM are estimated by iterative application of expectation-maximization (EM operations. As an example of the application of the novel approach, a hierarchical speaker-dependent visual speech recognition system is trained using the two-channel HMMs. Results of experiments on identifying a group of confusable visemes indicate that the proposed approach is able to increase the recognition accuracy by an average of 20% compared with the conventional HMMs that are trained with the Baum-Welch estimation.

  2. Development and application of sub-channel analysis code based on SCWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Shengwei; Xu Zhihong; Yang Yanhua

    2011-01-01

    The sub-channel analysis code SABER was developed for thermal-hydraulic analysis of supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) fuel assembly. The extended computational cell structure, a new boundary conditions, 3 dimensional heat conduction model and water properties package were implemented in SABER code, which could be used to simulate the thermal fuel assembly of SCWR. To evaluate the applicability of the code, a steady state calculation of the fuel assembly was performed. The results indicate good applicability of the SABER code to simulate the counter-current flow and the heat exchange between coolant and moderator channels. (authors)

  3. Quad channel software defined receiver for passive radar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pető Tamás

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the growing utilization of the electromagnetic environment brings the passive radar researches more and more to the fore. For the utilization of the wide range of illuminators of opportunity the application of wideband radio receivers is required. At the same time the multichannel receiver structure has also critical importance in target direction finding and interference suppression. This paper presents the development of a multichannel software defined receiver specifically for passive radar applications. One of the relevant feature of the developed receiver platform is its up-to-date SoC (System on hip based structure, which greatly enhance the integration and signal processing capacity of the system, all while keeping the costs low. The software defined operation of the discussed receiver system is demonstrated with using DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcast – Terrestrial signal as illuminator of opportunity. During this demonstration the multichannel capabilities of the realized system are also tested with real data using direction finding and beamforming algorithms.

  4. Nicotinamide dependence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli UTI89 and application of nadB as a neutral insertion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoli; Bouckaert, Julie; Deboeck, Francine; De Greve, Henri; Hernalsteens, Jean-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    NAD and NADP are ubiquitous in the metabolism of Escherichia coli K-12. NAD auxotrophy can be rendered by mutation in any of the three genes nadB, nadA and nadC. The nadB and nadA genes were defined as antivirulence loci in Shigella spp., as a mutation (mainly in nadB) disrupting the synthesis of quinolinate is required for virulence. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates from acute cystitis patients, exhibiting nicotinamide auxotrophy, were of serotype O18 : K1 : H7. E. coli UTI89, the model uropathogenic and O18 : K1 : H7 strain, requires nicotinamide or quinolinate for growth. A mutation in the nadB gene, encoding L-aspartate oxidase, was shown to be responsible for the nicotinamide requirement of UTI89. This was further confirmed by complementation of UTI89 with a recombinant plasmid harbouring the nadB gene of E. coli K-12. An Ala28Val point mutant of the recombinant plasmid failed to support the growth of UTI89 in minimal medium. This proves that the Ala28Val mutation in the NadB gene of UTI89 completely impedes de novo synthesis of nicotinamide. In spontaneous prototrophic revertants of UTI89, the nadB gene has a Val28Ala mutation. Both analyses implicate that the nicotinamide auxotrophy of UTI89 is caused by a single Ala28Val mutation in NadB. We showed that the same mutation is also present in other NAD auxotrophic E. coli O18 strains. No significant differences were observed between the virulence of isogenic NAD auxotrophic and prototrophic strains in the murine ascending urinary tract infection model. Considering these data, we applied the nadB locus as a neutral site for DNA insertions in the bacterial chromosome. We successfully restored the parental phenotype of a fimH mutant by inserting fimH, with a synthetic em7 promoter, into the nadB gene. This neutral insertion site is of significance for further research on the pathogenicity of UPEC.

  5. Application of Vertical Electrodes in Microfluidic Channels for Impedance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a microfluidic device with electroplated vertical electrodes in the side walls for impedance measurement. Based on the proposed device, the impedance of NaCl solutions with different concentrations and polystyrene microspheres with different sizes was measured and analyzed. The electroplating and SU-8-PDMS (SU-8-poly(dimethylsiloxane bonding technologies were firstly integrated for the fabrication of the proposed microfluidic device, resulting in a tightly three-dimensional structure for practical application. The magnitude of impedance of the tested solutions in the frequency range of 1 Hz to 100 kHz was analyzed by the Zennium electrochemical workstation. The results show that the newly designed microfluidic device has potential for impedance analysis with the advantages of ease of fabrication and the integration of 3D electrodes in the side walls. The newly designed impedance sensor can distinguish different concentrations of polystyrene microspheres and may have potential for cell counting in biological areas. By integrating with other techniques such as dielectrophoresis (DEP and biological recognition technology, the proposed device may have potential for the assay to identify foodborne pathogen bacteria.

  6. Aluminum Nitride Micro-Channels Grown via Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy for MEMs Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, L.E.; Kuchibhatla, S.; Famouri, P.; Ting, L.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a promising material for a number of applications due to its temperature and chemical stability. Furthermore, AlN maintains its piezoelectric properties at higher temperatures than more commonly used materials, such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) [1, 2], making AlN attractive for high temperature micro and nanoelectromechanical (MEMs and NEMs) applications including, but not limited to, high temperature sensors and actuators, micro-channels for fuel cell applications, and micromechanical resonators. This work presents a novel AlN micro-channel fabrication technique using Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). AlN easily nucleates on dielectric surfaces due to the large sticking coefficient and short diffusion length of the aluminum species resulting in a high quality polycrystalline growth on typical mask materials, such as silicon dioxide and silicon nitride [3,4]. The fabrication process introduced involves partially masking a substrate with a silicon dioxide striped pattern and then growing AlN via MOVPE simultaneously on the dielectric mask and exposed substrate. A buffered oxide etch is then used to remove the underlying silicon dioxide and leave a free standing AlN micro-channel. The width of the channel has been varied from 5 ìm to 110 ìm and the height of the air gap from 130 nm to 800 nm indicating the stability of the structure. Furthermore, this versatile process has been performed on (111) silicon, c-plane sapphire, and gallium nitride epilayers on sapphire substrates. Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Raman measurements have been taken on channels grown on each substrate and indicate that the substrate is influencing the growth of the AlN micro-channels on the SiO2 sacrificial layer.

  7. Application of the pertubation theory to a two channels model for sensitivity calculations in PWR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.C.J.G. de; Andrade Lima, F.R. de

    1989-01-01

    The present work is an application of the perturbation theory (Matricial formalism) to a simplified two channels model, for sensitivity calculations in PWR cores. Expressions for some sensitivity coefficients of thermohydraulic interest were developed from the proposed model. The code CASNUR.FOR was written in FORTRAN to evaluate these sensitivity coefficients. The comparison between results obtained from the matrical formalism of pertubation theory with those obtained directly from the two channels model, makes evident the efficiency and potentiality of this perturbation method for nuclear reactor cores sensitivity calculations. (author) [pt

  8. Lattice insertions for POPAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.A.; Diebold, R.; Johnson, D.E.; Ohnuma, S.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Teng, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Four types of insertions are described for the six 200-m straight sections of POPAE. All have dispersion matched to zero. (1) Injection-ejection insertion--This has proper high-β values and phase advances for horizontal injection and vertical ejection. (2) Phase-adjust insertion--The phase advance in this insertion is adjustable over a range of approximately 100 0 . (3) General-purpose insertion--The β* is adjustable from 2.5. to 200 m and the crossing angle is adjustable from 0 to 11 mrad. (4) High-luminosity insertion--This gives an even lower β + of meter

  9. Sparse Variational Bayesian SAGE Algorithm With Application to the Estimation of Multipath Wireless Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shutin, Dmitriy; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a sparse variational Bayesian (VB) extension of the space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm for the high resolution estimation of the parameters of relevant multipath components in the response of frequency and spatially selective wireless...... channels. The application context of the algorithm considered in this contribution is parameter estimation from channel sounding measurements for radio channel modeling purpose. The new sparse VB-SAGE algorithm extends the classical SAGE algorithm in two respects: i) by monotonically minimizing...... parametric sparsity priors for the weights of the multipath components. We revisit the Gaussian sparsity priors within the sparse VB-SAGE framework and extend the results by considering Laplace priors. The structure of the VB-SAGE algorithm allows for an analytical stability analysis of the update expression...

  10. Aperiodic linear networked control considering variable channel delays: application to robots coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos; Espinosa, Felipe; Santiso, Enrique; Mazo, Manuel

    2015-05-27

    One of the main challenges in wireless cyber-physical systems is to reduce the load of the communication channel while preserving the control performance. In this way, communication resources are liberated for other applications sharing the channel bandwidth. The main contribution of this work is the design of a remote control solution based on an aperiodic and adaptive triggering mechanism considering the current network delay of multiple robotics units. Working with the actual network delay instead of the maximum one leads to abandoning this conservative assumption, since the triggering condition is fixed depending on the current state of the network. This way, the controller manages the usage of the wireless channel in order to reduce the channel delay and to improve the availability of the communication resources. The communication standard under study is the widespread IEEE 802.11g, whose channel delay is clearly uncertain. First, the adaptive self-triggered control is validated through the TrueTime simulation tool configured for the mentioned WiFi standard. Implementation results applying the aperiodic linear control laws on four P3-DX robots are also included. Both of them demonstrate the advantage of this solution in terms of network accessing and control performance with respect to periodic and non-adaptive self-triggered alternatives.

  11. Aperiodic Linear Networked Control Considering Variable Channel Delays: Application to Robots Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in wireless cyber-physical systems is to reduce the load of the communication channel while preserving the control performance. In this way, communication resources are liberated for other applications sharing the channel bandwidth. The main contribution of this work is the design of a remote control solution based on an aperiodic and adaptive triggering mechanism considering the current network delay of multiple robotics units. Working with the actual network delay instead of the maximum one leads to abandoning this conservative assumption, since the triggering condition is fixed depending on the current state of the network. This way, the controller manages the usage of the wireless channel in order to reduce the channel delay and to improve the availability of the communication resources. The communication standard under study is the widespread IEEE 802.11g, whose channel delay is clearly uncertain. First, the adaptive self-triggered control is validated through the TrueTime simulation tool configured for the mentioned WiFi standard. Implementation results applying the aperiodic linear control laws on four P3-DX robots are also included. Both of them demonstrate the advantage of this solution in terms of network accessing and control performance with respect to periodic and non-adaptive self-triggered alternatives.

  12. Bywalled plasma formation in vacuum prolonged channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    To produce homogeneous along the channel length plasma the application of incomplete rate-in surface dielectric discharge for generating the bywalled plasma in prolonged cylindrical channels at a pressure of the residual gas of P approximately 10 -5 Torr is proposed. Experimental set-up consisted of a pulse voltage generator and a plasma channel. The plasma channel was a coaxial system of three tubes inserted into each other. The first outer tube is made of a stainless steel, the second - of a dielectric material, the third - of smallsized stainless steel greed. It is demonstrated that the plasma being formed in the process is sufficiently homogeneous by concentration of the components, by the channel length and azimuth. The length of the experimental channel under investigation was 1.6 m, its diameter amounted 0.05 m. The maximum concentration of electron component was 10 17 m -3

  13. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  14. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  15. Application-specific integrated circuit design for a typical pressurized water reactor pressure channel trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Manges, W.W.; Emery, M.S.; Vendermolen, R.I.; Bhatt, S.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the use of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in nuclear plant safety systems. ASICs have certain advantages over software-based systems because they can be simple enough to be thoroughly tested, and they can be tailored to replace existing equipment. An architecture to replace a pressurized water reactor pressure channel trip is presented. Methods of implementing digital algorithms are also discussed

  16. Cloud Computing Application of Personal Information's Security in Network Sales-channels

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Qiong; Min Liu; Shiming Pang

    2013-01-01

    With the promotion of Internet sales, the security of personal information to network users have become increasingly demanding. The existing network of sales channels has personal information security risks, vulnerable to hacker attacking. Taking full advantage of cloud security management strategy, cloud computing security management model is introduced to the network sale of personal information security applications, which is to solve the problem of information leakage. Then we proposed me...

  17. Variations of intracavitary applicator geometry during multiple HDR brachytherapy insertions in carcinoma cervix and its influence on reporting as per ICRU report 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Niloy Ranjan; Kumar, Shaleen; Das, Koilpillai Joseph Maria; Pandey, Chandra Mani; Halder, Shikha; Ayyagari, Sunder

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines the extent of variation in the applicator geometry during multiple high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) applications and its impact on reporting as per ICRU report 38. Materials and methods: Eighty orthogonal radiographs from 20 consecutive patients of carcinoma cervix (FIGO stages, IIA-IIIB) having four HDR ICBT applications of 6 Gy each at weekly intervals following teletherapy were evaluated. The applicator consisted of a flexible intrauterine tandem (IUT) independent of the ovoid assembly. The applicator geometry was evaluated in terms of: α angle, β angle, intrauterine length (IUTL), interovoid (IOV), os to right ovoid (ORT) and os to left ovoid (OLT) distances along with vertical (VDL) and anteroposterior displacements (ADL) of the os with respect to the ovoids. The Cartesian co-ordinates (X, Y, and Z) of the IUT tip, centre of both ovoids and os were also measured. Doses to right point A (ARD), left point A (ALD), along with a reference volume of 6 Gy for ICRU height (IRH), width (IRW), thickness (IRT) and volume (IRV) were estimated for each application. Results: Highly significant differences (P<0.001) between four insertions in any given patient across 20 patients for α angle, β angle, IUTL, IOV, ORT, VDL, co-ordinates of the IUT, ovoids and os were observed, except for ADL (P=0.041) and OLT (P=0.247). As a consequence, variations were observed in ARD (P=0.027), ALD (P=0.017); IRH, IRW, IRT and IRV (all P<0.001). Applicator factors which influenced the various dose specification parameters were: β angle and ORT for both ARD and ALD; UTLN, VDL and ORT for IRH; UTLN and IOV for IRW; UTLN for IRT and VDL for the 6 Gy IRV. Conclusions: A significant variation of the applicator geometry and its movement was observed in patients undergoing multiple HDR ICBT. This could have implications for reporting dose and volume specifications as required by ICRU report 38

  18. Calibration aspects of binaural sound reproduction over insert earphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    Earphones are nowadays widely adopted for the reproduction of audio material in mobile multimedia and communication platforms, e.g. smartphones. Reproduction of high-quality spatial sound on such platforms can dramatically improve their applicability, and since two channels are always available...... in earphone-based reproduction, binaural reproduction can be applied directly. This paper is concerned with the theoretical and practical aspects relevant to the correct reproduction of binaural signals over insert earphones. To this purpose, a theoretical model originally developed to explain the acoustic...

  19. Turbine airfoil having near-wall cooling insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jr., Nicholas F.; Wiebe, David J.

    2017-09-12

    A turbine airfoil is provided with at least one insert positioned in a cavity in an airfoil interior. The insert extends along a span-wise extent of the turbine airfoil and includes first and second opposite faces. A first near-wall cooling channel is defined between the first face and a pressure sidewall of an airfoil outer wall. A second near-wall cooling channel is defined between the second face and a suction sidewall of the airfoil outer wall. The insert is configured to occupy an inactive volume in the airfoil interior so as to displace a coolant flow in the cavity toward the first and second near-wall cooling channels. A locating feature engages the insert with the outer wall for supporting the insert in position. The locating feature is configured to control flow of the coolant through the first or second near-wall cooling channel.

  20. Automated high-dose rate brachytherapy treatment planning for a single-channel vaginal cylinder applicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhong; Klages, Peter; Tan, Jun; Chi, Yujie; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Yang, Ming; Hrycushko, Brian; Medin, Paul; Pompos, Arnold; Jiang, Steve; Albuquerque, Kevin; Jia, Xun

    2017-06-01

    High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment planning is conventionally performed manually and/or with aids of preplanned templates. In general, the standard of care would be elevated by conducting an automated process to improve treatment planning efficiency, eliminate human error, and reduce plan quality variations. Thus, our group is developing AutoBrachy, an automated HDR brachytherapy planning suite of modules used to augment a clinical treatment planning system. This paper describes our proof-of-concept module for vaginal cylinder HDR planning that has been fully developed. After a patient CT scan is acquired, the cylinder applicator is automatically segmented using image-processing techniques. The target CTV is generated based on physician-specified treatment depth and length. Locations of the dose calculation point, apex point and vaginal surface point, as well as the central applicator channel coordinates, and the corresponding dwell positions are determined according to their geometric relationship with the applicator and written to a structure file. Dwell times are computed through iterative quadratic optimization techniques. The planning information is then transferred to the treatment planning system through a DICOM-RT interface. The entire process was tested for nine patients. The AutoBrachy cylindrical applicator module was able to generate treatment plans for these cases with clinical grade quality. Computation times varied between 1 and 3 min on an Intel Xeon CPU E3-1226 v3 processor. All geometric components in the automated treatment plans were generated accurately. The applicator channel tip positions agreed with the manually identified positions with submillimeter deviations and the channel orientations between the plans agreed within less than 1 degree. The automatically generated plans obtained clinically acceptable quality.

  1. Design and application of 8-channel SOI-based AWG demultiplexer for CWDM-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhari, Nurjuliana; Menon, P. Susthitha; Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2015-01-01

    Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) serving as a demultiplexer (demux) has been designed on SOI platform and was utilized in a Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) system ranging from 1471 nm to 1611 nm. The investigation was carried out at device and system levels. At device level, 20 nm (∼ 2500 GHz) channel spacing was successfully simulated using beam propagation method (BPM) under TE mode polarization with a unique double S-shape pattern at arrays region. The performance of optical properties gave the low values of 0.96 dB dB for insertion loss and – 22.38 dB for optical crosstalk. AWG device was then successfully used as demultiplexer in CWDM system when 10 Gb/s data rate was applied in the system. Limitation of signal power due to attenuation and fiber dispersion detected by BER analyzer =10 −9 of the system was compared with theoretical value. Hence, the maximum distance of optical fiber can be achieved

  2. Design and application of 8-channel SOI-based AWG demultiplexer for CWDM-system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhari, Nurjuliana; Menon, P. Susthitha; Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) serving as a demultiplexer (demux) has been designed on SOI platform and was utilized in a Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) system ranging from 1471 nm to 1611 nm. The investigation was carried out at device and system levels. At device level, 20 nm (∼ 2500 GHz) channel spacing was successfully simulated using beam propagation method (BPM) under TE mode polarization with a unique double S-shape pattern at arrays region. The performance of optical properties gave the low values of 0.96 dB dB for insertion loss and – 22.38 dB for optical crosstalk. AWG device was then successfully used as demultiplexer in CWDM system when 10 Gb/s data rate was applied in the system. Limitation of signal power due to attenuation and fiber dispersion detected by BER analyzer =10{sup −9} of the system was compared with theoretical value. Hence, the maximum distance of optical fiber can be achieved.

  3. A fundamental study of ''contribution'' transport theory and channel theory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this three-year study is to develop a technique called ''channel theory'' that can be used in interpreting particle transport analysis such as frequently required in radiation shielding design and assessment. Channel theory is a technique used to provide insight into the mechanisms by which particles emitted from a source are transported through a complex system and register a response on some detector. It is based on the behavior of a pseudo particle called a ''contributon,'' which is the response carrier through space and energy channels that connect the source and detector. ''Contributons'' are those particles among all the ones contained in the system which will eventually contribute some amount of response to the detector. The specific goals of this projects are to provide a more fundamental theoretical understanding of the method, and to develop computer programs to apply the techniques to practical problems encountered in radiation transport analysis. The overall project can be divided into three components to meet these objectives: (a) Theoretical Development, (b) Code Development, and (c) Sample Applications. During the present third year of this study, an application of contributon theory to the analysis of radiation heating in a nuclear rocket has been completed, and a paper on the assessment of radiation damage response of an LWR pressure vessel and analysis of radiation propagation through space and energy channels in air at the Hiroshima weapon burst was accepted for publication. A major effort was devoted to developing a new ''Contributon Monte Carlo'' method, which can improve the efficiency of Monte Carlo calculations of radiation transport by tracking only contributons. The theoretical basis for Contributon Monte Carlo has been completed, and the implementation and testing of the technique is presently being performed

  4. Clinical Application of Colour Modulation of Gamma Energy and Depth by Dual-Channel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, E.; Ben-Porath, M. [Veterans Administration Hospital, Hines, IL (United States)

    1969-01-15

    A dual-channel scanning system has been described permitting the simultaneous imaging in individual color of the distribution of two gamma-emitting radioisotopes. In those cases where two organs are adjacent and concentrate the same isotope, they may be displayed in separate color if one of the organs concentrates another gamma-emitting isotope with a different energy. This is accomplished by individual color readout of this isotope and the display of the subtraction of this isotope from the common isotope in another color. By using two facing scintillation probes on either side of the individual being scanned, two overlapping organs at different depths concentrating the same isotope can be color differentiated by a dual-channel playout of each probe. The principal application of these dual-channel scanning methods to date has been the simultaneous display of the liver and pancreas in individual colors using {sup 198}Au and {sup 75}selenomethionine. Characteristic scans have been obtained which differentiate a number of disease states from the normal pancreas and liver. The pancreatic and liver diseases studied and characterized are carcinoma of the pancreas, pancreatic insufficiency, acute recurrent pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocyst and Laennec's cirrhosis, hepatoma and metastatic malignancy in the liver. The uptake of {sup 75}selenomethionine in malignant lesions in many instances produces positive scans of these tumors in contrasting color to the liver. Depth discrimination in color with the two-probe system has permitted the lateralization of intracranial lesions, the color of the display being proportional to the depth of the lesion. The discrimination of depth and gamma-ray energy by dual-channel color scanning and its general application in visualizing other organs has been accomplished. (author)

  5. Channel-coupling theory of covalent bonding in H2: A further application of arrangement-channel quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, F.S.; Krueger, H.

    1977-01-01

    The dissociation energy D/sub e/ and the equilibrium proton-proton separation R/sub eq/ of H 2 are calculated using the methods of arrangement-channel quantum mechanics. This theory is the channel component version of the channel-coupling array approach to many-body scattering, applied to bound-state problems. In the approximation used herein, the wave function is identical to that of the classic Heitler-London-Sugiura valence-bond calculation, which gave D/sub e/ = 3.14 eV and R/sub eq/ = 1.65a 0 , values accurate to 34% and 17.8%, respectively. The present method yields D/sub e/ = 4.437 eV and R/sub eq/ approx. = 1.42a 0 , accurate to 6.5% and 1%, respectively. Some implications of these results are discussed

  6. THz-TDS Characterization of the Digital Communication Channels of the Atmosphere and the Enabled Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yihong; Mandehgar, Mahboubeh; Grischkowsky, D.

    2015-02-01

    Our measurements and complete linear dispersion theory calculations of amplitude and phase show that it is possible to have seven high performance point-to-point, 10.7 Gb/s to 28.4 Gb/s, digital THz ground links in the atmosphere. At a RH 58% (10g/m3) and 20 °C including O2 absorption, and for an absorption loss of 10 dB, the seven links are: Channel 1: at 96 GHz, Bandwidth (BW) 30 GHz, 10.7 Gb/s for 17.5 km, Channel 2: at 144 GHz, BW 30 GHz, 12.0 Gb/s for 7.4 km, Channel 3: at 252 GHz, BW 50 GHz, 25.2 Gb/s for 2.5 km, Channel 4: at 342 GHz, BW 24 GHz, 11.4 Gb/s for 840 m, Channel 5: at 408 GHz, BW 30 GHz, 13.6 Gb/s for 440 m, Channel 6: at 672 GHz, BW 60 GHz, 22.6 Gb/s for 140 m, and Channel 7: at 852 GHz, BW 60 GHz, 28.4 Gb/s for 120 m. The enabled long-path THz links are discussed. Two applications are presented in detail, namely, a long-path 17.5 km THz ground-link operating at 96 GHz, BW 30 GHz, 10.7 Gb/s, and a GEO satellite link at 252 GHz, BW 50 GHz, 25.2 Gb/s. In addition, Channel 7 at 852 GHz is studied by calculated pulse propagation to understand the relationships between high bit-rates and propagation distance. It is shown that good digital transmission could be obtained with 852 GHz, BW 108 GHz, 56.8 Gb/s for a 160 m propagation distance in the atmosphere with RH 58% (10g/m3) and 20 °C. Good digital transmission could also be obtained with 852 GHz, BW 108 GHz, 71.0 Gb/s for 80 m. These results are discussed with respect to high bit-rate, short-path applications. These digital THz communication channels were determined together with a new measurement of the water vapor continuum absorption from 0.35 to 1 THz. The THz pulses propagate though a 137 m long humidity-controlled chamber and are measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The average relative humidity along the entire THz path is precisely obtained by measuring the difference between transit times of the sample and reference THz pulses to an accuracy of 0.1 ps. Using the measured

  7. Self-organized titanium oxide nano-channels for resistive memory application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barman, A.; Saini, C. P.; Dhar, S.; Kanjilal, A., E-mail: aloke.kanjilal@snu.edu.in [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, NH-91, Tehsil Dadri, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh 201 314 (India); Sarkar, P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam 788 010 (India); Satpati, B.; Bhattacharyya, S. R. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Kabiraj, D.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2015-12-14

    Towards developing next generation scalable TiO{sub 2}-based resistive switching (RS) memory devices, the efficacy of 50 keV Ar{sup +}-ion irradiation to achieve self-organized nano-channel based structures at a threshold fluence of 5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} at ambient temperature is presented. Although x-ray diffraction results suggest the amorphization of as-grown TiO{sub 2} layers, detailed transmission electron microscopy study reveals fluence-dependent evolution of voids and eventual formation of self-organized nano-channels between them. Moreover, gradual increase of TiO/Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the near surface region, as monitored by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, establishes the upsurge in oxygen deficient centers. The impact of structural and chemical modification on local RS behavior has also been investigated by current-voltage measurements in conductive atomic force microscopy, while memory application is manifested by fabricating Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si devices. Finally, the underlying mechanism of our experimental results has been analyzed and discussed in the light of oxygen vacancy migration through nano-channels.

  8. Advanced applications of ion channeling for the study of imperfections in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M L [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A review will be given of the applications of medium energy ion channeling for the studies of imperfections in the near-surface regions of crystals. The following topics will be discussed: (1.) epitaxial layers, including elemental depositions of a few monolayers, strained-layer superlattices, and compound layers; (2.) lattice defects, including ion damage in diamond, dislocation networks in Si, and anomalous lattice vibrations in high temperature superconductors; (3.) lattice sites of solute atoms, including substitutional sites in compounds (LiNbO{sub 3} and GaP), and interstitial sites produced by association with point defects. (author)

  9. Test of a 32-channel Prototype ASIC for Photon Counting Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Cui, Y; O'Connor, P; Seo, Y; Camarda, G S; Hossain, A; Roy, U; Yang, G; James, R B

    2015-01-01

    A new low-power application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) application is being developed at BNL. As the first step, a 32-channel prototype ASIC was designed and tested recently. Each channel has a preamplifier followed by CR-RC 3 shaping circuits and three independent energy bins with comparators and 16-bit counters. The ASIC was fabricated with TSMC 0.35-μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and tested in laboratories. The power consumption is around 1 mW/ch with a 2.5-V supply. With a gain of 400 mV/fC and the peaking time of 500 ns, the equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 360 e- has been measured in room temperature while the crosstalk rate is less than 0.3%. The 10-bit DACs for global thresholds have an integral nonlinearity (INL) less than 0.56% and differential nonlinearity (DNL) less than 0.33%. In the presentation, we will report the detailed test results with this ASIC.

  10. Applications of Multi-Channel Safety Authentication Protocols in Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Young-Long; Liau, Ren-Hau; Chang, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    People can use their web browser or mobile devices to access web services and applications which are built into these servers. Users have to input their identity and password to login the server. The identity and password may be appropriated by hackers when the network environment is not safe. The multiple secure authentication protocol can improve the security of the network environment. Mobile devices can be used to pass the authentication messages through Wi-Fi or 3G networks to serve as a second communication channel. The content of the message number is not considered in a multiple secure authentication protocol. The more excessive transmission of messages would be easier to collect and decode by hackers. In this paper, we propose two schemes which allow the server to validate the user and reduce the number of messages using the XOR operation. Our schemes can improve the security of the authentication protocol. The experimental results show that our proposed authentication protocols are more secure and effective. In regard to applications of second authentication communication channels for a smart access control system, identity identification and E-wallet, our proposed authentication protocols can ensure the safety of person and property, and achieve more effective security management mechanisms.

  11. Quantum Dot-Based Luminescent Oxygen Channeling Assay for Potential Application in Homogeneous Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Si-Hui; Guo, Xin-Xin; Wu, Ying-Song; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Yao; Ren, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Tian-Cai

    2016-01-01

    The unique photoproperties of quantum dots are promising for potential application in bioassays. In the present study, quantum dots were applied to a luminescent oxygen channeling assay. The reaction system developed in this study was based on interaction of biotin with streptavidin. Carboxyl-modified polystyrene microspheres doped with quantum dots were biotinylated and used as acceptors. Photosensitizer-doped carboxyl-modified polystyrene microspheres were conjugated with streptavidin and used as donors. The results indicated that the singlet oxygen that was released from the donor beads diffused into the acceptor beads. The acceptor beads were then exited via thioxene, and were subsequently fluoresced. To avoid generating false positives, a high concentration (0.01 mg/mL) of quantum dots is required for application in homogeneous immunoassays. Compared to a conventional luminescent oxygen channeling assay, this quantum dots-based technique requires less time, and would be easier to automate and miniaturize because it requires no washing to remove excess labels.

  12. Development and Preliminary Application of Multi-channel Agricultural Science and Technology Consulting Service U Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W. S.; Luo, C. S.; Wei, Q. F.; Zheng, Y. M.; Cao, C. Z.

    2017-12-01

    To deal with the “last kilometer” problem during the agricultural science and technology information service, the USB flash disk “Zixuntong”, which integrated five major consulting channels, i.e., telephone consultation, mutual video, message consultation, online customer service and QQ group was developed on the bases of capital experts and date resources. Since the products have the computer and telephone USB interface and are combined with localized information resources, users can obtain useful information on any terminal without the restriction of network. Meanwhile, the cartoon appearance make it friendly and attractive to people. The USB flash disk was used to provide agricultural expert consulting services and obtained a good preliminary application achievement. Finally, we concluded the creative application of USB flash disk in agricultural consulting services and prospected the future development direction of agricultural mobile consultation.

  13. Percutaneous Ureteral stent insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous ureteral stent insertion is a treatment of permanent or temporary urinary diversion to maintain continuity and function of the obstructed and injured ureter. We performed 31 cases of percutaneous double pig tall ureteral stent insertion in 21 patients, included 13 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and eight patients with injured ureter as well as benign inflammatory stricture. Satisfactory resulted was obtained in all patients but one, who need percutaneous nephrostomy on week later for urinary diversion. No significant complication was encountered. The authors concluded that percutaneous ureteral stent insertion, an interventional procedure alternative to urologic retrograde method, is an effective method for urinary diversion.

  14. Sub-channel/system coupled code development and its application to SCWR-FQT loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.J.; Cheng, X.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupled code is developed for SCWR accident simulation. • The feasibility of the code is shown by application to SCWR-FQT loop. • Some measures are selected by sensitivity analysis. • The peak cladding temperature can be reduced effectively by the proposed measures. - Abstract: In the frame of Super-Critical Reactor In Pipe Test Preparation (SCRIPT) project in China, one of the challenge tasks is to predict the transient performance of SuperCritical Water Reactor-Fuel Qualification Test (SCWR-FQT) loop under some accident conditions. Several thermal–hydraulic codes (system code, sub-channel code) are selected to perform the safety analysis. However, the system code cannot simulate the local behavior of the test bundle, and the sub-channel code is incapable of calculating the whole system behavior of the test loop. Therefore, to combine the merits of both codes, and minimizes their shortcomings, a coupled sub-channel and system code system is developed in this paper. Both of the sub-channel code COBRA-SC and system code ATHLET-SC are adapted to transient analysis of SCWR. Two codes are coupled by data transfer and data adaptation at the interface. In the new developed coupled code, the whole system behavior including safety system characteristic is analyzed by system code ATHLET-SC, whereas the local thermal–hydraulic parameters are predicted by the sub-channel code COBRA-SC. The codes are utilized to get the local thermal–hydraulic parameters in the SCWR-FQT fuel bundle under some accident case (e.g. a flow blockage during LOCA). Some measures to mitigate the accident consequence are proposed by the sensitivity study and trialed to demonstrate their effectiveness in the coupled simulation. The results indicate that the new developed code has good feasibility to transient analysis of supercritical water-cooled test. And the peak cladding temperature caused by blockage in the fuel bundle can be reduced effectively by the safety measures

  15. Sub-channel/system coupled code development and its application to SCWR-FQT loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.J., E-mail: xiaojingliu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cheng, X. [Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Vincenz-Prießnitz-Str. 3, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A coupled code is developed for SCWR accident simulation. • The feasibility of the code is shown by application to SCWR-FQT loop. • Some measures are selected by sensitivity analysis. • The peak cladding temperature can be reduced effectively by the proposed measures. - Abstract: In the frame of Super-Critical Reactor In Pipe Test Preparation (SCRIPT) project in China, one of the challenge tasks is to predict the transient performance of SuperCritical Water Reactor-Fuel Qualification Test (SCWR-FQT) loop under some accident conditions. Several thermal–hydraulic codes (system code, sub-channel code) are selected to perform the safety analysis. However, the system code cannot simulate the local behavior of the test bundle, and the sub-channel code is incapable of calculating the whole system behavior of the test loop. Therefore, to combine the merits of both codes, and minimizes their shortcomings, a coupled sub-channel and system code system is developed in this paper. Both of the sub-channel code COBRA-SC and system code ATHLET-SC are adapted to transient analysis of SCWR. Two codes are coupled by data transfer and data adaptation at the interface. In the new developed coupled code, the whole system behavior including safety system characteristic is analyzed by system code ATHLET-SC, whereas the local thermal–hydraulic parameters are predicted by the sub-channel code COBRA-SC. The codes are utilized to get the local thermal–hydraulic parameters in the SCWR-FQT fuel bundle under some accident case (e.g. a flow blockage during LOCA). Some measures to mitigate the accident consequence are proposed by the sensitivity study and trialed to demonstrate their effectiveness in the coupled simulation. The results indicate that the new developed code has good feasibility to transient analysis of supercritical water-cooled test. And the peak cladding temperature caused by blockage in the fuel bundle can be reduced effectively by the safety measures

  16. Extended plasma channels created by UV laser in air and their application to control electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Ionin, A. A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Smetanin, I. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented from a series of experimental and theoretical studies on creating weakly ionized extended plasma channels in atmospheric air by 248-nm UV laser radiation and their application to control long high-voltage discharges. The main mechanisms of air ionization by UV laser pulses with durations from 100 fs to 25 ns and intensities in the ranges of 3×10 11 –1.5×10 13 and 3×10 6 –3×10 11 W/cm 2 , respectively, which are below the threshold for optical gas breakdown, as well as the main relaxation processes in plasma with a density of 10 9 –10 17 cm −3 , are considered. It is shown that plasma channels in air can be efficiently created by amplitude-modulated UV pulses consisting of a train of subpicosecond pulses producing primary photoelectrons and a long UV pulse suppressing electron attachment and sustaining the density of free electrons in plasma. Different modes of the generation and amplification of trains of subterawatt subpicosecond pulses and amplitude-modulated UV pulses with an energy of several tens of joules were implemented on the GARPUN-MTW hybrid Ti:sapphire-KrF laser facility. The filamentation of such UV laser beams during their propagation in air over distances of up to 100 m and the parameters of the corresponding plasma channels were studied experimentally and theoretically. Laser initiation of high-voltage electric discharges and control of their trajectories by means of amplitude-modulated UV pulses, as well as the spatiotemporal structure of breakdowns in air gaps with length of up to 80 cm, were studied

  17. Applications of focused MeV light ion beams for high resolution channeling contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D N; Breese, M B.H.; Prawer, S; Dooley, S P; Allen, M G; Bettiol, A A; Saint, A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Ryan, C G [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1994-12-31

    The technique of Nuclear Microscopy, utilizing a focused ion probe of typically MeV H{sup +} or He{sup +} ions, can produce images where the contrast depends on typical Ion Beam Analysis (lBA) processes. The probe forming lens system usually utilizes strong focusing, precision magnetic quadrupole lenses and the probe is scanned over the target to produce images. Originally, this imaging technique was developed to utilize backscattered particles with incident beam currents typically of a few nA, and the technique became known as Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM). Recently, the technique has been developed further to utilize the forward scattering of ions incident along a major crystal axis in thin crystals. This technique is known as Channeling Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (CSTIM). Since nearly all incident ions are detected, CSTIM is highly efficient and very low beam currents are sufficient for imaging, typically as low as a few fA. This allows probes as small as 50 nm to be used. In this paper we briefly review the recent applications of these emerging techniques to a variety of single crystal materials (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Template-based fluoroethylenepropylene piezoelectrets with tubular channels for transducer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altafim, Ruy Alberto Pisani; Qiu, Xunlin; Wirges, Werner; Gerhard, Reimund; Altafim, Ruy Alberto Corrêa; Basso, Heitor Cury; Jenninger, Werner; Wagner, Joachim

    2009-07-01

    We describe the concept, the fabrication, and the most relevant properties of a piezoelectric-polymer system: Two fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP) films with good electret properties are laminated around a specifically designed and prepared polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) template at 300 °C. After removing the PTFE template, a two-layer FEP film with open tubular channels is obtained. For electric charging, the two-layer FEP system is subjected to a high electric field. The resulting dielectric barrier discharges inside the tubular channels yield a ferroelectret with high piezoelectricity. d33 coefficients of up to 160 pC/N have already been achieved on the ferroelectret films. After charging at suitable elevated temperatures, the piezoelectricity is stable at temperatures of at least 130 °C. Advantages of the transducer films include ease of fabrication at laboratory or industrial scales, a wide range of possible geometrical and processing parameters, straightforward control of the uniformity of the polymer system, flexibility, and versatility of the soft ferroelectrets, and a large potential for device applications e.g., in the areas of biomedicine, communications, production engineering, sensor systems, environmental monitoring, etc.

  19. Applications of focused MeV light ion beams for high resolution channeling contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Breese, M.B.H.; Prawer, S.; Dooley, S.P.; Allen, M.G.; Bettiol, A.A.; Saint, A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Ryan, C.G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The technique of Nuclear Microscopy, utilizing a focused ion probe of typically MeV H{sup +} or He{sup +} ions, can produce images where the contrast depends on typical Ion Beam Analysis (lBA) processes. The probe forming lens system usually utilizes strong focusing, precision magnetic quadrupole lenses and the probe is scanned over the target to produce images. Originally, this imaging technique was developed to utilize backscattered particles with incident beam currents typically of a few nA, and the technique became known as Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM). Recently, the technique has been developed further to utilize the forward scattering of ions incident along a major crystal axis in thin crystals. This technique is known as Channeling Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (CSTIM). Since nearly all incident ions are detected, CSTIM is highly efficient and very low beam currents are sufficient for imaging, typically as low as a few fA. This allows probes as small as 50 nm to be used. In this paper we briefly review the recent applications of these emerging techniques to a variety of single crystal materials (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Impact of Interference in Coexisting Wireless Networks with Applications to Arbitrarily Varying Bidirectional Broadcast Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Boche

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift from an exclusive allocation of frequency bands, one for each system, to a shared use of frequencies comes along with the need of new concepts since interference will be an ubiquitous phenomenon. In this paper, we use the concept of arbitrarily varying channels to model the impact of unknown interference caused by coexisting wireless systems which operate on the same frequencies. Within this framework, capacity can be zero if pre-specified encoders and decoders are used. This necessitates the use of more sophisticated coordination schemes where the choice of encoders and decoders is additionally coordinated based on common randomness. As an application we study the arbitrarily varying bidirectional broadcast channel and derive the capacity regions for different coordination strategies. This problem is motivated by decode-and-forward bidirectional or two-way relaying, where a relay establishes a bidirectional communication between two other nodes while sharing the resources with other coexisting wireless networks.

  1. Wavy channel Thin Film Transistor for area efficient, high performance and low power applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2014-06-01

    We report a new Thin Film Transistor (TFT) architecture that allows expansion of the device width using wavy (continuous without separation) fin features - termed as wavy channel (WC) architecture. This architecture allows expansion of transistor width in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, thus not consuming extra chip area, achieving area efficiency. The devices have shown for a 13% increase in the device width resulting in a maximum 2.4x increase in \\'ON\\' current value of the WCTFT, when compared to planar devices consuming the same chip area, while using atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide (ZnO) as the channel material. The WCTFT devices also maintain similar \\'OFF\\' current value, similar to 100 pA, when compared to planar devices, thus not compromising on power consumption for performance which usually happens with larger width devices. This work offers a pragmatic opportunity to use WCTFTs as backplane circuitry for large-area high-resolution display applications without any limitation any TFT materials.

  2. Scale up and application of equal-channel angular extrusion for the electronics and aerospace industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrasse, Stephane; Segal, V.M.; Alford, Frank; Kardokus, Janine; Strothers, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Two areas are critical to promote equal-channel angular extrusion beyond the stage of a laboratory curiosity: (i) tool/processing design and scale up; (ii) development of new submicrometer-grained products. Both goals are pursued at Honeywell. The first case is the successful commercialization of ECAE for the production of sputtering targets from single phase alloys in the electronic industry. Blank dimensions are significantly larger than those reported in the literature. Other described applications are targeted to the increase of tensile strength, high-cycle fatigue and toughness in medium-to-heavily alloyed Al materials used in aerospace. In these alloys, the optimal properties can be reached with better understanding of the interplay between plastic deformation and precipitation mechanisms

  3. Dendritic silica particles with center-radial pore channels: promising platforms for catalysis and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-01-27

    Dendritic silica micro-/nanoparticles with center-radial pore structures, a kind of newly created porous material, have attracted considerable attention owing to their unique open three-dimensional dendritic superstructures with large pore channels and highly accessible internal surface areas compared with conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). They are very promising platforms for a variety of applications in catalysis and nanomedicine. In this review, their unique structural characteristics and properties are first analyzed, then novel and interesting synthesis methods associated with the possible formation mechanisms are summarized to provide material scientists some inspiration for the preparation of this kind of dendritic particles. Subsequently, a few examples of interesting applications are presented, mainly in catalysis, biomedicine, and other important fields such as for sacrificial templates and functional coatings. The review is concluded with an outlook on the prospects and challenges in terms of their controlled synthesis and potential applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A Comprehensive Study on the Internet of Underwater Things: Applications, Challenges, and Channel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chi Kao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT is a novel class of Internet of Things (IoT, and is defined as the network of smart interconnected underwater objects. IoUT is expected to enable various practical applications, such as environmental monitoring, underwater exploration, and disaster prevention. With these applications, IoUT is regarded as one of the potential technologies toward developing smart cities. To support the concept of IoUT, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs have emerged as a promising network system. UWSNs are different from the traditional Territorial Wireless Sensor Networks (TWSNs, and have several unique properties, such as long propagation delay, narrow bandwidth, and low reliability. These unique properties would be great challenges for IoUT. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive study of IoUT, and the main contributions of this paper are threefold: (1 we introduce and classify the practical underwater applications that can highlight the importance of IoUT; (2 we point out the differences between UWSNs and traditional TWSNs, and these differences are the main challenges for IoUT; and (3 we investigate and evaluate the channel models, which are the technical core for designing reliable communication protocols on IoUT.

  5. A Comprehensive Study on the Internet of Underwater Things: Applications, Challenges, and Channel Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chien-Chi; Lin, Yi-Shan; Wu, Geng-De; Huang, Chun-Ju

    2017-06-22

    The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) is a novel class of Internet of Things (IoT), and is defined as the network of smart interconnected underwater objects. IoUT is expected to enable various practical applications, such as environmental monitoring, underwater exploration, and disaster prevention. With these applications, IoUT is regarded as one of the potential technologies toward developing smart cities. To support the concept of IoUT, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have emerged as a promising network system. UWSNs are different from the traditional Territorial Wireless Sensor Networks (TWSNs), and have several unique properties, such as long propagation delay, narrow bandwidth, and low reliability. These unique properties would be great challenges for IoUT. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive study of IoUT, and the main contributions of this paper are threefold: (1) we introduce and classify the practical underwater applications that can highlight the importance of IoUT; (2) we point out the differences between UWSNs and traditional TWSNs, and these differences are the main challenges for IoUT; and (3) we investigate and evaluate the channel models, which are the technical core for designing reliable communication protocols on IoUT.

  6. Laparoscopic insertion of the Moss feeding tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Hagan, K; Rosemurgy, A S

    1993-12-01

    Placement of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of a surgeon's skill base. Surgical insertion of feeding tubes has been performed safely for many years with very few modifications. With the recent surge in interest and applicability of other laparoscopic procedures, it is well within the skills of the average laparoscopic surgeon to insert feeding tubes. We describe herein a simple technique for the insertion of the Moss feeding tube. The procedure described has a minimum of invasion, along with simplicity, safety, and accuracy.

  7. Thermodynamics of competitive molecular channel transport: application to artificial nuclear pores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang R Bauer

    Full Text Available In an analytical model channel transport is analyzed as a function of key parameters, determining efficiency and selectivity of particle transport in a competitive molecular environment. These key parameters are the concentration of particles, solvent-channel exchange dynamics, as well as particle-in-channel- and interparticle interaction. These parameters are explicitly related to translocation dynamics and channel occupation probability. Slowing down the exchange dynamics at the channel ends, or elevating the particle concentration reduces the in-channel binding strength necessary to maintain maximum transport. Optimized in-channel interaction may even shift from binding to repulsion. A simple equation gives the interrelation of access dynamics and concentration at this transition point. The model is readily transferred to competitive transport of different species, each of them having their individual in-channel affinity. Combinations of channel affinities are determined which differentially favor selectivity of certain species on the cost of others. Selectivity for a species increases if its in-channel binding enhances the species' translocation probability when compared to that of the other species. Selectivity increases particularly for a wide binding site, long channels, and fast access dynamics. Recent experiments on competitive transport of in-channel binding and inert molecules through artificial nuclear pores serve as a paradigm for our model. It explains qualitatively and quantitatively how binding molecules are favored for transport at the cost of the transport of inert molecules.

  8. Thermodynamics of competitive molecular channel transport: application to artificial nuclear pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Wolfgang R; Nadler, Walter

    2010-12-13

    In an analytical model channel transport is analyzed as a function of key parameters, determining efficiency and selectivity of particle transport in a competitive molecular environment. These key parameters are the concentration of particles, solvent-channel exchange dynamics, as well as particle-in-channel- and interparticle interaction. These parameters are explicitly related to translocation dynamics and channel occupation probability. Slowing down the exchange dynamics at the channel ends, or elevating the particle concentration reduces the in-channel binding strength necessary to maintain maximum transport. Optimized in-channel interaction may even shift from binding to repulsion. A simple equation gives the interrelation of access dynamics and concentration at this transition point. The model is readily transferred to competitive transport of different species, each of them having their individual in-channel affinity. Combinations of channel affinities are determined which differentially favor selectivity of certain species on the cost of others. Selectivity for a species increases if its in-channel binding enhances the species' translocation probability when compared to that of the other species. Selectivity increases particularly for a wide binding site, long channels, and fast access dynamics. Recent experiments on competitive transport of in-channel binding and inert molecules through artificial nuclear pores serve as a paradigm for our model. It explains qualitatively and quantitatively how binding molecules are favored for transport at the cost of the transport of inert molecules.

  9. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  11. ISABELLE insertion quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaugerts, J.; Polk, I.; Sampson, W.; Dahl, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Beam focussing and control at the beam intersection regions of ISABELLE is accomplished by a number of superconducting insertion quadrupoles. These magnets differ from the standard ISABELLE quadrupoles in various ways. In particular, the requirements of limited space near the intersections and aperture for beam extraction impose constraints on their configuration. To achieve optimum beam focussing and provide tuning flexibility calls for stronger quadrupole trim windings than those in the standard quadrupoles. The magnetic and mechanical design of the insertion quadrupoles and their associated correction and steering windings to accomplish the above tasks is presented

  12. Positional variability of a tandem applicator system in HDR brachytherapy for primary treatment of cervix cancer. Analysis of the anatomic pelvic position and comparison of the applicator positions during five insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, J.; Popp, K.; Oppitz, U.; Baier, K.; Flentje, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: evaluation of the inter- and intraindividual applicator variability of multiple high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy applications for primary treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix. Material and methods: retrospective analysis of 460 pairs of orthogonal X-ray films for conventional treatment in 92 patients with five intrauterine applications using an HDR tandem applicator. Measurement of the position of the applicator origin relative to a bony reference system in three dimensions. Evaluation of the differences of the applicator position in all 460 applications (interindividual variability), of the five applications in a single patient (intraindividual variability) and of the intraindividual variability relative to the applicator position at the first application. Results: the position of the applicator origin in the pelvis ranged from 23 mm cranial and 55 mm caudal to the top of femoral heads, 23 mm right and 27 mm left to the pelvic midline, and 6-53 mm dorsal to the mid of the femoral heads. Standard deviation (SD) of interindividual applicator variability was 12.9 mm (minimum/maximum -55/+23 mm, mean -13.6 mm) in longitudinal, 5.1 mm (-27/+23 mm, mean 1.6 mm) in lateral, and 7.6 mm (6/53 mm, mean 26 mm) in anterior-posterior [AP] direction. SD of intraindividual variability was 5.5 mm (-21/+23 mm, mean 0 mm) in longitudinal, 2.5 mm (-17/+19 mm, mean 0 mm) in lateral, and 4.2 mm (-15/+18 mm, mean 0 mm) in AP direction compared to intraindividual variability relative to the first insertion with an SD of 8.9 mm (-23/+36 mm, mean 2.8 mm) in longitudinal, 4.0 mm (-11/+23 mm, mean 0 mm) in lateral, and 6.8 mm (-27/+17 mm, mean -0.8 mm) in AP direction. Conclusion: intraindividual applicator variability is significantly smaller than interindividual variability. Applicator-related procedures such as midline shielding or dose matching of tele- and brachytherapy should be performed with information on at least one individual applicator position. (orig.)

  13. Positional variability of a tandem applicator system in HDR brachytherapy for primary treatment of cervix cancer. Analysis of the anatomic pelvic position and comparison of the applicator positions during five insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulf, J.; Popp, K.; Oppitz, U.; Baier, K.; Flentje, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: evaluation of the inter- and intraindividual applicator variability of multiple high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy applications for primary treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix. Material and methods: retrospective analysis of 460 pairs of orthogonal X-ray films for conventional treatment in 92 patients with five intrauterine applications using an HDR tandem applicator. Measurement of the position of the applicator origin relative to a bony reference system in three dimensions. Evaluation of the differences of the applicator position in all 460 applications (interindividual variability), of the five applications in a single patient (intraindividual variability) and of the intraindividual variability relative to the applicator position at the first application. Results: the position of the applicator origin in the pelvis ranged from 23 mm cranial and 55 mm caudal to the top of femoral heads, 23 mm right and 27 mm left to the pelvic midline, and 6-53 mm dorsal to the mid of the femoral heads. Standard deviation (SD) of interindividual applicator variability was 12.9 mm (minimum/maximum -55/+23 mm, mean -13.6 mm) in longitudinal, 5.1 mm (-27/+23 mm, mean 1.6 mm) in lateral, and 7.6 mm (6/53 mm, mean 26 mm) in anterior-posterior [AP] direction. SD of intraindividual variability was 5.5 mm (-21/+23 mm, mean 0 mm) in longitudinal, 2.5 mm (-17/+19 mm, mean 0 mm) in lateral, and 4.2 mm (-15/+18 mm, mean 0 mm) in AP direction compared to intraindividual variability relative to the first insertion with an SD of 8.9 mm (-23/+36 mm, mean 2.8 mm) in longitudinal, 4.0 mm (-11/+23 mm, mean 0 mm) in lateral, and 6.8 mm (-27/+17 mm, mean -0.8 mm) in AP direction. Conclusion: intraindividual applicator variability is significantly smaller than interindividual variability. Applicator-related procedures such as midline shielding or dose matching of tele- and brachytherapy should be performed with information on at least one individual applicator position. (orig.)

  14. Design of a 32-channel EEG system for brain control interface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Sung

    2012-01-01

    This study integrates the hardware circuit design and the development support of the software interface to achieve a 32-channel EEG system for BCI applications. Since the EEG signals of human bodies are generally very weak, in addition to preventing noise interference, it also requires avoiding the waveform distortion as well as waveform offset and so on; therefore, the design of a preamplifier with high common-mode rejection ratio and high signal-to-noise ratio is very important. Moreover, the friction between the electrode pads and the skin as well as the design of dual power supply will generate DC bias which affects the measurement signals. For this reason, this study specially designs an improved single-power AC-coupled circuit, which effectively reduces the DC bias and improves the error caused by the effects of part errors. At the same time, the digital way is applied to design the adjustable amplification and filter function, which can design for different EEG frequency bands. For the analog circuit, a frequency band will be taken out through the filtering circuit and then the digital filtering design will be used to adjust the extracted frequency band for the target frequency band, combining with MATLAB to design man-machine interface for displaying brain wave. Finally the measured signals are compared to the traditional 32-channel EEG signals. In addition to meeting the IFCN standards, the system design also conducted measurement verification in the standard EEG isolation room in order to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this system design.

  15. Method of inserting fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimoto, Shuji; Imoo, Makoto; Tsuchida, Kenji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of inserting a fuel rod upon automatic assembling, automatic dismantling and reassembling of a fuel assembly in a light water moderated reactor, as well as a device and components used therefor. That is, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to an aimed point of insertion by surrounding the periphery of the fuel rod to be inserted with guide rods, and thereby suppressing the movement of the fuel rod during insertion. Alternatively, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to a point of insertion by inserting guide rods at the periphery of the point of insertion for the fuel rod to be inserted thereby surrounding the point of insertion with the guide rods or fuel rods. By utilizing fuel rods already present in the fuel assembly as the guide rods described above, the fuel rod can be inserted reliably to the point of insertion with no additional devices. Dummy fuel rods are previously inserted in a fuel assembly which are then utilized as the above-mentioned guide rods to accurately insert the fuel rod to the point of insertion. (I.S.)

  16. Insertion in Persian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  17. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  18. Application of ELJ to create and maintain side channels in a dynamic gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, E.; Crowe Curran, J.; Ockelford, A.

    2017-12-01

    Braided and anastomosing rivers create and maintain a large amount of side channel habitat. Unfortunately, many rivers that were once multi-channel rivers have been constrained to single thread channels as a consequence of land use changes that occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries or earlier. An increasingly common management goal today is the re-creation of self-maintaining side and tributary habitat through as natural means as possible. This work examines the geomorphic history of one such channel and the success of recent rehabilitation efforts. Our case study comes from the South Fork Nooksack River in the Cascades Range in Washington State. The Nooksack River is a gravel and sand bed channel with a snowmelt dominated hydrograph. Engineered log jams (ELJ) have been employed to direct flow into side and chute channels with the larger goals of increasing overall channel complexity and salmon spawning opportunities. ELJs have been constructed on the channel since the 2000s, and the ELJs in the study reaches range in age up to 10 years. The size and design of individual jams within the reach vary, enabling a comparison between jam types. ELJs are evaluated for their ability to maintain gravel bar locations and open tributary channels through the snowmelt season over the reach scale. Additional goals of trapping wood onto the jams and existing bars, stabilizing channel banks, and allowing for the growth of bar vegetation are also examined.

  19. Design and preliminary analysis of a vaginal inserter for speculum-free cervical cancer screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Nyamewaa Asiedu

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer screening usually requires use of a speculum to provide a clear view of the cervix. The speculum is one potential barrier to screening due to fear of pain, discomfort and embarrassment. The aim of this paper is to present and demonstrate the feasibility of a tampon-sized inserter and the POCkeT Colposcope, a miniature pen sized-colposcope, for comfortable, speculum-free and potentially self-colposcopy.We explored different designs using 3D computer-aided design (CAD software and performed mechanical testing simulations on each. Designs were rapid prototyped and tested using a custom vaginal phantom across a range of vaginal pressures and uterine tilts to select an optimal design. Two final designs were tested with fifteen volunteers to assess cervix visualization, comfort and usability compared to the speculum and the optimal design, the curved-tip inserter, was selected for testing in volunteers.We present a vaginal inserter as an alternative to the standard speculum for use with the POCkeT Colposcope. The device has a slim tubular body with a funnel-like curved tip measuring approximately 2.5 cm in diameter. The inserter has a channel through which a 2 megapixel (MP mini camera with LED illumination fits to enable image capture. Mechanical finite element testing simulations with an applied pressure of 15 cm H2O indicated a high factor of safety (90.9 for the inserter. Testing of the device with a custom vaginal phantom, across a range of supine vaginal pressures and uterine tilts (retroverted, anteverted and sideverted, demonstrated image capture with a visual area comparable to the speculum for a normal/axial positioned uteri and significantly better than the speculum for anteverted and sideverted uteri (p<0.00001. Volunteer studies with self-insertion and physician-assisted cervix image capture showed adequate cervix visualization for 83% of patients. In addition, questionnaire responses from volunteers indicated a 92

  20. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TURBO CODED OFDM SYSTEMS AND APPLICATION OF TURBO DECODING FOR IMPULSIVE CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha H. M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the performance of hard and soft-decision turbo coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing systems with Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK and 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-QAM is considered in the first section of this paper. The results show that the soft-decision method greatly outperforms the hard-decision method. The complexity of the demapper is reduced with the use of simplified algorithm for 16-QAM demapping. In the later part of the paper, we consider the transmission of data over additive white class A noise (AWAN channel, using turbo coded QPSK and 16-QAM systems. We propose a novel turbo decoding scheme for AWAN channel. Also we compare the performance of turbo coded systems with QPSK and 16-QAM on AWAN channel with two different channel values- one computed as per additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel conditions and the other as per AWAN channel conditions. The results show that the use of appropriate channel value in turbo decoding helps to combat the impulsive noise more effectively. The proposed model for AWAN channel exhibits comparable Bit error rate (BER performance as compared to AWGN channel.

  1. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  2. Highly accelerated cardiovascular MR imaging using many channel technology: concepts and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niendorf, Thoralf; Sodickson, Daniel K.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CVMRI) is of proven clinical value in the non-invasive imaging of cardiovascular diseases. CVMRI requires rapid image acquisition, but acquisition speed is fundamentally limited in conventional MRI. Parallel imaging provides a means for increasing acquisition speed and efficiency. However, signal-to-noise (SNR) limitations and the limited number of receiver channels available on most MR systems have in the past imposed practical constraints, which dictated the use of moderate accelerations in CVMRI. High levels of acceleration, which were unattainable previously, have become possible with many-receiver MR systems and many-element, cardiac-optimized RF-coil arrays. The resulting imaging speed improvements can be exploited in a number of ways, ranging from enhancement of spatial and temporal resolution to efficient whole heart coverage to streamlining of CVMRI work flow. In this review, examples of these strategies are provided, following an outline of the fundamentals of the highly accelerated imaging approaches employed in CVMRI. Topics discussed include basic principles of parallel imaging; key requirements for MR systems and RF-coil design; practical considerations of SNR management, supported by multi-dimensional accelerations, 3D noise averaging and high field imaging; highly accelerated clinical state-of-the art cardiovascular imaging applications spanning the range from SNR-rich to SNR-limited; and current trends and future directions. (orig.)

  3. A 32-channel front-end ASIC for GEM detectors used in beam monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciriello, F.; Altieri, P. R.; Corsi, F.; De Robertis, G.; Felici, G.; Loddo, F.; Lorusso, L.; Marzocca, C.; Matarrese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Stamerra, A.

    2017-11-01

    A multichannel, mixed-signal, front-end ASIC for GEM detectors, intended for beam monitoring in hadron therapy applications, has been designed and prototyped in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The analog channels are based on the classic CSA + shaper processing chain, followed by a peak detector which can work as an analog memory, to simplifiy the analog-to-digital conversion of the peak voltage of the output pulse, proportional to the energy of the detected event. The available hardware resources include an 8-bit A/D converter and a standard-cell digital part, which manages the read-out procedure, in sparse or serial mode. The ASIC is self-triggered and transfers energy and address data to the external DAQ via a fast 100 MHz LVDS link. Preliminary characterization results show that the non-linearity error is limited to 5% for a maximum input charge of about 70 fC, the measured ENC is about 1400e- and the time jitter of the trigger signal generated in response to an injected charge of 60 fC is close to 200 ps.

  4. Fuel insert shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.; Colley, R.; Gaiser, J.; Brookmire, T.; Engle, S.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for the use of expert systems in the nuclear power industry is widely recognized. The benefits of such systems include consistency of reasoning during off-normal situations when humans are under great stress, the reduction of time required to perform certain functions and the retention of human expertise in performing specialized functions. As the potential benefits are more and more demonstrated and realized, the development of expert systems becomes a necessary part of the nuclear power industry. The development of the fuel insert shuffle expert system is used as a case study. In fact, it shows that the potential benefits are realizable. Currently, the development of the insert shuffle plan requires three to four man-weeks of effort. Further modifications to this plan are sometimes required dur to either changes in the desired core load pattern or damaged fuel assemblies or inserts. These changes generally require two to four man-days of effort and could be stressful if they are critical path items on the outage schedule

  5. Application of amphipols for structure-functional analysis of TRP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Kevin W; Cohen, Matthew R; Moiseenkova-Bell, Vera Y

    2014-10-01

    Amphipathic polymers (amphipols), such as A8-35 and SApol, are a new tool for stabilizing integral membrane proteins in detergent-free conditions for structural and functional studies. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels function as tetrameric protein complexes in a diverse range of cellular processes including sensory transduction. Mammalian TRP channels share ~20 % sequence similarity and are categorized into six subfamilies: TRPC (canonical), TRPV (vanilloid), TRPA (ankyrin), TRPM (melastatin), TRPP (polycystin), and TRPML (mucolipin). Due to the inherent difficulties in purifying eukaryotic membrane proteins, structural studies of TRP channels have been limited. Recently, A8-35 was essential in resolving the molecular architecture of the nociceptor TRPA1 and led to the determination of a high-resolution structure of the thermosensitive TRPV1 channel by cryo-EM. Newly developed maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) detergents have also proven to be useful in stabilizing TRP channels for structural analysis. In this review, we will discuss the impacts of amphipols and MNG detergents on structural studies of TRP channels by cryo-EM. We will compare how A8-35 and MNG detergents interact with the hydrophobic transmembrane domains of TRP channels. In addition, we will discuss what these cryo-EM studies reveal on the importance of screening different types of surfactants toward determining high-resolution structures of TRP channels.

  6. A Marketing-Finance Approach towards Industrial Channel Contract Relationships: A Model and Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Channel contract relations are dynamic. In this paper, it is argued that one of the drivers for this dynamism is a firm's strive for shareholder value. Using channel contract relationships as market-based assets, firms are managing a portfolio of spot and forward contract relationships. By

  7. 77 FR 27188 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Chumash Community...

  8. 78 FR 5779 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Period for Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... following vacant seats on the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Business Alternate...

  9. Application of Fourier-Bessel technique for computing Eigen-states in a Bragg cylindrical space slot channel waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seyed Hamed; Gauthier, Robert C.

    2015-02-01

    Maxwell's wave equations can be solved using different techniques in order to extract optical properties of a variety of dielectric structures. For structures that contain an extended axis which serve for the reference for cylindrical symmetry, we have shown that an expansion of the fields and inverse of the relative dielectric profile using a simplified and complete set of basis functions of Fourier-Bessel terms provide access to an eigenvalue formulation from which the eigen-states can be computed. We review the steps used to convert Maxwell's equation into an eigenvalue formulation, and then proceed to discuss several applications of the technique. For cylindrically symmetric structures, the computational technique provides a significantly reduced matrix order to be populated. New target structure for the presentation consists of cylindrical space slot channel waveguide in which the channel extends in azimuthal (ϕ) direction. The channel is provided by considering the etching of external side walls of "Bragg fiber". The configuration is similar to a structure that can support whispering-gallery modes, except that the modes highest field locations are within the ambient medium of the channel. Optical properties of this structure can be best examined through ?? field component which is discontinuous by ratio of relative dielectric constants when passing air-Bragg interfaces. The ability to select Bragg dielectric properties and to introduce non-uniformities in Bragg plane spacing provides access to tuning slot channel waveguide properties and design several novel configurations.

  10. Fuel assembly insertion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhurst, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor facility having fuel bundles: a system for the insertion of a fuel bundle into a position where vertically arranged fuel bundles surround and are adjacent the system comprising, in combination, separate and individual centering devices secured to and disposed on top of each fuel bundle adjacent the position. Each such centering device has a generally box-like cap configuration on the upper end of each fuel bundle and includes: a top wall; first and second side walls, each secured along and upper edge to the top wall; a rear plate attached along opposite vertical edges to the first and second side walls; a front inclined wall joined along an upper edge to the top to the wall and attached along opposite vertical edges first and second side walls; pad means secured to the lower edge of the first and second side walls, the front inclined wall and the rear plate for mounting each centering device on top of an associated fuel bundle; pin means carried by at least two of the pad means engageable with an associated aperature for locating and laterally fixing each centering device on top of its respective fuel bundle. Each front inclined wall of each of the centering devices is orientated on top of its respective fuel bundle to slope upwardly and away from the position where upon downward insertion of a fuel bundle any contact between the lower end of the fuel bundle inserted with a front inclined wall of a centering device will laterally deflect the fuel bundle. Each centering device further includes a central socket means secured to the top wall, and an elongated handling pole pivotally attached to the socket

  11. Data Insertion in Bitcoin's Blockchain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sward

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first comprehensive survey of methods for inserting arbitrary data into Bitcoin’s blockchain. Historical methods of data insertion are described, along with lesser-known techniques that are optimized for efficiency. Insertion methods are compared on the basis of efficiency, cost, convenience of data reconstruction, permanence, and potentially negative impact on the Bitcoin ecosystem.

  12. The development and application of a sub-channel code in ocean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Pan; Shan, Jianqiang; Xiang, Xiong; Zhang, Bo; Gou, Junli; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A sub-channel code named ATHAS/OE is developed for nuclear reactors in ocean environment. • ATHAS/OE is verified by another modified sub-channel code based on COBRA-IV. • ATHAS/OE is used to analyze thermal hydraulic of a typical SMR in heaving and rolling motion. • Calculation results show that ocean condition affect the thermal hydraulic of a reactor significantly. - Abstract: An upgraded version of ATHAS sub-channel code ATHAS/OE is developed for the investigation of the thermal hydraulic behavior of nuclear reactor core in ocean environment with consideration of heaving and rolling motion effect. The code is verified by another modified sub-channel code based on COBRA-IV and used to analyze the thermal hydraulic characteristics of a typical SMR under heaving and rolling motion condition. The calculation results show that the heaving and rolling motion affect the thermal hydraulic behavior of a reactor significantly.

  13. Electrically controlled wire-channel GaN/AlGaN transistor for terahertz plasma applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywiński, G.; Yahniuk, I.; Kruszewski, P.; Grabowski, M.; Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, K.; Prystawko, P.; Sai, P.; Knap, W.; Simin, G. S.; Rumyantsev, S. L.

    2018-03-01

    We report on a design of fin-shaped channel GaN/AlGaN field-effect transistors developed for studying resonant terahertz plasma oscillations. Unlike common two dimensional FinFET transistor design, the gates were deposited only to the sides of the two dimensional electron gas channel, i.e., metal layers were not deposited on the top of the AlGaN. This side gate configuration allowed us to electrically control the conductivity of the channel by changing its width while keeping the carrier density and mobility virtually unchanged. Computer simulations and analytical model describe well the general shape of the characteristics. The side gate control of the channel width of these transistors allowed us to eliminate the so-called oblique plasma wave modes and paves the way towards future terahertz detectors and emitters using high quality factor plasma wave resonances.

  14. Wavy channel Thin Film Transistor for area efficient, high performance and low power applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir; Sevilla, Galo T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We report a new Thin Film Transistor (TFT) architecture that allows expansion of the device width using wavy (continuous without separation) fin features - termed as wavy channel (WC) architecture. This architecture allows expansion of transistor

  15. Application of γ ray to field investigation of float mud in ocean outfalls and navigation channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Ruiji; Ding Yuanguo; Cheng Hesen

    2007-01-01

    The γ ray gauge is used to investigate the density and distribution of float mud in navigation channel area on site. The results provide important prototype information for effectively using navigable depth and studying rules of back silting. (authors)

  16. Application-oriented research on plasma channeling of a large pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingye

    2000-01-01

    Utilizing the avalanche effect of plasma produced by the collision of energetic primary electrons with hydrogen molecules in a plasma, channeling of a large pulsed current is achieved, with the plasma acting as the carrier

  17. Modelling Fish Habitat Suitability in the Eastern English Channel. Application to community habitat level

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Sandrine; Carpentier, Andre; Loots, Christophe; Koubbi, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Valuable marine habitats and living resources can be found in the Eastern English Channel and in 2003, a Franco-British Interreg IIIA project, ‘Eastern Channel Habitat Atlas for Marine Resource Management’ (CHARM), was initiated to support decision-making for management of essential fish habitats. Fish habitat corresponds to geographic areas within which ranges of environmental factors define the presence of a particular species. Habitat Suitability index (HSI) modelling was used to relate fi...

  18. MHD electrical boundary layer theory and applications to the performance of channels with partial wraparound electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, S.A.; Doss, E.D.; West Florida University, Pensacola, FL)

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods are developed for calculating the potential and currents near boundary singularities caused by electrode edges or abrupt drops in conductivity or in the induction field. A three-dimensional control volume (finite-difference) model for solving the MHD electrical problems in oblique coordinates has been developed, which accounts for the near-wall singular behavior accurately and can be used with relatively sparse grids. Analyses based on the model indicate that, for practical generator design where the electrode pitch is in the order of 1 to 5 cm and the wall temperature less than 2100 K, the performance of diagonal conducting wall (DCW) channels is always superior to that of channels with insulating sidewalls, although the performance of insulating sidewall channel is better at higher wall temperatures. Sidewall electrode extensions up to a wraparound of about 20% of the channel height are shown to cause an increase in power output. The output of diagonally connected channels remains approximately the same for more than 20% wraparound whereas the power output of Faraday channels drops off with further extensions of the sidewall conductors

  19. Smooth Approximation l 0-Norm Constrained Affine Projection Algorithm and Its Applications in Sparse Channel Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We propose a smooth approximation l 0-norm constrained affine projection algorithm (SL0-APA) to improve the convergence speed and the steady-state error of affine projection algorithm (APA) for sparse channel estimation. The proposed algorithm ensures improved performance in terms of the convergence speed and the steady-state error via the combination of a smooth approximation l 0-norm (SL0) penalty on the coefficients into the standard APA cost function, which gives rise to a zero attractor that promotes the sparsity of the channel taps in the channel estimation and hence accelerates the convergence speed and reduces the steady-state error when the channel is sparse. The simulation results demonstrate that our proposed SL0-APA is superior to the standard APA and its sparsity-aware algorithms in terms of both the convergence speed and the steady-state behavior in a designated sparse channel. Furthermore, SL0-APA is shown to have smaller steady-state error than the previously proposed sparsity-aware algorithms when the number of nonzero taps in the sparse channel increases. PMID:24790588

  20. Stochastic algorithm for channel optimized vector quantization: application to robust narrow-band speech coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzid, M.; Benkherouf, H.; Benzadi, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic joint source-channel scheme developed for efficient and robust encoding of spectral speech LSF parameters. The encoding system, named LSF-SSCOVQ-RC, is an LSF encoding scheme based on a reduced complexity stochastic split vector quantizer optimized for noisy channel. For transmissions over noisy channel, we will show first that our LSF-SSCOVQ-RC encoder outperforms the conventional LSF encoder designed by the split vector quantizer. After that, we applied the LSF-SSCOVQ-RC encoder (with weighted distance) for the robust encoding of LSF parameters of the 2.4 Kbits/s MELP speech coder operating over a noisy/noiseless channel. The simulation results will show that the proposed LSF encoder, incorporated in the MELP, ensure better performances than the original MELP MSVQ of 25 bits/frame; especially when the transmission channel is highly disturbed. Indeed, we will show that the LSF-SSCOVQ-RC yields significant improvement to the LSFs encoding performances by ensuring reliable transmissions over noisy channel.

  1. Two-Channel SPR Sensor Combined Application of Polymer- and Vitreous-Clad Optic Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Su, Yudong; Liu, Chunlan; Nie, Xiangfei; Liu, Zhihai; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yonghui

    2017-12-09

    By combining a polymer-clad optic fiber and a vitreous-clad optic fiber, we proposed and fabricated a novel optic fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor to conduct two-channel sensing at the same detection area. The traditional optic fiber SPR sensor has many disadvantages; for example, removing the cladding requires corrosion, operating it is dangerous, adjusting the dynamic response range is hard, and producing different resonance wavelengths in the sensing area to realize a multi-channel measurement is difficult. Therefore, in this paper, we skillfully used bare fiber grinding technology and reverse symmetry welding technology to remove the cladding in a multi-mode fiber and expose the evanescent field. On the basis of investigating the effect of the grinding angle on the dynamic range change of the SPR resonance valley wavelength and sensitivity, we combined polymer-clad fiber and vitreous-clad fiber by a smart design structure to realize at a single point a two-channel measurement fiber SPR sensor. In this paper, we obtained a beautiful spectral curve from a multi-mode fiber two-channel SPR sensor. In the detection range of the refractive rate between 1.333 RIU and 1.385 RIU, the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅰ shifted from 622 nm to 724 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 1961 nm/RIU and the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅱ shifted from 741 nm to 976 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 4519 nm/RIU.

  2. Applications of Classical and Quantum Mechanical Channeling in Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakenaasen, Randi

    1995-01-01

    The first part of this work involves ion channeling measurements on the high temperature superconductor rm YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O _{7-delta}(YBCO). The experiments were motivated by several previous reports of anomalous behavior in the displacements of the Cu and O atoms in the vicinity of the critical temperature rm(T _{c}) in several high temperature superconductors. Our measurements were complimentary to previous experiments in that we used thin film YBCO (as opposed to bulk single crystals) and focused on a small region around rm T_{c}. We mapped out the channeling parameters chi _{min} and Psi_ {1/2} in a 30 K region around rm T_{c} in 1-2 K steps in thin film YBCO(001) on MgO. Neither of our measurements showed any discontinuities in chi _{min} or Psi_ {1/2} near the superconducting phase transition, and we therefore have no reason to expect anything but a smooth increase in atomic vibrations in this region. We conclude that any anomalous behavior in atomic displacements deduced from previous channeling experiments is not essential to superconductivity. In the second part of the work positrons were used to study quantum mechanical channeling effects. We clearly observed and quantitatively accounted for quantum interference effects, including Bragg diffraction, in the forward transmission of channeled MeV positrons through a single crystal. Experimental scans across the (100), (110), and (111) planes in Si showed excellent agreement with theoretical dynamical diffraction calculations, giving us confidence that we can accurately predict the spatial and momentum distributions of channeled positrons. New experiments are envisioned in which the channeling effect is combined with 2 quantum annihilation in flight measurements to determine valence electron and magnetic spin distributions in a crystal. Since the channeling effect focuses the positrons to the interstices of the crystal, the annihilation rate will reflect the valence electron density. Furthermore, the

  3. Rarefied gas flows through a curved channel: Application of a diffusion-type equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazuo; Takata, Shigeru; Tatsumi, Eri; Yoshida, Hiroaki

    2010-11-01

    Rarefied gas flows through a curved two-dimensional channel, caused by a pressure or a temperature gradient, are investigated numerically by using a macroscopic equation of convection-diffusion type. The equation, which was derived systematically from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model of the Boltzmann equation and diffuse-reflection boundary condition in a previous paper [K. Aoki et al., "A diffusion model for rarefied flows in curved channels," Multiscale Model. Simul. 6, 1281 (2008)], is valid irrespective of the degree of gas rarefaction when the channel width is much shorter than the scale of variations of physical quantities and curvature along the channel. Attention is also paid to a variant of the Knudsen compressor that can produce a pressure raise by the effect of the change of channel curvature and periodic temperature distributions without any help of moving parts. In the process of analysis, the macroscopic equation is (partially) extended to the case of the ellipsoidal-statistical model of the Boltzmann equation.

  4. Further development of a facility for channeling studies: application to lattice location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Equipment modifications at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Rutherford backscattering facility, including the addition of a high precision goniometer, have been made to enhance the performance of channeling experiments. The angular divergence of the alpha particle beam was also reduced to 0 by improving the collimation. To demonstrate improved channeling capability angular scans were performed about the [100], [110], and [111] axial channels of a 3400 A (100) silicon membrane. Both the minimum yield, chi/sub min/, and the critical angle, psi/sub 1/2/, were consistent with accepted values. A preliminary investigation of the lattice location of cobalt on the (100) silicon surface was undertaken. Approximately 4.5 x 10 15 Co atoms/cm 2 were electron beam deposited on a 3900 A, HF etched silicon membrane in a system using oilless pumps. Preliminary channeling data taken approximately one month later indicated a preferred site for approximately 16% of the cobalt atoms. Channeling data obtained six months later with the new goniometer showed no evidence for a preferred site. Room temperature oxidation between experiments was observed and is thought to have affected the location of the cobalt atoms. 33 references, 15 figures

  5. Application of a multi-channel system for continuous monitoring and an early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Song, C H; Kim, B C; Gu, M B

    2006-01-01

    A multi-channel continuous toxicity monitoring system developed in our laboratory, based on two-stage mini-bioreactors, was successfully implemented in the form of computer-based data acquisition. The multi-channel system consists of a series of a two-stage minibioreactor systems connected by a fiber optic probe to a luminometer, and uses genetically engineered bioluminescent bacteria for the detection of the potential toxicity from the soluble chemicals. This system can be stably and continuously operated due to the separation of the culture reactor from the test reactor and accomplish easy and long-term monitoring without system shut down by abrupt inflows of severe polluting chemicals. Four different recombinant bioluminescent bacteria were used in different channels so that the modes of the samples toxicities can be reasonably identified and evaluated based upon the response signature of each channel. The bioluminescent signatures were delivered from four channels by switching one at once, while the data is automatically logged to an IBM compatible computer. We also achieved the enhancement of the system through the manipulation of the dilution rate and the use of thermo-lux fusion strains. Finally, this system is now being implemented to a drinking water reservoir and river for remote sensing as an early warning system.

  6. RERTR-12 Insertion 1 Irradiation Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, D.M.; Lillo, M.A.; Chang, G.S.; Woolstenhulme, N.E.; Roth, G.A.; Wachs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications. RERTR-12 insertion 1 includes the capsules irradiated during the first two irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, X1, X2 and X3 capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  7. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, D.M.; Chang, G.S.; Wachs, D.M.; Roth, G.A.; Woolstenhulme, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  8. Exploring channeling optimized radiofrequency energy: a review of radiofrequency history and applications in esthetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Inna; Margulis, Ariel; Elman, Monica; Bar-Yosef, Udi; Paun, Silviu D

    2012-03-01

    Because of its high efficiency and safety, radiofrequency (RF) energy is widely used in the dermatological field for heating biological tissue in various esthetic applications, including skin tightening, skin lifting, body contouring, and cellulite reduction. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nonablative RF energy in the esthetic field and its scientific background. The purpose of this article is to describe in detail the extensive use of medical devices based on RF technology, the development of these medical devices over the years, and recent developments and trends in RF technology. The authors conducted a systematic search of publications that address safety and efficacy issues, technical system specifications, and clinical techniques. Finally, the authors focused on their own clinical experiences with the use of patented Channeling Optimized RF Energy technique and mechanical massage. An in-vivo study was conducted in domestic pigs, with a thermal video camera. Twenty-seven female patients participated in a cellulite and body shaping study. The treatments were conducted according to a three-phase protocol. An additional 16 females participated in a skin tightening case study. All of the patients underwent three treatment sessions at 3-week intervals, each according to a protocol specific to the area being treated. The review of the literature on RF-based systems revealed that these systems are safe, with low risks for potential side effects, and effective for cellulite, body contouring, and skin tightening procedures. The in-vivo measurements confirmed the theory that the penetration depth of RF is an inverse function of its frequency, and using a vacuum mechanism makes an additional contribution to the RF energy penetration. The heating effect of RF was also found to increase blood circulation and to induce collagen remodeling. The results from the cellulite and body shaping treatments showed an overall average improvement of 55% in the

  9. Carbon nanotubes integrated in electrically insulated channels for lab-on-a-chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, K B; Boggild, P; Kutter, J P; Gangloff, L; Teo, K B K; Milne, W I

    2009-01-01

    A fabrication process for monolithic integration of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in electrically insulated microfluidic channels is presented. A 150 nm thick amorphous silicon layer could be used both for anodic bonding of a glass lid to hermetically seal the microfluidic glass channels and for de-charging of the wafer during plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of the carbon nanotubes. The possibility of operating the device with electroosmotic flow was shown by performing standard electrophoretic separations of 50 μM fluorescein and 50 μM 5-carboxyfluorescein in a 25 mm long column containing vertical aligned carbon nanotubes. This is the first demonstration of electroosmotic pumping and electrokinetic separations in microfluidic channels with a monolithically integrated carbon nanotube forest.

  10. Application of a Channel Estimation Algorithm to Spectrum Sensing in a Cognitive Radio Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Savaux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with spectrum sensing in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM context, allowing an opportunistic user to detect a vacant spectrum resource in a licensed band. The proposed method is based on an iterative algorithm used for the joint estimation of noise variance and frequency selective channel. It can be seen as a second-order detector, since it is performed by means of the minimum mean square error criterion. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is its capability to perform spectrum sensing, noise variance estimation, and channel estimation in the presence of a signal. Furthermore, the sensing duration is limited to only one OFDM symbol. We theoretically show the convergence of the algorithm, and we derive its analytical detection and false alarm probabilities. Furthermore, we show that the detector is very efficient, even for low SNR values, and is robust against a channel uncertainty.

  11. Carbon nanotubes integrated in electrically insulated channels for lab-on-a-chip applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Gangloff, L.; Bøggild, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A fabrication process for monolithic integration of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in electrically insulated microfluidic channels is presented. A 150 nm thick amorphous silicon layer could be used both for anodic bonding of a glass lid to hermetically seal the microfluidic glass channels...... and for de-charging of the wafer during plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of the carbon nanotubes. The possibility of operating the device with electroosmotic flow was shown by performing standard electrophoretic separations of 50 mu M fluorescein and 50 mu M 5-carboxyfluorescein in a 25 mm long...... column containing vertical aligned carbon nanotubes. This is the first demonstration of electroosmotic pumping and electrokinetic separations in microfluidic channels with a monolithically integrated carbon nanotube forest....

  12. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    applications that must be stable against environmental perturbations, such as acceleration or power supply variations. Measurements on fabricated devices in fact confirm predictions by the new model of up to 4x improvement in frequency stability against DC-bias voltage variations for contour-mode disk resonators as the resistance loading their ports increases. By enhancing circuit visualization, this circuit model makes more obvious the circuit design procedures and topologies most beneficial for certain mechanical circuits, e.g., filters and oscillators. The second method enables simultaneous low motional resistance ( Rx 70,000) at 61 MHz using an improved ALD-partial electrode-to-resonator gap filling technique that reduces the Q-limiting surface losses of previous renditions by adding an alumina pre-coating before ALD of the gap-filling high-k dielectric. This effort increases the Q over the ˜10,000 of previous renditions by more than 6x towards demonstration of the first VHF micromechanical resonators in any material, piezoelectric or not, to meet the simultaneous high Q (>50,000) and low motional resistance Rx (gap spacing. Finally, the experimental results introduce a 39nm-gap capacitive transducer, voltage-controlled frequency tuning, and a stress relieving coupled array design that enable a 0.09% bandwidth 223.4 MHz channel-select filter with only 2.7dB of in-band insertion loss and 50dB rejection of out-of-band interferers. This amount of rejection is more than 23dB better than previous capacitive-gap transduced filter designs that did not benefit from sub-50nm gaps. It also comes in tandem with a 20dB shape factor of 2.7 realized by a hierarchical mechanical circuit design utilizing 206 micromechanical circuit elements, all contained in an area footprint of only 600mumx420mum. The key to such low insertion loss for this tiny percent bandwidth is Q's>8,800 supplied by polysilicon disk resonators employing for the first time capacitive transducer gaps small enough to

  13. Two-Channel SPR Sensor Combined Application of Polymer- and Vitreous-Clad Optic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By combining a polymer-clad optic fiber and a vitreous-clad optic fiber, we proposed and fabricated a novel optic fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor to conduct two-channel sensing at the same detection area. The traditional optic fiber SPR sensor has many disadvantages; for example, removing the cladding requires corrosion, operating it is dangerous, adjusting the dynamic response range is hard, and producing different resonance wavelengths in the sensing area to realize a multi-channel measurement is difficult. Therefore, in this paper, we skillfully used bare fiber grinding technology and reverse symmetry welding technology to remove the cladding in a multi-mode fiber and expose the evanescent field. On the basis of investigating the effect of the grinding angle on the dynamic range change of the SPR resonance valley wavelength and sensitivity, we combined polymer-clad fiber and vitreous-clad fiber by a smart design structure to realize at a single point a two-channel measurement fiber SPR sensor. In this paper, we obtained a beautiful spectral curve from a multi-mode fiber two-channel SPR sensor. In the detection range of the refractive rate between 1.333 RIU and 1.385 RIU, the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅰ shifted from 622 nm to 724 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 1961 nm/RIU and the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅱ shifted from 741 nm to 976 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 4519 nm/RIU.

  14. The DVB Channel Coding Application Using the DSP Development Board MDS TM-13 IREF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Slanina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the implementation of the channel codingaccording to DVB standard on DSP development board MDS TM-13 IREF andPC. The board is based on Philips Nexperia media processor andintegrates hardware video ADC and DAC. The program libraries featuresused for MPEG based video compression are outlined and then thealgorithms of channel decoding (FEC protection against errors arepresented including the flowchart diagrams. The paper presents thepartial hardware implementation of the simulation system that coversselected phenomena of DVB baseband processing and it is used for realtime interactive demonstration of error protection influence ontransmitted digital video in laboratory and education.

  15. Cationic Polymers Inhibit the Conductance of Lysenin Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fologea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pore-forming toxin lysenin self-assembles large and stable conductance channels in natural and artificial lipid membranes. The lysenin channels exhibit unique regulation capabilities, which open unexplored possibilities to control the transport of ions and molecules through artificial and natural lipid membranes. Our investigations demonstrate that the positively charged polymers polyethyleneimine and chitosan inhibit the conducting properties of lysenin channels inserted into planar lipid membranes. The preservation of the inhibitory effect following addition of charged polymers on either side of the supporting membrane suggests the presence of multiple binding sites within the channel's structure and a multistep inhibition mechanism that involves binding and trapping. Complete blockage of the binding sites with divalent cations prevents further inhibition in conductance induced by the addition of cationic polymers and supports the hypothesis that the binding sites are identical for both multivalent metal cations and charged polymers. The investigation at the single-channel level has shown distinct complete blockages of each of the inserted channels. These findings reveal key structural characteristics which may provide insight into lysenin’s functionality while opening innovative approaches for the development of applications such as transient cell permeabilization and advanced drug delivery systems.

  16. Leveraging multi-channel x-ray detector technology to improve quality metrics for industrial and security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Edward S.; Thompson, Kyle R.; Stohn, Adriana; Goodner, Ryan N.

    2017-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently developed the capability to acquire multi-channel radio- graphs for multiple research and development applications in industry and security. This capability allows for the acquisition of x-ray radiographs or sinogram data to be acquired at up to 300 keV with up to 128 channels per pixel. This work will investigate whether multiple quality metrics for computed tomography can actually benefit from binned projection data compared to traditionally acquired grayscale sinogram data. Features and metrics to be evaluated include the ability to dis- tinguish between two different materials with similar absorption properties, artifact reduction, and signal-to-noise for both raw data and reconstructed volumetric data. The impact of this technology to non-destructive evaluation, national security, and industry is wide-ranging and has to potential to improve upon many inspection methods such as dual-energy methods, material identification, object segmentation, and computer vision on radiographs.

  17. Improved conversion rates in drug screening applications using miniaturized electrochemical cells with frit channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odijk, Mathieu; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, A; Qiao, Liang; Girault, Hubert

    2012-11-06

    This paper reports a novel design of a miniaturized three-electrode electrochemical cell, the purpose of which is aimed at generating drug metabolites with a high conversion efficiency. The working electrode and the counter electrode are placed in two separate channels to isolate the reaction products generated at both electrodes. The novel design includes connecting channels between these two electrode channels to provide a uniform distribution of the current density over the entire working electrode. In addition, the effect of ohmic drop is decreased. Moreover, two flow resistors are included to ensure an equal flow of analyte through both electrode channels. Total conversion of fast reacting ions is achieved at flow rates up to at least 8 μL/min, while the internal chip volume is only 175 nL. Using this electrochemical chip, the metabolism of mitoxantrone is studied by microchip electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. At an oxidation potential of 700 mV, all known metabolites from direct oxidation are observed. The electrochemical chip performs equally well, compared to a commercially available cell, but at a 30-fold lower flow of reagents.

  18. Improved Conversion Rates in Drug Screening Applications sing Miniaturized Electrochemical Cells with Frit Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Mathieu; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Qiao, L.; Girault, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a novel design of a miniaturized three-electrode electrochemical cell, the purpose of which is aimed at generating drug metabolites with a high conversion efficiency. The working electrode and the counter electrode are placed in two separate channels to isolate the reaction

  19. On the Ergodic Capacity of Dual-Branch Correlated Log-Normal Fading Channels with Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Closed-form expressions of the ergodic capacity of independent or correlated diversity branches over Log-Normal fading channels are not available in the literature. Thus, it is become of an interest to investigate the behavior of such metric at high

  20. Entanglement of Gaussian states and the applicability to quantum key distribution over fading channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenko, Vladyslav C; Filip, Radim; Heim, Bettina; Peuntinger, Christian; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement properties of Gaussian states of light as well as the security of continuous variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian states in free-space fading channels are studied. These qualities are shown to be sensitive to the statistical properties of the transmittance distribution in the cases when entanglement is strong or when channel excess noise is present. Fading, i.e. transmission fluctuations, caused by beam wandering due to atmospheric turbulence, is a frequent challenge in free-space communication. We introduce a method of fading discrimination and subsequent post-selection of the corresponding sub-states and show that it can improve the entanglement resource and restore the security of the key distribution over a realistic fading link. Furthermore, the optimal post-selection strategy in combination with an optimized entangled resource is shown to drastically increase the protocol's robustness to excess noise, which is confirmed for experimentally measured fading channel characteristics. The stability of the result against finite data ensemble size and imperfect channel estimation is also addressed. (paper)

  1. Defining perennial, intermittent and ephemeral channels in eastern Kentucky: application to forestry best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. R. Svec; R. K. Kolka; J. W. Stringer

    2003-01-01

    In Kentucky stream classification is used to determine which forestry best management practice (BMP) to apply in riparian zones. Kentucky defines stream classes as follows (Stringer and others 1998): a) perennial streams that hold water throughout the year, b) intermittent streams that hold water during wet portions of the year, and c) ephemeral channels that hold...

  2. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  3. Ultrasonic Guided Insertion of Central Venous Catheter in Infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: ultrasound is licensed for application of regional blocks and insertion of vascular access. We aimed to compare ultrasonic guided (USG) and anatomical landmark technique (ALT) for insertion of central venous catheter (CVC) as regard success rate and rate of complications in infants and children.

  4. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  5. Ocular inserts - Advancement in therapy of eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kumari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular insert represents a significant advancement in the therapy of eye disease. Ocular inserts are defined as sterile, thin, multilayered, drug-impregnated, solid or semisolid consistency devices placed into the cul-de-sac or conjuctival sac, whose size and shape are especially designed for ophthalmic application. They are composed of a polymeric support that may or may not contain a drug. The drug can later be incorporated as dispersion or a solution in the polymeric support. They offer several advantages as increased ocular residence and sustained release of medication into the eye. The insert includes a body portion sized to position within a lachrymal canaliculus of the eyelid. The inserts are classified according to their solubility as insoluble, soluble, or bioerodible inserts. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug, and this article is an attempt to present a brief about this newer drug delivery system.

  6. Application of response surface methodology on investigating flank wear in machining hardened steel using PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development of flank wear model in turning hardened EN 24 steel with PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert under dry environment. The paper also investigates the effect of process parameter on flank wear (VBc. The experiments have been conducted using three level full factorial design techniques. The machinability model has been developed in terms of cutting speed (v, feed (f and machining time (t as input variable using response surface methodology. The adequacy of model has been checked using correlation coefficients. As the determination coefficient, R2 (98% is higher for the model developed; the better is the response model fits the actual data. In addition, residuals of the normal probability plot lie reasonably close to a straight line showing that the terms mentioned in the model are statistically significant. The predicted flank wear has been found to lie close to the experimental value. This indicates that the developed model can be effectively used to predict the flank wear in the hard turning. Abrasion and diffusion has been found to be the dominant wear mechanism in machining hardened steel from SEM micrographs at highest parametric range. Machining time has been found to be the most significant parameter on flank wear followed by cutting speed and feed as observed from main effect plot and ANOVA study.

  7. On the application of response surface methodology for predicting and optimizing surface roughness and cutting forces in hard turning by PVD coated insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessainia Zahia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the exploitation of the response surface methodology (RSM to determine optimum cutting conditions leading to minimum surface roughness and cutting force components. The technique of RSM helps to create an efficient statistical model for studying the evolution of surface roughness and cutting forces according to cutting parameters: cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. For this purpose, turning tests of hardened steel alloy (AISI 4140 (56 HRC were carried out using PVD – coated ceramic insert under different cutting conditions. The equations of surface roughness and cutting forces were achieved by using the experimental data and the technique of the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The obtained results are presented in terms of mean values and confidence levels. It is shown that feed rate and depth of cut are the most influential factors on surface roughness and cutting forces, respectively. In addition, it is underlined that the surface roughness is mainly related to the cutting speed, whereas depth of cut has the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting forces. The optimal machining parameters obtained in this study represent reductions about 6.88%, 3.65%, 19.05% in cutting force components (Fa, Fr, Ft, respectively. The latters are compared with the results of initial cutting parameters for machining AISI 4140 steel in the hard turning process.

  8. A novel adsorbent obtained by inserting carbon nanotubes into cavities of diatomite and applications for organic dye elimination from contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwen; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2010-05-15

    A novel approach is described for establishing adsorbents for elimination of water-soluble organic dyes by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the adsorptive sites. Agglomerates of MWCNTs were dispersed into individual tubes (dispersed-MWCNTs) using sodium n-dodecyl itaconate mixed with 3-(N,N-dimethylmyristylammonio)-propanesulfonate as the dispersants. The resultant dispersed-MWCNTs were inserted into cavities of diatomite to form composites of diatomite/MWCNTs. These composites were finally immobilized onto the cell walls of flexible polyurethane foams (PUF) through an in situ PUF formation process to produce the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent. Ethidium bromide, acridine orange, methylene blue, eosin B, and eosin Y were chosen to represent typical water-soluble organic dyes for studying the adsorptive capabilities of the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent. For comparisons, adsorptive experiments were also carried out by using agglomerates of the sole MWCNTs as adsorbents. The foam-like CNT-based adsorbents were found to have higher adsorptive capacities than the CNT agglomerates for all five dyes; in addition, they are macro-sized, durable, flexible, hydrophilic and easy to use. Adsorption isotherms plotted based on the Langmuir equation gave linear results, suggesting that the foam-like CNT-based adsorbent functioned in the Langmuir adsorption manner. The foam-like CNT-based adsorbents are reusable after regeneration with aqueous ethanol solution. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sparse Channel Estimation Including the Impact of the Transceiver Filters with Application to OFDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbu, Oana-Elena; Pedersen, Niels Lovmand; Manchón, Carles Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the dictionary matrices used in sparse wireless channel estimation have been based on the discrete Fourier transform, following the assumption that the channel frequency response (CFR) can be approximated as a linear combination of a small number of multipath components, each one......) and receive (demodulation) filters. Hence, the assumption of the CFR being sparse in the canonical Fourier dictionary may no longer hold. In this work, we derive a signal model and subsequently a novel dictionary matrix for sparse estimation that account for the impact of transceiver filters. Numerical...... results obtained in an OFDM transmission scenario demonstrate the superior accuracy of a sparse estimator that uses our proposed dictionary rather than the classical Fourier dictionary, and its robustness against a mismatch in the assumed transmit filter characteristics....

  10. A new method of simulating fiber suspensions and applications to channel Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A successive iteration method is proposed to numerically simulate fiber suspensions. The computational field is discretized with the collocated finite volume method, and an ergodic hypothesis is adopted to greatly accelerate the solution to the Fokker - Planck equation. The method is employed in channel flows with different fiber volume fractions and aspect ratios, and its effectiveness is proved. The numerical results show that the existence of fibers significantly changes the pressure distribution, and the fiber aspect ratio has a greater effect on the velocity profile than on the volume faction. At the center of the channel, the velocity increases along the streamwise direction, while the velocity near the wall decreases slightly. The uncoupling and coupling solutions of the additional stress of the fiber suspensions are quite different. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Wideband Channel Modeling for mm-Wave inside Trains for 5G-Related Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Moreno García-Loygorri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger trains and especially metro trains have been identified as one of the key scenarios for 5G deployments. The wireless channel inside a train car is reported in the frequency range between 26.5 GHz and 40 GHz. These bands have received a lot of interest for high-density scenarios with a high-traffic demand, two of the most relevant aspects of a 5G network. In this paper we provide a full description of the wideband channel estimating Power-Delay Profiles (PDP, Saleh-Valenzuela model parameters, time-of-arrival (TOA ranging, and path-loss results. Moreover, the performance of an automatic clustering algorithm is evaluated. The results show a remarkable degree of coherence and general conclusions are obtained.

  12. Study on application of two-fluid model in narrow annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Yang Yanhua; Zhao Hua

    2007-01-01

    The Chexal-Harrison two-phase wall and inter-phase friction models developed by EPRI newly and the simple two-phase wall and inter-phase heat transfer models put forward by the paper are used to set up the two-fluid model which is fitted for boiling heat transfer and flow in narrow annular channel. On the base of the two-fluid model, a thermal hydraulic code-THYME is accomplished. Then the thermal hydraulic characteristic of narrow annular channel is analyzed by RELAP5/MOD3.2 code and THYME code. Compared with experimental data, RELAP5/MOD3.2 underestimates the outlet steam, and the results of THYME is agreed with the experimental data. (authors)

  13. Adaptive co-channel interference cancelation for power-limited applications

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-09-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive co-channel interference -steering algorithm for highly correlated receive antenna channels with an aim of reducing the power consumption at the receiver. With this algorithm, the receiver activates as many antennas as necessary to maintain the residual total interference instantaneous power within a tolerable range, which can be set to guarantee a target performance level. The mode of operation does not require perfect knowledge of the statistical ordering of interfering signals instantaneous powers, which further reduces the complexity of implementation. It is shown that the arbitrary interference cancelation technique and no cancelation scenario can be studied as limiting cases of the proposed scheme. Analytical expressions for the statistics of the residual total interference instantaneous power are derived, which are then used to obtain results for the average number of active antennas and system outage performance. Numerical studies supported by simulations are presented to clarify the usefulness of the proposed scheme. ©2010 IEEE.

  14. Reliability of high mobility SiGe channel MOSFETs for future CMOS applications

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Jacopo; Groeseneken, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Due to the ever increasing electric fields in scaled CMOS devices, reliability is becoming a showstopper for further scaled technology nodes. Although several groups have already demonstrated functional Si channel devices with aggressively scaled Equivalent Oxide Thickness (EOT) down to 5Å, a 10 year reliable device operation cannot be guaranteed anymore due to severe Negative Bias Temperature Instability. This book focuses on the reliability of the novel (Si)Ge channel quantum well pMOSFET technology. This technology is being considered for possible implementation in next CMOS technology nodes, thanks to its benefit in terms of carrier mobility and device threshold voltage tuning. We observe that it also opens a degree of freedom for device reliability optimization. By properly tuning the device gate stack, sufficiently reliable ultra-thin EOT devices with a 10 years lifetime at operating conditions are demonstrated. The extensive experimental datasets collected on a variety of processed 300mm wafers and pr...

  15. A new method of simulating fiber suspensions and applications to channel Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wei; Zhou, Kun

    2012-01-01

    A successive iteration method is proposed to numerically simulate fiber suspensions. The computational field is discretized with the collocated finite volume method, and an ergodic hypothesis is adopted to greatly accelerate the solution to the Fokker - Planck equation. The method is employed in channel flows with different fiber volume fractions and aspect ratios, and its effectiveness is proved. The numerical results show that the existence of fibers significantly changes the pressure distribution, and the fiber aspect ratio has a greater effect on the velocity profile than on the volume faction. At the center of the channel, the velocity increases along the streamwise direction, while the velocity near the wall decreases slightly. The uncoupling and coupling solutions of the additional stress of the fiber suspensions are quite different. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. High energy channeling and application. Progress report, November 1, 1983-October 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, W.M.; Sun, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    New research using CLEO detector at Cornell synchrotron has started this year, studying B-meson physics. At Fermilab, particles at highest energy (400 GeV) has been steered through a crystal septum for the first time. At SLAC, both the dipole and the new electron synchrotron radiation has been observed. New crystal assisted pair production processes and channeling radiation up to 150 GeV were reported. 17 references

  17. Evaluation and selection of hot channel (peaking) factors for research reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    A proposed method for selecting and applying hot channel factors is presented along with some justification for these selections. The method is illustrated by example, and the sensitivity to some of the choices is examined. The uncertainty in the heat transfer coefficient is a major contributor to the reduction in thermal-hydraulic safety margins. The uncertainty introduced by the heterogeneity in the fuel is another important contributor and an area where more information may be useful in reducing this uncertainty. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of 1024 channel VUV-photo-diodes for soft x-ray diagnostic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    We tested the operation of 1024 channel diode arrays (Model AXUV-1024, from IRD, Inc.) in subdued room light to establish that they worked and to determine the direction and speed of the scan of the 1024 channels. Further tests were performed in vacuum in the HAP, High-Average-Power Facility. There we found that the bare or glass covered diodes detected primarily visible light as expected, but diodes filtered by aluminized parylene, produced a signal consistent with soft x-rays. It is probable that the spectral response and sensitivity, as discussed below, reproduce that previously demonstrated by 1 to 16 channel VUV-photodiodes; however, significantly more effort would be required to establish that experimentally. These detectors appear to be worth further evaluation where 25 w spatial resolution bolometers or spectrograph detectors of known sensitivity are required, and single-shot or 0.02-0.2s time response is adequate. (Presumably, faster readout would be available with custom drive circuitry.)

  19. Channel processor in 2D cluster finding algorithm for high energy physics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Rourab; Chakrabarti, Amlan; Mitra, Jubin; Khan, Shuaib A.; Nayak, Tapan; Mukherjee, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    In a Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) at CERN 1 TB/s (approximately) data comes from front end electronics. Previously, we had 1 GBT link operated with a cluster clock frequencies of 133 MHz and 320 MHz in Run 1 and Run 2 respectively. The cluster algorithm proposed in Run 1 and 2 could not work in Run 3 as the data speed increased almost 20 times. Older version cluster algorithm receives data sequentially as a stream. It has 2 main sub processes - Channel Processor, Merging process. The initial step of channel processor finds a peak Q max and sums up pads (sensors) data from -2 time bin to +2 time bin in the time direction. The computed value stores in a register named cluster fragment data (cfd o ). The merging process merges cfd o in pad direction. The data streams in Run 2 comes sequentially, which processed by the channel processor and merging block in a sequential manner with very less resource over head. In Run 3 data comes parallely, 1600 data from 1600 pads of a single time instant comes at each 200 ns interval (5 MHz) which is very challenging to process in the budgeted resource platform of Arria 10 FPGA hardware with 250 to 320 MHz cluster clock

  20. On the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates with application to the fast outage probability evaluation over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki; Rached, Nadhir B.; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Tempone, Raul

    2017-01-01

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverbation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is intimately related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma-Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of independent and identically distributed Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose a mean-shift importance sampling scheme that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of L-branch maximum ratio combining diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimator satisfies the well-known bounded relative error criterion. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  1. On the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates with application to the fast outage probability evaluation over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2017-04-01

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverbation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is intimately related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma-Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of independent and identically distributed Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose a mean-shift importance sampling scheme that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of L-branch maximum ratio combining diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimator satisfies the well-known bounded relative error criterion. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  2. The correlation based zonal method and its application to the back pass channel of oxy/air-fired CFB boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordbar, Mohammad Hadi; Hyppänen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    A set of correlations for direct exchange area (DEA) between zones are presented. The correlations are simpler and much faster than the classical method used for DEA calculations in zone method. Additionally a unique form of correlation supports both singular and non-singular DEA calculation and no extra effort for non-singular cases is needed. Using the new correlations, the correlation based zone method (CBZM) is introduced and validated by several benchmarks. The CBZM results were in excellent agreement with the benchmark solutions. As an application case, by using the CZBM the gray and non-gray radiative heat transfer has been analyzed in a large back pass channel of a CFB boiler for the case of air and oxygen-fired combustion scenarios. The effect of the spectral radiative behavior of combustion gases on the predicted radiative heat fluxes on the walls is addressed. The effect of combustion scenario on the operation of the unit is also discussed. - Highlights: • Efficient correlations for DEA calculation are presented. • The gray and non-gray correlation based zone method is introduced. • The model is validated against several 3D benchmarks. • The effect of non-gray radiation in a large scale back pass channel is addressed. • The effect of combustion scenario on radiation in back pass channel is reported

  3. Application of the MIT two-channel model to predict flow recirculation in WARD 61-pin blanket tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.T.; Todreas, N.E.

    1983-01-01

    The preliminary application of MIT two-channel model to WARD sodium blanket tests was presented in this report. The criterion was employed to predict the recirculation for selected completed (transient and steady state) and proposed (transient only) tests. The heat loss was correlated from the results of the WARD zero power tests. The calculational results show that the criterion agrees with the WARD tests except for WARD RUN 718 for which the criterion predicts a different result from WARD data under bundle heat loss condition. However, if the test assembly is adiabatic, the calculations predict an operating point which is marginally close to the mixed-to-recirculation transition regime

  4. Application of the MIT two-channel model to predict flow recirculation in WARD 61-pin blanket tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.T.; Todreas, N.E.

    1983-01-01

    The preliminary application of MIT TWO-CHANNEL MODEL to WARD sodium blanket tests was presented in this report. Our criterion was employed to predict the recirculation for selected completed (transient and steady state) and proposed (transient only) tests. The heat loss was correlated from the results of the WARD zero power tests. The calculational results show that our criterion agrees with the WARD tests except for WARD RUN 718 for which the criterion predicts a different result from WARD data under bundle heat loss condition. However, if the test assembly is adiabatic, the calculations predict an operating point which is marginally close to the mixed-to-recirculation transition regime

  5. Fuel channel closure and adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashen, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a mechanical closure/actuating ram combination particularly suited for use in sealing the ends of the pressure tubes when a CANDU-type reactor is refueled. It provides a cluster that may be inserted into a fuel channel end fitting to provide at least partial closing off of a pressure tube while permitting the disengagement of the fueling machine and its withdrawal from the closure for other purposes. The invention also provides a ram/closure combination wherein the application of loading force to a deformable sealing disk is regulated by a massive load bar component forming part of the fueling machine and being therefore accessible for maintenance or replacement

  6. Lithium insertion in nanostructured titanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghols, W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Upon nano-sizing of insertion compounds several significant changes in Li-insertion behavior have been observed for sizes below approximately 50 nm. Although the origins of the phenomena are interrelated, the changes can be divided in three main observations. (1) The formation of new phases, leading

  7. Chest tube insertion - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest tubes are inserted to drain blood, fluid, or air and allow full expansion of the lungs. The tube is placed in the pleural space. The area where the tube will be inserted is numbed (local anesthesia). The patient may also be sedated. The chest ...

  8. Application of real-time PCR of sex-independent insertion-deletion polymorphisms to determine fetal sex using cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sherry Sze Yee; Barrett, Angela; Thadani, Henna; Asibal, Cecille Laureano; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan; Choolani, Mahesh

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of sex-linked disorders requires invasive procedures, carrying a risk of miscarriage of up to 1%. Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) present in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from maternal plasma offers a non-invasive source of fetal genetic material for analysis. Detection of Y-chromosome sequences in cfDNA indicates presence of a male fetus; in the absence of a Y-chromosome signal a female fetus is inferred. We aimed to validate the clinical utility of insertion-deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) to confirm presence of a female fetus using cffDNA. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the Y-chromosome-specific sequence, SRY, was performed on cfDNA from 82 samples at 6-39 gestational weeks. In samples without detectable SRY, qPCRs for eight INDELs were performed on maternal genomic DNA and cfDNA. Detection of paternally inherited fetal alleles in cfDNA negative for SRY confirmed a female fetus. Fetal sex was correctly determined in 77/82 (93.9%) cfDNA samples. SRY was detected in all 39 samples from male-bearing pregnancies, and none of the 43 female-bearing pregnancies (sensitivity and specificity of SRY qPCR is therefore 100%; 95% CI 91%-100%). Paternally inherited fetal alleles were detected in 38/43 samples with no SRY signal, confirming the presence of a female fetus (INDEL assay sensitivity is therefore 88.4%; 95% CI 74.1%-95.6%). Since paternally inherited fetal INDELs were not used in women bearing male fetuses, the specificity of INDELs cannot be calculated. Five cfDNA samples were negative for both SRY and INDELS. We have validated a non-invasive prenatal test to confirm fetal sex as early as 6 gestational weeks using cffDNA from maternal plasma.

  9. Response matrix method and its application to SCWR single channel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiyun; Tseng, K.J.; Tso, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    To simulate the reactor system dynamic features during density wave oscillations (DWO), both the non-linear method and the linear method can be used. Although some transient information is lost through model linearization, the high computational efficiency and relatively accurate results make the linear analysis methodology attractive, especially for prediction of the onset of instability. In the linear stability analysis, the system models are simplified through linearization of the complex non-linear differential equations, and then, the linear differential equations are generally solved in the frequency domain through Laplace transformation. In this paper, a system response matrix method was introduced by directly solving the differential equations in the time domain. By using a system response matrix method, the complicated transfer function derivation, which must be done in the frequency domain method, can be avoided. Using the response matrix method, a model was developed and applied to the single channel or parallel channel type instability analyses of the typical proposed SCWR design. The sensitivity of the decay ratio (DR) to the axial mesh size was analyzed and it was found that the DR is not sensitive to mesh size once sufficient number of axial nodes is applied. To demonstrate the effects of the inlet orificing to the stability feature for the supercritical condition, the sensitivity of the stability to inlet orifice coefficient was conducted for hot channel. It is clearly shown that a higher inlet orifice coefficient will make the system more stable. The susceptibility of stability to operating parameters such as mass flow rate, power and system pressure was also performed. And the measure to improve the SCWR stability sensitivity to operating parameters was investigated. It was found that the SCWR stability sensitivity feature can be improved by carefully managing the inlet orifices and choosing proper operating parameters. (author)

  10. Use of a Flexible Inflatable Multi-Channel Applicator for Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Management of Gynecologic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M Shin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluate use of novel multi-channel applicator (MC CapriTM to improve vaginal disease coverage achievable by single-channel applicator (SC and comparable to Syed plan simulation. Material and Methods: 28 plans were evaluated from 4 patients with primary or recurrent gynecologic cancer in the vagina. Each received whole pelvis radiation, followed by 3 weekly treatments using HDR brachytherapy with a 13-channel MC. Upper vagina was treated to 5 mm depth to 1500 cGy/3 fractions with a simultaneous integrated boost totaling 2100 cGy/3 fractions to tumor. Modeling of SC and Syed plans was performed using MC scans for each patient. Dosimetry for MC and SC plans was evaluated for PTV700 cGy coverage, maximum dose to 2cm3 to bladder, rectum as well as mucosal surface points. Dosimetry for Syed plans was calculated for PTV700 cGy coverage. Patients were followed for treatment response and toxicity.Results: Dosimetric analysis between MC and SC plans demonstrated increased tumor coverage (PTV700 cGy, with decreased rectal, bladder, and contralateral vaginal mucosa dose in favor of MC. These differences were significant (p<0.05. Comparison of MC and Syed plans demonstrated increased tumor coverage in favor of Syed plans which were not significant (p=0.71. Patients treated with MC had no cancer recurrence or ≥ grade 3 toxicity.Conclusion: Use of MC was efficacious and safe, providing superior coverage of tumor volumes ≤1cm depth compared to SC and comparable to Syed implant. MC avoids excess dose to surrounding organs compared to SC, and potentially less morbidity than Syed implants. For tumors extending ≤1cm depth, use of MC represents an alternative to an interstitial implant.

  11. Dynamical coupled-channels model for meson productions and application to strange nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, S.X.; Kamano, H.; Lee, T.-S.H.; Sato, T.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss our dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model in the context of extracting interesting strange nuclear physics from forthcoming J-PARC data. We describe the dynamical contents of the model, and its capability of describing a large amount of data of S=0 sector, namely, πN, γN → πN, ηN, KΛ, KΣ data. Then we discuss future extensions of the DCC model to S ≠ 0 and B ≥ 1 sectors. We emphasize that realistic amplitudes will be essential for extracting interesting physics from data, and the extended DCC model will play an important role there. (author)

  12. Analysis of Simulated and Measured Indoor Channels for mm-Wave Beamforming Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Anders; Fan, Wei; Zhang, Fengchun

    2018-01-01

    was investigated using both single beam and multiple beams, with two different power allocation schemes applied to multi-beamforming. Channel measurements were performed at 28-30 GHz using a vector network analyzer equipped with a Biconical antenna as the transmit antenna and a rotated horn antenna as the receive...... antenna. 3D ray tracing simulations were carried out in the same replicated propagation environments. Based on measurement and ray tracing simulation data, it is shown that RT-assisted beamforming performs well both for single and multi-beamforming in these two representative indoor propagation...

  13. Analysis of Beamformer Directed Single-Channel Noise Reduction System for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    2015-01-01

    We study multi-microphone noise reduction systems consisting of a beamformer and a single-channel (SC) noise reduction stage. In particular, we present and analyse a maximum likelihood (ML) method for jointly estimating the target and noise power spectral densities (psd's) entering the SC filter....... We show that the estimators are minimum variance and unbiased, and provide closed-form expressions for their mean-square error (MSE). Furthermore, we show that the MSE of the noise psd estimator is particularly simple: it is independent of target signal characteristics, frequency, and microphone...

  14. Bisacenaphthopyrazinoquinoxaline derivatives: Synthesis, physical properties and applications as semiconductors for n-channel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Chenhua

    2013-01-01

    Several bisacenaphthopyrazinoquinoxaline (BAPQ) based derivatives 1-3 were synthesized by condensation between the acenaphthenequinones and 1,2,4,5-tetraaminobenzene tetrahydrochloride. Their optical, electrochemical and self-assembling properties are tuned by different substituents. Among them, compound 3 possesses a homogeneously distributed low-lying LUMO due to the peripheral substitution with four cyano groups. The corresponding n-channel field effect transistors showed a field effect electron mobility of 5 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Reduced-Rank Shift-Invariant Technique and Its Application for Synchronization and Channel Identification in UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy RodneyA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate reduced-rank shift-invariant technique and its application for synchronization and channel identification in UWB systems. Shift-invariant techniques, such as ESPRIT and the matrix pencil method, have high resolution ability, but the associated high complexity makes them less attractive in real-time implementations. Aiming at reducing the complexity, we developed novel reduced-rank identification of principal components (RIPC algorithms. These RIPC algorithms can automatically track the principal components and reduce the computational complexity significantly by transforming the generalized eigen-problem in an original high-dimensional space to a lower-dimensional space depending on the number of desired principal signals. We then investigate the application of the proposed RIPC algorithms for joint synchronization and channel estimation in UWB systems, where general correlator-based algorithms confront many limitations. Technical details, including sampling and the capture of synchronization delay, are provided. Experimental results show that the performance of the RIPC algorithms is only slightly inferior to the general full-rank algorithms.

  16. Progress on channel spark development and application of pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) in the field of medical coating work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, Christoph; Buth, Lothar-H.-O.; Frey, Wolfgang; Bluhm, Hansjoachim; Mayer, Hanns-G.

    2002-01-01

    A promising source for Pulsed Electron Beam Deposition (PED) is the channel spark. Recent improvements helped to reduce beam instabilities which up to now have limited the life time of the system. The beam power could be increased and because of better beam quality the transport length of the beam is increased from 1 to several centimeters (up to 10 cm). Together with other improvements on the triggering system and beam transport in dielectric tubes, the channel spark approaches industrial standards. An overview of actual applications in research and industry will be presented. An attractive feature of the pulsed electron beam thin film deposition is the conservation of stoichiometry even during deposition of multi-component earth-alkali and alkali glasses. Specially developed glasses like BIOGLAS registered have the ability to anchor soft living tissue at the surface. In form of a bulk material bio active glasses are brittle limiting its applications. Contrary to brittle bulk material a thin layers on medical implants exhibits reliable bio-functionality. Coating of implants with this category of materials is subject of the European INCOMED project (Innovative Coating of Medical Implants with Soft Tissue Anchoring Ability) which just has started

  17. A novel 2 T P-channel nano-crystal memory for low power/high speed embedded NVM applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junyu; Wang Yong; Liu Jing; Zhang Manhong; Xu Zhongguang; Huo Zongliang; Liu Ming

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel 2 T P-channel nano-crystal memory structure for low power and high speed embedded non-volatile memory (NVM) applications. By using the band-to-band tunneling-induced hot-electron (BTBTIHE) injection scheme, both high-speed and low power programming can be achieved at the same time. Due to the use of a select transistor, the 'erased states' can be set to below 0 V, so that the periphery HV circuit (high-voltage generating and management) and read-out circuit can be simplified. Good memory cell performance has also been achieved, including a fast program/erase (P/E) speed (a 1.15 V memory window under 10 μs program pulse), an excellent data retention (only 20% charge loss for 10 years). The data shows that the device has strong potential for future embedded NVM applications. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Spectrum Graph Coloring and Applications to Wi-Fi Channel Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orden

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and explore a family of vertex-coloring problems, which, surprisingly enough, have not been considered before despite stemming from the problem of Wi-Fi channel assignment. Given a spectrum of colors, endowed with a matrix of interferences between each pair of colors, the Threshold Spectrum Coloring problem fixes the number of colors available and aims to minimize the interference threshold, i.e., the maximum of the interferences at the vertices. Conversely, the Chromatic Spectrum Coloring problem fixes a threshold and aims to minimize the number of colors for which respecting that threshold is possible. As the main theoretical results, we prove tight upper bounds for the solutions to each problem. Since both problems turn out to be NP-hard, we complete the scene with experimental results. We propose a DSATUR-based heuristic and study its performance to minimize the maximum vertex interference in Wi-Fi channel assignment, both for randomly-generated graphs and for a real-world scenario. Further, for all these graphs, we experimentally check the goodness of the theoretical bounds.

  19. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Model for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    that the head is mod- eled more accurately, and the radiation pattern is sampled in more points. The model is able to take the on-body radiation pattern of the antenna, as well as arbitrary he ad contours into account. The model is validated by the use of measurements and Ansys HFSS simulations on the specific......The deterministic ear-to-ear on-body channel is modeled by the use of a number of elliptically shaped paths. The semi-major axes of the elliptica lly shaped paths are adjusted such that they trace the outline of the head. The path gain converges when the number of paths is increased, su ch...... anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) head. The model is used with a g enetic algorithm in order to synthesize a radiation pattern that is optimal for use with the ear-to-ear on-body channel. The radiation pattern is synthesized in terms of the spherical wave expansion coefficients of the hypothetical small antenna...

  20. Neutron absorber inserts for 55-gal drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.; Kim, Y.S.; Toffer, H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport and temporary storage of more than 200 g of fissile material in 55-gal drums at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have received significant attention during the cleanup mission. This paper discusses successful applications and results of extensive computer studies. Interim storage and movement of fissile material in excess of standard drum limits (200 g) in a safe configuration have been accomplished using special drum inserts. Such inserts have constrained the contents of a drum to two 4-ell bottles. The content of the bottles was limited to 600 g Pu or U in solution or a total of 1200 g for the entire drum. The inserts were a simple design constructed of stainless steel, forming a vertical cylindrical pipe into which two bottles, one on top of the other, could be centered in the drum. The remaining drum volume was configured to preclude any additional bottle placement external to the vertical cylinder. Such inserts in drums were successfully used in moving high-concentration solution from one building to another for chemical processing. Concern about the knowledge of fissile material concentration in bottles prompted another study for drum inserts. The past practice had been to load up to fourteen 4-ell bottles into 55-gal drums, provided the fissile material concentration was < 6 g fissile/ell, and the total drum contents of 200 g fissile was not exceeded. Only one determination of the solution concentration was needed. An extensive safety analysis concluded that a single measurement of bottle content could not ensure compliance with double-contingency-criterion requirements. A second determination of the bottle contents was required before bottles could be placed in a 55-gal drum. Al alternative to a dual-measurement protocol, which is for bolstering administrative control, was to develop an engineered safety feature that would eliminate expensive tests and administrative decisions. A drum insert design was evaluated that would

  1. Investigation of InP/InGaAs metamorphic co-integrated complementary doping-channel field-effect transistors for logic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jung-Hui

    2014-01-01

    DC performance of InP/InGaAs metamorphic co-integrated complementary doping-channel field-effect transistors (DCFETs) grown on a low-cost GaAs substrate is first demonstrated. In the complementary DCFETs, the n-channel device was fabricated on the InxGa1-xP metamorphic linearly graded buffer layer and the p-channel field-effect transistor was stacked on the top of the n-channel device. Particularly, the saturation voltage of the n-channel device is substantially reduced to decrease the VOL and VIH values attributed that two-dimensional electron gas is formed and could be modulated in the n-InGaAs channel. Experimentally, a maximum extrinsic transconductance of 215 (17) mS/mm and a maximum saturation current density of 43 (-27) mA/mm are obtained in the n-channel (p-channel) device. Furthermore, the noise margins NMH and NML are up to 0.842 and 0.330 V at a supply voltage of 1.5 V in the complementary logic inverter application.

  2. Flipping interferometry and its application for quantitative phase microscopy in a micro-channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitshtain, Darina; Turko, Nir A; Javidi, Bahram; Shaked, Natan T

    2016-05-15

    We present a portable, off-axis interferometric module for quantitative phase microscopy of live cells, positioned at the exit port of a coherently illuminated inverted microscope. The module creates on the digital camera an interference pattern between the image of the sample and its flipped version. The proposed simplified module is based on a retro-reflector modification in an external Michelson interferometer. The module does not contain any lenses, pinholes, or gratings and its alignment is straightforward. Still, it allows full control of the off-axis angle and does not suffer from ghost images. As experimentally demonstrated, the module is useful for quantitative phase microscopy of live cells rapidly flowing in a micro-channel.

  3. CFD Analysis of Square Flow Channel in Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer for Space Nuclear Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, S. H.; Suh, K. Y.; Kang, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Solar system exploration relying on chemical rockets suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard nuclear propulsion is an attractive option for space exploration. The performance of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is more than twice that of the best chemical rocket. Resorting to the pure hydrogen (H 2 ) propellant the NTRs can possibly achieve as high as 1,000 s of specific impulse (I sp ) representing the ratio of the thrust over the fuel consumption rate, as compared to only 425 s of H 2 /O 2 rockets. If we reflect on the mission to Mars, NTRs would reduce the round trip time to less than 300 days, instead of over 600 days with chemical rockets. This work presents CFD analysis of one Fuel Element (FE) of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer (TERA). In particular, one Square Flow Channel (SFC) is analyzed in Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC) fuel to examine the effects of mass flow rate on rocket performance

  4. On the Ergodic Capacity of Dual-Branch Correlated Log-Normal Fading Channels with Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2015-05-01

    Closed-form expressions of the ergodic capacity of independent or correlated diversity branches over Log-Normal fading channels are not available in the literature. Thus, it is become of an interest to investigate the behavior of such metric at high signal-to-noise (SNR). In this work, we propose simple closed-form asymptotic expressions of the ergodic capacity of dual-branch correlated Log- Normal corresponding to selection combining, and switch-and-stay combining. Furthermore, we capitalize on these new results to find new asymptotic ergodic capacity of correlated dual- branch free-space optical communication system under the impact of pointing error with both heterodyne and intensity modulation/direct detection. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Development and applications of the channel network model for simulations of flow and solute transport in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, B.

    1997-01-01

    The Channel Network model and its computer implementation, the code CHAN3D, for simulations of fluid flow and transport of solutes have been developed. The tool may be used for performance and safety assessments of deep lying repositories in fractured rocks for nuclear and other hazardous wastes, e.g. chemical wastes. It may also be used to simulate and interpret field experiments of flow and transport in large or small scale. Fluid flow and solute transport in fractured media are of interest in the performance assessment of a repository for hazardous waste, located at depth in crystalline rock, with potential release of solutes. Fluid flow in fractured rock is found to be very unevenly distributed due to the heterogeneity of the medium. The water will seek the easiest path, channels, under a prevailing pressure gradient. Solutes in the flowing water may be transported through preferential paths and migrate from the water in the fractures into the stagnant water in the rock matrix. There, sorbing solutes may be sorbed on the micro surfaces within the matrix. The diffusion into the matrix and the sorption process may significantly retard the transport of species and increase the time available for radionuclide decay. Channelling and matrix diffusion contribute to the dispersion of solutes in the water. Important for performance assessment is that channeling may cause a portion of the solutes to arrive much faster than the rest of the solutes. Simulations of field experiments at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory using the Channel Network model have been performed. The application of the model to the site and the simulation results of the pumping and tracer tests are presented. The results show that the model is capable of describing the hydraulic gradient and of predicting flow rates and tracer transport obtained in the experiments. The data requirements for the Channel Network model have been investigated to determine which data are the most important for predictions

  6. Methanol Formation via Oxygen Insertion Chemistry in Ices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, Jennifer B. [Harvard University Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 10 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Öberg, Karin I.; Rajappan, Mahesh [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We present experimental constraints on the insertion of oxygen atoms into methane to form methanol in astrophysical ice analogs. In gas-phase and theoretical studies this process has previously been demonstrated to have a very low or nonexistent energy barrier, but the energetics and mechanisms have not yet been characterized in the solid state. We use a deuterium UV lamp filtered by a sapphire window to selectively dissociate O{sub 2} within a mixture of O{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} and observe efficient production of CH{sub 3}OH via O({sup 1}D) insertion. CH{sub 3}OH growth curves are fit with a kinetic model, and we observe no temperature dependence of the reaction rate constant at temperatures below the oxygen desorption temperature of 25 K. Through an analysis of side products we determine the branching ratio of ice-phase oxygen insertion into CH{sub 4}: ∼65% of insertions lead to CH{sub 3}OH, with the remainder leading instead to H{sub 2}CO formation. There is no evidence for CH{sub 3} or OH radical formation, indicating that the fragmentation is not an important channel and that insertions typically lead to increased chemical complexity. CH{sub 3}OH formation from O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} diluted in a CO-dominated ice similarly shows no temperature dependence, consistent with expectations that insertion proceeds with a small or nonexistent barrier. Oxygen insertion chemistry in ices should therefore be efficient under low-temperature ISM-like conditions and could provide an important channel to complex organic molecule formation on grain surfaces in cold interstellar regions such as cloud cores and protoplanetary disk midplanes.

  7. Methanol Formation via Oxygen Insertion Chemistry in Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Jennifer B.; Öberg, Karin I.; Rajappan, Mahesh

    2017-08-01

    We present experimental constraints on the insertion of oxygen atoms into methane to form methanol in astrophysical ice analogs. In gas-phase and theoretical studies this process has previously been demonstrated to have a very low or nonexistent energy barrier, but the energetics and mechanisms have not yet been characterized in the solid state. We use a deuterium UV lamp filtered by a sapphire window to selectively dissociate O2 within a mixture of O2:CH4 and observe efficient production of CH3OH via O(1D) insertion. CH3OH growth curves are fit with a kinetic model, and we observe no temperature dependence of the reaction rate constant at temperatures below the oxygen desorption temperature of 25 K. Through an analysis of side products we determine the branching ratio of ice-phase oxygen insertion into CH4: ˜65% of insertions lead to CH3OH, with the remainder leading instead to H2CO formation. There is no evidence for CH3 or OH radical formation, indicating that the fragmentation is not an important channel and that insertions typically lead to increased chemical complexity. CH3OH formation from O2 and CH4 diluted in a CO-dominated ice similarly shows no temperature dependence, consistent with expectations that insertion proceeds with a small or nonexistent barrier. Oxygen insertion chemistry in ices should therefore be efficient under low-temperature ISM-like conditions and could provide an important channel to complex organic molecule formation on grain surfaces in cold interstellar regions such as cloud cores and protoplanetary disk midplanes.

  8. Additive Manufacturing for Highly Efficient Window Inserts CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roschli, Alex C. [ORNL; Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL

    2018-04-01

    ORNL partnered with the Mackinac Technology Company to demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to create highly energy efficient window inserts for retrofit in pre-existing buildings. Many early iterations of the window inserts were fabricated using carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics and polycarbonate films as a stand in for the low-e coated films produced by the Mackinac Technology Company. After demonstration of the proof of concept, i.e. custom window inserts with tensioned film, the materials used for the manufacture of the frames was more closely examined. Hollow particle-filled syntactic foam and low-density polymer composites formed by expandable microspheres were explored as the materials used to additively manufacture the frames of the inserts. It was concluded that low-cost retrofit window inserts in custom sizes could be easily fabricated using large scale additive manufacturing. Furthermore, the syntactic and expanded foams developed and tested satisfy the mechanical performance requirements for the application.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of sub-20 nm black phosphorus based junctionless-recessed channel MOSFET for analog/RF applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Tripathi, M. M.; Chaujar, Rishu

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a comprehensive analog and RF performance of a novel Black Phosphorus-Junctionless-Recessed Channel (BP-JL-RC) MOSFET has been explored at 45 nm technology node (Gate length = 20 nm). The integration of black phosphorus with junctionless recessed channel MOSFET, leads to higher drain current of about 0.3 mA and excellent switching ratio (of the order of 1011) due to reduced off-current which leads to improvement in sub-threshold slope (SS) (67mV/dec). Further, RF performance metrics have also been studied with an aim to analyze high-frequency performance. The following FOMs have been evaluated: cut-off frequency (fT), maximum oscillator frequency (fMAX), stern stability factor, various power gains and parasitic capacitances at THz frequency range. Thus, in addition to the high packing density offered by RC MOSFET, the proposed design finds numerous application at THz frequency making it a promising candidate at wafer scale integration level.

  10. Phi-value analysis of a linear, sequential reaction mechanism: theory and application to ion channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Pearson, John E; Auerbach, Anthony

    2005-12-01

    We derive the analytical form of a rate-equilibrium free-energy relationship (with slope Phi) for a bounded, linear chain of coupled reactions having arbitrary connecting rate constants. The results confirm previous simulation studies showing that Phi-values reflect the position of the perturbed reaction within the chain, with reactions occurring earlier in the sequence producing higher Phi-values than those occurring later in the sequence. The derivation includes an expression for the transmission coefficients of the overall reaction based on the rate constants of an arbitrary, discrete, finite Markov chain. The results indicate that experimental Phi-values can be used to calculate the relative heights of the energy barriers between intermediate states of the chain but provide no information about the energies of the wells along the reaction path. Application of the equations to the case of diliganded acetylcholine receptor channel gating suggests that the transition-state ensemble for this reaction is nearly flat. Although this mechanism accounts for many of the basic features of diliganded and unliganded acetylcholine receptor channel gating, the experimental rate-equilibrium free-energy relationships appear to be more linear than those predicted by the theory.

  11. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  12. CFD Analysis of Square Flow Channel in Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer for Space Nuclear Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, S. H.; Suh, K. Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S. G. [PHILOSOPHIA, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Solar system exploration relying on chemical rockets suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard nuclear propulsion is an attractive option for space exploration. The performance of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is more than twice that of the best chemical rocket. Resorting to the pure hydrogen (H{sub 2}) propellant the NTRs can possibly achieve as high as 1,000 s of specific impulse (I{sub sp}) representing the ratio of the thrust over the fuel consumption rate, as compared to only 425 s of H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} rockets. If we reflect on the mission to Mars, NTRs would reduce the round trip time to less than 300 days, instead of over 600 days with chemical rockets. This work presents CFD analysis of one Fuel Element (FE) of Thermal Engine Rocket Adventurer (TERA). In particular, one Square Flow Channel (SFC) is analyzed in Square Lattice Honeycomb (SLHC) fuel to examine the effects of mass flow rate on rocket performance.

  13. A comparative TCAD assessment of III-V channel materials for future high speed and low power logic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, U. P.; Takhar, K.; Ranjan, K.; Rathi, S.; Biswas, D.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, by means physics based drift-diffusion simulations, three different narrow band gap semiconductors; InAs, InSb and In0.53Ga0.47As, and their associated heterostructures have been studied for future high speed and low power logic applications. It is observed that In0.53Ga0.47As has higher immunity towards short channel effects with low DIBL and sub-threshold slope than InSb and InAs. Also it is observed that for the same device geometry InSb has the highest drive current and lower intrinsic delay but its ION/IOFF figure of merit is deteriorated due to excess leakage current.

  14. Generalized non-Local Resistance Expression and its Application in F/N/F Spintronic Structure with Graphene Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huazhou; Fu, Shiwei

    We report our work on the spin transport properties in the F/N/F(ferromagnets/normal metal/ferromagnets) spintronic structure from a new theoretical perspective. A significant problem in the field is to explain the inferior measured order of magnitude for spin lifetime. Based on the known non-local resistance formula and the mechanism analysis of spin-flipping within the interfaces between F and N, we analytically derive a broadly applicable new non-local resistance expression and a generalized Hanle curve formula. After employing them in the F/N/F structure under different limits, especially in the case of graphene channel, we find that the fitting from experimental data would yield a longer spin lifetime, which approaches its theoretical predicted value in graphene. The authors acknowledge the financial support by China University of Petroleum-Beijing and the Key Laboratory of Optical Detection Technology for Oil and Gas in this institution.

  15. Self-consistent ansatz for energy levels of the anharmonic oscillator with an application to channeling radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, Biswanath

    1988-01-01

    An ansatz is developed to find out an analytical expression for energy levels of anharmonic oscillators of the type V(X) X/sup 2//2 + lambdaXsup(2m) (m = 2,3) which is valid for all values of n and all regimes of parameter space. The procedure is extended to find out an analytical expression for the energy levels of the oscillator V(X) X/sup 2//2 + lambda/sub 1/ X/sup 4/ + lambda/sub 2/ X/sup 6/. As a practical application, it has been applied to calculate the characteristics of radiation emitted due to channeling of relativistic positrons between (100) planes in silicon.

  16. Credit supply and monetary policy : Identifying the bank balance-sheet channel with loan applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez Porras, G.; Ongena, S.; Peydro, J.L.; Saurina, J.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the impact of monetary policy on the supply of bank credit. Monetary policy affects both loan supply and demand, thus making identification a steep challenge. We therefore analyze a novel, supervisory dataset with loan applications from Spain. Accounting for time-varying firm

  17. All optical wavelength conversion and parametric amplification in Ti:PPLN channel waveguides for telecommunication applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouroozi, Rahman

    2010-10-19

    Efficient ultra-fast integrated all-optical wavelength converters and parametric amplifiers transparent to the polarization, phase, and modulation-level and -format are investigated. The devices take advantage of the optical nonlinearity of Ti:PPLN waveguides exploiting difference frequency generation (DFG). In a DFG, the signal ({lambda}{sub s}) is mixed with a pump ({lambda}{sub p}) to generate a wavelength shifted idler (1/{lambda}{sub i}=1/{lambda}{sub p}-1/{lambda}{sub s}). Efficient generation of the pump in Ti:PPLN channel guides is investigated using different approaches. In the waveguide resonators, first a resonance of the fundamental wave alone is considered. It is shown that the maximum power enhancement of the fundamental wave, and therefore the maximum second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency, can be achieved with low loss matched resonators. By this way, SHG efficiency of {proportional_to}10300%/W (10.3 %/mW) has been achieved in a 65 mm long waveguide resonator. Its operation for cSHG/DFG requires narrowband reflector for fundamental wave only. Thus, the SH (pump) wave resonator is investigated. The SH-wave resonator enhances the intracavity SH power only. Based on this scheme, an improvement of {proportional_to}10 dB for cSHG/DFG based wavelength conversion efficiency has been achieved with 50 mW of coupled fundamental power in a 30 mm long Ti:PPLN. However, operation was limited to relatively small fundamental power levels (<50 mW) due to the onset of photorefractive instabilities destroying the cavity stabilization. The cSHG/DFG efficiency can be considerably improved by using a double-pass configuration in which all the interacting waves were reflected by a broadband dielectric mirror deposited on the one endface of the waveguide. Three different approaches are investigated and up to 9 dB improvement of the wavelength conversion efficiency in comparison with the single-pass configuration is achieved. Polarization-insensitive wavelength

  18. Application of a TNF-alpha-inhibitor into the scala tympany after cochlear electrode insertion trauma in guinea pigs: preliminary audiologic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihler, Friedrich; Pelz, Sabrina; Coors, Melanie; Matthias, Christoph; Canis, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Cochlear implantation trauma causes both macroscopic and inflammatory trauma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the TNF-alpha inhibitor etanercept applied after cochlear implantation trauma on the preservation of acoustic hearing. Guinea pigs were randomly assigned to three groups receiving cochlear implantation trauma by cochleostomy. In one group, the site was sealed by bone cement with no further treatment. A second group was additionally implanted with an osmotic minipump delivering artificial perilymph into the scala tympani for seven days. In the third group, etanercept 1 mg/ml was added to artificial perilymph. Hearing was assessed by auditory brainstem responses at 2, 4, 6, and 8 kHz prior to and after surgery and on days 3, 5, 7, 14, 28. Fifteen healthy guinea pigs. The trauma led to threshold shifts from 50.3 dB ± 16.3 dB to 68.0 dB ± 19.3 dB. Hearing thresholds were significantly lower in etanercept-treated animals compared to controls on day 28 at 8 kHz and from day 3 onwards at 4 and 2 kHz (p < 0.01; two-way RM ANOVA / Bonferroni t-test). The application of etanercept led to preservation of acoustic hearing after cochlear implantation trauma.

  19. Wireless cardiac action potential transmission with ultrasonically inserted silicon microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C J; Ramkumar, A; Lal, A; Gilmour, R F Jr

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the integration of ultrasonically inserted horn-shaped cardiac probes with wireless transmission of 3D cardiac action potential measurement for applications in ex vivo preparations such as monitoring the onset of ventricular fibrillation. Ultrasonically inserted silicon horn probes permit reduced penetration force during insertion, allowing silicon, a brittle material, to penetrate cardiac tissue. The probes also allow recording from multiple sites that are lithographically defined. An application-specific integrated circuit has been designed with a 40 dB amplifying stage and a frequency modulating oscillator at 95 MHz to wirelessly transmit the recorded action potentials. This ultrasonically inserted microprobe wireless system demonstrates the initial results in wireless monitoring of 3D action potential propagation, and the extraction of parameters of interest including the action potential duration and diastolic interval

  20. 10-channel neutral particle energy analyser apparatus and its application to tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Funahashi, Akimasa; Takahashi, Koki; Shirakata, Hirofumi; Yano, Syukuro.

    1976-07-01

    A 10-channel neutral particle energy analyser apparatus for measurement of charge-exchange fast atoms emitted from a hot tokamak plasma has been constructed to determine the ion temperature of plasma from fewer discharge shots and to improve the accuracy of measurement. It consists of a 45-degrees parallel plate electrostatic analyser with ten ion detectors (Ceratron multipliers), a charge stripping cell, a dry vacuum pumping system and pulse-counting circuits for data acquisition. A calibration experiment of the apparatus is made for the particle energy and the energy resolution with electron beams of 100 to 1000 eV. The transmission efficiency of particles in the energy analyser is measured with proton beams of 1, 2 and 3 keV, and the conversion efficiency for H 2 gas in a charge stripping cell is also determined with hydrogen-atom beams of 2, 3 and 4 keV. Ion temperatures of JFT-2a and JFT-2 devices were measured with this apparatus, in order to check the usefulness and reliability of the apparatus and to investigate the parameter dependence of ion temperatures. It is found that an ion temperature can be measured with sufficient accuracy from six plasma shots (three shots to determine particle signals and three shots to determine background noises). The peak ion temperatures 80 to 400 eV are about (1/2 - 1/3) of the central electron temperatures. Dependence of the ion temperatures on plasma current I sub(p), toroidal magnetic field B sub(t) and average electron density anti n sub(e) is investigated for I sub(p) = 15 to 170 kAmp, B sub(t) = 10 to 18 kGauss and anti n sub(e) = (0.8 to 1.8) x 10 13 cm -3 on JFT-2a and JFT-2 devices. It is shown that the ion temperatures are in good agreement with the scaling law by Artsimovich Tsub(i) proportional to (Isub(p)Bsub(t) anti n sub(e)R 2 )sup(1/3), with R as the major radius of a tokamak device. (J.P.N.)

  1. An Evaluation for the Development of 4-channel RSPT and its Application for the OPR1000 Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Suk Gyu; Kim, Hyun Min; Song, In Ho; Lee, Yoon Hee; Jeong, Seock Hwan; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Jae Hack; Kim, Jae Hack; Kim, Young Kook; Kong, Seung Joo

    2008-01-01

    An evaluation project for the development and adaptation of 4-channel reed switch position transmitter (RSPT) has been performed by Korea Power Eng. Company, Inc. (KOPEC) as a contractor of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd (KHNP). The 4-channel RSPT is to replace the 2-channel RSPT which is currently installed for all the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) type nuclear power plants (NPP). The 2-channel RSPT design of OPR1000 could lead an unwanted reactor trip caused by the deviation of a 12-finger control element assembly (CEA) position at each RSPT channel. In addition, the inconsistent channel numbers between 4-channel core protection calculator system (CPCS) and 2-channel RSPT made the system configuration and interface design of the CPCS overly complex. Thus, the 4-channel RSPT development is needed to enhance the OPR1000 plant safety and availability. In this project, while maintaining the existing OPR1000 interfacing system boundary, the 4-channel RSPT manufacturability and the proposed CPCS design with the 4-channel RSPT have been evaluated for their implementation feasibility. A reliability analysis of the proposed CPCS has been also performed. Algorithm changes and the effect of design change regarding interfacing components are also suggested

  2. Design of a low power 10 bit 300 ksps multi-channel SAR ADC for wireless sensor network applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Hui; Li Shiliang; Zhou Tao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a low power 10 bit 300 ksps successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) which is applied in wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. A single ended energy-saving split capacitor DAC array and a latch comparator with a rail to rail input stage are utilized to implement the ADC, which can reduce power dissipation while expanding the full scale input range and improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For power optimization the supply voltage of the SAR ADC is designed to be as low as 2 V. Four analog input channels are designed which make the ADC more suitable for WSN applications. The prototype circuit is fabricated using 3.3 V, 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS technology and occupies an active chip area of 1.23 mm 2 . The test results show that the power dissipation is only 200 μW at a 2 V power supply and a sampling rate of 166 ksps. The calculated SNR is 58.25 dB, the ENOB is 9.38 bit and the FOM is 4.95 pJ/conversion-step. (paper)

  3. A Review of Nanoscale Channel and Gate Engineered FINFETs for VLSI Mixed Signal Applications Using Zirconium-di-Oxide Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Nirmal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, most of the research and development efforts in the area of CMOS and IC’s are oriented towards reducing the power and increasing the gain of the circuits. While focusing the attention on low power and high gain in the device, the materials of the device also been taken into consideration. In the present technology, Computationally intensive devices with low power dissipation and high gain are becoming a critical application domain. Several factors have contributed to this paradigm shift. The primary driving factor being the increase in scale of integration, the chip has to accommodate smaller and faster transistors than their predecessors. During the last decade semiconductor technology has been led by conventional scaling. Scaling, has been aimed towards higher speed, lower power and higher density of the semiconductor devices. However, as scaling approached its physical limits, it has become more difficult and challenging for fabrication industry. Therefore, tremendous research has been carried out to investigate the alternatives, and this led to the introduction of new Nano materials and concepts to overcome the difficulties in the device fabrications. In order to reduce the leakage current and parasitic capacitance in devices, gate oxide high-k dielectric materials are explored. Among the different high-k materials available the nano size Zirconium dioxide material is suggested as an alternate gate oxide material for devices due to its thermal stability and small grain size of material. To meet the requirements of ITRS roadmap 2012, the Multi gate devices are considered to be one of the most promising technologies for the future microelectronics industry due to its excellent immunity to short channel effects and high value of On current. The double gate or multi gate devices provide a better scalability option due to its excellent immunity to short-channel effects. Here the different high-k materials are replaced in different

  4. Evaluation of Applicability for the Core Protection Method with 4-Channel CEA Positions to OPR-1000 Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, B. S.; Cho, J. Y.; Song, J. S.

    2008-05-01

    To increase the applicability of research results established during the process of integral reactor development program, a new core protection method with 4-channel CEA positions was applied to the domestic commercial plants and its feasibility was evaluated. To achieve above object, state-of-the-art related to core protection system was analyzed as followings: - Unusual CPC operating experience in Korea - Evaluate the proposals of CPC improvement suggested by CPC Task Force Team - Review the conventional CPC used in Yonggwang and Ulchin plants - Review the Common-Q CPC to be implemented in Shin-Kori Units 1 and 2 - Evaluate the SENTINEL core protection system in US and COPS core protection system in Germany - Examine the applied patents in Korea, US and Japan - Analyze the copyright for computer programs used in core protection system design and license agreement for PWR technology between Westinghouse and Korea. In addition, study for the formation of system, design requirement, algorithm improvement and enhancement of operator interface was performed to apply the newly suggested core protection method to the commercial plants. By adopting this method, it is expected that unnecessary channel of reactor trips will be decreased considerably. Although change of system including CEA must be set forth as a prerequisite to apply this method to the domestic commercial plants as well as scheduled plants, this study suggests the strategy and direction for the development of core protection system in domestic. This study, moreover, will provide the valuable information as a basic data in establishing the detailed development plan for the advanced core protection system in the future

  5. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    An ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven August 16--20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop are outlined, and a few general remarks about the results are presented

  6. Technique of experimental definition of optical thickness of the plasma channel by the method of lightening and possibilities of its application for pulsing discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorovich, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    Results of development and application of a technique of experimental definition of optical thickness τ of the plasma channel in water by the method of lightening are given. Plasma of the discharge in water managed to be lighten through on a stage of relaxation and the logarithm of coefficient of passage of radiation from an extraneous radiation source have been determined. The basic contribution to size of optical thickness gives absorption of radiation, instead of dispersion. But this value is not real optical thickness. Calculation of atoms N a concentration in the channel on values τ, received by the lightening through method, at 4 - 15 times is overestimated in comparison to the values of concentration, received by other independent method. Results of direct measurements of τ by illumination of the plasma channel by reference source EhV-45 are overestimated because of features of passage of appearing through radiation through the channel of the discharge in water of the cylindrical form as it represents a disseminating lens. The reasons of this distinguish of the received by lightening through method values of τ in cylindrical plasma channel in liquids are given. The technique of definition of time of a delay of the beginning of expansion of the channel concerning the moment of submission of a voltage on a digit interval is developed

  7. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Channeling Polyolefin Molecular Structure - Bulk Property Correlation Strategies for Industrial Applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hule, Rohan; Thurman, Derek; Doufas, Antonios

    Polyolefins occupy a significant volume of the polymer products portfolio in commodity and high value applications. Quantifying and optimizing structure-property relationships enables growth in new markets. It is well recognized that coupling lab-based, comprehensive methodologies with bulk properties of interest to industrial environments offer the greatest potential of technology advancement, ultimately leading to commercial success. It is imperative to recognize the existing gap of knowledge translation between lab measurements and industrial-scale operability. This study highlights experimental HDPEs synthesized from dual, single-site, co-supported catalysts that exhibit enhanced solid-state properties such as stiffness, impact and ESCR surpassing conventional trends. Commercial resins across distinct sub-families were included as well. Commonality amongst these resins is bimodality and broad MW distribution with well-defined splits and spreads. Investigations on commercially relevant parameters such as melt strength, melt elasticity and shear thinning established excellent performance for experimental bimodals, corroborating potential benefits compared to commercial HDPEs. To summarize, the effort highlights well-recognized pathways such as improvements in mechanical and melt properties that can be attributed to apposite tuning of polymer chain architecture and MW distribution with implications across myriad markets. Ultimately, this may serve as a pathway for producing innovative products that deliver business success and growth.

  9. Fabrication and Application of Iron(III-Oxide Nanoparticle/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Cone in Microfluidic Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chun Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented the fabrication and applications of an iron(III-oxide nanoparticle/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS cone as a component integrated in lab on a chip. The two main functions of this component were to capture magnetic microbeads in the microfluid and to mix two laminar fluids by generating disturbance. The iron(III-oxide nanoparticle/PDMS cone was fabricated by automatic dispensing and magnetic shaping. Three consecutive cones of 300 μm in height were asymmetrically placed along a microchannel of 2 mm in width and 1.1 mm in height. Flow passing the cones was effectively redistributed for Renolds number lower than . Streptavidin-coated magnetic microbeads which were bound with biotin were successfully captured by the composite cones as inspected under fluorescence microscope. The process parameters for fabricating the composite cones were investigated. The fabricated cone in the microchannel could be applied in lab on a chip for bioassay in the future.

  10. Many-body scattering theory methods as a means for solving bound-state problems: Applications of arrangement-channel quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, F.S.; Krueger, H.

    1977-01-01

    We propose in this article that the non-Hermitian equations typical of some many-body scattering theories be used to help solve many-body bound-state problems. The basic idea is to exploit the channel nature of many-body bound states that must exist because bound states are obvious negative-energy extensions of scattering states. Since atomic, molecular, and nuclear systems all display multichannel effects for E > 0, at least through Pauli-principle effects if not through mass-transfer reactions, this use of positive-energy methods for solving bound-state problems could have wide applicability. The development used here is based on the channel-component-state method of the channel-coupling-array theory, recently described in detail for the E > 0 case, and various aspects of the formalism are discussed. Detailed calculations using simple approximations are discussed for H 2 + , one of the simplest systems displaying channel structure. Comparison with the exact, Born-Oppenheimer results of Wind show that the non-Hermitian-equation, channel-component values of the equilibrium separation and total binding energy are accurate to within 2%, while the dissociation energy is accurate to 10%. The resulting wave function is identical to that arising from the simplest MO calculation, for which these numbers are less accurate than the preceding by at least a factor of 3. We also show that identical particle symmetry for the H 2 + case reduces the pair of coupled (two-channel) equations to a single equation with an exchange term. Similar reductions will occur for larger numbers of identical particles, thus suggesting application of the formalism to atomic structure problems. A detailed analysis of the present numerical results, their general implications, and possible applications is also given

  11. Standard model of WWER-440 fuel rod for Transuranus and its application for RELAP5 hot channel validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatala, B.; Cvan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Within the PECO European Commission project of 'Extension of the validation matrix of the TRANSURANUS code' is developed a generic model of WWER-440 fuel rod. The model is intended to be applied for both realistic and licensing, conservative analysis. For such an application the TRANSURANUS code would be complementary tool to generally used system codes, e.g. RELAP5, providing realistic, more detailed insight into processes and safety criteria, relevant to the fuel rod. The paper presents general description of the model for TRANSURANUS code, brief discussion of approaches used in TRANSURANUS and RELAP5 code safety analysis, accompanied with information about RELAP5 model (whole scope unit model, used for licensing analysis). The existing model for RELAP5 code for WWER-440/V-213 Bohunice V2 unit is checked and modified in hot channel part to allow transparent comparison with the TRANSURANUS code. The results from comparison calculations of the both codes are presented for fresh fuel and quasi steady state scenario and are in good agreement, almost identical. These results might be used as a basis for transient analysis

  12. Application of perturbation theory to sensitivity calculations of PWR type reactor cores using the two-channel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.C.J.G. de.

    1988-12-01

    Sensitivity calculations are very important in design and safety of nuclear reactor cores. Large codes with a great number of physical considerations have been used to perform sensitivity studies. However, these codes need long computation time involving high costs. The perturbation theory has constituted an efficient and economical method to perform sensitivity analysis. The present work is an application of the perturbation theory (matricial formalism) to a simplified model of DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) analysis to perform sensitivity calculations in PWR cores. Expressions to calculate the sensitivity coefficients of enthalpy and coolant velocity with respect to coolant density and hot channel area were developed from the proposed model. The CASNUR.FOR code to evaluate these sensitivity coefficients was written in Fortran. The comparison between results obtained from the matricial formalism of perturbation theory with those obtained directly from the proposed model makes evident the efficiency and potentiality of this perturbation method for nuclear reactor cores sensitivity calculations (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Triroc: A Multi-Channel SiPM Read-Out ASIC for PET/PET-ToF Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Salleh; Fleury, Julien; de la Taille, Christophe; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Dulucq, Frederic; Martin-Chassard, Gisele; Callier, Stephane; Thienpont, Damien; Raux, Ludovic

    2015-06-01

    Triroc is the latest addition to SiPM readout ASICs family developed at Weeroc, a start-up company from the Omega microelectronics group of IN2P3/CNRS. This chip is developed under the framework TRIMAGE European project which is aimed for building a cost effective tri-modal PET/MR/EEG brain scan. To ensure the flexibility and compatibility with any SiPM in the market, the ASIC is designed to be capable of accepting negative and positive polarity input signals. This 64-channel ASIC, is suitable for SiPM readout which requires high accuracy timing and charge measurements. Targeted applications would be PET prototyping with time-of-flight capability. Main features of Triroc includes high dynamic range ADC up to 2500 photoelectrons and TDC fine time binning of 40 ps. Triroc requires very minimal external components which means it is a good contender for compact multichannel PET prototyping. Triroc is designed by using AMS 0.35 μm SiGe technology and it was submitted in March 2014. The detail design of this chip will be presented.

  14. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  15. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  16. Ring insertions as light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Bending magnets can be inserted in the long straight sections of electron storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation. If the design is carefully proportioned, the bending magnets create only a small perturbation of the properties of the ring. The resulting spectra have favorable optical properties as sources for spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The characteristics of the source are discussed, and the geometrical requirements of the magnets are presented

  17. Vacuum guidelines for ISA insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Vacuum requirements place design restrictions on the ISA insertions. The vacuum tube diameter, given a distance L between pumps, is determined by the desorption of molecules from the wall under the impact of ions created by the beam, whereas the thickness of the tube must be sufficient to prevent collapse. In addition, the entire vacuum chamber must be able to be baked out at approximately 200 0 C

  18. Inserts for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragg, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An insert for a nuclear fuel pin which comprises a strip. The strip carries notches, which enable a coding arrangement to be carried on the strip. The notches may be of differing sizes and the coding on the strip includes identification and identification checking data. Each notch on the strip may give rise to a signal pulse which is counted by a detector to avoid errors. (author)

  19. ATLAS insertable B-layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marčišovský, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), "S224"-"S225" ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on radiation imaging detectors /11./. Praha, 26.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * pixel detector * insertable B-layer Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  20. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb$_{3}$Sn m...

  1. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed

  2. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  3. Selective and lithography-independent fabrication of 20 nm nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels for nanoelectrofluidics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J Y; Wang, X F; Wang, X D; Fan, Z C; Li, Y; Ji, An; Yang, F H

    2010-01-01

    A new method has been developed to selectively fabricate nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels by conventional lithography. Based on a sacrificial spacer process, we have successfully obtained sub-100-nm nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels and further reduced the dimensions to 20 nm by shrinking the sacrificial spacer size. Our method shows good selectivity between nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels due to different sacrificial spacer etch conditions. There is no length limit for the nano-gap electrode and the nano-channel. The method reported in this paper also allows for wafer scale fabrication, high throughput, low cost, and good compatibility with modern semiconductor technology.

  4. Regional insertion: an emergent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, M.T.F.; Nascimento Teixeira, P. do

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electrical Sector incorporates new variables that expressing the extensive spectrum of environmental impacts in the take of decisions, referring to the viability of realizing a electrical undertaking, attends the several restrictions that are important by the sector and by the society in the environment area and promotes the adequate generation of liquid benefits, consequential of the electrical undertaking. Due to these factors, the Electrical Sector is improving the concept of regional insertion, with the sectorial expansion in long-dated and the created demand in the environmental and social area, focalizing the solution for these questions. (C.G.C.). 1 fig, 2 tabs

  5. Recent advances in insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskin, E.; Moog, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Demand for more and better insertion devices (IDs) at new third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities has led to significant advances in ID technology at different laboratories around the world. In this overview of this progress, focus is on those results that apply to IDs in general rather than one specific ID or laboratory. The advances fall into two general categories: those that reduce the net effect that the ID has on the particle beam, and those that enhance the quality of the emitted light spectrum. The need for these advances, factors that are most important inaachieving them, and the current state of the art are discussed

  6. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    The last ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven, August 16-20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop, which were somewhat more general than might be suggested by the title, are: (1) review the ISABELLE proposal from the point of view of experimental use; (2) contribute useful information on the ''open questions'' in the ISABELLE design; (3) develop data for experimental equipment and operating cost estimates; and (4) project a first approximation to ISABELLE operating modes

  7. Application of Shuttle Remote Manipulator System technology to the replacement of fuel channels in the Pickering CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, D.; Butt, C.

    1982-04-01

    Spar Aerospace Limited of Toronto was the prime contractor to the National Research Council of Canada for the design and development of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator (SRMS). Spar is presently under contract to Ontario Hydro to design and build a Remote Manipulation Control System to replace the fuel channels in the Pickering A Nuclear Generating Station. The equipment may be used to replace the fuel channels in six other early generation CANDU reactors

  8. High aspect ratio catalytic reactor and catalyst inserts therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Kelly, Sean M.

    2018-04-10

    The present invention relates to high efficient tubular catalytic steam reforming reactor configured from about 0.2 inch to about 2 inch inside diameter high temperature metal alloy tube or pipe and loaded with a plurality of rolled catalyst inserts comprising metallic monoliths. The catalyst insert substrate is formed from a single metal foil without a central supporting structure in the form of a spiral monolith. The single metal foil is treated to have 3-dimensional surface features that provide mechanical support and establish open gas channels between each of the rolled layers. This unique geometry accelerates gas mixing and heat transfer and provides a high catalytic active surface area. The small diameter, high aspect ratio tubular catalytic steam reforming reactors loaded with rolled catalyst inserts can be arranged in a multi-pass non-vertical parallel configuration thermally coupled with a heat source to carry out steam reforming of hydrocarbon-containing feeds. The rolled catalyst inserts are self-supported on the reactor wall and enable efficient heat transfer from the reactor wall to the reactor interior, and lower pressure drop than known particulate catalysts. The heat source can be oxygen transport membrane reactors.

  9. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian

    2012-02-21

    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  10. Insertion and crossing region design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Beloshitsky, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article is the summary of the 5-afternoon tutorial on insertions for circular machines. Roughly half the course (Part 1) was spent discussing interaction regions, We start by recapitulating basic beam optics including building blocks. This provides the tools to analyze the basic structure of interaction regions and explore the parameter space. This simple example is then successively refined and made more realistic. Examples of realized interaction regions for both hadron and electron machines are shown and their salient features and differences explained. A brief discussion of solenoid-decoupling brings Part 1 to a close. In Part 2 we discussed various utility sections. Dispersion suppressors are presented in detail discussing the principles as well as the practical implementation of flexible suppressors using LEP as an example. Injection schemes, both single-turn and multi-turn stacking, are presented in depth. The matching of wiggler and undulator insertions and a discussion of the impact of these devices on beam parameters closes out Part 2

  11. Microstructural information from channeling measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Y.

    1984-09-01

    Channeling is sensitive to nearly all structural changes in solids. One briefly recalls how particles are dechanneled by lattice defects and describes the main applications of channeling to materials science: detection of radiation damage, location of impurity atoms, precipitations in alloys... Channeling being a phenomenon characteristic of perfect crystals, any type of lattice imperfection (phonons, crystal defects, precipitation etc.) is expected to produce dechanneling. Consequently channeling and its opposite, dechanneling, have both been used to study structure and structural changes of materials

  12. Fixed mask assembly research for APS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Fixed Mask Assembly (FMA) is the first component to interact with the photon beam. Two sets of a pair of FMA channels, vertically and horizontally disposed, contain the beam rather than define it. They are subject to very large heat fluxes during containment. In current practice, the FMA channels are made of heavy, seamless copper, have rectangular cross-sections, and are cooled internally with water. Channels are set at grazing angles ranging from I to 6 degrees with respect to the beam, depending on the type of insertion device. APS insertion devices will impose higher heat fluxes on FMAS. Therefore, a need exists to improve the FMA engineering, keeping in mind the current design criteria and philosophy of FMAS. Preliminary analysis of current heat transfer practice indicates that the major resistance to heat transfer is on the coolant side. Therefore, FMA cooling would benefit from enhanced heat transfer on the coolant side. With this principle in mind, an experimental program has been undertaken to explore the feasibility of using high-performance copper tube configurations which are expected to yield heat transfer coefficients, open-quotes hclose quotes, in single phase flow systems 2 to 5(?) times higher than equivalent plain tubes. In this report, the experimental scope and a preliminary analysis of high-performance copper tube configurations are described

  13. SU-G-TeP2-07: Dosimetric Characterization of a New HDR Multi-Channel Esophageal Applicator for Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, A; Gao, S; Greskovich, J; Wilkinson, D [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Diener, T [Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the dose distribution of a new multi-channel esophageal applicator for brachytherapy HDR treatment, and particularly the effect of the presence of air or water in the applicator’s expansion balloon. Methods: A new multi-channel (6) inflatable applicator for esophageal HDR has been developed in house and tested in a simple water phantom. CT image sets were obtained under several balloon expansions (80ml of air, 50 cc of water), and channel loadings and used with the Oncentra (Elekta) planning system based on TG43 formalism. 400 cGy was prescribed to a plane 1cm away from the applicator. Planar dose distributions were measured for that plane and one next to the applicator using Gafchromic EBT3 film and scanned by a Vidar VXR-12 film digitizer. Film and TPS generated dose distributions of film were sent to OmniPro I’mRT (iba DOSIMETRY) for analysis. 2D dose profiles in both X and Y directions were compared and gamma analysis performed. Results: Film dose measurement of the air-inflated applicator is lower than the TPS calculated dose by as much as 60%. Only 80.8% of the pixels passed the gamma criteria (3%/3mm). For the water-inflated applicator, the measured film dose is fairly close to the TPS calculated dose (typically within <3%). 99.84% of the pixels passed the gamma criteria (3%/3mm). Conclusion: TG43 based calculations worked well when water was used in the expansion balloon. However, when air is present in that balloon, the neglect of heterogeneity corrections in the TG43 calculation results in large differences between calculated and measured doses. This could result in severe underdosing when used in a patient. This study illustrates the need for a TPS with an advanced algorithm which can account for heterogeneity. Supported by Innovations Department, Cleveland Clinic.

  14. The kinetics of porous insertion electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlung, S; West, K [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)

    1989-05-01

    The principles of porous electrodes are discussed as well as the discharge of the insertion compound, the working potential, transport in the electrolyte, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration, and modeling of the porous electrode. The simulation of a TiS2 porous electrode and the composite insertion electrode are considered as well. The influence of electrode thickness and porosity in a typical porous TiS2 electrode is revealed. It is shown that the use of insertion compounds as battery electrodes is limited by the requirement that the inserted ion must be distributed in the interior of the insertion compound particle. 15 refs.

  15. MITOCHONDRIAL BKCa CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eBalderas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS, voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, and evidence for its potential coassembly with β subunits. Notoriously, β1 subunit directly interacts with cytochrome c oxidase and mitoBKCa can be modulated by substrates of the respiratory chain. mitoBKCa channel has a central role in protecting the heart from ischemia, where pharmacological activation of the channel impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial Ca2+ preventing cell death likely by impeding uncontrolled opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Supporting this view, inhibition of mitoBKCa with Iberiotoxin, enhances cytochrome c release from glioma mitochondria. Many tantalizing questions remain. Some of them are: how is mitoBKCa coupled to the respiratory chain? Does mitoBKCa play non-conduction roles in mitochondria physiology? Which are the functional partners of mitoBKCa? What are the roles of mitoBKCa in other cell types? Answers to these questions are essential to define the impact of mitoBKCa channel in mitochondria biology and disease.

  16. The application of μPIV technique in the study of magnetic flows in a micro-channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, N.T.; Wu, Z.G.; Huang, X.Y.; Wen, C.-Y..

    2005-01-01

    In this preliminary experimental study, micro-scale particle image velocimetry (μPIV) was adopted for the first time to get the quantitative information of magnetic flows in a micro-channel. The μPIV consists of an inverted florescent microscope, a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser and a CCD camera. The florescent liquid with particles of 3 μm diameter was blended homogeneously with the prepared magnetic fluid. A permanent magnet approached and left one end of the micro-channel. The response of the magnetic fluid was recorded with the μPIV simultaneously. The flow features validate the feasibility of using μPIV technique in the study of magnetic flows in a micro-channel. μPIV provides a promising experimental tool for visualization and quantitative measurement of magnetic micro-flows

  17. Development of a polymer based fully flexible electrode tip for neuronal micro-stimulation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Romain; Miki, Norihisa

    2017-06-01

    Neural stimulation systems design is highly impacted by the overall resolution and adaptability of the device to the targeted application and area to stimulate. In this paper, we report a novel design for neural micro-stimulation electrode presenting high resolution and adaptability to any targeted area via a high flexibility. We propose the use of liquid metal micro-channels encapsulated into a polymer volume, achieving micro-stimulation pads at the tip of the channels. It presents a high degree of patternability to match different possible targeted applications, and good flexibility and mechanic properties to make it insertable and adaptable into soft tissues. A stable fabrication process, including insertion of the liquid alloy into 50 µm half-channels, the necessity of the U-shape to produce functional conductive micro-channels and the mechanical integrity of the device are discussed.

  18. [Application of Brownian dynamics to the description of transmembrane ion flow as exemplified by the chloride channel of glycine receptor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronovskiĭ, S E; Nartsissov, Ia R

    2009-01-01

    Using the Brownian dynamics of the movement of hydrated ion in a viscous water solution, a mathematical model has been built, which describes the transport of charged particles through a single protein pore in a lipid membrane. The dependences of transmembrane ion currents on ion concentrations in solution have been obtained. It was shown that, if the geometry of a membrane pore is identical to that of the inner part of the glycine receptor channel and there is no ion selectivity, then the values of both chloride and sodium currents are not greater than 0.5 pA at the physiological concentrations of these ions. If local charge heterogeneity caused by charged amino acid residues of transmembrane protein segments is included into the model calculations, the chloride current increases to about 3.7 pA, which exceeds more than seven times the value for sodium ions under the conditions of the complex channel geometry in the range of physiological concentrations of ions in the solution. The model takes changes in the density of charge distribution both inside the channel and near the protein surface into account. The alteration of pore geometry can be also considered as a parameter at the researcher's option. Thus, the model appears as an effective tool for the description of transmembrane currents for other types of membrane channels.

  19. Application of Sub-cooled Boiling Model to Thermal-hydraulic Analysis Inside a CANDU-6 Fuel Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Woong; Lee, Sang Kyu; Kim, Hyun Koon; Yoo, Kun Joong; Kang, Hyoung Chul; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2007-01-01

    Forced convection nucleate boiling is encountered in heat exchangers during normal and non-nominal modes of operation in pressurized water or boiling water reactors (PWRs or BWRs). If the wall temperature of the piping is higher than the saturation temperature of the nearby liquid, nucleate boiling occurs. In this regime, bubbles are formed at the wall. Their growth is promoted by the wall superheat (the difference between the wall and saturation temperatures), and they depart from the wall as a result of gravitational and liquid inertia forces. If the bulk liquid is subcooled, condensation at the bubble-liquid interface takes place and the bubble may collapse. This convection nucleate boiling is called as a sub-cooled nucleate boiling. As for the fuel channel of a CANDU 6 reactor, forced convection nucleate boiling models for flows along fuel elements enclosed inside typical CANDU-6 fuel channel has encountered difficulties due to the modeling of local effects along the horizontal channel. Therefore, the subcooled nucleate boiling has been modeled through temperature driven boiling heat and mass transfer, using a model developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The objectives of this study are: (i) to investigate a proposed sub-cooled boiling model developed at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and (ii) to apply against a experiment and (iii) to predict local distributions of flow fields for the actual fuel channel geometries of CANDU-6 reactors. The numerical implementation is conducted using by the FLUENT 6.2 CFD computer code

  20. Design and characterization of a single channel two-liquid capacitor and its application to hyperelastic strain sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanliangzi; Sun, Xiaoda; Hildreth, Owen J; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2015-03-07

    Room temperature liquid-metal microfluidic devices are attractive systems for hyperelastic strain sensing. These liquid-phase electronics are intrinsically soft and retain their functionality even when stretched to several times their original length. Currently two types of liquid metal-based strain sensors exist for in-plane measurements: single-microchannel resistive and two-microchannel capacitive devices. With a winding serpentine channel geometry, these sensors typically have a footprint of about a square centimeter. This large footprint of an individual device limits the number of sensors that can be embedded into, for example, electronic fabric or skin. In this work we introduce an alternative capacitor design consisting of two liquid metal electrodes separated by a liquid dielectric material within a single straight channel. Using a liquid insulator instead of a solid elastomer enables us to tailor the system's capacitance by selecting high or low dielectric constant liquids. We quantify the effects of the electrode geometry including the diameter, spacing, and meniscus shape as well as the dielectric constant of the insulating liquid on the overall system's capacitance. We also develop a procedure for fabricating the two-liquid capacitor within a single straight polydiemethylsiloxane channel and demonstrate that this device can have about 25 times higher capacitance per sensor's base area when compared to two-channel liquid metal capacitors. Lastly, we characterize the response of this compact device to strain and identify operational issues arising from complex hydrodynamics near liquid-liquid and liquid-elastomer interfaces.

  1. Novel back-channel-etch process flow based a-IGZO TFTs for circuit and display applications on PEN foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nag, M.; Rockele, M.; Steudel, S.; Chasin, A.; Myny, K.; Bhoolokam, A.; Willegems, M.; Smout, S.; Vicca, P.; Ameys, M.; Ke, T.H.; Schols, S.; Genoe, J.; Steen, J.L. P.J. van der; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report high-quality amorphous indiunrv-galiium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thinfilm transistors (TFTs) fabricated on a polyethylene naphthalate foil using a new back-channel-etch (BCE) process flow. The BCE flow allows a better scalability of TFTs for high-resolution backplanes and related

  2. Decoding the attended speech stream with multi-channel EEG: implications for online, daily-life applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Debener, Stefan; Jaeger, Manuela; De Vos, Maarten

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recent studies have provided evidence that temporal envelope driven speech decoding from high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography recordings can identify the attended speech stream in a multi-speaker scenario. The present work replicated the previous high density EEG study and investigated the necessary technical requirements for practical attended speech decoding with EEG. Approach. Twelve normal hearing participants attended to one out of two simultaneously presented audiobook stories, while high density EEG was recorded. An offline iterative procedure eliminating those channels contributing the least to decoding provided insight into the necessary channel number and optimal cross-subject channel configuration. Aiming towards the future goal of near real-time classification with an individually trained decoder, the minimum duration of training data necessary for successful classification was determined by using a chronological cross-validation approach. Main results. Close replication of the previously reported results confirmed the method robustness. Decoder performance remained stable from 96 channels down to 25. Furthermore, for less than 15 min of training data, the subject-independent (pre-trained) decoder performed better than an individually trained decoder did. Significance. Our study complements previous research and provides information suggesting that efficient low-density EEG online decoding is within reach.

  3. An automatic algorithm for blink-artifact suppression based on iterative template matching: application to single channel recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Joaquin T.; de la Torre, Angel; Van Dun, Bram

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Artifact reduction in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is usually necessary to carry out data analysis appropriately. Despite the large amount of denoising techniques available with a multichannel setup, there is a lack of efficient algorithms that remove (not only detect) blink-artifacts from a single channel EEG, which is of interest in many clinical and research applications. This paper describes and evaluates the iterative template matching and suppression (ITMS), a new method proposed for detecting and suppressing the artifact associated with the blink activity from a single channel EEG. Approach. The approach of ITMS consists of (a) an iterative process in which blink-events are detected and the blink-artifact waveform of the analyzed subject is estimated, (b) generation of a signal modeling the blink-artifact, and (c) suppression of this signal from the raw EEG. The performance of ITMS is compared with the multi-window summation of derivatives within a window (MSDW) technique using both synthesized and real EEG data. Main results. Results suggest that ITMS presents an adequate performance in detecting and suppressing blink-artifacts from a single channel EEG. When applied to the analysis of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs), ITMS provides a significant quality improvement in the resulting responses, i.e. in a cohort of 30 adults, the mean correlation coefficient improved from 0.37 to 0.65 when the blink-artifacts were detected and suppressed by ITMS. Significance. ITMS is an efficient solution to the problem of denoising blink-artifacts in single-channel EEG applications, both in clinical and research fields. The proposed ITMS algorithm is stable; automatic, since it does not require human intervention; low-invasive, because the EEG segments not contaminated by blink-artifacts remain unaltered; and easy to implement, as can be observed in the Matlab script implemeting the algorithm provided as supporting material.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of gels with integrated channels using 3D printing with microfluidic nozzle for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla, R; Ling, C; Selvaganapathy, P

    2016-02-01

    The lack of a simple and effective method to integrate vascular network with engineered scaffolds and tissue constructs remains one of the biggest challenges in true 3D tissue engineering. Here, we detail the use of a commercially available, low-cost, open-source 3D printer modified with a microfluidic print-head in order to develop a method for the generation of instantly perfusable vascular network integrated with gel scaffolds seeded with cells. The print-head features an integrated coaxial nozzle that allows the fabrication of hollow, calcium-polymerized alginate tubes that can be easily patterned using 3D printing techniques. The diameter of the hollow channel can be precisely controlled and varied between 500 μm - 2 mm by changing applied flow rates or print-head speed. These channels are integrated into gel layers with a thickness of 800 μm - 2.5 mm. The structural rigidity of these constructs allows the fabrication of multi-layered structures without causing the collapse of hollow channels in lower layers. The 3D printing method was fully characterized at a range of operating speeds (0-40 m/min) and corresponding flow rates (1-30 mL/min) were identified to produce precise definition. This microfluidic design also allows the incorporation of a wide range of scaffold materials as well as biological constituents such as cells, growth factors, and ECM material. Media perfusion of the channels causes a significant viability increase in the bulk of cell-laden structures over the long-term. With this setup, gel constructs with embedded arrays of hollow channels can be created and used as a potential substitute for blood vessel networks.

  5. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics

  6. Node insertion in Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Srijanani Anurag

    2013-01-01

    The Iterated Function System (IFS) used in the construction of Coalescence Hidden-variable Fractal Interpolation Function (CHFIF) depends on the interpolation data. The insertion of a new point in a given set of interpolation data is called the problem of node insertion. In this paper, the effect of insertion of new point on the related IFS and the Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function is studied. Smoothness and Fractal Dimension of a CHFIF obtained with a node are also discussed

  7. Insertion material for controlling reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Iwao.

    1994-01-01

    Moderators and a group of suspended materials having substantially the same density as the moderator are sealed in a hollow rod vertically inserted to a fuel assembly. Specifically, the group of suspended materials is adapted to have a density changing stepwise from density of the moderator at the exit temperature of the reactor core to that at the inlet temperature of the reactor core. Reactivity is selectively controlled for a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity by utilizing the density of the moderator and the distribution of the density. That is, if the power distribution is flat, the density of the moderators changes at a constant rate over the vertical direction of the reactor core and the suspended materials stay at a portion of the same density, to form a uniform distribution. Further, upon reactor shutdown, since the liquid temperature of the moderators is lowered and the density is increased, all of beads are collected at the upper portion to remove water at the upper portion of the reactor core of low burnup degree thereby selectively controlling the reactivity at a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity. (N.H.)

  8. Evaluation of the brightness of lightning channels and branches using the magnitude system: Application of astronomical photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Shimoji

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have evaluated the brightness of lightning leaders shown in a digital still image by applying the astronomical magnitude system. In order to analyze the only lightning leaders, these were extracted from the digital still image. For photometry of the lightning leaders, there is no a standard reference source such as Vega in astronomical photometry. Therefore, assuming the maximum pixel value 255 (in 256 levels as the brightness of a standard reference source, the magnitude of the lightning leaders was obtained. The result showed that the magnitude of the lightning leaders vary spatially (i.e. 2D spatial variability. Furthermore, the result suggested that a low current channel is high magnitude and a high current channel is low magnitude. Keywords: Lightning, Fechner’s law, Magnitude system, Astronomical photometry, Image analysis

  9. An Algorithm for Obtaining the Distribution of 1-Meter Lightning Channel Segment Altitudes for Application in Lightning NOx Production Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Harold; Koshak, William J.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to estimate the altitude distribution of one-meter lightning channel segments. The algorithm is required as part of a broader objective that involves improving the lightning NOx emission inventories of both regional air quality and global chemistry/climate models. The algorithm was tested and applied to VHF signals detected by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The accuracy of the algorithm was characterized by comparing algorithm output to the plots of individual discharges whose lengths were computed by hand; VHF source amplitude thresholding and smoothing were applied to optimize results. Several thousands of lightning flashes within 120 km of the NALMA network centroid were gathered from all four seasons, and were analyzed by the algorithm. The mean, standard deviation, and median statistics were obtained for all the flashes, the ground flashes, and the cloud flashes. One-meter channel segment altitude distributions were also obtained for the different seasons.

  10. New approach to information fusion for Lipschitz classifiers ensembles: Application in multi-channel C-OTDR-monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, Andrey V.; Egorov, Dmitry V. [LPP “EqualiZoom”, Astana, 010000 (Kazakhstan)

    2016-06-08

    This paper presents new results concerning selection of an optimal information fusion formula for an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. The goal of information fusion is to create an integral classificatory which could provide better generalization ability of the ensemble while achieving a practically acceptable level of effectiveness. The problem of information fusion is very relevant for data processing in multi-channel C-OTDR-monitoring systems. In this case we have to effectively classify targeted events which appear in the vicinity of the monitored object. Solution of this problem is based on usage of an ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers each of which corresponds to a respective channel. We suggest a brand new method for information fusion in case of ensemble of Lipschitz classifiers. This method is called “The Weighing of Inversely as Lipschitz Constants” (WILC). Results of WILC-method practical usage in multichannel C-OTDR monitoring systems are presented.

  11. A user configurable data acquisition and signal processing system for high-rate, high channel count applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, Arwa; Crockett, Louise; McLean, John; Milne, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The development of a new digital signal processing platform is described. ► The system will allow users to configure the real-time signal processing through software routines. ► The architecture of the DRUID system and signal processing elements is described. ► A prototype of the DRUID system has been developed for the digital chopper-integrator. ► The results of acquisition on 96 channels at 500 kSamples/s per channel are presented. - Abstract: Real-time signal processing in plasma fusion experiments is required for control and for data reduction as plasma pulse times grow longer. The development time and cost for these high-rate, multichannel signal processing systems can be significant. This paper proposes a new digital signal processing (DSP) platform for the data acquisition system that will allow users to easily customize real-time signal processing systems to meet their individual requirements. The D-TACQ reconfigurable user in-line DSP (DRUID) system carries out the signal processing tasks in hardware co-processors (CPs) implemented in an FPGA, with an embedded microprocessor (μP) for control. In the fully developed platform, users will be able to choose co-processors from a library and configure programmable parameters through the μP to meet their requirements. The DRUID system is implemented on a Spartan 6 FPGA, on the new rear transition module (RTM-T), a field upgrade to existing D-TACQ digitizers. As proof of concept, a multiply-accumulate (MAC) co-processor has been developed, which can be configured as a digital chopper-integrator for long pulse magnetic fusion devices. The DRUID platform allows users to set options for the integrator, such as the number of masking samples. Results from the digital integrator are presented for a data acquisition system with 96 channels simultaneously acquiring data at 500 kSamples/s per channel.

  12. Pentacene Active Channel Layers Prepared by Spin-Coating and Vacuum Evaporation Using Soluble Precursors for OFET Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Palanisamy, Kumar; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Shin, Paik-Kyun

    2012-01-01

    Pentacene OFETs of bottom-gate/bottom-contact were fabricated with three types of pentacene organic semiconductors and cross linked Poly(4-vinylphenol) or polycarbonate as gate dielectric layer. Two different processes were used to prepare the pentacene active channel layers: (1) spin-coating on dielectric layer using two different soluble pentacene precursors of SAP and DMP; (2) vacuum evaporation on PC insulator. X-ray diffraction studies revealed coexistence of thin film and bulk phase of ...

  13. Soft Wall Ion Channel in Continuum Representation with Application to Modeling Ion Currents in α-Hemolysin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, Nikolay A.

    2010-01-01

    A soft repulsion (SR) model of short range interactions between mobile ions and protein atoms is introduced in the framework of continuum representation of the protein and solvent. The Poisson-Nernst-Plank (PNP) theory of ion transport through biological channels is modified to incorporate this soft wall protein model. Two sets of SR parameters are introduced: the first is parameterized for all essential amino acid residues using all atom molecular dynamic simulations; the second is a truncated Lennard – Jones potential. We have further designed an energy based algorithm for the determination of the ion accessible volume, which is appropriate for a particular system discretization. The effects of these models of short-range interaction were tested by computing current-voltage characteristics of the α-hemolysin channel. The introduced SR potentials significantly improve prediction of channel selectivity. In addition, we studied the effect of choice of some space-dependent diffusion coefficient distributions on the predicted current-voltage properties. We conclude that the diffusion coefficient distributions largely affect total currents and have little effect on rectifications, selectivity or reversal potential. The PNP-SR algorithm is implemented in a new efficient parallel Poisson, Poisson-Boltzman and PNP equation solver, also incorporated in a graphical molecular modeling package HARLEM. PMID:21028776

  14. Fundamental studies on initiation and evolution of multi-channel discharges and their application to next generation pulsed power machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Jens; Savage, Mark E.; Lucero, Diego Jose; Jaramillo, Deanna M.; Seals, Kelly Gene; Pitts, Todd Alan; Hautzenroeder, Brenna M.; Laine, Mark Richard; Karelitz, David B.; Porter, John L.

    2014-09-01

    Future pulsed power systems may rely on linear transformer driver (LTD) technology. The LTD's will be the building blocks for a driver that can deliver higher current than the Z-Machine. The LTD's would require tens of thousands of low inductance ( %3C 85nH), high voltage (200 kV DC) switches with high reliability and long lifetime ( 10 4 shots). Sandia's Z-Machine employs 36 megavolt class switches that are laser triggered by a single channel discharge. This is feasible for tens of switches but the high inductance and short switch life- time associated with the single channel discharge are undesirable for future machines. Thus the fundamental problem is how to lower inductance and losses while increasing switch life- time and reliability. These goals can be achieved by increasing the number of current-carrying channels. The rail gap switch is ideal for this purpose. Although those switches have been extensively studied during the past decades, each effort has only characterized a particular switch. There is no comprehensive understanding of the underlying physics that would allow predictive capability for arbitrary switch geometry. We have studied rail gap switches via an extensive suite of advanced diagnostics in synergy with theoretical physics and advanced modeling capability. Design and topology of multichannel switches as they relate to discharge dynamics are investigated. This involves electrically and optically triggered rail gaps, as well as discrete multi-site switch concepts.

  15. Peristaltic flow of Powell-Eyring fluid in curved channel with heat transfer: A useful application in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, S; Mustafa, M; Hayat, T; Alsaedi, A

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we explore the heat transfer characteristics in the peristaltic transport of Powell-Eyring fluid inside a curved channel with complaint walls. The study has motivation toward the understanding of blood flow in microcirculatory system. Formulation is developed in the existence of velocity slip and temperature jump conditions. Perturbation approach has been utilized to present series expressions of axial velocity and temperature distributions. Streamlines are prepared to analyze the interesting phenomenon of trapping. Moreover, the plots of heat transfer coefficient for a broad range of embedded parameters are presented and discussed. The results indicate that slip effects substantially influence the velocity and temperature distributions. Axial flow accelerates when slip parameter is incremented. Temperature rises and wall heat flux grows when viscous dissipation effect is strengthened. In contrast to the planar channels, here velocity and temperature functions do not exhibit symmetry with respect to the central line. In addition, bolus size and its shape are different in upper and lower portions of the channel. Heat transfer coefficient enlarges when the curvature effects are reduced. The behaviors of wall tension and wall mass parameters on the profiles are qualitatively similar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of sub-channel/system coupled code and its application to a supercritical water-cooled test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.J.; Yang, T.; Cheng, X.

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the local thermal-hydraulic parameters in the supercritical water reactor-fuel qualification test (SCWR-FQT) fuel bundle with a flow blockage, a coupled sub-channel and system code system is developed in this paper. Both of the sub-channel code and system code are adapted to transient analysis of SCWR. Two codes are coupled by data transfer and data adaptation at the interface. In the coupled code, the whole system behavior including safety system characteristic is analyzed by system code ATHLET-SC, whereas the local thermal-hydraulic parameters are predicted by the sub-channel code COBRA-SC. Sensitivity analysis are carried out respectively in ATHLET-SC and COBRA-SC code, to identify the appropriate models for description of the flow blockage phenomenon in the test loop. Some measures to mitigate the accident consequence are also trialed to demonstrate their effectiveness. The results indicate that the new developed code has good feasibility to transient analysis of supercritical water-cooled test. And the peak cladding temperature caused by blockage in the fuel assembly can be reduced effectively by the safety measures of SCWR-FQT. (author)

  17. On the Efficient Simulation of the Distribution of the Sum of Gamma-Gamma Variates with Application to the Outage Probability Evaluation Over Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2017-01-26

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverberation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma- Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose robust importance sampling schemes that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimators satisfy the well-known bounded relative error criterion for both maximum ratio combining and equal gain combining cases. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  18. On the Efficient Simulation of the Distribution of the Sum of Gamma-Gamma Variates with Application to the Outage Probability Evaluation Over Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2016-06-01

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverbation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is intimately related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma-Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose a mean-shift importance sampling scheme that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of L-branch maximum ratio combining diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimator satisfies the well-known bounded relative error criterion, a well-desired property characterizing the robustness of importance sampling schemes, for both identically and non-identically independent distributed cases. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  19. On the Efficient Simulation of the Distribution of the Sum of Gamma-Gamma Variates with Application to the Outage Probability Evaluation Over Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki; Ben Rached, Nadhir; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverbation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is intimately related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma-Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose a mean-shift importance sampling scheme that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of L-branch maximum ratio combining diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimator satisfies the well-known bounded relative error criterion, a well-desired property characterizing the robustness of importance sampling schemes, for both identically and non-identically independent distributed cases. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  20. The effect of various solvents on the back channel of solution-processed In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors intended for biosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Si Joon; Jung, Joohye; Yoon, Doo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposing solution-processed In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs), intended for biosensor applications, to various solvents. Various solvents, such as the nonpolar solvent chlorobenzene and the polar solvents ethanol and deionized (DI) water, were dropped and adsorbed on exposed IGZO channel surfaces. All IGZO TFT devices exhibited a negative threshold voltage shift and a sub-threshold swing degradation, without an accompanying degradation in field-effect mobility. These variations depended on the dielectric constant of the solvents; with the exception of the IGZO TFT device exposed to DI water, they all gradually returned to their initial states.

  1. Probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary GHZ-class state with a pure entangled two-particle quantum channel and its application in quantum state sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary GHZ-class state with a pure entangled two-particle quantum channel. The sender Alice first teleports the coefficients of the unknown state to the receiver Bob, and then Bob reconstructs the state with an auxiliary particle and some unitary operations if the teleportation succeeds. This scheme has the advantage of transmitting much less particles for teleporting an arbitrary GHZ-class state than others. Moreover, it discusses the application of this scheme in quantum state sharing.

  2. Channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    In a channel box of a BWR type reactor, protruding pads are disposed in axial position on the lateral side of a channel box opposing to a control rod and facing the outer side portion of the control rod in a reactor core loaded state. In the initial loading stage of fuel assemblies, channel fasteners and spacer pads are abutted against each other in the upper portion between the channel boxes sandwiching the control rod therebetween. Further, in the lower portion, a gap as a channel for the movement of the control rod is ensured by the support of fuel support metals. If the channel box is bent toward the control rod along with reactor operation, the pads are abutted against each other to always ensure the gap through which the control rod can move easily. Further, when the pads are brought into contact with each other, the bending deformation of the channel box is corrected by urging to each other. Thus, the control rod can always be moved smoothly to attain reactor safety operation. (N.H.)

  3. A Robust Threshold for Iterative Channel Estimation in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kalaycioglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel threshold computation method for pilot symbol assisted iterative channel estimation in OFDM systems is considered. As the bits are transmitted in packets, the proposed technique is based on calculating a particular threshold for each data packet in order to select the reliable decoder output symbols to improve the channel estimation performance. Iteratively, additional pilot symbols are established according to the threshold and the channel is re-estimated with the new pilots inserted to the known channel estimation pilot set. The proposed threshold calculation method for selecting additional pilots performs better than non-iterative channel estimation, no threshold and fixed threshold techniques in poor HF channel simulations.

  4. A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Roopal, Dr.; Bisht, Vandana

    2018-01-01

    Background: A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre.Methods: This prospective study was conducted among 100 women at tertiary care centre, Haldwani, Nainital. Patients were divided in to two groups. Group A (n=50)-post placental insertion within 10 minutes of delivery of placenta. Group B (n=50)-Interval insertion after 6 weeks of delivery. Both groups were compared in terms of pain abdomen, bleeding, missing thread, expulsion,...

  5. Surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmann, R.; Varelas, C.

    1976-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that swift light ions incident at small angles towards single crystalline surfaces can lose an appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy during reflection. It is shown that these projectiles penetrate into the bulk surface region of the crystal. They can travel as channeled particles along long paths through the solid (surface channeling). The angular distribution and the depth history of the re-emerged projectiles are investigated by computer simulations. A considerable fraction of the penetrating projectiles re-emerges from the crystal with constant transverse energy if the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle for axial channeling. Analytical formulae are derived based on a diffusion model for surface channeling. A comparison with experimental data exhibits the relevance of the analytical solutions. (Auth.)

  6. Development and assessment of a sub-channel code applicable for trans-critical transient of SCWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.J.; Yang, T.; Cheng, X.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new sub-channel code COBRA-SC for SCWR is developed. • Pseudo two-phase method is employed to realize trans-critical transient calculation. • Good suitability of COBRA-SC is demonstrated by preliminary assessment. • The calculation results of COBRA-SC agree well with ATHLET code. -- Abstract: In the last few years, extensive R and D activities have been launched covering various aspects of supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), especially the thermal-hydraulic analysis. Sub-channel code plays an indispensable role to predict the detail thermal-hydraulic behavior of the SCWR fuel assembly. This paper develops a new version of sub-channel code COBRA-SC based on the previous COBRA-IV code. The supercritical water property and heat transfer/pressure drop correlations under supercritical pressure are implemented to this code. Moreover, in order to simulate the trans-critical transient (the pressure undergo a decrease from the supercritical pressure to the subcritical pressure), pseudo two-phase method is employed in COBRA-SC code. This work is completed by introduction of a virtual two-phase region near the pseudo-critical line. A smooth transition of void fraction can be realized. In addition, several heat transfer correlations right underneath the critical point are introduced into this code to capture the heat transfer behavior during the trans-critical transient. Some experimental data from simple geometry, e.g. the single tube, small rod bundle, is used to validate and evaluate this new developed COBRA-SC code. The predicted results show a good agreement with the experimental data, demonstrating good feasibility of this code for SCWR condition. A code to code comparison between COBRA-SC and ATHLET for a blowdown transient of a small fuel assembly is also presented and discussed in this paper

  7. A study of the suitability of ferrite for use in low-field insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1995-02-01

    Most insertion devices built to date use rare-earth permanent-magnet materials, which have a high remanent field and are more expensive than many other permanent-magnet materials. Low-field insertion devices could use less-expensive, lower performance magnetic materials if they had suitable magnetic characteristics. These materials must be resistant to demagnetization during construction and operation of the insertion device, have uniform magnetization, possess low minor-axis magnetic moments, and have small minor field components on the surfaces. This paper describes an investigation to determine if ferrite possesses magnetic qualities suitable for insertion device applications. The type of ferrite investigated, MMPA Ceramic 8 from Stackpole Inc., was found to be acceptable for insertion device applications.

  8. Spark Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydon, S. C. [Department of Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia)

    1968-04-15

    A brief summary is given of the principal methods used for initiating spark channels and the various highly time-resolved techniques developed recently for studies with nanosecond resolution. The importance of the percentage overvoltage in determining the early history and subsequent development of the various phases of the growth of the spark channel is discussed. An account is then given of the recent photographic, oscillographic and spectroscopic investigations of spark channels initiated by co-axial cable discharges of spark gaps at low [{approx} 1%] overvoltages. The phenomena observed in the development of the immediate post-breakdown phase, the diffuse glow structure, the growth of the luminous filament and the final formation of the spark channel in hydrogen are described. A brief account is also given of the salient features emerging from corresponding studies of highly overvolted spark gaps in which the spark channel develops from single avalanche conditions. The essential differences between the two types of channel formation are summarized and possible explanations of the general features are indicated. (author)

  9. Comparison of neural network applications for channel assignment in cellular TDMA networks and dynamically sectored PCS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    1997-04-01

    The use of artificial neural networks (NNs) to address the channel assignment problem (CAP) for cellular time-division multiple access and code-division multiple access networks has previously been investigated by this author and many others. The investigations to date have been based on a hexagonal cell structure established by omnidirectional antennas at the base stations. No account was taken of the use of spatial isolation enabled by directional antennas to reduce interference between mobiles. Any reduction in interference translates into increased capacity and consequently alters the performance of the NNs. Previous studies have sought to improve the performance of Hopfield- Tank network algorithms and self-organizing feature map algorithms applied primarily to static channel assignment (SCA) for cellular networks that handle uniformly distributed, stationary traffic in each cell for a single type of service. The resulting algorithms minimize energy functions representing interference constraint and ad hoc conditions that promote convergence to optimal solutions. While the structures of the derived neural network algorithms (NNAs) offer the potential advantages of inherent parallelism and adaptability to changing system conditions, this potential has yet to be fulfilled the CAP for emerging mobile networks. The next-generation communication infrastructures must accommodate dynamic operating conditions. Macrocell topologies are being refined to microcells and picocells that can be dynamically sectored by adaptively controlled, directional antennas and programmable transceivers. These networks must support the time-varying demands for personal communication services (PCS) that simultaneously carry voice, data and video and, thus, require new dynamic channel assignment (DCA) algorithms. This paper examines the impact of dynamic cell sectoring and geometric conditioning on NNAs developed for SCA in omnicell networks with stationary traffic to improve the metrics

  10. The application of low angle Rutherford backscattering and channelling techniques to determine implantation induced disorder profile distributions in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.A.G.; Christodoulides, C.E.; Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Titov, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    Low angle exit (9 0 ) Rutherford backscattering geometry and channelling of 2 MeV 4 He + are employed to investigate the disorder depth profiles created by 40 keV N + implantation in (111) silicon and (100) GaAs targets. Parameters which can influence the disordering rate and its spatial distribution, such as ion fluence flux, substrate type and substrate temperature are examined. Under certain implantation conditions, the damage profile distributions are asymmetric - exhibiting a bimodal form in silicon targets or confined much closer to the GaAs surface than the normally expected mean range of 40 keV N + ions. (orig.)

  11. Stochastic-shielding approximation of Markov chains and its application to efficiently simulate random ion-channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, Nicolaus T; Galán, Roberto F

    2012-09-14

    Markov chains provide realistic models of numerous stochastic processes in nature. We demonstrate that in any Markov chain, the change in occupation number in state A is correlated to the change in occupation number in state B if and only if A and B are directly connected. This implies that if we are only interested in state A, fluctuations in B may be replaced with their mean if state B is not directly connected to A, which shortens computing time considerably. We show the accuracy and efficacy of our approximation theoretically and in simulations of stochastic ion-channel gating in neurons.

  12. Application of the single-channel continuous synthesis method to criticity and power distribution calculations in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano Asensio, Gregorio.

    1976-06-01

    A detailed power distribution calculation in a large power reactor requires the solution of the multigroup 3D diffusion equations. Using the finite difference method, this computation is too expensive to be performed for design purposes. This work is devoted to the single channel continous synthesis method: the choice of the trial functions and the determination of the mixing functions are discussed in details; 2D and 3D results are presented. The method is applied to the calculation of the IAEA ''Benchmark'' reactor and the results obtained are compared with a finite element resolution and with published results [fr

  13. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  14. Fast Atomic Charge Calculation for Implementation into a Polarizable Force Field and Application to an Ion Channel Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiker Witter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarization of atoms plays a substantial role in molecular interactions. Class I and II force fields mostly calculate with fixed atomic charges which can cause inadequate descriptions for highly charged molecules, for example, ion channels or metalloproteins. Changes in charge distributions can be included into molecular mechanics calculations by various methods. Here, we present a very fast computational quantum mechanical method, the Bond Polarization Theory (BPT. Atomic charges are obtained via a charge calculation method that depend on the 3D structure of the system in a similar way as atomic charges of ab initio calculations. Different methods of population analysis and charge calculation methods and their dependence on the basis set were investigated. A refined parameterization yielded excellent correlation of R=0.9967. The method was implemented in the force field COSMOS-NMR and applied to the histidine-tryptophan-complex of the transmembrane domain of the M2 protein channel of influenza A virus. Our calculations show that moderate changes of side chain torsion angle χ1 and small variations of χ2 of Trp-41 are necessary to switch from the inactivated into the activated state; and a rough two-side jump model of His-37 is supported for proton gating in accordance with a flipping mechanism.

  15. Stochastic modelling of a single ion channel: an alternating renewal approach with application to limited time resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, R K; Yeo, G F; Edeson, R O; Madsen, B W

    1988-04-22

    Stochastic models of ion channels have been based largely on Markov theory where individual states and transition rates must be specified, and sojourn-time densities for each state are constrained to be exponential. This study presents an approach based on random-sum methods and alternating-renewal theory, allowing individual states to be grouped into classes provided the successive sojourn times in a given class are independent and identically distributed. Under these conditions Markov models form a special case. The utility of the approach is illustrated by considering the effects of limited time resolution (modelled by using a discrete detection limit, xi) on the properties of observable events, with emphasis on the observed open-time (xi-open-time). The cumulants and Laplace transform for a xi-open-time are derived for a range of Markov and non-Markov models; several useful approximations to the xi-open-time density function are presented. Numerical studies show that the effects of limited time resolution can be extreme, and also highlight the relative importance of the various model parameters. The theory could form a basis for future inferential studies in which parameter estimation takes account of limited time resolution in single channel records. Appendixes include relevant results concerning random sums and a discussion of the role of exponential distributions in Markov models.

  16. Current of interacting particles inside a channel of exponential cavities: Application of a modified Fick-Jacobs equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, G; Hoyuelos, M; Mártin, H

    2016-06-01

    Recently a nonlinear Fick-Jacobs equation has been proposed for the description of transport and diffusion of particles interacting through a hard-core potential in tubes or channels of varying cross section [Suárez et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 012135 (2015)]PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.012135. Here we focus on the analysis of the current and mobility when the channel is composed by a chain of asymmetric cavities and a force is applied in one or the opposite direction, for both interacting and noninteracting particles, and compare analytical and Monte Carlo simulation results. We consider a cavity with a shape given by exponential functions; the linear Fick-Jacobs equation for noninteracting particles can be exactly solved in this case. The results of the current difference (when a force is applied in opposite directions) are more accurate for the modified Fick-Jacobs equation for particles with hard-core interaction than for noninteracting ones.

  17. Fracture of Reduced-Diameter Zirconia Dental Implants Following Repeated Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Scherg, Stefan; Grobecker-Karl, Tanja

    Achievement of high insertion torque values indicating good primary stability is a goal during dental implant placement. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether or not two-piece implants made from zirconia ceramic may be damaged as a result of torque application. A total of 10 two-piece zirconia implants were repeatedly inserted into polyurethane foam material with increasing density and decreasing osteotomy size. The insertion torque applied was measured, and implants were checked for fractures by applying the fluorescent penetrant method. Weibull probability of failure was calculated based on the recorded insertion torque values. Catastrophic failures could be seen in five of the implants from two different batches at insertion torques ranging from 46.0 to 70.5 Ncm, while the remaining implants (all belonging to one batch) survived. Weibull probability of failure seems to be low at the manufacturer-recommended maximum insertion torque of 35 Ncm. Chipping fractures at the thread tips as well as tool marks were the only otherwise observed irregularities. While high insertion torques may be desirable for immediate loading protocols, zirconia implants may fracture when manufacturer-recommended insertion torques are exceeded. Evaluating bone quality prior to implant insertion may be useful.

  18. Electroforming of Tool Inserts for Injection Molding of Optical or Microfluidic Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Christensen, Thomas R.; Jensen, Martin F.

    2004-01-01

    monitoring) and environmental (waste water monitoring) applications. Optical components in polymer materials can be used for consumer electronics and for sensor systems. The presentation will include the complete fabrication scheme for tool inserts based on machining and electroforming. Electroforming...

  19. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, H.; Yousefi, H.; Rezaei, M.; Rostami, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load-cell. Methods Effects of rotational motion were studied by running needle insertion experiments in 5, 50 and 200 mm/min in two types of with or without rotational velocity of 50, 150 and 300 rpm. On further steps with deeper penetrations, friction force of the insertion procedure in needle shaft was acquired by a definite thickness of the tissue. Results Designed mechanism of fixture for providing different frequencies of rotational motion is available in this work. Results for comparison of different force graphs were also provided. Conclusion Derived force-displacement graphs showed a significant difference between two procedures; however, tissue bleeding and disorganized micro-structure would be among unavoidable results. PMID:26688800

  20. Interrogation cradle and insertable containment fixture for detecting birefringent microcrystals in bile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Chris; Seger, Tino

    2003-09-30

    A transparent flow channel fluidly communicates a fluid source and a collection reservoir. An interrogating light beam passes through a first polarizer having a first plane of polarization. The flow channel is orthogonal to the light beam. The light beam passes through a fluid sample as it flows through the flow channel, and is then filtered through a second polarizer having a second plane of polarization rotated 90.degree. from the first plane of polarization. An electronic photo-detector is aligned with the light beam, and signals the presence of birefringent microcrystals in the fluid sample by generating voltage pulses. A disposable containment fixture includes the flow channel and the collection reservoir. The fixture is adapted for removable insertion into an interrogation cradle that includes optical and data processing components. The cradle rigidly positions the centerline of the flow channel orthogonal to the light beam.

  1. Insertion profiles of 4 headless compression screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of -3.1 mm, -2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of -2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of -2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws, and enable the surgeon to optimize compression. Copyright

  2. Application of Stochastic Automata Networks for Creation of Continuous Time Markov Chain Models of Voltage Gating of Gap Junction Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Snipas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this work was to study advantages of numerical methods used for the creation of continuous time Markov chain models (CTMC of voltage gating of gap junction (GJ channels composed of connexin protein. This task was accomplished by describing gating of GJs using the formalism of the stochastic automata networks (SANs, which allowed for very efficient building and storing of infinitesimal generator of the CTMC that allowed to produce matrices of the models containing a distinct block structure. All of that allowed us to develop efficient numerical methods for a steady-state solution of CTMC models. This allowed us to accelerate CPU time, which is necessary to solve CTMC models, ∼20 times.

  3. Application of Stochastic Automata Networks for Creation of Continuous Time Markov Chain Models of Voltage Gating of Gap Junction Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranevicius, Henrikas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this work was to study advantages of numerical methods used for the creation of continuous time Markov chain models (CTMC) of voltage gating of gap junction (GJ) channels composed of connexin protein. This task was accomplished by describing gating of GJs using the formalism of the stochastic automata networks (SANs), which allowed for very efficient building and storing of infinitesimal generator of the CTMC that allowed to produce matrices of the models containing a distinct block structure. All of that allowed us to develop efficient numerical methods for a steady-state solution of CTMC models. This allowed us to accelerate CPU time, which is necessary to solve CTMC models, ∼20 times. PMID:25705700

  4. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gil-Otero

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  5. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  6. Development and application of a channelized Hotelling observer for DBT optimization on structured background test images with mass simulating targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Dimitar; Michielsen, Koen; Cockmartin, Lesley; Zhang, Gouzhi; Young, Kenneth; Marshall, Nicholas; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D mammography technique that promises better visualization of low contrast lesions than conventional 2D mammography. A wide range of parameters influence the diagnostic information in DBT images and a systematic means of DBT system optimization is needed. The gold standard for image quality assessment is to perform a human observer experiment with experienced readers. Using human observers for optimization is time consuming and not feasible for the large parameter space of DBT. Our goal was to develop a model observer (MO) that can predict human reading performance for standard detection tasks of target objects within a structured phantom and subsequently apply it in a first comparative study. The phantom consists of an acrylic semi-cylindrical container with acrylic spheres of different sizes and the remaining space filled with water. Three types of lesions were included: 3D printed spiculated and non-spiculated mass lesions along with calcification groups. The images of the two mass lesion types were reconstructed with 3 different reconstruction methods (FBP, FBP with SRSAR, MLTRpr) and read by human readers. A Channelized Hotelling model observer was created for the non-spiculated lesion detection task using five Laguerre-Gauss channels, tuned for better performance. For the non-spiculated mass lesions a linear relation between the MO and human observer results was found, with correlation coefficients of 0.956 for standard FBP, 0.998 for FBP with SRSAR and 0.940 for MLTRpr. Both the MO and human observer percentage correct results for the spiculated masses were close to 100%, and showed no difference from each other for every reconstruction algorithm.

  7. Modeling Stochastic Boundary Conditions in a Coastal Catchment using a Bayesian Network: An Application to the Houston Ship Channel, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couasnon, Anaïs; Sebastian, Antonia; Morales-Nápoles, Oswaldo

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has highlighted the increased risk of compound flooding in the U.S. In coastal catchments, an elevated downstream water level, resulting from high tide and/or storm surge, impedes drainage creating a backwater effect that may exacerbate flooding in the riverine environment. Catchments exposed to tropical cyclone activity along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts are particularly vulnerable. However, conventional flood hazard models focus mainly on precipitation-induced flooding and few studies accurately represent the hazard associated with the interaction between discharge and elevated downstream water levels. This study presents a method to derive stochastic boundary conditions for a coastal watershed. Mean daily discharge and maximum daily residual water levels are used to build a non-parametric Bayesian network (BN) based on copulas. Stochastic boundary conditions for the watershed are extracted from the BN and input into a 1-D process-based hydraulic model to obtain water surface elevations in the main channel of the catchment. The method is applied to a section of the Houston Ship Channel (Buffalo Bayou) in Southeast Texas. Data at six stream gages and two tidal stations are used to build the BN and 100-year joint return period events are modeled. We find that the dependence relationship between the daily residual water level and the mean daily discharge in the catchment can be represented by a Gumbel copula (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.31) and that they result in higher water levels in the mid- to upstream reaches of the watershed than when modeled independently. This indicates that conventional (deterministic) methods may underestimate the flood hazard associated with compound flooding in the riverine environment and that such interactions should not be neglected in future coastal flood hazard studies.

  8. Reliability of nine programs of topological predictions and their application to integral membrane channel and carrier proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Abhinay; Cho, Jaehoon; Ling, Sam; Reddy, Vamsee; Shlykov, Maksim; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated topological predictions for nine different programs, HMMTOP, TMHMM, SVMTOP, DAS, SOSUI, TOPCONS, PHOBIUS, MEMSAT-SVM (hereinafter referred to as MEMSAT), and SPOCTOPUS. These programs were first evaluated using four large topologically well-defined families of secondary transporters, and the three best programs were further evaluated using topologically more diverse families of channels and carriers. In the initial studies, the order of accuracy was: SPOCTOPUS > MEMSAT > HMMTOP > TOPCONS > PHOBIUS > TMHMM > SVMTOP > DAS > SOSUI. Some families, such as the Sugar Porter Family (2.A.1.1) of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS; TC #2.A.1) and the Amino Acid/Polyamine/Organocation (APC) Family (TC #2.A.3), were correctly predicted with high accuracy while others, such as the Mitochondrial Carrier (MC) (TC #2.A.29) and the K(+) transporter (Trk) families (TC #2.A.38), were predicted with much lower accuracy. For small, topologically homogeneous families, SPOCTOPUS and MEMSAT were generally most reliable, while with large, more diverse superfamilies, HMMTOP often proved to have the greatest prediction accuracy. We next developed a novel program, TM-STATS, that tabulates HMMTOP, SPOCTOPUS or MEMSAT-based topological predictions for any subdivision (class, subclass, superfamily, family, subfamily, or any combination of these) of the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; www.tcdb.org) and examined the following subclasses: α-type channel proteins (TC subclasses 1.A and 1.E), secreted pore-forming toxins (TC subclass 1.C) and secondary carriers (subclass 2.A). Histograms were generated for each of these subclasses, and the results were analyzed according to subclass, family and protein. The results provide an update of topological predictions for integral membrane transport proteins as well as guides for the development of more reliable topological prediction programs, taking family-specific characteristics into account. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Multi-channel software defined radio experimental evaluation and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, JR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel software-defined radios (SDRs) can be utilised as inexpensive prototyping platforms for transceiver arrays. The application for multi-channel prototyping is discussed and measured results of coherent channels for both receiver...

  10. A second order turbulence model based on a Reynolds stress approach for two-phase boiling flow. Part 1: Application to the ASU-annular channel case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.f [Electricite de France R and D Division, 6 Quai Watier, F-78400 Chatou (France); Archambeau, F.; Boucker, M.; Lavieville, J. [Electricite de France R and D Division, 6 Quai Watier, F-78400 Chatou (France); Morel, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2010-09-15

    High-thermal performance PWR (pressurized water reactor) spacer grids require both low pressure loss and high critical heat flux (CHF) properties. Numerical investigations on the effect of angles and position of mixing vanes and to understand in more details the main physical phenomena (wall boiling, entrainment of bubbles in the wakes, recondensation) are required. In the field of fuel assembly analysis or design by means of CFD codes, the overwhelming majority of the studies are carried out using two-equation eddy viscosity models (EVM), especially the standard K-{epsilon} model, while the use of Reynolds Stress Transport Models (RSTM) remains exceptional. But extensive testing and application over the past three decades have revealed a number of shortcomings and deficiencies in eddy viscosity models. In fact, the K-{epsilon} model is totally blind to rotation effects and the swirling flows can be regarded as a special case of fluid rotation. This aspect is crucial for the simulation of a hot channel in a fuel assembly. In fact, the mixing vanes of the spacer grids generate a swirl in the coolant water, to enhance the heat transfer from the rods to the coolant in the hot channels and to limit boiling. First, we started to evaluate computational fluid dynamics results against the AGATE-mixing experiment: single-phase liquid water tests, with Laser-Doppler liquid velocity measurements upstream and downstream of mixing blades. The comparison of computed and experimental azimuthal (circular component in a horizontal plane) liquid velocity downstream of a mixing vane for the AGATE-mixing test shows that the rotating flow is qualitatively well reproduced by CFD calculations but azimuthal liquid velocity is underestimated with the K-{epsilon} model. Before comparing performance of EVM and RSTM models on fuel assembly geometry, we performed calculations with a simpler geometry, the ASU-annular channel case. A wall function model dedicated to boiling flows is also

  11. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  12. Development of an asynchronous communication channel between wireless sensor nodes, smartphone devices, and web applications using RESTful Web Services for intelligent farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Marlene M.; Estuar, Maria Regina E.; Lim, Hadrian Paulo; Victorino, John Noel C.; Co, Jerelyn; Saddi, Ivan Lester; Paelmo, Sharlene Mae; Dela Cruz, Bon Lemuel

    2017-09-01

    Environment and agriculture related applications have been gaining ground for the past several years and have been the context for researches in ubiquitous and pervasive computing. This study is a part of a bigger study that uses artificial intelligence in developing models to detect, monitor, and forecast the spread of Fusarium oxysporum cubense TR4 (FOC TR4) on Cavendish bananas cultivated in the Philippines. To implement an Intelligent Farming system, 1) wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) are deployed in Philippine banana plantations to collect soil parameter data that is considered to affect the health of Cavendish bananas, 2) a custom built smartphone application is used for collecting, storing, and transmitting soil data, plant images and plant status data to a cloud storage, and 3) a custom built web application is used to load and display results of physico-chemical analysis of soil, analysis of data models, and geographic locations of plants being monitored. This study discusses the issues, considerations, and solutions implemented in the development of an asynchronous communication channel to ensure that all data collected by WSNs and smartphone applications are transmitted with a high degree of accuracy and reliability. From a design standpoint: standard API documentation on usage of data type is required to avoid inconsistencies in parameter passing. From a technical standpoint, there is a need to include error-handling mechanisms especially for delays in transmission of data as well as generalize method of parsing thru multidimensional array of data. Strategies are presented in the paper.

  13. Defect Distributions in Channeling Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Sigmund, P.

    1965-01-01

    A simple collision model allows to calculate energy losses of perfectly channeled particles. The maximum energy loss is related in a simple way to the displacement energy of lattice atoms perpendicular to the channel. From that, one obtains rather definite predictions on the possibility...... of radiation damage by channeled particles. As an application, one gets a necessary criterion for the occurence of super tails in channeling experiments. The theory involves some assumptions on the behaviour of Born-Mayer potentials which are verified by comparison to experimental displacement energies....

  14. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  15. HB+ inserted into the CMS Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the barrel hadron calorimeter (HB+) has been inserted into the superconducting solenoid of CMS, in preparation for the magnet test and cosmic challenge. The operation went smoothly, lasting a couple of days.

  16. Bulkhead insert for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Clifford E.; Chottiner, Jeffrey Eliot; Williams, Rick L.; Thibault, Mark W.; Ervin, James Douglas; Boileau, James Maurice; McKeough, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    An engine includes a cylinder block defining at least one main bearing bulkhead adjacent to a cylinder, and a crankshaft rotatably housed within the block by a main bearing. A bulkhead insert has a cap portion, and an insert portion provided within the bulkhead. The insert portion has having first and second end regions connected by first and second straps. Each strap having a flanged beam cross section. The first and second ends of the insert portion are configured to connect a main bearing cap column to a cylinder head column. Each of the first and second end regions define at least one protrusion having a surface substantially normal to engine combustion and reactive loads. The cap portion is configured to mate with the first end region at the main bearing cap column and support the main bearing.

  17. Chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy: surgical outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Oshri, Yael; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Brin, Yaron Shagra; Karpf, Ronen; Massarwe, Sabri; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition among athletes and joggers. One fifth of the injuries involves the insertion of the tendon. The etiology is either due to mechanical overuse related to sports activity, or a systemic inflammatory disease. The clinical appearance includes pain and movement restriction. The primary treatment is conservative. The surgery referred to in this study (Calcaneal Osteotomy) is performed by decompression of the posterior ...

  18. Molecular Weiss domain polarization in piezoceramics to diaphragm, cantilever and channel construction in low-temperature-cofired ceramics for micro-fluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, P.K.; Ahmad, S.; Grimme, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts made to study the process of comminution to Weiss domain polarization and phase transition in piezoceramics together with the versatility of low-temperature-cofired ceramics-based devices and components for their ready adoption for typical applications in the area of micro-fluidics. A conceptual micro-fluidic module has been presented and few unit entities necessary for its realization have been described. The purpose of these entities is to position the sensors and actuators by using piezoelectric materials. Investigations are performed to make useful constructions like diaphragms and cantilevers for laying the sensing elements, cavities for burying the electronic chip devices, and channels for fluid transportation. In order to realize these constructions, the basic step involves machining of circular, straight line, rectangular and square-shaped structure in the green ceramic tapes followed by lamination and firing with post-machining in some cases. The diaphragm and cavity includes one or more un-machined layer stacked together with several machined layers with rectangular or square slits. The cantilever is an extension of the diaphragm creation process with inclusion of a post-machining step. The channel essentially consists of a machined green ceramic layer sandwiched between an un-machined and a partially machined layer. The fabrication for all the above constructions has been exemplified and the details have been discussed

  19. Test manufacturing of copper canisters with cast inserts. Assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, C.G

    1998-08-01

    The current design of canisters for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel consists of an outer corrosion-protective copper casing in the form of a tubular section with lid and bottom and an inner pressure-resistant insert. The insert is designed to be manufactured by casting and inside are channels in which the fuel assemblies are to be placed. Over the last years, a number of full-scale manufacturing tests of all canister components have been carried out. The purpose has been to determine and develop the best manufacturing technique and to establish long-term contacts with the best suppliers of material and technology. Part of the work has involved the developing and implementing of a quality assurance system in accordance with ISO 9001, covering the whole chain from suppliers of material up to and including the delivery of assembled canisters. This report consists of a description of the design of the canister together with current drawings and complementary technical specifications stipulating, among other things, requirements placed on different materials. The different manufacturing methods that have been used are also described and commented on in both text and illustrations. For the manufacturing of copper tubes, the roll-forming of rolled plate to tube halves and longitudinal welding is a method that has been tested on a relatively large number of tubes by now, and that probably can be developed into a functioning production method. However, the very promising outcome of performed tests on seamless tube manufacturing, has resulted in a change in direction in tube manufacturing, focusing on continued testing of extrusion as well as pierce and draw processing in the immediate future. In connection with ongoing operations, new manufacturing tests of tubes with less material thickness will be carried out. Test manufacturing of cast inserts has resulted in the choice of nodular iron as material in the continued work. This improvement in design has resulted

  20. Test manufacturing of copper canisters with cast inserts. Assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, C.G.

    1998-08-01

    The current design of canisters for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel consists of an outer corrosion-protective copper casing in the form of a tubular section with lid and bottom and an inner pressure-resistant insert. The insert is designed to be manufactured by casting and inside are channels in which the fuel assemblies are to be placed. Over the last years, a number of full-scale manufacturing tests of all canister components have been carried out. The purpose has been to determine and develop the best manufacturing technique and to establish long-term contacts with the best suppliers of material and technology. Part of the work has involved the developing and implementing of a quality assurance system in accordance with ISO 9001, covering the whole chain from suppliers of material up to and including the delivery of assembled canisters. This report consists of a description of the design of the canister together with current drawings and complementary technical specifications stipulating, among other things, requirements placed on different materials. The different manufacturing methods that have been used are also described and commented on in both text and illustrations. For the manufacturing of copper tubes, the roll-forming of rolled plate to tube halves and longitudinal welding is a method that has been tested on a relatively large number of tubes by now, and that probably can be developed into a functioning production method. However, the very promising outcome of performed tests on seamless tube manufacturing, has resulted in a change in direction in tube manufacturing, focusing on continued testing of extrusion as well as pierce and draw processing in the immediate future. In connection with ongoing operations, new manufacturing tests of tubes with less material thickness will be carried out. Test manufacturing of cast inserts has resulted in the choice of nodular iron as material in the continued work. This improvement in design has resulted

  1. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  2. Multiplicative properties of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Mizanur

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the multiplicative behaviour of quantum channels, mathematically described by trace preserving, completely positive maps on matrix algebras. It turns out that the multiplicative domain of a unital quantum channel has a close connection to its spectral properties. A structure theorem (theorem 2.5), which reveals the automorphic property of an arbitrary unital quantum channel on a subalgebra, is presented. Various classes of quantum channels (irreducible, primitive, etc) are then analysed in terms of this stabilising subalgebra. The notion of the multiplicative index of a unital quantum channel is introduced, which measures the number of times a unital channel needs to be composed with itself for the multiplicative algebra to stabilise. We show that the maps that have trivial multiplicative domains are dense in completely bounded norm topology in the set of all unital completely positive maps. Some applications in quantum information theory are discussed.

  3. A 2D 4×4 Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Martínez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles

    2015-10-01

    We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4 × 4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10 × 10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to digital converter (ADC), configuration registers, and a 4-state digital controller. For every detected photon, the pixel electronics provides the energy deposited in the detector with 10-bit resolution, and a fast trigger signal for time stamp. The ASIC contains the 16-pixel matrix electronics, a digital controller, five global voltage references, a TDC, a temperature sensor, and a band-gap based current reference. The ASIC has been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μ m mixed-signal CMOS technology and occupies an area of 5.3 mm × 6.8 mm. The TDC shows a resolution of 95.5 ps, a precision of 600 ps at full width half maximum (FWHM), and a power consumption of 130 μ W. In acquisition mode, the total power consumption of every pixel is 200 μ W. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 160 e - RMS at maximum gain and negative polarity conditions has been measured at room temperature.

  4. Statistics of α-μ Random Variables and Their Applications inWireless Multihop Relaying and Multiple Scattering Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kezhi

    2015-06-01

    Exact results for the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of ratios of products (SRP) and the sum of products (SP) of independent α-μ random variables (RVs) are derived. They are in the form of 1-D integral based on the existing works on the products and ratios of α-μ RVs. In the derivation, generalized Gamma (GG) ratio approximation (GGRA) is proposed to approximate SRP. Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) is proposed to approximate SRP and the ratio of sums of products (RSP). GG approximation (GGA) and Gamma approximation (GA) are used to approximate SP. The proposed results of the SRP can be used to calculate the outage probability (OP) for wireless multihop relaying systems or multiple scattering channels with interference. The proposed results of the SP can be used to calculate the OP for these systems without interference. In addition, the proposed approximate result of the RSP can be used to calculate the OP of the signal-To-interference ratio (SIR) in a multiple scattering system with interference. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of Silicon Micro-Funnels and Tapered Micro-Channels for Stochastic Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances S. Ligler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a simplified, highly reproducible process to fabricate arrays of tapered silicon micro-funnels and micro-channels using a single lithographic step with a silicon oxide (SiO2 hard mask on at a wafer scale. Two approaches were used for the fabrication. The first one involves a single wet anisotropic etch step in concentrated potassium hydroxide (KOH and the second one is a combined approach comprising Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE followed by wet anisotropic etching. The etching is performed through a 500 mm thick silicon wafer, and the resulting structures are characterized by sharp tapered ends with a sub-micron cross-sectional area at the tip. We discuss the influence of various parameters involved in the fabrication such as the size and thickness variability of the substrate, dry and wet anisotropic etching conditions, the etchant composition, temperature, diffusion and micro-masking effects, the quality of the hard mask in the uniformity and reproducibility of the structures, and the importance of a complete removal of debris and precipitates. The presence of apertures at the tip of the structures is corroborated through current voltage measurements and by the translocation of DNA through the apertures. The relevance of the results obtained in this report is discussed in terms of the potential use of these structures for stochastic sensing.

  6. A Proposed Chaotic-Switched Turbo Coding Design and Its Application for Half-Duplex Relay Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer H. M. Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Both reliability and security are two important subjects in modern digital communications, each with a variety of subdisciplines. In this paper we introduce a new proposed secure turbo coding system which combines chaotic dynamics and turbo coding reliability together. As we utilize the chaotic maps as a tool for hiding and securing the coding design in turbo coding system, this proposed system model can provide both data secrecy and data reliability in one process to combat problems in an insecure and unreliable data channel link. To support our research, we provide different schemes to design a chaotic secure reliable turbo coding system which we call chaotic-switched turbo coding schemes. In these schemes the design of turbo codes chaotically changed depending on one or more chaotic maps. Extensions of these chaotic-switched turbo coding schemes to half-duplex relay systems are also described. Results of simulations of these new secure turbo coding schemes are compared to classical turbo codes with the same coding parameters and the proposed system is able to achieve secured reasonable bit error rate performance when it is made to switch between different puncturing and design configuration parameters especially with low switching rates.

  7. Statistics of α-μ Random Variables and Their Applications inWireless Multihop Relaying and Multiple Scattering Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kezhi; Wang, Tian; Chen, Yunfei; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Exact results for the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of ratios of products (SRP) and the sum of products (SP) of independent α-μ random variables (RVs) are derived. They are in the form of 1-D integral based on the existing works on the products and ratios of α-μ RVs. In the derivation, generalized Gamma (GG) ratio approximation (GGRA) is proposed to approximate SRP. Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) is proposed to approximate SRP and the ratio of sums of products (RSP). GG approximation (GGA) and Gamma approximation (GA) are used to approximate SP. The proposed results of the SRP can be used to calculate the outage probability (OP) for wireless multihop relaying systems or multiple scattering channels with interference. The proposed results of the SP can be used to calculate the OP for these systems without interference. In addition, the proposed approximate result of the RSP can be used to calculate the OP of the signal-To-interference ratio (SIR) in a multiple scattering system with interference. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  8. Turbine component having surface cooling channels and method of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Trimmer, Andrew Lee; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu

    2017-09-05

    A component for a turbine engine includes a substrate that includes a first surface, and an insert coupled to the substrate proximate the substrate first surface. The component also includes a channel. The channel is defined by a first channel wall formed in the substrate and a second channel wall formed by at least one coating disposed on the substrate first surface. The component further includes an inlet opening defined in flow communication with the channel. The inlet opening is defined by a first inlet wall formed in the substrate and a second inlet wall defined by the insert.

  9. Dynamic insertion analysis of control rods of BWR under seismic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masaki; Koide, Yuichi; Fukushi, Naoki; Ishigaki, Hirokuni; Okumura, Kazue

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic insertion characteristics of the control rods for the boiling water reactors under the seismic excitation are investigated using non-linear analytical models. The control rod insertion capability is one of the most important items for the safety of nuclear power plants under the seismic events. Predicting the control rod insertion behavior during the earthquake is important in the course of the control rod seismic design. We developed the analytical models using the finite element method (FEM). The effect of the interaction force between the control rod and the fuel assemblies is considered in the non-linear analysis. This interaction force courses the resistance force to the control rod during its insertion behavior. The validity of analytical methods was confirmed by comparing the analytical results with the experimental ones. Using the analytical models, the effects of input seismic motion and structural parameters of the control rods and the fuel assemblies, such as the thickness of the channel box, on the insertion time are investigated. These analytical methods can predict insertion time of the control rod, and are useful for the seismic design of the control rod assemblies. (author)

  10. The development of Zirconia and Copper toughened Alumina ceramic insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalina Sabuan, Nur; Zolkafli, Nurfatini; Mebrahitom, A.; Azhari, Azmir; Mamat, Othman

    2018-04-01

    Ceramic cutting tools have been utilized in industry for over a century for its productivity and efficiency in machine tools and cutting tool material. However, due to the brittleness property the application has been limited. In order to manufacture high strength ceramic cutting tools, there is a need for suitable reinforcement to improve its toughness. In this case, copper (Cu) and zirconia (ZrO2) powders were added to investigate the hardness and physical properties of the developed composite insert. A uniaxial pre-forming process of the mix powder was done prior to densification by sintering at 1000 and 1300°C. The effect of the composition of the reinforcement on the hardness, density, shrinkage and microstructure of the inserts was investigated. It was found that an optimum density of 3.26 % and hardness 1385HV was obtained for composite of 10wt % zirconia and 10wt% copper at temperature 1000 °C.

  11. Archive-cup insert for liquid-metal sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Kolba, V.M.; Filewicz, E.C.; Holmes, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    An insert for collecting liquid-metal samples within a vertical casing including an elongated housing with an upper and a lower overflow seal of annular shape is described. The lower seal includes a centrally located pedestal on which a sample cup is disposed. Liquid metal enters the annulus of the upper seal and overflows into the cup which fills and overflows into the lower seal. Liquid-metal overflow from the lower seal is discharged from the insert. On cooling, the liquid metal trapped within the seals solidifies to hermetically isolate the metal sample within the cup. The device is particularly applicable for use with sampling systems on liquid metal-cooled reactors. (U.S.)

  12. A three-dimensional computational model of H2–air premixed combustion in non-circular micro-channels for a thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Saad; Kurnia, Jundika C.; Shamim, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow and flame behavior in a micro-combustor are studied. • Predictive capabilities of turbulence and chemistry sub-models are evaluated. • Thermal & hydraulic performance is tested for different combustor geometries. • Excellent outer wall prediction by RSM turbulence and EDC chemistry sub-model. • Enhanced heat transfer for triangular and trapezoid combustor geometries. - Abstract: Wall temperature uniformity and enhancement in a micro combustor for thermo photovoltaic (TPV) applications have attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years because of their direct impact on efficiency and feasibility of desired energy conversion. In this regard, numerous experimental and numerical studies in micro-combustion application have been conducted and reported. However, most previous studies have been focused on geometrical configurations limited to planar and circular channels. It is therefore of interest to investigate the impact of different channel geometries on wall temperature distribution and energy conversion efficiency. This study addresses flow and flame behavior in a micro-combustor. By utilizing the well-established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, the effect of geometrical parameters on the flow behavior and wall temperature is examined and evaluated. In order to improve the productive capability of the computational model, several steady state Reynolds Average Numerical Simulation (RANS) turbulence models alongside with different reaction rate formulations are evaluated. The results indicate that Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) with Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) provide the best quantitative prediction. The developed model is employed to investigate the effect of inlet velocity on flame structure and outer wall temperature. Furthermore, the effect of reactor cross sections, including circular, square, rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal, on the wall temperature is also evaluated. The results show that

  13. Analysis of reactivity insertion accidents in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, C.T.M.

    1978-06-01

    A calculation model to analyze reactivity insertion accidents in a PWR reactor was developed. To analyze the nuclear power transient, the AIREK-III code was used, which simulates the conventional point-kinetic equations with six groups of delayed neutron precursors. Some modifications were made to generalize and to adapt the program to solve the proposed problems. A transient thermal analysis model was developed which simulates the heat transfer process in a cross section of a UO 2 fuel rod with Zircalloy clad, a gap fullfilled with Helium gas and the correspondent coolant channel, using as input the nulcear power transient calculated by AIREK-III. The behavior of ANGRA-i reactor was analized during two types of accidents: - uncontrolled rod withdrawal from subcritical condition; - uncontrolled rod withdrawal at power. The results and conclusions obtained will be used in the license process of the Unit 1 of the Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto. (Author) [pt

  14. Acute changes associated with electrode insertion measured with optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Lozzi, Andrea; Boretsky, Adam; Agrawal, Anant; Welle, Cristin G.

    2016-03-01

    Despite advances in functional neural imaging, penetrating microelectrodes provide the most direct interface for the extraction of neural signals from the nervous system and are a critical component of many high degree-of-freedom braincomputer interface devices. Electrode insertion is a traumatic event that elicits a complex neuroinflammatory response. In this investigation we applied optical coherence microscopy (OCM), particularly optical coherence angiography (OCA), to characterize the immediate tissue response during microelectrode insertion. Microelectrodes of varying dimension and footprint (one-, two-, and four-shank) were inserted into mouse motor cortex beneath a window after craniotomy surgery. The microelectrodes were inserted in 3-4 steps at 15-20°, with approximately 250 μm linear insertion distance for each step. Before insertion and between each step, OCM datasets were collected, including for quantitative capillary velocimetry. A cohort of control animals without microelectrode insertion was also imaged over a similar time period (2-3 hours). Mechanical tissue deformation was observed in all the experimental animals. The quantitative angiography results varied across animals, and were not correlated with device dimensions. In some cases, localized flow drop-out was observed in a small region surrounding the electrode, while in other instances a global disruption in flow occurred, perhaps as a result of large vessel compression caused by mechanical pressure. OCM is a tool that can be used in various neurophotonics applications, including quantification of the neuroinflammatory response to penetrating electrode insertion.

  15. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.; Rasmussen, B.

    2004-01-01

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system

  16. Preparation of the ITER Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanino, R.; Egorov, S.; Kim, K.; Martovetsky, N.; Nunoya, Y.; Okuno, K.; Salpietro, E.; Sborchia, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Weng, P.; Bangasco, M.; Savoldi Richard, L.; Polak, M.; Formisano, A.; Zapretilina, E.; Shikov, A.; Vedernikov, G.; Ciazynski, D.; Zani, L.; Muzzi, L.; Ricci, M.; Deela Corte, A.; Sugimoto, M.; Hamada, K.; Portone, A.; Hurd, F.; Mitchell, N.; Nijhuis, A.; Ilyin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been designed in Europe and is being manufactured at Tesla Engineering, UK, in the frame of a Task Agreement with the ITER International Team. Completion of the PFCI is expected at the beginning of 2005. Then, the coil shall be shipped to JAERI Naka, Japan, and inserted into the bore of the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil, where it should be tested in 2005 to 2006. The PFCI consists of a NbTi dual-channel conductor, almost identical to the ITER PF1 and PF6 design, about 45 m long, with a 50 mm thick square stainless steel jacket, wound in a single-layer solenoid. It should carry up to 50 kA in a field of about 6 T, and it will be cooled by supercritical He at around 4.5 K and 0.6 MPa. An intermediate joint, representative of the ITER PF joints and located at relatively high field, will be an important new item in the test configuration with respect to the previous ITER Insert Coils. The PFCI will be fully instrumented with inductive and resistive heaters, as well as with voltage taps, Hall probes, pick-up coils, temperature sensors, pressure taps, strain and displacement sensors. The test program shall be aimed at DC and pulsed performance assessment of conductor and intermediate joint, AC loss measurement, stability and quench propagation, thermalhydraulic characterization. Here we give an overview of the preparatory work towards the test, including a review of the coil manufacturing and of the available instrumentation, a discussion of the most likely test program items, and a presentation of the supporting modeling and characterization work performed so far. (authors)

  17. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  18. ON-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Davis, B Rasmussen

    2004-12-31

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system.

  19. The FADE mass-stat: A technique for inserting or deleting particles in molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Matthew K., E-mail: matthew.borg@strath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Lockerby, Duncan A., E-mail: duncan.lockerby@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Reese, Jason M., E-mail: jason.reese@ed.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-21

    The emergence of new applications of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calls for the development of mass-statting procedures that insert or delete particles on-the-fly. In this paper we present a new mass-stat which we term FADE, because it gradually “fades-in” (inserts) or “fades-out” (deletes) molecules over a short relaxation period within a MD simulation. FADE applies a time-weighted relaxation to the intermolecular pair forces between the inserting/deleting molecule and any neighbouring molecules. The weighting function we propose in this paper is a piece-wise polynomial that can be described entirely by two parameters: the relaxation time scale and the order of the polynomial. FADE inherently conserves overall system momentum independent of the form of the weighting function. We demonstrate various simulations of insertions of atomic argon, polyatomic TIP4P water, polymer strands, and C{sub 60} Buckminsterfullerene molecules. We propose FADE parameters and a maximum density variation per insertion-instance that restricts spurious potential energy changes entering the system within desired tolerances. We also demonstrate in this paper that FADE compares very well to an existing insertion algorithm called USHER, in terms of accuracy, insertion rate (in dense fluids), and computational efficiency. The USHER algorithm is applicable to monatomic and water molecules only, but we demonstrate that FADE can be generally applied to various forms and sizes of molecules, such as polymeric molecules of long aspect ratio, and spherical carbon fullerenes with hollow interiors.

  20. The FADE mass-stat: A technique for inserting or deleting particles in molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Matthew K.; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of new applications of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calls for the development of mass-statting procedures that insert or delete particles on-the-fly. In this paper we present a new mass-stat which we term FADE, because it gradually “fades-in” (inserts) or “fades-out” (deletes) molecules over a short relaxation period within a MD simulation. FADE applies a time-weighted relaxation to the intermolecular pair forces between the inserting/deleting molecule and any neighbouring molecules. The weighting function we propose in this paper is a piece-wise polynomial that can be described entirely by two parameters: the relaxation time scale and the order of the polynomial. FADE inherently conserves overall system momentum independent of the form of the weighting function. We demonstrate various simulations of insertions of atomic argon, polyatomic TIP4P water, polymer strands, and C 60 Buckminsterfullerene molecules. We propose FADE parameters and a maximum density variation per insertion-instance that restricts spurious potential energy changes entering the system within desired tolerances. We also demonstrate in this paper that FADE compares very well to an existing insertion algorithm called USHER, in terms of accuracy, insertion rate (in dense fluids), and computational efficiency. The USHER algorithm is applicable to monatomic and water molecules only, but we demonstrate that FADE can be generally applied to various forms and sizes of molecules, such as polymeric molecules of long aspect ratio, and spherical carbon fullerenes with hollow interiors

  1. Handheld multi-channel LAPS device as a transducer platform for possible biological and chemical multi-sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Torsten; Molina, Roberto; Yoshinobu, Tatsuo; Kloock, Joachim P.; Biselli, Manfred; Canzoneri, Michelangelo; Schnitzler, Thomas; Schoening, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The light-addressable potentiometric sensor is a promising technology platform for multi-sensor applications and lab-on-chip devices. However, many prior LAPS developments suffer from their lack in terms of non-portability, insufficient robustness, complicate handling, etc. Hence, portable and robust LAPS-based measurement devices have been investigated by the authors recently. In this work, a 'chip card'-based light-addressable potentiometric sensor system is presented. The utilisation of ordinary 'chip cards' allows an easy handling of different sensor chips for a wide range of possible applications. The integration of the electronic and the mechanical set-up into a single reader unit results in a compact design with the benefits of portability and low required space. In addition, the presented work includes a new multi-frequency measurement procedure, based on an FFT algorithm, which enables the simultaneous real-time measurement of up to 16 sensor spots. The comparison between the former batch-LAPS and the new FFT-based LAPS set-up will be presented. The immobilisation of biological cells (CHO: Chinese hamster ovary) demonstrates the possibility to record their metabolic activity with 16 measurement spots on the same chip. Furthermore, a Cd 2+ -selective chalcogenide-glass layer together with a pH-sensitive Ta 2 O 5 layer validates the use of the LAPS for chemical multi-sensor applications

  2. Targeted, homology-driven gene insertion in stem cells by ZFN-loaded 'all-in-one' lentiviral vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yujia; Laustsen, Anders; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    -driven mechanism into safe loci. This insertion mechanism is driven by time-restricted exposure of treated cells to ZFNs. We show targeted gene integration in human stem cells, including CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Notably, targeted insertions are identified in 89......% of transduced iPSCs. Our findings demonstrate the applicability of nuclease-loaded 'all-in-one' IDLVs for site-directed gene insertion in stem cell based gene therapies....

  3. Test manufacture of the canister insert 135

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiko, H.

    2005-10-01

    This report describes the insert-manufacturing test of a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel that was made by Metso Foundries Jyvaeskylae Oy, in June 2004 on contract for Posiva Oy. The test manufacture was a part of the co-operation development programme of encapsulation technology between SKB AB and Posiva Oy. Insert casting was specified according to the current manufacturing specifications of SKB. The canister insert was of BWR-type with integral bottom. This was the second trial manufacture of this type of insert in Finland and, in total, the third test manufacture of insert by Metso Foundries Jyvaeskylae Oy. The result fulfilled all the requirements but the material mechanical properties of the cast material. The measured ultimate strength and elongation at rupture were lower than specified in the upper part of the cast. The reason for this was revealed in the metallurgical investigation of the cast material. The cast contained slag (dross). Avoiding the dross formation will be the most demanding challenge of the forthcoming development of the cast procedure. (orig.)

  4. Test manufacture of a canister insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiko, H.

    2004-11-01

    This report describes the insert-manufacturing test of a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel that was made by Metso Paper Oy, Jyvaeskylae Foundry, in 2003 on contract for Posiva Oy. The test manufacture was a part of the co-operation development programme of encapsulation technology between SKB AB and Posiva Oy. Insert casting was specified according to the current manufacturing specifications of SKB. The canister insert was of BWR-type with integral bottom. This was the first trial manufacture of this type of insert in Finland and, in total, the second test manufacture of insert by Metso Paper. The result fulfilled all the requirements but the material mechanical properties and metallurgical structure of the cast material. The measured tensile strength, ultimate strength and elongation at rupture were lower than specified. The reason for this was revealed in the metallurgical investigation of the cast material. The nodulizing of the graphite was not occurred during the casting process according to the requirements. (orig.)

  5. Study of material properties using channeling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, R.H.; Kephart, J.O.; Klein, R.K.; Park, H.; Berman, B.L.; Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    A possible application for channeling radiation is for investigating the properties of crystals in which the channeling occurs. In this paper we present some general considerations concerning channeling radiation as a measurement technique, and then we proceed to describe several specific examples

  6. Development of in vivo impedance spectroscopy techniques for measurement of micropore formation following microneedle insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Nicole K; Ghosh, Priyanka; Hardi, Lucia; Crofford, Leslie J; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2013-06-01

    Microneedles (MNs) provide a minimally invasive means to enhance skin permeability by creating micron-scale channels (micropores) that provide a drug delivery pathway. Adequate formation of the micropores is critical to the success of this unique drug delivery technique. The objective of the current work was to develop sensitive and reproducible impedance spectroscopy techniques to monitor micropore formation in animal models and human subjects. Hairless guinea pigs, a Yucatan miniature pig, and human volunteers were treated with 100 MN insertions per site following an overnight prehydration period. Repeated measurements were made pre- and post-MN treatment using dry and gel Ag/AgCl electrodes applied with light verses direct pressure to hold the electrode to the skin surface. Impedance measurements dropped significantly post-MN application at all sites (p micropore formation. In the Yucatan pig and human subjects, gel electrodes with direct pressure yielded the lowest variability (demonstrated by lower %relative standard deviation), whereas dry electrodes with direct pressure were superior in the guinea pigs. These studies confirm that impedance measurements are suitable for use in both clinical and animal research environments to monitor the formation of new micropores that will allow for drug delivery through the impermeable skin layers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. WE-E-18A-09: Application of a Channelized Hotelling Observer Model to Evaluate Angiographic Imaging Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favazza, C; Fetterly, K; Hangiandreou, N; Leng, S; Schueler, B [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and apply an observer model to objectively evaluate and compare the performance of different angiographic imaging equipment and acquisition variables. Methods: Image Acquisition— Iodine-based phantoms were created with target diameters: 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mm. The phantoms were imaged using both planes of a bi-plane angiography system with detector pixel dimensions 0.1542 mm{sup 2} and 0.1842 mm{sup 2}, respectively. All four phantoms were imaged with magnification factors 1.5, 1.25 and 1 and with the large and small focal spots. Phantom position and the dose per frame (0.12– 0.24 μ Gy/frame) were varied for a single phantom size, magnification and focal spot. Observer Model— For each experimental condition, 1200 signal-present and signal-absent images were acquired and a detectability index (d') was calculated with a Gabor-channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) model. Detectability indices were evaluated as a function of dose, phantom size, and magnification. The model was then applied to compare d' of the two imaging planes and focal spots. Uncertainty in d' was estimated by bootstrapping the data and by examining the shift-variance of systems. Results: Detectability indices varied linearly with magnification and the square root of dose. For the 2 and 4 mm phantoms, d' varied linearly with diameter. For the 0.5 and 1 mm phantoms, d' expectedly deviated from this linear relationship due to substantial detector and focal spot blurring of the phantoms. The small focal spot yielded up to 50% greater d' values than the large focal spot. For the two detectors, differences in d' did not exceed the estimated ∼7% error. Conclusions: The detectability indices predictably scaled with dose, diameter, magnification, and focal spot size and serve to validate the model. Results demonstrate statistically similar target detectability for both investigated detectors, despite differences in pixel dimensions. This CHO model

  8. WE-E-18A-09: Application of a Channelized Hotelling Observer Model to Evaluate Angiographic Imaging Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favazza, C; Fetterly, K; Hangiandreou, N; Leng, S; Schueler, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and apply an observer model to objectively evaluate and compare the performance of different angiographic imaging equipment and acquisition variables. Methods: Image Acquisition— Iodine-based phantoms were created with target diameters: 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mm. The phantoms were imaged using both planes of a bi-plane angiography system with detector pixel dimensions 0.1542 mm 2 and 0.1842 mm 2 , respectively. All four phantoms were imaged with magnification factors 1.5, 1.25 and 1 and with the large and small focal spots. Phantom position and the dose per frame (0.12– 0.24 μ Gy/frame) were varied for a single phantom size, magnification and focal spot. Observer Model— For each experimental condition, 1200 signal-present and signal-absent images were acquired and a detectability index (d') was calculated with a Gabor-channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) model. Detectability indices were evaluated as a function of dose, phantom size, and magnification. The model was then applied to compare d' of the two imaging planes and focal spots. Uncertainty in d' was estimated by bootstrapping the data and by examining the shift-variance of systems. Results: Detectability indices varied linearly with magnification and the square root of dose. For the 2 and 4 mm phantoms, d' varied linearly with diameter. For the 0.5 and 1 mm phantoms, d' expectedly deviated from this linear relationship due to substantial detector and focal spot blurring of the phantoms. The small focal spot yielded up to 50% greater d' values than the large focal spot. For the two detectors, differences in d' did not exceed the estimated ∼7% error. Conclusions: The detectability indices predictably scaled with dose, diameter, magnification, and focal spot size and serve to validate the model. Results demonstrate statistically similar target detectability for both investigated detectors, despite differences in pixel dimensions. This CHO model provides

  9. Larval application of sodium channel homologous dsRNA restores pyrethroid insecticide susceptibility in a resistant adult mosquito population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Ana Caroline Dalla; Chitolina, Rodrigo Faitta; Fermino, Marise Lopes; de Castro Poncio, Lisiane; Weiss, Avital; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Paldi, Nitzan; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Henen, Jonathan; Maori, Eyal

    2016-07-14

    Mosquitoes host and pass on to humans a variety of disease-causing pathogens such as infectious viruses and other parasitic microorganisms. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance is threatening the effectiveness of current control measures for common mosquito vector borne diseases, such as malaria, dengue and Zika. Therefore, the emerging resistance to the widely used pyrethroid insecticides is an alarming problem for public health. Herein we demonstrated the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to increase susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to a widely used pyrethroid insecticide. Experiments were performed on a field-collected pyrethroid resistant strain of Ae. aegypti (Rio de Janeiro; RJ). Larvae from the resistant Ae. aegypti population were soaked with double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that correspond either to voltage-gate sodium channel (VGSC), P-glycoprotein, or P450 detoxification genes and reared to adulthood. Adult mortality rates in the presence of various Deltamethrin pyrethroid concentrations were used to assess mosquito insecticide susceptibility. We characterized the RJ Ae. aegypti strain with regard to its level of resistance to a pyrethroid insecticide and found that it was approximately 6 times more resistant to Deltamethrin compared to the laboratory Rockefeller strain. The RJ strain displayed a higher frequency of Val1016Ile and Phe1534Cys substitutions of the VGSC gene. The resistant strain also displayed a higher basal expression level of VGSC compared to the Rockefeller strain. When dsRNA-treated mosquitoes were subjected to a standard pyrethroid contact bioassay, only dsRNA targeting VGSC increased the adult mortality of the pyrethroid resistant strain. The dsRNA treatment proved effective in increasing adult mosquito susceptibility over a range of pyrethroid concentrations and these results were associated with dsRNA-specific small interfering RNAs in treated adults, and the corresponding specific down regulation of VGSC gene expression

  10. The influence of solid particles density on parameters of multijet insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Niedźwiedzki

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Some dependences between solid particles density, chosen geometry and exploitation parameters of multijet inserts and developmentof laminar motion in continuous multijet sedimentation process, are presented in this paper. Results are obtained from the analysis of the multijet sedimentation model considering development of laminar motion of the suspension in the multijet insert conduit of the settling tank. The range of the researches covered, in particular, quantities necessary for designing inserts of multijet settling tanks finding application in purifying suspended solids in casting processes. Discussed problem has practical and cognitive meanings and is a base for more efficient designing multijet settling tanks inserts applied in iron and steel industry. Application of most efficient construction and exploitation parameters allows designing devices of lower dimensions what is especially advantageous in casting works.

  11. 80-Channel Multiplexer-Demultiplexer Module for DWDM Communications using Hybrid AWG -- Interleaver Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Bredthauer, Lance

    2007-10-01

    Aside from the more traditional data, voice and e-mail communications, new bandwidth intensive applications in the larger consumer markets, such as music, digital pictures and movies, have led to an explosive increase in the demand for transmission capacity for optical communications networks. This has resulted in a widespread deployment of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) as a means of increasing the communications capacity by multiplexing and transmitting signals of different wavelengths (establishing multiple communication channels) through a single strand of fiber. We report on the design, assembly and characterization of a 50-GHz, 80-channel Mux-Demux module for DWDM systems. The module has been assembled from two commercially available 100 GHz, 40-channel Array Waveguide Grating (AWG) modules and a 50-GHz to 100-GHz interleaver. Relevant performance parameters such as insertion loss, channel uniformity, next-channel isolation (crosstalk) and integrated cross-talk are presented and discussed in contrast with the performance of other competing technologies such as Thin-Film-Filter-based Mux-Demux devices.

  12. On the Sum of Gamma Random Variates With Application to the Performance of Maximal Ratio Combining over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2012-09-08

    The probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative density function of the sum of L independent but not necessarily identically distributed gamma variates, applicable to maximal ratio combining receiver outputs or in other words applicable to the performance analysis of diversity combining receivers operating over Nakagami-m fading channels, is presented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer valued fading parameters and non-integer valued fading parameters, respectively. Further analysis, particularly on bit error rate via PDF-based approach, too is represented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer-order fading parameters, and extended Fox H-bar-function (H-hat) for non-integer-order fading parameters. The proposed results complement previous results that are either evolved in closed-form, or expressed in terms of infinite sums or higher order derivatives of the fading parameter m.

  13. Dispensing-based bioprinting of mechanically-functional hybrid scaffolds with vessel-like channels for tissue engineering applications - A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghieh, Saman; Sarker, Md; Izadifar, Mohammad; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2018-02-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been achieved in the field of tissue engineering (TE) to restore/repair damaged tissues or organs and, in this regard, scaffolds made from biomaterials have played a critical role. Notably, recent advances in biomaterials and three-dimensional (3D) printing have enabled the manipulation of two or more biomaterials of distinct, yet complementary, mechanical and/or biological properties to form so-called hybrid scaffolds mimicking native tissues. Among various biomaterials, hydrogels synthesized to incorporate living cells and/or biological molecules have dominated due to their hydrated tissue-like environment. Moreover, dispensing-based bioprinting has evolved to the point that it can now be used to create hybrid scaffolds with complex structures. However, the complexities associated with multi-material bioprinting and synthesis of hydrogels used for hybrid scaffolds pose many challenges for their fabrication. This paper presents a brief review of dispensing-based bioprinting of hybrid scaffolds for TE applications. The focus is on the design and fabrication of hybrid scaffolds, including imaging techniques, potential biomaterials, physical architecture, mechanical properties, cell viability, and the importance of vessel-like channels. The key issues and challenges for dispensing-based bioprinting of hybrid scaffolds are also identified and discussed along with recommendations for future research directions. Addressing these issues will significantly enhance the design and fabrication of hybrid scaffolds to and pave the way for translating them into clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the Sum of Gamma Random Variates With Application to the Performance of Maximal Ratio Combining over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kucur, Oguz

    2012-01-01

    The probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative density function of the sum of L independent but not necessarily identically distributed gamma variates, applicable to maximal ratio combining receiver outputs or in other words applicable to the performance analysis of diversity combining receivers operating over Nakagami-m fading channels, is presented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer valued fading parameters and non-integer valued fading parameters, respectively. Further analysis, particularly on bit error rate via PDF-based approach, too is represented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer-order fading parameters, and extended Fox H-bar-function (H-hat) for non-integer-order fading parameters. The proposed results complement previous results that are either evolved in closed-form, or expressed in terms of infinite sums or higher order derivatives of the fading parameter m.

  15. Development of sub-channel code SACoS and its application in coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics system for SCWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudri, Khurrum Saleem; Su Yali; Chen Ronghua; Tian Wenxi; Su Guanghui; Qiu Suizheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A tool is developed for coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulic analysis for SCWR. ► For thermal hydraulic analysis, a sub-channel code SACoS is developed and verified. ► Coupled analysis agree quite well with the reference calculations. ► Different choice of important parameters makes huge difference in design calculations. - Abstract: Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) is one of the promising reactors from the list of fourth generation of nuclear reactors. High thermal efficiency and low cost of electricity make it an attractive option in the era of growing energy demand. An almost seven fold density variation for coolant/moderator along the active height does not allow the use of constant density assumption for design calculations, as used for previous generations of reactors. The advancement in computer technology gives us the superior option of performing coupled analysis. Thermal hydraulics calculations of supercritical water systems present extra challenges as not many computational tools are available to perform that job. This paper introduces a new sub-channel code called Sub-channel Analysis Code of SCWR (SACoS) and its application in coupled analyses of High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). SACoS can compute the basic thermal hydraulic parameters needed for design studies of a supercritical water reactor. Multiple heat transfer and pressure drop correlations are incorporated in the code according to the flow regime. It has the additional capability of calculating the thermal hydraulic parameters of moderator flowing in water box and between fuel assemblies under co-current or counter current flow conditions. Using MCNP4c and SACoS, a coupled system has been developed for SCWR design analyses. The developed coupled system is verified by performing and comparing HPLWR calculations. The results were found to be in very good agreement. Significant difference between the results was seen when Doppler feedback effect was included in

  16. Tourism distribution channels

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The distribution channels link the customers with the businesses. For many years, the tourism businesses may have distributed their products and services through intermediaries. However, the latest advances in technology have brought significant changes in this regard. More individuals and corporate customers are increasingly benefiting of ubiquitous technologies, including digital media. The development of mobile devices and their applications, are offering a wide range of possibilities to t...

  17. Theory of low-energy electron-molecule collision physics in the coupled-channel method and application to e-CO2 scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.A.

    1976-08-01

    A theory of electron-molecule scattering based on the fixed-nuclei approximation in a body-fixed reference frame is formulated and applied to e-CO 2 collisions in the energy range from 0.07 to 10.0 eV. The procedure used is a single-center coupled-channel method which incorporates a highly accurate static interaction potential, an approximate local exchange potential, and an induced polarization potential. Coupled equations are solved by a modification of the integral equations algorithm; several partial waves are required in the region of space near the nuclei, and a transformation procedure is developed to handle the consequent numerical problems. The potential energy is converged by separating electronic and nuclear contributions in a Legendre-polynomial expansion and including a large number of the latter. Formulas are derived for total elastic, differential, momentum transfer, and rotational excitation cross sections. The Born and asymptotic decoupling approximations are derived and discussed in the context of comparison with the coupled-channel cross sections. Both are found to be unsatisfactory in the energy range under consideration. An extensive discussion of the technical aspects of calculations for electron collisions with highly nonspherical targets is presented, including detailed convergence studies and a discussion of various numerical difficulties. The application to e-CO 2 scattering produces converged results in good agreement with observed cross sections. Various aspects of the physics of this collision are discussed, including the 3.8 eV shape resonance, which is found to possess both p and f character, and the anomalously large low-energy momentum transfer cross sections, which are found to be due to Σ/sub g/ symmetry. Comparison with static and static-exchange approximations are made

  18. Insert Design and Manufacturing for Foam-Core Composite Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lares, Alan

    Sandwich structures have been used in the aerospace industry for many years. The high strength to weight ratios that are possible with sandwich constructions makes them desirable for airframe applications. While sandwich structures are effective at handling distributed loads such as aerodynamic forces, they are prone to damage from concentrated loads at joints or due to impact. This is due to the relatively thin face-sheets and soft core materials typically found in sandwich structures. Carleton University's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Project Team has designed and manufactured a UAV (GeoSury II Prototype) which features an all composite sandwich structure fuselage structure. The purpose of the aircraft is to conduct geomagnetic surveys. The GeoSury II Prototype serves as the test bed for many areas of research in advancing UAV technologies. Those areas of research include: low cost composite materials manufacturing, geomagnetic data acquisition, obstacle detection, autonomous operations and magnetic signature control. In this thesis work a methodology for designing and manufacturing inserts for foam-core sandwich structures was developed. The results of this research work enables a designer wishing to design a foam-core sandwich airframe structure, a means of quickly manufacturing optimized inserts for the safe introduction of discrete loads into the airframe. The previous GeoSury II Prototype insert designs (v.1 & v.2) were performance tested to establish a benchmark with which to compare future insert designs. Several designs and materials were considered for the new v.3 inserts. A plug and sleeve design was selected, due to its ability to effectively transfer the required loads to the sandwich structure. The insert material was chosen to be epoxy, reinforced with chopped carbon fibre. This material was chosen for its combination of strength, low mass and also compatibility with the face-sheet material. The v.3 insert assembly is 60% lighter than the

  19. Installation of the LHC experimental insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the low-beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  20. INSTALLATION OF THE LHC EXPERIMENTAL INSERTIONS

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the Low-Beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  1. Compact insert design for cryogenic pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, Salvador M.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias Rigoberto; Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Petitpas, Guillaume; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2017-06-14

    A pressure vessel apparatus for cryogenic capable storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure includes an insert with a parallel inlet duct, a perpendicular inlet duct connected to the parallel inlet. The perpendicular inlet duct and the parallel inlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components. The insert also includes a parallel outlet duct and a perpendicular outlet duct connected to the parallel outlet duct. The perpendicular outlet duct and the parallel outlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components.

  2. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs

  3. Decreasing vortex flux in channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaj, V.K.; Nosova, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A new method for reducing vortex flow losses in power plant channels is suggested. The method is based on vortex splitting in vortex flow areas with transverse barriers placed on the channel walls. The upper barrier ends are at the level of the upper boundary of the vortex area and don't protrude to the active flow beyond this boundary. The effectiveness of the method suggested is illustrated taking as an example the investigation of square and flat channels with abrupt widening in one plane, diffusers with widening in one plane, or a rectangualr bend. It is shown that splitting the vortex areas with transverse barriers in the channels results in reduction of hydraulic losses by 10-25%. The above method is characteristic of an extreme simplicity, its application doesn't require changes in the channel shape nor installation of any devices in the flow

  4. SU-F-T-25: Design and Implementation of a Multi-Purpose Applicator for Pelvic Brachytherapy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogue, J; Parsai, E [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The current generation of inflatable multichannel brachytherapy applicators, such as the Varian Capri, have limited implementation to only vaginal and rectal cancers. While there are similar designs utilizing rigid, non-inflatable applicators, these alternatives could cause increased dose to surrounding tissue due to air gaps. Modification of the Capri could allow for easier treatment planning by reducing the number of channels and increased versatility by modifying the applicator to include an attachable single tandem for cervical or multiple tandems for endometrial applications. Methods: A Varian Capri applicator was simulated in water to replicate a patient. Multiple plans were optimized to deliver a prescribed dose of 100 cGy at 5mm away from the exterior of the applicator using six to thirteen existing channels. The current model was expanded upon to include a detachable tandem or multiple tandoms to increase its functionality to both cervical and endometrial cancers. Models were constructed in both threedimensional rendering software and Monte Carlo to allow prototyping and simulations. Results: Treatment plans utilizing six to thirteen channels produced limited dosimetric differences between channel arrangements, with a seven channel plan very closely approximating the thirteen channels. It was concluded that only seven channels would be necessary in future simulations to give an accurate representation of the applicator. Tandem attachments were prototyped for the applicator to demonstrate the ease of which they could be included. Future simulation in treatment planning software and Monte Carlo results will be presented to further define the ideal applicator geometry Conclusion: The current Capri applicator design could be easily modified to increase applicability to include cervical and endometrial treatments in addition to vaginal and rectal cancers. This new design helps in a more versatile single use applicator that can easily be inserted and to

  5. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00218666; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the innermost layer of pixel detectors, and was installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis, between the existing Pixel detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D sensors and CMOS 130 nm technology. The IBL detector construction was completed within about two years (2012-2014), and the key features and challenges met during the IBL project are presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience at the LHC

  6. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Bakker, D.; Vliet, van AH; Kuipers, E.J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Kusters, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  7. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Ramon; Bakker, Dennis; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Kusters, Johannes G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  8. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene Polymorphism: An Observational Study among Diabetic Hypertensive Subjects in Malaysia. ... Methods: The pharmacological effect of ACE inhibition on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were observed among a total of 62 subjects for ...

  9. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing's noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  10. Aspects of insertion in random trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, Arunabha; Reingold, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method formulated by Yao and used by Brown has yielded bounds on the fraction of nodes with specified properties in trees bult by a sequence of random internal nodes in a random tree built by binary search and insertion, and show that in such a tree about bounds better than those now known. We

  11. Patients Comprehension of Pharmaceutical Package Inserts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research December 2015; 14 (12): ... Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... patients/consumers about PPI. ... the perception of outpatients of Karachi about ... Do you store the medication at the temperature specified in the package insert ... drugs available in local market of Pakistan was.

  12. Application of recurrence quantification analysis to automatically estimate infant sleep states using a single channel of respiratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn

    2012-08-01

    Previous work has identified that non-linear variables calculated from respiratory data vary between sleep states, and that variables derived from the non-linear analytical tool recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) are accurate infant sleep state discriminators. This study aims to apply these discriminators to automatically classify 30 s epochs of infant sleep as REM, non-REM and wake. Polysomnograms were obtained from 25 healthy infants at 2 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months of age, and manually sleep staged as wake, REM and non-REM. Inter-breath interval data were extracted from the respiratory inductive plethysmograph, and RQA applied to calculate radius, determinism and laminarity. Time-series statistic and spectral analysis variables were also calculated. A nested cross-validation method was used to identify the optimal feature subset, and to train and evaluate a linear discriminant analysis-based classifier. The RQA features radius and laminarity and were reliably selected. Mean agreement was 79.7, 84.9, 84.0 and 79.2 % at 2 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months, and the classifier performed better than a comparison classifier not including RQA variables. The performance of this sleep-staging tool compares favourably with inter-human agreement rates, and improves upon previous systems using only respiratory data. Applications include diagnostic screening and population-based sleep research.

  13. The Effect of Aptamer Concetration towards Reduced Graphene Oxide-Field Effect Transistor Surface Channel for Biosensor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiq Zainol Abidin, Azrul; Rahim, Ruslinda Abdul; Huan, Chow Yong; Maidin, Nur Nasyifa Mohd; Atiqah Ahmad, Nurul; Hashwan, Saeed S. Ba; Faudzi, Fatin Nabilah Mohd; Hong, Voon Chun

    2018-03-01

    Aptamer are artificially produce bioreceptor that has been developed to bind with various target biomolecules such as ion, cells, protein and small molecules. In this research, an aptamer concentration of 0.5 nM, 1 nM, 5 nM, 10 nM, and 50 nM were immobilized on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) integrated with field effect transistor (FET) respectively to study the effect of aptamer concentration toward rGO surface for stable biosensing platform. The 0.5 nM concentration of aptamer shows the highest current result of 84.3 µA at 1 V applied through the source and drain. After immobilized with aminated aptamer, the conductivity shows significant reduction due to the formation of amide bond on rGO surface between aminated aptamer and carboxyl group on rGO. The electrical performance of FET integrated with rGO shows stable electrical performance suitable to be used in the biosensing application.

  14. Ocular lens availability of glutathione from collagen inserts for protection of eye from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Ocular inserts of glutathione ( G ) were prepared using 1 % collagen solution containing free G ,liposomal G and liposomal G with Concanavalin A ,a specific targeting agent of G to ocular lens. These inserts have to be sterilized for in-vivo ophthalmic application by exposure to U V radiation for 2 hr. using dry ice and acetone for protection of G from thermal degradation. In vitro release characteristics of G (17.0 μ mole) from the prepared inserts were investigated at 37deg C in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 . The results of release data showed that the release of G from inserts were arranged in the following order, free G, liposomal G with or without Concanavalin A. The extent of uptake of G from the collagen inserts by rabbit cornea was also tested. The results of ocular lens availability of G from collagen inserts revealed that a highly significant increase in the uptake of G by ocular lenses,where the percentages drug uptake from the applied doses at T max were 1.12% (p(0.05), 2.12% (p(0.01) and 3.4% (p(0.001) in case of using collagen inserts containing free G, liposomal G and liposomal G with Concanavalin A respectively. That is to say,lipid nature of liposomes together with Concanavlin A improved the penetration of the entrapped hydrophilic G through corneal barrier to the ocular lenses

  15. Channelling and electromagnetic radiation of channelling particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, N.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description is presented of the channelling of charged particles between atoms in the crystal lattice. The specificities are discussed of the transverse motion of channelling particles as are the origin and properties of quasi-characteristic radiation of channelling particles which accompany transfers from one band of permissible energies of the transverse motion of channelling particles to the other. (B.S.)

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EARLY POSTPARTUM IUCD INSERTION TO INTERVAL IUCD INSERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibani Devi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to National Family Health Survey-3, Indian women have 13% unmet need for contraception and according to District Level Household & Facility Survey-3, it is 21.3% in the postpartum period. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device insertion - both immediately post-placental delivery and somewhat later, but within 48 hours after delivery are options which merit consideration as the woman is likely to have a high motivation for accepting contraception and the healthcare centre provides a convenient setting for insertion of IUCD. AIM Comparison of efficacy and complications of IUCD insertions in post-placental with interval period: 6-month followup. METHOD This perspective study was conducted among 100 women: - 50 women had IUCD inserted within 10 minutes of placental delivery and 50 had insertion more than 6 weeks after delivery. They were followed till 6 months post insertion and were compared regarding early and late complications, continuation rates and expulsion rates. RESULT At the end of six months, we found higher occurrence of lower abdominal pain, heavy menstrual bleeding in case of interval insertion as compared to post-placental insertion which was statistically significant (p value-0.04 & 0.007 respectively. However, the expulsion rates of post-placental IUCD were somewhat elevated (14% compared to interval insertions (2%. Continuation rates at the end of 6 months in both the groups were 82% and 86% respectively which is comparable. CONCLUSION Post-placental IUCD is thus found to be an ideal method to meet the unmet need of postpartum women as it is easily accessible and convenient for both women and their health care providers, is associated with less discomfort and fewer side effects and allow women to obtain safe, long acting, highly effective contraception while still in the health care system.

  17. Channel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Arne; Schinnenburg, Marc; Gross, James; Aguiar, Ana

    For any communication system the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio of the link is a fundamental metric. Recall (cf. Chapter 9) that the SINR is defined as the ratio between the received power of the signal of interest and the sum of all "disturbing" power sources (i.e. interference and noise). From information theory it is known that a higher SINR increases the maximum possible error-free transmission rate (referred to as Shannon capacity [417] of any communication system and vice versa). Conversely, the higher the SINR, the lower will be the bit error rate in practical systems. While one aspect of the SINR is the sum of all distracting power sources, another issue is the received power. This depends on the transmitted power, the used antennas, possibly on signal processing techniques and ultimately on the channel gain between transmitter and receiver.

  18. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1990-07-01

    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  19. The EarthScope Array Network Facility: application-driven low-latency web-based tools for accessing high-resolution multi-channel waveform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Clemesha, A.; Vernon, F. L.

    2008-12-01

    Since April 2004 the EarthScope USArray seismic network has grown to over 400 broadband stations that stream multi-channel data in near real-time to the Array Network Facility in San Diego. Providing secure, yet open, access to real-time and archived data for a broad range of audiences is best served by a series of platform agnostic low-latency web-based applications. We present a framework of tools that interface between the world wide web and Boulder Real Time Technologies Antelope Environmental Monitoring System data acquisition and archival software. These tools provide audiences ranging from network operators and geoscience researchers, to funding agencies and the general public, with comprehensive information about the experiment. This ranges from network-wide to station-specific metadata, state-of-health metrics, event detection rates, archival data and dynamic report generation over a stations two year life span. Leveraging open source web-site development frameworks for both the server side (Perl, Python and PHP) and client-side (Flickr, Google Maps/Earth and jQuery) facilitates the development of a robust extensible architecture that can be tailored on a per-user basis, with rapid prototyping and development that adheres to web-standards.

  20. Effect of Tension and Curvature of Skin on Insertion Characteristics of Microneedle Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Takano, Naoki; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki; Miki, Norihisa; Ami, Yoshimichi

    Recent MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) fabrication techniques have made it possible to produce painless microneedles precisely enough to be inserted into epidermis layer penetrating the stratum corneum of human skin. This paper presents a testing procedure to evaluate the insertion characteristics of microneedle array using cultured human skin considering the tension and the curvature. First, the biaxial strain applied to the cultured human skin was measured by optical technique with image processing. It was found that almost constant strain could be successfully given within a certain area and that error factors in the experiment except the thickness variation of the cultured skin were negligible. Next, using a microneedle square array for brain machine interface (BMI) application, the effects of biaxial tension and the curvature on insertion characteristics were discussed. Within the above mentioned area with high strain, the needles were successfully inserted.

  1. Verification of Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) Insertion for Reliable and Trusted Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for TMR insertion verification that satisfies the process for reliable and trusted systems. If a system is expected to be protected using TMR, improper insertion can jeopardize the reliability and security of the system. Due to the complexity of the verification process, there are currently no available techniques that can provide complete and reliable confirmation of TMR insertion. This manuscript addresses the challenge of confirming that TMR has been inserted without corruption of functionality and with correct application of the expected TMR topology. The proposed verification method combines the usage of existing formal analysis tools with a novel search-detect-and-verify tool. Field programmable gate array (FPGA),Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR),Verification, Trust, Reliability,

  2. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  3. Symplectic models for general insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Forest, E.; Robin, D. S.; Nishimura, H.; Wolski, A.; Litvinenko, V. N.

    2001-01-01

    A variety of insertion devices (IDs), wigglers and undulators, linearly or elliptically polarized,are widely used as high brightness radiation sources at the modern light source rings. Long and high-field wigglers have also been proposed as the main source of radiation damping at next generation damping rings. As a result, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impact of IDs on the charged particle dynamics in the storage ring. In this paper, we report our recent development of a general explicit symplectic model for IDs with the paraxial ray approximation. High-order explicit symplectic integrators are developed to study real-world insertion devices with a number of wiggler harmonics and arbitrary polarizations

  4. Agitation within Mk-42 insert caused by air sparge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Dissolution of Rocky Flats Pu alloys and Pu metal using a ''nested insert'' configuration (One Well Insert (S-3352) inside the Mk-42 Insert) will require a Nuclear Safety Study, a major assumption of which will be that the annular dissolver is well-mixed. The ''well-mixed'' assumption was theoretically and experimentally supported for alloy dissolution using the Three Well Insert, but the present situation differs significantly. In the former case, the insert was directly exposed to the agitation induced by air sparging; in the case under consideration, the One Well Insert would be shielded by the Mk-42 Insert. In an effort to determine if the ''nested insert'' approach should be pursued, the past studies and technical literature have been surveyed and an attempt made to predict the extent of mixing and bulk circulation for a ''nested insert'' configuration in the presence of air sparging

  5. Live insertion method used for main renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solkowitz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Baltimore Gas and Electric's pilot project using the live insertion method to replace a cast iron main provided excellent results. Its use on Eastern Avenue, a major state highway, was cost effective, provided gas service to customers during the work, required relatively short construction time and resulted in only minor traffic disruptions. Gas service transfers to the new main were done at customer convenience and resulted in outages of only a few hours per customer. This paper reports that the project involved inserting a 6-in. plastic line inside an existing 10-in. cast iron main. Miller Pipeline Corp., Indianapolis, supplier of the Insertec left-angle R right-angle live insertion method was contracted for the job. Miller technicians assisted BG and E forces by providing a load analysis of the main, a pushing machine and related supplies, foaming equipment and pipe cutting tools. Company forces were responsible for all preparatory work, including opening all excavations, installing bypasses, and fusing and testing the plastic pipe. Service transfers and renewals were also completed by company employees

  6. Inverted stream channels in the Western Desert of Egypt: Synergistic remote, field observations and laboratory analysis on Earth with applications to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Abdallah S.; Pain, Colin F.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Giegengack, Robert

    2018-07-01

    Inverted relief landforms occur in numerous regions on Mars, ranging in age from Noachian to more recent Amazonian periods (channel features on Earth form, and the geologic records they preserve in arid settings, can yield insights into the development of inverted landforms on Mars. Inverted channel landforms in the Western Desert of Egypt are well represented across an area of ∼27,000 km2. We investigated inverted channel features at seven sites using remotely-sensed data, field observations, and lab analysis. Inverted channel features in the Western Desert record fluvial environments of differing scales and ages. They developed mainly via inversion of cemented valley floor sediment, but there is a possibility that inverted fluvial landforms in the Dakhla Depression might have been buried, lithified, and exhumed. A few examples, in the southeastern part of the Western Desert, record, instead, a resistance to erosion caused by surface armouring of uncemented valley floor sediment. We show that the grain-size distribution for investigated and reviewed inverted channels is highly variable, with boulders that are commonly 0.35 - 1 m in size; large particles provide high porosity that influences the cementation mechanism. The studied inverted channel sediments are mainly cemented with ferricrete, calcrete, gypcrete, and silcrete. Inverted channels are valuable for the reconstruction of paleoclimate cycles or episodes on Earth and Mars; observations from the Western Desert, when offered as analogs, add to the growing list of Earth examples that provide suites of observables relevant to reconstruction of paleoenvironmental conditions on Mars.

  7. Program on application of communications satellites to educational development: Design of a 12 channel FM microwave receiver. [color television from communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, C. O.; Rosenbaum, F. J.; Gregory, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance of elements of a low cost FM microwave satellite ground station receiver is described. It is capable of accepting 12 contiguous color television equivalent bandwidth channels in the 11.72 to 12.2 GHz band. Each channel is 40 MHz wide and incorporates a 4 MHz guard band. The modulation format is wideband FM and the channels are frequency division multiplexed. Twelve independent CATV compatible baseband outputs are provided. The overall system specifications are first discussed, then consideration is given to the receiver subsystems and the signal branching network.

  8. FRET-based localization of fluorescent protein insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta A Raina

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein (FP insertions have often been used to localize primary structure elements in mid-resolution 3D cryo electron microscopic (EM maps of large protein complexes. However, little is known as to the precise spatial relationship between the location of the fused FP and its insertion site within a larger protein. To gain insights into these structural considerations, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements were used to localize green fluorescent protein (GFP insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1, a large intracellular Ca(2+ release channel that plays a key role in skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling. A series of full-length His-tagged GFP-RyR1 fusion constructs were created, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T cells and then complexed with Cy3NTA, a His-tag specific FRET acceptor. FRET efficiency values measured from each GFP donor to Cy3NTA bound to each His tag acceptor site were converted into intermolecular distances and the positions of each inserted GFP were then triangulated relative to a previously published X-ray crystal structure of a 559 amino acid RyR1 fragment. We observed that the chromophoric centers of fluorescent proteins inserted into RyR1 can be located as far as 45 Å from their insertion sites and that the fused proteins can also be located in internal cavities within RyR1. These findings should prove useful in interpreting structural results obtained in cryo EM maps using fusions of small fluorescent proteins. More accurate point-to-point distance information may be obtained using complementary orthogonal labeling systems that rely on fluorescent probes that bind directly to amino acid side chains.

  9. On the Efficient Simulation of the Distribution of the Sum of Gamma-Gamma Variates with Application to the Outage Probability Evaluation Over Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki; Rached, Nadhir B.; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Tempone, Raul

    2017-01-01

    the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma- Gamma random variables

  10. Multicenter surgical experience evaluation on the Mid-Scala electrode and insertion tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibegovic, Dzemal; Bero, Eva M

    2017-02-01

    The HiFocus Mid-Scala electrode is intended to improve hearing for individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss by providing extended electrical coverage of the cochlea while minimizing trauma related to insertion. The electrode is appropriate for use with a wide range of surgical techniques, including either a cochleostomy or round window insertion, and the use of either a free-hand or tool-assisted approach. The objective of this survey was to evaluate how the HiFocus Mid-Scala electrode and insertion tools was used across a population of cochlear implant recipients of differing ages, audiologic profiles, and anatomical characteristics. The intent was to understand the type and frequency of surgical techniques applicable with the electrode, and to provide guidelines for clinical practice. Two questionnaires were completed by surgeons at implant centres located in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Before any surgeries were conducted, surgeons completed a questionnaire that assessed their overall cochlear implant surgical practice and preferences. Following each HiFocus Mid-Scala electrode insertion, surgeons completed a questionnaire that summarized their experience during that surgical procedure. Questionnaires were completed by 32 surgeons from 16 centres for a total of 143 surgeries (112 adults, 31 children). Most surgeons (62 %) preferred to insert the electrode via the round window or an extended round window compared with a cochleostomy (16 %), whereas the remaining 22 % indicated that they made an insertion choice based on presenting anatomy. Sixty-nine percent preferred a free-hand approach over using insertion tools. In 32 procedures, surgeons elected to deviate from an intended round window insertion to either an extended round window or cochleostomy approach.

  11. Two stents insertion via single tract for treatment of hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zonggui; Jin Peng; Xie Zhiyong; Yi Yuhai; Zhang Xuping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical application of two stents insertion via single tract for treatment of hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: Eighteen patients with hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma who had left and right bile duct obstruction were treated with stents insertion via right bile duct puncturing routeway. These two stents were implanted between right and left bile duct, and between right bile duct and common bile duct. Results: Eighteen patients obtained successful two stents placement by right bile duct puncturing tract and succeeded with internal drainage for all biliary tree jaundice subsided distinctly. Conclusions: The technique of two stents insertion via single tract could predigest interventional drainage procedure of high bile duct obstruction, reduce operation trauma, shorten handling time and possess promising application value

  12. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  13. Atomistic Galois insertions for flow sensitive integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2017-01-01

    Several program verification techniques assist in showing that software adheres to the required security policies. Such policies may be sensitive to the flow of execution and the verification may be supported by combinations of type systems and Hoare logics. However, this requires user assistance...... and to obtain full automation we shall explore the over-approximating nature of static analysis. We demonstrate that the use of atomistic Galois insertions constitutes a stable framework in which to obtain sound and fully automatic enforcement of flow sensitive integrity. The framework is illustrated...

  14. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wensheng; Zhang, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns. PMID:25811038

  15. Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S. W.

    2012-02-27

    From surface hardening of steels to doping of semiconductors, atom insertion in solids plays an important role in modifying chemical, physical, and electronic properties of materials for a variety of applications. High densities of atomic insertion in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cycling of novel battery electrodes, such as alloying anodes, conversion oxides, and sulfur and oxygen cathodes. Silicon, which undergoes 400% volume expansion when alloying with lithium, is an extreme case and represents an excellent model system for study. Here, we show that fracture locations are highly anisotropic for lithiation of crystalline Si nanopillars and that fracture is strongly correlated with previously discovered anisotropic expansion. Contrary to earlier theoretical models based on diffusion-induced stresses where fracture is predicted to occur in the core of the pillars during lithiation, the observed cracks are present only in the amorphous lithiated shell. We also show that the critical fracture size is between about 240 and 360 nm and that it depends on the electrochemical reaction rate.

  16. Inserting Stress Analysis of Combined Hexagonal Aluminum Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangcheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of hexagonal aluminum honeycombs are tested to study their out-of-plane crushing behavior. In the tests, honeycomb samples, including single hexagonal aluminum honeycomb (SHAH samples and two stack-up combined hexagonal aluminum honeycombs (CHAH samples, are compressed at a fixed quasistatic loading rate. The results show that the inserting process of CHAH can erase the initial peak stress that occurred in SHAH. Meanwhile, energy-absorbing property of combined honeycomb samples is more beneficial than the one of single honeycomb sample with the same thickness if the two types of honeycomb samples are completely crushed. Then, the applicability of the existing theoretical model for single hexagonal honeycomb is discussed, and an area equivalent method is proposed to calculate the crushing stress for nearly regular hexagonal honeycombs. Furthermore, a semiempirical formula is proposed to calculate the inserting plateau stress of two stack-up CHAH, in which structural parameters and mechanics properties of base material are concerned. The results show that the predicted stresses of three kinds of two stack-up combined honeycombs are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on this study, stress-displacement curve of aluminum honeycombs can be designed in detail, which is very beneficial to optimize the energy-absorbing structures in engineering fields.

  17. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Chun-Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns.

  18. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    enhancement of heat transfer with twisted tape inserts as compared to plain ... studies for heat transfer and pressure drop of laminar flow in horizontal tubes ... flow in rectangular and square plain ducts and ducts with twisted-tape inserts .... presence of the insert in the pipe causes resistance to flow and increases turbulence.

  19. Conformational changes and slow dynamics through microsecond polarized atomistic molecular simulation of an integral Kv1.2 ion channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelkmar, Pär; Niemelä, Perttu S; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    transitions occur in membrane proteins-not to mention numerous applications in drug design. Here, we present a full 1 micros atomic-detail molecular dynamics simulation of an integral Kv1.2 ion channel, comprising 120,000 atoms. By applying 0.052 V/nm of hyperpolarization, we observe structural rearrangements......Structure and dynamics of voltage-gated ion channels, in particular the motion of the S4 helix, is a highly interesting and hotly debated topic in current membrane protein research. It has critical implications for insertion and stabilization of membrane proteins as well as for finding how...... and significant thinning of the membrane also observed in experiments, this provides additional support for the predictive power of microsecond-scale membrane protein simulations....

  20. Polymeric Biodegradable Stent Insertion in the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent insertion has been used as a well-accepted and effective alternative to manage and improve the quality of life for patients diagnosed with esophageal diseases and disorders. Current stents are either permanent or temporary and are fabricated from either metal or plastic. The partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS has a firm anchoring effect and prevent stent migration, however, the hyperplastic tissue reaction cause stent restenosis and make it difficult to remove. A fully covered SEMS and self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS reduced reactive hyperplasia but has a high migration rate. The main advantage that polymeric biodegradable stents (BDSs have over metal or plastic stents is that removal is not require and reduce the need for repeated stent insertion. But the slightly lower radial force of BDS may be its main shortcoming and a post-implant problem. Thus, strengthening support of BDS is a content of the research in the future. BDSs are often temporarily effective in esophageal stricture to relieve dysphagia. In the future, it can be expect that biodegradable drug-eluting stents (DES will be available to treat benign esophageal stricture, perforations or leaks with additional use as palliative modalities for treating malignant esophageal stricture, as the bridge to surgery or to maintain luminal patency during neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  1. Targeted gene insertion for molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Katrin; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2008-11-01

    Genomic insertion of a functional gene together with suitable transcriptional regulatory elements is often required for long-term therapeutical benefit in gene therapy for several genetic diseases. A variety of integrating vectors for gene delivery exist. Some of them exhibit random genomic integration, whereas others have integration preferences based on attributes of the targeted site, such as primary DNA sequence and physical structure of the DNA, or through tethering to certain DNA sequences by host-encoded cellular factors. Uncontrolled genomic insertion bears the risk of the transgene being silenced due to chromosomal position effects, and can lead to genotoxic effects due to mutagenesis of cellular genes. None of the vector systems currently used in either preclinical experiments or clinical trials displays sufficient preferences for target DNA sequences that would ensure appropriate and reliable expression of the transgene and simultaneously prevent hazardous side effects. We review in this paper the advantages and disadvantages of both viral and non-viral gene delivery technologies, discuss mechanisms of target site selection of integrating genetic elements (viruses and transposons), and suggest distinct molecular strategies for targeted gene delivery.

  2. Cigarette Mouth Insertion Depths Among Chinese Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Q

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vent blocking - where filter ventilation holes are intentionally or unintentionally, partly or completely covered by smokers’ lips during smoking - is an aspect of smoking behavior which can alter mainstream smoke yields. This study was designed to determine if, and to what extent ventilation holes were blocked by smokers’ lips in two cohorts of Chinese smokers. In this study, two groups of samples were collected. One group (1742 butts was collected randomly from public places in six chosen cities. Another (1037 butts was obtained by collecting the butts from identified smokers in Kunming. In this paper, the mouth insertion depth among Chinese smokers was studied for the first time by a staining method employing ninhydrin in ethanol. The results indicate that Chinese smokers exhibit a mouth insertion depth ranging from 1 to 17 mm with an average value of 7.5 AA± 2 mm. In this study, 95% of the ventilated filters examined showed that the vent zone was neither completely nor partially covered by smokers’ lips.

  3. Safety analysis for reactivity insertion on ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcia S.; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Barros, Graiciany de P. [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, an accelerator driven system (ADS) has been studied to fuel regeneration, partitioning and transmutation using fuel removed from LWR-spent fuel. This spent fuel was reprocessed by GANEX and then spiked with thorium. Monteburns 2.0 (MCNP5/ORIGEN 2.1) code was used to simulate burnup and neutronic parameters of the systems. However, these systems might be interrupted for some technical problems during few days or long periods to perform maintenance of accelerator systems without shutdown the fission system. Therefore, in this work, the aim was to investigate the nuclear fuel evolution in three different cases with reactivity insertions and variations in the functionality of the ADS. The evaluation has been performed for a burnup of 3 years, which are the most dangerous years in case of reactivity insertions. Therefore, in the first case the ADS during its burnup the external source (spallation source) is cutting off from the system several times during the first year of burnup. In the second case, it is simulated the reactor at different power from 0 (shutdown) to 1.5 times the 515MWt. The results shows the safety limits of the ADS for different situation. (author)

  4. Coolant channel module CCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, Alois

    2007-01-01

    . This package can be adopted as a general element in the simulation of thermal-hydraulic situations of complex systems consisting of a number of special channels. Such systems can represent different types of steam generators, 3D nuclear reactor cores with special attention to the calculation of the mass flow distribution into different parallel channels after non-symmetric perturbations, each of them distinguished by their key numbers. The resulting set of equations can be combined with other ODE-s and constitutive equations from additional parts of such a comprehensive model. The complete system of equations can then (outside of the CCM) be solved by applying appropriate integration routines. Verification and validation test runs over a wide application range have yielded very satisfactory results demonstrating therefore in a convincing way the quality of the CCM. This approach offers an alternative to the currently dominant 'Separate-Phase Models' where each phase within a coolant channel is treated separately. The advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches are discussed in this paper

  5. Two-Phase Flow in High-Heat-Flux Micro-Channel Heat Sink for Refrigeration Cooling Applications. Part 1: Micro-Channel Heat Sink for Direct Refrigeration Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    the two-phase mixture exiting the condenser. Throttling from high to low pressure was achieved by a manual metering valve situated upstream of the micro...channel et al. htp N4hsP) correlation (2002) kh sp = Nu kf dh’ Nuta, = const (Refer to Eqs. (1.4.6) and (1.4.7)), = 0.023Re" Prf4 f f E=1.0+6Bol6 +f(Bo)x...12.26% (318 data points) 0Id" +30%OND A ~’AAK - -30%",A- / A’ A* 10 " , , , htp ,&xp [W/M 2 K] Figure 1.4.8 Comparison of heat transfer coefficient

  6. Enantioselective carbenoid insertion into C(sp3–H bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Santiago

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselective carbenoid insertion into C(sp3–H bonds is an important tool for the synthesis of complex molecules due to the high control of enantioselectivity in the formation of stereogenic centers. This paper presents a brief review of the early issues, related mechanistic studies and recent applications on this chemistry area.

  7. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. The IBL detector construction was achieved within about two years starting from mid-2012 to the May 2014 installation in ATLAS, a very tight schedule to meet the ATLAS installation and detector closure before starting the Run2 in Spring 2015. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience in LHC.

  8. Cybermaterials: materials by design and accelerated insertion of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Olson, Gregory B.

    2016-02-01

    Cybermaterials innovation entails an integration of Materials by Design and accelerated insertion of materials (AIM), which transfers studio ideation into industrial manufacturing. By assembling a hierarchical architecture of integrated computational materials design (ICMD) based on materials genomic fundamental databases, the ICMD mechanistic design models accelerate innovation. We here review progress in the development of linkage models of the process-structure-property-performance paradigm, as well as related design accelerating tools. Extending the materials development capability based on phase-level structural control requires more fundamental investment at the level of the Materials Genome, with focus on improving applicable parametric design models and constructing high-quality databases. Future opportunities in materials genomic research serving both Materials by Design and AIM are addressed.

  9. Citizens and service channels: channel choice and channel management implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan

    2010-01-01

    The arrival of electronic channels in the 1990s has had a huge impact on governmental service delivery. The new channels have led to many new opportunities to improve public service delivery, not only in terms of citizen satisfaction, but also in cost reduction for governmental agencies. However,

  10. Method Of Wire Insertion For Electric Machine Stators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David L; Stabel, Gerald R; Lawrence, Robert Anthony

    2005-02-08

    A method of inserting coils in slots of a stator is provided. The method includes interleaving a first set of first phase windings and a first set of second phase windings on an insertion tool. The method also includes activating the insertion tool to radially insert the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings in the slots of the stator. In one embodiment, interleaving the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings on the insertion tool includes forming the first set of first phase windings in first phase openings defined in the insertion tool, and forming the first set of second phase windings in second phase openings defined in the insertion tool.

  11. Micromachining of buried micro channels in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Meint J.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Burger, G.J.; Burger, G.J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    A new method for the fabrication of micro structures for fluidic applications, such as channels, cavities, and connector holes in the bulk of silicon wafers, called buried channel technology (BCT), is presented in this paper. The micro structures are constructed by trench etching, coating of the

  12. Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shilian, E-mail: wangsl@nudt.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhili [College of Electrical Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073, P R China (China)

    2015-01-15

    A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK) communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI) is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK) in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel.

  13. Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel.

  14. Hand-actuated spring clip insertion tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    A hand-actuated insertion tool includes a handle assembly, an elongated hollow tubular outer support tube, an elongated inner pull rod, and a coupling arrangement. The handle assembly has a first handle member and a second handle member pivoted to a member for movement between unactuated and actuated positions. The tube is attached in a fixed relation to a handle member. The rod is mounted within the tube for sliding movement relative thereto between home and retracted positions. The coupling arrangement pivotally connects the rod to the second handle member such that the rod will undergo sliding movement from the home position to the retracted positions relative to the tube as the second handle member is moved from the unactuated position to the actuated position adjacent to the first handle member. (author)

  15. MORPH INSERTION AND ALLOMORPHY IN OPTIMALITY THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Bonet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare two different hypotheses about the insertion of morphs and allomorphy in Optimality Theory. One of them, the Morphs through Constraifits Hypothesis (MCH claims that the phonological realization of morphemes (morphs is introduced through language-particular constraints. The other hypothesis, the Morphs in the Input Hypothesis (MIH claims that the inputs to GEN contain al1 the relevant phonological information. It is shown that the MIH is clearly superior to the MCH in accounting for voicing neutralization in languages like Catalan. The two hypotheses seem to fare even in dealing with other phenomena, such as phonologically-conditioned allomorphy or OCP-triggered epenthesis vs. haplology in English possessives and plurals. Finally, although the MCH seems to be a simpler hypothesis for lexical exceptions, it is shown that, when certain aspects are taken into account, it runs into problems.

  16. An update on insertable cardiac monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming J; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krieger, Derk W

    2015-01-01

    Continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring has undergone compelling progress over the past decades. Cardiac monitoring has emerged from 12-lead electrocardiograms being performed at the discretion of the treating physician to in-hospital telemetry, Holter monitoring, prolonged external event monitoring...... turning point in the field of arrhythmia management. However, their role in the detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after cryptogenic strokes has yet to evolve. This will be the main focus of this review. Issues surrounding patient selection, clinical relevance and determination of cost......-effectiveness for prolonged cardiac monitoring require further studies. Furthermore, insertable cardiac monitoring has not only the potential to augment diagnostic capabilities but also to improve the management of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation....

  17. Cassini-Huygens Nears Saturn Orbit Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-06-01

    After nearly 7 years and a 3.5-billion-km, circuitous journey from Earth, the $3-billion Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan-an international effort by NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency-now is just days away from its critical Saturn orbit insertion. Scheduled for 30 June, this will begin the 4-years part of the mission to study the Saturnian system. At a 3 June briefing at NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C., Robert Mitchell, the Cassini program manager with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, said that scientists involved with the program are feeling excited, relieved, and also a bit anxious as the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft draws near to the ringed planet and its system.

  18. Insertion Device Upgrade Plans at the NSLS

    CERN Document Server

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Harder, David; Lehecka, Michael; Rakowsky, George; Skaritka, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes plans to upgrade insertion devices at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S.A. The aging wiggler (W80) at X25 is being replaced by a 1 m long in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU-18) optimized for a dedicated macromolecular crystallography program. A new, 1/3 m long, in-vacuum undulator (MGU-13.5), will be installed between a pair of RF cavities at X9, and will serve a new beamline dedicated for small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Both MGU’s will have provision for cryocooling the NdFeB hybrid arrays to 150K to raise the field and K-value and to obtain better spectral coverage. Design issues of the devices and other considerations, especially magnetic measurement methods in low temperature will be discussed.

  19. Quench Performance of the LHC Insertion Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Lasheras, N C; Siemko, A; Ostojic, R; Kirby, G

    2009-01-01

    After final installation in the LHC tunnel, the MQM and MQY quadrupole magnets of the LHC insertions are now being commissioned to their nominal currents. These two types of magnets operate at 1.9 K and 4.5 K and with nominal currents ranging from 3600 A to 5390 A. From the very first acceptance tests of the bare magnets coming from the manufacturers, they have been powered using different cycles, in different configurations, at different temperatures and in different tests facilities. In this paper we present the global results of these powering tests. We aim at separating common from individual features of these groups of magnets. Temperature dependence of the training, temperature margin, and ultimate current can be extracted from these tests. As these magnets are used to match the optics and the dispersion in the machine, the projected ultimate current at which they can be operated is critical in view of operation of LHC.

  20. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff's understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required

  1. Transdiaphragmatic Approach to Attenuate Porto-Azygos Shunts Inserting in the Thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Matan; Kitshoff, Adriaan; Devriendt, Nausikaa; De Ridder, Marianne; Quist-Rybachuk, Galena; de Rooster, Hilde

    2016-11-01

    To describe the surgical technique and document the application of a transdiaphragmatic approach to attenuate porto-azygos shunts inserting in the thoracic section of the azygos vein. Cadaveric study and prospective case series. Canine cadavers (n=6) and client-owned dogs with porto-azygos shunts inserting in the thoracic section of the azygos vein (n=9). In the cadavers, the azygos vein was filled with aqueous latex. Landmarks were established for creating a safe transdiaphragmatic approach to the caudal intrathoracic portion of the azygos vein. In the clinical cases, porto-azygos communication was diagnosed by trans-splenic portal scintigraphy. All shunts were attenuated close to their insertion site via ventral midline celiotomy and a transdiaphragmatic approach to the shunt. Perioperative complications were recorded. A 3-5 cm incision, 0.5-1 cm ventral and lateral to the level of the aortic hiatus, was made in the pars lumbalis part of the diaphragm. Stay sutures at both sides of the diaphragmatic incision were placed to open up the incision and a retractor was used to push the esophagus away from the aorta. Intrathoracic insertion of the shunt was confirmed intraoperative. Exposure of the shunt insertion site at the azygos vein was excellent in all clinical cases. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were encountered. If thoracic attenuation of a porto-azygos shunt is considered, a transdiaphragmatic approach exposes the insertion site for shunt attenuation. This approach is straightforward, without unnecessary abdominal organ manipulation, and since attenuates at the insertion, avoids missing additional contributing branches. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Recent advances in C(sp3–H bond functionalization via metal–carbene insertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of intermolecular C–H insertion in the application of C(sp3–H bond functionalizations, especially for light alkanes, is reviewed. The challenging problem of regioselectivity in C–H bond insertions has been tackled by the use of sterically bulky metal catalysts, such as metal porphyrins and silver(I complexes. In some cases, high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity have been achieved in the C–H bond insertion of small alkanes. This review highlights the most recent accomplishments in this field.

  3. Realization of an optical multi and mono-channel analyzer, associated to a streak camera. Application to metrology of picosecond low intensity luminous pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    An electronic system including a low light level television tube (Nocticon) to digitize images from streak cameras is studied and realized. Performances (sensibility, signal-to-noise ratio) are studied and compared with a multi-channel analyzer using a linear network of photodiodes. It is applied to duration and amplitude measurement of short luminous pulses [fr

  4. A new million-channel analyzer for complex nuclear spectroscopy studies and its application in measurements of the β decay of 149Pr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenten, W.

    1978-11-01

    A million-channel analyzer with CAMAC instrumentation and PDP-11 control computer was developed and tested using the case of the β decay of 149 Pr and the γ decays of 149 Nd. A level scheme for 149 Nd was developed. (WL) [de

  5. Heat transfer intensification within tube recuperator by inserting secondary emitters inside air channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandor, P.; Soroka, B.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Zgurskyy, V.

    2009-01-01

    The research program was stipulated by reduction the service life of the tube recuperators of reheating furnaces at DUNAFERR metallurgical works in Dunaujvaros (Hungary) while replacement the natural gas by coke - oven gas as a furnace fuel took place and air preheating temperature was increased. The tests procedure consists in comparison of temperature and pressure distributions by air flows preheating under air moving inside the tube loops. Advantages of new recuperator design compared to ordinary one have been proven by validation of concept for adequacy to the testing results. The first tests have demonstrated enhancement of local specific and total heat fluxes transferred from flue gases to air flow within the MD tube loops in comparison with those for BD loops by 25 to 45% - dependence on temperature level within the heating (furnace) chamber and on preheated air flow rate. (author)

  6. A conceptual design of the set-up for solid state spectroscopy with free electron laser and insertion device radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Makhov, V N

    2001-01-01

    The set-up for complex solid state spectroscopy with the use of enhanced properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers is proposed. Very high flux and pulsed properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers offer the possibility for the use of such powerful techniques as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for the studies of excited states of electronic excitations or defects in solids. The power density of radiation can become high enough for one more method of exited-state spectroscopy: transient optical absorption spectroscopy. The set-up is supposed to combine the EPR/ODMR spectrometer, i.e. cryostat supplied with superconducting magnet and microwave system, and the optical channels for excitation (by radiation from insertion devices or free electron laser) and detection of luminescence (i.e. primary and secondary monochromators). The set-up can be used both for 'conventional' spectroscopy of solids (reflec...

  7. Channel Analysis for a 6.4 Gb s-1 DDR5 Data Buffer Receiver Front-End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Stefanie; Gerfers, Friedel

    2017-09-01

    In this contribution, the channel characteristic of the next generation DDR5-SDRAM architecture and possible approaches to overcome channel impairments are analysed. Because modern enterprise server applications and networks demand higher memory bandwidth, throughput and capacity, the DDR5-SDRAM specification is currently under development as a follow-up of DDR4-SDRAM technology. In this specification, the data rate is doubled to DDR5-6400 per IO as compared to the former DDR4-3200 architecture, resulting in a total per DIMM data rate of up to 409.6 Gb s-1. The single-ended multi-point-to-point CPU channel architecture in DDRX technology remains the same for DDR5 systems. At the specified target data rate, insertion loss, reflections, cross-talk as well as power supply noise become more severe and have to be considered. Using the data buffer receiver front-end of a load-reduced memory module, sophisticated equalisation techniques can be applied to ensure target BER at the increased data rate. In this work, the worst case CPU back-plane channel is analysed to derive requirements for receiver-side equalisation from the channel response characteristics. First, channel impairments such as inter-symbol-interference, reflections from the multi-point channel structure, and crosstalk from neighboring lines are analysed in detail. Based on these results, different correction methods for DDR5 data buffer front-ends are discussed. An architecture with 1-tap FFE in combination with a multi-tap DFE is proposed. Simulation of the architecture using a random input data stream is used to reveal the required DFE tap filter depth to effectively eliminate the dominant ISI and reflection based error components.

  8. Files synchronization from a large number of insertions and deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellappan, Vijayan; Kumari, Savera

    2017-11-01

    Synchronization between different versions of files is becoming a major issue that most of the applications are facing. To make the applications more efficient a economical algorithm is developed from the previously used algorithm of “File Loading Algorithm”. I am extending this algorithm in three ways: First, dealing with non-binary files, Second backup is generated for uploaded files and lastly each files are synchronized with insertions and deletions. User can reconstruct file from the former file with minimizing the error and also provides interactive communication by eliminating the frequency without any disturbance. The drawback of previous system is overcome by using synchronization, in which multiple copies of each file/record is created and stored in backup database and is efficiently restored in case of any unwanted deletion or loss of data. That is, to introduce a protocol that user B may use to reconstruct file X from file Y with suitably low probability of error. Synchronization algorithms find numerous areas of use, including data storage, file sharing, source code control systems, and cloud applications. For example, cloud storage services such as Drop box synchronize between local copies and cloud backups each time users make changes to local versions. Similarly, synchronization tools are necessary in mobile devices. Specialized synchronization algorithms are used for video and sound editing. Synchronization tools are also capable of performing data duplication.

  9. A new robotic needle insertion method to minimise attendant prostate motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerburg, Vera; Moerland, Marinus A.; Vulpen, Marco van; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a new needle insertion method (tapping instead of pushing) in reducing attendant tissue motion. This can be useful in applications where tissue motion due to needle insertion is problematic such as e.g. MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy and breast biopsies. In this study we will focus on prostate motion due to needle insertion. Material and methods: Prostate motion due to needle insertion was measured in 30 patients, who were transperineally implanted with fiducial gold markers for position verification in prostate intensity modulated radiotherapy. In total 32 needles were manually pushed into the prostate and 29 were tapped with a prototype robotic system. The prostate motion in the cranio-caudal direction was measured on the video record of the ultrasound images. Differences in prostate motion between the two needle insertion methods were analysed making use of SPSS. Results: The mean prostate motion was 5.6 mm (range 0.3-21.6) when the needle was pushed and 0.9 mm (range 0-2.0) when the needle was tapped into the prostate (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prostate motion was significantly less when the needle was tapped into the prostate compared to when the needle was pushed. This result is important for the development of a tapping, MRI-guided, prostate implant robotic system

  10. Quantification of Tissue Trauma following Insulin Pen Needle Insertions in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Larsen, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    Objective: Within the field of pen needle development, most research on needle design revolves around mechanical tensile testing and patient statements. Only little has been published on the actual biological skin response to needle insertions. The objective of this study was to develop a computa......Objective: Within the field of pen needle development, most research on needle design revolves around mechanical tensile testing and patient statements. Only little has been published on the actual biological skin response to needle insertions. The objective of this study was to develop...... a computational method to quantify tissue trauma based on skin bleeding and immune response. Method: Two common sized pen needles of 28G (0.36mm) and 32G (0.23mm) were inserted into skin of sedated LYD pigs prior to termination. Four pigs were included and a total of 32 randomized needle insertions were conducted...... diameter. Conclusion: A computational and quantitative method has been developed to assess tissue trauma following insulin pen needle insertions. Application of the method is tested by conduction of a needle diameter study. The obtained quantitative measures of tissue trauma correlate positively to needle...

  11. [Long-term follow-up after tympanostomy tube insertion in children with serous otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete-Szabó, Gabriella; Kiss, Fekete; Rovó, László

    2015-11-15

    The authors report about the efficacy of inserted tympanostomy tube in children with serous otitis media. The aim of the authors was to assess the status of eardrum, the function of Eustachian tube and hearing level 10 years after the use of tympanostomy tube. Patients filled out a questionnaire and microscopic examination of tympanic membrane, tympanometry, Eustachian tube function examination, and audiometry tests were performed. In the period of 2003-2004, ventilation tube insertion was performed in 711 patients in the ENT Department of Pediatric Health Center of University of Szeged. In 349 patients adenotomy and tympanostomy tube insertion, in 18 cases tonsillectomy and grommet insertion and in 344 patients only typmanostomy tube insertion were performed. Due to objective difficulties (address change, no phone number) 453 patients were asked for control test and 312 persons accepted the invitation. Normal hearing level was found in 84.6% of patients and normal tympanometry result occurred in 82%. Tympanic ventilation disorder, perforation of tympanic membrane, sensorineural hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss due to noise exposure were diagnosed. Application of tympanostomy tube is effective in the treatment of serous otitis media resulting from ventilation disorder. The authors draw attention to the importance of tympanometry examination to prevent the adhesive processes and cholesteatoma in chronic ventilation disorder of the middle ear.

  12. Evaluation of feasibility of tungsten/oxide dispersion strengthened steel bonding with vanadium insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Akihiko; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Satoru; Nogami, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    A diffusion bonding (DB) technique to reduce thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between tungsten (W) and oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel (ODS-FS) was developed by applying a vanadium (V) alloy as an insert material. In order to suppress σ phase precipitation at the interface, DB of ODS-FS and V-4Cr-4Ti was carried out by introducing a Ti insert as a diffusion barrier between V-4Cr-4Ti and ODS-FS, and examined feasibility of W/V/Ti/ODS-FS joint for application to fusion reactor components by comparing the three-point bending strength and microstructure between the joints with and without a Ti diffusion barrier layer. It is shown that the fracture strength of the joint without a Ti insert was decreased by 25% after aging at 700°C for 100 h, but that with a Ti insert shows no change after the aging treatment up to 1000 h. The result indicates that the introduction of a Ti insert leads to the prevention of the formation of σ phase during aging and resultant control of the degradation of the bonding strength. (author)

  13. mathematical models for estimating radio channels utilization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Mathematical models for radio channels utilization assessment by real-time flows transfer in ... data transmission networks application having dynamic topology ..... Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, 56(2): 85–90.

  14. Highly Reversible Electrochemical Insertion of Lithium, Accompanied With a Marked Color Change, Occuring in Microcrystalline Lithium Nickel Oxide Films

    OpenAIRE

    Campet, G.; Portier, J.; Morel, B.; Ferry, D.; Chabagno, J. M.; Benotmane, L.; Bourrel, M.

    1992-01-01

    Thin films of lithium-nickel oxide, whose texture consists of microcrystallites with an average grain size of 50 Å, permit highly reversible electrochemical insertion of lithium ions in Li+ conducting electrolytes. Therefore, the corresponding materials would be of great interest for energy storage applications. In addition, the lithium insertion/extraction reactions in the nickel-based layers are accompanied with a marked color change, making these films of interest for the devel...

  15. Prediction of dynamic cutting force and regenerative chatter stability in inserted cutters milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqun; Liu, Qiang; Yuan, Songmei; Huang, Kaisheng

    2013-05-01

    Currently, the modeling of cutting process mainly focuses on two aspects: one is the setup of the universal cutting force model that can be adapted to a broader cutting condition; the other is the setup of the exact cutting force model that can accurately reflect a true cutting process. However, there is little research on the prediction of chatter stablity in milling. Based on the generalized mathematical model of inserted cutters introduced by ENGIN, an improved geometrical, mechanical and dynamic model for the vast variety of inserted cutters widely used in engineering applications is presented, in which the average directional cutting force coefficients are obtained by means of a numerical approach, thus leading to an analytical determination of stability lobes diagram (SLD) on the axial depth of cut. A new kind of SLD on the radial depth of cut is also created to satisfy the special requirement of inserted cutter milling. The corresponding algorithms used for predicting cutting forces, vibrations, dimensional surface finish and stability lobes in inserted cutter milling under different cutting conditions are put forward. Thereafter, a dynamic simulation module of inserted cutter milling is implemented by using hybrid program of Matlab with Visual Basic. Verification tests are conducted on a vertical machine center for Aluminum alloy LC4 by using two different types of inserted cutters, and the effectiveness of the model and the algorithm is verified by the good agreement of simulation result with that of cutting tests under different cutting conditions. The proposed model can predict the cutting process accurately under a variety of cutting conditions, and a high efficient and chatter-free milling operation can be achieved by a cutting condition optimization in industry applications.

  16. The first photon shutter development for APS insertion device beamline front ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Deming; Nian, H.L.T.; Wang, Zhibi; Collins, J.T.; Ryding, D.G.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most critical components on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) insertion device (ID) beamline front ends is the first photon shutter. It operates in two modes to fully intercept the high total power and high-heat flux ID photon beam in seconds (normal mode) or in less than 100 ms (emergency fast mode). It is designed to operate in ultra high vacuum (UHV). The design incorporates a multi-channel rectangular bar, bent in a ''hockey stick'' configuration, with two-point suspension. The flanged end is an articulated bellows with rolling hinges. The actuation end is a spring-assisted, pneumatic fail-safe flexural pivot type. The coolant (water) channels incorporate brazed copper foam to enhance the heat transfer, a tube technology particular to the APS. The design development, and material aspects, as well as the extensive thermal and vibrational analyses in support of the design, are presented in this paper

  17. [Effects of slow twisting needle insertion and tubing needle insertion at Neiguan (PC 6) on cardiovascular function: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shaoli; Zhao, Lihua; Xu, Lingjun; Huang, Yu; Pang, Yong; Huang, Dingjian

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects between slow twisting needle insertion and tubing needle insertion. With cross-over design, 100 healthy young subjects (half male and half female) aged from 19 to 23 years were randomly divided into two groups by random digital table, 50 cases in each one. At the first stage, subjects in the group A were treated with slow twisting needle insertion while, subjects in,the group B were treated with tubing needle insertion. One week later, the procedure of second stage was performed alternately. The needle was inserted into Neiguan (PC 6) with two methods by one acupuncturist. The needle was retained for 5 min before removal. Five min before needle insertion as well as needle withdrawal and 30 min after needle withdrawal, ZXG-E automatic cardiovascular diagnostic apparatus was used to test cardiovascular function. At the tim of needle withdrawal, slow twisting needle insertion could improve effect work of kinetics (EWK), effective blood volume (BV) and reduce elastic expansion coefficient of blood vessel (FEK) and left ventricular spray blood impedance (VER), which was significantly different from tubing needle insertion (all P 0.05). The slow twisting needle insertion is significantly superior to tubing needle insertion on lowering vascular tension and VER, improving EWK and BV.

  18. A nurse led peripherally inserted central catheter line insertion service is effective with radiological support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Jonathan M.; Booth, Doris M.; King, Julia A.; Chakraverty, Sam

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are increasingly used as a route of chemotherapy administration. Our aims were to assess a collaborative approach to PICC placement, with radiological support for a nurse led line insertion service in a minority of cases, and to determine whether PICC provided a safe and reliable method of chemotherapy administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data on 100 consecutive patients undergoing PICC placement for chemotherapy were collected. Lines were inserted by ward based nurses or under ultrasound guidance by radiologists. End points were successful completion of treatment or patient death. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-four lines were placed for 118 courses of chemotherapy. 107 (74%) were placed by nurses and 37 (26%) by radiologists. Ninety-five percent of patients completed therapy with either one or two lines. Seventy percent of lines were removed on achieving the primary end points. In two additional patients PICC could not be placed radiologically. Twelve patients were unable to complete treatment with PICC alone, nine of these required an alternative administration route. The catheter related sepsis rate was 4.9%. CONCLUSION: The majority of PICC can be successfully placed by trained nurses, reserving image guidance only for more difficult cases. PICC have an acceptable complication profile, and decrease the need for tunnelled central lines. Barber, J.M. et al. (2002)

  19. Development of a six channel Fabry-Perot interferometer for continuous measurement of electron temperature of Tokamak plasma. Application to current diffusion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talvard, M.

    1984-10-01

    It is shown how the properties of the electron cyclotron emission of a tokamak plasma can be used to measure the electron temperature. The design of a six channel Fabry-Perot interferometer is then described. This interferometer allows the measurement of the time evolution of the electron temperature profile of the plasma in the TFR tokamak. Using this technique interesting results have been obtained concerning the current penetration during the start up phase of a tokamak discharge [fr

  20. Insertion mechanics of bioinspired needles into soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlabadi, Mohammad; Khodaei, Seyedvahid; Jezler, Kyle; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2017-12-22

    Most studies to date confirm that any increase in the needle insertion force increases the damage to the tissue. When it comes to brain tissue, even minor damage can cause a long-lasting traumatic brain injury. Thus there is a great demand for innovative minimally invasive needles among the medical community. In our previous studies a novel bioinspired needle design with specially designed barbs was used to perform insertion tests into Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tissue-mimicking gels, in which it decreased the insertion force by as much as 25%. In this work, bioinspired needles were designed using a CAD software, and were then manufactured using a 3 D printer. The insertion tests into bovine brain and liver were then performed to further investigate the performance of our bioinspired needles in real tissues. Our results show that there was a 10-25% decrease in the insertion force for insertions into bovine brain, and a 35-45% reduction in the insertion force for insertions into bovine liver using the proposed bioinspired needles. The reduction in the insertion force is due to the decrease in the friction force of the bioinspired needle with the bovine tissues, and its results are consistent with our previous results.

  1. Single-copy insertion of transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M Wayne; Hopkins, Christopher E

    2008-01-01

    developed a method that inserts a single copy of a transgene into a defined site. Mobilization of a Mos1 transposon generates a double-strand break in noncoding DNA. The break is repaired by copying DNA from an extrachromosomal template into the chromosomal site. Homozygous single-copy insertions can...... be obtained in less than 2 weeks by injecting approximately 20 worms. We have successfully inserted transgenes as long as 9 kb and verified that single copies are inserted at the targeted site. Single-copy transgenes are expressed at endogenous levels and can be expressed in the female and male germlines....

  2. Technical note: Computer-manufactured inserts for prosthetic sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E; McLean, Jake B; Cagle, John C; Gardner, David W; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to use computer-aided design software and a tabletop 3-D additive manufacturing system to design and fabricate custom plastic inserts for trans-tibial prosthesis users. Shape quality of inserts was tested right after they were inserted into participant's test sockets and again after four weeks of wear. Inserts remained properly positioned and intact throughout testing. Right after insertion the inserts caused the socket to be slightly under-sized, by a mean of 0.11mm, approximately 55% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. After four weeks of wear the under-sizing was less, averaging 0.03mm, approximately 15% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. Thus the inserts settled into the sockets over time. If existing prosthetic design software packages were enhanced to conduct insert design and to automatically generate fabrication files for manufacturing, then computer manufactured inserts may offer advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed of fabrication, ease of design, modification, and record keeping. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of collimator insert for linac based stereotactic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.R.R.; Brindha, S.; Ravindran, B.P.; Rajshekhar, V.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop collimator inserts of various sizes which are either not commercially available or are expensive to import. The dosimetry parameters such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), off-axis ratio (OAR) and output factor of the developed collimator insert are compared with that of the commercial collimator insert (Radionics). In order to check the suitability of the collimator insert developed locally for clinical use and to standardize the method of development, a collimator insert of 15 mm identical to the one supplied by Radionics is developed with low-melting alloy (Cerrobend). Moreover for the clinical use of the developed collimator insert, certain acceptance tests are performed which include a collimator concentricity test, beam size check and radiation leakage test. The dose verification is carried out with a thermoluminescent dosimeter ( 7 LiF rods) and an FBX chemical dosimeter in a human-head-shaped Perspex phantom filled with water. The variation between the calculated and measured dose is found to be within +2.4% for 7 LiF rods and -2.0% for the FBX chemical dosimeter thus ensuring the suitability of the developed collimator insert for clinical use. This has encouraged us to standardize the method adapted to develop the collimator insert and to develop collimator inserts of different field sizes. (author)

  4. Insertional Polymorphisms of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Alfred L.; Nash, William G.; Menninger, Joan C.; Murphy, William J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one autosomal locus, B4q15, was enFeLV present in both homologues of all four cats. A single enFeLV occurred in the X chromosome of the Burmese cat, while three to five enFeLV proviruses occurred in each Y chromosome. The X chromosome and nine autosomal enFeLV loci were telomeric, suggesting that ectopic recombination between nonhomologous subtelomeres may contribute to enFeLV distribution. Since endogenous FeLVs may affect the infectiousness or pathogenicity of exogenous FeLVs, genomic variation in enFeLVs represents a candidate for genetic influences on FeLV leukemogenesis in cats. PMID:15767400

  5. Development of gas-liquid two-phase flow measurement technique in narrow channel. Application of micro wire-mesh sensor to the flow between parallel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Daisuke; Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    A novel two-phase flow measuring technique based on local electrical conductivity measurement was developed for clarifications of three-dimensional flow structure in gas-liquid two-phase flow in a narrow channel. The measuring method applies the principle of conventional wire-mesh tomography, which can measure the instantaneous void fraction distributions in a cross-section of a flow channel. In this technique, the electrodes are fixed on the inside of the walls facing each other, and the local void fractions were obtained by the electrical conductivity measurement between electrodes arranged on each wall. Therefore, the flow structure and the bubble behavior can be investigated by three-dimensional void fraction distributions in the channel with narrow gap. In this paper, a micro Wire-Mesh Sensor (μWMS) which has the gap of 3 mm was developed, and the instantaneous void fraction distributions were measured. From the measured distributions, three-dimensional bubble distributions were reconstructed, and bubble volumes and bubble velocities were estimated. (author)

  6. Application of a soft computing technique in predicting the percentage of shear force carried by walls in a rectangular channel with non-homogeneous roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozani, Zohreh Sheikh; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zaji, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Two new soft computing models, namely genetic programming (GP) and genetic artificial algorithm (GAA) neural network (a combination of modified genetic algorithm and artificial neural network methods) were developed in order to predict the percentage of shear force in a rectangular channel with non-homogeneous roughness. The ability of these methods to estimate the percentage of shear force was investigated. Moreover, the independent parameters' effectiveness in predicting the percentage of shear force was determined using sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the GP model demonstrated superior performance to the GAA model. A comparison was also made between the GP program determined as the best model and five equations obtained in prior research. The GP model with the lowest error values (root mean square error ((RMSE) of 0.0515) had the best function compared with the other equations presented for rough and smooth channels as well as smooth ducts. The equation proposed for rectangular channels with rough boundaries (RMSE of 0.0642) outperformed the prior equations for smooth boundaries.

  7. USACE Navigation Channels 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  8. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  9. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  10. Eight channel fast scalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddoup, W D; Stubbs, R J [Durham Univ. (UK)

    1977-11-01

    An eight channel 64-bit scaler has been constructed with a static CMOS memory. Scaling frequencies are independently variable, at each channel, as are the number of bits/channel. The scaler, when used in conjunction with a multichannel charge to time converter results in a very flexible, gated multichannel ADC.

  11. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  12. Reactor thermal behaviors under kinetics parameters variations in fast reactivity insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-El-Maaty, Talal [Reactors Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt)], E-mail: talal22969@yahoo.com; Abdelhady, Amr [Reactors Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt)

    2009-03-15

    The influences of variations in some of the kinetics parameters affecting the reactivity insertion are considered in this study, it has been accomplished in order to acquire knowledge about the role that kinetic parameters play in prompt critical transients from the safety point of view. The kinetics parameters variations are limited to the effective delayed neutron fraction ({beta}{sub eff}) and the prompt neutron generation time ({lambda}). The reactor thermal behaviors under the variations in effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt neutron generation time included, the reactor power, maximum fuel temperature, maximum clad temperature, maximum coolant temperature and the mass flux variations at the hot channel. The analysis is done for a typical swimming pool, plate type research reactor with low enriched uranium. The scram system is disabled during the accidents simulations. Calculations were done using PARET code. As a result of simulations, it is concluded that, the reactor (ETRR2) thermal behavior is considerably more sensitive to the variation in the effective delayed neutron fraction than to the variation in prompt neutron generation time and the fast reactivity insertion in both cases causes a flow expansion and contraction at the hot channel exit. The amplitude of the oscillated flow is a qualitatively increases with the decrease in both {beta}{sub eff} and {lambda}.

  13. Finite element analysis of BWR fuel channel buckling during a seismic event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mika; Iwamoto, Yuji; Ledford, Kevin; Cantonwine, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents the predicted response of three BWR fuel channel designs in bending using a typical moment profile for GNF fuel designs. The bending performance of the fuel channel is predicted using ANSYS, a finite element modeling tool. Specifically, linear and non-linear buckling analyses were performed to determine the onset of elastic buckling, which causes a wavy structure on the compression face in bending that might also increase channel – control blade friction, and to determine to onset of channel collapse, which causes permanent deformation and would inhibit control rod insertion. The three channel designs considered in this paper are the 0.080 inch uniform channel, the 0.100 inch uniform channel and the 0.120 inch uniform channel at the beginning of fuel life (BOL) and at the end of fuel life (EOL). (author)

  14. Clinical information in drug package inserts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivkar Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely recognized that accurate and reliable product information is essential for the safe and effective use of medications. Pharmaceutical companies are the primary source of most drug information, including package inserts. Package inserts are printed leaflets accompanying marketed drug products and contain information approved by the regulatory agencies. Studies on package inserts in India, in 1996, had shown that crucial information was often missing and they lacked uniformity. Aim: To assess the presentation and completeness of clinically important information provided in the currently available package inserts in India. Materials and Methods: Package inserts accompanying allopathic drug products marketed by pharmaceutical companies in India were collected. These package inserts were analyzed for the content of clinically important information in various sections. Statistical Analysis: The results were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results: Preliminary analyses revealed that most package inserts did contain information under headings, such as, therapeutic indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, etc., listed in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945. The findings indicated considerable improvement in package inserts since 1996. However, on critical evaluation it was revealed that clinically important information was not well presented and was often incomplete. Information with regard to pediatric and geriatric use was present in only 44% and 13% of the package inserts, respectively. Only five of the inserts had information on the most frequent adverse drug reactions associated with the drug. Also, information on interactions and overdosage was often missing. Conclusion: Although the package inserts appear to have improved over the past decade there is still a definite need to further refine the clinical information contained, to minimize the risks to patients. This could be brought about by self

  15. LDPC Code Design for Nonuniform Power-Line Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaei Ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate low-density parity-check code design for discrete multitone channels over power lines. Discrete multitone channels are well modeled as nonuniform channels, that is, different bits experience various channel parameters. We propose a coding system for discrete multitone channels that allows for using a single code over a nonuniform channel. The number of code parameters for the proposed system is much greater than the number of code parameters in conventional channel. Therefore, search-based optimization methods are impractical. We first formulate the problem of optimizing the rate of an irregular low-density parity-check code, with guaranteed convergence over a general nonuniform channel, as an iterative linear programming which is significantly more efficient than search-based methods. Then we use this technique for a typical power-line channel. The methodology of this paper is directly applicable to all decoding algorithms for which a density evolution analysis is possible.

  16. Bimatoprost-loaded ocular inserts as sustained release drug delivery systems for glaucoma treatment: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara Ribeiro Franca

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop and assess a novel sustained-release drug delivery system of Bimatoprost (BIM. Chitosan polymeric inserts were prepared using the solvent casting method and characterized by swelling studies, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, drug content, scanning electron microscopy and in vitro drug release. Biodistribution of 99mTc-BIM eye drops and 99mTc-BIM-loaded inserts, after ocular administration in Wistar rats, was accessed by ex vivo radiation counting. The inserts were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in glaucomatous Wistar rats. Glaucoma was induced by weekly intracameral injection of hyaluronic acid. BIM-loaded inserts (equivalent to 9.0 µg BIM were administered once into conjunctival sac, after ocular hypertension confirmation. BIM eye drop was topically instilled in a second group of glaucomatous rats for 15 days days, while placebo inserts were administered once in a third group. An untreated glaucomatous group was used as control. Intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored for four consecutive weeks after treatment began. At the end of the experiment, retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve head cupping were evaluated in the histological eye sections. Characterization results revealed that the drug physically interacted, but did not chemically react with the polymeric matrix. Inserts sustainedly released BIM in vitro during 8 hours. Biodistribution studies showed that the amount of 99mTc-BIM that remained in the eye was significantly lower after eye drop instillation than after chitosan insert implantation. BIM-loaded inserts lowered IOP for 4 weeks, after one application, while IOP values remained significantly high for the placebo and untreated groups. Eye drops were only effective during the daily treatment period. IOP results were reflected in RGC counting and optic nerve head cupping damage. BIM-loaded inserts provided sustained release of BIM and seem to be a

  17. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  18. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  19. Forward and reverse genetics: The LORE1 retrotransposon insertion mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukai, Eigo; Malolepszy, Anna; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous Lotus retrotransposon 1 (LORE1) transposes in the germ line of Lotus japonicus plants that carry an active element. This feature of LORE1 has been exploited for generation of a large non-transgenic insertion mutant population, where insertions have been annotated using next-generat...

  20. Physical foundations and experience of application of method of determination of volumes of all group of pore channels in powders and porous bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabelkov, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Physical foundations of the method of determination of the relative volumes of each group of pore channels that are available in a porous body on removal of work liquid from them at its evaporation were developed. Advantages and disadvantages are given, experience using of this method is extended at creating of ceramic matrix (cubic zirconia and magnesium-aluminium spinel) for isolation of high active waste. This method in combination with method of electronic microscopy has given an ability to investigate destruction of agglomerates and aggregates of xerogels and powders at milling and pressing, agglomeration of powders at its production and evolution of each component of pore spaces at sintering of porous bodies.

  1. High-sweeping-speed optically synchronized dual-channel terahertz-signal generator for driving a superconducting tunneling mixer and its application to active gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyoung-Hwan; Shimizu, Naofumi; Kohjiro, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Ken'ichi; Wakatsuki, Atsushi; Kukutsu, Naoya; Kado, Yuichi

    2009-10-12

    We propose a high-sweeping-speed optically synchronized dual-channel terahertz (THz) signal generator for an active gas-sensing system with a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer. The generator can sweep a frequency range from 200 to 500 GHz at a speed of 375 GHz/s and a frequency resolution of 500 MHz. With the developed gas-sensing system, a gas-absorption-line measurement was successfully carried out with N(2)O gas in that frequency range.

  2. A Multi-Channel Spectrum Sensing Fusion Mechanism for Cognitive Radio Networks: Design and Application to IEEE 802.22 WRANs

    OpenAIRE

    Tadayon, Navid; Aissa, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The IEEE 802.22 is a new cognitive radio standard that is aimed at extending wireless outreach to rural areas. Known as wireless regional area networks, and designed based on the not-to-interfere spectrum sharing model, WRANs are channelized and centrally-controlled networks working on the under-utilized UHF/VHF TV bands to establish communication with remote users, so-called customer premises equipment (CPEs). Despite the importance of reliable and interference-free operation in these freque...

  3. Fine Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  4. Treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with inserting biliary double stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guangzhi; Zhang Zidong; Wang Xuejing; Yin Hua; Li Jianming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inserting technique of biliary double stents in treating hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: 6 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Bismuth IV) were treated by percutaneous transhepatic insertion of biliary stents. Double stents were inserted in each patient. Different inserting methods were adopted according to the branch angles formed by left and right hepatic ducts. Results: The jaundice of all patients alleviated or disappeared obviously after stent implantation. The average difference between post-and pre-operation in the serum total bilirubin level was (104 ± 29) μmol/L (P<0.01). Stent obstruction was found in 2 cases after 4 and 6 months respectively. Conclusion: Double stents implantation is effective for the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Beware of the angulation between main hepatic duct and adopting different inserting methods. (authors)

  5. Quantum hacking on a practical continuous-variable quantum cryptosystem by inserting an external light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alleaume, Romain

    2015-10-01

    We report here a new side channel attack on a practical continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Inspired by blinding attack in discrete-variable QKD, we formalize an attack strategy by inserting an external light into a CV QKD system implemented Gaussian-modulated coherent state protocol and show that our attack can compromise its practical security. In this attack, we concern imperfections of a balanced homodyne detector used in CV QKD. According to our analysis, if one inserts an external light into Bob's signal port, due to the imperfect subtraction from the homodyne detector, the leakage of the external light contributes a displacement on the homodyne signal which causes detector electronics saturation. In consequence, Bob's quadrature measurement is not linear with the quadrature sent by Alice. By considering such vulnerability, a potential Eve can launch a full intercept-resend attack meanwhile she inserts an external light into Bob's signal port. By selecting proper properties of the external light, Eve actively controls the induced displacement value from the inserted light which results saturation of homodyne detection. In consequence, Eve can bias the excess noise due to the intercept-resend attack and the external light, such that Alice and Bob believe their excess noise estimation is below the null key threshold and they can still share a secret key. Our attack shows that the detector loopholes also exist in CV QKD, and it seems influence all the CV QKD systems using homodyne detection, since all the practical detectors have finite detection range.

  6. Ion channels in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrich, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    Since the first recordings of single potassium channel activities in the plasma membrane of guard cells more than 25 years ago, patch-clamp studies discovered a variety of ion channels in all cell types and plant species under inspection. Their properties differed in a cell type- and cell membrane-dependent manner. Guard cells, for which the existence of plant potassium channels was initially documented, advanced to a versatile model system for studying plant ion channel structure, function, and physiology. Interestingly, one of the first identified potassium-channel genes encoding the Shaker-type channel KAT1 was shown to be highly expressed in guard cells. KAT1-type channels from Arabidopsis thaliana and its homologs from other species were found to encode the K(+)-selective inward rectifiers that had already been recorded in early patch-clamp studies with guard cells. Within the genome era, additional Arabidopsis Shaker-type channels appeared. All nine members of the Arabidopsis Shaker family are localized at the plasma membrane, where they either operate as inward rectifiers, outward rectifiers, weak voltage-dependent channels, or electrically silent, but modulatory subunits. The vacuole membrane, in contrast, harbors a set of two-pore K(+) channels. Just very recently, two plant anion channel families of the SLAC/SLAH and ALMT/QUAC type were identified. SLAC1/SLAH3 and QUAC1 are expressed in guard cells and mediate Slow- and Rapid-type anion currents, respectively, that are involved in volume and turgor regulation. Anion channels in guard cells and other plant cells are key targets within often complex signaling networks. Here, the present knowledge is reviewed for the plant ion channel biology. Special emphasis is drawn to the molecular mechanisms of channel regulation, in the context of model systems and in the light of evolution.

  7. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    On the discovery of coherent Bremsstrahlung in a single crystal at the Frascati National Laboratories / C. Barbiellini, G. P. Murtas and S. B. Dabagov -- Advances in coherent Bremsstrahlung and LPM-effect studies (to the lOOth anniversary from the birth of L. D. Landau) / N. F. Shul'ga -- Spectra of radiation and created particles at intermediate energy in oriented crystal taking into account energy loss / V. N. Baier and V. M. Katkov -- The coherent Bremsstrahlung beam at MAX-lab facility / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Radiation from thin, structured targets (CERN NA63) / A. Dizdar -- Hard incoherent radiation in thick crystals / N. F. Shul'ga, V. V. Syshchenko and A. I. Tarnovsky -- Coherent Bremsstrahlung in periodically deformed crystals with a complex base / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Induction of coherent x-ray Bremsstrahlung in crystals under the influence of acoustic waves / A. R. Mkrtchyan and V. V. Parazian -- Coherent processes in bent single crystals / V. A. Maisheev -- Experimental and theoretical investigation of complete transfer phenomenon for media with various heat exchange coefficients / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Movsisyan and V. R. Kocharyan -- Coherent pair production in crystals / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation / R. A. Carrigan, Jr. -- CERN crystal-based collimation in modern hadron colliders / W. Scandale -- Studies and application of bent crystals for beam steering at 70 GeV IHEP accelerator / A. G. Afonin ... [et al.] -- Crystal collimation studies at the Tevatron (T-980) / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of crystals for channeling of particles in accellerators / A. Mazzolari ... [et al.] -- New possibilities to facilitate collimation of both positively and negatively charged particle beams by crystals / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- Increase of probability of particle capture into the channeling

  8. Procedure for the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows in plane channels and annuli and its application in the development of turbulence models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, U

    1973-10-01

    Thesis. Submitted to Technische Hochschule, Karlsruhe (West Germany). A numerical difference scheme is described to simulate threedimensional, time- dependent, turbulent flows of incompressible fluids at high Reynolds numbers in a plane channel and in concertric annuli. Starting from the results of Deardorff, the NavierStokes equations, averaged over grid volumes, are integrated. For description of the subgrid scale motion a novel model has been developed which takes into account strongly inhomogeneous turbulence and grid volumes of unequal side lengths. The premises used in the model are described and discussed. Stability criteria are established for this method and for similar difference schemes. For computation of the pressure field the appropriate Poisson's equation is solved accurately, except for rounding errors, by Fast Fourier Transform. The procedure implemented in the TURBIT-1 program is used to simulate turbulent flows in a plane channel and an annulus of 5: 1 ratio of radii. For both types of flow, different cases are realized with a maximum number of grid volumes of 65536. For rather small grid volume numbers the numerical results are in good agreement with experimental values. Especially the velocity profile and the mean velocity fluctuations are computed with significantly better accuracy than in earlier, direct simulations. The energy --length-scale model and the pressurestrain correlation are used as examples to show that the method may be used successfully to evaluate the parameters of turbulence models. Earlier results are reviewed and proposals for future research are made. (auth)

  9. Improved Tensor-Based Singular Spectrum Analysis Based on Single Channel Blind Source Separation Algorithm and Its Application to Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of multi-fault blind source separation (BSS in the case that the observed signals are under-determined, a novel approach for single channel blind source separation (SCBSS based on the improved tensor-based singular spectrum analysis (TSSA is proposed. As the most natural representation of high-dimensional data, tensor can preserve the intrinsic structure of the data to the maximum extent. Thus, TSSA method can be employed to extract the multi-fault features from the measured single-channel vibration signal. However, SCBSS based on TSSA still has some limitations, mainly including unsatisfactory convergence of TSSA in many cases and the number of source signals is hard to accurately estimate. Therefore, the improved TSSA algorithm based on canonical decomposition and parallel factors (CANDECOMP/PARAFAC weighted optimization, namely CP-WOPT, is proposed in this paper. CP-WOPT algorithm is applied to process the factor matrix using a first-order optimization approach instead of the original least square method in TSSA, so as to improve the convergence of this algorithm. In order to accurately estimate the number of the source signals in BSS, EMD-SVD-BIC (empirical mode decomposition—singular value decomposition—Bayesian information criterion method, instead of the SVD in the conventional TSSA, is introduced. To validate the proposed method, we applied it to the analysis of the numerical simulation signal and the multi-fault rolling bearing signals.

  10. A Two-dimensional Sixteen Channel Transmit/Receive Coil Array for Cardiac MRI at 7.0 Tesla: Design, Evaluation and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalhammer, Christof; Renz, Wolfgang; Winter, Lukas; Hezel, Fabian; Rieger, Jan; Pfeiffer, Harald; Graessl, Andreas; Seifert, Frank; Hoffmann, Werner; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Tkachenko, Valeriy; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Kellman, Peter; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To design, evaluate and apply a two-dimensional 16 channel transmit/receive coil array tailored for cardiac MRI at 7.0 Tesla. Material and Methods The cardiac coil array consists of 2 sections each using 8 elements arranged in a 2 × 4 array. RF safety was validated by SAR simulations. Cardiac imaging was performed using 2D CINE FLASH imaging, T2* mapping and fat-water separation imaging. The characteristics of the coil array were analyzed including parallel imaging performance, left ventricular chamber quantification and overall image quality. Results RF characteristics were found to be appropriate for all subjects included in the study. The SAR values derived from the simulations fall well in the limits of legal guidelines. The baseline SNR advantage at 7.0 T was put to use to acquire 2D CINE images of the heart with a very high spatial resolution of (1 × 1 × 4) mm3. The proposed coil array supports 1D acceleration factors of up to R=4 without impairing image quality significantly. Conclusions The 16 channel TX/RX coil has the capability to acquire high contrast and high spatial resolution images of the heart at 7.0 Tesla. PMID:22706727

  11. Analysis for reflection peaks of multiple-phase-shift based sampled fiber Bragg gratings and application in high channel-count filter design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kun Hua; Yan, Lian Shan; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Zou, Xi Hua; Ye, Jia; Ma, Ya Nan

    2009-10-10

    An analytical expression for calculating the reflection-peak wavelengths (RPWs) of a uniform sampled fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) with the multiple-phase-shift (MPS) technique is derived through Fourier transform of the index modulation. The new expression can accurately depict the RPWs incorporating various parameters such as the duty cycle and the DC index change. The effectiveness of the derived expression is further confirmed by comparing the RPWs estimated from the expression with the simulated reflective spectra using the piecewise uniform method. And the reflective spectrum has been well optimized by introducing the Gaussian apodization function to suppress the sidelobes without any wavelength shift on the RPWs. Then, a high-channel-count comb filter based on MPS is proposed by cascading two or more SFBGs with different Bragg periods but with the same RPWs. Noticeably, the RPWs of the new structured SFBG can also be accurately calculated through the expression. Furthermore, the number of spectral channels can be controlled by choosing gratings with specified difference Bragg periods.

  12. Experimental evaluation of neural probe’s insertion induced injury based on digital image correlation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenguang, E-mail: zhwg@sjtu.edu.cn; Ma, Yakun; Li, Zhengwei [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The application of neural probes in clinic has been challenged by probes’ short lifetime when implanted into brain tissue. The primary goal is to develop an evaluation system for testing brain tissue injury induced by neural probe’s insertion using microscope based digital image correlation method. Methods: A brain tissue phantom made of silicone rubber with speckle pattern on its surface was fabricated. To obtain the optimal speckle pattern, mean intensity gradient parameter was used for quality assessment. The designed testing system consists of three modules: (a) load module for simulating neural electrode implantation process; (b) data acquisition module to capture micrographs of speckle pattern and to obtain reactive forces during the insertion of the probe; (c) postprocessing module for extracting tissue deformation information from the captured speckle patterns. On the basis of the evaluation system, the effects of probe wedge angle, insertion speed, and probe streamline on insertion induced tissue injury were investigated. Results: The optimal quality speckle pattern can be attained by the following fabrication parameters: spin coating rate—1000 r/min, silicone rubber component A: silicone rubber component B: softener: graphite = 5 ml: 5 ml: 2 ml: 0.6 g. The probe wedge angle has a significant effect on tissue injury. Compared to wedge angle 40° and 20°, maximum principal strain of 60° wedge angle was increased by 40.3% and 87.5%, respectively; compared with a relatively higher speed (500 μm/s), the maximum principle strain within the tissue induced by slow insertion speed (100 μm/s) was increased by 14.3%; insertion force required by probe with convex streamline was smaller than the force of traditional probe. Based on the experimental results, a novel neural probe that has a rounded tip covered by a biodegradable silk protein coating with convex streamline was proposed, which has both lower insertion and micromotion induced tissue

  13. [Channels: a new way to revisit pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    Many "essential" diseases that manifest themselves in the form of crises or fits (epilepsies, episodic ataxia, periodic paralyses, myotonia, heart rhythm disorders, etc.) are due to ionic channel dysfunction and are thus referred to as "channelopathies". Some of these disorders are congenital, due to mutations of genes encoding channel subunits, while others result from toxic, immune or hormonal disturbances affecting channelfunction. Channelopathies take on a wide variety of clinical forms, depending on the type of channel (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride...) and the type of dysfunction (loss or gain of function). Some apparently unrelated diseases affecting distinct organs are due to a similar dysfunction of the same channel, revealing unsuspected relationships between organs and between medical specialties. In addition, a given syndrome can be caused by distinct channel dysfunctions. This provides new opportunities for diferential diagnosis and specific correction of the causal defects, although some treatments find applications across multiple medical specialties.

  14. Ultra-low power, highly uniform polymer memory by inserted multilayer graphene electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byung Chul; Kim, Jong Yun; Koo, Beom Jun; Yang, Sang Yoon; Choi, Sung-Yool; Seong, Hyejeong; Im, Sung Gap; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Filament type resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on polymer thin films is a promising device for next generation, flexible nonvolatile memory. However, the resistive switching nonuniformity and the high power consumption found in the general filament type RRAM devices present critical issues for practical memory applications. Here, we introduce a novel approach not only to reduce the power consumption but also to improve the resistive switching uniformity in RRAM devices based on poly(1,3,5-trimethyl-3,4,5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane) by inserting multilayer graphene (MLG) at the electrode/polymer interface. The resistive switching uniformity was thereby significantly improved, and the power consumption was markedly reduced by 250 times. Furthermore, the inserted MLG film enabled a transition of the resistive switching operation from unipolar resistive switching to bipolar resistive switching and induced self-compliance behavior. The findings of this study can pave the way toward a new area of application for graphene in electronic devices. (paper)

  15. General overview and a review of storage rings, research facilities, and insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.

    1989-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, the electromagnetic radiation given off by electrons in circular motion, is revolutionizing many branches of science and technology by offering beams of vacuum ultraviolet light and x rays of immense flux and brightness. In the past decade there has been an explosion of interest in these applications leading to increased exploitation of existing rings and activity to construct new research facilities based on advanced storage rings and insertion device sources. Applications include basic and applied research in biology, chemistry, medicine, and physics plus many areas of technology. In this article they present a general overview of the field of synchrotron radiation research, its history, the present status and future prospects of storage rings and research facilities, and the development of wiggler and undulator insertion devices as sources of synchrotron radiation. 66 references, 20 figures, 1 table

  16. Synchrotron radiation A general overview and a review of storage rings, research facilities, and insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.

    1989-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, the electromagnetic radiation given off by electrons in circular motion, is revolutionizing many branches of science and technology by offering beams of vacuum ultraviolet light and x rays of immense flux and brightness. In the past decade there has been an explosion of interest in these applications leading activity to construct new research facilities based on advanced storage rings and insertion device sources. Applications include basic and applied research in biology, chemistry, medicine, and physics plus many areas of technology. In this article we present a general overview of the field of synchrotron radiation research, its history, the present status and future prospects of storage rings and research facilities, and the development of wiggler and undulator insertion devices as sources of synchrotron radiation

  17. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  18. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  19. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  20. Automatic pickup of arrival time of channel wave based on multi-channel constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Li

    2018-03-01

    Accurately detecting the arrival time of a channel wave in a coal seam is very important for in-seam seismic data processing. The arrival time greatly affects the accuracy of the channel wave inversion and the computed tomography (CT) result. However, because the signal-to-noise ratio of in-seam seismic data is reduced by the long wavelength and strong frequency dispersion, accurately timing the arrival of channel waves is extremely difficult. For this purpose, we propose a method that automatically picks up the arrival time of channel waves based on multi-channel constraints. We first estimate the Jaccard similarity coefficient of two ray paths, then apply it as a weight coefficient for stacking the multichannel dispersion spectra. The reasonableness and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified in an actual data application. Most importantly, the method increases the degree of automation and the pickup precision of the channel-wave arrival time.

  1. MiMIC: a highly versatile transposon insertion resource for engineering Drosophila melanogaster genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venken, Koen J. T.; Schulze, Karen L.; Haelterman, Nele A.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Evans-Holm, Martha; Carlson, Joseph W.; Levis, Robert W.; Spradling, Allan C.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the versatility of a collection of insertions of the transposon Minos mediated integration cassette (MiMIC), in Drosophila melanogaster. MiMIC contains a gene-trap cassette and the yellow+ marker flanked by two inverted bacteriophage ΦC31 attP sites. MiMIC integrates almost at random in the genome to create sites for DNA manipulation. The attP sites allow the replacement of the intervening sequence of the transposon with any other sequence through recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). We can revert insertions that function as gene traps and cause mutant phenotypes to wild type by RMCE and modify insertions to control GAL4 or QF overexpression systems or perform lineage analysis using the Flp system. Insertions within coding introns can be exchanged with protein-tag cassettes to create fusion proteins to follow protein expression and perform biochemical experiments. The applications of MiMIC vastly extend the Drosophila melanogaster toolkit. PMID:21985007

  2. The BDGP gene disruption project: Single transposon insertions associated with 40 percent of Drosophila genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellen, Hugo J.; Levis, Robert W.; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W.; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Schulze, Karen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2004-01-13

    The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in more than 30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6,300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7,140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5,362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39 percent). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene mis-expression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool.

  3. Ceramic tools insert assesment based on vickers indentation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husni; Rizal, Muhammad; Aziz M, M.; Wahyu, M.

    2018-05-01

    In the interrupted cutting process, the risk of tool chipping or fracture is higher than continues cutting. Therefore, the selection of suitable ceramic tools for interrupted cutting application become an important issue to assure that the cutting process is running effectively. At present, the performance of ceramics tools is assessed by conducting some cutting tests, which is required time and cost consuming. In this study, the performance of ceramic tools evaluated using hardness tester machine. The technique, in general, has a certain advantage compare with the more conventional methods; the experimental is straightforward involving minimal specimen preparation and the amount of material needed is small. Three types of ceramic tools AS10, CC650 and K090 have been used, each tool was polished then Vickers indentation test were performed with the load were 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kgf. The results revealed that among the load used in the tests, the indentation loads of 5 kgf always produce well cracks as compared with others. Among the cutting tool used in the tests, AS10 has produced the shortest crack length and follow by CC 670, and K090. It is indicated that the shortest crack length of AS10 reflected that the tool has a highest dynamic load resistance among others insert.

  4. Development trends for insertion devices of future synchrotron light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Hwang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The in-vacuum undulator with a permanent magnet at room temperature is a mature technology and is widely used; with a short period length in a medium-energy facility, it can enhance photon brilliance in the hard x-ray region. A cryogenic permanent magnet has been investigated as an in-vacuum undulator; this undulator will become the best prospective device to satisfy the requirements of a photon source with great brilliance in the hard x-ray region. For the further hard x-ray region, a superconducting wiggler can provide great flux with a continuous spectrum, whereas a superconducting undulator will provide great brilliance with a discrete spectrum. High-temperature superconducting wires are highly promising for use in the development of superconducting undulators; unique algorithms for their development with an extremely short period in a small-magnet gap have been devised. Some out-of-vacuum planar undulators with special functions must also be fabricated to enable diverse applications in various light-source facilities. This article describes current and future developments for insertion devices in storage-ring and free-electron-laser facilities and discusses their feasibility for use therein.

  5. Physiology and pathophysiology of ClC-K/barttin channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlke, Christoph; Fischer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    ClC-K channels form a subgroup of anion channels within the ClC family of anion transport proteins. They are expressed predominantly in the kidney and in the inner ear, and are necessary for NaCl resorption in the loop of Henle and for K+ secretion by the stria vascularis. Subcellular distribution as well as the function of these channels are tightly regulated by an accessory subunit, barttin. Barttin improves the stability of ClC-K channel protein, stimulates the exit from the endoplasmic reticulum and insertion into the plasma membrane and changes its function by modifying voltage-dependent gating processes. The importance of ClC-K/barttin channels is highlighted by several genetic diseases. Dysfunctions of ClC-K channels result in Bartter syndrome, an inherited human condition characterized by impaired urinary concentration. Mutations in the gene encoding barttin, BSND, affect the urinary concentration as well as the sensory function of the inner ear. Surprisingly, there is one BSND mutation that causes deafness without affecting renal function, indicating that kidney function tolerates a reduction of anion channel activity that is not sufficient to support normal signal transduction in inner hair cells. This review summarizes recent work on molecular mechanisms, physiology, and pathophysiology of ClC-K/barttin channels.

  6. Physiology and pathophysiology of ClC-K/barttin channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eFahlke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ClC-K channels form a subgroup of anion channels within the ClC family of anion transport proteins. They are expressed predominantly in the kidney and in the inner ear, and are necessary for NaCl resorption in the loop of Henle and for K+ secretion by the stria vascularis. Subcellular distribution as well as the function of these channels are tightly regulated by an accessory subunit, barttin. Barttin improves the stability of ClC-K channel protein, stimulates the exit from the endoplasmic reticulum and insertion into the plasma membrane and changes its function by modifying voltage-dependent gating processes. The importance of ClC-K/barttin channels is highlighted by several genetic diseases. Dysfunctions of ClC-K channels result in Bartter syndrome, an inherited human condition characterized by impaired urinary concentration. Mutations in the gene encoding barttin, BSND, affect the urinary concentration as well as the sensory function of the inner ear. Surprisingly, there is one BSND mutation that causes deafness without affecting renal function, indicating that kidney function tolerates a reduction of anion channel activity that is not sufficient to support normal signal transduction in inner hair cells. This review summarizes recent work on molecular mechanisms, physiology and pathophysiology of ClC-K/barttin channels.

  7. Application of a compressible flow solver and barotropic cavitation model for the evaluation of the suction head in a low specific speed centrifugal pump impeller channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbach, P; Müller, T; Skoda, R

    2015-01-01

    Commonly, for the simulation of cavitation in centrifugal pumps incompressible flow solvers with VOF kind cavitation models are applied. Since the source/sink terms of the void fraction transport equation are based on simplified bubble dynamics, empirical parameters may need to be adjusted to the particular pump operating point. In the present study a barotropic cavitation model, which is based solely on thermodynamic fluid properties and does not include any empirical parameters, is applied on a single flow channel of a pump impeller in combination with a time-explicit viscous compressible flow solver. The suction head curves (head drop) are compared to the results of an incompressible implicit standard industrial CFD tool and are predicted qualitatively correct by the barotropic model. (paper)

  8. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Measurement of wavefront distortions by the method of aperture sounding with spatially separated channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilepskiy, Boris V.; Alikhanov, Alexey N.; Berchenko, Evgeniy A.; Kiselev, Vladimir Yu; Narusbek, Ernest A.; Filatov, Aleksander S.

    2005-08-01

    Features of the formation of signals in wavefront sensors with the single-frequency light wave phase modulation and spatial separation of control channels are considered. Analysis is performed for sensors in which phase modulation is governed by a controlled element located in the pupil of the optical system of a sensor or in the focal plane of the objective of this system. Peculiarities of the signal formation for a tilted wavefront are considered separately for internal points of the exit pupil in the case of light wave phase modulation in the pupil. It is shown that a signal at the modulation frequency in these wavefront sensors for points located far from the pupil boundaries is determined by the wavefront curvature.

  9. Applications of the computer codes FLUX2D and PHI3D for the electromagnetic analysis of compressed magnetic field generators and power flow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgdon, M.L.; Oona, H.; Martinez, A.R.; Salon, S.; Wendling, P.; Krahenbuhl, L.; Nicolas, A.; Nicolas, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present the results of three electromagnetic field problems for compressed magnetic field generators and their associated power flow channels. The first problem is the computation of the transient magnetic field in a two-dimensional model of a helical generator during loading. The second problem is the three-dimensional eddy current patterns in a section of an armature beneath a bifurcation point of a helical winding. The authors' third problem is the calculation of the three-dimensional electrostatic fields in a region known as the post-hole convolute in which a rod connects the inner and outer walls of a system of three concentric cylinders through a hole in the middle cylinder. While analytic solutions exist for many electromagnetic filed problems in cases of special and ideal geometries, the solution of these and similar problems for the proper analysis and design of compressed magnetic field generators and their related hardware require computer simulations

  10. Oligothiophene-based colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence dual-channel cyanide chemosensor: Sensing ability, TD-DFT calculations and its application as an efficient solid state sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Linxin; Li, Tianduo; Wei, Tao; Pang, He; Sun, Tao; Wang, Enhua; Liu, Haixia; Niu, Qingfen

    2018-03-01

    An oligothiophene-based colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence dual-channel cyanide chemosensor 3 T-2CN was reported. Sensor 3 T-2CN showed both naked-eye recognition and ratiometric fluorescence response for CN- with an excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. The sensing mechanism based on the nucleophilic attack of CN- on the vinyl Cdbnd C bond has been successfully confirmed by the optical measurements, 1H NMR titration, FT-IR spectra as well as the DFT/TD-DFT calculations. Moreover, the detection limit was calculated to be 0.19 μM, which is much lower than the maximum permission concentration in drinking water (1.9 μM). Importantly, test strips (filter paper and TLC plates) containing 3 T-2CN were fabricated, which could act as a practical and efficient solid state optical sensor for CN- in field measurements.

  11. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  12. Decoding LDPC Convolutional Codes on Markov Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Manohar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes a pipelined iterative technique for joint decoding and channel state estimation of LDPC convolutional codes over Markov channels. Example designs are presented for the Gilbert-Elliott discrete channel model. We also compare the performance and complexity of our algorithm against joint decoding and state estimation of conventional LDPC block codes. Complexity analysis reveals that our pipelined algorithm reduces the number of operations per time step compared to LDPC block codes, at the expense of increased memory and latency. This tradeoff is favorable for low-power applications.

  13. Decoding LDPC Convolutional Codes on Markov Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Winstead

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pipelined iterative technique for joint decoding and channel state estimation of LDPC convolutional codes over Markov channels. Example designs are presented for the Gilbert-Elliott discrete channel model. We also compare the performance and complexity of our algorithm against joint decoding and state estimation of conventional LDPC block codes. Complexity analysis reveals that our pipelined algorithm reduces the number of operations per time step compared to LDPC block codes, at the expense of increased memory and latency. This tradeoff is favorable for low-power applications.

  14. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background

  15. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to coolant channels for pressurised water and boiling water reactors and the arrangement described aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel rods and the coolant. Baffle means extending axially within the channel are provided and disposed relative to the fuel rods so as to restrict flow oscillations occurring within the coolant from being propagated transversely to the axis of the channel. (UK)

  16. Cooperative communications hardware, channel and PHY

    CERN Document Server

    Dohler, Mischa

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating Cooperation for Wireless Systems Cooperative Communications: Hardware, Channel & PHY focuses on issues pertaining to the PHY layer of wireless communication networks, offering a rigorous taxonomy of this dispersed field, along with a range of application scenarios for cooperative and distributed schemes, demonstrating how these techniques can be employed. The authors discuss hardware, complexity and power consumption issues, which are vital for understanding what can be realized at the PHY layer, showing how wireless channel models differ from more traditional

  17. Automatic needle insertion diminishes pain during growth hormone injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jørgensen, J T; Hertel, N T

    1995-01-01

    prototype pens for GH administration, providing either manual or automatic sc needle insertion, using a combined visual analogue/facial scale and a five-item scale in 18 children. With the automatic pen there was a significantly lower maximum pain score compared with the manual pen (median 28.5 versus 52.......0 mm) as well as a lower mean pain score (mean 13.7 versus 23.5 mm). The five-item scale revealed that automatic needle insertion was significantly less painful than manual insertion and 13 patients chose to continue treatment with the automatic pen. In conclusion, pain during GH injection can...

  18. Lithium insertion mechanism in SnS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre-Devos, I.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.C.; Lavela, P.

    2000-01-01

    We study lithium insertion in SnS 2 by means of 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy at Sn L I,III , and S K edges, and theoretical electronic structures (calculated in the density-functional theory framework). An insertion mechanism is derived according to the Li amount. It shows the influence of the SnS 2 -layered structure on the Sn reduction, particularly the possibility of an intermediate oxidation state between Sn IV and Sn II , which is not observed during Li insertion in three-dimensional sulfides

  19. New Channels, New Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieterson, Willem; Ebbers, Wolfgang; Østergaard Madsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of what we call the fourth generation of public sector service channels: social robots. Based on a review of relevant literature we discuss their characteristics and place into multi-channel models of service delivery. We argue that social robots......-channel models of service delivery. This is especially relevant given the current lack of evaluations of such models, the broad range of channels available, and their different stages of deployment at governments around the world. Nevertheless, social robots offer an potentially very relevant addition...

  20. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...