WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing world electronic

  1. Paper vs. electrons. Epidemiologic publishing in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg; Frank; Fitzmaurice

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: To present the parallel histories of epidemiologic and electronic publishing and consider positive and negative factors that might affect their amalgam.METHODS: We performed a quantitative assessment of the arc of epidemiologic publication from 1966-1999, using major self-designated epidemiologic journals as a sample, and of scholarly electronic publication from 1991-1997, based on current literature review. We use an online, paperless journal as a case study, and review selected information-technology opinion in the area.RESULTS: By traditional standards, growth in epidemiologic publication has been considerable, with the addition of six new journals since 1966. In contrast, scholarly electronic publication for the period 1991-1997 grew from 27 to 2459 journals (not all exclusively online). Positive features of electronic publishing include flexibility, shortened time to publication, freedom from fixed publication date, diversity in presentation, and instant linkage to relevant material. A case study of a new online journal illustrates the substantive power of the medium. Negative factors include restriction (or unrestricted expansion) of the audience, the potential for hasty peer review, pitfalls in establishing credibility, an emphasis on style over content, technologic dependence, and additions to the information explosion. Relative cost and archiving are still debated. In assessing the pros and cons, it is important to distinguish electronic mechanisms that facilitate publication from electronic publishing, and to appreciate the difference between moving an existing journal to the electronic medium, and creating a new online journal.CONCLUSIONS: The movement from print to internet is probably inexorable, but a headlong rush may be ill-advised. Several models for dual publishing now exist, with the expectation that many, including the journals that serve epidemiology, will do so. The ultimate configuration is difficult to predict, but likely to be

  2. Changing the World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Carl; Wright, Christopher; Pullen, Alison

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the political differences between academic activism and the recently emerged research impact agenda. While both claim that academic work can and should engage with and influence the world beyond the academic ‘ivory tower’, their political meaning and practice are radically...... different. Following the distinction made by Jacques Rancière, we argue that research impact performs a policing function which, despite its own rhetoric, is arranged as an attempt to ensure that academic work maintains a neoliberal status quo by actually having no real political impact. Academic activism......, in contrast, serves to politicize scholarly work by democratically disrupting political consensus in the name of equality. Being an academic activist in an era of research impact rests in a twofold movement: that of both acting in the name of equality in an effort (using Marx’s terms) to ‘change the world...

  3. The Quantum World Unveiled by Electron Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akira Tonomura

    1998-08-01

    This book emphasizes the experimental aspects of the author's own laboratory. Instead of merely presenting a dry collection of knowledge, the author unfolds to the readers his vivid experiences of enthusiasm, sheer pleasure, and yet frustrations in the course of his own research. In this way, the book aims to arouse the reader's curiosity in the strange behaviors of electrons in the microscopic world, which differ significantly from our common sense and daily experiences of the macroscopic world. The fields of physics explored in the book are quantum mechanics, superconductivity, electron microscopy, holography, magnetism, and unified theory - areas of the author's study using electron waves. A world-renowned expert in electron holography, the author promises the interested reader a fascinating ride through the quantum world of electron waves, accompanied by many colorful illustrations that delight the senses and captivate the imagination

  4. Guidelines for a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jo Nell; Brack, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the issues surrounding teachers' use of social networking media and their First Amendment rights. It focuses on the need to develop a school district policy outlining specific guidelines for the use of technology and social networking. It also focuses on the changing world of technology and social networking as well as…

  5. Change the World by Changing Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Wagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world of opportunity – the opportunity to use the insight generated through the multiple crises humanity finds itself in to transit into a much more liveable, sustainable and equitable society. A paradigm change seems to be taking place, a movement for change seems to be in the making, but at the same time there is a widespread feeling that things are getting worse instead of better and there is no guarantee that change will lead us into a better future in the next few decades. To effectively guide the direction of change we need to address the root causes of today’s global challenges and take a close look at what drives human society and human beings. In doing so we realize that we are looking at a holographic picture which contains different layers, which are interdependent: Human biology; values and belief systems; the changing narrative underlying the development of human society; economics and governance and the many tools as well as special interests, support and uphold the outdated paradigms. The one element which influences all people nearly every day and is behind just about each and every crisis is the theory and practice of current economics. The article explores the debate on current economics and proposes mechanisms of change.

  6. Hydrology for a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    To support critical decisions related to water quantity, quality, and hazard mitigation, surface water hydrologists and water resources engineers have historically invoked the assumption that hydrologic systems are stationary; variables such as discharge or solute fluxes were assumed to have a mean, a variance, and other statistical properties that did not change over time. Today, the drivers of non-stationarity such as urbanization, groundwater depletion, engineered land-drainage systems, application of nutrients at the land surface, new farming technologies, and changes in greenhouse gas forcing of the global atmosphere have perturbed hydrologic systems enough so that this assumption must be challenged. Understanding of the non-stationarity in hydrologic systems is important for at least two major reasons: (1) Society needs insights on the hydrologic conditions of the future as a basis for planning, operating, and regulating water resources in the future. Water resources engineers cannot depend solely on records of the past to design and operate in the future. However, simply substituting model projections for historic records, without evaluation of the ability of those models to produce realistic projections, is not acceptable. (2) Non-stationarity provides a framework to identify emerging water resource issues and evaluate our society's success in achieving its environmental goals. The study of hydrologic change is our greatest challenge. We must learn how best to blend our knowledge of the past with our projections of the future. In this non-stationary world, observing systems and networks become even more critically important and our models must be tested using historical records to ensure that they produce useful projections of our future. In the words of Ralph Keeling, "The only way to figure out what is happening to our planet is to measure it, and this means tracking the changes decade after decade, and poring over the records." Walter Langbein knew the

  7. Climatic change and world governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the problems of international agreements about the greenhouse effect gases control. Even if the prejudice covers the whole world, the implementing of pollution regulations generate conflicts of interest. Solidarity, equity and not historical responsibilities have to govern the discussions. This involves to take into account the place of the developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  8. Stability in a changing world -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares, Ingrid; Svenning, J.-C.; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Are the hyperdiverse local forests of the western Amazon undergoing changes linked to global and local drivers such as climate change, or successional dynamics? We analyzed local climatic records to assess potential climatic changes in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, and compared two censuses (1995...... dynamics in Yasuní contrast with recent findings from eastern Amazon, where environmental change is driving significant changes in ecosystem dynamics. Our findings suggest that until now, local forests in the northwest Amazon may have escaped pressure from climate change. The stability of this rich palm...

  9. Climate Change and Future World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    of water-borne diseases such as cholera and malaria which, if uncontrolled, could generate epidemics.27 More frequent and more intense extreme 7... Mexico , and the United States. All these trends produced by climate change are likely to increase migration movements to the U.S., and the occurrence

  10. Changing world extreme temperature statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, J. M.; Katz, J. I.

    2018-04-01

    We use the Global Historical Climatology Network--daily database to calculate a nonparametric statistic that describes the rate at which all-time daily high and low temperature records have been set in nine geographic regions (continents or major portions of continents) during periods mostly from the mid-20th Century to the present. This statistic was defined in our earlier work on temperature records in the 48 contiguous United States. In contrast to this earlier work, we find that in every region except North America all-time high records were set at a rate significantly (at least $3\\sigma$) higher than in the null hypothesis of a stationary climate. Except in Antarctica, all-time low records were set at a rate significantly lower than in the null hypothesis. In Europe, North Africa and North Asia the rate of setting new all-time highs increased suddenly in the 1990's, suggesting a change in regional climate regime; in most other regions there was a steadier increase.

  11. The World Bank and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.-C.

    2000-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is inextricably linked with economic and development policies. This raises the question, to what extent do the commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions under the Climate Change Convention affect the practices and policies of the World Bank? After briefly describing the interaction between climate change and economic development, as well as the respective instruments of the Climate Change Treaty and the World Bank, this paper identifies several windows through which the obligations set out by the Climate Change treaty affect the World Bank. These include the Global Environmentally Facility, the Operational Policies adopted by the Executive Directors of the World Bank, specific loan structures and conditions as well as the recent Prototype Carbon Fund. (Author)

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, William H.

    The world is changing,and the atmosphere's composition is changing with it. Human activity is responsible for much of this. Global population growth and migration to urban centers, extensive biomass burning, the spread of fertilizer-intensive agribusiness, globalization of business and industry, rising standards of living in the developing world, and increased energy use fuels atmospheric change. If current practices continue, atmospheric increases are likely for the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide; and for the chemically active gases nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide,and ammonia. Increases in global tropospheric ozone and aerosols are a distinct possibility.

  13. The internet is changing our world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VÎRJAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to bring the importance of the internet into discussion, given that it has changed the way we organize the functioning of our social and economical lives, if this change is towards the better or the worse and how we could go about to make use of the internet to improve humanity's social and economical lives at a global level. The appearance and development of the internet has led to fantastically rapid changes to our world, from day to day or even major changes within hours, instantly changing our vision of the world, forcing us to adapt our thinking and beliefs to new tendencies and discoveries of a technical level, of a technological level and of innovation. Those which succeed in adapting to these global changed, from all points of view, it's them who will hold the key to success, and the internet is the gate house to success.

  14. The Twin Worlds of Electronic Conferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirc, Geoffrey

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the process of electronic conferencing can result in activity not readily apparent as leading to productive writing behaviors, which reintroduces the tension between process and product into composition studies. Argues for a broader notion of writing and urges attention to the transformative power of electronic conferencing to enable…

  15. The master craftsmen of the electronics world

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    At the forefront of the development of electronic modules, the DEM group provides continuous support for the engineers and technicians of the LHC experiments. The DEM group produced 400 electronic circuit boards needed for checking the LHC accelerating cavities at Point 4. The TS-DEM group is a closely knit community. From left to right: Betty Magnin (section leader of the design office and cabling workshop), Erik van der Bij (group leader), Rui de Oliveira, section leader of PMT (production of printed circuits). Like all the accelerator components, the accelerating cavities that will give the protons the necessary "kick" as they hurtle their way around the ring are brimming with electronics, but their control electronics are highly specific. The challenge of producing the associated electronic boards, which were designed by the AB-RF group, was taken up by the TS Department’s Development of...

  16. Want to Change the World? Here's How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    About 1,000 students from 50 states and 60 countries attended the second annual Clinton Global Initiative University. The project, an outgrowth of the Clinton Global Initiative for world leaders, challenges participants to take "good intentions and turn them into measurable changes in other people's lives" by submitting detailed…

  17. Changing Instructor's Roles in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Zane L.

    2008-01-01

    Berge's Instructor's Roles Model categorized the instructor's roles as pedagogical, social, managerial, and technical. Developed more than a decade ago, this model described changing roles for instructors as they transitioned from in-person classrooms to teaching online. Today, as virtual worlds emerge and are being used as educational platforms,…

  18. Electrons in a two-dimensions world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivelson, S.; Lee, D.H.; Zhang, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    This digest paper is a presentation of the recent discoveries about the quantum Hall effect and its links with superconductivity. This effect can occur when electrons are confined inside a thin film between two semiconductor crystals and when they are cooled to a temperature close to 0 deg. K and submitted to an intense magnetic field. Electrons can propagate along the thin film plane when the magnetic field is perpendicular to this plane. When the magnetic field strength increases, a difference of potential occurs (the Hall voltage) and increases by steps inside the thin film and perpendicularly to the current. Each step is characterized by a perfect conductivity of the electrons and by a particular value of the Hall conductance. These steps correspond to fractional multiples of the quantum conductance. The paper describes first the historical aspects that led to the discovery of the quantum Hall effect. Then, this effect is explained using a model in which electrons are assimilated to composed bosons carrying a odd number of magnetic field quanta. This model is used to describe the similarities between the quantum Hall effect and the superconductivity and to draw a phase diagram of the different behaviours of electrons in a plan according to the strength of the magnetic field and to the degree of disorder inside the semiconductor crystals. This diagram show some unexpected properties of electrons which can act like a dielectric material or like a metal. (J.S.). 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Energy the enabler, in our changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomanoff, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Historical industrial and social development made possible by energy technologies throughout the world serves as a paradigm for looking into the future. Energy usage is directly responsible for productivity. World population is increasing rapidly necessitating still more energy. The number of college students (a measure of new ideas and demands) has also increased rapidly. The U.S. has led in energy usage and the resultant growth in transportation and communication but changes are occurring. Urbanization - another effect of energy - shows the majority of high density populations now are in developing countries. Societies are changing from single nation states to interdependent loosely-knit larger socio-economic-environmental areas - Economic Communities. Successful technology must now engage producers, users, governments, as well as communities of interest. Political management systems must recognize these changes to permit the continued development of energy technologies. Looking toward the 21st Century and our continued development in a changing world necessitates recognition of the need for a systems orientation, interdisciplinary approach to find multi-answers to problems. All must participate in the decision making process - looking for solutions (rather than identification of problems) learning together and from each other - and most importantly, managing conflict before it manages us. (orig.)

  20. Ageing populations and changing worlds of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Brian

    2014-08-01

    Population ageing has reshaped the notion of retirement. The changes carry important implications for aspirations to extend working life. Cultural expectations regarding work and retirement must adapt to the reality posed by longer lives. The modern world is characterised by perpetual - and sometime rapid - change. Transformation throughout the second half of the 20th century brought about substantial shifts in the health and longevity of people in societies across the world. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the impacts of population ageing have gathered greater awareness in public consciousness and within the policy arena. Notions of old age, retirement, and later life have been fundamentally transformed, presenting stark challenges alongside novel opportunities for individuals, communities, and governments. Many of the topics of interest with respect to ageing populations are themselves the result of shifts that were unforeseen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 20 Engineering Technologies Which Changed The World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Sik; Shin, Dong Won; Mun, Jung Yang and others

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with 20 engineering technologies which changed the world, these are about a, compass, papermaking, a lens, gunpowder, machine watch, printing technique, vaccine, a suspension bridge, a railroad, a loom, photograph, petroleum, automobile, electricity, wireless communications, synthetic medicine, a jet engine and a rocket, nuclear bombs, ENIAC, and polymerase chain reaction method. Each skill is introduced with history and the detailed reports by other persons.

  2. The Changing Family in a Changing World: America First?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1984-01-01

    The American family has experienced rapid and radical changes since World War II. The effects and possible causes of the increase in the number of single-parent families, entry of mothers into the labor force, and rise in number of families at the poverty level are explored. Implications for changes in policy and practice are discussed. (DF)

  3. Software project management in a changing world

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhe, Günther

    2014-01-01

    By bringing together various current direc­tions, Software Project Management in a Changing World focuses on how people and organizations can make their processes more change-adaptive. The selected chapters closely correspond to the project management knowledge areas introduced by the Project Management Body of Knowledge, including its extension for managing software projects. The contributions are grouped into four parts, preceded by a general introduction. Part I "Fundamentals" provides in-depth insights into fundamental topics including resource allocation, cost estimation and risk manage

  4. Energy policy in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1997-01-01

    The outlook of world energy markets was described with a focus on the prospects for oil and gas supply and reserves. Implications of this outlook for energy policy-making were discussed. The three major projections of world primary energy demand were described. According to these projections world primary energy demand will grow steadily. Demand is expected to rise 46 per cent between now and 2010. Fossil-based fuels will account for almost 90 per cent of total primary energy demand in 2010 which is about the same share as today. A structural shift in the shares of different regions in world commercial energy demand is likely to occur, i.e. the OECD share of world energy demand will fall in favour of that of the developing regions. It was also projected that oil will remain the dominant fuel with a share of about 40 per cent in 2010. World gas demand was also projected to grow at an average annual rate of 3 per cent over the outlook period. The rising fossil fuel consumption implies rising greenhouse gas emissions. It was noted that by 2010, without active policy intervention to change the course of energy demand, the world energy-related carbon emissions could be almost 50 per cent greater than 1990 levels. It was suggested that the main role for governments should be to establish a framework to enable competitive energy markets to function efficiently while ensuring that energy security and environmental concerns are addressed. Emergency response measures should be maintained in relation to oil, and the implications of growing dependence on imports of oil and gas from remote and potentially insecure countries should be monitored. The role of government should also include regulation of the environmental consequences of energy supply and use at the local, regional and global level. Government should also regulate the natural monopoly elements of the grid-based industries. There is also a role for government in continuing to encourage research and development

  5. Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Global Carbon Project; Pataki, D.E. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science]|[California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Pitelka, L.F. (eds.) [Maryland Univ., Frostburg, MD (United States). Appalachian Lab.

    2007-07-01

    Over 100 authors present 25 contributions on the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems including: * key processes of the earth system such as the CO2 fertilization effect, shifts in disturbances and biome distribution, the saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink, and changes in functional biodiversity, * ecosystem services such the production of wheat, pest control, and carbon storage in croplands, and * sensitive regions in the world threaten by rapid changes in climate and land use such as high latitudes ecosystems, tropical forest in Southeast Asia, and ecosystems dominated by Monsoon climate. The book also explores new research developments on spatial thresholds and nonlinearities, the key role of urban development in global biogeochemical processes, and the integration of natural and social sciences to address complex problems of the human-environment system. (orig.)

  6. The changing world of modern cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misteli, Tom

    2009-01-12

    Change is always ambiguous. There is the enticing prospect of novelty and better times ahead, but at the same time the concern of losing the good of the past. It is with these sentiments that I take over as the Editor-in-Chief from Ira Mellman who for a decade has cleverly and effectively lead the JCB. During this time he directed and oversaw an extensive modernization of the journal and guided it through dramatic changes in the publishing world. Ira lead the journal with unyielding dedication and enthusiasm and we in the cell biology community must thank him profoundly for his service. It is his work, together with the invaluable contribution of the best editorial board and the most dedicated professional editorial staff in the scientific publishing business, that allows me to now take over the stewardship of the JCB with a tremendous sense of excitement and determination to continue and expand the JCB's role as the leading journal in the cell biology community and as a trendsetter in the rapidly changing world of modern cell biology.

  7. Forest health in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, Marco; Schlegel, Markus; Holdenrieder, Ottmar

    2015-05-01

    Forest pathology, the science of forest health and tree diseases, is operating in a rapidly developing environment. Most importantly, global trade and climate change are increasing the threat to forest ecosystems posed by new diseases. Various studies relevant to forest pathology in a changing world are accumulating, thus making it necessary to provide an update of recent literature. In this contribution, we summarize research at the interface between forest pathology and landscape ecology, biogeography, global change science and research on tree endophytes. Regional outbreaks of tree diseases are requiring interdisciplinary collaboration, e.g. between forest pathologists and landscape ecologists. When tree pathogens are widely distributed, the factors determining their broad-scale distribution can be studied using a biogeographic approach. Global change, the combination of climate and land use change, increased pollution, trade and urbanization, as well as invasive species, will influence the effects of forest disturbances such as wildfires, droughts, storms, diseases and insect outbreaks, thus affecting the health and resilience of forest ecosystems worldwide. Tree endophytes can contribute to biological control of infectious diseases, enhance tolerance to environmental stress or behave as opportunistic weak pathogens potentially competing with more harmful ones. New molecular techniques are available for studying the complete tree endobiome under the influence of global change stressors from the landscape to the intercontinental level. Given that exotic tree diseases have both ecologic and economic consequences, we call for increased interdisciplinary collaboration in the coming decades between forest pathologists and researchers studying endophytes with tree geneticists, evolutionary and landscape ecologists, biogeographers, conservation biologists and global change scientists and outline interdisciplinary research gaps.

  8. Nuclear power in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power has a future that will only be fully realised if it is shown to be a solution to some of the world's most pressing energy, and associated environmental, problems. This can only be done if nuclear power itself ceases to be perceived as a problem by the public, interest groups, governments and financial institutions. In public relations terms, this means removing the persistent distortions and misconceptions about the nuclear industry. Environmentally, it involves showing that nuclear power is the only alternative energy source which does not contribute to climate change, preserves rare minerals and recycles its raw materials. Governments must be persuaded to see that nuclear power is the only economic answer to the growing energy demand arising from increased industrialisation and population growth. Financiers need convincing that nuclear power is the investment of the future and generators that it is the lowest cost economic and environmental option. The future of nuclear power depends on meeting these challenges. (UK)

  9. Social psychiatry in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. J. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many societies around the world are experiencing a period of unprecedented change in traditional social roles and customs. Globalisation has contributed to materialism and a me-first individualism that heightens awareness of income inequality that itself is one of the most robust markers of unhappiness in society. Ever increasing urbanisation has driven an erosion of large ‘joint’ family arrangements to be replaced by smaller and relatively isolated nuclear families and single parent living. Mass migration has unmasked deep seated fear and prejudice towards the outsider in society. These global changes are fertile ground for the social conditions that have long been known to be risks for mental illness – poverty, poor quality child care, social isolation and the active discrimination and exclusion of the alien, the physically disabled and mentally ill. While there is little we can do to reverse global change, there is much a social psychiatrist can do to mitigate the effect, ensuring his/her voice is added to other calls for reducing discriminatory practice, promoting evidence-based social interventions such as parenting advice and peer support and ensuring that the success of a treatment is measured not just in terms of symptomatic improvement but in whether it results in an outcome that is valued by the patient.

  10. The physician executive in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, L R

    1999-01-01

    Physicians are losing their historic franchise as sole and primary providers of medical care. In addition to eroding moral and scientific authority, physicians are also losing income and status. It is no wonder that physicians are retrenching--confused and angry about the increasing marginalization of their profession and about society's changing expectations. Physicians are caught in a transition zone between the world that was and the one that will soon be. This is destabilizing and causes great anxiety. Rather than being buffeted by changing social and cultural definitions of health care, physicians must become proactively involved in the future of their profession. Physicians can only do this by offering a better mental model of health, medicine, and the community. This cannot be a defensive retreat from engagement. Rather, it must be an imaginative vision, vigorously set forth--a vision that will enlist the support of all constituencies involved in the effort to improve the health and well-being of all members of our society. The physician executive needs to work with physicians to orchestrate this effort to create a new vision of health in the 21st century.

  11. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.

  12. Perspectives for Electronic Books in the World Wide Web Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bry, Francois; Kraus, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and the lack of use of electronic books and suggests that specialized contents and device independence can make Web-based books compete with print. Topics include enhancing the hypertext model of XML; client-side adaptation, including browsers and navigation; and semantic modeling. (Author/LRW)

  13. The Changing World of Toys and Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the changing world of toys and toy play. Children learn about themselves and their world from their play with toys. Over the past half century there has been a remarkable transformation of the toy world of children. Toys have changed in quantity, quality, and level of technology. Mass production has made…

  14. The changing world of climate change: Oregon leads the states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, P.H.; Sadler, S.; Kosloff, L.H.; Trexler, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Following on the heels of recent national and international developments in climate change policy, Oregon's open-quote best-of-batch close-quote proceeding has validated the use of CO 2 offsets as a cost-effective means of advancing climate change mitigation goals. The proceeding was a first in several respects and represents a record commitment of funds to CO 2 mitigation by a private entity. In December 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), issued its Second Assessment Report. The IPCC's conclusion that open-quotes[t]he balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climateclose quotes fundamentally changed the tenor of the policy debate regarding potential threats associated with global climate change. At the Climate Change Convention's Conference of the Parties (COP) in Geneva in July 1996, most countries, including the United States, advocated adopting the IPCC report as the basis for swift policy movement toward binding international emissions targets. The next COP, in December 1997, is scheduled to be the venue for the signing of a treaty protocol incorporating such targets. Binding targets would have major consequences for power plant operators in the US and around the world. Recent developments in the state of Oregon show the kinds of measures that may become commonplace at the state level in addressing climate change mitigation. First, Oregon recently completed the first administrative proceeding in the US aimed at offsetting the greenhouse gas emissions of a new power plant. Second, a legislatively mandated energy facility siting task force recently recommended that Oregon adopt a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) standard for new power plant construction and drop use of the open-quotes need for powerclose quotes standard. This article reviews these two policy milestones and their implications for climate change mitigation in the United States

  15. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  16. Leaders in Computing Changing the digital world

    CERN Document Server

    IT, BCS -The Chartered Institute for; Booch, Grady; Torvalds, Linus; Wozniak, Steve; Cerf, Vint; Spärck Jones, Karen; Berners-Lee, Tim; Wales, Jimmy; Shirley, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This collection of interviews provides a fascinating insight into the thoughts and ideas of influential figures from the world of IT and computing, such as Sir Tim Berners-Lee, Donald Knuth, Linus Torvalds, Jimmy Wales and Steve Wozniak. It gives an excellent overview of important developments in this diverse field over recent years.

  17. World Wind Tools Reveal Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed under NASA's Learning Technologies program as a tool to engage and inspire students, World Wind software was released under the NASA Open Source Agreement license. Honolulu, Hawaii based Intelesense Technologies is one of the companies currently making use of the technology for environmental, public health, and other monitoring applications for nonprofit organizations and Government agencies. The company saved about $1 million in development costs by using the NASA software.

  18. Changing winds. BTM's world market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2006-01-01

    An update of what has happened in the past year in the worldwide wind energy market, and what is expected to happen in the near future, are given. In 2005, the USA was the world's single biggest wind market, installing 2431 MW. Data are also given for some European and Asian states, and Australasia. The increase in the USA was due to the reintroduction of the Production Tax Credit. Vestas maintained its position as world leader in turbine manufacture but its market share decreased from 34% to 27.9%. Data for all top ten manufacturers are given. In 2005, there were increases of up to 30% in the price of turbines due to an increase in cost of raw materials and increased profit margins in a seller's market. The increase in prices has had a marked impact on offshore systems where the economics were already marginal. Summaries of the future prospects of 15 individual countries are given, together with forecasts for 2011-2015

  19. Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colette, A.

    2007-07-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage Centre (WHC) initiated an assessment of the impacts of climate change on World Heritage in 2005, after the World Heritage Committee noted that 'the impacts of climate change are affecting many and are likely to affect many more World Heritage properties, both natural and cultural in the years to come'. A meeting of experts was convened in March 2006 bringing together over 50 representatives from the States Parties to the World Heritage Convention, various international organizations, non-governmental organizations, the Advisory Bodies to the World Heritage Committee, and academic and scientific experts, to discuss current and future impacts of climate change on World Heritage sites. The outcome of this initiative included a 'Report on Predicting and Managing the Effects of Climate Change on World Heritage', as well as a 'Strategy to Assist States Parties to Implement Appropriate Management Responses' which were endorsed by the World Heritage Committee at its 30th session in July 2006, Vilnius, Lithuania. The outcome of this work has shown that it is timely to develop and implement appropriate management responses to protect World Heritage in the face of climate change. The solutions to global warming are the subject of continuing debate. Some of these measures, beyond the scope of the World Heritage Convention, are discussed under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). But although climate change is a global challenge, there are many adaptation and preventive measures that can be taken at the local scale, i.e. at the level of the World Heritage sites. Studies are currently being conducted at several World Heritage sites to monitor climate change impacts and plan appropriate adaptation measures. But the World Heritage network is also a useful tool to share and promote lessons learnt and best practices, as well as to raise awareness regarding climate change impacts

  20. The changing world of biocontainment and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeggo, M

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, a number of key events have significantly altered our ideas on biosecurity and the role of biocontainment laboratories, such as the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks and the anthrax episode of 2001 in the USA. This has resulted in the development of plans to build "high containment" facilities around the world and an array of new regulations at both national and international levels regarding the management of pathogens, the operation of high containment facilities, the use of genetically modified material, and the transportation of such agents and personnel security issues. Considering the cost, however, it is debatable whether every country needs to build its own high containment facility. The Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL) provides an example of what might be considered best practice in biocontainment while considering regulations, cost and need.

  1. World Nuclear Association Design Change Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, John Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This presentation treats of design change management in the regulation of nuclear fleets. It covers activities of the WNA/CORDEL/Design Change Management Task Force, including views on the roles of vendors, owner's groups, utility and design authority, WANO and the regulators. The presentation highlights differences of capabilities between large utilities with strong technical staff and smaller utilities that require support and expertise from others. It also notes the current expectation that licensees are solely responsible for the safety of the design and operation of their plants and for maintaining a full understanding and knowledge of the design within licensee's own organization in an internal entity called design authority. It encourages regulators to re-examine this expectation for design changes, arguing that while large utilities maybe be able to deal with design changes, the smaller utilities may be challenged due to their small size and lack of appropriate expertise. It further notes that the original designer must be involved in the management of design changes. In addition, the presentation emphasizes benefits of standardization in design and regulatory expectations internationally, including the benefits of increasing safety and economy. The author provides that the CORDEL Working Group uses international standardization to mean that each vendor's design can be built by a vendor, and ordered by a utility, in every country and be able to meet national regulations without significant changes other than adaptations to meet site requirements. In this discussion, he highlights the aircraft industry as an example and notes the need for internationally agreed mechanisms for design change as well as the need for formal, agreed (internationally) role for the designer to play throughout the fleet lifetime

  2. The understanding of world climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, M.

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled that the problem of global warming in relationship with human activities has been studied since the end of the nineteenth century and since then by different scientific programs, the author describes how the IPCC's or Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's report is produced. He briefly comments how Earth's temperature is determined and the various natural parameters which influence the climate on Earth. He recalls how the IPCC showed the actual influence of human activities, and which changes have actually been observed

  3. Forest pest management in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold

    2012-01-01

    The scope, context and science guiding forest pest management have evolved and are likely to continue changing into the future. Here, I present six areas of advice to guide practitioners in the implementation of forest pest management. First, human dimensions will continue to play a key role in most pest problems and should always be a primary consideration in...

  4. Soft Approaches for a Changing World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2001-01-01

    The education of engineers needs to focus on abilities to facilitate change processes, involving participants actively and be able to view the problem in relation to a dynamic context of different environments. The essence of the future demands of engineers' social and technical qualification is ...

  5. The Changing World of Childhood Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2010-01-01

    Theories and practices in early childhood education continually evolve, and the same is true in the health field. Such change is especially apparent in the area of childhood immunizations. Since vaccination to prevent smallpox was first started in the late 1700s, recommendations for which immunizations to give and when to give them have been…

  6. HOW FINTECH INDUSTRY IS CHANGING THE WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Thi

    2016-01-01

    This thesis researched the innovative edges of the Fintech (financial technology). Fintech has been rapidly penetrating the financial markets by filling in the gaps left by the existing financial institutions and significantly improving the user experience. Firstly, the research briefly described the historical evolution of Fintech. In the subsequent sections, the paper aimed to demonstrate the innovative changes from Fintech in different areas, including the online banking and the payment pr...

  7. Species coexistence in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Fernando; Bastias, Cristina C; Godoy, Oscar; Granda, Elena; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of global change for the maintenance of species diversity will depend on the sum of each species responses to the environment and on the interactions among them. A wide ecological literature supports that these species-specific responses can arise from factors related to life strategies, evolutionary history and intraspecific variation, and also from environmental variation in space and time. In the light of recent advances from coexistence theory combined with mechanistic explanations of diversity maintenance, we discuss how global change drivers can influence species coexistence. We revise the importance of both competition and facilitation for understanding coexistence in different ecosystems, address the influence of phylogenetic relatedness, functional traits, phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific variability, and discuss lessons learnt from invasion ecology. While most previous studies have focused their efforts on disentangling the mechanisms that maintain the biological diversity in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, grasslands and coral reefs, we argue that much can be learnt from pauci-specific communities where functional variability within each species, together with demographic and stochastic processes becomes key to understand species interactions and eventually community responses to global change.

  8. Changing the world through shareholder activism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Sandberg

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the more progressive facets of the socially responsibleinvestment (SRI movement, shareholder activism isgenerally recommended or justified on the grounds that itcan create social change. But how effective are differentkinds of activist campaigns likely to be in this regard? Thisarticle outlines the full range of different ways in whichshareholder activism could make a difference by carefullygoing through, first, all the more specific lines of actiontypically included under the shareholder activismumbrella and, second, all of the different ways in which ithas been suggested that these could influence the activitiesof commercial companies. It is argued that – althoughmuch more empirical research is needed in the area – thereare at least theoretical reasons for thinking that it will bedifficult to influence companies through the standardactions of filing or voting on shareholder resolutions.However, some alternative strategies open to activists mayallow them to increase their efficacy. It is specificallyargued that even individual investors could be able to pushfor corporate change through devising a radically selfsacrificialcampaign that manages to get the attention ofpowerful forces outside the corporate sphere.

  9. The collision that changed the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wally Broecker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In connection with the Anthropocene, one might ask how climate is likely to evolve in the absence of man’s intervention and whether humans will be able to purposefully alter this course. In this commentary, I deal with the situation for very long time scales. I make a case that fifty million years ago, the collision between the northward drifting Indian land mass and Asia set the Earth’s climate on a new course. Ever since then, it has cooled. In the absence of some other dramatic disruption in the movement of the plates which make up our planet’s crust, on the time scale of tens of millions of years, this drift would cause the Earth to freeze over as it did during the late Precambrian. Evidence for this change in course comes from records of oxygen and lithium isotopic composition of foraminifer shells. It is reinforced by records of Mg to Ca in halite-hosted fluid inclusions and in marine CaCO3. In addition, the collision appears to have created abrupt changes in the sulfur isotope composition of marine barite and the carbon isotope composition of amber. Not only did this collision create the Himalaya, but more important, it led to a reorganization of the crustal plate motions. Through some combination of the building of mountains and lowering of sea level, these changes generated a mismatch between the supply of CO2 by planetary outgassing and that of calcium by the weathering of silicate rock. The tendency toward an oversupply of calcium has been compensated by a drawdown of the atmosphere’s CO2 content. This drawdown cooled the Earth, slowing down the supply of calcium. Although we are currently inadvertently compensating for this cooling by burning fossil fuels, the impacts of this CO2 on Earth climate will last no more than a tenth of a million years. So, if humans succeed in avoiding extinction, there will likely be a long-term effort to warm the planet.

  10. World Regionalization of Climate Change(1961–2010)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peijun; Shi; Shao; Sun; Daoyi; Gong; Tao; Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Traditional climate classification or regionalization characterizes the mean state of climate condition, which cannot meet the demand of addressing climate change currently. We have developed a climate change classification method, as well as the fundamental principles, an indicator system, and mapping techniques of climate change regionalization. This study used annual mean temperature and total precipitation as climatic indices, and linear trend and variation change as change indices to characterize climate change quantitatively. The study has proposed a scheme for world climate change regionalization based on a half century of climate data(1961–2010). Level-I regionalization divides the world into 12 tendency zones based on the linear trend of climate, level-II regionalization resulted in 28 fluctuation regions based on the variation change of climate. Climate change regionalization provides a scientific basis for countries and regions to develop plans for adapting to climate change, especially for managing climate-related disaster or environmental risks.

  11. Electronic Publishing in Science: Changes and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Otto

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet and the guidance of the World Wide Web Consortium focuses on scientific communication and electronic publishing. Considers the speed of communicating and disseminating information; quality issues; cost; library subscriptions; publishers; and risks and concerns, including the role of editors and reviewers or referees.…

  12. Transformational electronics: a powerful way to revolutionize our information world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Ahmed, Sally M.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Nour, Maha; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Byas, Ernesto; Al-Saif, Bidoor; Alamri, Amal M.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2014-06-01

    With the emergence of cloud computation, we are facing the rising waves of big data. It is our time to leverage such opportunity by increasing data usage both by man and machine. We need ultra-mobile computation with high data processing speed, ultra-large memory, energy efficiency and multi-functionality. Additionally, we have to deploy energy-efficient multi-functional 3D ICs for robust cyber-physical system establishment. To achieve such lofty goals we have to mimic human brain, which is inarguably the world's most powerful and energy efficient computer. Brain's cortex has folded architecture to increase surface area in an ultra-compact space to contain its neuron and synapses. Therefore, it is imperative to overcome two integration challenges: (i) finding out a low-cost 3D IC fabrication process and (ii) foldable substrates creation with ultra-large-scale-integration of high performance energy efficient electronics. Hence, we show a low-cost generic batch process based on trench-protect-peel-recycle to fabricate rigid and flexible 3D ICs as well as high performance flexible electronics. As of today we have made every single component to make a fully flexible computer including non-planar state-of-the-art FinFETs. Additionally we have demonstrated various solid-state memory, movable MEMS devices, energy harvesting and storage components. To show the versatility of our process, we have extended our process towards other inorganic semiconductor substrates such as silicon germanium and III-V materials. Finally, we report first ever fully flexible programmable silicon based microprocessor towards foldable brain computation and wirelessly programmable stretchable and flexible thermal patch for pain management for smart bionics.

  13. Electronic Journals: Publishing via Internet's World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brakel, Pieter A.

    1995-01-01

    Provides hints for setting up and maintaining a multimedia scholarly journal. Details include limitations of paper and electronic journals, and requirements for publishing successful electronic journals. (JKP)

  14. The changing pattern of the Western world enrichment industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paleit, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Past and future changes in the long-term enrichment market of the Western world are discussed, mainly from an economic point of view. Major trends and issues are summarized in the following subjects: an abstract economic model of market forms; factors specific to the enrichment market for defining its overall place within the economic model; a description of the changing pattern (market forms) of the Western world enrichment market and its major regional components in the period 1973-95 (one of the last years of the US world-wide monopoly, and one of the last years of contracts concluded in the early 1970s, respectively); a commentary, on the basis of four 'perfect market' criteria, on the main factors influencing these changes; an outlook on the market in the year 2000. (author)

  15. Changing World, Changing Education: Kindergarten--Where to Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Margaret

    This paper discusses the history of early childhood education in Australia, areas of change in contemporary early childhood education, and the philosophical bases of education. The paper also offers suggestions for the future. From 1880 until 1950, Australian children's services consisted of philanthropic enterprises. The period from 1950 to 1970…

  16. New Zealand Freshwater Management: Changing Policy for a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, H. L.; Norton, N.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh water is essential to New Zealand's economic, environmental, cultural and social well-being. In line with global trends, New Zealand's freshwater resources are under pressure from increased abstraction and changes in land-use which contribute contaminants to our freshwater systems. Recent central government policy reform introduces greater national direction and guidance, to bring about a step-change in freshwater management. An existing national policy for freshwater management introduced in 2011 requires regional authorities to produce freshwater management plans containing clear freshwater objectives (measurable statements about the desired environmental state for water bodies) and associated limits to resource use (such as environmental flows and quantity allocation limits, and loads of contaminants to be discharged). These plans must integrate water quantity and quality management, consider climate change, and incorporate tangata whenua (New Zealand māori) roles and interests. In recent (2014) national policy amendments, the regional authorities are also required to implement national 'bottom-line' standards for certain attributes of the system to be managed; undertake accounting for all water takes and all sources of contaminants; and to develop and implement their plans in a collaborative way with communities. This rapid change in national policy has necessitated a new way of working for authorities tasked with implementation; many obstacles lie in their path. The scientific methods required to help set water quantity limits are well established, but water quality methods are less so. Collaborative processes have well documented benefits but also raise many challenges, particularly for the communication of complex and often uncertain scientific information. This paper provides background on the national policy changes and offers some early lessons learned by the regional authorities implementing collaborative freshwater management in New Zealand.

  17. Changing the world is easy. Changing the Academy is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia; Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Brydon-Miller, Mary

    models of higher education. In fact, Action Research is already engaged with notions of utopia (Nielsen & Svensson, 2006) and with creating alternative ways of understanding and enacting teaching and learning with the goal of creating positive social, economic, and political change within the context...... of organizations and communities. What is needed now is a way of bringing these efforts at effecting change within higher education together in order that they might inform, support, and challenge one another and to speak more coherently and forcefully to the larger higher education community. Systemic action...... research provides a strategy for linking existing and emerging action research projects aimed at fundamentally reshaping higher education by creating an international network focused on creating “whole system change” (Burns, 2007, p. 1) in higher education. As Danny Burns describes the process, “effective...

  18. ELT in a changing world innovative approaches to new challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Azra; Saleem, Faiza; Cane, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    A novel ELT resource for language specialists and teachers across the world, this selection of papers is a collection of the most compelling and innovative ideas presented at a seminar hosted by the Centre of English Language, Aga Khan University, Pakistan, in January 2011, entitled 'ELT in a Changing World: Innovative Approaches to New Challenges'.The book is divided into three sections, the first of which is 'Global change and language learning'. This section offers a guided tour of language teaching evolution, highlighting the merits of enhanced language awareness, self-immersive and input/

  19. Structural changes induced by electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, J.; Pedraza, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite was irradiated at room temperature with 300 kV electrons. Transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy were employed to study the structural changes produced by irradiation. The occurrence of a continuous ring intensity in the selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern obtained on a specimen irradiated with the electron beam parallel to the c-crystallographic axis indicated that microstructural changes had occurred. However, from the SAD pattern obtained for the specimens tilted relative to the irradiation direction, it was found that up to a fluence of 1.1x10 27 e/m 2 graphite remained crystalline. An SAD pattern of a specimen irradiated with the electron beam perpendicular to the c-axis confirmed the persistence of crystalline order. High resolution electron microscopy showed that ordering along the c-axis direction remained. A density reduction of 8.9% due to irradiation was determined from the plasmon frequency shift. A qualitative model is proposed to explain these observations. A new determination of the threshold displacement energy, Ed, of carbon atoms in graphite was done by examining the appearance of a continuous ring in the SAD pattern at various electron energies. A value of 30 eV was obtained whether the incident electron beam was parallel or perpendicular to the c-axis, demonstrating that Ed is independent of the displacement direction

  20. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL's Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents

  1. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL`s Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents.

  2. World Health Organization guidelines should not change the CD4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-02

    Mar 2, 2013 ... The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends that HIV-positive adults start antiretroviral therapy (ART) at. CD4 counts <350 cells/µl. Several countries have changed their guidelines to recommend ART irrespective of CD4 count or at a threshold of 500 CD4 cells/µl. Consequently, WHO is ...

  3. Travelling through a warming world: climate change and migratory species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, A.; Crick, H.Q.P.; Learmonth, J.A.; Maclean, I.M.D.; Thomas, C.D.; Bairlein, F.; Forchhammer, M.C.; Francis, C.M.; Gill, J.A.; Godley, B.J.; Harwood, J.; Hays, G.C.; Huntley, B.; Hutson, A.M.; Pierce, G.J.; Rehfisch, M.M.; Sims, D.W.; Vieira dos Santos, M.C.; Sparks, T.H.; Stroud, D.; Visser, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Long-distance migrations are among the wonders of the natural world, but this multi-taxon review shows that the characteristics of species that undertake such movements appear to make them particularly vulnerable to detrimental impacts of climate change. Migrants are key components of biological

  4. World Health Organization guidelines should not change the CD4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends that HIV-positive adults start antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4 counts <350 cells/μl. Several countries have changed their guidelines to recommend ART irrespective of CD4 count or at a threshold of 500 CD4 cells/μl. Consequently, WHO is currently revising its ...

  5. A Small State Maneuvering in the Changing World Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2016-01-01

    , especially the Danish approach to the BRICs, has developed in recent years, I show how Denmark – a small state – is trying to maneuver in the changing world order through a “creative agency” approach characterized by pragmatic low-profile activism. I develop a neoclassical realist framework and use...

  6. Book Review Lifeblood: How to Change the World, One Dead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Lifeblood: How to Change the World, One Dead Mosquito at a Time By Alex Perry (2011). Melissa Raemaekers. Abstract. Pp xiv + 219. R210. Picador Africa, Pan Macmillan, South Africa. 2011. ISBN 978-1-77010-146-3. February 2012, Vol. 102, No. 2 SAMJ. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ...

  7. Technology and Changing Lifestyles. Teacher's Guide. Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozzi, Louis A.

    "Technology and Changing Lifestyles" is one of the "Preparing for Tomorrow's World" (PTW) program modules. PTW is an interdisciplinary, future-oriented program incorporating information from the sciences and social sciences and addressing societal concerns which interface science/technology/society. The program promotes…

  8. Clinical genomics in the world of the electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolo, Keith; Spooner, S Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records presents a number of benefits to the field of clinical genomics. They include the ability to return results to the practitioner, to use genetic findings in clinical decision support, and to have data collected in the electronic health record that serve as a source of phenotypic information for analysis purposes. Not all electronic health records are created equal, however. They differ in their features, capabilities, and ease of use. Therefore, to understand the potential of the electronic health record, it is first necessary to understand its capabilities and the impact that implementation strategy has on usability. Specifically, we focus on the following areas: (i) how the electronic health record is used to capture data in clinical practice settings; (ii) how the implementation and configuration of the electronic health record affect the quality and availability of data; (iii) the management of clinical genetic test results and the feasibility of electronic health record integration; and (iv) the challenges of implementing an electronic health record in a research-intensive environment. This is followed by a discussion of the minimum functional requirements that an electronic health record must meet to enable the satisfactory integration of genomic results as well as the open issues that remain.

  9. Sir David Brewster's changing ideas on the plurality of worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Asúa, Miguel

    2006-06-01

    In the course of his long life the Scottish physicist David Brewster wrote copiously about the plurality of worlds. More Worlds than One (1854), perhaps his strongest statement on the question, was written as an answer to William Whewell's On the Plurality of Worlds (1853), which argued that life was a privilege of the Earth. Brewster's ideas changed drastically along the years in many crucial issues such as the habitability of the Sun and the Moon, the possibility that extraterrestrials could be different from humans, and the occupation of the Earth by intelligent races in the distant past. This paper succinctly surveys Brewster's main lines of thought about the plurality of worlds underlining the significance of his first two articles devoted exclusively to this topic. They were published in 1838 in The Monthly Chronicle, and affirm the habitability of the planets while denying that of the Moon. As is the case with many Victorian scientists, belief in pluralism was for Brewster part and parcel of a complex of ideas and attitudes in which it is hard to distinguish science from religion. I shall argue that a fair number of the shifting opinions and inconsistencies detectable in Brewster's ideas on the plurality of worlds can be attributed to the fact that these were used as pliable apologetic instruments in his scientific writings, many of which are permeated by strong religious concerns.

  10. The next waves: migration theory for a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolberg, A R

    1989-01-01

    In the last quarter of a century, migration theory has undergone fundamental change, moving from the classic "individual relocation" genre initiated by Ravenstein a century ago, to a variety of new approaches which nevertheless share important elements: they tend to be historical, structural, globalist, and critical. Historicization implies a constant modification of theoretical concerns and emphases in the light of changing social realities, and a commitment to a critical approach entails a view of research as 1 element in a broader project concerned with the elucidation of social and political conditions. The article uses elements from 2 major theoretical traditions - a modified world-systems approach and state theory - to project current trends. Global inequality is considered as a structural given. The article then reviews major topics, including the persistence of restrictive immigration policies as barriers to movement, changing patterns of exploitation of foreign labor, liberalization of exit from the socialist world, and the refugee crisis in the developing world. It concludes with a brief consideration of the normative implications of these trends.

  11. Real change in the real world: an achievable goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    This commentary builds on the papers presented at the Vanderbilt Conference by emphasizing the importance of better understanding the process of change-making if real change in the real world is to be achieved. The commentary reviews several frameworks and research findings related to achieving large-scale sustainable change that benefits children and families. It calls for the application of systems thinking as a complement to the more micro-level research that was presented at the Vanderbilt conference. Such an approach would have implications for framing of the issue, for the strategies that are taken to try to achieve change, and for research/evaluation methods for studying complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems.

  12. The World as Viewed by and with Unpaired Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) include capabilities for applications to areas as diverse as archeology, beer shelf life, biological structure, dosimetry, in vivo imaging, molecular magnets, and quantum computing. Enabling technologies include multifrequency continuous wave, pulsed, and rapid scan EPR. Interpretation is enhanced by increasingly powerful computational models. PMID:22975244

  13. "Emmerce" Immersion: The Emerging World of Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuck, Lysbeth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the effects of Web-based electronic commerce, or "emmerce," on online user. Defines "cookies" and Persistent Client State HTTP Cookies or "magic cookies" on Macintosh computers. Examines underlying technologies that make up "cashless" transactions; growing demand for micropayments; CyberCash,…

  14. The world as viewed by and with unpaired electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2012-10-01

    Recent advances in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) include capabilities for applications to areas as diverse as archeology, beer shelf life, biological structure, dosimetry, in vivo imaging, molecular magnets, and quantum computing. Enabling technologies include multifrequency continuous wave, pulsed, and rapid scan EPR. Interpretation is enhanced by increasingly powerful computational models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear safeguards and security in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badolato, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    Two major crises of 1986 - the Chernobyl nuclear accident and international terrorism have had the effect of making what everyone does even more critically important for U.S. national security and for the security of the world. Chernobyl can be a starting point for efforts to make nuclear power systems safer and more benign. It also poses very basic questions for nuclear arms control activities. A fundamental objective of the Administration's arms control policy is to achieve substantial and equitable reductions in U.S. and Soviet nuclear forces with effective verification. However, Chernobyl served to remind the U.S. once again of the obsessive secretiveness of the Soviet Union and the difficulties of obtaining information on Soviet nuclear weapon activities. All of this points to the importance of developing improved monitoring technologies and obtaining Soviet agreement on on-site inspection. Nuclear safeguards and security developments in response to a changing world are the topic of discussion in this paper

  16. Changes in Scottish suicide rates during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rob; Stark, Cameron; Humphry, Roger W; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam

    2006-06-23

    It is believed that total reported suicide rates tend to decrease during wartime. However, analysis of suicide rates during recent conflicts suggests a more complex picture, with increases in some age groups and changes in method choice. As few age and gender specific analyses of more distant conflicts have been conducted, it is not clear if these findings reflect a change in the epidemiology of suicide in wartime. Therefore, we examined suicide rates in Scotland before, during and after the Second World War to see if similar features were present. Data on deaths in Scotland recorded as suicide during the period 1931-1952, and population estimates for each of these years, were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland. Using computer spreadsheets, suicide rates by gender, age and method were calculated. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the effect of gender, war and year on suicide rates using SAS V8.2. The all-age suicide rate among both men and women declined during the period studied. However, when this long-term decline is taken into account, the likelihood of suicide during the Second World War was higher than during both the pre-War and post-War periods. Suicide rates among men aged 15-24 years rose during the Second World War, peaking at 148 per million (41 deaths) during 1942 before declining to 39 per million (10 deaths) by 1945, while the rate among men aged 25-34 years reached 199 per million (43 deaths) during 1943 before falling to 66 per million (23 deaths) by 1946. This was accompanied by an increase in male suicides attributable to firearms and explosives during the War years which decreased following its conclusion. All age male and female suicide rates decreased in Scotland during World War II. However, once the general background decrease in suicide rates over the whole period is accounted for, the likelihood of suicide among the entire Scottish population during the Second World War was elevated. The overall

  17. It's A Gassy World: Middle School Students Investigate Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, C.

    2016-12-01

    When middle school students are asked about our changing earth system, their responses likely include terms like global warming, climate change, and greenhouse gases. However, many students struggle to understand how it all fits together, and sometimes they hear conflicting information or myths about climate change. This activity allows students to explore the impacts of warming oceans and oceans' absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) through a student planned and carried out investigation that begins with a pre-laboratory engagement and exploration piece, includes a laboratory component, and concludes with an explanation where students analyze their data and interpret their results through the claim-evidence-reasoning framework. It's a Gassy World was developed with three-dimensional instruction in mind to introduce middle school students to the relationship between warming oceans and changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption in the oceans. Students explore disciplinary core ideas in the Earth and Space Sciences discipline of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using crosscutting concepts and science and engineering practices. Specifically, students study CO2 as a greenhouse gas and the effect of increased atmospheric CO2 levels on global climate change by planning and carrying out their own investigations. We structured this activity in a 5E format that can take place in four to five days during a climate change unit. After piloting this activity in over 20 formal classrooms and with 5 informal education groups, we have seen how It's a Gassy World helps support inquiry in the classroom and allows students to experience crosscutting concepts and science and engineering practices in NGSS. We found that students were engaged and actively learning throughout the activity. Student work and pilot teacher feedback indicated that, through this activity, many students increased their understanding of CO2 as a greenhouse gas and recognized that warmer oceans will

  18. Two speeches that changed the world: from Fulton to Zurich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan John Watson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this extract from his new book Churchill’s Legacy: Two Speeches to Save the World (Watson, 2016, Lord Watson of Richmond draws on his own experience of post war British politics, as a television presenter and media commentator and then as a Liberal Peer and Chairman of the English-Speaking Union, to analyse the significance of Churchill’s Zurich speech of 19 September 1946. He argues that, building on Churchill’s earlier speech at Fulton, Missouri, it helped change the perceptions of the West and alter their response to the emerging Cold War and the future of Europe.

  19. One Health for a changing world: new perspectives from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Andrew A; Scoones, Ian; Wood, James L N

    2017-07-19

    The concept of One Health, which aims to drive improvements in human, animal and ecological health through an holistic approach, has been gaining increasing support and attention in recent years. While this concept has much appeal, there are few examples where it has been successfully put into practice. This Special Issue explores the challenges in African contexts, with papers looking at the complex interactions between ecosystems, diseases and poverty dynamics; at underlying social and political dimensions; at the potentials for integrative modelling; and at the changes in policy and practice required to realise a One Health approach. This introductory paper offers an overview of the 11 papers, coming from diverse disciplinary perspectives, that each explore how a One Health approach can work in a world of social, economic and environmental change. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Changes in the world market in oil and oil refinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristik, Julija

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980's the world market for crude oil and oil products has faced significant changes that are going to have a grate influence on the supply and consumption of crude oil derivatives in Macedonia. The knowledge of these changes would have a grate contribution in planning the future development of this part of the energetic system of Macedonia. The purpose of this paper (which is a short version of the introductory report for the ZEMAK session with a theme 'Energetic policy and development of energetics in Macedonia') is to present the actual situation on the market for crude oil products, as well as to give the main factors that would have influence on this market in the future. (author). 4 refs., 3 ills

  1. Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk—Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. The authors encourage both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to address their 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and nonchemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk-assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk-management process; 5) consider socioeconomics and increased transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference conditions and the proper ecological c

  2. Transformational electronics: a powerful way to revolutionize our information world

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-06-04

    With the emergence of cloud computation, we are facing the rising waves of big data. It is our time to leverage such opportunity by increasing data usage both by man and machine. We need ultra-mobile computation with high data processing speed, ultra-large memory, energy efficiency and multi-functionality. Additionally, we have to deploy energy-efficient multi-functional 3D ICs for robust cyber-physical system establishment. To achieve such lofty goals we have to mimic human brain, which is inarguably the world’s most powerful and energy efficient computer. Brain’s cortex has folded architecture to increase surface area in an ultra-compact space to contain its neuron and synapses. Therefore, it is imperative to overcome two integration challenges: (i) finding out a low-cost 3D IC fabrication process and (ii) foldable substrates creation with ultra-large-scale-integration of high performance energy efficient electronics. Hence, we show a low-cost generic batch process based on trench-protect-peel-recycle to fabricate rigid and flexible 3D ICs as well as high performance flexible electronics. As of today we have made every single component to make a fully flexible computer including non-planar state-of-the-art FinFETs. Additionally we have demonstrated various solid-state memory, movable MEMS devices, energy harvesting and storage components. To show the versatility of our process, we have extended our process towards other inorganic semiconductor substrates such as silicon germanium and III-V materials. Finally, we report first ever fully flexible programmable silicon based microprocessor towards foldable brain computation and wirelessly programmable stretchable and flexible thermal patch for pain management for smart bionics. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  3. [World population and development: an important change in perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallin, J

    1984-10-24

    The International Population Conference in Mexico City was much less controversial than the World Population Conference in Bucharest 10 years previously, in part because the message of Bucharest was widely accepted and in part because of changes that occurred in the demographic and economic situations in the succeeding decade. The UN medium population projection for 1985 has been proved quite accurate; it is not as alarming as the high projection but still represents a doubling of world population in less than 40 years. The control of fertility upon which the medium projection was predicated is well underway. The movement from high to low rates of fertility and mortality began in the 18th century in the industrial countries and lasted about 1 1/2 centuries during which the population surplus was dispersed throughout the world, especially in North and South America. The 2nd phase of movement from high to low rates currently underway in the developing countries has produced a far greater population increase. The proportion of the population in the developed areas of Europe, North America, the USSR, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand will decline from about 1/3 of the 2.5 billion world population of 1950 to 1/4 of the 3.7 billion of 1985, to 1/5 of the 4.8 billion of 2000, and probably 1/7 of the 10 billion when world population stabilizes at the end of the next century. The growth rates of developing countries are not homogeneous; the populations of China and India have roughly doubled in the past 35 years while that of Latin America has multiplied by 2 1/2. The population of Africa more than doubled in 35 years and will almost triple by 2025. The number of countries with over 50 million inhabitants, 9 in 1950, will increase from 19 in 1985 to 32 in 2025. The process of urbanization is almost complete in the industrialized countries, with about 75% of the population urban in 1985, but urban populations will continue to grow rapidly in the developing countries as rural

  4. Climate change and the World Bank: opportunity for global governance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer-Christiansen, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The direct and indirect efforts of the World Bank and its off-spring, the Global Environment Facility (GEF), to become leading international agents of global environmental 'governance' and 'sustainable development' are described and analysed politically with reference to the development of an implementation regime of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The Bank/GEF are seen as engaging in a potentially dangerous experiment of 'global ecological modernisation', or industrial transformation, in 'emerging economies', an experiment legitimised by reference to the catastrophic threat of man-made 'global warming'. This threat is already being translated into political, commercial and bureaucratic benefits accruing to a small global elite. How was this achieved and what are the likely political implications? (author)

  5. Adapting to a changing world: Implications for water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Everyone is aware that the world is changing, and that many of these changes will impact our water resource supplies and how they are used and managed. It's always a challenge to try to predict the future, especially the very uncertain distant future. But one thing is certain, the future environment our descendants will experience will differ from the economic, social, technological and natural conditions we experience today. Some aspects of the changes that are happening may not be under human control, but many are. And to the extent they are, we can influence that future. In this paper I attempt to speculate about a future some 40 to 50 years from now, and how water will need to be managed then. My goal is to motivate some thinking and discussion about how we as water managers can influence and prepare ourselves (or our successors) for that future. It will require collaboration among multiple disciplines to determine how best we as a profession can help society adapt to these changes, and this in turn will require all of us to learn how to work together more effectively than we do now. This theme fits in with the current interest in sustainability, for no matter how it is defined, sustainability makes us think about the long-term future. How do we develop and manage our natural and cultural resources in ways that benefit both us and future generations of people living on this earth? What will their needs and goals be? We don't know and that is the major challenge in deciding what decisions we might make today on their behalf. Here I attempt to identify the challenges and issues water managers could be addressing some 40 to 50 years from now, and what we in each of our disciplines, and together, can begin to do now to address them.

  6. New Nuclear Fuel Disposition Opportunities in a Changed World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    The world's economic, security, environmental, and technological situation has changed significantly in the last several years and these changes bring new opportunities for substantial policy improvements and redirections in the used nuclear fuel management arena. The passage of new energy legislation; the need for more US nuclear energy; growing state, national and international momentum for carbon emission and other air pollutant reductions; post September 11. Homeland Security threat reduction improvements; desires to improve global nuclear security; rapidly emerging needs for clean electricity supplies in developing countries; and the technological advancements in advanced fuel cycle technologies provide a substantial foundation for future enhancements and improvements in current used nuclear fuel management programs. Past progress, lessons learned, and new used fuel/waste management technological innovations coupled with current and future economic, security, and environmental issues can create new approaches that can help the Federal government meet its obligations while simultaneously addressing many of the difficult regional/state issues that have historically hindered progress. This paper will examine and integrate the synergy of these issues to explore options and discuss possible new opportunities in the vitally important area of spent fuel management and the entire back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors)

  7. Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding to Optimize Chinese Agriculture (OPTICHINA was a three-year EU–China project launched in June of 2011. As designed, the project acted as a new strategic model to reinforce systematic cooperation on agricultural research between Europe and China. The OPTICHINA International Conference “Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World” was held in Beijing, May 26–29, 2014. The conference included six thematic areas: (1 defining and protecting the yield potential of traits and genes; (2 high-throughput precision phenotyping in the field; (3 molecular technologies in modern breeding; (4 plant ideotype; (5 data analysis, data management, and bioinformatics; and (6 national challenges and opportunities for China. The 10 articles collected in this special issue represent key contributions and topics of this conference. This editorial provides a brief introduction to the OPTICHINA project, followed by the main scientific points of articles published in this special issue. Finally, outcomes from a brainstorming discussion at the end of the conference are summarized, representing the authors' opinions on trends in breeding for a changing world.

  8. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION – REFORM IT OR CHANGE IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterian Maria Gabriela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The failure of Doha Round is a serious step backward for the WTO and the multilateral trading system. Some analysts already discussed in their research about the round as being already closed and they propose the developing of a new program within the organization. WTO still remains a very important institution due to its proven role in encouraging states not to take protectionist measures during the recent economic crisis, but the global trade governance reform must reflect all the changes and realities. The transition is being made toward a more regionalized and preferential global trade and the emergence of strong developing countries shape the whole multilateral trade negotiations. The important growth rates in emerging countries are translated also in strong demand for representation in global trade governance. Objectives: This paper aims to underline the role of multilateralism as form of international cooperation, the link with global economic governance and what concerns academic community in terms of having a reform of it. Prior Work: It has been tried to emphasizing the concepts already developed by known researchers in the field. Approach: The approach is a more theoretic one done in a comparative manner with emphasis on results and future research. The critical method approach is done with qualitative results. Results: The key results are related to pros and cons of reforming the World Trade Organization, as well as presenting the criticisms and proposals for having a second World Trade Organization. Implications: The implications are varied in terms of studying the concepts and addresses researchers in the field, but also lecturers and students. Value: The main added value is the compared approach of the traditional WTO as it derived from General Agreement on Tariff and Trade and the proposal for a new one and its formal relationship with the global economic governance.

  9. The world is changing – our mindsets must change with it

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, D.

    2011-01-01

    The rise in the amount of data we are generating and storing has been meteoric of late. But while the world of data is developing rapidly, the ways that we manage it are not keeping pace. Our paradigms need to change.

  10. A decade of democracy: environmental management in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Aucamp

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The world’s focus on the environment started in 1972 with the Conference of the United Nations on the Human Environment in Stockholm. This led to the formation of the United Nations’ Environmental Programme (UNEP. The new interest in the role of the humans in the environment only picked up momentum after the publication of the report, Our Common Future by the World Commission on Development and the Environment, led by Harlem Gro Brundtland and the follow-up Conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (The Earth Summit. The main products from this conference were the Earth Charter and the Agenda 21 principles and action plans. Not long after this event South Africa had a change in government in 1994. The new Constitution that was accepted in 1996 is one of the few constitutions that contain pertinent clauses pertaining to the protection of the environment. Environmental legislation such as the new National Environmental Management Act, a National Water Act, a Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, an Air Quality Management Bill has been adapted since 1994. A huge number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs attended the Rio Conference. Some, like Greenpeace (and locally Earthlife Africa, developed pressure groups that pressurised governments to give more attention to the protection of the environment and to improve environmental management. During this period results of scientific research that had a large impact on humankind’s perception of the environment, were published. The discovery of the hole in the ozone layer and of the increase in global warming led to great public interest. This led to conventions and protocols that have been ratified by most countries in the world, for example 189 out of a possible 191 countries ratified the Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Ozone Layer by June 2004. The private sector responded and today it is the norm to report about the “Triple Bottom-line” (economic, social and

  11. The Obstacles Facing the Flow of the Electronic Information in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Yahya Umri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research views the most important obstacles facing the flow of electronic information in Arab world; with an illustration about the effect of each obstacle on the flowing of the information, and the special recommendation to overcome it. the research states 4 main obstacles; they are: number of internet users and the weakness of the infrastructure in our Arab world, the spam e-mails, the Bugs and vulnerabilities in the operating systems that allow hackers to attack the information systems, and the spread of the electronic pornography on the internet

  12. Management of the camera electronics programme for the World Space Observatory ultraviolet WUVS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Gayatri; Clapp, Matthew; Salter, Mike; Waltham, Nick; Beardsley, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a major international collaboration led by Russia and will study the universe at ultraviolet wavelengths between 115 nm and 320 nm. The WSO Ultraviolet Spectrograph (WUVS) subsystem is led by a consortium of Russian institutes and consists of three spectrographs. RAL Space is contracted by e2v technologies Ltd to provide the CCD readout electronics for each of the three WUVS channels. The programme involves the design, manufacturing, assembly and testing of each Camera Electronics Box (CEB), its associated Interconnection Module (ICM), Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) and harness. An overview of the programme will be presented, from the initial design phase culminating in the development of an Engineering Model (EM) through qualification whereby an Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) will undergo environmental testing to characterize the performance of the CEB against the space environment, to the delivery of the Flight Models (FMs). The paper will discuss the challenges faced managing a large, dynamic project. This includes managing significant changes in fundamental requirements mid-programme as a result of external political issues which forced a complete re-design of an existing CEB with extensive space heritage but containing many ITAR controlled electronic components to a new, more efficient solution, free of ITAR controlled parts. The methodology and processes used to ensure the demanding schedule is maintained through each stage of the project will be presented including an insight into planning, decision-making, communication, risk management, and resource management; all essential to the continued success of the programme.

  13. Preparing for Change: Challenges and Opportunities in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2009-03-01

    Our world is becoming increasingly global. This may sound like a clich'e, yet it is true nonetheless, and poses unprecedented challenges for graduate education. For the new generation of researchers, teachers and professionals to be successful they must be prepared in more than the content area of their chosen field. They must also acquire proficiency in global awareness, cultural literacy, multicultural teamwork and language facility. These global skill sets form the basis for effective multicultural collaboration and will become increasingly important even for those who do not intend to study or work abroad. Knowledge has become more portable in the internet age; large data bases and reports can be accessed in real time from various locations around the globe; information is exchanged in multifaceted knowledge networks; collaborative research takes place within and outside of the traditional venue of the research university in the private sector, research institutes, and associations; research networks span multiple disciplines as progress invariably occurs at the intersection of previously discrete fields of inquiry. Global collaboration thus is no longer dependent on the physical proximity of collaborators but can take place anywhere any time. This then requires yet another set of skills, namely the ability to adapt to change, exhibit flexibility and transfer skills to a range of contexts and applications. Effective graduate education must address these realities and expose students to learning opportunities that will enable them to acquire these much needed global skills sets.

  14. Place-based collaboration: Leadership for a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambleton Robin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Placeless power, meaning the exercise of power by decision-makers who are unconcerned about the impact of their decisions on communities living in particular places, has grown significantly in the last thirty years. A consequence is that societies are becoming more unequal. Even in the wealthy global cities modern capitalism is increasing inequality at a formidable rate. In a new book the author provides an international, comparative analysis of the efforts being made by place-based leaders to create inclusive, sustainable cities. This article draws on the evidence presented in the book to suggest that place-based leaders can play a significant role in advancing social justice, promoting care for the environment and bolstering community empowerment. An opening section introduces the idea of place-based power, providing a context for the subsequent discussion. A second section sets out a new way of conceptualising the roles of place-based leaders in any given context, a framework described as the New Civic Leadership. This distinguishes five different realms of civic leadership. The third section provides an example of place-based leadership in action. It outlines the way local leadership has brought about a remarkable transformation of the central area of Melbourne, Australia. A final section presents a comparative discussion of three themes relating to place-based leadership and local collaboration: (i the changing possibilities for place-based leadership in our rapidly globalising world, (ii the need for outward-facing local government leadership given the changing nature of public policy challenges and (iii the role of place-based leadership in bringing about radical public innovation.

  15. Invite your representative to work. Change the world. Here's how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montell, Denise J

    2018-02-15

    Today's political climate can seem hostile to science. Alternative facts, climate change denial, and relabeling of actual news as fake news are discouraging phenomena for sure. But these trends make it more important than ever to engage our politicians. Take heart! There is something you can do. You can show your representatives firsthand the amazing things you do, evidence of the economic engine that your activities generate, and the real people behind the discoveries. I did, and it was fun. We invited our congressman to the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and he accepted! For 2 hours, we explained and demonstrated efforts to cure blindness using stem cells, the medical implications of the discovery that cells can recover from the brink of death, a mosquito lab striving to eliminate insect-borne disease, and an Alzheimer's disease laboratory. Salud Carbajal peered through a microscope and met real scientists. Before his visit, he did not know what a postdoctoral fellow was, much less what stem cells look like. When he left he knew our names, how much money we bring into his district, and how important National Institutes of Health funding and international mobility are to our enterprise. Although I live in the United States, this approach should also apply to other democratic countries. If each of us converts one representative into a science champion, we can change the world. © 2018 Montell. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Considerations on nonproliferation regime meeting in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past history of worldwide nonproliferation regime, then proposes the future improvements on the regime. Present worldwide nonproliferation regime have been formulated during the cold war era. Therefore, the structure and measures of the regime were heavily influenced by the features of cold war era. Though the cold war was over, still new international order does not seem to be on the horizon, we need to review the present regime and to improve the regime compatible to new world situation. Generally speaking, the nonproliferation regime have gained moderate success so far. We could point out the following features as a kind of success: 1) No increase of overt Nuclear Weapon State (NWS), 2) All five NWSs have finally participated to the NPT, 3) South Africa has destroyed its nuclear weapons and became Non-Nuclear Weapon State (NNWS), 4) Successful conclusions of some regional arrangements, such as Tlatelolco, Ralotonga, and 5) Strengthening of export control on sensitive items. On the other hand, we recognize the following points as the failures of the regime. 6) India, Pakistan and Israel reject to join the NPT, 7) Existence of some violation against NPT regime, i.e. Iraqi case and DPRK case, 8) Insufficient effective measures against brain drain problem, 9) Risk exists for the long term extension of NPT, and 10) Insufficient flexibility to meet changing boundary conditions. We would propose the various measures for strengthening to meet changing boundary conditions, as follows: 11) Measures to be taken along with future civil use of Plutonium, 12) Strengthening and rationalizing international safeguards, 13) Countermeasures for emerging new types of nuclear proliferation, 14) Strengthening nuclear material control in NWS, 15) Measures to be taken for nuclear material from dismantled nuclear weapons, and 16) Nuclear disarmament. (author)

  17. The World Religions Paradigm Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of religions has long relied on the World Religions paradigm to guide curricula throughout education, which has led to a widening gap, on the one hand, between what is taught in schools and in universities and, on the other, between research and teaching. While the World Religions paradigm has allowed the inclusion of non-Christian…

  18. The First World Congress on the Management of Electronic Commerce: Review and Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontis, Nick; De Castro, Akemi

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes some key findings of academic papers presented at the First World Congress on the Management of Electronic Commerce (January, 2000, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada). Outlines two meta-management issues that surfaced: taking a strategic approach to Internet ventures and considering infrastructure design during implementation. Highlights…

  19. Changing fertility patterns and policies in the third world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnicoll, G

    1992-01-01

    Different patterns of fertilty transition are apparent in developing countries. Theories of fertility decline are appropriate because demographic analysis has become situation specific rather than general. Pretransition fertility patterns and the onset of decline are provided. Fertility transition patterns are also supplied, including a regional overview for Latin America, east and Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia and North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. The specialized cases of China, India, Bangladesh, Thailand and Indonesia, and Brazil are also presented. The fertility determinant models of Bongaarts, Davis and Blake, Hobcraft and Little, Ryder, and Henry are used as examples of proximate determinant models. Data collection was possible on a grand scale with contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys and the World Fertility Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys. Criticism has focused on the scope of these surveys which provide at best proximate determinants and differentiate fertility by standard socioeconomic factors. Data are also obtained on small populations from piecing together records and from quasi-anthropological fieldwork. Historical demography relies on family reconstitution. Longitudinal studies are few in number. The largest and most effective fieldwork station is at Matlab in Bangladesh. Caldwell has provided anthropological methods applicable to fertility study and makes use of teamwork. In Latin America, fertility has fallen by 40% since the 1960s. Bolivia, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Haiti have changed very little. Taiwan and South Korea provide examples of economic growth with equity in East and Southeast Asia. In heterogenous South Asia, decline has been slow and uneven. West Asia and North Africa have high fertility with the exception of Egypt which is in the early stages of transition. The smallest declines are found in sub-Saharan Africa, and are complicated by the AIDS epidemic.

  20. Nuclear power plant life management in a changing business world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the end of 1999, there were 348 nuclear power plants connected to the grid in OECD Member countries, representing a total capacity of 296 GWe and generating some 24% of their electricity. One third of these nuclear power plants had been in operation for over 20 years. The demand for electricity throughout OECD countries is increasing steadily but the construction of new nuclear power plants has become increasingly difficult. Many utilities would like to keep existing nuclear power plants operating for as long as they can continue to function safely and economically because. extending the lifetime of nuclear power plants is a substitute to constructing new plants. Therefore, nuclear plant life management (PLIM) has been carried out in many OECD Member countries and has played a very important role in the nuclear generation field. Nuclear power plant owners seek to economically optimise the output from their plants, taking into consideration internal and external influences, as well as equipment reliability and maintenance workload. Nuclear power plant life management and extension is generally an attractive option for utilities supplying electricity because of its low marginal cost and low investment risk. PLIM has become an important issue in the context of changing business circumstances caused by regulatory reform of the electricity market. Specifically, the economic aspect of PLIM has become an important focus in the competitive electricity market. The international workshop on 'Plant Life Management in a Changing Business World' was hosted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) in co-operation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) in Washington, DC, on 26-27 June 2000. Some 50 senior utility executives and policy makers from 12 Member countries, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the European Commission (EC) attended the meeting. The objective of the workshop was to examine the status of

  1. Climate of an Earth-Like World with Changing Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Having a giant planet like Jupiter next door can really wreak havoc on your orbit! A new study examines what such a bad neighbor might mean for the long-term climate of an Earth-like planet.Influence of a Bad NeighborThe presence of a Jupiter-like giant planet in a nearby orbit can significantly affect how terrestrial planets evolve dynamically, causing elements like the planets orbital eccentricities and axial tilts to change over time. Earth is saved this inconvenience Jupiter isnt close enough to significantly influence us, and our large moon stabilizes our orbit against Jupiters tugs.Top panels: Authors simulationoutcomes for Case1, in which the planets eccentricity varies from 0 to 0.283 over 6500 years. Bottom panels: Outcomes for Case 2, in which the planets eccentricity varies from 0 to 0.066 over 4500 years. The highereccentricities reached in Case 1 causes the climate parameters to vary more widely. Click for a better look! [Way Georgakarakos 2017]Mars, on the other hand, isnt as lucky: its possible that Jupiters gravitational pull causes Marss axial tilt, for instance, to evolve through a range as large as 0 to 60 degrees on timescales of millions of years! Marss orbital eccentricity is similarly thought to vary due to Jupiters influence, and both of these factors play a major role in determining Marss climate.As exoplanet missions discover more planets many of which are Earth-like we must carefully consider which among these are most likely to be capable of sustaining life. If having a nearby neighbor like a Jupiter can tug an Earth-like world into an orbit with varying eccentricity, how does this affect the planets climate? Will the planet remain temperate? Or will it develop a runaway heating or cooling effect as it orbits, rendering it uninhabitable?Oceans and OrbitsTo examine these questions, two scientists have built the first ever 3D global climate model simulations of an Earth-like world using a fully coupled ocean (necessary for understanding

  2. New trends in accident prevention due to the changing world of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeck, R. op de; Heuverswyn, K. van; Lemkowitz, S.; Saari, J.; Sundström-Frisk, C.; Zwetsloot, G.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the world of work can give rise to new risk areas or they can change the way that occupational safety and health needs to be managed. This has implications for workplaces themselves and also for the occupational safety and health system. For this reason the 'changing world of work' has

  3. Setting the scene : About planning and a world in change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, Gert; Boelens, Luuk; de Roo, Gert; Boelens, Luuk

    2016-01-01

    Today’s world is predominantly urban. Most urban regions are located in delta regions. And delta regions face severe pressures because of their fragile environments, their delicate relationship with existing ecological habitats and coastal zones, which need protection, and the increasing constraints

  4. Complex Problem-Solving in a Changing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neubert, Jonas; Lans, T.; Mustafic, Maida; Greiff, Samuel; Ederer, Peer

    2017-01-01

    The general aim of today’s vocational and professional education is the preparation of individuals for the world of work. In this chapter, the following issues are explored: (1) current trends in cognitive skill assessment, (2) benefits of relating them to well-established approaches to learning and

  5. The changing world demography of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Hirsch, Niels Christian; Pramming, Stig Krøger

    2003-01-01

    In recent years it has been estimated that the current global prevalence of type 2 diabetes amounts to about 150 million patients. Projections suggest that by the year 2025 the number of prevalent patients in the world will reach approximately 300 million. It is assumed that the increase in the n...

  6. Widespread plant species: natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stohlgren, T. J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D. M.; Wilson, J. R. U.; Murray, B. R.; Phillips, M. L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 9 (2011), s. 1931-1944 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species distribution * Old and New World Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2011

  7. The EU's Normative Power in Changing World Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    global order: 1) what is the concept of normative power in world politics?; 2) what is an effective EU toolbox for tackling new challenges?; 3) how does the EU go beyond self-perception and rhetoric?; 4) what is the raison d'etre of the EU?; and 5) how might normative power in EU external policies lead...

  8. Critical Education for Systemic Change: A World-Systems Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper both draws on, and seeks to apply, world-systems analysis to a broad, critical education project that builds mass schooling's potential contribution to the process of world-systemic change. In short, this is done by first setting out the world-systems analysis account of the current state, and period of transition, of the capitalist…

  9. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Real-World Electronic Cigarette Use: Implications for Measurement and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cooper, PhD; Melissa B. Harrell, PhD; Cheryl L. Perry, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An understanding of the real-world use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is needed to inform surveillance efforts and future state and federal regulation. This study investigates the behavioral aspects of e-cigarette use. Methods We used qualitative methods to examine salient characteristics of e-cigarette use. The lead investigator (M.C.) conducted in-depth, semistructured individual interviews to explore patterns and behaviors associated with e-cigarette use a...

  10. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Vaissière, Bernard E; Cane, James H; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Cunningham, Saul A; Kremen, Claire; Tscharntke, Teja

    2006-01-01

    The extent of our reliance on animal pollination for world crop production for human food has not previously been evaluated and the previous estimates for countries or continents have seldom used primary data. In this review, we expand the previous estimates using novel primary data from 200 countries and found that fruit, vegetable or seed production from 87 of the leading global food crops is dependent upon animal pollination, while 28 crops do not rely upon animal pollination. However, glo...

  11. Staying True to Our PBS Roots in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Don

    2018-01-01

    The field of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) has grown and changed significantly in the past 25 years and should be expected to continue that trend for the next 25 years. These changes cannot always be predicted, but they can be managed by considering some current changes to the definition of PBS (Kincaid et al., 2016). This paper discussed how…

  12. Climate change and its effect on world food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.O.

    1974-01-01

    In February of 1972 earth-orbiting artificial satellites revealed the existence of a greatly increased area of the snow and ice cover of the north polar cap as compared to all previous years of space age observations. Some scientists believe that this may have presaged the onset of the dramatic climate anomalies of 1972 that brought far-reaching adversities to the world's peoples. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that the bad climate of 1972 may be the forerunner of a long series of less favorable agricultural crop years that lie ahead for most world societies. Thus widespread food shortages threaten just at the same time that world populations are growing to new highs. Indeed, less favorable climate may be the new global norm. The Earth may have entered a new 'little ice age'. Perhaps this future period will not be so extreme as that around 1700 AD, but it seems likely, at least, to be a cooler period resembling the hemispheric climatic regimes of the period from 1880-1920. (author)

  13. The Changing Information Needs of Users in Electronic Information Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Gashaw

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the information needs of users that are changing as a results of changes in the availability of information content in electronic form. Highlights the trend and nature of the physical form in which information content is currently being made available for users' access and use in electronic information environments. (Author/LRW)

  14. Networks of European cities in worlds of global economic and environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Derudder

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographers use a variety of economic, social, and demographic data to measure the importance of global cities and the linkages between cities. We analyze the importance and connectedness of European cities using hyperlinks, or the electronic information provided by the Google Search engine. Hyperlinks are Web sites representing information that is produced; they are especially useful in measuring the impact of contemporary crises. We use the phrases economic slowdown and global financial crisis to derive a Global Financial Score (GFS for 16 core, semiperiphery and peripheral European cities and global warming and climate change to derive a Global Environmental Score (GES. London and Paris are in the European core; Rome, Dublin, Madrid and Prague are in the semiperiphery; while Tallinn, Riga, and Belgrade are in the periphery. A strong positive relationship exists between the GES and GFS. We examine the linkages of the 16 cities to the 100 largest world cities and illustrate, with “clockgrams,” the linkages London, Brussels and Athens have with other world cities. We calculated the number of linkages each of the 16 cities had with other world cities to identify Europe’s urban cores, semiperipheries, peripheries, and deep peripheries. New York is in the core of both the economic and environmental maps. Some world cities are in the semiperiphery of one category and periphery of another. Milan, Istanbul, and Delhi are in the deep periphery for the GFS while Toronto and Athens are for the GES. Hyperlinks represent valuable databases to measure the impact of crises and regional and global urban linkages.

  15. Working for change in the Arab world. Advocacy for reproductive health: Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamand, J

    1996-01-01

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) revealed that within the Arab world there are special difficulties with regard to family planning (FP) and the status of women. There is general social opposition to women's empowerment and employment outside the home, which FP associations have to tackle. At the Cairo ICPD in 1994 the Vatican and Islamic fundamentalists formed a holy alliance against undesirable Western ideas. Eventually most Arab governments became convinced about the need for the program of action. A regional conference was also held in January 1996 on this agenda organized by the IPPF Arab World Region in Cairo to implement the program of action with the participation of 140 representatives. The question of population at the Cairo meeting was linked to economic and social development leading up to the women's conference in Beijing in 1995. At the 1996 implementation meeting the unmet need for reproductive health services was voiced along with the need for solid research in this area. FP has a vital role in social development and in combating poverty. The implementation of IPPF's Vision 2000 strategic plan also contributes to the implementation of the ICPD program of action, which deals with sex education, unsafe abortion, marginalized groups, and women's empowerment. Even Islam has come to support responsible FP for the sake of the well-being of the family. The Grand Mufti of Egypt pronounced his support for FP for health and socioeconomic reasons, for the education of girls, and for equality with men. In Arab countries the outstanding problems are early marriage, female genital mutilation, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and ignorance about reproduction. Listening to young people, funding restrictions hampering progress, and an advocacy group of prominent leaders, and the formation of an Arab parliamentarians group on FP were other high points.

  16. Economic conditions of technical changes in world civil air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna HAWLENA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world economic environment of the turn of the century produced many new challenges to civil aviation in expectation of a continued growth in the transportation of passengers and cargo. To meet this growing demand, it will be necessary to increase the fleet and to modernise infrastructure – a process hampered by finances and capacity constraints.Such constraints are especially pressing with regard to the acquisition of new types of large aircraft such as the Airbus A380 and the Boeing 787 and 747-8. Future dominance of the market is, however, difficult to predict, as this will be the outcome of a combination of uncertain parameters.

  17. Women in science 50 fearless pioneers who changed the world

    CERN Document Server

    Ignotofsky, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    A charmingly illustrated and educational book, New York Times best seller Women in Science highlights the contributions of fifty notable women to the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from the ancient to the modern world. Full of striking, singular art, this fascinating collection also contains infographics about relevant topics such as lab equipment, rates of women currently working in STEM fields, and an illustrated scientific glossary. The trailblazing women profiled include well-known figures like primatologist Jane Goodall, as well as lesser-known pioneers such as Katherine Johnson, the African-American physicist and mathematician who calculated the trajectory of the 1969 Apollo 11 mission to the moon.

  18. Implementing land use change models in the developing world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Alize

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available recently adapted land use change models (Dyna-Clue and UrbanSIM) that have been successfully adapted to simulate future land use change policies in the various metro's across South-Africa. The presentation will focus on how these technologies together...

  19. Mind games: standing by while the world ignores climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Daniel L.; Berry, Helen L.

    2015-01-01

    The mental health effects of climate change are significant and highly concerning, yet little is known about the magnitude of these effects or how best to manage them. This introduction to the thematic papers in this issue explains why climate change is an increasingly important matter for all health services. PMID:29093843

  20. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Vaissière, Bernard E; Cane, James H; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Cunningham, Saul A; Kremen, Claire; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-02-07

    The extent of our reliance on animal pollination for world crop production for human food has not previously been evaluated and the previous estimates for countries or continents have seldom used primary data. In this review, we expand the previous estimates using novel primary data from 200 countries and found that fruit, vegetable or seed production from 87 of the leading global food crops is dependent upon animal pollination, while 28 crops do not rely upon animal pollination. However, global production volumes give a contrasting perspective, since 60% of global production comes from crops that do not depend on animal pollination, 35% from crops that depend on pollinators, and 5% are unevaluated. Using all crops traded on the world market and setting aside crops that are solely passively self-pollinated, wind-pollinated or parthenocarpic, we then evaluated the level of dependence on animal-mediated pollination for crops that are directly consumed by humans. We found that pollinators are essential for 13 crops, production is highly pollinator dependent for 30, moderately for 27, slightly for 21, unimportant for 7, and is of unknown significance for the remaining 9. We further evaluated whether local and landscape-wide management for natural pollination services could help to sustain crop diversity and production. Case studies for nine crops on four continents revealed that agricultural intensification jeopardizes wild bee communities and their stabilizing effect on pollination services at the landscape scale.

  1. Perceptions of a Changing World Induce Hope and Promote Peace in Intractable Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Crisp, Richard J.; Halperin, Eran

    2015-01-01

    The importance of hope in promoting conciliatory attitudes has been asserted in the field of conflict resolution. However, little is known about conditions inducing hope, especially in intractable conflicts, where reference to the outgroup may backfire. In the current research, five studies yielded convergent support for the hypothesis that hope for peace stems from a general perception of the world as changing. In Study 1, coders observed associations between belief in a changing world, hope regarding peace, and support for concessions. Study 2 revealed the hypothesized relations using self-reported measures. Studies 3 and 4 established causality by instilling a perception of the world as changing (vs. unchanging) using narrative and drawing manipulations. Study 5 compared the changing world message with a control condition during conflict escalation. Across studies, although the specific context was not referred to, the belief in a changing world increased support for concessions through hope for peace. PMID:25713171

  2. Perceptions of a changing world induce hope and promote peace in intractable conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Crisp, Richard J; Halperin, Eran

    2015-04-01

    The importance of hope in promoting conciliatory attitudes has been asserted in the field of conflict resolution. However, little is known about conditions inducing hope, especially in intractable conflicts, where reference to the outgroup may backfire. In the current research, five studies yielded convergent support for the hypothesis that hope for peace stems from a general perception of the world as changing. In Study 1, coders observed associations between belief in a changing world, hope regarding peace, and support for concessions. Study 2 revealed the hypothesized relations using self-reported measures. Studies 3 and 4 established causality by instilling a perception of the world as changing (vs. unchanging) using narrative and drawing manipulations. Study 5 compared the changing world message with a control condition during conflict escalation. Across studies, although the specific context was not referred to, the belief in a changing world increased support for concessions through hope for peace. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Leisure in transformation: Meta-trends changing the world | Edginton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meta-trends often arise from underlying shifts in social, cultural, political, ... discussed the impact of several key meta-trends on leisure, quality of life and community ... changes and shifts; 2) social media, technology and universal connectivity; ...

  4. Adapt or disperse: understanding species persistence in a changing world.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.; Kiers, E.T.; Driessen, G.J.J.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.; Kooi, B.W.; Kuenen, F.J.A.; Liefting, M.; Verhoef, H.A.; Ellers, J.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of studies on environmental change focus on the response of single species and neglect fundamental biotic interactions, such as mutualism, competition, predation, and parasitism, which complicate patterns of species persistence. Under global warming, disruption of community interactions

  5. Climate refugia for salmon in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change threatens to create fundamental shifts in in the distributions and abundances of endothermic organisms such as cold-water salmon and trout species (salmonids). Recently published projected declines in salmonid distributions under future climates range from modest t...

  6. Book Review. Cultural Heritage in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashika Prajnya Paramita

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Edited by Karol Jan Borowiecki, Neil Forbes, and Antonella Fresa, this collection of essays was developed within the RICHES Project to address the issues surrounding cultural heritage in the era of digital technologies. The 21st century has witnessed rapid developments in digital technologies that have led to major changes in all aspects of society. This book aims to reflect the relationship between cultural heritage and these changes. Written by experts from various background, this book implements an interdisciplinary approach its observations, and provides a comprehensive view of the changes that occur in the society. In various perspectives, the collection show how cultural heritage, mainly in Europe, should be preserved through digital availability and accessibility.

  7. Nutritional physiology of wildlife in a changing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, Kathryn S.; Raubenheimer, David

    2017-01-01

    composition) and quantity (i.e. food abundance) of dietary items consumed by wildlife have, in many cases, changed. We present representative examples of the extent to which vertebrate foraging behaviour, food availability (quantity and quality) and digestive physiology have been modified due to human...... conservation. Though we find that the changes in the nutritional ecology and physiology of wildlife due to human alterations are typically negative and largely involve impacts on foraging behaviour and food availability, the extent to which these will affect the fitness of organisms and result in evolutionary...

  8. Collaborative Innovation: Creating Opportunities in a Changing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.A. van de Vrande (Vareska)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractToday’s business environment is characterised by fast and frequent change, which is often difficult to predict. As a consequence, companies need to continuously invest in the development of new business to remain competitive. However, due to the increasing complexity of the environment,

  9. Education and Diplomats: A Changing World Demands Our Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höne, Katharina E.

    2018-01-01

    Diplomacy as it is traditionally understood is changing. Diverse, non-state actors in the social sector have become influential participants in setting global goals and priorities. In education, classroom teachers, administrators, academics, and policymakers play an increasingly important diplomatic role in exchanging knowledge, building consensus…

  10. Big data and positive change in the developing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, L.; Cowls, J.; Schroeder, R.; Meyer, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the product of a workshop that brought together practitioners, researchers, and data experts to discuss how big data is becoming a resource for positive social change in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We include in our definition of big data sources such as social media

  11. The energy sector changes the face of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludrovsky, P.

    2012-01-01

    Energy systems are becoming more and more complicated every day. The growing number of wind and solar power plants is changing the structure of grids in a fundamental way. However, energy production from fossil fuels still remains of the greatest importance within the energy sector. Old and new energy sources must learn to coexist together. (Authors)

  12. A Paradigm for Learning in a World of Continuous Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Through ongoing rapid-fire changes in the nature of communications, the social, professional, and political landscapes of our time are rapidly transforming. But the prevailing paradigm in most schools and school systems is a relic of the industrial revolution. Schools and school systems must adopt a new paradigm for learning if they are to remain…

  13. Chemical engineering and chemistry : education in a changing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijenga, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Current trends in science and engineering research are analyzed, together with an inventory of changes in the field of employment and practice in industry. The resulting demands on university education of chemists and chemical engineers have been translated into a more or less continuous updating of

  14. Cruise Ships: Continuity and Change in the World System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Oyogoa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cruise ships present a useful context to study contemporary developments in globalization.  U.S.-owned cruise companies have managed to create the “ideal” context for contemporary corporations: very little government oversight of labor relations, an available pool of very cheap labor dispersed across the globe, lax environmental regulations, high profit margins, and corporate tax rates around 1%.  A typical cruise ship leaving the U.S. contains workers from 75 to 90 nationalities.  Crewmembers performing menial service work are recruited exclusively from “poor countries” in Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Crewmembers typically sign 10-month contracts stipulating 10-14 hour workdays/7 days a week without vacation or sick days. There is a striking correlation between workers’ pay/status and their countries’ position within the world system.  Staff members are usually white Westerners, while crewmembers are exclusively from the global south. On cruises the legacies of imperialism and colonialism are often the basis of workers’ racialization as appropriate servants.

  15. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  16. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Temporal constraints on predation risk assessment in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, Douglas P.; Ramasamy, Ryan A.; McCormick, Mark I.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Ferrari, Maud C.O.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat degradation takes various forms and likely represents the most significant threat to our global biodiversity. Recently, we have seen considerable attention paid to increasing global CO 2 emissions which lead to ocean acidification (OA). Other stressors, such as changing levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), also impact biodiversity but have received much less attention in the recent past. Here we examine fundamental questions about temporal aspects of risk assessment by coral reef damselfish and provide critical insights into how OA and UVR influence this assessment. Chemical cues released during a predator attack provide a rich source of information that other prey animals use to mediate their risk of predation and are the basis of the majority of trait-mediated indirect interactions in aquatic communities. However, we have surprisingly limited information about temporal aspects of risk assessment because we lack knowledge about how long chemical cues persist after they are released into the environment. Here, we showed that under ambient CO 2 conditions (∼ 385 μatm), alarm cues of ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis) did not degrade within 30 min in the absence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), but were degraded within 15 min when the CO 2 was increased to ∼ 905 μatm. In experiments that used filters to eliminate UVR, we found minimal degradation of alarm cues within 30 min, whereas under ambient UVR conditions, alarm cues were completely degraded within 15 min. Moreover, in the presence of both UVR and elevated CO 2 , alarm cues were broken down within 5 min. Our results highlight that alarm cues degrade surprisingly quickly under natural conditions and that anthropogenic changes have the potential to dramatically change rates of cue degradation in the wild. This has considerable implications for risk assessment and consequently the importance of trait-mediated indirect interactions in coral-reef communities. - Highlights: • We have limited

  18. Temporal constraints on predation risk assessment in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivers, Douglas P., E-mail: doug.chivers@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada); Ramasamy, Ryan A.; McCormick, Mark I.; Watson, Sue-Ann [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville Qld4811 (Australia); School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville Qld4811 (Australia); Siebeck, Ulrike E. [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane Qld4072 (Australia); Ferrari, Maud C.O. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, WCVM, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7W 5B4 (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    Habitat degradation takes various forms and likely represents the most significant threat to our global biodiversity. Recently, we have seen considerable attention paid to increasing global CO{sub 2} emissions which lead to ocean acidification (OA). Other stressors, such as changing levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), also impact biodiversity but have received much less attention in the recent past. Here we examine fundamental questions about temporal aspects of risk assessment by coral reef damselfish and provide critical insights into how OA and UVR influence this assessment. Chemical cues released during a predator attack provide a rich source of information that other prey animals use to mediate their risk of predation and are the basis of the majority of trait-mediated indirect interactions in aquatic communities. However, we have surprisingly limited information about temporal aspects of risk assessment because we lack knowledge about how long chemical cues persist after they are released into the environment. Here, we showed that under ambient CO{sub 2} conditions (∼ 385 μatm), alarm cues of ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis) did not degrade within 30 min in the absence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), but were degraded within 15 min when the CO{sub 2} was increased to ∼ 905 μatm. In experiments that used filters to eliminate UVR, we found minimal degradation of alarm cues within 30 min, whereas under ambient UVR conditions, alarm cues were completely degraded within 15 min. Moreover, in the presence of both UVR and elevated CO{sub 2}, alarm cues were broken down within 5 min. Our results highlight that alarm cues degrade surprisingly quickly under natural conditions and that anthropogenic changes have the potential to dramatically change rates of cue degradation in the wild. This has considerable implications for risk assessment and consequently the importance of trait-mediated indirect interactions in coral-reef communities. - Highlights:

  19. Changes of hierarchical network in local and world stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwary, Enayet Ullah; Lee, Jong Youl; Nobi, Ashadun; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-10-01

    We consider the cross-correlation coefficients of the daily returns in the local and global stock markets. We generate the minimal spanning tree (MST) using the correlation matrix. We observe that the MSTs change their structure from chain-like networks to star-like networks during periods of market uncertainty. We quantify the measure of the hierarchical network utilizing the value of the hierarchy measured by the hierarchical path. The hierarchy and betweenness centrality characterize the state of the market regarding the impact of crises. During crises, the non-financial company is established as the central node of the MST. However, before the crisis and during stable periods, the financial company is occupying the central node of the MST in the Korean and the U.S. stock markets. The changes in the network structure and the central node are good indicators of an upcoming crisis.

  20. Learning what to see in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eSchmack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is strongly shaped by expectations, but it is poorly understood how such perceptual expectations are learned in our dynamic sensory environment. Here, we applied a Bayesian framework to investigate whether perceptual expectations are continuously updated from different aspects of ongoing experience. In two experiments, human observers performed an associative learning task in which rapidly changing expectations about the appearance of ambiguous stimuli were induced. We found that perception of ambiguous stimuli was biased by both learned associations and previous perceptual outcomes. Computational modelling revealed that perception was best explained by amodel that continuously updated priors from associative learning and perceptual history and combined these priors with the current sensory information in a probabilistic manner. Our findings suggest that the construction of visual perception is a highly dynamic process that incorporates rapidly changing expectations from different sources in a manner consistent with Bayesian learning and inference.

  1. Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T. Paul

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes how the composition of the labor force changes with economic development. It considers recent trends in women's labor force participation and the type of jobs held in various sectors as national per capita income increases. The paper notes that women are more likely to work in the family or informal labor market if the labor costs to firms exceed the opportunity costs of female labor to family enterprises. Firms are at a relative disadvantage compared with families in the...

  2. Ozone Climate Penalty and Mortality in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakami, A.; Zhao, S.; Pappin, A.; Mesbah, M.

    2013-12-01

    The expected increase in ozone concentrations with temperature is referred to as the climate penalty factor (CPF). Observed ozone trends have resulted in estimations of regional CPFs in the range of 1-3 ppb/K in the Eastern US, and larger values around the globe. We use the adjoint of a regional model (CMAQ) for attributing changes in ozone mortality and attainment metrics to increased temperature levels at each location in North America during the summer of 2007. Unlike previous forward sensitivity analysis studies, we estimate how changes in temperatures at various locations influence such policy-relevant metrics. Our analysis accounts for separate temperature impact pathways through gas-phase chemistry, moisture abundance, and biogenic emissions. We find that water vapor impact, while mostly negative, is positive and large for temperature changes in urban areas. We also find that increased biogenic emissions plays an important role in the overall temperature influence. Our simulations show a wide range of spatial variability in CPFs between -0.4 and 6.2 ppb/K with largest values in urban areas. We also estimate mortality-based CPFs of up to 4 deaths/K for each grid cell, again with large localization in urban areas. This amounts to an estimated 370 deaths/K for the 3-month period of the simulation. We find that this number is almost equivalent to 5% reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions for each degree increase in temperature. We show how the CPF will change as the result progressive NOx emission controls from various anthropogenic sectors and sources at different locations. Our findings suggest that urban NOx control can be regarded as an adaptation strategy with regards to ozone air quality. Also, the strong temperature dependence in urban environments suggests that the health and attainment burden of urban heat island may be more substantial than previously thought. Spatial distribution of average adjoint-based CPFs Adjoint-based CPF and Mortality CPF

  3. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION - REFORM IT OR CHANGE IT?

    OpenAIRE

    Sterian Maria Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The failure of Doha Round is a serious step backward for the WTO and the multilateral trading system. Some analysts already discussed in their research about the round as being already closed and they propose the developing of a new program within the organization. WTO still remains a very important institution due to its proven role in encouraging states not to take protectionist measures during the recent economic crisis, but the global trade governance reform must reflect all the changes a...

  4. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION – REFORM IT OR CHANGE IT?

    OpenAIRE

    Sterian Maria Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The failure of Doha Round is a serious step backward for the WTO and the multilateral trading system. Some analysts already discussed in their research about the round as being already closed and they propose the developing of a new program within the organization. WTO still remains a very important institution due to its proven role in encouraging states not to take protectionist measures during the recent economic crisis, but the global trade governance reform must reflect all the changes a...

  5. The Seven Brothers. The changing world of petrochemical multinationals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ammelrooij, A.

    2000-01-01

    Since the eighties oil companies do not build their own drilling installations and refineries, but contract out such construction activities to engineering contractors. An overview is given of the market of the so-called Seven Brother (analogue to Seven Sisters for the oil companies) and the changes that are taking place at the moment. The Seven Brothers are Asea Brown Boveri (USA), Fluor Corp (US), Kvaerner ASA (Norway), Foster Wheeler (UK), Jacobs (USA), Morrison Knudsen (USA), and Parsons (UK)

  6. Changing World, Unchanging Accounting? Cost Systems for Hungarian Agricultural Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Musinszki

    2011-01-01

    The literature of agricultural cost accounting has defined the definition of cost centres and cost bearers, the contents of the accounts, the procedures and methods for cost accounting and unit cost calculation without any significant changes for decades now. Do the agricultural companies set up and operate their own cost allocation and unit cost calculation systems on procedures made for state owned farms and cooperatives, or do they align their cost system with the challenges of our times? ...

  7. The vital issues process: Strategic planning for a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.; Glicken, J.

    1995-05-01

    The Vital Issues process (VIp) is a strategic planning tool initially developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Office of Foreign Intelligence (OFI)* of the US Department of Energy (DOE). It was further developed and refined through its application to a variety of strategic purposes for a range of public and semipublic organizations. The VIp provides a structured mechanism for assisting organizations in accomplishing specified objectives by identifying and prioritizing a portfolio of strategic issues, programmatic areas, or responses to a specified problem. It employs day-long panel meetings in a specified format to elicit a broad range of perspectives on a particular issue in a nonconfrontational manner and to facilitate the interaction and synthesis of diverse viewpoints on a specific topic. The VIp is unique in its incorporation of two primary approaches in each panel session: a qualitative or transactional segment, which entails the synthesis of the alternatives through negotiations or discussion, and a quantitative or net benefit maximization segment, an analytical approach, which involves prioritization of the alternatives using pairwise comparisons. This combination of facilitated group discussion and quantitative ranking provides input to strategic management decisions in the form of stakeholder-defined and -prioritized items as well as information on potential barriers to the implementation of policies and programs. This is the final volume in the series Identifying Vital Issues: New Intelligence Strategies for a New World, a three-volume set that gives an accounting of the VIp as implemented for OFI. This volume provides an in-depth description of the methodology used in the VIp.

  8. Book review: Gyrfalcons and Ptarmigan in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    The Peregrine Fund has published proceedings of several conferences over the years and has become experts, and this 2 volume set is no exception. The title of the proceedings sounded especially interesting in this era of almost daily accounts in the media about climate change, its causes and its effects on the planet, including its flora and fauna. This 772-page Proceedings is loaded with useful information regarding Gyrfalcons and their prey and should be in the library of all serious raptor bibliophiles. The sponsors are to be commended for supporting the conference and for publishing the proceedings. Proceedings are available at http://www.peregrinefund.org/gyr-conf

  9. "O Brave New World": A Change in the Weather.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Haley

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "Waterfronts" becomes a powerful poetic metaphor. A point of departure and arrival in understanding arts practises. The ebb and flow between definitions of Nature and Culture. The littoral from which evolutionary transition is made. Referencing The Tempest by William Shakespeare (1564 -1616 some paintings by Turner and the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519, this presentation considers how Public Art in the context of urban and social development may start to engage the issue of Climate Change. It will also explore our relationship with water from different perspectives, as a learning process.

  10. What is Novel About Novel Ecosystems: Managing Change in an Ever-Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Amy M.; Granek, Elise F.; Duveneck, Matthew J.; Goldsmith, Kaitlin A.; Jordan, Meredith P.; Yazzie, Kimberly C.

    2015-06-01

    Influenced by natural climatic, geological, and evolutionary changes, landscapes and the ecosystems within are continuously changing. In addition to these natural pressures, anthropogenic drivers have increasingly influenced ecosystems. Whether affected by natural or anthropogenic processes, ecosystems, ecological communities, and ecosystem functioning are dynamic and can lead to "novel" or "emerging" ecosystems. Current literature identifies several definitions of these ecosystems but lacks an unambiguous definition and framework for categorizing what constitutes a novel ecosystem and for informing decisions around best management practices. Here we explore the various definitions used for novel ecosystems, present an unambiguous definition, and propose a framework for identifying the most appropriate management option. We identify and discuss three approaches for managing novel ecosystems: managing against, tolerating, and managing for these systems, and we provide real-world examples of each approach. We suggest that this framework will allow managers to make thoughtful decisions about which strategy is most appropriate for each unique situation, to determine whether the strategy is working, and to facilitate decision-making when it is time to modify the management approach.

  11. Allelopathic and Bloom-Forming Picocyanobacteria in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Śliwińska-Wilczewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Picocyanobacteria are extremely important organisms in the world’s oceans and freshwater ecosystems. They play an essential role in primary production and their domination in phytoplankton biomass is common in both oligotrophic and eutrophic waters. Their role is expected to become even more relevant with the effect of climate change. However, this group of photoautotrophic organisms still remains insufficiently recognized. Only a few works have focused in detail on the occurrence of massive blooms of picocyanobacteria, their toxicity and allelopathic activity. Filling the gap in our knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the proliferation of these organisms could provide a better understanding of aquatic environments. In this review, we gathered and described recent information about allelopathic activity of picocyanobacteria and occurrence of their massive blooms in many aquatic ecosystems. We also examined the relationships between climate change and representative picocyanobacterial genera from freshwater, brackish and marine ecosystems. This work emphasizes the importance of studying the smallest picoplanktonic fractions of cyanobacteria.

  12. On the world's ice ages and changing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eronen, M.; Olander, H.

    1990-07-01

    All known ice ages during the earth's history are reviewed. The oldest glaciation occurred around 2.3 billion years ago, followed by a series of large glaciations 950-650, 450-430 and 310-270 million years ago. Continental drift played a major role in these long-term climatic changes. The present Quaternary ice age actually began 17 million years ago, when a large ice mass grew over Antarctica. A detailed account is given of the climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary period (over 2.5 million years). Different stratigraphic records, and the relationship of climatic variations to orbital forcing are discussed. Large environmental changes took place in the course of the climate oscillations. Large ice sheets waxed and waned, global sea-levels fluctuated, forests disappeared from many regions during cold times and advanced during favourable times. The ice masses depressed the earth's crust markedly, and this then rose rapidly when the ice melted. The extent of glacial erosion is also discussed. Finally the postglacial climatic history of the earth is described and the consequences of the possible greenhouse effect are considered.(orig.)

  13. On being a scientist in a rapidly changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1996-02-01

    The practice of biological science has changed dramatically since mid-century, reshaped not only by a rapid series of landmark discoveries, but also by governmental directives, institutional policies, and public attitudes. Until 1964, the major influences were the mentor, who provided direction and indoctrination into the culture of science, and in dentistry, the newly established NIDR, which fueled the research engine with an expanding research and training program. The 1965-74 period witnessed the advent of the Institutional Review Board, an increased social involvement of biological scientists, and a recognition of the need for biological and physical safeguards in the conduct of research. The most turbulent years were 1975-89, when there was a confluence of animal rights activism and regulation, growing concerns with scientific fraud and publication malpractice, and the stresses and strains (and opportunities) resulting from the rapid expansion of the academic-industrial complex. The current period is characterized by rapid pace, high volume, and an increased depth and breadth of knowledge-a major change in scale in the conduct of science. It is an exciting time but one in which ethical issues are multiplying. Attention must be paid.

  14. Changing in tool steels wear resistance under electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginskaya, A.E.; Manin, V.N.; Makedonskij, A.V.; Mel'nikova, N.A.; Pakchanin, L.M.; Petrenko, P.V.

    1983-01-01

    The tool steels and alloys wear resistance under dry friction after electron irradiation has been studied. Electron irradiation of a wide variety of steels is shown to increase wear resistance. In this case phase composition and lattice parameters changes are observed both in matrix and carbides. The conclusion is drawn that an appreciable increase of steel wear resistance under electron irradiation can be explained both by carbide phase volume gain and changes in it's composition and the formation of carbide phase submicroscopic heterogeneities and, possibly, complexes of defects

  15. Teacher Education around the World: Changing Policies and Practices. Teacher Quality and School Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda, Ed.; Lieberman, Ann, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers are the most important single element of the education system but what does it take to create high quality teachers in today's world? Around the world, countries are struggling to understand how to change their schools to meet global demands. International comparisons have shown that schools in Finland lead the league tables, but why is…

  16. Landscapes of West Africa: A window on a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Tappan, G. Gray

    2016-01-01

    Our global ecosystem is and has always been complex, dynamic, and in constant flux. Science tells us how natural forces of enormous power have shaped and reshaped Earth’s surface, atmosphere, climate, and biota again and again since the planet’s beginnings about 4.5 billion years ago. For most of the planet’s history those environmental changes were the result of the interaction of natural processes such as geology and climate and were described on the geological time scale in epochs spanning millions of years.When humankind appeared on Earth around 200,000 years ago the influence of human activity on the environment must have been small and localized. The influence of scattered small groups of people on the global ecosystem would have been overwhelmed by the forces of natural systems (Steffen and others, 207). Human population would not grow to 50 million (about 0.7 percent of the Earth’s current population) for another 197,000 years. Population growth accelerated over the centuries that followed until the planet was adding more than that 50 million people every year. Our planet is now home to roughly 7.3 billion people and we are adding 1 million more people roughly every 4.8 days (US Census Bureau, 2011). Before 1950, no one on Earth had lived through a doubling of the human population, but now some people have experienced a tripling in their lifetime (Cohen, 2003).

  17. Forests in a water limited world under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mátyás, Csaba; Sun, Ge

    2014-01-01

    The debate on ecological and climatic benefits of planted forests at the sensitive dry edge of the closed forest belt (i.e. at the ‘xeric limits’) is still unresolved. Forests sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide, accumulate biomass, control water erosion and dust storms, reduce river sedimentation, and mitigate small floods. However, planting trees in areas previously dominated by grassland or cropland can dramatically alter the energy and water balances at multiple scales. The forest/grassland transition zone is especially vulnerable to projected drastic temperature and precipitation shifts and growing extremes due to its high ecohydrological sensitivity. We investigated some of the relevant aspects of the ecological and climatic role of forests and potential impacts of climate change at the dryland margins of the temperate-continental zone using case studies from China, the United States and SE Europe (Hungary). We found that, contrary to popular expectations, the effects of forest cover on regional climate might be limited and the influence of forestation on water resources might be negative. Planted forests generally reduce stream flow and lower groundwater table level because of higher water use than previous land cover types. Increased evaporation potential due to global warming and/or extreme drought events is likely to reduce areas that are appropriate for tree growth and forest establishment. Ecologically conscious forest management and forestation planning should be adjusted to the local, projected hydrologic and climatic conditions, and should also consider non-forest alternative land uses. (paper)

  18. Conservation of living resources in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teer, James G.

    1996-11-01

    Conservation of living resources is no longer parochial in scope; it is a global challenge. Ecological, social, political, and business interests operate in a network that reaches across seas, continents, and nations. Industries, including the electric utility industry, are diversifying in products and expanding into international markets. They soon discover that, while all nations have common goals for their peoples, conservation and environmental issues in less-developed nations have different dimensions and norms than are encountered in Western, affluent societies. In developing countries, survival is more of an issue than quality of life, and burgeoning human numbers have put tremendous pressures on resources including wildlife and its habitats. Human population, urbanization of society, changes in single-species to ecosystem and landscape levels of management, and protectionists and animal rights philosophies are influences with which conservation of resources and the environment must contend. The human condition and conservation efforts are inextricably linked. Examples to demonstrate this fact are given for Project Tiger in India, the jaguar in Latin America, and the Serengeti ecosystem in Kenya and Tanzania.

  19. Energy Transformations of Soil Organic Matter in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, A. M.; Coucheney, E.; Grice, S. M.; Ritz, K.; Harris, J.

    2011-12-01

    The role of soils in governing the terrestrial carbon balance is acknowledged as being important but remains poorly understood within the context of climate change. Soils exchange energy with their surroundings and are therefore open systems thermodynamically, but little is known how energy transformations of decomposition processes are affected by temperature. Soil organic matter and the soil biomass can be conceptualised as analogous to the 'fuel' and 'biological engine' of the earth, respectively, and are pivotal in driving the belowground carbon cycle. Thermodynamic principles of soil organic matter decomposition were evaluated by means of isothermal microcalorimetry (TAM Air, TA Instruments, Sollentuna Sweden: (i) Mineral forest soils from the Flakaliden long-term nitrogen fertilisation experiment (Sweden) were amended with a range of different substrates representing structurally simple to complex, ecologically pertinent organic matter and heat signatures were determined at temperatures between 5 and 25°C. (ii) Thermodynamic and resource-use efficiencies of the biomass were determined in arable soils which received contrasting long-term management regimes with respect to organic matter and nitrogen since 1956. The work showed that (i) structurally labile components have higher activation energy and temperature dependence than structurally more complex organic components. This is, however, in contrast to the thermodynamic argument which suggests the opposite that reactions metabolising structurally complex, aromatic components have higher temperature dependence than reactions metabolising structurally more labile components. (ii) Microbial communities exposed to long-term stress by heavy metal and low pH were less thermodynamic efficient and showed a decrease in resource-use efficiency in comparison with conventional input regimes. Differences in efficiencies were mirrored in both the phenotypic and functional profiles of the communities. We will present our

  20. Electronic strategies for information and research: cyberNephrology/cyberMedicine in the emerging world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solez, Kim; Hales, Michele; Katz, Sheila Moriber

    2005-09-01

    Communication and medicine have evolved together. Internet resources now provide an unprecedented opportunity to provide health assistance to the developing world. The International Society of Nephrology Informatics Commission and National Kidney Foundation cyberNephrology initiative (http://www.cybernephrology.org) have created e-mail discussion groups (e.g., NEPHROL, NEPHKIDS, and so forth) and online texts and web resources (e.g., the Schrier Atlas: http://www.kidneyatlas.org) that are, in many respects, ahead of other areas of medicine. On the other hand, nephrology is quite behind in its embrace of some specific communications initiatives that could benefit emerging nations: the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative program, which provides free full-text access to medical journals and books in poorer countries; the Global Health Network Supercourse, which provides specially designed online lectures for the developing world; and Internet2/Abilene and similar research networks around the world, which provide reliable, guaranteed bandwidth for high-quality Internet videoconferencing as an alternative to face-to-face lectures and meetings. The intent of many educational ventures in nephrology, particularly in the clinical practice guideline realm (National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes, and so forth), is not just to disseminate information but to change human behavior: physician practice and referral patterns, patient compliance, and so forth. Concepts from the worlds of marketing and entertainment, where the science of changing human behavior is highly evolved, can be used to create high-impact, educational offerings to promote health. They can also be highly beneficial to share Internet educational innovations and future vision across boundaries of medical specialties, which is part of the intent of the cyberMedicine joint venture (http://www.cyber-medicine.org).

  1. Slow Onsets, Abrupt Changes, and Fast Reflexes: Learning from Climate Hazards in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Adaptation is higher than ever before on the global agenda. Awareness of risks across the weather-climate continuum has increased pressure for information to support planning under changing rates and emergence of multiple hazards (e.g. drought, heat waves, floods). In recognition of this demand, the global community is developing a Global Framework for Climate Services, implementing the Sendai Framework on disaster risk reduction, and formulating climate-sensitive development and research initiatives aimed at nations and communities. The gap between conceptual feasibility and practical implementation remains immense. One of Gilbert White's many important contributions was in developing a framework for structuring adjustment decisions in the context of longer-term risks. The physical environment at a given stage of technology sets the theoretical range of choice while the practical range of choice is set by culture, capacity and institutions. These factors facilitate or impede efficient and equitable responses, with the latter being key in the underestimation of the complexities of adaptation. This presentation will focus on the scientific research, monitoring and information needed to address challenges in (1) Understanding thresholds in the relationship between physical and social changes, including those in connected systems such as water, food and energy, (2) Designing and diffusion of decision support tools and smart practices, and (3) Understanding the links between capacity-building and implementation, including the need to focus researchers and institutions on improving decision quality (not just meeting "user needs"). The author will engage the audience in a discussion of the drivers of social transitions and transformations, drawing on cases from around the world. Key questions, include "What leads to proactive collaboration and action?"; "How often should we revise our assumptions about the direction and magnitude of changes as events unfold?"; and "What

  2. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haertel, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  3. Utilization of open source electronic health record around the world: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Aminpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many projects on developing Electronic Health Record (EHR systems have been carried out in many countries. The current study was conducted to review the published data on the utilization of open source EHR systems in different countries all over the world. Using free text and keyword search techniques, six bibliographic databases were searched for related articles. The identified papers were screened and reviewed during a string of stages for the irrelevancy and validity. The findings showed that open source EHRs have been wildly used by source limited regions in all continents, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. It would create opportunities to improve national healthcare level especially in developing countries with minimal financial resources. Open source technology is a solution to overcome the problems of high-costs and inflexibility associated with the proprietary health information systems.

  4. Utilization of open source electronic health record around the world: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminpour, Farzaneh; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ahamdi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Many projects on developing Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems have been carried out in many countries. The current study was conducted to review the published data on the utilization of open source EHR systems in different countries all over the world. Using free text and keyword search techniques, six bibliographic databases were searched for related articles. The identified papers were screened and reviewed during a string of stages for the irrelevancy and validity. The findings showed that open source EHRs have been wildly used by source limited regions in all continents, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. It would create opportunities to improve national healthcare level especially in developing countries with minimal financial resources. Open source technology is a solution to overcome the problems of high-costs and inflexibility associated with the proprietary health information systems.

  5. Electronic Follow-Up of Developing World Cleft Patients: A Digital Dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tom W M; Chadha, Ambika; Rodgers, William; Mills, Caroline; Ayliffe, Peter

    2017-10-01

    To identify potential access to telemedicine follow-up of children with clefts operated on a humanitarian mission. A cross-sectional study of parents of children presenting to a humanitarian cleft lip and palate mission in a Provincial Hospital in the Philippines. A purpose designed questionnaire was used to assess access to electronic and digital resources that could be used to aid follow-up. Forty-five (N = 45) parents of children having primary cleft lip and or palate surgery participated. There were no interventions. Access to the Internet was through Parent Perceived Affordability of Internet Access and Parent Owned Devices. Thirty-one (N = 31) respondents were female. There was 93% mobile phone ownership. The mean distance traveled to the clinic was 187 km. Majority (56%) were fluent in English. Thirty-one percent accessed the Internet daily. Sixteen percent reported use of e-mail. Fifty-one percent accessed the Internet on a mobile device, and short message service use was the most affordable means of communication. Due to perceived unaffordability and low levels of access to devices with cameras and the Internet, as well as issues with privacy, we cannot recommend relying on electronic follow-up of patients in the developing world.

  6. Dawn of the electronic age electrical technologies in the shaping of the modern world 1914 to 1945

    CERN Document Server

    Nebeker, Frederik

    2009-01-01

    Much of the infrastructure of today's industrialized world arose in the period from the outbreak of World War I to the conclusion of World War II. It was during these years that the capabilities of traditional electrical engineering became ubiquitous. Even more importantly, it was during this time that a new type of electrical engineering--electronics--emerged. Because of its applications in communications, entertainment, industry, science and medicine, and the military, the electronics industry became a major part of the economy. Dawn of the Electronic Age explores how this engineering knowledge and its main applications developed in various scientific, economic, and social contexts, and explains how each was profoundly affected by electrical technologies. It takes an international perspective and a narrative approach, unfolding the story chronologically. --from publisher description.

  7. Forest health in a changing world: Effects of globalization and climate change on forest insect and pathogen impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. D. Ramsfield; Barbara Bentz; M. Faccoli; H. Jactel; E. G. Brockerhoff

    2016-01-01

    Forests and trees throughout the world are increasingly affected by factors related to global change. Expanding international trade has facilitated invasions of numerous insects and pathogens into new regions. Many of these invasions have caused substantial forest damage, economic impacts and losses of ecosystem goods and services provided by trees. Climate...

  8. Changing knowledge perspective in a changing world: The Adriatic multidisciplinary TDS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Andrea; Carniel, Sandro; Nativi, Stefano; Signell, Richard P.; Benetazzo, Alvise; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Bonaldo, Davide; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    The use and exploitation of the marine environment in recent years has been increasingly high, therefore calling for the need of a better description, monitoring and understanding of its behavior. However, marine scientists and managers often spend too much time in accessing and reformatting data instead of focusing on discovering new knowledge from the processes observed and data acquired. There is therefore the need to make more efficient our approach to data mining, especially in a world where rapid climate change imposes rapid and quick choices. In this context, it is mandatory to explore ways and possibilities to make large amounts of distributed data usable in an efficient and easy way, an effort that requires standardized data protocols, web services and standards-based tools. Following the US-IOOS approach, which has been adopted in many oceanographic and meteorological sectors, we present a CNR experience in the direction of setting up a national Italian IOOS framework (at the moment confined at the Adriatic Sea environment), using the THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) Data Server (TDS). A TDS is a middleware designed to fill the gap between data providers and data users, and provides services allowing data users to find the data sets pertaining to their scientific needs, to access, visualize and use them in an easy way, without the need of downloading files to the local workspace. In order to achieve this results, it is necessary that the data providers make their data available in a standard form that the TDS understands, and with sufficient metadata so that the data can be read and searched for in a standard way. The TDS core is a NetCDF- Java Library implementing a Common Data Model (CDM), as developed by Unidata (http://www.unidata.ucar.edu), allowing the access to "array-based" scientific data. Climate and Forecast (CF) compliant NetCDF files can be read directly with no modification, while non-compliant files can

  9. Globalisation as the Carrier of the Current Changes in the Modern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lončar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of the globalization process, meaning of the term globalization and influences that globalization has on world economy, politics and human community in general. It makes the point that globalization has negative and positive aspects, but it certainly brings big changes. The developed part of the world uses very well global conditions, in the same time playing the role of the main carrier of the globalization processes. With the development of informatics and communication technology world is becoming much smaller so that connection between two subjects in different parts of the world is made in a few minutes. Creation of economic and politic integrations is also one of the causes and consequences of globalization.

  10. Historical Development of the Changes in Approaches to Nature Conservation in Turkey and in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yeşil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, nature conservation and the notion of protected area are of vital importance for the living. Therefore, humankind started to take important steps for conservation of natural areas and preventing deterioration. Nature conservation studies dating back to old times in the world, was put in the agenda in our country after long years. Various protected area status were designated to the areas havin high resources value in our country, and these areas were put under protection by various laws. Some of this conservation status was formed based on the national legislation, and some based on the international conventions. Nowadays, promising actions are taken for sustainable use of biologic diversity and other significant natural resources. In this study; changes and developments in approaches to nature conservation in the world and in our country throughout the history were investigated, and the current situation in Turkey and in the world was revealed.

  11. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  12. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Peter L. [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Brisbane, 4111 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  13. Using electronic medical records analysis to investigate the effectiveness of lifestyle programs in real-world primary care is challenging: a case study in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linmans, Joris J; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Koppenaal, Tjarco; Spigt, Mark; Knottnerus, J André

    2012-07-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes suggests a gap between real world and controlled trial effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, but real-world investigations are rare. Electronic medical registration facilitates research on real-world effectiveness, although such investigations may require specific methodology and statistics. We investigated the effects of real-world primary care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We used medical records of patients (n=2,549) with T2DM from 10 primary health care centers. A mixed-effects regression model for repeated measurements was used to evaluate the changes in weight and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over time. There was no statistically significant change in weight (+0.07 kg, P=0.832) and HbA1c (+0.03%, P=0.657) during the observation period of 972 days. Most patients maintained their physical activity level (70%), and 54 % had an insufficient activity level. The variability in the course of weight and HbA1c was because of differences between patients and not between health care providers. Despite effective lifestyle interventions in controlled trial settings, we found that real-world primary care is only able to stabilize weight and HbA1c in patients with T2DM over time. Medical registration can be used to monitor the actual effectiveness of interventions in primary care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Theological and ethical dimensions of addressing climate change : reflections from the World Council of Churches (WCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, D.G. [World Council of Churches, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The World Council of Churches (WCC) has supported regional workshops around the world which focus on examining climate change issues from a theological and ethical perspective. The human responsibility is one dimension of the ethics of climate change and is supplemented by the fact that the problem is caused largely by rich industrialized countries, the consequences of which will be suffered in most part by the poor and politically weak developing nations and by future generations. When the WCC delivered a statement at the Kyoto Climate Conference in December 1997, they integrated these two ethical dimensions and spoke of climate change as an issue of justice. Their point of view was that as individuals and as societies, particularly in the over-developed parts of the world, we must be held responsible for the destructive impact of our actions which are leading to climate change and threatening vulnerable human communities, other species and broader ecosystems. Justice implies that we must be accountable for promises that we make to limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. The WCC has been actively involved in the climate change issue since 1988 through the education of its member churches around the world and through monitoring the inter-governmental negotiations through the UN, as well as through advocacy at national levels. In May 2000, the WCC held an international consultation to examine the issue of emissions trading from a perspective of equity. This paper included 2 appendices: Appendix A entitled Statement by the World Council of Churches to the high level segment of the third session of the Conference of the Parties (COP3) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and Appendix B entitled The atmosphere as a global commons : responsible caring and equitable sharing.

  15. 76 FR 36472 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing (Subpart I) To... proposing changes to the calculation and monitoring provisions in the Electronics Manufacturing portion... Category Examples of affected Category NAICS facilities Electronics Manufacturing......... 334111...

  16. Climate Change Draws World Attention: The 2007 Nobel Peace Award Goes to Gore and IPCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Beverly Milner; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, the Nobel Committee awarded their Peace Prize to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (a scientific intergovernmental body set up by the World Meteorological Organization and by the United Nations Environment Program) and to former Vice-President Al Gore, Jr. The committee praised the United Nations panel for creating…

  17. A network of experimental forests and ranges: Providing soil solutions for a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth. Adams

    2010-01-01

    The network of experimental forests and ranges of the USDA Forest Service represents significant opportunities to provide soil solutions to critical issues of a changing world. This network of 81 experimental forests and ranges encompasses broad geographic, biological, climatic and physical scales, and includes long-term data sets, and long-term experimental...

  18. Transportation into narrative worlds and the motivation to change health-related behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebbers, Timon; de Wit, J.B.F.; Appel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Stories are considered to be a potent means to change health-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavior because of recipients’ transportation into the narrative world. Little emphasis, however, has been given to the link between transportation and process variables that are pertinent to health

  19. Societal Changes Affecting Primary School Education after the Second World War in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksuniemi, Merja; Niemisalo, Sari

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate how changes in both foreign and domestic environments after the Second World War affected primary education and teacher training in Finland, the article presents a historical picture of the post-war reality of the school system, based on a review of sources that include laws, decrees, curricula, textbooks and previous research. The…

  20. Adapting to a Changing World--Challenges and Opportunities in Undergraduate Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Adapting to a Changing World" was commissioned by the National Science Foundation to examine the present status of undergraduate physics education, including the state of physics education research, and, most importantly, to develop a series of recommendations for improving physics education that draws from the knowledge we have about…

  1. Full Speed Ahead: Our Leadership Summit Examines the Wildly Changing World of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The face of reading is changing, and it is happening at a much faster rate than most people had imagined. Where is it all going? What factors are driving the most significant developments? And what role do librarians play in this rapidly evolving world? These are some of the key questions that stakeholders--including educators, publishers,…

  2. What Does Global Migration Network Say about Recent Changes in the World System Structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkina, Julia; Korotayev, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the structure of the international migration system has remained stable through the recent turbulent changes in the world system. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology draws on the social network analysis framework--but with some noteworthy limitations stipulated by the specifics of…

  3. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders AGENCY... Assistance Program (EAAP) and clarifying the definition of ``active shipping order.'' DATES: Effective Date... address that matter this rule amends in the payment calculation for semi-processed and reginned motes in 7...

  4. Strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2012-04-17

    Density functional theory calculations (DFT) are used to investigate the strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of biaxially strained (parallel to the (001), (110) and (111) planes) and uniaxially strained (along the [001], [110] and [111] directions) germanium (Ge). It is calculated that a moderate uniaxial strain parallel to the [111] direction can efficiently transform Ge to a direct bandgap material with a bandgap energy useful for technological applications. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander I.; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Dimoulas, Athanasios Dimoulas

    2012-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations (DFT) are used to investigate the strain-induced changes to the electronic structure of biaxially strained (parallel to the (001), (110) and (111) planes) and uniaxially strained (along the [001], [110] and [111] directions) germanium (Ge). It is calculated that a moderate uniaxial strain parallel to the [111] direction can efficiently transform Ge to a direct bandgap material with a bandgap energy useful for technological applications. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Day-to-day changes in ionospheric electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    Large day-to-day variations have been observed in the ionospheric electron content or the so-called Faraday content derived from ATS-6 measurements at Gauhati (26.15 deg N, 91.75 deg E) for the period November 1975 to July 1976. The changes occur in the form of single-day abnormality, alternate day-to-day fluctuations and long-term periodic fluctuations with a periodicity of about 45 days. In all the cases the fluctuations are as large as plus or minus 40% from the average level. These changes are not correlated with solar or magnetic activity

  7. Managing time in a changing world: Timing of avian annual cycle stages under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomotani, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    Animals need to time their seasonal activities such as breeding and migration to occur at the right time. They use cues from the environment to predict changes and organise their activities accordingly. What happens, then, when climate change interferes with this ability to make predictions? Climate

  8. The Justice Game: Augustine, Disordered Loves, and the Temptation to Change the World

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Augustine’s thought on justice offers enduring wisdom to today’s undergraduates as they grapple with the difficult questions that arise when they ponder what it means to change the world in the light of the reality of injustice in this world. By juxtaposing Augustine’s theological writings on the nature of justice and power within the earthly and heavenly cities with Augustine’s letters that demonstrate his public engagement with injustice, we learn how Augustine thought about justice and how...

  9. Reality is broken why games make us better and how they can change the world

    CERN Document Server

    McGonigal, Jane

    2011-01-01

    We are living in a world full of games. More than 31 million people in the UK are gamers. The average young person will spend 10,000 hours gaming by the age of twenty-one. The future belongs to those who play games. In this ground-breaking book, visionary game designer Jane McGonigaI challenges conventional thinking and shows that games - far from being simply escapist entertainment - have the potential not only to radically improve our own lives but to change the world.

  10. The treat of global climate change has important implications throughout the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejazi, R.

    2008-01-01

    Energy in general is essential for economic and social development, prosperity, health and security of citizens. of the other hand, world population over the last 10 years has increased by more than 12%, and now it is exactly about 6.4 billion people and it means more demand for energy. Meanwhile, global primary energy consumption has seen an increase of 20%. Energy supply has some sources and unfortunately most of them have impact on life cycle in biosphere. However, the developed countries, that are only 16% in the population in 2000, consume the energy of 80%. This article deals with the threat of global climate change and its implications throughout the world

  11. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Riedy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

  12. Changing Words: Time and Space in Electronic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Gennaro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Printed literature and electronic literature, especially hypertexts, bring into play diverse issues of time and space. When approaching them, we should use different critical frameworks, at least in one respect: the analysis of a hypertext cannot forget considerations about time and space in the act of reading – or performing – the text. Hypertexts generate many different possible readings thanks to the changing and shifting links which move in hyperspace. Therefore, if in considering these issues in electronic literature we can obviously apply all the critical categories we use with printed works, here we cannot avoid considering the time and the space that are not “inside” the text but “outside” the text. This essay tries to explain the relationship between these external and internal time-space issues in electronic literature, how they interlink and mutually change, and how the act of reading both modifies and is modified by them. In particular, we will consider the web-based poetry When the Sea Stands Still (1997, by John Cayley and Yang Lian, and Rice (1998, by the artist known as Geniwate, basing the analysis on the studies by Espen Aarseth, Wolfgang Iser, Frank Kermode, Ted Nelson, and Edward Said.

  13. Detecting aroma changes of local flavored green tea (Camellia sinensis) using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralisnawati, D.; Sukartiko, A. C.; Suryandono, A.; Triyana, K.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is currently the sixth largest tea producer in the world. However, consumption of the product in the country was considered low. Besides tea, the country also has various local flavor ingredients that are potential to be developed. The addition of local flavored ingredients such as ginger, lemon grass, and lime leaves on green tea products is gaining acceptance from consumers and producers. The aroma of local flavored green tea was suspected to changes during storage, while its sensory testing has some limitations. Therefore, the study aimed to detect aroma changes of local flavors added in green tea using electronic nose (e-nose), an instrument developed to mimic the function of the human nose. The test was performed on a four-gram sample. The data was collected with 120 seconds of sensing time and 60 seconds of blowing time. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to find out the aroma changes of local flavored green tea during storage. We observed that electronic nose could detect aroma changes of ginger flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 with variance percentage 99.6%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lemon grass flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.3%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lime leaves flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.4%.

  14. "I will change the world": The Intersection of Social Change and Male College Athletes' Leadership Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Rhema D; Harrison, C Keith; Lawrence, S Malia; Eyanson, Jeff; McArdle, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Historically, men have been characterized as task-oriented leaders who are motivated by desires for autonomy, wealth, and power (17, 33). However, these "masculine" views of leadership might not accurately capture the leadership motivations of Millennial males as the views were developed in previous generations (4). Given the commitment of many Millennials towards socially responsible attitudes and behaviors (18, 25), we utilized a qualitative research design to examine the influence of social change on the leadership motivations of Millennial male intercollegiate athletes. In doing so, we found participants were motivated to lead in order to affect social change within their communities and within society. Our findings indicate a new perspective, one which includes a commitment to social change, is potentially needed when discussing "masculine" views of leadership.

  15. Energy, world should not chose nuclear energy to fight against climatic change. Nuclear and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, S.

    2007-06-01

    This document proposes an abstract of the conclusions of an expert group, the Oxford Research Group, which criticizes the today boost in favor of the electricity from nuclear energy. They explain that the nuclear energy should not be a solution for the fight against the climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  16. Detecting changes in real-world objects: The relationship between visual long-term memory and change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude; Alvarez, George A

    2009-01-01

    A large body of literature has shown that observers often fail to notice significant changes in visual scenes, even when these changes happen right in front of their eyes. For instance, people often fail to notice if their conversation partner is switched to another person, or if large background objects suddenly disappear.1,2 These 'change blindness' studies have led to the inference that the amount of information we remember about each item in a visual scene may be quite low.1 However, in recent work we have demonstrated that long-term memory is capable of storing a massive number of visual objects with significant detail about each item.3 In the present paper we attempt to reconcile these findings by demonstrating that observers do not experience 'change blindness' with the real world objects used in our previous experiment if they are given sufficient time to encode each item. The results reported here suggest that one of the major causes of change blindness for real-world objects is a lack of encoding time or attention to each object (see also refs. 4 and 5).

  17. Tiny and Hidden but Changing Your World: The Importance of Soil Microbes to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, N.; Neumann, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    When most people think about global climate change they think about massive power plants billowing smoke and expansive glaciers melting to nothingness. What the public often overlooks is how natural processes invisible to the naked eye can be changed by the climate, and the fact that the natural response to those changes can further alter the climate. Scientists call these reactions "feedback cycles", and understanding them is crucial to predicting the true impact of human activities. In our research, we study one particular feedback cycle: the effect of increased plant productivity on methane emissions from wetlands. Globally, wetlands account for about a third of annual emissions of methane, the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. This heat-trapping gas is generated in the soil of wetlands by microscopic organisms that consume, among other things, proteins and sugars released by the roots of plants. As the atmosphere becomes warmer and richer in carbon dioxide, these plants will grow larger and faster, releasing more of this microbe food into the soil. Our current research seeks to understand how that will affect the microbial ecosystem, and through it the emissions of methane gas.

  18. Serious Simulation Role-Playing Games for Transformative Climate Change Education: "World Climate" and "Future Climate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.; Jones, A.; Merhi, H.; Hunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, its mitigation, and adaption to its impacts are among the greatest challenges of our times. Despite the importance of societal decisions in determining climate change outcomes, flawed mental models about climate change remain widespread, are often deeply entrenched, and present significant barriers to understanding and decision-making around climate change. Here, we describe two simulation role-playing games that combine active, affective, and analytical learning to enable shifts of deeply held conceptions about climate change. The games, World Climate and Future Climate, use a state-of-the-art decision support simulation, C-ROADS (Climate Rapid Overview and Decision Support) to provide users with immediate feedback on the outcomes of their mitigation strategies at the national level, including global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and concentrations, mean temperature changes, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. C-ROADS outcomes are consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMS), such as those used by the IPCC, but runs in less than one second on ordinary laptops, providing immediate feedback to participants on the consequences of their proposed policies. Both World Climate and Future Climate role-playing games provide immersive, situated learning experiences that motivate active engagement with climate science and policy. In World Climate, participants play the role of United Nations climate treaty negotiators. Participant emissions reductions proposals are continually assessed through interactive exploration of the best available science through C-ROADS. Future Climate focuses on time delays in the climate and energy systems. Participants play the roles of three generations: today's policymakers, today's youth, and 'just born.' The game unfolds in three rounds 25 simulated years apart. In the first round, only today's policymakers make decisions; In the next round, the young become the policymakers and inherit the

  19. Fish in the desert: behaviour, genes, and persistence in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    Mossop, Krystina

    2017-01-01

    Organisms inhabit a variable world. Indeed, the spectacular variation exhibited by natural environments has long captured the attention of biologists, and raises a multitude of questions about how individuals and populations persist when their habitats vary or change. In this thesis, I have used an overarching conceptual framework of different scales of variation – both spatial and temporal – to guide three research foci (connectivity, refugia, and conservation) aimed at better understanding ...

  20. Perspective: Electronic systems of knowledge in the world of virtual microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Terrence; Farah, Camile S

    2009-09-01

    Across a broad range of medical disciplines, learning how to use an optical or light microscope has been a mandatory inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. The development of virtual microscopy (VM) technology during the past 10 years has called into question the use of the optical microscope in educational contexts. VM allows slide specimens to be digitized, which, in turn, allows the computer to mimic the workings of the light microscope. This move from analog technology (the light microscope) to digital technology (the computer as microscope) is part of the many significant changes going on in education, a singular manifestation of the broader move from print-literate traditions of knowledge (requiring literacy) to an electronics-literate, or "electrate," mode (requiring "electracy"). VM is here used as an exemplar of this broad transition from literacy to electracy, some components of which include data deluge, a multimodal structure, and modularity. Understandably, this transition is important to clarify educationally, especially in a global context mediated via digital means. A related aspect of these educational changes is the move from teacher-directed learning to student-centered learning, or "user-led education," which points to a redefinition of "pedagogy" as "andragogy." The dissemination of the specific value of VM, then, is critical to both learners and teachers and to a more coherent understanding of electracy. A practical consequence of this clarity might be a better application of this knowledge in the evolving fields of computer simulation and telemedicine, areas in which today's medical students will need future expertise.

  1. Imperial Medicine in a Changing World: The Fourth International Congresses on Tropical Medicine and Malaria, 1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The close connections between colonialism and tropical medicine have been widely discussed by historians over the last fifty years. However, few authors consider the relationship between tropical medicine and European and North American imperialism in the immediate post-World War II period. This article examines the Fourth International Congresses on Tropical Medicine and Malaria, held jointly in Washington in 1948. Using the research presented during the conference, it questions to what degree the specialisation had changed in the postwar period. It argues that although some changes are discernable, imperial traditions and relationships remained firmly embedded within the tropical medicine of the congress.

  2. Co-benefits of addressing climate change can motivate action around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Paul G.; Milfont, Taciano L.; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Bilewicz, Michał; Doron, Guy; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B.; Gouveia, Valdiney V.; Guan, Yanjun; Johansson, Lars-Olof; Pasquali, Carlota; Corral-Verdugo, Victor; Aragones, Juan Ignacio; Utsugi, Akira; Demarque, Christophe; Otto, Siegmar; Park, Joonha; Soland, Martin; Steg, Linda; González, Roberto; Lebedeva, Nadezhda; Madsen, Ole Jacob; Wagner, Claire; Akotia, Charity S.; Kurz, Tim; Saiz, José L.; Schultz, P. Wesley; Einarsdóttir, Gró; Saviolidis, Nina M.

    2016-02-01

    Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles, and climate change is slipping in public importance in many countries. Here we investigate a different approach, identifying whether potential co-benefits of addressing climate change could motivate pro-environmental behaviour around the world for both those convinced and unconvinced that climate change is real. We describe an integrated framework for assessing beliefs about co-benefits, distinguishing social conditions (for example, economic development, reduced pollution or disease) and community character (for example, benevolence, competence). Data from all inhabited continents (24 countries; 6,196 participants) showed that two co-benefit types, Development (economic and scientific advancement) and Benevolence (a more moral and caring community), motivated public, private and financial actions to address climate change to a similar degree as believing climate change is important. Critically, relationships were similar for both convinced and unconvinced participants, showing that co-benefits can motivate action across ideological divides. These relationships were also independent of perceived climate change importance, and could not be explained by political ideology, age, or gender. Communicating co-benefits could motivate action on climate change where traditional approaches have stalled.

  3. Older Adults’ Current and Potential Uses of Information Technologies in a Changing World: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hall, Amanda K.; Thielke, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Technologies have become a major force in people’s lives. They change how people interact with the environment, even as the environment changes. We propose that technology use in the setting of changing environments is motivated by essential needs and tensions experienced by the individual. We apply three developmental and behavioral theories (Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model) to explain technology-related behaviors among older adults. We consider how technology use has addressed and can address major ecological changes, in three areas: health promotion, natural disasters, and disparities. We propose that considering these theories can help researchers and developers ensure that technologies will help promote a healthier world for older adults. PMID:26215298

  4. 76 FR 59542 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Changes to Provisions for Electronics Manufacturing To Provide... regulation to amend the calculation and monitoring provisions in the Electronics Manufacturing portion of the... Electronics Manufacturing 334111 Microcomputer manufacturing facilities. 334413 Semiconductor, photovoltaic...

  5. Noah’s Ark or World Wild Web? Cultural Perspectives in Global Scenario Studies and Their Function for Biodiversity Conservation in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carijn Beumer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenarios and their assumptions on biodiversity conservation, using a framework based on the cultural theory (CT perspectives. We explored an adaptation of the CT typology and the significance of some underrepresented worldviews for discussions on conservation in a changing world. The evaluation of the assumptions on biodiversity conservation in the scenario studies and storylines adds to our understanding of the socio-cultural dimensions of biodiversity loss in a changing world. It contributes to an understanding of the worldviews underlying the complex debates on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Making such assumptions and world views explicit will help policymakers and conservationists discuss the diversity of conservation strategies in the face of uncertainty.

  6. Human Development report 2007/2008 - Fighting climate change: human solidarity in a divided world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is the defining human development challenge of the 21. Century. Failure to respond to that challenge will stall and then reverse international efforts to reduce poverty. The poorest countries and most vulnerable citizens will suffer the earliest and most damaging setbacks, even though they have contributed least to the problem. Looking to the future, no country - however wealthy or powerful - will be immune to the impact of global warming. The Human Development Report 2007/2008 shows that climate change is not just a future scenario. Increased exposure to droughts, floods and storms is already destroying opportunity and reinforcing inequality. Meanwhile, there is now overwhelming scientific evidence that the world is moving towards the point at which irreversible ecological catastrophe becomes unavoidable. Business-as-usual climate change points in a clear direction: unprecedented reversal in human development in our lifetime, and acute risks for our children and their grandchildren. There is a window of opportunity for avoiding the most damaging climate change impacts, but that window is closing: the world has less than a decade to change course. Actions taken - or not taken - in the years ahead will have a profound bearing on the future course of human development. The world lacks neither the financial resources nor the technological capabilities to act. What is missing is a sense of urgency, human solidarity and collective interest. As the Human Development Report 2007/2008 argues, climate change poses challenges at many levels. In a divided but ecologically interdependent world, it challenges all people to reflect upon how we manage the environment of the one thing that we share in common: planet Earth. It challenges us to reflect on social justice and human rights across countries and generations. It challenges political leaders and people in rich nations to acknowledge their historic responsibility for the problem, and to initiate deep and

  7. Health risks of climate change in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-09-01

    Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.

  8. Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Klasnja, Predrag; Riley, William T; Buman, Matthew P; Huberty, Jennifer; Rivera, Daniel E; Martin, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is important for behavioral interventions but there is debate on how best to support real-world behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to define products and a preliminary process for efficiently and adaptively creating and curating a knowledge base for behavior change for real-world implementation. We look to evidence-based practice suggestions and draw parallels to software development. We argue to target three products: (1) the smallest, meaningful, self-contained, and repurposable behavior change modules of an intervention; (2) "computational models" that define the interaction between modules, individuals, and context; and (3) "personalization" algorithms, which are decision rules for intervention adaptation. The "agile science" process includes a generation phase whereby contender operational definitions and constructs of the three products are created and assessed for feasibility and an evaluation phase, whereby effect size estimates/casual inferences are created. The process emphasizes early-and-often sharing. If correct, agile science could enable a more robust knowledge base for behavior change.

  9. Reembedding Lean: The Japanese Cultural and Religious Context of a World Changing Management Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrock, Christian

    2015-01-01

    James Womack, Daniel Jones, and Daniel Roos rhetorically positioned the management concept “lean” for the business world in the early 1990s, claiming that lean would change the world for the better. In this article, I consider the management concept “lean,” its relation to Japanese history, culture......, Jones, and Ross that lean can be studied and implemented without regard to the context, I show how practices and attitudes considered central to lean have a long-standing history in Japan. They can be traced back to the Tokugawa period (1600–1868) and were salient in the trading houses of early modern...... Japan, in turn heavily inspired by Japanese religious thinking. Research in management fashion suggests that early success case discourse leads to disappointment and abandonment of management concepts later in their life course. Hence, I suggest that the claims of context independence ultimately have...

  10. The Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014: Practicing 'Citizen-Science' in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwill, C. J.; Turney, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Government funding is the cornerstone of modern science. But with declining investment in science across most of the Western World, a major challenge for society is where best to place what little resource we have. Which research questions should have the greatest priority? Nowhere are these issues more pressing than in the Antarctic, where bases have and continue to play host to 'big-science', multi-year programmes of research, locking up logistical support and costs. But in a warming world, the areas with the greatest effects of climate change aren't always near government research stations. With this in mind, in 2012 a plan was formed to visit Commonwealth Bay, a remote area off the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where in 2010, an iceberg the size of Rhode Island, known as B09B, dramatically knocked a 60-mile long tongue of ice off the Mertz Glacier into the Southern Ocean, setting off a cascade of change. Inspired by the expeditions of the past, we advertised berths for sale to take citizen scientists south with us, harnessing their interest, experience and investment. People responded far and wide. We were oversubscribed, and the Australasian Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 was born. With the Russian-owned MV Akademik Shokalskiy as the expedition vessel, we set out south from the New Zealand port of Bluff in late November 2013. During our journey south and on the ice we undertook a number of scientific firsts for the region actively engaging the volunteer scientists on board in projects ranging from oceanography, biology, ecology, geology and glaciaology. The expedition demostrated how private funding could support targeted programmes of research and communicate it to the wider world. Small-science research can capture the public's imagination and also reap real scientific outputs. Although it is a funding model developed in the Antarctic a hundred years ago, the beauty is it can applied anywhere in the world.

  11. Changes in mitochondrial electron transport chain activity during insect metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, M E

    2007-02-01

    The midgut of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) is a highly aerobic tissue that is destroyed by programmed cell death during larval-pupal metamorphosis. The death of the epithelium begins after commitment to pupation, and the oxygen consumption of isolated midgut mitochondria decreases soon after commitment. To assess the role of the electron transport chain in this decline in mitochondrial function, the maximal activities of complexes I-IV of the respiratory chain were measured in isolated midgut mitochondria. Whereas there were no developmental changes in the activity of complex I or III, activities of complexes II and IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] were higher in mitochondria from precommitment than postcommitment larvae. This finding is consistent with a higher rate of succinate oxidation in mitochondria isolated from precommitment larvae and reveals that the metamorphic decline in mitochondrial respiration is due to the targeted destruction or inactivation of specific sites within the mitochondria, rather than the indiscriminate destruction of the organelles. The COX turnover number (e- x s(-1) x cytochrome aa3(-1)) was greater for the enzyme from precommitment than postcommitment larvae, indicating a change in the enzyme structure and/or its lipid environment during the early stages of metamorphosis. The turnover number of COX in the intact mitochondria (in organello COX) was also lower in postcommitment larvae. In addition to changes in the protein or membrane phospholipids, the metamorphic decline in this rate constant may be a result of the observed loss of endogenous cytochrome c.

  12. What Change Can The New Developments In Energy Sector Bring Into the World`s Energypolitical and Geopolitical Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments bring US to a leading natural gas and oil producer position. The attempts in last 20 years to bring new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies together have developed a success in shale gas and oil production in US; the production volumes has reached to a position to redefine the market. Last estimations are bringing more information about the shale capacities of the major basins of the world. However, the estimates are based on a wide range of assumptions and consequently their results vary in a large scale. In any case, these developments have crucial economic, political and geopolitical consequences on the energy market, petroleum producer and consumer countries and regions. Despite the wide range of ambiguity of the estimated size of the resources, the estimations show US and North America has one of the biggest potential, already turning technology into the giant production numbers. Some of the estimations allege so big numbers can even mean to a new world order. The asymmetric nature of the potential, can also be said, increases some of the expected impacts too. In this study, basically, we want to supply an initial solid and economical evaluation to this ambiguity. We are trying to shape a frame for the new energy potential and to put it in a place in the current practice of the world. Secondly, in this context, we are underlying here some of the possible economic and geopolitical consequences each of which can constitute a subject of deeper study.

  13. The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) as a danger for the world of electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.

    1984-01-01

    After discussing the characteristics and formation of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse, the author considers the effects such a pulse would have on various types of electronic systems. Finally he discusses what protection there is against such pulses. (Auth.)

  14. Measuring and tracking the flow of climate change adaptation aid to the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D.; Kandlikar, Milind; Webber, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The developed world has pledged to mobilize at least US 100 billion per year of ‘new’ and ‘additional’ funds by 2020 to help the developing world respond to climate change. Tracking this finance is particularly problematic for climate change adaptation, as there is no clear definition of what separates adaptation aid from standard development aid. Here we use a historical database of overseas development assistance projects to test the effect of different accounting assumptions on the delivery of adaptation finance to the developing countries of Oceania, using machine algorithms developed from a manual pilot study. The results show that explicit adaptation finance grew to 3%-4% of all development aid to Oceania by the 2008-2012 period, but that total adaptation finance could be as high as 37% of all aid, depending on potentially politically motivated assumptions about what counts as adaptation. There was also an uneven distribution of adaptation aid between countries facing similar challenges like Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The analysis indicates that data allowing individual projects to be weighted by their climate change relevance is needed. A robust and mandatory metadata system for all aid projects would allow multilateral aid agencies and independent third parties to perform their own analyses using different assumptions and definitions, and serve as a key check on international climate aid promises.

  15. Strategies for addressing climate change: policy perspectives from around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Sathaye, J.A.; Craig, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is intrinsically global. Accordingly, effective responses require global coordination. While limited policies have been adopted, notably for phasing out chlorofluorocarbons, there is no clear consensus as to what to do about other greenhouse gases. In this paper, we survey attitudes and policy responses among the nations of the world. Public opinion surveys are consistent in showing that considerable sensitivity to environmental issues exists virtually everywhere. On the other hand, there is acute awareness that other issues, especially economic development, can conflict with global climate-change mitigation goals. In such a state of uncertainty there is a strong argument to be made for implementing policies which are good ideas independent of greenhouse-gas considerations. There is also good reason to expand research. What is feasible depends strongly on present and changing attitudes of the citizens of the world, and of their governments. It is thus critical to follow closely the evolution of attitudes. The kind of work summarized in this paper needs to be updated on a continuing basis, and the results made available routinely to the global policy community. We conclude our review with several recommendations for research designed specifically to reduce uncertainty about costs and institutional issues relating to responses to global climate change. (author)

  16. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegh-Guldberg, O. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Sea temperatures in many tropical regions have increased by almost 1{degree}C over the past 100 years, and are currently increasing at about 1-2{degree}C per century. Mass coral bleaching has occurred in association with episodes of elevated sea temperatures over the past 20 years and involves the loss of the zooxanthellae following chronic photoinhibition. Mass bleaching has resulted in significant losses of live coral in many parts of the world. This paper considers the biochemical, physiological and ecological perspectives of coral bleaching. It also uses the outputs of four runs from three models of global climate change which simulate changes in sea temperature and hence how the frequency and intensity of bleaching events will change over the next 100 years. The results suggest that the thermal tolerances of reef-building corals are likely to be exceeded every year within the next few decades. Events as severe as the 1998 event, the worst on record, are likely to become commonplace within 20 years. Most information suggests that the capacity for acclimation by corals has already been exceeded, and that adaptation will be too slow to avert a decline in the quality of the world's reefs.

  17. Dr. Bertlmann's socks. How quantum physics changes our picture of ther world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malin, S.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum mechanics, which has together with relativity theory revolutionized physics, is for many people always yet a book with seven seals. Too difficult, too strange, too far? Far from the mark. Shimon Malin launches his reader by a pedagogical trick on a knowledge-rich discovery journey. Two fictive astronauts, The intelligent Julie and the lightly stupid Peter discuss with the real author the progress of the book. Thereby they arrive farly beyond pure natural science at the philosophical question, which means the paradigam change in physics for our picture of the world

  18. Wiki management a revolutionary new model for a rapidly changing and collaborative world

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Rod

    2013-01-01

    We now live in a "wiki" world where mass collaboration is not only possible-it's often the best solution. Conventional management thought assumes that command-and-control is the most effective way to organize the efforts of large numbers of people, but rapid change and increasing complexity have rendered that model obsolete. As a result, most managers today lack the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in an age when networks are proving smarter and faster than hierarchies. Designing organizations for mass collaboration demands a new and very different model-wiki management.

  19. Consideration on non-proliferation regime meeting in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents some proposals for improvement of non-proliferation regime including safeguards structures with historical changes of international regime. Current non-proliferation regime was established under the circumstances of Cold War, and it's structure and measures were influenced by the situation of these time. Although, a couple of years have passed from end of Cold War, new world order has not established yet. Therefore, it is expected that the current regime could be improved in accordance with new world order. Generally speaking, it could be welcomed that the current regime has got some successes from two points of views, namely no new nuclear weapon states have emerged and after the establishment of NPT and all nuclear weapon state is joined NPT finally. However, it is the authors' concern that some gray countries, such as India, Pakistan and Israel, have not joined the NPT yet and cases of Iraqi and DPRK have occurred. After reviewing of such new situation, some proposals will be presented in order to strengthen the nonproliferation regime to meet current world conditions

  20. Impacts of climate change on living aquatic resources of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flittner, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Anthropogenic forced warming of the Earth due to the greenhouse effect could have profound impacts on the world's living aquatic resources. An extensive review is provided of literature concerning such impacts, including physical changes in the ocean and coastal zone, biological changes in coastal wetlands and estuaries, effects of temperature rises and changes in ice cover on marine species, physical and biological impacts on inland waters, and impacts on fisheries. The principal effects would be caused by the increases in temperature and sea-level rise, but changes in precipitation would also be important. Suitable habitats would generally shift poleward and inland. Species would likely shift in abundances and distribution, thus affecting fisheries. It is likely that global warming will produce collapses of some fisheries and expansions of others. The likelihood of collapse may be aggravated by inadequate management due to insufficient authority, unwillingness to act, or lack of knowledge. Options available for reducing the impact of these changes are discussed, along with research needed to help prepare for climate change. 111 refs

  1. Major Aspects of Transformations of International Companies in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Yurievna Konina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization and demographic changes as well rapidly changing technologies are the most important factors of the firm's environment. The rapid development of information technology radically changes the very essence of the creation of new value. The pace of technological change and innovations increases. In the most advanced sectors of global economy the knowledge is a key resource. The world economy has not finally recovered after the crisis of 2008-2009. The global economy his becoming more multicentre and the vector of economic power is shifting to China and India. The main actors and the anchor of today global economy are leading international companies (transnational corporations- TNCs. Several thousands of TNCs together with their value chain dominate the global economy. The economic power allows the largest TNCs significantly push the boundaries of the company. Globalization has changed external networks of TNCs, their corporate governance, corporate ownership as well transfer pricing schemes as well relations between the headquarter and its subsidiaries and affiliates. A remarkable feature of TNCs recent FDI flows is not Greenfield investment but mergers and acquisitions. Key features of TNC activities are defined by industry. A growing number of TNCs are changing their strategic activities, basing on the latest technology trends. The most important aspects of TNCs activities are linked to innovation, financial operations, advanced management technique, increase in intangible assets. Innovation activity of TNCs is shifting to Asia.

  2. Electronic transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckas, Jennifer Maria

    2012-09-14

    Phase change materials combine a pronounced contrast in resistivity and reflectivity between their disordered amorphous and ordered crystalline state with very fast crystallization kinetics. Due to this exceptional combination of properties phase-change materials find broad application in non-volatile optical memories such as CD, DVD or Bluray Disc. Furthermore, this class of materials demonstrates remarkable electrical transport phenomena in their disordered state, which have shown to be crucial for their application in electronic storage devices. The threshold switching phenomenon denotes the sudden decrease in resistivity beyond a critical electrical threshold field. The threshold switching phenomenon facilitates the phase transitions at practical small voltages. Below this threshold the amorphous state resistivity is thermally activated and is observed to increase with time. This effect known as resistance drift seriously hampers the development of multi-level storage devices. Hence, understanding the physical origins of threshold switching and resistance drift phenomena is crucial to improve non-volatile phase-change memories. Even though both phenomena are often attributed to localized defect states in the band gap, the defect state density in amorphous phase-change materials has remained poorly studied. Starting from a brief introduction of the physics of phase-change materials this thesis summarizes the most important models behind electrical switching and resistance drift with the aim to discuss the role of localized defect states. The centerpiece of this thesis is the investigation of defects state densities in different amorphous phase-change materials and electrical switching chalcogenides. On the basis of Modulated Photo Current (MPC) Experiments and Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy, a sophisticated band model for the disordered phase of the binary phase-change alloy GeTe has been developed. By this direct experimental approach the band-model for a

  3. Electronic transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckas, Jennifer Maria

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials combine a pronounced contrast in resistivity and reflectivity between their disordered amorphous and ordered crystalline state with very fast crystallization kinetics. Due to this exceptional combination of properties phase-change materials find broad application in non-volatile optical memories such as CD, DVD or Bluray Disc. Furthermore, this class of materials demonstrates remarkable electrical transport phenomena in their disordered state, which have shown to be crucial for their application in electronic storage devices. The threshold switching phenomenon denotes the sudden decrease in resistivity beyond a critical electrical threshold field. The threshold switching phenomenon facilitates the phase transitions at practical small voltages. Below this threshold the amorphous state resistivity is thermally activated and is observed to increase with time. This effect known as resistance drift seriously hampers the development of multi-level storage devices. Hence, understanding the physical origins of threshold switching and resistance drift phenomena is crucial to improve non-volatile phase-change memories. Even though both phenomena are often attributed to localized defect states in the band gap, the defect state density in amorphous phase-change materials has remained poorly studied. Starting from a brief introduction of the physics of phase-change materials this thesis summarizes the most important models behind electrical switching and resistance drift with the aim to discuss the role of localized defect states. The centerpiece of this thesis is the investigation of defects state densities in different amorphous phase-change materials and electrical switching chalcogenides. On the basis of Modulated Photo Current (MPC) Experiments and Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy, a sophisticated band model for the disordered phase of the binary phase-change alloy GeTe has been developed. By this direct experimental approach the band-model for a

  4. Introduction: The provision of animal health services in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, C

    2004-04-01

    In the future, animal health services in developing countries will need to operate in a continuously changing policy, institutional and commercial environment. Firstly, the changing policies and priorities of national policy-makers regarding public and private sector roles, reinforced in Africa by the donors, have reduced funding and support for the large number of tasks that animal health services have traditionally performed, and there is continuing pressure from policy-makers to focus on what the public sector can do best. Secondly, poverty reduction has become one of the main criteria guiding the allocation of official development assistance, which has major implications for the main target clientele of veterinary services. Thirdly, population growth, increasing income and urbanisation are causing a marked increase in demand for livestock products in the developing world. As a result, the entire livestock commodity chain is undergoing major structural changes, which has significant implications for the definition and control of food safety standards. Fourthly, globalisation, and increasing trade and travel have greatly increased the risk of disease transmission between different countries and continents. Veterinary institutions in the developing world need to adapt to these challenges. They will have to be able to focus on the essential public sector roles. At the same time they must deliver those essential services to the poor, and provide the policy framework to ensure that the inevitable structural changes in the commodity chain take place in an equitable and sustainable fashion, with an acceptable level of health risk for the consumer. According to the weight given to these different objectives, changes in the institutional set-up need to be considered. This issue of the Scientific and Technical Review addresses these challenges. It begins by reviewing the basic economic characteristics underlying the provision of animal health services, and then examines

  5. Developing Changes in Our Reading of the World: A Pedagogical Proposal from Participative Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Trovato-Apollaro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research conducted with the group Women of Theater from Alajuelita. The research intended to answer the question of how to develop changes in our reading of the world. The goal of our study was the co-researchers’ raising awareness process leading them, from themselves, and by means of the abovementioned group, to read, interpret and reconstruct the environment in order to yield transformations in their lives and community. Through reflection, the process was investigated on the basis of the pedagogical practices of Augusto Boal´s Theater of Oppressed (Boal, 1980, as they were applied at the theater workshop together with the group of Women of Theather, at the library of the Educative Center Los Pinos in Alajuelita. The main elements of the implemented methodology respond to the Participative Action Research (PAR, where the dialectical participative relationship and the collective discussion make it possible the creation of learning. We used audio recordings as data collection tools, which were later systematized for their analysis. The paradigmatic position assumed was inspired by an approach related to the concept of complexity. This concept proposes a holistic view of reality, life, and, so, of pedagogy. According to such a view, we all are one, and the multiplicity is interconnected with each one of its parts, in continuous entropy. Under this approach, where the world is a system of systems interconnected among themselves, the main finding was to perceive pedagogy as an instrument for humanization, a magical object capable of valuing diversity and transforming our thoughts, life styles and values, and, in consequence, our reading of the world. We considered that such an important finding might help to develop changes in human beings and might inspire us to assume an ecological perspective towards relationships. Such a perspective might give rise to deep transformations in our social, political and

  6. Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie E. Roos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or IAT revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or ALPS and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

  7. Men in family planning: changing the world one life at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, J

    1992-01-01

    While women created the family planning (FP) movement, men have also been involved since its inception (albeit in a minor way). Today men must redefine masculinity in order to become more effective as FP providers and clients. While women have carved out newly self-sufficient identities, men have had to search for new identities which appropriately respond to changing gender relations. The Planned Parenthood of Central and Northern Arizona has 12 males on a staff of 130. The male FP providers have an opportunity to redefine gender relations, masculinity, and reproductive responsibility through their interactions with clients, whether the clients are themselves male or female. The male FP providers have a rare opportunity to exhibit a balance between the "fierceness of the warrior patient and the warmth of the parent" in their dealings with clients. Female clients of male FP providers can realize a therapeutic, emotionally-corrective experience. Male clients of male providers can receive insights into women's lives; into healthful living; and into ways to achieve greater access to feelings, emotions, and experiences. The changes at hand in the world demand that traditionally female values such as nurturing and compassion be brought into the traditionally male world of ambition, profit, and power. Male FP providers can contribute to this improvement as they affect one client at a time.

  8. When the world collapses: changed worldview and social reconstruction in a traumatized community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Corkalo Biruski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic experience can affect the individual's basic beliefs about the world as a predictable and safe place. One of the cornerstones in recovery from trauma is reestablishment of safety, connectedness, and the shattered schema of a worldview. Objective: This study explored the role of negatively changed worldview in the relationship between war-related traumatization and readiness for social reconstruction of intergroup relations in a post-conflict community measured by three processes: intergroup rapprochement, rebuilding trust, and need for apology. It was hypothesized that more traumatized people are less supportive of social reconstruction and that this relationship is mediated by the changed worldview. Method: The study included a community random sample of 333 adults in the city of Vukovar, Croatia, that was most devastated during the 1991–1995 war. Six instruments were administered: Stressful Events Scale, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Changed Worldview Scale, and three scales measuring the post-conflict social reconstruction processes: Intergroup Rapprochement, Intergroup Trust and Need for Apology. Results: Mediation analyses showed that the worldview change fully mediated between traumatization and all three aspects of social reconstruction. Conclusions: In a population exposed to war traumatization the worldview change mediates post-conflict social recovery of community relations.

  9. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-09-15

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. At work on LEP, the world’s most powerful electron–positron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez,

    1999-01-01

    The LHC will be built inside the same tunnel as an existing accelerator, the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider which came on stream in 1989. LEP will be removed from the tunnel at the end of this year to make way for the LHC. Here technicians make delicate adjustments to one of LEP’s thousands of magnets.

  11. Crossroads. Life Changing Stories from the Second World War: A (Transmedia Storytelling Approach to World War II Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Calvi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crossroads is the name of the concept that narratively connects several WWII-related cultural institutions in Brabant. We were initially looking for ways to connect 4 otherwise very diverse World War II-related institutions (in fact, 3 museums and a commemoration centre and we found it in this overarching paradigm. Crossroads does not require museums to share their collection items. It offers them instead a tool to build and offer visitors a cohesive experience related to WWII heritage.  This experience is characterized by the specific focus into their WWII stories using storytelling that they can adopt. This paper will highlight the creative process that brought to the development of this concept and will discuss examples of the resulting transmedia narratives.

  12. The Changing Face of War in Textbooks: Depictions of World War II and Vietnam, 1970-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Richard; Mitchell, Lacy

    2014-01-01

    How have U.S. high school textbook depictions of World War II and Vietnam changed since the 1970s? We examined 102 textbooks published from 1970 to 2009 to see how they treated U.S. involvement in World War II and Vietnam. Our content analysis of high school history textbooks finds that U.S. textbooks increasingly focus on the personal experiences…

  13. Integration of World Knowledge and Temporary Information about Changes in an Object's Environmental Location during Different Stages of Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqian; Yang, Wei; Ma, Lijun; Li, Jiaxin

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that information about changes in an object's environmental location in the context of discourse is stored in working memory during sentence comprehension. However, in these studies, changes in the object's location were always consistent with world knowledge (e.g., in "The writer picked up the pen from the floor and moved it to the desk," the floor and the desk are both common locations for a pen). How do people accomplish comprehension when the object-location information in working memory is inconsistent with world knowledge (e.g., a pen being moved from the floor to the bathtub)? In two visual world experiments, with a "look-and-listen" task, we used eye-tracking data to investigate comprehension of sentences that described location changes under different conditions of appropriateness (i.e., the object and its location were typically vs. unusually coexistent, based on world knowledge) and antecedent context (i.e., contextual information that did vs. did not temporarily normalize unusual coexistence between object and location). Results showed that listeners' retrieval of the critical location was affected by both world knowledge and working memory, and the effect of world knowledge was reduced when the antecedent context normalized unusual coexistence of object and location. More importantly, activation of world knowledge and working memory seemed to change during the comprehension process. These results are important because they demonstrate that interference between world knowledge and information in working memory, appears to be activated dynamically during sentence comprehension.

  14. EDITORIAL: World Year of Physics 2005 Focus on Photoemission and Electronic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Around the year 1500, Leonardo da Vinci designed the first mechanical calculator connecting a number of toothed wheels for simple adding operations. Since then, mechanical systems have become a major part of the later industrial revolutions with an abundance of machines in our everyday lives. Only with the advent of semiconductor electronics, however, did microstructuring techniques become available to realize mechanical systems with dimensions below 100 microns. With most recent structure sizes now reaching the limit of a few nanometres, suspended nanostructures that couple mechanical with electronic motion have been constructed. Moreover, novel lithographic techniques have enabled the investigation of transport across hybrid structures such as. suspended carbon nanotubes or flexible molecular bridges connected to mesoscopic leads. In this invited focus issue of New Journal of Physics some of the leading experts in the field of nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) describe the latest status and trends, from both an experimental and a theoretical perspective. A multitude of applications for NEMS are now within reach, ranging from high-frequency filters and switches in signal processing circuits, to ultra-sensitive sensors. In particular the development of mass sensors and scanning probe microscopy will be spurred by nano-mechanical systems. Considering that mechanical resonance frequencies of 1 GHz and more have already been achieved, these devices will be extremely sensitive and will offer high data acquisition rates. On a fundamental level NEMS enable the investigation of electron-phonon coupling in the absolute limit via, for example, single electrons interacting with single (quantized) phonons, the study of single electrons being shuttled via mechanical motion, and the manipulation of single molecules with nano-mechanical tweezers. The future for NEMS research looks certain to be exciting - we can expect it to help us build detectors of virtually any kind

  15. Climate Change: A Future of Less Water and More people - Strategies for a Water Constrained World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahai, D.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the fact that the Earth is warming is indisputable. The evidence of climate change is already all around us, with the occurence of ever more intense weather events, droughts, heat waves, floods and sea level rise. Predictions of greater calamities in the future without swift action must be taken seriously. However, while international summits have focused on means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these are largely strategies of containment, not of cure. Even if emissions were to cease today, the current effects of climate change would remain with us for millenia. This is clear from the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The world must not only tackle the causes of global warming; it must adapt to the damage already done. This need is most acute where water supply is concerned. The world already faces daunting chalenges. According to United Nations' reports, even today 1.8 million children under 5 die from water related diseases every year; 900 million people lack access to safe drinking water; and 2.6 billion go without basic sanitation. In the developing world, 90% of sewage is discharged to water bodies without adequate treatment contributing to "dead zones". Population increases will make matters worse (an addition of around 3 billion people by 2050 is expected) and climate change will compound the crisis. It is forecast that, as the Earth warms, deserts will expand and droughts will intensify causing demographic shifts even as the world's population burgeons. We are already seeing different regions react to water shortages. Many countries are pursuing seawater desalination. However, seawater desalination has numerous drawbacks; it remains the most expensive of water treatment options and the most energy intensive. Some societies may have no choice but to turn to the sea; others should look to other alternatives first. Such frontrunners could include: (1) enhanced conservation, utilizing public education programs, price

  16. Studies on electronic properties of solids in Japan. Traces toward microscopic world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Takehiko

    2005-01-01

    Properties of solids are determined by the microscopic structure where quantum mechanics stands. Throughout the 20th century physicists have made progress in developing the methods to explore the microscopic world of materials. In the latter half of the 20th century, starting with catching-up modes, Japanese solid-state physicists have been at some leading edges in the last decade. Trace towards the frontiers are briefly reviewed placing emphasis upon the material development and the investigation, and ways to go are mentioned. (author)

  17. Climate change and the long-term viability of the World's busiest heavy haul ice road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Donal; Swindles, Graeme; Patterson, Tim; Galloway, Jennifer; Macumber, Andrew; Falck, Hendrik; Crossley, Laura; Chen, Jie; Pisaric, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Climate models project that the northern high latitudes will warm at a rate in excess of the global mean. This will pose severe problems for Arctic and sub-Arctic infrastructure dependent on maintaining low temperatures for structural integrity. This is the case for the economically important Tibbitt to Contwoyto Winter Road (TCWR)—the world's busiest heavy haul ice road, spanning 400 km across mostly frozen lakes within the Northwest Territories of Canada. In this study, future climate scenarios are developed for the region using statistical downscaling methods. In addition, changes in lake ice thickness are projected based on historical relationships between measured ice thickness and air temperatures. These projections are used to infer the theoretical operational dates of the TCWR based on weight limits for trucks on the ice. Results across three climate models driven by four RCPs reveal a considerable warming trend over the coming decades. Projected changes in ice thickness reveal a trend towards thinner lake ice and a reduced time window when lake ice is at sufficient thickness to support trucks on the ice road, driven by increasing future temperatures. Given the uncertainties inherent in climate modelling and the resultant projections, caution should be exercised in interpreting the magnitude of these scenarios. More certain is the direction of change, with a clear trend towards winter warming that will reduce the operation time window of the TCWR. This illustrates the need for planners and policymakers to consider future changes in climate when planning annual haulage along the TCWR.

  18. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Nanostructural Changes in Phase-Change Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Meister, Stefan

    2011-04-26

    Phase-change memory (PCM) has been researched extensively as a promising alternative to flash memory. Important studies have focused on its scalability, switching speed, endurance, and new materials. Still, reliability issues and inconsistent switching in PCM devices motivate the need to further study its fundamental properties. However, many investigations treat PCM cells as black boxes; nanostructural changes inside the devices remain hidden. Here, using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observe real-time nanostructural changes in lateral Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) PCM bridges during switching. We find that PCM devices with similar resistances can exhibit distinct threshold switching behaviors due to the different initial distribution of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains, explaining variability of switching behaviors of PCM cells in the literature. Our findings show a direct correlation between nanostructure and switching behavior, providing important guidelines in the design and operation of future PCM devices with improved endurance and lower variability. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Europe's Southeastern Gateway: Responding to Rapidly Changing Patterns of World Shipping. The University's Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available World trade and transportation are changing dramatically. Energy prices and transport sustainability concerns are reinvigorating ocean freighter shipping. An ever-increasing portion of trade is in containers, and container ships are getting larger quickly. Many ports, nations and continents are not keeping up with ship size increases putting them at a trade disadvantage. Major canals and seaways must also upgrade or be rendered obsolete, causing a change in the pattern of world trade. Ports have to do more than expand vessel size limits. Port regions must also invest in infrastructure that improves multi-modal access to the port and augments hand-off of containers to smaller seaway ships, trains and trucks. With heightened security and evolving emphasis on flexible and efficient logistics, ports must become high-tech logistics hubs with improved real-time data about port throughput. Constanţa, Romania provides an example of an attempt to respond to this rapid change. Near the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea, Constanţa offers a potential southeastern gateway to Europe for the Black Sea, the Eastern Mediterranean and beyond. Ships from Asia, entering via the Suez Canal can easily access Constanţa, and thus save more than ten days of shipping time for destinations in southeastern Europe compared to shipping through Rotterdam or Hamburg. But Constanţa needs to make all the improvements mentioned above. Universities have several roles in this endeavor, including identifying and forecasting trends, providing the technical knowledge to develop high-tech logistics hubs, pursing publicprivate partnerships for infrastructure development and offering training.

  20. Changes in precipitation-streamflow transformation around the world: interdecadal variability and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saft, M.; Peel, M. C.; Andreassian, V.; Parajka, J.; Coxon, G.; Freer, J. E.; Woods, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate prediction of hydrologic response to potentially changing climatic forcing is a key current challenge in hydrology. Recent studies exploring decadal to multidecadal climate drying in the African Sahel and south-eastern and south-western Australia demonstrated that long dry periods also had an indirect cumulative impact on streamflow via altered catchment biophysical properties. As a result, hydrologic response to persisting change in climatic conditions, i.e. precipitation, cannot be confidently inferred from the hydrologic response to short-term interannual climate fluctuations of similar magnitude. This study aims to characterise interdecadal changes in precipitation-runoff conversion processes globally. The analysis is based on long continuous records from near-natural baseline catchments in North America, Europe, and Australia. We used several complimentary metrics characterising precipitation-runoff relationship to assess how partitioning changed over recent decades. First, we explore the hypothesis that during particularly dry or wet decades the precipitation elasticity of streamflow increases over what can be expected from inter-annual variability. We found this hypothesis holds for both wet and dry periods in some regions, but not everywhere. Interestingly, trend-like behaviour in the precipitation-runoff partitioning, unrelated to precipitation changes, offset the impact of persisting precipitation change in some regions. Therefore, in the second part of this study we explored longer-term trends in precipitation-runoff partitioning, and related them to climate and streamflow changes. We found significant changes in precipitation-runoff relationship around the world, which implies that runoff response to a given precipitation can vary over decades even in near-natural catchments. When significant changes occur, typically less runoff is generated for a given precipitation over time - even when precipitation is increasing. We discuss the consistency

  1. Can the World's Farmers Feed a World of 10 Billion People In Spite of Climate Change? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    The rapid rise in agricultural productivity due to technological innovation and science-based methods was one of the great human achievements of the 20th century. We now face the prospect of needing to double agricultural output by the latter third of the current century to match the growth of demand for food and fiber—albeit the pace of growth in demand shows signs of slowing in the future. How farmers and the agricultural industry deal with climate change will, in large measure, determine success or failure. The Earth is committed to about the same amount of warming in the future as has been experienced over the past hundred years regardless of future greenhouse gas emissions trajectories; such will require adaptive responses by plants, animals, producers and consumers if society’s goals for global food security are to be met. In this paper, I summarize the state-of-the science of how climate change may affect our global agricultural production system. I review the latest thinking on the combined effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes on crop productivity across the globe. Prospects for adaptation in agriculturally important regions are examined. While it appears that global food production will be adequate to meet global food demand in spite of advancing climate change, it is clear that many parts of the tropics and dry sub-tropics will see yield decreases and possible loss of comparative advantage. In those regions, continued large population growth and deleterious climate changes will contribute to declining per capita agricultural production. Increasing numbers of people at risk of hunger are probable there.

  2. Contemporary Trans-regional Cooperation between Europe and Asia in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beginda Pakpahan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with contemporary trans-regional cooperation between Europe and Asia in a changing world. It examines the emerging economic relationship between the EU and Asia and possible challenges and implications facing both regions. It argues that Europe - Asia economic and commercial ties are likely in the future to result in unbalanced economic development between both these regions; in short, future agreements are likely to disproportionately favour Europe. Therefore, the economic and commercial ties between these two regions should aim to develop the least advanced countries in Asia. The article argues that ASEM can be empowered as a common flexible framework for bilateral and inter-regional trade initiatives between both regions; it can be empowered to manage and monitor these trade initiatives and their social implications for vulnerable ASEM countries. The main objective of this article is to contribute a clearer understanding of the current EU - Asia relationship in the context of ASEM.

  3. Tourism-Induced Livelihood Changes at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Xu, Kejian

    2016-05-01

    Although tourism has the potential to improve the wellbeing of residents, it may also disrupt livelihood systems, social processes, and cultural traditions. The livelihood changes at three rural villages at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China, are assessed to determine the extent to which tourism strategies are contributing to local livelihoods. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. The three villages exhibit different development patterns due to institutional, organizational, and location factors. New strategies involving tourism were constructed and incorporated into the traditional livelihood systems and they resulted in different outcomes for residents of different villages. Village location, including the relationship to the site tourism plan, affected the implications for rural livelihoods. High dependence on tourism as the single livelihood option can reduce sustainability. Practical implications are suggested to enhance livelihood sustainability at such rural heritage tourism sites.

  4. Changes in the economical updated world by means of the diffuse logia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Maylén Pérez López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the organization world many changes have occurred In last years of last centuries and the first ones, due to the advance of Technologies and Communications (TIC and to the need of getting truthful information in less possible time, the markets globalization and the doubts in taking decisions have favored the development of new techniques of artificial Intelligence applied to a numerous of activities accomplished by human beings and to the field of Economics. In present work a compilation of techniques and applications of artificial intelligence to economy's field is made. It is proposed also a procedure to treat the lack of certainty and the subjectivity as main characteristic of related techniques.

  5. World-wide anthropogenic climate changes: facts, uncertainties and open questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenwiese, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    Various human activities are, without a doubt, leading to a steady increase world-wide in the emissions of trace gases which affect the climate into the atmosphere. As a result, the global climate is also forced to change. The evidence from climate models regarding this is uncertain, however, both with respect to the quantitative aspect and the regional aspect, especially concerning climatic elements apart from temperature. It is therefore important to examine the data of climate history for anthropogenic climate signals. It is difficult, though, to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic climate effects. Despite these uncertainties, however, which result in many questions remaining open, estimations of risk and the principle of responsibility lead to immediate, international climate protection measures being demanded. (orig.) [de

  6. Tourism-Induced Livelihood Changes at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Xu, Kejian

    2016-05-01

    Although tourism has the potential to improve the wellbeing of residents, it may also disrupt livelihood systems, social processes, and cultural traditions. The livelihood changes at three rural villages at Mount Sanqingshan World Heritage Site, China, are assessed to determine the extent to which tourism strategies are contributing to local livelihoods. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. The three villages exhibit different development patterns due to institutional, organizational, and location factors. New strategies involving tourism were constructed and incorporated into the traditional livelihood systems and they resulted in different outcomes for residents of different villages. Village location, including the relationship to the site tourism plan, affected the implications for rural livelihoods. High dependence on tourism as the single livelihood option can reduce sustainability. Practical implications are suggested to enhance livelihood sustainability at such rural heritage tourism sites.

  7. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  8. Knowledge creation for practical solutions appropriate to a changing world of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne F. Cascio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Only one, long-term sustainable source of competitive advantage exist: the intellectual capital that resides in the minds of people. The ongoing development of people as strategic assets is essential because of three defining forces of our time: globalisation, the information revolution, and the speed of change. Each of these forces is examined in the article against the backdrop of some important changes in the psychological contract. The challenge is to create knowledge for practical solutions, appropriate to a changing world of work. Opsomming Slegs een, lang termyn, standhoudende bron van mededingendheid bestaan: die intellektuele kapitaal wat in mense weggelê is. Die deurlopende ontwikkeling van mense as strategiese bate is noodsaaklik as gevolg van drie deurslaggewende, teenswoordige kragte: globalisering, die inligtingsrevolusie, en die spoed van verandering. Elk van hierdie kragte word bespreek in die artikel teen die agtergrond van beduidende verskuiwings in die sielkundige kontrak. Die uitdaging is om kennis vir praktiese oplossings te skep wat op ’n veranderende wêreld van werk van toepassing sal wees.

  9. A changing world: Using nuclear techniques to investigate the impact of climate change on polar and mountainous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are being used in polar and mountainous regions to study climate change and its impact on the quality of land, water and ecosystems in order to better conserve and manage these resources. Researchers from around the world will be using data from 13 benchmark sites to draw conclusions about the effects of the rapidly changing climate on the Arctic, mountains and the western part of Antarctica, which have alarmed communities, environmentalists, scientists and policy makers. Between July 2015 and July 2016 they will be using isotopic and nuclear techniques, as well as geochemical and biological analytical methods from other scientific disciplines. This will enable them to track soil and water, to monitor the movement of soil and sediment and to assess the effects of melting permafrost on the atmosphere, as well as on the land, water and fragile ecosystems of mountainous and polar regions. The measurements follow numerous on-site tests carried out since November 2014 to perfect the sampling technique.

  10. Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world-The Roskilde recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selck, Henriette; Adamsen, Peter B; Backhaus, Thomas; Banta, Gary T; Bruce, Peter K H; Burton, G Allen; Butts, Michael B; Boegh, Eva; Clague, John J; Dinh, Khuong V; Doorn, Neelke; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Hazlerigg, Charles; Hunka, Agnieszka D; Jensen, John; Lin, Yan; Loureiro, Susana; Miraglia, Simona; Munns, Wayne R; Nadim, Farrokh; Palmqvist, Annemette; Rämö, Robert A; Seaby, Lauren P; Syberg, Kristian; Tangaa, Stine R; Thit, Amalie; Windfeld, Ronja; Zalewski, Maciej; Chapman, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk-Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. The authors encourage both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to address their 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and nonchemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk-assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk-management process; 5) consider socioeconomics and increased transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference conditions and the proper ecological context for assessments in human-modified systems; 8) assess risks and benefits to humans and the ecosystem and consider unintended consequences of management actions; 9) avoid excessive conservatism or possible underprotection resulting from sole reliance on binary, numerical benchmarks; and 10) develop adaptive risk-management and regulatory goals based on ranges of uncertainty. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:7-16. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paerl, Hans W., E-mail: hpaerl@email.unc.edu; Hall, Nathan S.; Calandrino, Elizabeth S.

    2011-04-15

    Harmful (toxic, food web altering, hypoxia generating) cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are proliferating world-wide due to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, and they represent a serious threat to the use and sustainability of our freshwater resources. Traditionally, phosphorus (P) input reductions have been prescribed to control CyanoHABs, because P limitation is widespread and some CyanoHABs can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) to satisfy their nitrogen (N) requirements. However, eutrophying systems are increasingly plagued with non N{sub 2} fixing CyanoHABs that are N and P co-limited or even N limited. In many of these systems N loads are increasing faster than P loads. Therefore N and P input constraints are likely needed for long-term CyanoHAB control in such systems. Climatic changes, specifically warming, increased vertical stratification, salinization, and intensification of storms and droughts play additional, interactive roles in modulating CyanoHAB frequency, intensity, geographic distribution and duration. In addition to having to consider reductions in N and P inputs, water quality managers are in dire need of effective tools to break the synergy between nutrient loading and hydrologic regimes made more favorable for CyanoHABs by climate change. The more promising of these tools make affected waters less hospitable for CyanoHABs by 1) altering the hydrology to enhance vertical mixing and/or flushing and 2) decreasing nutrient fluxes from organic rich sediments by physically removing the sediments or capping sediments with clay. Effective future CyanoHAB management approaches must incorporate both N and P loading dynamics within the context of altered thermal and hydrologic regimes associated with climate change. - Research Highlights: {yields} Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs) increasingly threaten global water supplies. {yields} Human (nutrient) and climate (hydrology, temperature) changes synergistically promote CyanoHABs. {yields

  12. Managing forests in a changing world: the need for a systemic approach. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, S.; Buttoud, G.; Ciancio, O.; Corona, P.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: The paper is a scientific commented discussion with the aim of defining a framework which allows both a comprehensive vision of forest dynamics, as well as an adaptive management approach and policy procedures more suited to a changing and inherently unpredictable world. Main results: We identify the main challenges facing forestry in relation to recent developments in forestry thinking, i.e. the paradox of aiming at sustainability in a changing environment, a shifting perception of the relationship between ecological and social systems, the recognition of forest ecosystems as complex adaptive systems, the need for integrating the social and ecological dimensions of forestry into a single framework, and the growing awareness of the importance of the ethical approach to the forest. We propose the concept of “systemic forestry” as a paradigm for better understanding forest dynamics and for guiding management and public actions at various levels. We compare the systemic approach with different silvicultural and forest management approaches which have been proposed in the last decades. Research highlights: Our analysis shows that a systemic approach to forestry has five main consequences: 1. forestry is viewed as a part of landscape dynamics through a multi-sectoral coordination, 2. the logic of action changes from norm to process, 3. conservation is a dynamic search for resilience, 4. multi-functionality is achieved through a multi-entries approach integrating ecological, social and economic components of sustainability, 5. forestry institutions are reframed to address the issue of changing interactions among actors, 6. a change in the ethical approach to the forest is needed.

  13. Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paerl, Hans W.; Hall, Nathan S.; Calandrino, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Harmful (toxic, food web altering, hypoxia generating) cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are proliferating world-wide due to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, and they represent a serious threat to the use and sustainability of our freshwater resources. Traditionally, phosphorus (P) input reductions have been prescribed to control CyanoHABs, because P limitation is widespread and some CyanoHABs can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ) to satisfy their nitrogen (N) requirements. However, eutrophying systems are increasingly plagued with non N 2 fixing CyanoHABs that are N and P co-limited or even N limited. In many of these systems N loads are increasing faster than P loads. Therefore N and P input constraints are likely needed for long-term CyanoHAB control in such systems. Climatic changes, specifically warming, increased vertical stratification, salinization, and intensification of storms and droughts play additional, interactive roles in modulating CyanoHAB frequency, intensity, geographic distribution and duration. In addition to having to consider reductions in N and P inputs, water quality managers are in dire need of effective tools to break the synergy between nutrient loading and hydrologic regimes made more favorable for CyanoHABs by climate change. The more promising of these tools make affected waters less hospitable for CyanoHABs by 1) altering the hydrology to enhance vertical mixing and/or flushing and 2) decreasing nutrient fluxes from organic rich sediments by physically removing the sediments or capping sediments with clay. Effective future CyanoHAB management approaches must incorporate both N and P loading dynamics within the context of altered thermal and hydrologic regimes associated with climate change. - Research Highlights: → Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs) increasingly threaten global water supplies. → Human (nutrient) and climate (hydrology, temperature) changes synergistically promote CyanoHABs. → CyanoHAB control

  14. The importance of benthic-pelagic coupling for marine ecosystem functioning in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Kadin, Martina; Nascimento, Francisco J A; Tamelander, Tobias; Törnroos, Anna; Bonaglia, Stefano; Bonsdorff, Erik; Brüchert, Volker; Gårdmark, Anna; Järnström, Marie; Kotta, Jonne; Lindegren, Martin; Nordström, Marie C; Norkko, Alf; Olsson, Jens; Weigel, Benjamin; Žydelis, Ramunas; Blenckner, Thorsten; Niiranen, Susa; Winder, Monika

    2017-06-01

    Benthic-pelagic coupling is manifested as the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients between benthic and pelagic habitats. It plays a prominent role in aquatic ecosystems, and it is crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs. Coastal and estuarine ecosystem structure and function are strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures; however, there are large gaps in our understanding of the responses of inorganic nutrient and organic matter fluxes between benthic habitats and the water column. We illustrate the varied nature of physical and biological benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their potential sensitivity to three anthropogenic pressures - climate change, nutrient loading, and fishing - using the Baltic Sea as a case study and summarize current knowledge on the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic material between habitats. Traditionally measured benthic-pelagic coupling processes (e.g., nutrient exchange and sedimentation of organic material) are to some extent quantifiable, but the magnitude and variability of biological processes are rarely assessed, preventing quantitative comparisons. Changing oxygen conditions will continue to have widespread effects on the processes that govern inorganic and organic matter exchange among habitats while climate change and nutrient load reductions may have large effects on organic matter sedimentation. Many biological processes (predation, bioturbation) are expected to be sensitive to anthropogenic drivers, but the outcomes for ecosystem function are largely unknown. We emphasize how improved empirical and experimental understanding of benthic-pelagic coupling processes and their variability are necessary to inform models that can quantify the feedbacks among processes and ecosystem responses to a changing world. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Managing forests in a changing world: the need for a systemic approach. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocentini, S.; Buttoud, G.; Ciancio, O.; Corona, P.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The paper is a scientific commented discussion with the aim of defining a framework which allows both a comprehensive vision of forest dynamics, as well as an adaptive management approach and policy procedures more suited to a changing and inherently unpredictable world. Main results: We identify the main challenges facing forestry in relation to recent developments in forestry thinking, i.e. the paradox of aiming at sustainability in a changing environment, a shifting perception of the relationship between ecological and social systems, the recognition of forest ecosystems as complex adaptive systems, the need for integrating the social and ecological dimensions of forestry into a single framework, and the growing awareness of the importance of the ethical approach to the forest. We propose the concept of “systemic forestry” as a paradigm for better understanding forest dynamics and for guiding management and public actions at various levels. We compare the systemic approach with different silvicultural and forest management approaches which have been proposed in the last decades. Research highlights: Our analysis shows that a systemic approach to forestry has five main consequences: 1. forestry is viewed as a part of landscape dynamics through a multi-sectoral coordination, 2. the logic of action changes from norm to process, 3. conservation is a dynamic search for resilience, 4. multi-functionality is achieved through a multi-entries approach integrating ecological, social and economic components of sustainability, 5. forestry institutions are reframed to address the issue of changing interactions among actors, 6. a change in the ethical approach to the forest is needed.

  16. Managing forests in a changing world: the need for a systemic approach. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Nocentini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The paper is a scientific commented discussion with the aim of defining a framework which allows both a comprehensive vision of forest dynamics, as well as an adaptive management approach and policy procedures more suited to a changing and inherently unpredictable world. Main results: We identify the main challenges facing forestry in relation to recent developments in forestry thinking, i.e. the paradox of aiming at sustainability in a changing environment, a shifting perception of the relationship between ecological and social systems, the recognition of forest ecosystems as complex adaptive systems, the need for integrating the social and ecological dimensions of forestry into a single framework, and the growing awareness of the importance of the ethical approach to the forest. We propose the concept of “systemic forestry” as a paradigm for better understanding forest dynamics and for guiding management and public actions at various levels. We compare the systemic approach with different silvicultural and forest management approaches which have been proposed in the last decades. Research highlights: Our analysis shows that a systemic approach to forestry has five main consequences: 1. forestry is viewed as a part of landscape dynamics through a multi-sectoral coordination, 2. the logic of action changes from norm to process, 3. conservation is a dynamic search for resilience, 4. multi-functionality is achieved through a multi-entries approach integrating ecological, social and economic components of sustainability, 5. forestry institutions are reframed to address the issue of changing interactions among actors, 6. a change in the ethical approach to the forest is needed.

  17. Dispatch from the non-HITECH-incented Health IT world: electronic medication history adoption and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Meghan Hufstader; Smith, Jaime Y; Sow, Max; Charles, Dustin; Joseph, Seth; Wilkins, Tricia Lee

    2016-05-01

    To document national trends of electronic medication history use in the ambulatory setting and describe the characteristics and predicting factors of providers who regularly use medication history transaction capabilities through their e-prescribing systems. The study used provider-initiated medication history data requests, electronically sent over an e-prescribing network from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data from 138,000 prescribers were evaluated using multivariate analyses from 2007 to 2013. Medication history use showed significant growth, increasing from 8 to 850 million history requests during the study period. Prescribers on the network for histories more often than those in large and small cities, these findings were not significant in multivariate analyses. Providers in orthopedic surgery and internal medicine had a higher likelihood of more requests than family practice prescribers, with 12% and 7% higher likelihood, respectively. Early adopters of e-prescribing have remained medication history users and have continually increased their volume of requests for medication histories. Despite the fact that the use of medication histories through e-prescribing networks in the ambulatory care setting has not been encouraged through federal incentive programs, there has been substantial growth in the use of medication histories offered through e-prescribing networks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Chemical changes of titanium and titanium dioxide under electron bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romins Brasca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The electron induced effect on the first stages of the titanium (Ti0 oxidation and titanium dioxide (Ti4+ chemical reduction processes has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Using factor analysis we found that both processes are characterized by the appearance of an intermediate Ti oxidation state, Ti2O3 (Ti3+.

  19. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century; Nachhaltigkeit, Energiewende, Klimawandel, Welternaehrung. Politische und rechtliche Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, Ines (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  20. Changing the world with hydrogen and nuclear: From past successes to shaping the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the past history of hydrogen and nuclear energy, while considering how they had been important forever, how they have been used to change the world when they were discovered and understood, and how they will likely shape our future to face specific challenges of the 21. century. Content: 1 - hydrogen and nuclear reactions at the origin of the universe: the universe and supernovae, the sun, the blue planet, the evolution of man; 2 - understanding and first uses of hydrogen: the discovery of hydrogen, hydrogen balloons, airships or dirigibles, the discovery of the electrolysis and the fuel cell, Jules Vernes; 3 - development of nuclear over the 20. century: pioneers of nuclear energy, Fermi reactor, EBR-1; 4 - development of hydrogen over the 20. century, expanding uses of hydrogen over the second half of the 20. century; 5 - four major endeavours gathering hydrogen and nuclear: light water reactors, naval reactors, nuclear rockets, controlled fusion, the PNP-500 project; 6 - stakes in hydrogen and nuclear production in the 21. century: energy challenge for the 21. century, peaking of fossil fuel production, renaissance of nuclear energy, changes in transportation model, hydrogen market, technologies for nuclear hydrogen production, carbon taxes, the path forward: international demonstrations towards industrialisation, a new generation of scientists for our dreams come true

  1. Major changes in the world's nuclear power at the beginning of the new century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrache, Ion

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade of the 20th century the world nuclear power recorded some characteristic trends among which one can mention the following: - Almost total absence of investments in new NPPs in the industrialized countries except Japan and South Korea; - Policy of some governments to decrease the nuclear power sector in their countries up to a complete stop of electricity production in a foreseeable future (as in case of Sweden, Germany, Nederland and Belgium); - Projections indicating a steady decline of nuclear share in the national power production as for instance in USA, Germany, Great Britain, and other industrialized countries; - pressures upon countries late owners of soviet type NPPs in order to shut down completely the RBMK and WWER reactors; - a drastic reduction of the funds afforded for research dedicated to fission reactors of new concept, except Japan and South Korea; - almost negligible effects of the Kyoto protocol upon nuclear power, hopes being directed towards renewable energy sources. After second half of the year 1998 modest signals of future changes in the energy policy occurred. The US government admitted on basis of performance assessments and projections that the important role of nuclear power in US will be extended still for long after the years 2020-2030. Consequently, research concerning the future demand for fission based power began be financed. Gradually the countries of EU and Canada modified also their official position towards the role of nuclear fission in ensuring the electric energy needs of the future. The beginning of the new century was marked by a significant acceleration of changes of opinions in favor of nuclear power. Japan and South Korea stated that at least in the first half of the 21th century the fission NPP's will play a major role. Russia promoted new WWER reactor types of safety standards equivalent or higher than the western ones. Also China and India launched ambitious plans for building new NPPs. These new

  2. Writing and reading in the electronic health record: an entirely new world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Lopp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic health records (EHRs are structured, distributed documentation systems that differ from paper charts. These systems require skills not traditionally used to navigate a paper chart and to produce a written clinic note. Despite these differences, little attention has been given to physicians’ electronic health record (EHR-writing and -reading competence. Purposes: This study aims to investigate physicians’ self-assessed competence to document and to read EHR notes; writing and reading preferences in an EHR; and demographic characteristics associated with their perceived EHR ability and preference. Methods: Fourteen 5-point Likert scale items, based on EHR system characteristics and a literature review, were developed to measure EHR-writing and -reading competence and preference. Physicians in the midwest region of the United States were invited via e-mail to complete the survey online from February to April 2011. Factor analysis and reliability testing were conducted to provide validity and reliability of the instrument. Correlation and regression analysis were conducted to pursue answers to the research questions. Results: Ninety-one physicians (12.5%, from general and specialty fields, working in inpatient and outpatient settings, participated in the survey. Despite over 3 years of EHR experience, respondents perceived themselves to be incompetent in EHR writing and reading (Mean = 2.74, SD = 0.76. They preferred to read succinct, narrative notes in EHR systems. However, physicians with higher perceived EHR-writing and -reading competence had less preference toward reading succinct (r= − 0.33, p<0.001 and narrative (r= − 0.36, p<0.001 EHR notes than physicians with lower perceived EHR competence. Physicians’ perceived EHR-writing and -reading competence was strongly related to their EHR navigation skills (r=0.55, p<0.0001. Conclusions: Writing and reading EHR documentation is different for physicians. Maximizing

  3. A Crisis Framework Applied to Macrosociological Family Changes: Marriage, Divorce, and Occupational Trends Associated with World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman-Blumen, Jean

    1975-01-01

    A typology of crises is developed to be used with critical aspects of the social system to predict both crisis and postcrisis period role changes. The crisis framework is then applied to macro-changes in family structure in response to an archetypal crisis, World War II. Census data generally support the hypotheses. (Author)

  4. The Challenge of Ensuring Persistency of Identifier Systems in the World of Ever-Changing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Car

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of information objects has always been important with library collections with indexes having been created in the most ancient times. Since the digital age, many specialised and generic persistent identifier (PID systems have been used to identify digital objects. Just as many ancient indexes have died over time, so too PID systems have had a lifecycle from inception to active phase to paralysis, and eventually a fall into oblivion. Where the indexes within the Great Library at Alexandria finally succumbed to fire, technology change has been the destroyer of more recent digital indexes. We distil four PID system design principles from observations over the years that we think should be implemented by PID system architects to ensure that their systems survive change. The principles: describe how to ensure identifiers’ system and organisation independence; codify the delivery of essential PID system functions; mandate a separation of PID functions from data delivery mechanisms; and require generation of policies detailing how change is handled. In addition to suggesting specific items for each principle, we propose that a platform-independent model (PIM be established for persistent identifiers – of any sort and with any resolver technology – in order to enable transition between present and future systems and the preservation of the identifiers’ functioning. We detail our PID system—the PID Service—that implements the proposed principles and a data model to some extent and we describe an implementation case study of an organisation’s implementation of PID systems that implement the Pillars further but still not completely. Penultimately, we describe in a Future Work section, an opportunity for the use of both the Pillars and the PIM; that of the World Wide Web Consortium’s Permanent Identifier Community Group who is seeking to “set up and maintain a secure permanent, URL re-direction service for the web”.

  5. Integration of World Knowledge and Temporary Information about Changes in an Object's Environmental Location during Different Stages of Sentence Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuqian Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have shown that information about changes in an object's environmental location in the context of discourse is stored in working memory during sentence comprehension. However, in these studies, changes in the object's location were always consistent with world knowledge (e.g., in “The writer picked up the pen from the floor and moved it to the desk,” the floor and the desk are both common locations for a pen. How do people accomplish comprehension when the object-location information in working memory is inconsistent with world knowledge (e.g., a pen being moved from the floor to the bathtub? In two visual world experiments, with a “look-and-listen” task, we used eye-tracking data to investigate comprehension of sentences that described location changes under different conditions of appropriateness (i.e., the object and its location were typically vs. unusually coexistent, based on world knowledge and antecedent context (i.e., contextual information that did vs. did not temporarily normalize unusual coexistence between object and location. Results showed that listeners' retrieval of the critical location was affected by both world knowledge and working memory, and the effect of world knowledge was reduced when the antecedent context normalized unusual coexistence of object and location. More importantly, activation of world knowledge and working memory seemed to change during the comprehension process. These results are important because they demonstrate that interference between world knowledge and information in working memory, appears to be activated dynamically during sentence comprehension.

  6. Nonconformities in real-world fatal crashes--electronic stability control and seat belt reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding

  7. Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Sustainable Development in a Changing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Yoshitaka

    2000-01-01

    Important changes concerning nuclear energy are coming to the fore, such as economic competitiveness compared to other energy resources, requirement for severe measures to mitigate man-made greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, due to the rise of energy demand in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia and to the greater public concern with respect to the nuclear safety, particularly related to spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal. Global safety culture, as well as well focused nuclear research and development programs for safer and more efficient nuclear technology manifest themselves in a stronger and effective way. Information and data on nuclear technology and safety are disseminated to the public in timely, accurate and understandable fashion. Nuclear power is an important contributor to the world's electricity needs. In 1999, it supplied roughly one sixth of global electricity. The largest regional percentage of electricity generated through nuclear power last year was in western Europe (30%). The nuclear power shares in France, Belgium and Sweden were 75%, 58% and 47%, respectively. In North America, the nuclear share was 20% for the USA and 12% for Canada. In Asia, the highest figures were 43% for the Republic of Korea and 36% for Japan. In 1998, twenty-three nations produced uranium of which, the ten biggest producers (Australia, Canada, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Niger, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Ukraine, USA and Uzbekistan) supplied over 90% of the world's output. In 1998, world uranium production provided only about 59% of world reactor requirements. In OECD countries, the 1998 production could only satisfy 39% of the demand. The rest of the requirements were satisfied by secondary sources including civilian and military stockpiles, uranium reprocessing and re-enrichment of depleted uranium. With regard to the nuclear fuel industry, an increase in fuel burnup, higher thermal rates, longer fuel cycle and the use of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX

  8. A business to change the world – moral responsibility in textbooks for International Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Andersson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an empirical analysis of textbooks for International Economics in upper secondary schools with a focus on moral responsibility for environment and society. The purpose is to analyse the meanings offered to students regarding the scope of taking moral responsibility in relation to the role of a business person. Four different meanings are formulated as a result of the study: one states that a business only can take responsibility inorder to obey laws and respond to consumer demands, a second and third meaning imply that, a business can make demands, to different extents, on subcontractors. A fourth meaning includes that a business (apart from making profit also can be a tool for change. The different meanings are discussed in relation to different functions of education (Biesta 2008, Säfström 2005 and Education for Sustainable Development. The main argument is that a tool forchange-meaning, contributing to a subjectification function of education, ought to have an increased space in education, if we want students who are engaged in sustainability issues regarding the environment and the society also to see a future working within the business world. This is equally important if we want business students to see a future working for sustainable development.

  9. Le imprese internazionali in un mondo in mutamento. (International business in a changing world environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. DUNNING

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il documento considera alcuni aspetti dell'interfaccia tra le attività internazionali - soprattutto sotto le spoglie della multinazionale - e ai governi dei paesi che ospitano le sue attività . Inoltre , esso tiene conto del mutato scenario economico e politico mondiale. L'autore delinea come, perché e cosa ,  questa interfaccia è stato modellato negligli eventi degli ultimi 25 anni , speculando circa le prospettive per il resto del 20 ° secolo The paper considers some aspects of the interface between international business - primarily in the guise of the multinational enterprise - and the Governments of the countries which are host to its activities. Furthermore, it takes into account the changing world economic and political scenario. The author outlines why, how and in what ways this interface has been shaped by, or has shaped, the events of the past 25 years, before speculating about the prospects for the remainder of the 20th century.JEL: E23

  10. A Change of Heart? British Policies towards Tubercular Refugees during 1959 World Refugee Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Becky

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at Britain's response to the World Refugee Year (1959-60), and in particular the government's decision to allow entry to refugees with tuberculosis and other chronic illnesses. In doing so, it broke the practice established by the 1920 Aliens' Order which had barred entry to immigrants with a range of medical conditions. This article uses the entry of these sick refugees as an opportunity to explore whether government policy represented as much of a shift in attitude and practice as contemporary accounts suggested. It argues for the importance of setting the reception of tubercular and other 'disabled' refugees in 1959-61 in its very particular historical context, showing it was a case less of the government thinking differently about refugees, and more of how, in a post-Suez context, the government felt obliged to take into account international and public opinion. The work builds on and adds to the growing literature surrounding refugees and disease. It also places the episode within the specificity of the post-war changing epidemiological climate; the creation of the National Health Service; and the welfare state more broadly. In looking at the role of refugee organizations in the Year, the article also contributes to debates over the place of voluntary agencies within British society.

  11. Past, Present, and Future of Psychosomatic Movements in an Ever-Changing World: Presidential Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    The American Psychosomatic Society was founded in 1942 and is celebrating its 75th anniversary in 2017. In recognizing the society's anniversary, this article provides a historical perspective on its history, the field of psychosomatic medicine in general, and anticipated future directions. Essay and narrative review of the literature on the historic development of psychosomatic concepts and their impact on medicine over time. Mind-body associations have been described in the medical literature for more than 3500 years. Early concepts of mind-body dualism and attempts to overcome them are found in classical Greek medicine. Psychosomatic thinking can be observed ever since, but only in the 20th century, a "psychosomatic movement" emerged in Europe and North America, aiming at humanizing medicine by introducing a holistic understanding of man into what was considered a widely reductionistic practice of medicine. This movement led to the inauguration of the American Psychosomatic Society during World War II and of national and international societies of psychosomatic medicine and its subspecializations thereafter. Psychosomatic medicine has its roots in the beginnings of medicine. During the past 75 years, it has made substantial contributions to the science and practice of medicine. The field has also changed in response to developments in medicine, technology, and society and is facing new challenges and opportunities that may require further adaptation of its concepts and practice.

  12. Agriculture and natural resources in a changing world - the role of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, T.; Havlík, P.; Schneider, U. A.; Kindermann, G.; Obersteiner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Fertile land and fresh water constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water. Against the background of resource sustainability and food security topics, this study integrates the spatial and operational heterogeneity of irrigation management into a global land use model. It represents a first large scale assessment of agricultural water use under explicit consideration of alternative irrigation options in their particular biophysical, economic, and technical context, accounting for international trade, motivation-based farming, and quantified aggregated impacts on land scarcity, water scarcity, and food supply. The inclusion of technical and economic aspects of irrigation choice into an integrated land use modeling framework provides new insights into the interdisciplinary trade-offs between determinants of global land use change. Agricultural responses to population and economic growth include considerable increases in irrigated area and agricultural water use, but reductions in the average water intensity. Different irrigation systems are preferred under different exogenous biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Negligence of these adaptations would bias the burden of development on land and water scarcity. Without technical progress in agriculture, predicted population and income levels for 2030 would require substantial price adjustments for land, water, and food to equilibrate supply and demand.

  13. Model or Myopia? Exploiting Water Markets to Address Population and Drought Risks in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, population demands, and evolving land-use represent strong risks to the sustainable development and stability of world-wide urban water supplies. There is a growing consensus that non-structural supply management instruments such as water markets have significant potential to reduce the risks and vulnerabilities in complex urban water systems. This paper asks a common question, what are the tradeoffs for a city using water market supply instruments?. This question emerges quickly in policy and management, but its answer is deceptively difficult to attain using traditional planning tools and management frameworks. This research demonstrates new frameworks that facilitate rapid evaluation of hypotheses on the reliability, resiliency, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness of urban water supply systems. This study considers a broader exploration of the issues of "nonstationarity" and "uncertainty" in urban water planning. As we invest in new information and prediction frameworks for the coupled human-natural systems that define our water, our problem definitions (i.e., objectives, constraints, preferences, and hypotheses) themselves evolve. From a formal mathematical perspective, this means that our management problems are structurally uncertain and nonstationary (i.e., the definition of optimality changes across regions, times, and stakeholders). This uncertainty and nonstationarity in our problem definitions needs to be more explicitly acknowledged in adaptive management and integrated water resources management. This study demonstrates the potential benefits of exploring these issues in the context of a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas, USA determining how to use its regional water market to manage population and drought risks.

  14. Volume changes in glass induced by an electron beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavenda, T.; Gedeon, O.; Jurek, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 322, Mar (2014), s. 7-12 ISSN 0168-583X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : borosilicate glass * electron irradiation * densification * alkali migration Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  15. Pressure-induced changes in the electronic structure of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, A.K.

    1985-07-01

    A variety of high-pressure metalization and metal-semimetal transitions, crystallographic phase transitions, and equation of state and lattice vibrational anomalies are reviewed in terms of the concepts of electronic transition and pressure-induced loss of covalency. 46 refs., 10 figs

  16. Non-equilbrium dynamics of ecosystem processes in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joseph Pignatello

    The relatively mild and stable climate of the last 10,000 years betrays a history of environmental variability and rapid changes. Humans have recently accelerated global environmental change, ushering in the Anthropocene. Meeting accelerating demands for food, energy, and goods and services has accelerated species extinctions, shows of reactive nitrogen and phosphorus, and warming of the atmosphere. I address the over- arching question of how ecosystems will respond to changing and variable environments through several focused studies. Each study examines an ecosystem response to ex- pected environmental changes in the future. To address how the changing environment affects the sizes and turnover rates of slowly and quickly cycling soil carbon pools, I analyzed the responses of grassland soils to simulated species diversity loss, increased deposition of nitrogen and increased atmospheric CO2. I used a soil respiration experiment to fit models of soil carbon pool turnover to respired carbon dioxide. Species diversity, nitrogen deposition and atmospheric CO2 had no effect on the total soil carbon after 8 years of treatments. Although total soil carbon did not change, the rates of cycling in the fast and slow pools changed in response to elevated CO2 and diversity loss treatments. Nitrogen treatments increased the size of the slowly cycling carbon pool. Precipitation variability has increased around most of the world since the industrial revolution. I used plant mesocosms in a greenhouse experiment to manipulate rainfall variability and mycorrhizal associations. I hypothesized that 1) rewetting events re- sult in higher nitrogen uxes from dry soils than moist soils, 2) a repeated pattern of events caused by low-frequency simulated rainfall results in higher nitrogen uxes and 3) the better ability of ectomycorrhizal fungi relative to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to decompose and assimilate organic nitrogen reduces leaching losses of nitrogen caused by both rewetting

  17. Development, implementation, and evaluation of a hybrid electronic medical record system specifically designed for a developing world surgical service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, G L; Bruce, J L; Skinner, D L; Allorto, N L; Clarke, D L; Aldous, C

    2014-06-01

    The Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service previously successfully constructed and implemented an electronic surgical registry (ESR). This study reports on our attempts to expand and develop this concept into a multi-functional hybrid electronic medical record (HEMR) system for use in a tertiary level surgical service. This HEMR system was designed to incorporate the function and benefits of an ESR, an electronic medical record (EMR) system, and a clinical decision support system (CDSS). Formal ethical approval to maintain the HEMR system was obtained. Appropriate software was sourced to develop the project. The data model was designed as a relational database. Following the design and construction process, the HEMR file was launched on a secure server. This provided the benefits of access security and automated backups. A systematic training program was implemented for client training. The exercise of data capture was integrated into the process of clinical workflow, taking place at multiple points in time. Data were captured at the times of admission, operative intervention, endoscopic intervention, adverse events (morbidity), and the end of patient care (discharge, transfer, or death). A quarterly audit was performed 3 months after implementation of the HEMR system. The data were extracted and audited to assess their quality. A total of 1,114 patient entries were captured in the system. Compliance rates were in the order of 87-100 %, and client satisfaction rates were high. It is possible to construct and implement a unique, simple, cost-effective HEMR system in a developing world surgical service. This information system is unique in that it combines the discrete functions of an EMR system with an ESR and a CDSS. We identified a number of potential limitations and developed interventions to ameliorate them. This HEMR system provides the necessary platform for ongoing quality improvement programs and clinical research.

  18. The World Bank: Changing Leadership and Issues for the United States and Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Martin A

    2005-01-01

    .... The focus of the next World Bank President likely will be on many development issues including global humanitarian and reconstruction assistance and debt relief for the poorest countries, among others. Congress has a significant role in shaping U.S. policy at the World Bank through funding arrangements and oversight responsibility. This report will be updated as events warrant.

  19. Application of phase change materials in thermal management of electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Ravi; Wang Xiangqi; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2007-01-01

    Application of a novel PCM package for thermal management of portable electronic devices was investigated experimentally for effects of various parameters e.g. power input, orientation of package, and various melting/freezing times under cyclic steady conditions. Also, a two-dimensional numerical study was made and compared the experimental results. Results show that increased power inputs increase the melting rate, while orientation of the package to gravity has negligible effect on the thermal performance of the PCM package. The thermal resistance of the device and the power level applied to the PCM package are of critical importance for design of a passive thermal control system. Comparison with numerical results confirms that PCM-based design is an excellent candidate design for transient electronic cooling applications

  20. Human activities and climate variability drive fast-paced change across the world's estuarine-coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Abreu, Paulo C.; Carstensen, Jacob; Chauvaud, Laurent; Elmgren, Ragnar; Grall, Jacques; Greening, Holly; Johansson, John O.R.; Kahru, Mati; Sherwood, Edward T.; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong

    2016-01-01

    Time series of environmental measurements are essential for detecting, measuring and understanding changes in the Earth system and its biological communities. Observational series have accumulated over the past 2–5 decades from measurements across the world's estuaries, bays, lagoons, inland seas and shelf waters influenced by runoff. We synthesize information contained in these time series to develop a global view of changes occurring in marine systems influenced by connectivity to land. Our review is organized around four themes: (i) human activities as drivers of change; (ii) variability of the climate system as a driver of change; (iii) successes, disappointments and challenges of managing change at the sea-land interface; and (iv) discoveries made from observations over time. Multidecadal time series reveal that many of the world's estuarine–coastal ecosystems are in a continuing state of change, and the pace of change is faster than we could have imagined a decade ago. Some have been transformed into novel ecosystems with habitats, biogeochemistry and biological communities outside the natural range of variability. Change takes many forms including linear and nonlinear trends, abrupt state changes and oscillations. The challenge of managing change is daunting in the coastal zone where diverse human pressures are concentrated and intersect with different responses to climate variability over land and over ocean basins. The pace of change in estuarine–coastal ecosystems will likely accelerate as the human population and economies continue to grow and as global climate change accelerates. Wise stewardship of the resources upon which we depend is critically dependent upon a continuing flow of information from observations to measure, understand and anticipate future changes along the world's coastlines.

  1. Implosion lessons from national security, high reliability spacecraft, electronics, and the forces which changed them

    CERN Document Server

    Temple, L Parker

    2012-01-01

    Implosion is a focused study of the history and uses of high-reliability, solid-state electronics, military standards, and space systems that support our national security and defense. This book is unique in combining the interdependent evolution of and interrelationships among military standards, solid-state electronics, and very high-reliability space systems. Starting with a brief description of the physics that enabled the development of the first transistor, Implosion covers the need for standardizing military electronics, which began during World War II and continu

  2. «To change the world»: justice or utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Douglas Price

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay plays, in an  ironic way, similarly to Jorge Luis Borges’ style, with the idea that the expression to change the world: justice or utopia, which is not found in Quixote, could undoubtedly have been excluded of it, or invented by an anonymous author, a habitual resource in the Middle Ages. It points out that we are in the presence of works that somehow mark the beginning of the concept of “author” and, paradoxically, question it, as Cervantes does deliberately, or as portrayed in the difficulties to establish the verisimilitude of the authorship of the works by the English bard. And this is done  in order to work not only with the coincidence of the dates of their deaths (which grants space for another Borges-like game, but also with their contribution to the formation of the Western cultural universe, which made Bloom exaggerate in the attribution to Shakespeare of “inventing the human”, but to formulate the opposition of two ethics between two emblematic characters, such as Quixote and Lady Macbeth: ethics, which we shall call “of duty”, from which the concept of utopia is built, present in Erasmus Of Rotterdam’s work (of great influence in the Spain of Cervantes and of Thomas Morus; And the ethics that we will call pragmatic, the ethics of Lady Macbeth, who prescribes to her husband the advice of Nicholas Machiavelli. In short, this paper concludes that Cervantes and Shakespeare inaugurated modernity, and the ideas found in their works, which were present in the production of sense of their time, in turn altered it (given the performative effect of literature; And that their remarkable personalities, united by the invisible thread of “madness”, allowed us to see the two faces of the human, as the Sileni of Alcibiades.

  3. Electron microscopy analysis of structural changes within white etching areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika Martina; Schwedt, A.; Mayer, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, crack networks with white etching areas (WEAs) in cross-sections of bearings were investigated by a complementary use of SEM and TEM with the focus on the use of orientation contrast imaging and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Orientation contrast imaging was used...... for the first time to give detailed insight into the microstructure of WEA. A significant difference between Nital-etched and polished WEA samples was observed. It was revealed that WEAs are composed of different areas with varying grain sizes. As a result of secondary transformation, needle-shaped grains were...

  4. Time for a New Agenda: Organizational Development in a Changing world with much Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik B.

    2017-01-01

    organizations neglect to support a disruptive strategy. By demonstrating the existence of another development path, this paper attempts, from a theoretical point of view, to give a new and a more nuanced perspective on organizational development in a disruptive world. This new path is supportive in a disruptive......Abstract – Traditional organizational theory tends to point out that organizational development follows a certain pattern where the structure of the company is said to become ever more bureaucratic. However, in a world where all companies and industries are faced with disruption, bureaucratic...... world. The aim of the paper is to answer the following research question: How can companies manage processes of organizational development and structures to avoid the bureaucracy and potential crises of the traditional approach in a disruptive world? This research question is important because...

  5. Electron-beam-irradiation-induced crystallization of amorphous solid phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Wu, Liangcai; Wen, Lin; Ma, Liya; Zhang, Xingyao; Li, Yudong; Guo, Qi; Song, Zhitang

    2018-04-01

    The electron-beam-irradiation-induced crystallization of phase change materials in a nano sized area was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Amorphous phase change materials changed to a polycrystalline state after being irradiated with a 200 kV electron beam for a long time. The results indicate that the crystallization temperature strongly depends on the difference in the heteronuclear bond enthalpy of the phase change materials. The selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal that Ge2Sb2Te5 is a nucleation-dominated material, when Si2Sb2Te3 and Ti0.5Sb2Te3 are growth-dominated materials.

  6. Behavioral changes induced by single and multiple electron beam pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, V.P.; McNulty, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of single, and low-dose, high-dose-rate and multiple electron beam pulses on passive avoidance behavior in mice were studied. Passive avoidance was measured by recording the time that an animal took to enter a chamber from a narrow platform. There were four conditions in the experiment: (1) no shock no radiation-control, (2) radiation only, (3) shock only, and (4) radiation plus shock. Forty animals were run for each data point. Dose rate was held constant at 9 x 10/sup 7/ rads/sec. Average doses for the two single pulses were 7.18 and 8.72 rads. The average total dose for a 25 pulse per second condition was 324.0 rads. The differences between the single versus multiple pulse radiation-only conditions were significant with longer avoidance latencies in the multiple pulse condition. Avoidance latencies were also significantly longer in the shock plus radiation condition for the multiple beam pulse than the single pulse. It is concluded that single and multiple electron beam pulses significantly effect behavior, in this case producing avoidance

  7. How Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Spontaneously Attend to Real-World Scenes: Use of a Change Blindness Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhauser, Michal; Aran, Adi; Grynszpan, Ouriel

    2018-01-01

    Visual attention of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was assessed using a change blindness paradigm. Twenty-five adolescents with ASD aged 12-18 years and 25 matched typically developing (TD) adolescents viewed 36 pairs of digitized real-world images. Each pair of images was displayed in a "flicker paradigm" whereby a…

  8. New NIH-funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. New NIH-funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World Past Issues / ... stage for further expansion of medical ultrasound into new areas." To ... ultrasound technology: www.youtube.com/watch?v=6n8xZECzEck& feature= ...

  9. Climate change adaptation under uncertainty in the developing world: A case study of sea level rise in Kiribati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.; Webber, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have the greatest impact in parts of the developing world. At the 2010 meeting of U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change in Cancun, industrialized countries agreed in principle to provide US$100 billion per year by 2020 to assist the developing world respond to climate change. This "Green Climate Fund" is a critical step towards addressing the challenge of climate change. However, the policy and discourse on supporting adaptation in the developing world remains highly idealized. For example, the efficacy of "no regrets" adaptation efforts or "mainstreaming" adaptation into decision-making are rarely evaluated in the real world. In this presentation, I will discuss the gap between adaptation theory and practice using a multi-year case study of the cultural, social and scientific obstacles to adapting to sea level rise in the Pacific atoll nation of Kiribati. Our field research reveals how scientific and institutional uncertainty can limit international efforts to fund adaptation and lead to spiraling costs. Scientific uncertainty about hyper-local impacts of sea level rise, though irreducible, can at times limit decision-making about adaptation measures, contrary to the notion that "good" decision-making practices can incorporate scientific uncertainty. Efforts to improve institutional capacity must be done carefully, or they risk inadvertently slowing the implementation of adaptation measures and increasing the likelihood of "mal"-adaptation.

  10. The Changing Face of World Cities. Young Adult Children of Immigrants in Europe and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Mollenkopf, J.

    2012-01-01

    A seismic population shift is taking place as many formerly racially homogeneous cities in the West attract a diverse influx of newcomers seeking economic and social advancement. In The Changing Face of World Cities, a distinguished group of immigration experts presents the first systematic,

  11. Electronic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gradišnik, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology is one of the most important reasons for the incredibly fast changes in business. Electronic commerce is spreading unstoppably in the operations of companies. The creation of new models, such as online banking, online shopping and the like, has sped up the development of the World Wide Web. Owing to the rapid progress of the World Wide Web and technologies for secure business operations, we can barely imagine life today without e...

  12. Organizational Change and How It Affects Healthcare Employees: A Study on Employee Resistance to Change in Electronic Medical Record Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oluwakemi A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the exploratory qualitative study was to explore the strategies for reducing employee resistance to Electronic Medical Record (EMR) technology changes in a healthcare organization during implementation. The study focused on EPIC as the EMR application. Ten healthcare participants who had experienced a change to EMR were selected in…

  13. Structural changes in the world energy supply - adaptations up to current and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1985-03-11

    In this analysis of world energy markets in which he pays particular attention to mineral oil, and with a background of world economic problems which have not yet been solved, the author presents a piece of modern economic history in which he also highlights the political aspects of the supply of crude oil. The world-wide contraction in oil consumption which followed two price escalations, has been caused, it is held by structural factors and is therefore of a long-term nature. Of course, in the foreseeable future, oil will easily remain the most important energy-carrier. However, it will be of less importance for Western Europe and Japan than for North America, trading states and developing countries. Nevertheless, diversification should be encouraged as quickly as possible. This does include natural gas still but for the long-term also coal and atomic energy. The author pleads for world-wide trade relations based on coal and gas in order to complement the fully integrated world oil markets. Similarly atomic energy should be developed as quickly as possible.

  14. The Fate of the World is in your hands: computer gaming for multi-faceted climate change education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is a multi-faceted (or 'wicked') problem. True climate literacy therefore requires understanding not only the workings of the climate system, but also the current and potential future impacts of climate change and sea level rise on individuals, communities and countries around the world, as noted in the US Global Change Research Program's (2009) Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The asymmetric nature of climate change impacts, whereby the world's poorest countries have done the least to cause the problem but will suffer disproportionate consequences, has also been widely noted. Education in climate literacy therefore requires an element of ethics in addition to physical and social sciences. As if addressing these multiple aspects of climate change were not challenging enough, polling data has repeatedly shown that many members of the public tend to see climate change as a far away problem affecting people remote from them at a point in the future, but not themselves. This perspective is likely shared by many students. Computer gaming provides a possible solution to the combined problems of, on the one hand, addressing the multi-faceted nature of climate change, and, on the other hand, making the issue real to students. Fate of the World, a game produced by the company Red Redemption, has been used on several occasions in a small (20-30 students) introductory level general education course on global warming at Weber State University. Players are required to balance difficult decisions about energy investment while managing regional political disputes and attempting to maintain minimum levels of development in the world's poorer countries. By providing a realistic "total immersion" experience, the game has the potential to make climate change issues more immediate to players, and presents them with the ethical dilemmas inherent in climate change. This presentation reports on the use of Fate of the World in an educational

  15. On the contribution of demographic change to aggregate poverty measures for the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Ravallion, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Recent literature and new data help determine plausible bounds to some key demographic differences between the poor and non-poor in the developing world. The author estimates that selective mortality-whereby poorer people tend to have higher death rates-accounts for 10-30 percent of the developing world's trend rate of "$1 a day" poverty reduction in the 1990s. However, in a neighborhood of plausible estimates, differential fertility-whereby poorer people tend also to have higher birth rates-...

  16. Anisotropic Shape Changes of Silica Nanoparticles Induced in Liquid with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zecevic, J.; Hermannsdorfer, Justus; Schuh, Tobias; de Jong, Krijn P.; de Jonge, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used for in-situ imaging of nanoscale processes taking place in liquid, such as the evolution of nanoparticles during synthesis or structural changes of nanomaterials in liquid environment. Here, it is shown that the focused electron beam of

  17. Changing electronic density in sites of crystalline lattice under superconducting of phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turaev, N.Yu.; Turaev, E.Yu.; Khuzhakulov, E.S.; Seregin, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    Results of electron density change calculations for sites of the one-dimensional Kronig-Penny lattice at the superconducting phase transition have been presented. The transition from normal state to super conducting one is accompanied by the rise of the electron density at the unit cell centre. It is agreement with Moessbauer spectroscopy data. (author)

  18. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  19. Changing Acceptable Occupations for Military and Civilian Women: The Effects of Two World Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calene, Mary L.

    The perception of what are considered acceptable occupations for women has changed considerably over the last century, just as the role of women in American homelife has changed. This thesis researches the changing role of American women and the effects of this changed role on occupations outside the home. The emphasis is on the long-term effects…

  20. Orderly Change in a Stable World: The Antisocial Trait as a Chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Gerald R.

    1993-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from Oregon Youth Study to examine quantitative and qualitative change. Used latent growth models to demonstrate changes in form and systematic changes in mean level for subgroup of boys. Factor analyses carried out at three ages showed that, over time, changes in form and addition of new problems were quantifiable and thus…

  1. Driving Technological Surprise: DARPA’s Mission in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    fundamental ways. Our research, innovation, and entrepreneurial capacity is the envy of the world, but others are building universities, labs, and...through deep engagement with companies, universities, and DoD and other labs. Our success hinges on having a healthy U.S. R&D ecosystem . Within

  2. Initiatives for Change in Korean Higher Education: Quest for Excellence of World-Class Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jean S.

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of World-Class Universities (WCUs) is noted as a paramount development in the realm of international higher education. The integration of higher education into a more international scheme has enabled for higher education institutions (HEIs) to have a broader impact on the states and their respective citizens. This study examines…

  3. Learning World Culture or Changing It? Human Rights Education and the Police in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how local law enforcers in India respond to NGO efforts to disseminate world culture through human rights education. Law enforcement officers do not merely decouple from human rights discourse by superficially endorsing it. They also go further than infusing rights with local meaning. Officers use the language and logic of…

  4. Adapting to Change in a Master Level Real-World-Projects Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappert, Charles C.; Stix, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Our mission of capstone computing courses for the past ten years has been to offer students experience with the development of real-world information technology projects. This experience has included both the hard and soft skills required for the work they could expect as industrial practitioners. Hard skills entail extending one's knowledge…

  5. Changing eating habits on the home front: Lost lessons from World War II research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.

    2002-01-01

    Programs intended to improve nutrition often fall short of expectations. One exception, however, occurred during the rationing years of World War II, when U.S. citizens were encouraged to incorporate protein-rich organ meats into their protein-deficient diets. Unfortunately,, most of tire insights

  6. Attitude and Self-Efficacy Change: English Language Learning in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dongping; Young, Michael F.; Brewer, Robert A.; Wagner, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    This study explored affective factors in learning English as a foreign language in a 3D game-like virtual world, Quest Atlantis (QA). Through the use of communication tools (e.g., chat, bulletin board, telegrams, and email), 3D avatars, and 2D webpage navigation tools in virtual space, nonnative English speakers (NNES) co-solved online…

  7. On the Changing Nature of Learning Context: Anticipating the Virtual Extensions of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Contextual learning starts from the premise that learning cannot take place in a vacuum, but should somehow be connected with real world attributes to make sense to learners. Today, digital media tend to bring about new dimensions of context: internet connections and mobile devices enable learners to overcome restrictions of time and location, and…

  8. Impact of Tourism Growth on the Changing Landscape of a World Heritage Site: Case of Luang Prabang, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceelia Leong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid tourism development adversely impacts and negatively transforms World Heritage Sites. This study aimed at examining how tourism growth has impacted the built environment of Luang Prabang, Lao PDR through an empirical approach. Luang Prabang has received a critical warning from World Heritage Committee for the escalating development pressure on its vulnerable landscape. Hence, this study examined two aspects: (1 the spatial pattern of the increase of touristic usage; and (2 the relation between the increase of touristic usage and the significant changes in the built environment. For this, geographical information systems (GIS are combined with statistical methods such as logistic regression and chi-square test of independence. The results affirmed that the change from other types of usage to touristic usage in existing buildings has a higher chance to occur along riverbank areas than in the middle of the peninsula in the core heritage area. Change to touristic usage is also related with three significant changes in the built environment, namely: (1 change from other types of architecture to Lao traditional architecture; (2 change from modern to traditional roof materials; and (3 change from traditional to modern building materials. This indicates that the increase in touristic usage has contributed to strengthening the heritage elements of the landscape.

  9. Can Christians really make a difference? A response to the call for change to make the world a better place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Christianity changed the world for the better through the development of education, charity organisations, art, music, law and medical care among others. However, not all changes initiated by Christianity were positive. The Christian religion was also responsible for division, death, destruction and war. Focusing on the positive changes, nearly 500 years after the reformation though, it seems as if Christianity has lost its renewing and transformative powers. It seems as if society, politics and the economy are pressurising Christianity to conform to the world and not the other way round. Therefore, the research focuses on the question whether Christians can bring about positive change and transformation to the current problems in society. What can Christians do to provide a religious response to current persistent societal problems? Change agents – people who drive positive change – are capable and competent, make use of networks, are visible and contactable and are often also outsiders in the communities they serve. Examples of the work done by change agents – Christians within their local communities – through small-scale community projects are showcased here to suggest possible ways forward for dealing with persistent problems from a Christian point of view.

  10. Real-world geographic variations in the use of cardiac implantable electronic devices - The PANORAMA 2 observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Dirk; Ebrahim, Iftikhar O; Chen, Ju-Yi; Chen, Mien-Cheng; Huang, Dejia; Huang, Jin-Long; Kuznetsov, Vadim A; Maus, Bärbel; Naik, Ajay M; Verhees, Koen J P; Fagih, Ahmed R Al

    2018-06-13

    Currently, several geographies around the world remain underrepresented in medical device trials. The PANORAMA 2 study was designed to assess contemporary region-specific differences in clinical practice patterns of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). In this prospective, multicenter, observational, multi-national study, baseline and implant data of 4,706 patients receiving Medtronic CIEDs (either de novo device implants, replacements, or upgrades) were analyzed, consisting of: 54% implantable pulse generators (IPGs), 20.3% implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), 15% cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-Ds), 5.1% cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemakers (CRT-Ps), from 117 hospitals in 23 countries across 4 geographical regions between 2012 and 2016. For all device types, in all regions, there were less females than males enrolled, and women were less likely to have ischemic cardiomyopathy. Implant procedure duration differed significantly across the geographies for all device types. Subjects from emerging countries, women and older patients were less likely to receive a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible device. Defibrillation testing differed significantly between the regions. European patients had the highest rates of atrial fibrillation (AF), and the lowest number of implanted single-chamber IPGs. Evaluation of stroke history suggested that the general embolic risk is more strongly associated with stroke than AF. We provide comprehensive descriptive data on patients receiving Medtronic CIEDs from several geographies, some of which are understudied in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We found significant variations in patient characteristics. Several medical decisions appear to be affected by socioeconomic factors. Long-term follow-up data will help evaluate if these variations require adjustments to outcome expectations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is

  11. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on World Food Supply: Datasets from a Major Crop Modeling Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Datasets from a Major Crop Modeling Study contain projected country and regional changes in grain crop yields due to global climate change. Equilibrium and transient...

  12. Clinician user involvement in the real world: Designing an electronic tool to improve interprofessional communication and collaboration in a hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Terence; Lim, Morgan E; Mansfield, Elizabeth; McLachlan, Alexander; Quan, Sherman D

    2018-02-01

    User involvement is vital to the success of health information technology implementation. However, involving clinician users effectively and meaningfully in complex healthcare organizations remains challenging. The objective of this paper is to share our real-world experience of applying a variety of user involvement methods in the design and implementation of a clinical communication and collaboration platform aimed at facilitating care of complex hospitalized patients by an interprofessional team of clinicians. We designed and implemented an electronic clinical communication and collaboration platform in a large community teaching hospital. The design team consisted of both technical and healthcare professionals. Agile software development methodology was used to facilitate rapid iterative design and user input. We involved clinician users at all stages of the development lifecycle using a variety of user-centered, user co-design, and participatory design methods. Thirty-six software releases were delivered over 24 months. User involvement has resulted in improvement in user interface design, identification of software defects, creation of new modules that facilitated workflow, and identification of necessary changes to the scope of the project early on. A variety of user involvement methods were complementary and benefited the design and implementation of a complex health IT solution. Combining these methods with agile software development methodology can turn designs into functioning clinical system to support iterative improvement. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Social Roots of Global Environmental Change: A World-Systems Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Timmons Roberts

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is understood to be the most important greenhouse gas believed to be altering the global climate. This article applies world-system theory to environmental damage. An analysis of 154 countries examines the contribution of both position in the world economy and internal class and political forces in determining a nation's CO, intensity. CO, intensity is defined here as the amount of carbon dioxide released per unit of economic output. An inverted U distribution of CO, intensity across the range of countries in the global stratification system is identified and discussed. Ordinary Least Squares regression suggests that the least efficient consumers of fossil fuels are some countries within the semi-periphery and upper periphery, spe-cifically those nations which are high exporters, those highly in debt, nations with higher military spending, and those with a repressive social structure.

  14. Industrialization in Globalizing World and The Changing Role Of The State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Balcı İzgi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available World economies are an integral part of a whole system that are inseperable . It is not wise to think the future of these economies seperately. If we assume that developed countries are going in the same trajectories, the outcomes for developing countries should be considered in economic policies. The scope of this study is to argue the industrialization concept with the globalization and to define the limits of government in developed and developing countries. In globalizing world the limits of the governments are also discussed. However states continue their position in governance and economy. In order to achieve a sustained and powerfull industrialization countries need a weel arranged industrial policiy and state intervention. However the important thing is to define the limits and responsibilities of the government.

  15. The effect of the pathway to a two degrees warmer world on the regional temperature change of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Fox Maule

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate if the pathway to reach a 2 degree warmer world influences the regional climate in Europe at the time of 2 degrees of global warming above the pre-industrial level. We have investigated this using climate change data from ensembles of both Global Climate Models and Regional Climate Models. We compare the change of regional temperature in Europe to the global temperature change for different emission scenarios, following the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP, to see if the pathway has any influence. We find that there is a small but significant difference in the regional temperature change, but the effect is small compared to internal variability on the timescales involved in reaching +2 degrees for the investigated emission scenarios. From an adaptation point of view, reaching +2 degrees as slowly as possible will obviously allow for a longer time period to implement adaptation measures to mitigate the effect of climate change.

  16. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  17. Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points

    KAUST Repository

    Bučinský , Luká š; Kucková , Lenka; Malček, Michal; Koží šek, Jozef; Biskupič, Stanislav; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Bü chel, Gabriel E.; Arion, Vladimir B.

    2014-01-01

    The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points

    KAUST Repository

    Bučinský, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal Peak Management Using Organic Phase Change Materials for Latent Heat Storage in Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxa, Jacob; Novikov, Andrej; Nowottnick, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Modern high power electronics devices consists of a large amount of integrated circuits for switching and supply applications. Beside the benefits, the technology exhibits the problem of an ever increasing power density. Nowadays, heat sinks that are directly mounted on a device, are used to reduce the on-chip temperature and dissipate the thermal energy to the environment. This paper presents a concept of a composite coating for electronic components on printed circuit boards or electronic assemblies that is able to buffer a certain amount of thermal energy, dissipated from a device. The idea is to suppress temperature peaks in electronic components during load peaks or electronic shorts, which otherwise could damage or destroy the device, by using a phase change material to buffer the thermal energy. The phase change material coating could be directly applied on the chip package or the PCB using different mechanical retaining jigs.

  20. Thermal Peak Management Using Organic Phase Change Materials for Latent Heat Storage in Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Maxa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern high power electronics devices consists of a large amount of integrated circuits for switching and supply applications. Beside the benefits, the technology exhibits the problem of an ever increasing power density. Nowadays, heat sinks that are directly mounted on a device, are used to reduce the on-chip temperature and dissipate the thermal energy to the environment. This paper presents a concept of a composite coating for electronic components on printed circuit boards or electronic assemblies that is able to buffer a certain amount of thermal energy, dissipated from a device. The idea is to suppress temperature peaks in electronic components during load peaks or electronic shorts, which otherwise could damage or destroy the device, by using a phase change material to buffer the thermal energy. The phase change material coating could be directly applied on the chip package or the PCB using different mechanical retaining jigs.

  1. A model of cognitive and operational memory of organizations in changing worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Dosi; Luigi Marengo; Evita Paraskevopoulou; Marco Valente

    2015-01-01

    This work analyzes and models the nature and dynamics of organizational memory, as such an essential ingredient of organizational capabilities. There are two sides to it, namely a cognitive side, involving the beliefs and interpretative frameworks by which the organization categorizes the states of the world and its own internal states, and an operational one, including routines and procedures that store the knowledge of how to do things. We formalize both types of memory by means of evolving...

  2. UNSC’s Expansion: Prospects for Change and Implications for the Regions and the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Security Council Reform? Lesson for and from Institutional Theory ,” in Multilateralism and Security Institutions in an Era of Globalization, eds...world politics.153 151 Voeten, Why no U.N. Security Council Reform? Lesson for and from Institutional ... Theory , 289. 152 McDonald and Patrick, Security Council Enlargement and U. S. Interests, 4. 153 McDonald and Patrick, Security Council Enlargement

  3. Floating Between Two Worlds : Investigating Discourses of Continuity and Change within Akha Educational Practices in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    As the postmodern view on local perspectives and situated knowledge is becoming increasingly more important, educational issues regarding ethnic minority groups and multicultural aspects of learning are rapidly turning into a major focus throughout the international educational world. Distinct minority cultures and languages are rarely given enough attention within formal school settings. Instead national languages and curriculum are mandatory, leaving minority students confused and at a disa...

  4. Education and Social Change: Perspectives from the Developing and Developed World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David H. M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses education's purpose as bringing about change and the attraction of using education to effect social change in countries like Australia and newly independent Zimbabwe. Examines both the efficacy and the legitimacy of education's role and contribution to social change as related to particular political positions and thinking styles. (MLH)

  5. Post-Fordist technology and the changing patterns of women's employment in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, M

    2000-01-01

    Literate but unskilled--and largely female--labor has thus far fueled the tremendous increase in manufactured exports of garments and microelectronic products from the Third World to the industrially advanced economies of the North. The future growth of these sectors, however, may require literate and skilled workers--a category in which women are woefully under-represented, especially in the Third World. In the case of the garment industry, defensive innovation in the industrially advanced countries, including automation and flexible management, has initiated a relocation of jobs to these countries or to offshore locations geographically close to their markets. Automated garment production in these countries requires fewer but computer-literate workers. In the case of microelectronics, development policies of East Asian countries and the competitive pressures on start-up companies in the North have led to an increased demand for computer-literate, skilled technicians over the unskilled and overwhelmingly female workforce of manual-assembly workers. Women's continued employment and advancement in these industries globally will depend upon their acquisition of new technical skills. The ratification by the 1995 international women's conference at Beijing of the demand for better access to education and skills training for women, especially in the Third World, is a step in the right direction.

  6. Major Findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Robert W; Grotte, Nathaniel

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses findings from The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition, and Human Development in the Western World since 1700 (Cambridge University Press) The book is built on the authors' work with 300 years of height and nutrition data and discusses their findings in the context of technophysio evolution, a uniquely modern form of rapid physiological development, the result of humanity's ability to control its environment and create technological innovations to adapt to it.

  7. Predictors of public climate change awareness and risk perception around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien Ming; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Howe, Peter D.; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is a threat to human societies and natural ecosystems, yet public opinion research finds that public awareness and concern vary greatly. Here, using an unprecedented survey of 119 countries, we determine the relative influence of socio-demographic characteristics, geography, perceived well-being, and beliefs on public climate change awareness and risk perceptions at national scales. Worldwide, educational attainment is the single strongest predictor of climate change awareness. Understanding the anthropogenic cause of climate change is the strongest predictor of climate change risk perceptions, particularly in Latin America and Europe, whereas perception of local temperature change is the strongest predictor in many African and Asian countries. However, other key factors associated with public awareness and risk perceptions highlight the need to develop tailored climate communication strategies for individual nations. The results suggest that improving basic education, climate literacy, and public understanding of the local dimensions of climate change are vital to public engagement and support for climate action.

  8. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yong Joo [Department of Biobased Materials, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Soo-Jeong [Department of Wood and Paper Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: {yields} The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. {yields} Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. {yields} Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  9. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yong Joo; Shin, Soo-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: → The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. → Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. → Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  10. Work-Practice Changes Associated with an Electronic Emergency-Department Whiteboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    , existing work practices, and the clinicians’ experience. Another change in the work practices is distributed access to whiteboard information from the computers in patient rooms. A decrease in the mental workload of the coordinating nurse was envisaged but has not emerged. Achieving more changes appears......Electronic whiteboards are introduced at emergency departments (EDs) to improve work practices. This study investigates whether the time physicians and nurses at an ED spend in patient rooms versus at the control desk increases after the introduction of an electronic whiteboard. After using...... this whiteboard for four months nurses, but not physicians, spend more of their time with the patients. With the electronic whiteboard, nurses spend 28% of their time in patient rooms and physicians 20%. Importantly, the changes facilitated by the electronic whiteboard are also dependent on implementation issues...

  11. Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world's ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Frazier, Melanie; Potapenko, John; Casey, Kenneth S; Koenig, Kellee; Longo, Catherine; Lowndes, Julia Stewart; Rockwood, R Cotton; Selig, Elizabeth R; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Walbridge, Shaun

    2015-07-14

    Human pressures on the ocean are thought to be increasing globally, yet we know little about their patterns of cumulative change, which pressures are most responsible for change, and which places are experiencing the greatest increases. Managers and policymakers require such information to make strategic decisions and monitor progress towards management objectives. Here we calculate and map recent change over 5 years in cumulative impacts to marine ecosystems globally from fishing, climate change, and ocean- and land-based stressors. Nearly 66% of the ocean and 77% of national jurisdictions show increased human impact, driven mostly by climate change pressures. Five percent of the ocean is heavily impacted with increasing pressures, requiring management attention. Ten percent has very low impact with decreasing pressures. Our results provide large-scale guidance about where to prioritize management efforts and affirm the importance of addressing climate change to maintain and improve the condition of marine ecosystems.

  12. `Not to escape the world but to join it': responding to climate change with imagination not fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    The work of climate scientists, demonstrating human-driven climate change, has not provoked the widespread and far-reaching changes to human behaviour necessary to avert potentially catastrophic environmental trajectories. This work has not yet sufficiently been able to engage the individual and collective imagination. Drawing on Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) and Iris Murdoch (1919-1999), we can distinguish two modes under which the human imagination can operate: in Murdoch's terms, these are `imagination' and `fantasy'. To relate imaginatively is to be willing to allow one's internal image of the world to be changed by what one encounters, while an outlook characterized by fantasy relates to the world as one would wish it were, rather than how it actually is. Fantasy, therefore, operates not only among those who deny climate change, but also among those who entertain the promise of a technological solution too optimistically. An imaginative outlook, by contrast, evaluates actions and patterns of behaviour in terms of their relation to a wider whole. This is necessary for providing the degree of agency required to step out of a cycle of ever accelerating production, which is explored in terms of an analogy to a discussion of revenge and forgiveness from Hannah Arendt (1906-1975). Ultimately, the need to engage the imagination is an opportunity as well as a challenge. To live imaginatively is fulfilling, and that is precisely what the challenges of climate change require. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  13. Unexpected stasis in a changing world: Lake nutrient and chlorophyll trends since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Samantha K.; Collins, Sarah M.; Soranno, Patricia A.; Wagner, Tyler; Stanley, Emily H.; Jones, John R.; Stow, Craig A.; Lottig, Noah R.

    2017-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) has faced major environmental changes in recent decades, including agricultural intensification and urban expansion, as well as changes in atmospheric deposition and climate—all of which may influence eutrophication of freshwaters. However, it is unclear whether or how water quality in lakes across diverse ecological settings has responded to environmental change. We quantified water quality trends in 2913 lakes using nutrient and chlorophyll (Chl) observations from the Lake Multi-Scaled Geospatial and Temporal Database of the Northeast U.S. (LAGOS-NE), a collection of preexisting lake data mostly from state agencies. LAGOS-NE was used to quantify whether lake water quality has changed from 1990 to 2013, and whether lake-specific or regional geophysical factors were related to the observed changes. We modeled change through time using hierarchical linear models for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), stoichiometry (TN:TP), and Chl. Both the slopes (percent change per year) and intercepts (value in 1990) were allowed to vary by lake and region. Across all lakes, TN declined at a rate of 1.1% year−1, while TP, TN:TP, and Chl did not change. A minority (7%–16%) of individual lakes had changing nutrients, stoichiometry, or Chl. Of those lakes that changed, we found differences in the geospatial variables that were most related to the observed change in the response variables. For example, TN and TN:TP trends were related to region-level drivers associated with atmospheric deposition of N; TP trends were related to both lake and region-level drivers associated with climate and land use; and Chl trends were found in regions with high air temperature at the beginning of the study period. We conclude that despite large environmental change and management efforts over recent decades, water quality of lakes in the Midwest and Northeast U.S. has not overwhelmingly degraded or improved.

  14. Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world's ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, Benjamin S.; Frazier, Melanie; Potapenko, John; Casey, Kenneth S.; Koenig, Kellee; Longo, Catherine; Lowndes, Julia Stewart; Rockwood, R. Cotton; Selig, Elizabeth R.; Selkoe, Kimberly A.; Walbridge, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Human pressures on the ocean are thought to be increasing globally, yet we know little about their patterns of cumulative change, which pressures are most responsible for change, and which places are experiencing the greatest increases. Managers and policymakers require such information to make strategic decisions and monitor progress towards management objectives. Here we calculate and map recent change over 5 years in cumulative impacts to marine ecosystems globally from fishing, climate ch...

  15. Climate change: Evolving technologies, U.S. business, and the world economy in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harter, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The International Climate Change Partnership presents this report as one of its efforts to present current information on climate change to the public. One often hears about the expenses entailed in protecting the environment. Unfortunately, one hears less about the economic benefits that may be associated with prudent actions to counter environmental threats. This conference is particularly useful because it focuses attention on profitable business opportunities in the United States and elsewhere that arise from practical efforts to mitigate the risks of climate change. The report contains a brief synopsis of each speaker's address on climate change

  16. Climate change: Evolving technologies, U.S. business, and the world economy in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harter, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    The International Climate Change Partnership presents this report as one of its efforts to present current information on climate change to the public. One often hears about the expenses entailed in protecting the environment. Unfortunately, one hears less about the economic benefits that may be associated with prudent actions to counter environmental threats. This conference is particularly useful because it focuses attention on profitable business opportunities in the United States and elsewhere that arise from practical efforts to mitigate the risks of climate change. The report contains a brief synopsis of each speaker`s address on climate change.

  17. Establishing a learning foundation in a dynamically changing world: Insights from artificial language work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Kalim

    It is argued that infants build a foundation for learning about the world through their incidental acquisition of the spatial and temporal regularities surrounding them. A challenge is that learning occurs across multiple contexts whose statistics can greatly differ. Two artificial language studies with 12-month-olds demonstrate that infants come prepared to parse statistics across contexts using the temporal and perceptual features that distinguish one context from another. These results suggest that infants can organize their statistical input with a wider range of features that typically considered. Possible attention, decision making, and memory mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Einstein's genius club the true story of a group of scientists who changed the world

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Burton

    2011-01-01

    As World War II wound down and it became increasingly clear that the Allies would emerge victorious, Albert Einstein invited three close friends-all titans of contemporary science and philosophy-to his home at 112 Mercer Street in Princeton, New Jersey, to discuss what they loved best-science and philosophy. His guests were the legendary philosopher and pacifist, Bertrand Russell; the boy wonder of quantum physics, Wolfgang Pauli; and the brilliant logician, Kurt Gödel. Their casual meetings took place far from the horrific battlefields of the war and the (then) secret lair of exp

  19. Seven experiments that could change the world a do-it-yourself guide to revolutionary science

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldrake, Rupert

    1994-01-01

    Seven experiments are proposed in this book that the author believes, if any are successful, will alter how the reader perceives the world. The purpose of the book is to draw attention to areas of research neglected as a result of conventional habits of thought. The descriptions of the experiments are intended to focus the topics under discussion. One of the experiments in the book aims to test the hypothesis that many dogs and cats know that their owners are coming home before they actually arrive. Rupert Sheldrake has also written "The Presence of the Past" and "The Rebirth of Nature".

  20. Build a Catastrophe: Using Digital World and Policy Models to Engage Political Science Students with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Lennon, T.; Mead, C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is a problem that involves science, economics, and politics. Particularly in the United States, political resistance to addressing climate change has been exacerbated by a concerted misinformation campaign against the basic science, a negative response to how the proposed solutions to climate change intersect with values. Scientists often propose more climate science education as a solution to the problem, but preliminary studies indicate that more science education does not necessarily reduce polarization on the topic (Kahan et al. 2012). Is there a way that we can better engage non-science students in topics related to climate change that improve their comprehension of the problem and its implications, overcoming polarization? In an existing political science course, "Do You Want to Build a Nation?", we are testing a new digital world-building model based on resource development and consequent environmental and societal impacts. Students spend half the class building their nations based on their assigned ideology (i.e., socialist, absolute monarchy, libertarian) and the second half of the class negotiating with other nations to resolve global issues while remaining true to their ideologies. The course instructor, co-author Lennon, and ASU's Center for Education Through eXploration have collaborated to design a digital world model based on resources linked to an adaptive decision-making environment that translates student policies into modifications to the digital world. The model tracks students' exploration and justification of their nation's policy choices. In the Fall 2017 offering of the course, we will investigate how this digital world model and scenarios built around it affect student learning outcomes. Specifically, we anticipate improved understanding of the policy trade-offs related to energy development, better understanding of the ways that different ideologies approach solutions to climate change, and that both will result in more

  1. Time for change: a roadmap to guide the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Jiri; Baume, Norbert; Botré, Francesco; Broséus, Julian; Budgett, Richard; Frey, Walter O; Geyer, Hans; Harcourt, Peter Rex; Ho, Dave; Howman, David; Isola, Victor; Lundby, Carsten; Marclay, François; Peytavin, Annie; Pipe, Andrew; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Reichel, Christian; Robinson, Neil; Rodchenkov, Grigory; Saugy, Martial; Sayegh, Souheil; Segura, Jordi; Thevis, Mario; Vernec, Alan; Viret, Marjolaine; Vouillamoz, Marc; Zorzoli, Mario

    2014-05-01

    A medical and scientific multidisciplinary consensus meeting was held from 29 to 30 November 2013 on Anti-Doping in Sport at the Home of FIFA in Zurich, Switzerland, to create a roadmap for the implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code. The consensus statement and accompanying papers set out the priorities for the antidoping community in research, science and medicine. The participants achieved consensus on a strategy for the implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code. Key components of this strategy include: (1) sport-specific risk assessment, (2) prevalence measurement, (3) sport-specific test distribution plans, (4) storage and reanalysis, (5) analytical challenges, (6) forensic intelligence, (7) psychological approach to optimise the most deterrent effect, (8) the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and confounding factors, (9) data management system (Anti-Doping Administration & Management System (ADAMS), (10) education, (11) research needs and necessary advances, (12) inadvertent doping and (13) management and ethics: biological data. True implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code will depend largely on the ability to align thinking around these core concepts and strategies. FIFA, jointly with all other engaged International Federations of sports (Ifs), the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), are ideally placed to lead transformational change with the unwavering support of the wider antidoping community. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the ad hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this agenda forward.

  2. Panasonic : A Case Study on Constant Change and Reinvention of a World Brand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathies, Uli; Segers, Rien

    Panasonic’s nearly one hunderd-year history can be divided into several phases. The constant factor in Panasonic’s history was—and is—change. And this may also contain the simple answer to the question about Panasonic’s secret of success: the ability to transform as required by an ever-changing

  3. Keeping up with a warming world; assessing the rate of adaptation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The pivotal question in the debate on the ecological effects of climate change is whether species will be able to adapt fast enough to keep up with their changing environment. If we establish the maximal rate of adaptation, this will set an upper limit to the rate at which temperatures can increase

  4. Exploring a model for finding meaning in the changing world of work (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Burger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article explores the role that meaning, as logotherapy conceptualises it, can play to facilitate organisational changes.Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore further a model an earlier paper proposed for using employees’ experiences of meaning in work contexts to facilitate changes.Motivation for the study: The researchers could not find a comprehensive model in the literature for addressing employees’ experiences of meaning in, or at, work during organisational changes. A previous paper proposed such a model, but it addressed only one component fully. This article seeks to explore this model further to address this apparent gap in the literature.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a literature review to conduct the study. The components of the model directed this review in order to find meaning at work.Main findings: The actions of organisations, which aim to create positive organisational contexts (through practices for improving meaning at work and transcendence and to frame changes using ‘Logo-OD’, can improve employees’ experiences of meaning during organisational changes.Practical/managerial implications: Understanding the relationship between meaning and organisational change, and applying the model this article presents, can contribute to the overall success of change initiatives.Contribution/value-add: This study’s primary contribution stems from the novel framework it presents for organisations to use the knowledge about how employees search for meaning to facilitate changes.

  5. When places change their names on maps. Cases study from the Arab world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhieb, Mohsen

    2018-05-01

    The transcription of geographical names on maps in one given language is a very complex process. Depending on the used language, toponyms are mostly deformed from their natural language. In the Arab world, this deformation is treated in various ways. In many cases, Arabic place names suffer a double distortion when first transcribed from Arabic or another original language into French or English, and second when taking the same way back. Through a review of examples from some Arab place names, a few cases are analyzed to reveal the mechanisms of such anomaly and a strategy is recommended to avoid it. Departing from Arabic atlases, we will realize three steps. First, we examine this anomaly through case studies taken from the English and French toponymic transcriptions. Second, the produced names area compared to those of other countries, considering the processes and mechanisms involved. Third, we propose a global strategy to overcome this anomaly in transcribing names in the Arab world by prioritizing produced transformations. The proposed strategy witnesses the concept of standardized "exendonyms" presented and discussed in a previous research for foreign languages such as French or English. When Arabic is used, the phonetic local transcription is recommended but should also fit transcription rules of the used language as much as possible. In doing so, transcripts should not shift or deviate so far from original name places and much ambiguity can be avoided. This strategy must obey standardized international rules and may repose on modern techniques or media.

  6. Exploring a model for finding meaning in the changing world of work (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Burger

    2012-06-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore further a model an earlier paper proposed for using employees’ experiences of meaning in work contexts to facilitate changes. Motivation for the study: The researchers could not find a comprehensive model in the literature for addressing employees’ experiences of meaning in, or at, work during organisational changes. A previous paper proposed such a model, but it addressed only one component fully. This article seeks to explore this model further to address this apparent gap in the literature. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a literature review to conduct the study. The components of the model directed this review in order to find meaning at work. Main findings: The actions of organisations, which aim to create positive organisational contexts (through practices for improving meaning at work and transcendence and to frame changes using ‘Logo-OD’, can improve employees’ experiences of meaning during organisational changes. Practical/managerial implications: Understanding the relationship between meaning and organisational change, and applying the model this article presents, can contribute to the overall success of change initiatives. Contribution/value-add: This study’s primary contribution stems from the novel framework it presents for organisations to use the knowledge about how employees search for meaning to facilitate changes.

  7. Current status of the East Sea Ecosystem in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Chung IL; Kwak, Jung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The East/Japan Sea (hereafter the East Sea) is changing quickly. Warming and structural changes in the East Sea have been reported by CREAMS, an acronym of ″Circulation Research of the East Asian Marginal Seas″, which began in 1993 as an international research program to understand the water mass structure and circulation in the East Sea (Kim and Kim, 1996; Kim, 1997; Kim et al., 2001, 2002). A subsequent research program of the EAST-I, an acronym of ″the East Asian Seas Time-series″, was launched by PICES (North Pacific Marine Science Organization) and financially supported by the Korean government, allowing us to deepen our knowledge about rapidly changing processes in the East Sea (Chang et al., 2010). Although there has been considerable progress in developing a mechanistic understanding of the East Sea ecosystem responses to disturbances, more comprehensive studies are needed to address the impacts of the frequency and intensity of disturbances on marine ecosystems. The most important question of the research has been: how do environmental changes affect structural and functional biodiversity? Recently launched research on ″Long-term change of structure and function in marine ecosystems of Korea″, which has been supported by the Korean government since 2011, has given an unprecedented insight into the ecosystem dynamics in the East Sea. It therefore seems an appropriate time to devote a special issue to the topic of ″Current status of the East Sea ecosystem in a changing world″.

  8. Changing world: Basic structure of global inter-relations between man and environment. Expert opinion for the year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A year after the environmental summit in Rio de Janeiro a turnabout in the alarming global environmental change is not within sight. Thoughtless economic activity and population growth threaten, damage or destroy many natural biospheres and biological communities world-wide. In the long term mankind is endangering its own survival. Global environmental changes have other causes and much more complex effects than most national environmental problems. In its first annual expertise of 1993, the scientific advisory council on ''Global Environmental Change'' describes the close global interknitting of man and nature, society and environment, in order to lay the foundation for future expertises. Global environmental targets and future economic development must be better matched to each other. In view of the following major trends: increase in world population, changing composition of the atmosphere in the long term, loss of biological variety and deterioration and loss of soils, the advisory committee gives some main recommendations: increase in German development aid to 1% of the GNP, rapid implementation of the climate convention, i.e., cuts in CO 2 emissions, and sensitization of citizens to global environmental problems as well as schemes for the promotion of environmentally-friendly practices. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Perils in the adaptation of fire management to a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán; M.M. Fernández-Ramiro; Claudio Conese; Francesco Bosello; Jorge Núñez; Victor Otrachshenko; B.J. Orr

    2014-01-01

    Increased fire load and costs are anticipated under future scenarios of climate and other global changes. This requires increased efficiency in investments in wildfire management operations, and resolving the disconnect problem between science, policy and management.

  10. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Sagarmatha National Park, a World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Garrard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC changes that occurred during 1992–2011 in Sagarmatha National Park, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of eastern Nepal, were evaluated using multitemporal satellite imagery in combination with land use data and sociological information gathered from semistructured interviews and workshops. We asked study participants about LULC changes, the causes of each change, and the likely duration of its effects, and used this information to produce high-resolution maps of local perceptions of LULC change. Satellite image analysis revealed that above 6000 m there has been a decrease in the area covered by snow and ice and a consequent expansion of glacial lakes and areas covered by rock and soil. Between 3000 and 6000 m, forest and farmland are decreasing, and areas under grazing, settlement, and shrubland are increasing. Such LULC changes within the protected area clearly indicate the prevailing danger of land degradation. Results from the interviews and workshops suggest that people tended to detect LULC change that was acute and direct, but were less aware of slower changes that could be identified by satellite imagery analysis. Most study participants said that land use changes were a result of rapid economic development and the consequent pressure on natural resources, especially in the tourism industry and especially below 6000 m elevation, as well as limitations to protected area management and a period of civil war. Human influence coupled with climate change may explain the changes at higher elevations, whereas anthropogenic activities are solely responsible in lower areas. Although global factors cannot be mitigated locally, many of the local drivers of LULC change could be addressed with improved management practices that aid local conservation and development in this high mountain ecosystem. A broader interdisciplinary approach to LULC change

  11. Virtual Reality Design: How Head-Mounted Displays Change Design Paradigms of Virtual Reality Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the upcoming generation of virtual reality HMDs, new virtual worlds, scenarios, and games are created especially for them. These are no longer bound to a remote screen or a relatively static user, but to an HMD as a more immersive device. This article discusses requirements for virtual scenarios implemented in new-generation HMDs to achieve a comfortable user experience. Furthermore, the effects of positional tracking are introduced and the relation between the user’s virtual and physical body is analyzed. The observations made are exemplified by existing software prototypes. They indicate how the term “virtual reality,” with all its loaded connotations, may be reconceptualized to express the peculiarities of HMDs in the context of gaming, entertainment, and virtual experiences.

  12. Our concept of the world is changed by nuclear power. Veraenderung unseres Weltbildes durch die Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knizia, K. (Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG (VEW), Dortmund (Germany). Vorstand)

    1993-01-01

    In the absence of a positive agreement on the use of nuclear power mankind will not be able to live in peace. Viability is endagered by worldwide battles for energy. In the long term, the peaceful utilization of nuclear power must be given priority because the reserves of fossil energy resources will have been consumed in a few generations' time and renewable energy sources do not produce a yield high enough to meet the demand for energy of a continuously increasing world population. Creativity and captial must ensure sufficient and sustainable supplies of energy and goods for everybody. Environmental protection is facilitated by the use of nuclear power, for nuclear power is a source of energy whose waste can be removed from the biosphere completely and safely. (orig.).

  13. Natural hazards in a changing world: a case for ecosystem-based management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne L Nel

    Full Text Available Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1:100 year flood event to a 1:80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1:100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes, it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events.

  14. How Can Latin America Help the World to Cope with Climate Change?

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Galiani; Manuel Puente; Federico Weinschelbaum

    2013-01-01

    Latin America has a comparative advantage in deforestation compared to other forms of climate change mitigation. Thus, to the extent that Latin America should engage in mitigation, the optimal climate change policy should manage these advantages by generating incentives in Latin America to deal with forestry. This paper describes the problem of deforestation and studies the market failures that arise in relation to forestry emission problems, analyzing them from a global public good perspecti...

  15. U.S. Cotton Prices and the World Cotton Market: Forecasting and Structural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Isengildina-Massa, Olga; MacDonald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze structural changes that took place in the cotton industry in recent years and develop a statistical model that reflects the current drivers of U.S. cotton prices. Legislative changes authorized the U.S. Department of Agriculture to resume publishing cotton price forecasts for the first time in 79 years. In addition, systematic problems have become apparent in the forecasting models used by USDA and elsewhere, highlighting the need for an updated review...

  16. Insurance World in Transition: Changes in Global Risk Taking and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gero; Tiampo, Kristy

    2015-04-01

    Catastrophe insurance risk assessment, risk taking, and regulation has evolved over the last 20 years and is gearing up for significant further change in the years ahead. Changes in regulation and influx of capital have put profit margins for catastrophe risk products under pressure despite the fact that changes in climate as well as increasing insurance penetration is expected to heighten demand. As a result, reinsurance strategies are moving away from catastrophe risk. In addition, lower margins require cheaper and more efficient risk assessment methods and processes which are contrary to evolving analytical tools and methods that had increased expenses in line with growing margins over the last decade. New capital providers are less familiar with and less willing to accept complex supply chains for risk management, relationship-driven business and tedious data exchange and management processes. Risk takers claim new measures and ask for more flexibility in the use of tools. The current concepts of catastrophe insurance risk assessment are hence under thorough scrutiny. This presentation deals with the changing landscape in catastrophe insurance risk assessment and risk hedging and discusses changes in catastrophe risk assessment products and demand. How likely is it that private, small and nimble hazard and risk consulting groups - increasingly emanating from larger science organizations - will replace large established firms in their role to assess risk? What role do public-private academic partnerships play in assuming risk for catastrophe insurance and what role could they play in the future? What are the opportunities and downsides of the current changes in risk taking and hedging? What is needed from the scientific community in order to fill the gaps in risk management and who is likely to take advantage of the current changes?

  17. How to Support Forest Management in a World of Change: Results of Some Regional Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, C.; Lorz, C.; Vacik, H.; Potocic, N.; Makeschin, F.

    2010-12-01

    This article presents results of several studies in Middle, Eastern and Southeastern Europe on needs and application areas, desirable attributes and marketing potentials of forest management support tools. By comparing present and future application areas, a trend from sectoral planning towards landscape planning and integration of multiple stakeholder needs is emerging. In terms of conflicts, where management support tools might provide benefit, no clear tendencies were found, neither on local nor on regional level. In contrast, on national and European levels, support of the implementation of laws, directives, and regulations was found to be of highest importance. Following the user-requirements analysis, electronic tools supporting communication are preferred against paper-based instruments. The users identified most important attributes of optimized management support tools: (i) a broad accessibility for all users at any time should be guaranteed, (ii) the possibility to integrate iteratively experiences from case studies and from regional experts into the knowledge base (learning system) should be given, and (iii) a self-explanatory user interface is demanded, which is also suitable for users rather inexperienced with electronic tools. However, a market potential analysis revealed that the willingness to pay for management tools is very limited, although the participants specified realistic ranges of maximal amounts of money, which would be invested if the products were suitable and payment inevitable. To bridge the discrepancy between unwillingness to pay and the need to use management support tools, optimized financing or cooperation models between practice and science must be found.

  18. Geology for a changing world 2010-2020-Implementing the U.S. Geological Survey science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Linda C.S.; Belnap, Jayne; Goldhaber, Martin; Goldstein, Arthur; Haeussler, Peter J.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Jones, John W.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Thompson, Robert S.; Back, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a science strategy for the geologic activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the years 2010-2020. It presents six goals with accompanying strategic actions and products that implement the science directions of USGS Circular 1309, 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017.' These six goals focus on providing the geologic underpinning needed to wisely use our natural resources, understand and mitigate hazards and environmental change, and understand the relationship between humans and the environment. The goals emphasize the critical role of the USGS in providing long-term research, monitoring, and assessments for the Nation and the world. Further, they describe measures that must be undertaken to ensure geologic expertise and knowledge for the future. The natural science issues facing today's world are complex and cut across many scientific disciplines. The Earth is a system in which atmosphere, oceans, land, and life are all connected. Rocks and soils contain the answers to important questions about the origin of energy and mineral resources, the evolution of life, climate change, natural hazards, ecosystem structures and functions, and the movements of nutrients and toxicants. The science of geology has the power to help us understand the processes that link the physical and biological world so that we can model and forecast changes in the system. Ensuring the success of this strategy will require integration of geological knowledge with the other natural sciences and extensive collaboration across USGS science centers and with partners in Federal, State, and local agencies, academia, industry, nongovernmental organizations and, most importantly, the American public. The first four goals of this report describe the scientific issues facing society in the next 10 years and the actions and products needed to respond to these issues. The final two goals focus on the expertise and

  19. Biodiversity Areas under Threat: Overlap of Climate Change and Population Pressures on the World's Biodiversity Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukema, Juliann E; Pricope, Narcisa G; Husak, Gregory J; Lopez-Carr, David

    2017-01-01

    Humans and the ecosystem services they depend on are threatened by climate change. Places with high or growing human population as well as increasing climate variability, have a reduced ability to provide ecosystem services just as the need for these services is most critical. A spiral of vulnerability and ecosystem degradation often ensues in such places. We apply different global conservation schemes as proxies to examine the spatial relation between wet season precipitation, population change over three decades, and natural resource conservation. We pose two research questions: 1) Where are biodiversity and ecosystem services vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and population growth? 2) Where are human populations vulnerable to degraded ecosystem services? Results suggest that globally only about 20% of the area between 50 degrees latitude North and South has experienced significant change-largely wetting-in wet season precipitation. Approximately 40% of rangelands and 30% of rainfed agriculture lands have experienced significant precipitation changes, with important implications for food security. Over recent decades a number of critical conservation areas experienced high population growth concurrent with significant wetting or drying (e.g. the Horn of Africa, Himalaya, Western Ghats, and Sri Lanka), posing challenges not only for human adaptation but also to the protection and sustenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Identifying areas of climate and population risk and their overlap with conservation priorities can help to target activities and resources that promote biodiversity and ecosystem services while improving human well-being.

  20. Making predictions in a changing world-inference, uncertainty, and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Jill X

    2013-01-01

    To function effectively, brains need to make predictions about their environment based on past experience, i.e., they need to learn about their environment. The algorithms by which learning occurs are of interest to neuroscientists, both in their own right (because they exist in the brain) and as a tool to model participants' incomplete knowledge of task parameters and hence, to better understand their behavior. This review focusses on a particular challenge for learning algorithms-how to match the rate at which they learn to the rate of change in the environment, so that they use as much observed data as possible whilst disregarding irrelevant, old observations. To do this algorithms must evaluate whether the environment is changing. We discuss the concepts of likelihood, priors and transition functions, and how these relate to change detection. We review expected and estimation uncertainty, and how these relate to change detection and learning rate. Finally, we consider the neural correlates of uncertainty and learning. We argue that the neural correlates of uncertainty bear a resemblance to neural systems that are active when agents actively explore their environments, suggesting that the mechanisms by which the rate of learning is set may be subject to top down control (in circumstances when agents actively seek new information) as well as bottom up control (by observations that imply change in the environment).

  1. Biodiversity Areas under Threat: Overlap of Climate Change and Population Pressures on the World's Biodiversity Priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann E Aukema

    Full Text Available Humans and the ecosystem services they depend on are threatened by climate change. Places with high or growing human population as well as increasing climate variability, have a reduced ability to provide ecosystem services just as the need for these services is most critical. A spiral of vulnerability and ecosystem degradation often ensues in such places. We apply different global conservation schemes as proxies to examine the spatial relation between wet season precipitation, population change over three decades, and natural resource conservation. We pose two research questions: 1 Where are biodiversity and ecosystem services vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and population growth? 2 Where are human populations vulnerable to degraded ecosystem services? Results suggest that globally only about 20% of the area between 50 degrees latitude North and South has experienced significant change-largely wetting-in wet season precipitation. Approximately 40% of rangelands and 30% of rainfed agriculture lands have experienced significant precipitation changes, with important implications for food security. Over recent decades a number of critical conservation areas experienced high population growth concurrent with significant wetting or drying (e.g. the Horn of Africa, Himalaya, Western Ghats, and Sri Lanka, posing challenges not only for human adaptation but also to the protection and sustenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Identifying areas of climate and population risk and their overlap with conservation priorities can help to target activities and resources that promote biodiversity and ecosystem services while improving human well-being.

  2. Bridging the gap between the randomised clinical trial world and the real world by combination of population-based registry and electronic health record data: A case study in haemato-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbelaar, R E; Oortgiesen, B E; van der Wal-Oost, A M; Boslooper, K; Coebergh, J W; Veeger, N J G M; Joosten, P; Storm, H; van Roon, E N; Hoogendoorn, M

    2017-11-01

    Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) are considered the basis of evidence-based medicine. It is recognised more and more that application of RCT results in daily practice of clinical decision-making is limited because the RCT world does not correspond with the clinical real world. Recent strategies aiming at substitution of RCT databases by improved population-based registries (PBRs) or by improved electronic health record (EHR) systems to provide significant data for clinical science are discussed. A novel approach exemplified by the HemoBase haemato-oncology project is presented. In this approach, a PBR is combined with an advanced EHR, providing high-quality data for observational studies and support of best practice development. This PBR + EHR approach opens a perspective on randomised registry trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Challenges in predicting climate and environmental effects on vector-borne disease episystems in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    2010-03-15

    Vector-borne pathogens cause enormous suffering to humans and animals. Many are expanding their range into new areas. Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya have recently caused substantial human epidemics. Arthropod-borne animal diseases like Bluetongue, Rift Valley fever and African horse sickness pose substantial threats to livestock economies around the world. Climate change can impact the vector-borne disease epidemiology. Changes in climate will influence arthropod vectors, their life cycles and life histories, resulting in changes in both vector and pathogen distribution and changes in the ability of arthropods to transmit pathogens. Climate can affect the way pathogens interact with both the arthropod vector and the human or animal host. Predicting and mitigating the effects of future changes in the environment like climate change on the complex arthropod-pathogen-host epidemiological cycle requires understanding of a variety of complex mechanisms from the molecular to the population level. Although there has been substantial progress on many fronts the challenges to effectively understand and mitigate the impact of potential changes in the environment on vector-borne pathogens are formidable and at an early stage of development. The challenges will be explored using several arthropod-borne pathogen systems as illustration, and potential avenues to meet the challenges will be presented.

  4. Submersed aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay: Sentinel species in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Robert J.; Dennison, William C.; Lefcheck, Jonathon S.; Gurbisz, Cassie; Hannam, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer; Landry, J. Brooke; Moore, Kenneth A.; Murphy, Rebecca R.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Testa, Jeremy; Weller, Donald E.; Wilcox, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay has undergone profound changes since European settlement. Increases in human and livestock populations, associated changes in land use, increases in nutrient loadings, shoreline armoring, and depletion of fish stocks have altered the important habitats within the Bay. Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) is a critical foundational habitat and provides numerous benefits and services to society. In Chesapeake Bay, SAV species are also indicators of environmental change because of their sensitivity to water quality and shoreline development. As such, SAV has been deeply integrated into regional regulations and annual assessments of management outcomes, restoration efforts, the scientific literature, and popular media coverage. Even so, SAV in Chesapeake Bay faces many historical and emerging challenges. The future of Chesapeake Bay is indicated by and contingent on the success of SAV. Its persistence will require continued action, coupled with new practices, to promote a healthy and sustainable ecosystem.

  5. Review and synthesis: Changing permafrost in a warming world and feedbacks to the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Goetz, Scott; McGuire, A. David; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Schuur, Edward A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The permafrost component of the cryosphere is changing dramatically, but the permafrost region is not well monitored and the consequences of change are not well understood. Changing permafrost interacts with ecosystems and climate on various spatial and temporal scales. The feedbacks resulting from these interactions range from local impacts on topography, hydrology, and biology to complex influences on global scale biogeochemical cycling. This review contributes to this focus issue by synthesizing its 28 multidisciplinary studies which provide field evidence, remote sensing observations, and modeling results on various scales. We synthesize study results from a diverse range of permafrost landscapes and ecosystems by reporting key observations and modeling outcomes for permafrost thaw dynamics, identifying feedbacks between permafrost and ecosystem processes, and highlighting biogeochemical feedbacks from permafrost thaw. We complete our synthesis by discussing the progress made, stressing remaining challenges and knowledge gaps, and providing an outlook on future needs and research opportunities in the study of permafrost–ecosystem–climate interactions.

  6. Unbounded boundaries and shifting baselines: Estuaries and coastal seas in a rapidly changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, S.; Spencer, K. L.; Schuttelaars, H. M.; Millward, G. E.; Elliott, M.

    2017-11-01

    This Special Issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science presents contributions from ECSA 55; an international symposium organised by the Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA) and Elsevier on the broad theme of estuaries and coastal seas in times of intense change. The objectives of the SI are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the impacts of global change on estuaries and coastal seas through learning lessons from the past, discussing the current and forecasting for the future. It is highlighted here that establishing impacts and assigning cause to the many pressures of global change is and will continue to be a formidable challenge in estuaries and coastal seas, due in part to: (1) their complexity and unbounded nature; (2) difficulties distinguishing between human-induced changes and natural variations and; (3) multiple pressures and effects. The contributing authors have explored a number of these issues over a range of disciplines. The complexity and connectivity of estuaries and coastal seas have been investigated through studies of physicochemical and ecological components, whilst the human imprint on the environment has been identified through a series of predictive, contemporary, historical and palaeo approaches. The impact of human activities has been shown to occur over a range of spatial and temporal scales, requiring the development of integrated management approaches. These 30 articles provide an important contribution to our understanding and assessment of the impacts of global change. The authors highlight methods for essential management/mitigation of the consequences of global change and provide a set of directions, ideas and observations for future work. These include the need to consider: (1) the cumulative, synergistic and antagonistic effects of multiple pressures; (2) the importance of unbounded boundaries and connectivity across the aquatic continuum; (3) the value of combining cross-disciplinary palaeo, contemporary and

  7. The understanding of world climate change; Les connaissances sur le changement climatique mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M.

    2008-07-01

    After having recalled that the problem of global warming in relationship with human activities has been studied since the end of the nineteenth century and since then by different scientific programs, the author describes how the IPCC's or Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's report is produced. He briefly comments how Earth's temperature is determined and the various natural parameters which influence the climate on Earth. He recalls how the IPCC showed the actual influence of human activities, and which changes have actually been observed

  8. AEDT: A new concept for ecological dynamics in the ever-changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The important concept of equilibrium has always been controversial in ecology, but a new, more general concept, an asymptotic environmentally determined trajectory (AEDT), overcomes many concerns with equilibrium by realistically incorporating long-term climate change while retaining much of the predictive power of a stable equilibrium. A population or ecological community is predicted to approach its AEDT, which is a function of time reflecting environmental history and biology. The AEDT invokes familiar questions and predictions but in a more realistic context in which consideration of past environments and a future changing profoundly due to human influence becomes possible. Strong applications are also predicted in population genetics, evolution, earth sciences, and economics.

  9. A Matter of Perspective - E and P Strategy in a Changing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, Phill

    1998-01-01

    This presentation states that the exploration and production industry sees many new opportunities, as a result of political changes and its own expanding capabilities. There is increasing competition for scarce resources - people, tools, technology, capital and public support. The industry must meet pressing challenges, including low oil prices and changing societal expectations. Investors seek predictable terms that are appropriate for both global and local conditions. They have to assess the risks, value the opportunities, consider whether they have the necessary resources, and satisfy themselves they can maintain standards. Their choices are constrained by economic conditions and commercial realities

  10. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Nanostructural Changes in Phase-Change Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Meister, Stefan; Kim, SangBum; Cha, Judy J.; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Phase-change memory (PCM) has been researched extensively as a promising alternative to flash memory. Important studies have focused on its scalability, switching speed, endurance, and new materials. Still, reliability issues and inconsistent

  11. Work and Change. Labor Market Adjustment Policies in a Competitive World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, New York, NY. Research and Policy Committee.

    The net effect on employment of structural changes now occurring in the United States will be determined by the actions that government, management, and labor take to create and support the conditions for new opportunity and to encourage people to move from old to new work. Many of the measures that need to be taken to ensure profitability involve…

  12. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  13. Photosynthesis: ancient, essential, complex, diverse ... and in need of improvement in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    A challenge to crop improvement is the fact that the photosynthetic process has been fine tuned by billions of years of natural selection, and is subject to deeply rooted genetic controls shaped in the native environments of the crop ancestors. These may be difficult to change and may not be optima...

  14. Perfectly Reasonable in a Practical World: Understanding Chemistry Teacher Responses to a Change Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbroek, Hanna; Janssen, Fred; Doyle, Walter

    2017-12-01

    Curriculum ideals often get compromised as a curriculum moves through its various levels of representation. Across the different science reforms, this process of slippage is clearly present. Research shows that teacher subject matter knowledge, PCK, beliefs and context factors all influence implementation. Professional development arrangements focus on fixing deficiencies in teachers' knowledge, beliefs or work context. This approach has not solved the problem of slippage, as we still do not understand what mechanisms operate when teachers make decisions about change proposals. In this study, we unpacked the decision mechanisms of three highly qualified chemistry teachers who subsequently adapted an innovative context-based chemistry unit. In spite of a state of the art professional development arrangement and the teachers being highly qualified, slippage occurred. The teachers' goal systems were used to interpret their reasoning. A goal system is a context-dependent, within-person mental construct that consists of a hierarchy of a person's goals and means in pursuit of a task. We showed that all three teachers adopted or redesigned elements of the change proposals to meet their core goals, i.e., goals that had multiple connections with other goals. This indicated that the adaptations teachers made were perfectly reasonable ways to serve their professional goals. For change to happen, we contend that one should begin with ways to connect teachers' core goals with the lesson or unit goal demands of a proposed innovation. Change emerges from the adaptions teachers make in the service of their core goals.

  15. Commitment to Change: The Council on Interracial Books for Children and the World of Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Beryle

    1998-01-01

    The Council on Interracial Books for Children (CIBC), founded in 1965, was formed to promote and develop children's literature that adequately reflects a multiracial society and to effect change in media portrayal of minorities. Past critiques by CIBC of "The Cay" (Theodore Taylor) and "To Kill a Mockingbird" (Harper Lee) are…

  16. Process-based models are required to manage ecological systems in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Cuddington; M.-J. Fortin; L.R. Gerber; A. Hastings; A. Liebhold; M. OConnor; C. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Several modeling approaches can be used to guide management decisions. However, some approaches are better fitted than others to address the problem of prediction under global change. Process-based models, which are based on a theoretical understanding of relevant ecological processes, provide a useful framework to incorporate specific responses to altered...

  17. Fishes in a changing world: learning from the past to promote sustainability of fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T A C; Harding, H R; Clever, F K; Davidson, I K; Davison, W; Montgomery, D W; Weatherhead, R C; Windsor, F M; Armstrong, J D; Bardonnet, A; Bergman, E; Britton, J R; Côté, I M; D'agostino, D; Greenberg, L A; Harborne, A R; Kahilainen, K K; Metcalfe, N B; Mills, S C; Milner, N J; Mittermayer, F H; Montorio, L; Nedelec, S L; Prokkola, J M; Rutterford, L A; Salvanes, A G V; Simpson, S D; Vainikka, A; Pinnegar, J K; Santos, E M

    2018-03-01

    Populations of fishes provide valuable services for billions of people, but face diverse and interacting threats that jeopardize their sustainability. Human population growth and intensifying resource use for food, water, energy and goods are compromising fish populations through a variety of mechanisms, including overfishing, habitat degradation and declines in water quality. The important challenges raised by these issues have been recognized and have led to considerable advances over past decades in managing and mitigating threats to fishes worldwide. In this review, we identify the major threats faced by fish populations alongside recent advances that are helping to address these issues. There are very significant efforts worldwide directed towards ensuring a sustainable future for the world's fishes and fisheries and those who rely on them. Although considerable challenges remain, by drawing attention to successful mitigation of threats to fish and fisheries we hope to provide the encouragement and direction that will allow these challenges to be overcome in the future. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Sensibility to Changes of Vibrational Modes of Excited Electron: Sum Frequency Signals Versus Difference Frequency Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Anna; Liang Xianting

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a two electronic level system with vibrational modes coupled to a Brownian oscillator bath. The difference frequency generation (DFG) signals and sum frequency generation (SFG) signals are calculated. It is shown that, for the same model, the SFG signals are more sensitive than the DFG signals to the changes of the vibrational modes of the electronic two-level system. Because the SFG conversion efficiency can be improved by using the time-delay method, the findings in this paper predict that the SFG spectrum may probe the changes of the microstructure more effectively. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Assessing the hydrological impacts of agricultural changes upstream of the Tunisian World Heritage sea-connected Ichkeul Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aouissi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of changes in agricultural land use and practices as a controlling driver of hydrologic response and as a source of diffuse pollution, are studied in the Joumine River basin, discharging into the Ichkeul Lake, northern Tunisia, a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1979. The lake is characterized by a very specific hydrological functioning based on a seasonal alternation of water levels and salinity through its link to the Mediterranean Sea. Three Landsat images, in situ surveys and SWAT modelling were used to simulate and assess streamflows and nitrate loads under retrospective land uses.

  20. A changing world. A changing industry. Session cost efficient solutions for field development. A step forward (Paper G1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranger, K.P.

    1994-01-01

    Oil companies in Norway and the oil related industry are presently in the middle of a one year long, and quite substantial, efficiency-process named NORSOK. The NORSOK has the objective of finding more cost- and time-efficient ways of exploiting oil and gas from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The paper discusses the industrial participation in the NORSOK working groups. It presents the changes to be foreseen as a result of experience gained, through previous projects as well as efficiency processes, and which will be applied to the planning and execution of two current field development projects, namely the Vigdis field in the North Sea and the Midgard field in the Haltenbanken area

  1. Effects of the Competitive Season on the Isokinetic Muscle Parameters Changes in World-Class Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurelli, Olivier; Bernard, Pierre L; Dubois, Romain; Ahmaidi, Said; Prioux, Jacques

    2018-05-25

    Maurelli, O, Bernard, PL, Dubois, R, Ahmaidi, S, and Prioux, J. Effects of the competitive season on the isokinetic muscle parameters changes in world-class handball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the competitive season on isokinetic muscular parameters of the lower limbs in world-class handball players. Nineteen, male, world-class, handball players (age, 26.6 ± 5.4 years) participated in the study. Two bilateral isokinetic tests of knee joint flexors (H; hamstring) and extensors (Q; quadriceps) were performed in the beginning and end of the competitive season to determine the peak torque (PT), the mean power, and agonist-antagonist ratio, dominant-nondominant ratio (DNDR), and combined ratio. The results showed a significant decrease in PT values at low angular velocity (60°·s) in concentric mode for Q on dominant leg (p handball players. Accordingly, this study should help trainers to modify their planning to maximize strength and power qualities of the lower limbs of their players in addition to avoiding injuries.

  2. 'Not to escape the world but to join it': responding to climate change with imagination not fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew

    2017-06-13

    The work of climate scientists, demonstrating human-driven climate change, has not provoked the widespread and far-reaching changes to human behaviour necessary to avert potentially catastrophic environmental trajectories. This work has not yet sufficiently been able to engage the individual and collective imagination. Drawing on Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) and Iris Murdoch (1919-1999), we can distinguish two modes under which the human imagination can operate: in Murdoch's terms, these are 'imagination' and 'fantasy'. To relate imaginatively is to be willing to allow one's internal image of the world to be changed by what one encounters, while an outlook characterized by fantasy relates to the world as one would wish it were, rather than how it actually is. Fantasy, therefore, operates not only among those who deny climate change, but also among those who entertain the promise of a technological solution too optimistically. An imaginative outlook, by contrast, evaluates actions and patterns of behaviour in terms of their relation to a wider whole. This is necessary for providing the degree of agency required to step out of a cycle of ever accelerating production, which is explored in terms of an analogy to a discussion of revenge and forgiveness from Hannah Arendt (1906-1975). Ultimately, the need to engage the imagination is an opportunity as well as a challenge. To live imaginatively is fulfilling, and that is precisely what the challenges of climate change require.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. How can we become agents for change toward a better, greener world?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Crossley, Elizabeth; Mueller, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the increasing global urgency of social and environmental impacts on health, medical students and other health professionals do not necessarily appreciate their potential role in becoming agents for social change. Research demonstrates a variety of barriers exist which prevent us from...... a means for encouraging students and others to be green social change agents. The Activity: A balloon will be decorated to look like the earth, and the audience will be required to try to keep the balloon in the air. One participant will be identified as the student. We will identify barriers the student...... may face by attaching objects to the balloon (external barriers) or to the participant (internal barriers), thus increasing the difficulty of suspending the balloon. We will then identify solutions to these barriers and gradually remove the objects, leaving the participant unimpeded. Finally, we...

  4. The incredible challenge of producing energy in a deeply changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestrallet, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Major trends in the energy sector - emerging countries thirsty for energy, unconventional fossil fuels (a development roiling geopolitics around the globe) or the deep alterations occurring in the EU's energy policy - are forcing professionals to design a new planetary model. This sector is anticipating trends, innovating and thus proving its ability to change. These trends arise locally in response to customer needs, whether of businesses or private persons. Plans for the future will be oriented by the uses to which energy will be put. There will be room for decentralized, renewable forms of energy and related services; and priority will go to reducing the insecurity of the energy supply. The big challenge we now face is to cope with changes in the sources of energy and in related techniques and, too, with geopolitical trends

  5. Antarctic fish in a changing world: metabolic, osmoregulatory and endocrine stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Guerreiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish around Antarctic Peninsula are exposed to the fastest climate change rate in the planet, up to ten times higher than the global average. The evolution in extreme stenothermal isolation was a strong selective pressure for the development of a highly endemic fish fauna, with likely structural and functional constraints. To which extent can coastal notothenioid fish adjust to the conditions forecasted by the models of climate change? Experiments were run in the Arctowski (PL station at Admiralty Bay, King George Island, in 2012/13. Fish, Notothenia rossii and N. coriiceps, were collected by boat at 5-25 meter deep using fishing poles and were transferred to experimental tanks in cold rooms acclimated to natural temperatures (0-2°C. Fish were exposed to rapid/ gradual changes in water temperature or/and salinity (to 6-8°C using thermostat-controlled heaters, to 20-10‰ by addition of freshwater to recirculating tanks, over a period of up to 10 days to evaluate the response of several physiological processes. The stress endocrine axis was tested by injecting known blockers/ agonists of cortisol release and receptors. Exposure to altered conditions had no effect in immediate mortality. Increased temperature reduced overall activity and behavioral response to stimuli, although it had no clear effect on mobilization of energetic substrate. Both cortisol and gene expression of metabolic-related proteins and glucocorticoid- and mineralocorticoid receptors were modified after heat shock, but that the cortisol response to handling was reduced. The rise in temperature induced a dependent decrease in plasma osmolality while increasing branchial Na+/K+-ATPase activity, thus decreasing osmoregulatory efficiency. In conclusion, Antarctic fish are reactive to environmental change, but that their ability to accommodate rapid or adaptive responses may be compromised.

  6. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by this industry, impacts of implementation of various international trade rules on the apparel industry, consequences of Bangladesh's attempts to enter in bilateral and regional free trade agreements...

  7. The DTIC Review. Volume 1, Number 1: Nuclear Proliferation and Deterrence in a Changing Political World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Mathematical Expectation" by David Schmeidler and Peter Wakker, "Expected Utility Hypothesis" by Mark Machina, "Rational Behavior" by Amartya Sen ...other regional adversaries are not secure and, hence, are highly sen - sitive to this form of pressure. The question is whether such threats can be used...Warsaw Pact." Moreover, conventional military capabilities are constantly changing through advances in armor, avionics, sen - sors, munitions. etc

  8. Coping with a fast-changing world: Towards new systems of future-oriented technology analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, K. Matthias; Harper, Jennifer Cassingena; Könnölä, Totti; Carabias Barceló, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Transformations linked to disruptive events are causing a shift in future-oriented technology analysis (FTA) activities from individual large-scale foresight actions to smaller in-house exercises and capacity building. The reasons are manifold relating to the need for an even tighter embedding of FTA in policy-making in a fast-changing complex environment as well as to internal drivers for novel forms of future intelligence to support coordinated and coherent decisions within and across organ...

  9. A multiplicative environmental DEA approach to measure efficiency changes in the world's major polluters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Roshdi, Israfil; Smyth, Russell

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multiplicative environmental data envelopment analysis (ME-DEA) approach to measure the performance of 46 countries that generate most of the world's carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions. In the model, we combine economic (labour and capital), environmental (freshwater) and energy inputs with a desirable output (GDP) and three undesirable outputs (CO_2, methane and nitrous oxide emissions). We rank each country according to the optimum use of its resources employing a multiplicative extension of environmental DEA models. By computing partial efficiency scores for each input and output separately, we thus identify major sources of inefficiency for all sample countries. Based on the partial efficiency scores obtained from the model, we define aggregate economic, energy and environmental efficiency indexes for 2002, 2007 and 2011, reflecting points in time before and after the official enactment of the Kyoto Protocol. We find that for most countries efficiency scores increase over this period. In addition, there exists a positive relationship between economic and environmental efficiency, although, at the same time, our results suggest that environmental efficiency cannot be realized without first reaching a certain threshold of economic efficiency. We also find support for the Paradox of Plenty, whereby an abundance of natural and energy resources results in their inefficient use. - Highlights: • This study proposes a multiplicative extension of environmental DEA models. • We examine how countries utilize energy, labour, capital and freshwater over time. • We measure how efficiently countries minimize the emissions of greenhouse gases. • Results support the Paradox of Plenty among 46 countries in 2002, 2007 and 2011. • Countries richest in oil and gas exhibited the worst energy efficiency.

  10. World trade organization and structural changes in economy of a region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Davidovna Vasman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the research dedicated to the probable consequences of Russian entry to WTO are represented. Based on the analysis of the opposite points of view, it is shown that changes depend more on the economic situation in the country and not on the entry itself. The series of negative starting characteristics of Russian economy is noticed. Among those are the significant spatial differentiation of particular regions and the disproportion of the regional development. It also noted that Russian entry to WTO may deepen this disproportion. The prognosis of economic structural changes is proposed to implement in the two fields: in the traditional economic sector and the field of the knowledge-based economy. The method was developed for determining the first field of prognosis, which approbation confirmed the probable declining trend in traditional economic sectors. The task considering the second field was solved on the basis of the research in technology and innovation capital transformation processes on the example of two groups of countries: already WTO members but still developing countries and developing countries beyond WTO. The results of the research show the WTO entry neutral influence on structural changes in the knowledge-based economy.

  11. Animal pee in the sea: consumer-mediated nutrient dynamics in the world's changing oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Burkepile, Deron E; Layman, Craig A

    2017-06-01

    Humans have drastically altered the abundance of animals in marine ecosystems via exploitation. Reduced abundance can destabilize food webs, leading to cascading indirect effects that dramatically reorganize community structure and shift ecosystem function. However, the additional implications of these top-down changes for biogeochemical cycles via consumer-mediated nutrient dynamics (CND) are often overlooked in marine systems, particularly in coastal areas. Here, we review research that underscores the importance of this bottom-up control at local, regional, and global scales in coastal marine ecosystems, and the potential implications of anthropogenic change to fundamentally alter these processes. We focus attention on the two primary ways consumers affect nutrient dynamics, with emphasis on implications for the nutrient capacity of ecosystems: (1) the storage and retention of nutrients in biomass, and (2) the supply of nutrients via excretion and egestion. Nutrient storage in consumer biomass may be especially important in many marine ecosystems because consumers, as opposed to producers, often dominate organismal biomass. As for nutrient supply, we emphasize how consumers enhance primary production through both press and pulse dynamics. Looking forward, we explore the importance of CDN for improving theory (e.g., ecological stoichiometry, metabolic theory, and biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships), all in the context of global environmental change. Increasing research focus on CND will likely transform our perspectives on how consumers affect the functioning of marine ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Investigation of Strategic Changes Using Patent Co-Inventor Network Analysis: The Case of Samsung Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a method to investigate a firm’s strategic changes. Technologies or technological capabilities are a major resource for achieving competitive advantages, so a firm’s R&D effort to improve capabilities on specific technologies is aligned with strategic direction. Therefore, this research analyzes changes in R&D efforts by identifying key R&D personnel using patent co-inventor network and social network analysis. Based on characteristics of application and granted patents, the method analyzes current and future R&D efforts and so identifies strategic changes of a firm. We conducted an empirical analysis using the patents of Samsung Electronics. Our method analyzed the current and future strategies of Samsung Electronics and the result shows clear strategic changes in their focal technologies and business.

  13. Global trends in wildfire - perceptions and realities in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Wildfire has been an important process affecting the Earth's surface and atmosphere for over 350 million years and human societies have coexisted with fire since their emergence. Many consider wildfire as an accelerating problem, with widely held perceptions both in the media and scientific papers of increasing fire occurrence, severity and resulting losses. Whilst fire and associated impacts have indeed increased in some regions, such parts of western North America, Canada and Russia, fire has been decreasing in other regions such as African savannas. Overall, global area burned appears to have changed little over past decades, and there is increasing evidence that there is less fire in the global landscape today than centuries ago. Regarding fire severity, limited data are available. For the western USA, they indicate little change overall, and also that area burned at high severity has overall declined compared to pre-European settlement. Direct fatalities from fire and economic losses also show no clear trends over the past three decades. Trends in indirect impacts, such as health problems from smoke or disruption to social functioning may indeed be on the rise, however, they remain insufficiently quantified to be thoroughly examined. Notwithstanding these general observations, the changes in global fire distribution are of concern due to, for example, their detrimental impacts on peat and soil carbon stores in boreal and some tropical regions, or air pollution levels in SE-Asia. These and other impacts are likely to accelerate in a future warmer climate. This presentation aims to contribute to reducing misconceptions in fire trends and to facilitating a more informed understanding of the realities of global fire.

  14. When the World Changes in Your Hands: Similarity Ratings of Objects Morphing during Active Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haemy Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available View-based theories of object recognition posit that coherent object representations are formed by linking together successive views of an actively explored object. This linking process relies on the assumption that the object does not change during exploration. Here, we test how object representations might be influenced when the shape of the object changes slowly during exploration. In our experiment, participants rated the similarity of two novel, 3D objects, whose shape was parametrically defined. Seventeen participants explored each object for 10 sec on an iPad which afforded natural and efficient interaction. The experiment contained a baseline condition, in which two objects of varying parameter-differences were presented, and a morphing condition, in which the first of the two objects slowly morphed during active exploration, making the objects more similar. Interestingly, no participant was aware of this morphing manipulation. Comparing baseline and morph trials, however, we found significantly higher similarity ratings during morphing [F(1,16 = 84.79, p < .001]. Furthermore, correlations between similarity ratings and differences in object parameters were high for the baseline condition (r = −.64, with smaller parameter differences being perceived as more similar. Interestingly, in the morphing condition correlations were lower for parameter differences after the morph (r = −.22, but remained high for differences before (r = −.47 and during morphing (r = −.50. In conclusion, similarity ratings in the baseline condition captured the complex parameter space well. Although participants did not notice the changing shape, morphing did systematically bias the ratings. Interestingly, similarity judgments correlated better in the initial exploration phase, suggesting a capacity limit for view integration of complex shapes.

  15. Climate Change Mitigation in a Sustainable World - Findings of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, R. E. H.

    2007-01-01

    The 4th Assessment Report on climate change of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) has recently been completed. The fi rst report in the IPCC 4th Assessment series by Working Group I outlined the latest knowledge on Climate Science. The second by Working Group 2 covered the possibilities for Adaptation of ecosystems, glaciers preceding, sea level rising, droughts etc in various regions. This paper is based on the findings of Working Group III as presented in the recently published report Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. The 27 paragraph Summary for Policy Makers was approved sentence by sentence over 4 days in May 2007 by 120 government delegations in Bangkok, Thailand. The three short Summaries for Policy Makers (SPM), Synthesis report, and the three full reports can be found at www.ipcc.ch. In addition the short Synthesis Report across all three working groups is soon to be released. The report on Mitigation attempted to compile the latest scientific knowledge relating to low-carbon emitting technologies; assessed their costs and potentials for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission avoidance; evaluated their long term prospects out to 2100 for stabilising atmospheric GHGs; provided a detailed list of policy options; and discussed the opportunities for sustainable development and equity linked with GHG abatement. Over the 3 year writing and review process, the author of this paper was the co-ordinating lead author of the writing team for the Working Group III chapter on Energy Supply. Of the 13 chapters, this one received the greatest attention with over 5000 review comments that were each responded to, and with the sections on nuclear and renewable energy receiving a major share of them. Since the 3rd Assessment Report (TAR) was published in 2001, the over-arching message now being delivered by Working Group III is a stronger but positive one: Action is required. The situation is urgent - but not beyond repair. Many energy

  16. Twitter for Good Change the World One Tweet at a Time

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Ortiz, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Silver Medal Winner, Social Networking, 2012 Axiom Business Book AwardsSilver Medal Winner, Business and Leadership, 2012 Nautilus Book Awards The official word from Twitter on how to harness the power of the platform for any cause. As recent events in Japan, the Middle East, and Haiti have shown, Twitter offers a unique platform to connect individuals and influence change in ways that were unthinkable only a short time ago. In Twitter for Good, Claire Diaz Ortiz, Twitter's head of corporate social innovation and philanthropy, shares the same strategies she offers to organizations launching

  17. Polish air transport among structural changes in the world civil airline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna HAWLENA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The predicted tripling of regional air carriage before the year 2027 sets extremely high requirements on future aircraft choice. The main competitors for a share of this market are Bombardier from Canada and Embraer from Brazil, followed by the French-Italian combination ATR. Having gone through a series of important changes since 1989, PLL LOT S.A. must also compete in this highly dynamic market. Its choices in equipment will have an important effect on its future market position.

  18. Sofía Casanova and the First World War. Changing the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Crespo, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sofía Casanova was a Spanish journalist and a Red Cross voluntary during World War One. Her chronicles were published by right wing diary ABC. Sofía Casanova was married with polish philosopher Wicenty Lutoslawski since 1887, lived at Polonia, and it is able to think about her as a “regular” middle-up class woman. However, if it is developed a biographic approach and it is focused in Casanova’s representations about both public and private spheres during Great War, some differences show up. Between 1914 and 1918, there was an irregular modification in gender system. The war impact in every-day life was an asymmetric modification of public-private boundaries. That historical phenomenon also depended on gender cross-wise categories as class, religion and nationalism. Sofía Casanova was in rear of the eastern front: she was both a witness and and a principal actor in all those events that modified public sphere.Sofía Casanova fue una periodista española y voluntaria de la Cruz Roja durante la Primera Guerra Mundial. Sus crónicas fueron publicadas por el diario conservador ABC. Sofía Casanova estaba casada con el filósofo polaco Wicenty Lutoslawski desde 1887, vivía en Polonia, y es factible pensar en ella como una mujer de clase media “al uso”. Sin embargo, si se lleva a cabo una aproximación biográfica y ésta se centra en las representaciones de Casanova sobre las esferas de lo público y lo privado durante la Gran Guerra, algunas diferencias se presentan. Entre 1914 y 1918, hubo una modificación irregular en el sistema de género. El impacto de la guerra en la vida cotidiana consistió en una modificación asimétrica de las fronteras público-privado. Ese fenómeno histórico también dependía de unas categorías transversales al género como la clase, la religión y el nacionalismo. Sofía Casanova estuvo en la retaguardia del frente oriental: fue tanto testigo como protagonista de todos esos acontecimientos que

  19. Chemical changes induced on a TiO2 surface by electron bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, L.I.; Passeggi, M.C.G.; Ferron, J.

    2007-01-01

    We study the TiO 2 (Ti 4+ ) chemical reduction induced by electron bombardment using Auger electron spectroscopy and factor analysis. We show that the electron irradiation of a TiO 2 sample is characterized by the appearance of a lower Ti oxidation state, Ti 2 O 3 (Ti 3+ ), followed by a further deposition of carbon, which is present inevitably in the environment even under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The appearance of C over the surface is found to be a complex mechanism which affects the reduction process through passivation of the electron-induced oxygen desorption and formation of titanium carbide. For very high irradiation doses, we also found that the chemical changes on the surface are stopped due to the deposition of carbon in a graphitic form

  20. Beyond corporate-style downsizing: a better way for medical schools to succeed in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, C J

    1997-06-01

    There is a critical need for medical schools and universities to consider strategies beyond corporate-style downsizing to address revenue needs and reposition their organizations. The author presents considerable evidence and three reasons to reject downsizing as a way to facilitate long-term organizational success. Instead, she recommends that institutions use a comprehensive approach to individual and organizational development to assure a flexible, enduring organization. Specifically, medical schools and universities should take an institution-wide perspective and approach to continually training, retraining, or reassigning faculty and should continually adapt their organizational structures and procedures as necessary to achieve changing institutional goals. The result will be the retention of able and dedicated faculty, who will be crucial in helping their schools continue to be successful while adapting to a changing world.

  1. Potentials and limitations of epistemic communities. An analysis of the World Climate Council and the Framework Convention on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In times of increasing global uncertainties, science takes a central position for policy decisions. According to Peter M. Haas, epistemic communities are able to influence the cooperative behavior of states through their consensual knowledge. This book critically examines this statement. As the case of the Framework Convention on Climate Change shows, the World Climate Council (IPCC) was not in a position to enforce its solution options in the intergovernmental negotiations, as these affected the individual convictions of the decision-makers. While Angela Merkel advocated an agreement, the US government under George W. Bush denied the existence of climate change. Decision-makers and their individual convictions must therefore have a greater significance in international politics. [de

  2. Changes in mechanical and chemical wood properties by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, Thomas; Huber, Hermann; Grünewald, Tilman A.; Petutschnigg, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Changes in wood due to electron beam irradiations (EBI) were evaluated. • Wood components undergo different altering mechanisms due to the irradiation. • Chemical reactions in wood lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood. - Abstract: This study deals with the influence of various electron beam irradiation (EBI) dosages on the Brinell hardness of Norway spruce. The results of the hardness measurements and the FT-IR spectroscopic analysis show different effects of the EBI at dosages of 25, 50, 100 and 200 kGy. It was assumed that the lignin and carbohydrates undergo different altering mechanisms due to the EBI treatment. New cleavage products and condensation reactions of lignin and carbohydrates lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood samples. These results provide a useful basis for further investigations on the changes in wood chemistry and material properties due to electron beam irradiations

  3. Changes in mechanical and chemical wood properties by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.schnabel@fh-salzburg.ac.at [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); Huber, Hermann [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); Grünewald, Tilman A. [BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Physics and Materials Science, Peter Jordan Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Petutschnigg, Alexander [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Konrad Lorenzstraße 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Changes in wood due to electron beam irradiations (EBI) were evaluated. • Wood components undergo different altering mechanisms due to the irradiation. • Chemical reactions in wood lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood. - Abstract: This study deals with the influence of various electron beam irradiation (EBI) dosages on the Brinell hardness of Norway spruce. The results of the hardness measurements and the FT-IR spectroscopic analysis show different effects of the EBI at dosages of 25, 50, 100 and 200 kGy. It was assumed that the lignin and carbohydrates undergo different altering mechanisms due to the EBI treatment. New cleavage products and condensation reactions of lignin and carbohydrates lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood samples. These results provide a useful basis for further investigations on the changes in wood chemistry and material properties due to electron beam irradiations.

  4. Education for change in a post-modern world: redefining revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, P; Willis, K; Crack, G

    1995-10-01

    Social and behavioural sciences are established components in the curriculum of undergraduate nursing degrees. The purpose is to introduce future and practising nurses to the social and political influences which inform their workplaces and practices. Inevitably an awareness of the structural barriers and the powerful political interests involved in health can lead to feelings of powerlessness and despair of achieving change. Yet the skills of critical analysis and political awareness developed in study such as this are essential for health workers in the increasingly complex and politically charged domain in which they work. This paper will explore problems and barriers encountered in development of curriculum and teaching social and behavioural sciences in health. It will propose an alternative conceptual model, based on post-structuralism, as one way of addressing these barriers. This approach shifts the focus from meta-theoretical sociological concepts such as class, gender and culture, to one of examining subject positions, discourse, contestation and local action, thus enabling the exploration and development of possibilities for change. The paper will also provide a case study to illustrate this alternative approach.

  5. Peat in horticulture and conservation: the UK response to a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peat bogs are increasingly recognised as valuable habitats for wildlife and important stores of carbon. Yet the UK horticultural industry relies heavily on peat sourced from bogs in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Environmentalists, government and horticultural businesses in the UK now recognise the environmental consequences of using peat in horticulture, and the industry is turning increasingly to sustainable raw materials. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of campaigning since 1990 to implement this change are analysed, with the intention of providing useful information for other countries facing similar challenges. The campaign encountered deeply-ingrained practices so that the shift in behaviour has been slow and, although now widespread, still meets resistance in some quarters. The UK Government introduced targets for peat replacement which have helped stimulate the industry to develop suitable alternatives. The major gardening retailers have included peat replacement targets in their environmental codes of practice, and these are being met through incremental peat dilution with alternative materials such as green compost and processed timber by-products. Legislative requirements for European biodiversity conservation have led the UK government to terminate peat extraction on significant areas of former commercial extraction. The importance of peatlands for carbon sequestration and the major issue of climate change are increasingly focusing attention on peatland conservation, pointing towards the need for a more consistent approach to the use of peat across the European Community.

  6. Ph.D. Researchers in a Changing World: A Self-Critical Reflection of the CES Conference 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander James Darracott

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this year’s Centre for Education Studies Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Conference, now in its fifth year, is 'Education in a Changing World'. I attended the conference as a paper presenter and a conference attendee. My personal goals were to develop confidence as an oral presenter, seek professional development opportunities, and engage critically and reflectively with my work and the work of others.  My relativist epistemological beliefs define knowledge as uncertain, context-bound, fallible, defeasible and therefore changeable, and are compatible with my personal goals. Both the goals and beliefs led to the adoption of knowledge co-constructor, communicator, and analyst roles.  Beliefs, goals and adopted roles led to the identification of points of fallibility in my own knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of interest. Therefore, I formed a perspective of conferences as enabling and facilitating knowledge construction between presenter and audience. Being reflective, critical, adaptable, creative, intuitive, flexible, and open minded are key attitudinal attributes of postgraduates, leading to positive conference experiences and increased self-awareness of own emerging identity as a social scientist. Increasing self-awareness of own identity is important for graduates, as on a broader scale this assists in keeping pace with an ever-changing world.

  7. Wildlife in a warming world. The effects of climate change on biodiversity in WWF's Priority Places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Jeff; Warren, Rachel; McDougall, Amy; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Cornelius, Stephen; Sohl, Heather; Rust, Niki; Elliott, Katherine; Jeffries, Barney; Jeffries, Evan; Wood, Matt

    2018-01-01

    Up to half of plant and animal species in the world's most naturally rich areas, such as the Amazon and the Galapagos, could face local extinction by the turn of the century due to climate change if carbon emissions continue to rise unchecked. Even if the Paris Climate Agreement 2 deg. C target is met, these places could lose 25% of their species according to this landmark study by the University of East Anglia, the James Cook University, and WWF. This report examines the impact of climate change on nearly 80,000 species in 35 of the world's most diverse and naturally wildlife-rich areas. It models a number of different climate scenarios - from a no-emissions-cuts business-as-usual rise in global mean temperatures of 4.5 deg. C to a 2 deg. C global rise to keep to the upper limit of the Paris Agreement. Each area was chosen for its uniqueness and the variety of species, including plants, insects and animals, found there

  8. Structural Change and Income Inequality – Agricultural Development and Inter-sectoral Dualism in the Developing World, 1960-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Andersson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural change consists of the long-term changes in the sectoral composition of output and employment. We introduce a structural change perspective to the study of income inequality in 27 countries of the developing world for the period 1960-2010. The service sector has become the main employer, but the agricultural sector is central to the income distribution because poverty is mostly rural, and the labor surplus is high. We decompose the sectoral composition of aggregate labor productivity at the country level, divide the countries into agrarian, dual (beginner, intermediate and advanced, and mature economies and use the inter-sectoral productivity gap to test the effect of structural change on income inequality. We confirm increases in agricultural productivity everywhere and find that the inter-sectoral gap is positively associated with income inequality. The effect is negligible in agrarian and advanced economies but powerful in dual beginner economies: an increase of 1% in the inter-sectoral gap increases income inequality by 0.5%. The effect peters out in dual intermediate economies and disappears completely in dual advanced economies. Finally, redistribution has been the key to compensating the losers in the income changes, particularly for those entering the non-agricultural economy.

  9. Future of Pacific salmon in the face of environmental change: Lessons from one of the world's remaining productive salmon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Erik R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Trammell, Jamie; Rinella, Daniel J.; Floyd, Angelica L.; Grunblatt, Jess; McCarthy, Molly D.; Meyer, Benjamin E.; Morton, John M.; Powell, James E.; Prakash, Anupma; Reimer, Matthew N.; Stuefer, Svetlana L.; Toniolo, Horacio; Wells, Brett M.; Witmer, Frank D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. face serious challenges from climate and landscape change, particularly in the southern portion of their native range. Conversely, climate warming appears to be allowing salmon to expand northwards into the Arctic. Between these geographic extremes, in the Gulf of Alaska region, salmon are at historically high abundances but face an uncertain future due to rapid environmental change. We examined changes in climate, hydrology, land cover, salmon populations, and fisheries over the past 30–70 years in this region. We focused on the Kenai River, which supports world-famous fisheries but where Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha populations have declined, raising concerns about their future resilience. The region is warming and experiencing drier summers and wetter autumns. The landscape is also changing, with melting glaciers, wetland loss, wildfires, and human development. This environmental transformation will likely harm some salmon populations while benefiting others. Lowland salmon streams are especially vulnerable, but retreating glaciers may allow production gains in other streams. Some fishing communities harvest a diverse portfolio of fluctuating resources, whereas others have specialized over time, potentially limiting their resilience. Maintaining diverse habitats and salmon runs may allow ecosystems and fisheries to continue to thrive amidst these changes.

  10. Dissertation Genre Change as a Result of Electronic Theses and Dissertation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelides, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of mandatory Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) policies has ushered in rather dramatic dissertation genre change. The affordances of the medium offer expanded access and audience, availability of new compositional tools, and alternate formats, the implications of which are just beginning to appear in…

  11. An electronic apparatus for early detection of changes in red cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electronic apparatus was developed for anaesthetists to use to detect changes in red cell concentration during surgery. The mechanism is based on the relationship between the red cell content and the electrical conductivity of blood. In a pilot study of 170 blood samples, a correlation coefficient of 0,9806 was obtained ...

  12. An electronic apparatus for early detection of changes in red cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-19

    Aug 19, 1989 ... An electronic apparatus was developed for anaesthetists to use to detect changes in red cell concentration during sur- gery. The mechanism is based on the relationship between the red cell content and the electrical conductivity of blood. In a pilot study of 170 blood samples, a correlation coefficient.

  13. E-Employment? College Grad Career Building in a Changing and Electronic Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The unusual nature of the current economic environment combined with changing labor market demographics heightens the importance to those engaged in employment activity of utilizing methods that fulfill their needs. But electronic technology is transforming available employment methods. How can career building and recruiting best be sustained in…

  14. 75 FR 62684 - Health Insurance Reform; Announcement of Maintenance Changes to Electronic Data Transaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... 0938-AM50 Health Insurance Reform; Announcement of Maintenance Changes to Electronic Data Transaction Standards Adopted Under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 AGENCY: Office of... of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 standards made by the Designated...

  15. Structural changes and tribological performance of thermosetting polyimide induced by proton and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Mei; Wang, Yanming; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei; Liang, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    The structural changes and tribological performance of thermosetting polyimide were investigated by electron, proton or both combined irradiations at 25 keV in a ground-based simulation facility. Three forms of irradiations could lead to the formation of the carbonized layer on the polymer surface that could increase the hardness and adhesive force of the material. Proton irradiation induced more extensive changes in structure and friction behavior than electron irradiation by reason of the higher linear energy transfer value, and combined irradiation resulted in the largest impact, but which was less than the sum of the radiation effects of electron and proton. Moreover, the experimental results indicated that the changes in friction behavior are closely related with the carbonized layer, which was easily worn out in friction process and could introduce a shift from adhesion wear to three-body abrasive wear that reduced the wear rate and the friction coefficient. The friction process of irradiated samples could be divided into the initial stage and the steady stage. Three forms of irradiations all induced the high friction coefficient in the initial stage and the low friction coefficient in the steady stage, and the wear rate of the irradiated samples decreased in the order: electron irradiation>proton irradiation>combined irradiation. - Highlights: • Proton irradiation induced more extensive changes in structure and friction behavior than electron irradiation. • The effect of combined irradiation was less than that of the sum of electron and proton irradiation. • Three forms of irradiations all induced the high initial friction coefficient and the low steady-stage friction coefficient. • The initial friction stage means a fast-wearing adhesive process while the steady-state of the system is a three-body abrasion

  16. Life in a changing world: TCH gene regulation of expression and responses to environmental signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TCH genes were discovered as a consequence of their marked upregulation of expression in response to seemingly innocuous stimuli such as touch. Further analyses have indicated that these genes are upregulated by a variety of diverse stimuli. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to changing environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicate that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  17. The importance of benthic-pelagic coupling for marine ecosystem functioning in a changing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Kadin, Martina; Nascimento, Francisco J. A.

    2017-01-01

    and function is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures, however there are large gaps in our understanding of the responses of inorganic nutrient and organic matter fluxes between benthic habitats and the water column. We illustrate the varied nature of physical and biological benthic-pelagic coupling...... processes and their potential sensitivity to three anthropogenic pressures - climate change, nutrient loading, and fishing - using the Baltic Sea as a case study, and summarize current knowledge on the exchange of inorganic nutrients and organic material between habitats. Traditionally measured benthic......Benthic-pelagic coupling is manifested as the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients between benthic and pelagic habitats. It plays a prominent role in aquatic ecosystems and it is crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs. Coastal and estuarine ecosystem structure...

  18. African land degradation in a world of global atmospheric change: fertilization conceals degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lulseged Tamene, Paul L. G. Vlek, Quang Bao

    2009-04-01

    Land degradation is one of the most widespread environmental problems worldwide. The sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is one of the most seriously affected regions with huge implications on food security and economic development. To plan plausible management measures, understanding the magnitude of the problem and identification of hotspot areas are necessary. Analysis of remote sensing and climate data observed from space for the period 1982 - 2003 showed significant improvement in vegetation productivity across 30% of SSA with decline on 5% of the subcontinent. Global change in atmospheric chemistry is likely responsible for the observed increasing trend in vegetation productivity. Such widespread greening observed from space could mask anthropogenic land degradation processes such as land conversion, selective logging, and soil nutrient mining. To assess this possible masking effect, a re-analysis of the vegetation productivity dynamics, taking into account atmospheric fertilization, was conducted. This was performed by analyzing the long-term trend in vegetation productivity of pristine lands (areas with minimum human- and climate- related impacts) identified across different biomes in SSA. The baseline slope values of biomass accrual calculated for those pristine lands were estimated and used to re-calculate the long-term trend of green biomass with and without the impact of atmospheric fertilization. This ultimately enabled to delineate the areas that would have experienced significant loss in vegetation productivity had the atmospheric chemistry not changed. The result suggests that seven times more than the area of actual productivity decline in SSA is affected by land degradation processes that are concealed by atmospheric fertilization. With this rate of surreptitious loss of vital land attributes and with the current rate of population growth (3%), the SSA subcontinent may soon lack the land resources necessary to foster economic development. Spatially

  19. The Use of Filter-feeders to Manage Disease in a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Colleen A; Closek, Collin J; Friedman, Carolyn S; Groner, Maya L; Jenkins, Cody M; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Welsh, Jennifer E

    2016-10-01

    Rapid environmental change is linked to increases in aquatic disease heightening the need to develop strategies to manage disease. Filter-feeding species are effective biofilters and can naturally mitigate disease risk to humans and wildlife. We review the role of filter-feeders, with an emphasis on bivalves, in altering disease outcomes via augmentation and reduction. Filtration can reduce transmission by removing pathogens from the water column via degradation and release of pathogens in pseudofeces. In other cases, filtration can increase pathogen transmission and disease risk. The effect of filtration on pathogen transmission depends on the selectivity of the filter-feeder, the degree of infectivity by the pathogen, the mechanism(s) of pathogen transmission and the ability of the pathogen to resist degradation. For example, some bacteria and viruses can resist degradation and accumulate within a filter-feeder leading to disease transmission to humans and other wildlife upon ingestion. Since bivalves can concentrate microorganisms, they are also useful as sentinels for the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. While somewhat less studied, other invertebrates, including ascidians and sponges may also provide ecosystem services by altering pathogen transmission. In all scenarios, climate change may affect the potential for filter-feeders to mitigate disease risk. We conclude that an assessment including empirical data and modeling of system-wide impacts should be conducted before selection of filter-feeders to mitigate disease. Such studies should consider physiology of the host and microbe and risk factors for negative impacts including augmentation of other pathogens. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A change navigation-based, scenario planning process within a developing world context from an Afro-centric leadership perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Geldenhuys

    2011-02-01

    Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate how scenario-based planning (a strictly cognitive management tool can be combined with organisational change navigation (a practice addressing the emotionality of change and how this integrated process should be aligned with the prerequisites imposed by a developing country context and an Afro-centric leadership perspective in order to make the process more context relevant and aligned. Motivation for the study: The integration of organisational change navigation with conventional scenario based planning, as well as the incorporation of the perquisites of a developing countries and an Afro-centric leadership perspective, will give organisations a more robust, holistic strategic management tool that will add significantly more value within a rapidly, radically and unpredictably changing world. Research design, approach and method: The adopted research approach comprised a combination of the sourcing of the latest thinking in the literature (the ‘theory’ as well as the views of seasoned practitioners of scenario planning (the ‘practice’ through an iterative research process, moving between theory and practice, back to practice and finally returning to theory in order to arrive at a validated expanded and enhanced scenario-based planning process which is both theory and practice ‘proof’. Main findings: A management tool incorporating the change navigation and the unique features of developing countries and Afro-centric leadership was formulated and empirically validated. This management tool is referred to as a change navigation based, scenario planning process (CNBSPP. Practical/managerial implications: CNBSPP is available for use by organisations wishing to apply a strategic planning tool that fits within a developing country context and an Afro-centric leadership approach. Contribution/value add: The research makes a unique contribution to the current level of knowledge by integrating two disciplines

  1. Ectomycorrhizal host specificity in a changing world: can legacy effects explain anomalous current associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Lotus; Nguyen, Nhu H; Kennedy, Peter G

    2018-02-07

    Despite the importance of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi in forest ecosystems, knowledge about the ecological and co-evolutionary mechanisms underlying ECM host associations remains limited. Using a widely distributed group of ECM fungi known to form tight associations with trees in the family Pinaceae, we characterized host specificity among three unique Suillus-host species pairs using a combination of field root tip sampling and experimental bioassays. We demonstrate that the ECM fungus S. subaureus can successfully colonize Quercus hosts in both field and glasshouse settings, making this species unique in an otherwise Pinaceae-specific clade. Importantly, however, we found that the colonization of Quercus by S. subaureus required co-planting with a Pinaceae host. While our experimental results indicate that gymnosperms are required for the establishment of new S. subaureus colonies, Pineaceae hosts are locally absent at both our field sites. Given the historical presence of Pineaceae hosts before human alteration, it appears the current S. subaureus-Quercus associations represent carryover from past host presence. Collectively, our results suggest that patterns of ECM specificity should be viewed not only in light of current forest community composition, but also as a legacy effect of host community change over time. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Geoscience research helps rice farmers mitigate climate change and world hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Rice is a globally important crop - it comprises 30% of total human caloric consumption - and will be an important crop in the face of expanding population growth. Unfortunately, it is often grown in flooded paddies whose swampy conditions allow microbes to produce the strong greenhouse gas, methane. Over 10% of anthropogenic methane emission to the atmosphere are attributed to rice cultivation. Fortunately, a water-saving irrigation method known as Alternate Wetting and Drying can reduce methane emissions by periodically drying the soil. In our experiments, the method has no effect on rice harvest yields. In our research with rice farmers in Arkansas, we work to evaluate the amount of methane reductions on different fields with this irrigation practice. This research aims to expand the scientific basis for carbon emission reductions programs that enable farmers to be paid for implementing this practice. There are still gaps in our knowledge about how much methane is produced and under what conditions. Our research involves the continuous detection of field methane emissions and correlates then to changes in environmental conditions like the height and temperature of paddy water. Understanding these relationships may help more farmers qualify for credits in the growing carbon emission reductions programs. Because many farmers are already collecting information about their irrigation practices to reduce water applications, we aim to help them re-use this data to more quickly qualify for carbon emissions reductions payments.

  3. Berlin, Maryland - How One Small City is Using Science to Change its World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L.; Silbergeld, E.

    2016-12-01

    Small cities are uniquely challenged to mitigate environmental issues in their communities because they usually lack the financial resources and technical expertise to address them. The Town of Berlin, population 4,500, recently purchased approximately 60 acres of private property located at 9943 Old Ocean City Boulevard. The property was previously owned by Tyson Chicken, Inc. and contains a chicken processing plant which has not been in use for over 10 years. Historically the plant emitted significant odors which limited the Town's ability to diversify its economic base. The plant closure provided an opportunity to convert the property to another use, but the downturn in the economy delayed that change. The Town intends to establish recreation oriented uses on the property with the following goals in mind: Create a common ground for the people of Berlin that will unite various neighborhoods. Create synergy between ecological sustainability and community resilience Upgrade the ponds on the property to make them the design focal point Through the Thriving Earth Exchange, the Town of Berlin connected with Dr. Ellen Silbergeld to resolve the question of how to remediate the ponds. Dr. Silbergeld is trained as an environmental engineer and public health researcher, with substantial experience in environmental issues in the poultry industry. This case study will show how one small city is working with a volunteer scientist to convert a blighted piece of property into a multi-use public space for the benefit of its residents and guests.

  4. Electronic game: A key effective technology to promote behavioral change in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Safdari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis is a very unpleasant and unbelievable experience. Appropriate management and treatment of these diseases require a high degree of patient engagement. Interactive health electronic games are engaging, fun, challenging, and experiential and have the potential to change the attitude and behavior, which can improve the player's health. The use of these digital tools, as one of the most attractive and entertaining modern technologies, canem power patients, provide suitable palliative care, promote health behavior change strategies, increase patient engagement, enhance healthy lifestyle habits, improve self.management, and finally improve the quality of life of the patients. Finally, the aim of this article was to describe electronic games and their effects on the promotion of behavior change in cancer patients. In addition, this article describes categories, characteristic features, and benefits of this digital media in the lifestyle modification of cancer patients.

  5. Structural and Optical Changes of Poly-Vinylidene Fluoride by Electron Irradiation at High Dose Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaleh, B.; Fakhri, P.; Borhani, M.; Habibi, S.; Noroozi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Poly-vinylidene fluoride films were prepared and irradiated by 10MeV electrons at different doses ranging from 50 to 300kGy with a dose rate of 10kGy/s. The FTIR results indicated that no major phase content change was observed. The optical absorption spectra indicated that the electron irradiation results in shifting of the absorption peak, appearance of a new peak and increasing the band gap (Eg). These changes may be due to the breaking of polymer chains and creation of new defects. The X-ray diffraction analysis of samples indicated that the crystallinity did not show any major changes. Concerning the gel fraction measurements, it was observed that gel fraction increases with increasing the dose, where it is an indication of the formation of cross-linked films.

  6. World environmental policy. Conceptual approaches of German political science in response to the challenges of Global Change; Weltumweltpolitik - Global Change als Herausforderung fuer die deutsche Politikwissenschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Dingwerth, K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes, first, the international community of social scientists working on global change, and elaborates on possible contributions to this community by German political scientists. Second, the paper examines three new conceptual approaches to analysing global change, namely the Syndromes of Global Change approach, Earth System Analysis, and Sustainability Science. The paper then elaborates on a number of ways in which German political science could respond to the academic and political challenges posed by global change. It concludes by emphasizing the need for a new approach, focusing on 'world environmental policy analysis' that would bridge traditional (environmental) policy analysis, international relations research, and comparative politics. (orig.) [German] Der Aufsatz beschreibt die Wissenschaftslandschaft der internationalen sozialwissenschaftlichen Global-Change-Forschung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf moegliche Beitraege der deutschen Politologie. Mit den 'Syndromen des Globalen Wandels', der 'Erdsystemanalyse' und der 'Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft' werden drei neuere konzeptionelle Innovationen vorgestellt, mit denen der Herausforderung des Globalen Wandels begegnet werden soll. Anschliessend werden Wege skizziert, wie die Politikwissenschaft auf die neuen gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Probleme des Globalen Wandels reagieren koennte. Eine Schlussfolgerung ist ein Plaedoyer fuer die Entwicklung einer eigenstaendigen Weltumweltpolitik-Analyse an der Schnittstelle von traditioneller Policy-Analyse, Internationalen Beziehungen/Aussenpolitik sowie Komparatistik. (orig./CB)

  7. Volumetric change of simulated radioactive waste glass irradiated by electron accelerator. [Silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Seichi; Furuya, Hirotaka; Inagaki, Yaohiro; Kozaka, Tetsuo; Sugisaki, Masayasu

    1987-11-01

    Density changes of simulated radioactive waste glasses, silica glass and Pyrex glass irradiated by an electron accelerator were measured by a ''sink-float'' technique. The density changes of the waste and silica glasses were less than 0.05 %, irradiated at 2.0 MeV up to the fluence of 1.7 x 10/sup 17/ ecm/sup 2/, while were remarkably smaller than that of Pyrex glass of 0.18 % shrinkage. Precision of the measurements in the density changes of the waste glass was lower than that of Pyrex glass possibly because of the inhomogeneity of the waste glass

  8. A Space-based, High-resolution View of Notable Changes in Urban Nox Pollution Around the World (2005 - 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Thompson, Anne M.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOxNO+NO2) are produced during combustion processes and, thus may serve as a proxy for fossil fuel-based energy usage and committed greenhouse gases and other pollutants. We use high-resolution nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to analyze changes in urban NO2 levels around the world from 2005 to 2014, finding complex heterogeneity in the changes. We discuss several potential factors that seem to determine these NOx changes. First, environmental regulations resulted in large decreases. The only large increases in the United States may be associated with three areas of intensive energy activity. Second, elevated NO2 levels were observed over many Asian, tropical, and subtropical cities that experienced rapid economic growth. Two of the largest increases occurred over recently expanded petrochemical complexes in Jamnagar (India) and Daesan (Korea). Third, pollution transport from China possibly influenced the Republic of Korea and Japan, diminishing the impact of local pollution controls. However, in China, there were large decreases over Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta, which were likely associated with local emission control efforts. Fourth, civil unrest and its effect on energy usage may have resulted in lower NO2 levels in Libya, Iraq, and Syria. Fifth, spatial heterogeneity within several megacities may reflect mixed efforts to cope with air quality degradation. We also show the potential of high-resolution data for identifying NOx emission sources in regions with a complex mix of sources. Intensive monitoring of the world's tropical subtropical megacities will remain a priority, as their populations and emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases are expected to increase significantly.

  9. Impact of Real-world Factors Influencing Investment Decisions on the Costs and Distribution of Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J.; Iyer, G.; McJeon, H. C.; Leon, C.; Hultman, N.

    2015-12-01

    Strategies to mitigate dangerous anthropogenic climate change require a dramatic transformation of the energy system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, that in turn requires large-scale investments. Investment decisions depend not only on investment capital availability but also on investment risks. A number of factors such as national policy environments, quality of public and private institutions, sector, firm and technology specific characteristics can affect investors' assessments of risks, leading to a wide variation in the business climate for investment. Such heterogeneity in investment risks can have important implications, as investors usually respond to risks by requiring higher returns for riskier projects; delaying or forgoing the investments; or preferring to invest in existing, familiar projects. We study the impact of variation in investment risks on regional patterns of emissions mitigation, the cost of emissions mitigation and patterns of technology deployment. We modify an integrated assessment model, widely used in global climate policy analyses (the Global Change Assessment Model) and incorporate decisions on investments based on risks along two dimensions. Along the first dimension, we vary perceived risks associated with particular technologies. To do so, we assign a higher cost of capital for investment in low-carbon technologies as these involve intrinsically higher levels of regulatory and market risk. The second dimension uses a proxy to vary investment risks across regions, based on an institutional quality metric published by the World Economic Forum. Explicit representation of investment risks has two major effects. First, it raises the cost of emissions mitigation relative to a world with uniform investment risks. Second, it shifts the pattern of emissions mitigation, with industrialized countries mitigating more, and developing countries mitigating less. Our results suggest that institutional reforms aimed at lowering investment

  10. Viability of karezes (ancient water supply systems in Afghanistan) in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, G. L.; Johnson, W. C.; Liu, Huan

    2017-07-01

    The Afghanistan population living far from rivers relies upon groundwater delivered from karezes (sub-horizontal tunnels). Karezes exploit unconfined groundwater in alluvial fans recharged largely by snowmelt from the Hindu Kush, the central mountain range of the country. Since the multi-year drought that began in 1998, many karezes have stopped flowing. This study characterizes the hydraulics of a kariz, the potential for reduced groundwater recharge because of climate change, and the impact of increasing population on kariz water production. A typical kariz in Afghanistan is 1-2 km long with a cross-section of 1-2 m2 and gradient of 1 m km-1. MODFLOW simulations show that water delivery from a kariz can be modeled by imposing a high ratio of kariz hydraulic conductivity to aquifer hydraulic conductivity on the cells representing the kariz. The model is sensitive to hydraulic conductivity, kariz gradient, and length of the kariz in contact with the water table. Precipitation data are scarce in Afghanistan, but regional data show a long-term trend of decreased snow cover, and therefore strong likelihood of decreased aquifer recharge. Population in Afghanistan has increased at a rate of about 2.2 % over the past several decades. An assessment of a six-district region within Kandahar Province where karezes are the most likely source of water indicates that water demand could have caused water tables to decline by 0.8-5.6 m, more than enough to cause karezes to stop flowing. These results suggest that kariz water production is not sustainable under current climate- and population-growth trends.

  11. Plant diversity in a changing world: Status, trends, and conservation needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Corlett

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of plants has not generated the sense of urgency—or the funding—that drives the conservation of animals, although plants are far more important for us. There are an estimated 500,000 species of land plants (angiosperms, gymnosperms, ferns, lycophytes, and bryophytes, with diversity strongly concentrated in the humid tropics. Many species are still unknown to science. Perhaps a third of all land plants are at risk of extinction, including many that are undescribed, or are described but otherwise data deficient. There have been few known global extinctions so far, but many additional species have not been recorded recently and may be extinct. Although only a minority of plant species have a specific human use, many more play important roles in natural ecosystems and the services they provide, and rare species are more likely to have unusual traits that could be useful in the future. The major threats to plant diversity include habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation, overexploitation, invasive species, pollution, and anthropogenic climate change. Conservation of plant diversity is a massive task if viewed globally, but the combination of a well-designed and well-managed protected area system and ex situ gap-filling and back-up should work anywhere. The most urgent needs are for the completion of the global botanical inventory and an assessment of the conservation status of the 94% of plant species not yet evaluated, so that both in and ex situ conservation can be targeted efficiently. Globally, the biggest conservation gap is in the hyperdiverse lowland tropics and this is where attention needs to be focused.

  12. Electron-beam induced structural and function change of microbial peroxiredoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S. H.; An, B. C.; Lee, S. S.; Lee, E. M.; Chung, B. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Pseudomonas aerogenes peroxiredoxin (PaPrx) has dual functions acting as thioredoxin (Trx)-dependent peroxidase and molecular chaperone. The function of PaPrx is controlled by its structural status. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam on structural modification related to chaperone activity. When irradiated electron beam at 1 kGy, the structural and functional changes of PaPrx were initiated. The enhanced chaperone activity was increased about 3- 40 4-fold at 2 kGy compared with non-irradiated, while the peroxidase activity was decreased. We also investigated the influence of the electron beam on protein physical property factors such as hydrophobicity and secondary structure. The exposure of hydrophobic domains reached a peak at 2 kGy of electron beam and then dose-dependently decreased with increasing electron beam irradiation. In addition, the electron beam irradiated PaPrx significantly increased exposure of {beta}-sheet and random coil elements on the protein surface whereas exposure of {alpha}-helix and turn elements was decreased. Our results suggest that highly enhanced chaperone activity could be applied to use in bio-engineering system and various industrial applications.

  13. Electron-beam induced structural and function change of microbial peroxiredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. H.; An, B. C.; Lee, S. S.; Lee, E. M.; Chung, B. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aerogenes peroxiredoxin (PaPrx) has dual functions acting as thioredoxin (Trx)-dependent peroxidase and molecular chaperone. The function of PaPrx is controlled by its structural status. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam on structural modification related to chaperone activity. When irradiated electron beam at 1 kGy, the structural and functional changes of PaPrx were initiated. The enhanced chaperone activity was increased about 3- 40 4-fold at 2 kGy compared with non-irradiated, while the peroxidase activity was decreased. We also investigated the influence of the electron beam on protein physical property factors such as hydrophobicity and secondary structure. The exposure of hydrophobic domains reached a peak at 2 kGy of electron beam and then dose-dependently decreased with increasing electron beam irradiation. In addition, the electron beam irradiated PaPrx significantly increased exposure of β-sheet and random coil elements on the protein surface whereas exposure of α-helix and turn elements was decreased. Our results suggest that highly enhanced chaperone activity could be applied to use in bio-engineering system and various industrial applications

  14. Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event: Drift Shell Splitting on the Dayside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.-J.; University of California, Los Angeles, CA; Li, W.; Boston University, MA; Thorne, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth's outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the present study, we evaluate the physical mechanism that may be primarily responsible for causing the sudden change in relativistic electron pitch angle distributions during a dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes during the main phase of the 27 February 2014 storm. During this event, the phase space density of ultrarelativistic (>1MeV) electrons was depleted by more than 1 order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the outer radiation belt (3 < L* < 5) in less than 6 h after the passage of an interplanetary shock. We model the electron pitch angle distribution under a compressed magnetic field topology based on actual solar wind conditions. Although these ultrarelativistic electrons exhibit highly anisotropic (peaked in 90°), energy-dependent pitch angle distributions, which appear to be associated with the typical EMIC wave scattering, comparison of the modeled electron distribution to electron measurements indicates that drift shell splitting is responsible for this rapid change in electron pitch angle distributions. This further indicates that magnetopause loss is the predominant cause of the electron dropout right after the shock arrival.

  15. Visualizing Morphological Changes of Abscission Zone Cells in Arabidopsis by Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-Lin; Butenko, Melinka A

    2018-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope which produces detailed images of surface structures. It has been widely used in plants and animals to study cellular structures. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to prepare samples of floral abscission zones (AZs) for SEM, as well as further image analysis. We show that it is a powerful tool to detect morphologic changes at the cellular level during the course of abscission in wild-type plants and to establish the details of phenotypic alteration in abscission mutants.

  16. Tactical Behaviors in Men's 800-m Olympic and World-Championship Medalists: A Changing of the Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Gareth N; Pearson, Simon; Allen, Sian V; Malcata, Rita M; Kilding, Andrew E; Ross, Angus; Laursen, Paul B

    2018-02-01

    To assess the longitudinal evolution of tactical behaviors used to medal in men's 800-m Olympic Games (OG) or world-championship (WC) events in the recent competition era (2000-2016). Thirteen OG and WC events were characterized for 1st- and 2nd-lap splits using available footage from YouTube. Positive pacing strategies were defined as a faster 1st lap. Season's best 800-m time and world ranking, reflective of an athlete's "peak condition," were obtained to determine relationships between adopted tactics and physical condition prior to the championships. Seven championship events provided coverage of all medalists to enable determination of average 100-m speed and sector pacing of medalists. From 2011 onward, 800-m OG and WC medalists showed a faster 1st lap by 2.2 ± 1.1 s (mean, ±90% confidence limits; large difference, very likely), contrasting a possibly faster 2nd lap from 2000 to 2009 (0.5, ±0.4 s; moderate difference). A positive pacing strategy was related to a higher world ranking prior to the championships (r = .94, .84-.98; extremely large, most likely). After 2011, the fastest 100-m sector from 800-m OG and WC medalists was faster than before 2009 by 0.5, ±0.2 m/s (large difference, most likely). A secular change in tactical racing behavior appears evident in 800-m championships; since 2011, medalists have largely run faster 1st laps and have faster 100-m sector-speed requirements. This finding may be pertinent for training, tactical preparation, and talent identification of athletes preparing for 800-m running at OGs and WCs.

  17. Ionizing radiation changes the electronic properties of melanin and enhances the growth of melanized fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Bryan, Ruth A; Huang, Xianchun; Moadel, Tiffany; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Aisen, Philip; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo

    2007-05-23

    Melanin pigments are ubiquitous in nature. Melanized microorganisms are often the dominating species in certain extreme environments, such as soils contaminated with radionuclides, suggesting that the presence of melanin is beneficial in their life cycle. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation could change the electronic properties of melanin and might enhance the growth of melanized microorganisms. Ionizing irradiation changed the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal of melanin, consistent with changes in electronic structure. Irradiated melanin manifested a 4-fold increase in its capacity to reduce NADH relative to non-irradiated melanin. HPLC analysis of melanin from fungi grown on different substrates revealed chemical complexity, dependence of melanin composition on the growth substrate and possible influence of melanin composition on its interaction with ionizing radiation. XTT/MTT assays showed increased metabolic activity of melanized C. neoformans cells relative to non-melanized cells, and exposure to ionizing radiation enhanced the electron-transfer properties of melanin in melanized cells. Melanized Wangiella dermatitidis and Cryptococcus neoformans cells exposed to ionizing radiation approximately 500 times higher than background grew significantly faster as indicated by higher CFUs, more dry weight biomass and 3-fold greater incorporation of (14)C-acetate than non-irradiated melanized cells or irradiated albino mutants. In addition, radiation enhanced the growth of melanized Cladosporium sphaerospermum cells under limited nutrients conditions. Exposure of melanin to ionizing radiation, and possibly other forms of electromagnetic radiation, changes its electronic properties. Melanized fungal cells manifested increased growth relative to non-melanized cells after exposure to ionizing radiation, raising intriguing questions about a potential role for melanin in energy capture and utilization.

  18. What Constitutes Adoption of the Web: A Methodological Problem in Assessing Adoption of the World Wide Web for Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas; Abels, Eileen G.; Gordon-Murnane, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Reports on methodological developments in a project to assess the adoption of the Web by publishers of business information for electronic commerce. Describes the approach used on a sample of 20 business publishers to identify five clusters of publishers ranging from traditionalist to innovator. Distinguishes between adopters and nonadopters of…

  19. Behavior change techniques implemented in electronic lifestyle activity monitors: a systematic content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-08-15

    Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which these interventions could be translated for

  20. Changes in European wind energy generation potential within a 1.5 °C warmer world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, J. Scott; MacLeod, D.; Phillips, T.; Holmes, C. R.; Watson, P.; Shuckburgh, E. F.; Mitchell, D.

    2018-05-01

    Global climate model simulations from the ‘Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts’ (HAPPI) project were used to assess how wind power generation over Europe would change in a future world where global temperatures reach 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Comparing recent historical (2006–2015) and future 1.5 °C forcing experiments highlights that the climate models demonstrate a northward shift in the Atlantic jet, leading to a significant (p < 0.01) increase in surface winds over the UK and Northern Europe and a significant (p < 0.05) reduction over Southern Europe. We use a wind turbine power model to transform daily near-surface (10 m) wind speeds into daily wind power output, accounting for sub-daily variability, the height of the turbine, and power losses due to transmission and distribution of electricity. To reduce regional model biases we use bias-corrected 10 m wind speeds. We see an increase in power generation potential over much of Europe, with the greatest increase in load factor over the UK of around four percentage points. Increases in variability are seen over much of central and northern Europe with the largest seasonal change in summer. Focusing on the UK, we find that wind energy production during spring and autumn under 1.5 °C forcing would become as productive as it is currently during the peak winter season. Similarly, summer winds would increase driving up wind generation to resemble levels currently seen in spring and autumn. We conclude that the potential for wind energy in Northern Europe may be greater than has been previously assumed, with likely increases even in a 1.5 °C warmer world. While there is the potential for Southern Europe to see a reduction in their wind resource, these decreases are likely to be negligible.

  1. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A La Sorte

    Full Text Available Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among

  2. 6 MeV pulsed electron beam induced surface and structural changes in polyimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathakari, Narendra L.; Bhoraskar, Vasant N. [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India); Dhole, Sanjay D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    Thin films of polyimide (PMDA-ODA, Kapton) having 50 mum thickness were irradiated with 6 MeV pulsed electron beam. The bulk and surface properties of pristine and irradiated samples were characterized by several techniques such as stress-strain measurements, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), UV-vis spectroscopy, contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and profilometry. The tensile strength, percentage elongation and strain energy show an enhancement from pristine value of 73-89 MPa, 10-22% and 4.75-14.2 MJ/m{sup 3} respectively at the maximum fluence of 4 x 10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. This signifies that polyimide being an excessively aromatic polymer is crosslinked due to high-energy electron irradiation. In surface properties, the contact angle shows a significant decrease from 59 deg. to 32 deg. indicating enhancement in hydrophilicity. This mainly attributes to surface roughening, which is due to the electron beam induced sputtering. The surface roughening is confirmed in AFM and profilometry measurements. The AFM images clearly show that surface roughness increases after electron irradiation. Moreover, the roughness average (R{sub a}) as measured from surface profilograms is found to increase from 0.06 to 0.1. The FTIR and UV-vis spectra do not show noticeable changes as regards to scissioning of bonds and the oxidation. This work leads to a definite conclusion that 6 MeV pulsed electron beam can be used to bring about desired changes in surface as well as bulk properties of polyimide, which is considered to be a high performance space quality polymer.

  3. Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2016-09-01

    Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth's outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the present study, we evaluate the physical mechanism that may be primarily responsible for causing the sudden change in relativistic electron pitch angle distributions during a dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes during the main phase of the 27 February 2014 storm. During this event, the phase space density of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons was depleted by more than 1 order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the outer radiation belt (3 pitch angle distribution under a compressed magnetic field topology based on actual solar wind conditions. Although these ultrarelativistic electrons exhibit highly anisotropic (peaked in 90°), energy-dependent pitch angle distributions, which appear to be associated with the typical EMIC wave scattering, comparison of the modeled electron distribution to electron measurements indicates that drift shell splitting is responsible for this rapid change in electron pitch angle distributions. This further indicates that magnetopause loss is the predominant cause of the electron dropout right after the shock arrival.

  4. The change of pollen traits in gladiolus irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiwei; Wang Dan; Zhang Dongxue; Yuan Xianghui

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of electron beam induced mutation on Gladiolus and the effects of electron beam with different doses on pollen traits, M1 generation pollen traits were studied by use of 3MeV electron beams with seven doses of 0Gy, 40Gy, 80Gy, 120Gy, 160Gy, 200Gy, 240Gy. It has been shown that the sterile pollen rate of M1 generation is higher than that of control. At low dose there had no obvious effects on the viability and germination rate of M1 generation pollen. With the increase of irradiation dose, the viability and germination rate of pollen was decreased and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). Comparing (SEM) photograph of the pollen shapes of M1 generation with control, within a certain doses level, mutagenic effects on pollen increased with the dose increasing in the angle of polynology. Variations of mutagenic effect extent were found at the different irradiation dosage. The EST isozymes expression of M1 generation pollen was obviously changed by electron beam irradiation confirmed by use of PAGE electrophoresis. EST patterns of pollen of Gladiolus irradiated at the dose no more than 120Gy were similar to CK, but there were some differences in the vigor of isozymes. The EST bands added or absent had been observed at the dose more than 160Gy compared to CK. There were a special EST band more and 2 EST bands less in plants treated by both 160Gy and 200Gy electron beam irradiation, and a special EST band more and 1 EST bands less in plants treated by 240Gy electron beam irradiation. The vigor of isozymes of plants treated at the dose more than 160Gy showed some respective differences compared to the other treated and CK's. These results revealed that electron beam irradiation is an effective way for Gladiolus breeding. (authors)

  5. Thermal Management of Software Changes in Product Lifecycle of Consumer Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Muraoka , Yoshio; Seki , Kenichi; Nishimura , Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Part 6: Industry and Consumer Products; International audience; Because the power consumption of consumer electronic products varies according to processor execution, which depends on software, thermal risk may be increased by software changes, including software updates or the installation of new applications, even after hardware development has been completed. In this paper, we first introduce a typical system-level thermal simulation model, coupling the activities within modules related to...

  6. Changes of surface electron states of InP under soft X-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhian; Yang Zushen; Jin Tao; Qui Rexi; Cui Mingqi; Liu Fengqin

    1999-01-01

    Changes of surface electronic states of InP under 1 keV X-ray irradiation is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet ray energy spectroscopy (UPS). The results show that the soft X-ray irradiation has little effect on In atoms but much on P atoms. The authors analysed the mechanism of irradiation and explained the major effect

  7. Electronic Nose Breathprints Are Independent of Acute Changes in Airway Caliber in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan van der Maten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular profiling of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC by electronic nose technology provides breathprints that discriminate between patients with different inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD. However, it is unknown whether this is determined by differences in airway caliber. We hypothesized that breathprints obtained by electronic nose are independent of acute changes in airway caliber in asthma. Ten patients with stable asthma underwent methacholine provocation (Visit 1 and sham challenge with isotonic saline (Visit 2. At Visit 1, exhaled air was repetitively collected pre-challenge, after reaching the provocative concentration (PC20 causing 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and after subsequent salbutamol inhalation. At Visit 2, breath was collected pre-challenge, post-saline and post-salbutamol. At each occasion, an expiratory vital capacity was collected after 5 min of tidal breathing through an inspiratory VOC-filter in a Tedlar bag and sampled by electronic nose (Cyranose 320. Breathprints were analyzed with principal component analysis and individual factors were compared with mixed model analysis followed by pairwise comparisons. Inhalation of methacholine led to a 30.8 ± 3.3% fall in FEV1 and was followed by a significant change in breathprint (p = 0.04. Saline inhalation did not induce a significant change in FEV1, but altered the breathprint (p = 0.01. However, the breathprint obtained after the methacholine provocation was not significantly different from that after saline challenge (p = 0.27. The molecular profile of exhaled air in patients with asthma is altered by nebulized aerosols, but is not affected by acute changes in airway caliber. Our data demonstrate that breathprints by electronic nose are not confounded by the level of airway obstruction.

  8. World wind of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieckus, Darius

    1998-01-01

    The impact of the uncertainty linked to the UK government's North Sea tax review on the Scottish oil industry, and the international aspects of the Scottish industry are discussed. The Wood Group's foray into foreign markets with its gas turbines and petroleum services divisions and recently its integrated services contract with a brownfield redevelopment (field-life extension) project are reported, and problems with over dependency on the North Sea market are considered. (UK)

  9. Changes in puffing behavior among smokers who switched from tobacco to electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Gawron, Michal; Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz

    2015-09-01

    Nicotine intake from electronic cigarette (e-cigarettes) increases with user's experience. This suggests that smokers who switched from tobacco to electronic cigarettes compensate for nicotine over time to get as much nicotine as they need. One of the mechanisms by which smokers may compensate for nicotine is by modifying their puffing behavior. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in puffing behavior after switching from conventional to electronic cigarettes among regular smokers. Twenty smokers (11 female, aged 31±10, CPD 16±8, FTND 4±3, and exhaled CO 16±17 (mean±SD)) who were naïve to e-cigarettes participated in this study. They were asked to substitute their regular tobacco cigarettes with first generation e-cigarettes (labeled 18mg nicotine) for two weeks. Puffing topography (number of puffs, puff volume, intervals between puffs, and average puff flow rate) was measured at the initial use (baseline), as well as after one and two weeks of product use. We tested changes in puffing topography outcomes using repeated measures ANOVA. We found that after one week of using e-cigarettes, participants significantly increased the average time they puffed on e-cigarettes from 2.2±0.1 (mean±SEM) to 3.1±0.3s (pe-cigarette use (preason for changing puffing behavior is to compensate for less efficient nicotine delivery from e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of electron-phonon interaction and non-Gaussian transport in spectral changes of trapped electrons in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funabishi, K.; Hamill, W.H.

    The continuous-time-random-walk (CTRW) model which was developed for electron scavenging reactions in polar glasses is extended to the phenomenon of spectral relaxation of electrons in shallow traps esub(t) - in a wider range of systems. The central role of electron-phonon coupling in understanding the initial electron localization, the ''pre-existing trap'', and electron transfer processes are emphasized. The reactivity of esub(t) - with scavengers, including protons, is discussed in terms of the theory of multi-phonon non-radiative transitions. (author)

  11. Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of cropping systems in the developing world to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath

    2017-03-01

    Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

  12. Analyzing Regional Climate Change in Africa in a 1.5, 2, and 3°C Global Warming World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T.; Haensler, A.; Rechid, D.; Pfeifer, S.; Eggert, B.; Jacob, D.

    2018-04-01

    At the 21st session of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris, an agreement to strengthen the effort to limit the global temperature increase well below 2°C was decided. However, even if global warming is limited, some regions might still be substantially affected by climate change, especially for continents like Africa where the socio-economic conditions are strongly linked to the climatic conditions. In the paper we will discuss the analysis of indices assigned to the sectors health, agriculture, and infrastructure in a 1.5, 2, and 3°C global warming world for the African continent. For this analysis an ensemble of 10 different general circulation model-regional climate model simulations conducted in the framework of the COordinated Downscaling EXperiment for Africa was investigated. The results show that the African continent, in particular the regions between 15°S and 15°N, has to expect an increase in hot nights and longer and more frequent heat waves even if the global temperature will be kept below 2°C. These effects intensify if the global mean temperature will exceed the 2°C threshold. Moreover, the daily rainfall intensity is expected to increase toward higher global warming scenarios and will affect especially the African Sub-Saharan coastal regions.

  13. Enhancing the role of geodiversity and geoheritage in environmental management and policy in a changing world: challenges for geoscience research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity delivers or underpins many key ecosystem processes and services that deliver valuable benefits for society. With a growing recognition of the wider economic, social and environmental relevance of geodiversity, it is timely to consider the research requirements and priorities that are necessary to underpin a broader interdisciplinary approach to geodiversity that incorporates the links between natural and human systems in a changing world. A key challenge is to develop the scientific framework of geodiversity and at the same time to enhance the protection of geoheritage. Research that helps to support environmental policy and meet the wider needs of society for sustainable development and improved human wellbeing is fundamental both to improve the recognition of geodiversity and to demonstrate the wider relevance and value of geoheritage and geoconservation. Within this wider context, priorities for research include: 1) assessment of geoheritage and best-practice management of geosites for multiple uses including science, education and tourism; 2) evaluation of geodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides, both in economic and non-economic terms, to help build policy support and public awareness; 3) understanding the functional links between geodiversity and biodiversity across a range of spatial and temporal scales to help assess ecosystem sensitivity and inform management adaptations to climate change, particularly in dynamic environments such as the coast, river catchments and mountain areas; 4) providing a longer time perspective on ecosystem trends and services from palaeoenvironmental records; 5) applications of geodiversity in terrestrial and marine spatial planning.

  14. Promoting change through political consciousness: a South African speech-language pathology response to the World Report on Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathard, Harsha; Pillay, Mershen

    2013-02-01

    In the context of the World Report on Disability, Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall (2013) question how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) change practices to benefit under-served people with communication disability. This commentary provides a South African response premised on Political Consciousness. In South Africa, a grossly unequal society, the under-served population is not only those with communication disability but also include those who are at a communication disadvantage due to disabling conditions. As a consequence of the combined effects of a severe shortage of SLPs as well as maldistribution in service provision, the under-served are mainly poor Black South Africans who are the majority population. Political Consciousness allows one to examine how selected forces at the macro-level, meso-level, and micro-level may enable or limit services to the under-served majority. At a macro-level, this study appraises policies and actions advancing and impeding service delivery. At the meso-level it is argued that hegemonic professional knowledge is limiting and an equity-driven population-based approach is advocated. At a micro-level, the Relationship of Labouring Affinities is offered as a conceptual tool for critical engagement. In conclusion, it is suggested that the speech-language pathology profession must collectively become political actors at all levels to effect change.

  15. Implementing change in primary care practices using electronic medical records: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Lynne S; Feifer, Chris; Stuart, Gail W; Ornstein, Steven M

    2008-01-16

    Implementing change in primary care is difficult, and little practical guidance is available to assist small primary care practices. Methods to structure care and develop new roles are often needed to implement an evidence-based practice that improves care. This study explored the process of change used to implement clinical guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in primary care practices that used a common electronic medical record (EMR). Multiple conceptual frameworks informed the design of this study designed to explain the complex phenomena of implementing change in primary care practice. Qualitative methods were used to examine the processes of change that practice members used to implement the guidelines. Purposive sampling in eight primary care practices within the Practice Partner Research Network-Translating Researching into Practice (PPRNet-TRIP II) clinical trial yielded 28 staff members and clinicians who were interviewed regarding how change in practice occurred while implementing clinical guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and strokes. A conceptual framework for implementing clinical guidelines into primary care practice was developed through this research. Seven concepts and their relationships were modelled within this framework: leaders setting a vision with clear goals for staff to embrace; involving the team to enable the goals and vision for the practice to be achieved; enhancing communication systems to reinforce goals for patient care; developing the team to enable the staff to contribute toward practice improvement; taking small steps, encouraging practices' tests of small changes in practice; assimilating the electronic medical record to maximize clinical effectiveness, enhancing practices' use of the electronic tool they have invested in for patient care improvement; and providing feedback within a culture of improvement, leading to an iterative cycle of goal setting

  16. Electron Microscopic Changes of Rabbit Retina after Chromovitrectomy Using Combined Dyes (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Aznabaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate on experimental model electron-microscopic changes of rabbit retina after staining of the posterior eye segmentwith combined dyes based on Trypan blue and Brilliant blue G for the assessment of their safety. Methods. The study was performed onChinchilla breed rabbits. Combined dyes based on Trypan blue and Brilliant blue were used: MembraneBlue-Dual (DORC, Netherlandsand “Staining solution for ophthalmic surgery” (JCS “Optimedservis”, Russia. Standard three-port vitrectomy technique was used. After vitreous removal dyes were injected in vitreous cavity and exposed for 10 seconds and then removed. The vitreous cavity was filled by a balanced salt solution. An electron-microscopic evaluation was performed on 5, 14 and 30 days after surgery. Eyes were enucleated in 20 minutes after animal was killed by air embolization. Intact eyes were used as a control, all samples were prepared in same сonditions. The damage of the retina architectonics and the presence of intracellular inclusions were evaluated. Results. The staged character of pathomorphological changes was revealed. On the 5th day moderate edema and hydropic dystrophy of neurons were registered. On the 14th day, there was no negative dynamics. On day 30, the signs of edema and dystrophy of neurons practically disappeared, which may indicate a fundamental reversibility of the registered changes. Conclusion. Investigated dyes for staining intraocular structures based on Trypan blue and Brilliant blue did not cause significant histomorphological changes and toxic effects on retinal cell structures. Detected electron microscopic changes were insignificant, had reversible character and could be mostly caused by a surgical injury.

  17. Pressure-induced changes in the electronic structure of americium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlind, Per; Moore, K. T.; Landa, A.; Sadigh, B.; Bradley, J. A.

    2011-08-01

    We have conducted electronic-structure calculations for Am metal under pressure to investigate the behavior of the 5f-electron states. Density-functional theory (DFT) does not reproduce the experimental photoemission spectra for the ground-state phase where the 5f electrons are localized, but the theory is expected to be correct when 5f delocalization occurs under pressure. The DFT prediction is that peak structures of the 5f valence band will merge closer to the Fermi level during compression indicating the presence of itinerant 5f electrons. Existence of such 5f bands is argued to be a prerequisite for the phase transitions, particularly to the primitive orthorhombic AmIV phase, but does not agree with modern dynamical-mean-field theory (DMFT) results. Our DFT model further suggests insignificant changes of the 5f valence under pressure in agreement with recent resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, but in contradiction to the DMFT predictions. The influence of pressure on the 5f valency in the actinides is discussed and is shown to depend in a nontrivial fashion on 5f-band position and occupation relative to the spd valence bands.

  18. Recent advances using electron beam analysis to detect cuticular changes induced by air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Invisible or ''hidden injury'', terms from the earliest air quality literature, expressed the diagnostician's frustration in identifying abiotic disease symptoms. Direct visualization was not technically possible until the advent of electron beam analysis (EBA) hardware and software. Electron beam analysis, a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and computer-controlled image processing (CCIP) is useful for detecting changes in the cuticle and adjacent cells due to common phytotoxicants. Artifacts, caused by improper specimen preparation, inherent in the high vacuum of SEM and use of hydrated plant samples, fill the literature. Unique methodologies are necessary to interpret the minute changes to plant surfaces caused by a variety of environmental stresses such as sulfur dioxide, ozone, acidic deposition, pesticide residues, NACl, etc. EBA was used to show: the progression of surface alterations that occur to stomata of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) following exposure to SO 2 and O 3 ; between SO 2 -sensitive and SO 2 -tolerant clones of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). CCIP was especially useful in determining that acidified rain or mist and O 3 do not physically erode existing epicuticular wax of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) as previous literature stated. EBA was used to correlate field and laboratory data showing similar injury to epistomatal wax of red spruce. Improved field emission microscopy and EDXA that offer increased resolution with little sample preparation can provide opportunities to observe cuticular modifications not previously available. (orig.)

  19. Changes in the world rivers' discharge projected from an updated high resolution dataset of current and future climate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Monia; di Paola, Arianna

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an updated global map of the current climate zoning and of its projections, according to the Köppen-Geiger classification, is first provided. The map at high horizontal resolution (0.5° × 0.5°), representative of the current (i.e. 1961-2005) conditions, is based on the Climate Research Unit dataset holding gridded series of historical observed temperature and precipitation, while projected conditions rely on the simulated series, for the same variables, by the General Circulation Model CMCC-CM. Modeled variables were corrected for their bias and then projections of climate zoning were generated for the medium term (2006-2050) and long term (2056-2100) future periods, under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Results show that Equatorial and Arid climates will spread at the expenses of Snow and Polar climates, with the Warm Temperate experiencing more moderate increase. Maps of climate zones are valuable for a wide range of studies on climate change and its impacts, especially those regarding the water cycle that is strongly regulated by the combined conditions of precipitation and temperature. As example of large scale hydrological applications, in this work we tested and implemented a spatial statistical procedure, the geographically weighted regression among climate zones' surface and mean annual discharge (MAD) at hydrographic basin level, to quantify likely changes in MAD for the main world rivers monitored through the Global Runoff Data Center database. The selected river basins are representative of more than half of both global superficial freshwater resources and world's land area. Globally, a decrease in MAD is projected both in the medium term and long term, while spatial differences highlight how some areas require efforts to avoid consequences of amplified water scarcity, while other areas call for strategies to take the opportunity from the expected increase in water availability. Also the fluctuations of trends between the

  20. Book Review: Diana Preston, A Higher Form of Killing: Six Weeks in World War I That Forever Changed the Nature of Warfare, New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Wise

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A Higher Form of Killing: Six Weeks in World War I That Forever Changed the Nature of Warfare is an awe-inspiring account of the role technology played in one of the largest conflicts of the twentieth century thus reflecting on both political and social history of World War I. Diana Preston demonstrates the ethical impact of warfare while providing a concise analysis of the three most influential technological advances that revolutionized World War I: the development of chlorine gas, the Unterseeboots or U-boats, and the Zeppelin.

  1. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  2. The height of electron content changes in the ionosphere from ATS6 beacon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Heron, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    A technique is described which uses relative changes in Faraday rotation and modulation phase of satellite radio signals to determine the median height of the enhancement (or depletion) in the electron density of the ionosphere. During the post sunrise formation of the F layer the incremental layers have a median height of around 210 km (+- 40) and in the afternoon the decremental median is above the peak at 340 km (+- 40) on a winter day. A winter night-time enhancement just after midnight appears as a thick layer extending upwards from the peak, with a median height at about 730 km. The method applies to large scale irregularities but not to small, dense, scintillation-causing irregularities for which Faraday and modulation phases do not represent the total electron content. (author)

  3. Electrochemically grafted polypyrrole changes photoluminescence of electronic states inside nanocrystalline diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galář, P., E-mail: pavel.galar@mff.cuni.cz; Malý, P. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague 121 16 (Czech Republic); Čermák, J.; Kromka, A.; Rezek, B. [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Cukrovarnická 10, Prague 160 00 (Czech Republic)

    2014-12-14

    Hybrid diamond-organic interfaces are considered attractive for diverse applications ranging from electronics and energy conversion to medicine. Here we use time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence spectroscopy in visible spectral range (380–700 nm) to study electronic processes in H-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD) with 150 nm thin, electrochemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy) layer. We observe changes in dynamics of NCD photoluminescence as well as in its time-integrated spectra after polymer deposition. The effect is reversible. We propose a model where the PPy layer on the NCD surface promotes spatial separation of photo-generated charge carriers both in non-diamond carbon phase and in bulk diamond. By comparing different NCD thicknesses we show that the effect goes as much as 200 nm deep inside the NCD film.

  4. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  5. What do computer worlds tell us about changes to rain and falling ice-water in the state where this meeting is usually held?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbrunner, B.

    2017-12-01

    To learn how the world will change because of human-caused warming, we use computer-made worlds that couple land, water, and air to study their responses to the causes of warming over many years. For changes to rain and falling ice-water, these computer worlds are great at answering questions about very large places, like big areas of land or water, but they are not as good when thinking about more focused areas, like cities or states. This is especially true in the state where this meeting happens most years; will it be wetter or drier by the year 2100, and by how much? I will talk about the work being done to learn why these computer worlds do not always agree, as well as the work that finds changes on which they do agree. One big reason they don't agree is because these computer worlds arrive at different guesses on how winds will shift high up in the air in cooler months. These winds will push rain and falling ice-water to different places up and down the state over time, making it hard to know what we can expect, though our best guess is that it will be ever-so-slightly wetter. Computer worlds do agree, however, on two important things across most of the state: that the very largest bursts of rain will happen more often as the world warms, and that more often, very wet years will follow very dry years immediately before them. Taken together, these changes are important to the those in the state who plan for up-coming water needs. Knowing how normal rain and ice-water will change is part of the story, but perhaps more important is understanding how the very biggest showers are shifting, which will help the state plan for and handle these more sudden (and serious) bursts of water.

  6. Density changes in shear bands of a metallic glass determined by correlative analytical transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rösner, Harald, E-mail: rosner@uni-muenster.de [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Peterlechner, Martin [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Kübel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schmidt, Vitalij [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Wilde, Gerhard [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Density changes between sheared zones and their surrounding amorphous matrix as a result of plastic deformation in a cold-rolled metallic glass (melt-spun Al{sub 88}Y{sub 7}Fe{sub 5}) were determined using high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) detector intensities supplemented by electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and nano-beam diffraction analyses. Sheared zones or shear bands were observed as regions of bright or dark contrast arising from a higher or lower density relative to the matrix. Moreover, abrupt contrast changes from bright to dark and vice versa were found within individual shear bands. We associate the decrease in density mainly with an enhanced free volume in the shear bands and the increase in density with concomitant changes of the mass. This interpretation is further supported by changes in the zero loss and Plasmon signal originating from such sites. The limits of this new approach are discussed. - Highlights: • We describe a novel approach for measuring densities in shear bands of metallic glasses. • The linear relation of the dark-field intensity I/I{sub 0} and the mass thickness ρt was used. • Individual shear bands showed abrupt contrast changes from bright to dark and vice versa. • Density changes ranging from about −10% to +6% were found for such shear bands. • Mixtures of amorphous/medium range ordered domains were found within the shear bands.

  7. Changes to Workflow and Process Measures in the PICU During Transition From Semi to Full Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Mina; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Dasgupta, Mahua; Zimmerman, Haydee; Hanson, Sheila

    2015-10-01

    Studies showing the changes in workflow during transition from semi to full electronic medical records are lacking. This objective study is to identify the changes in workflow in the PICU during transition from semi to full electronic health record. Prospective observational study. Children's Hospital of Wisconsin Institutional Review Board waived the need for approval so this study was institutional review board exempt. This study measured clinical workflow variables at a 72-bed PICU during different phases of transition to a full electronic health record, which occurred on November 4, 2012. Phases of electronic health record transition were defined as follows: pre-electronic health record (baseline data prior to transition to full electronic health record), transition phase (3 wk after electronic health record), and stabilization (6 mo after electronic health record). Data were analyzed for the three phases using Mann-Whitney U test with a two-sided p value of less than 0.05 considered significant. Seventy-two bed PICU. All patients in the PICU were included during the study periods. Five hundred and sixty-four patients with 2,355 patient days were evaluated in the three phases. Duration of rounds decreased from a median of 9 minutes per patient pre--electronic health record to 7 minutes per patient post electronic health record. Time to final note decreased from 2.06 days pre--electronic health record to 0.5 days post electronic health record. Time to first medication administration after admission also decreased from 33 minutes pre--electronic health record and 7 minutes post electronic health record. Time to Time to medication reconciliation was significantly higher pre-electronic health record than post electronic health record and percent of medication reconciliation completion was significantly lower pre--electronic health record than post electronic health record and percent of medication reconciliation completion was significantly higher pre--electronic

  8. Plasticity-induced characteristic changes of pattern dynamics and the related phase transitions in small-world neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xu-Hui; Hu Gang

    2014-01-01

    Phase transitions widely exist in nature and occur when some control parameters are changed. In neural systems, their macroscopic states are represented by the activity states of neuron populations, and phase transitions between different activity states are closely related to corresponding functions in the brain. In particular, phase transitions to some rhythmic synchronous firing states play significant roles on diverse brain functions and disfunctions, such as encoding rhythmical external stimuli, epileptic seizure, etc. However, in previous studies, phase transitions in neuronal networks are almost driven by network parameters (e.g., external stimuli), and there has been no investigation about the transitions between typical activity states of neuronal networks in a self-organized way by applying plastic connection weights. In this paper, we discuss phase transitions in electrically coupled and lattice-based small-world neuronal networks (LBSW networks) under spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). By applying STDP on all electrical synapses, various known and novel phase transitions could emerge in LBSW networks, particularly, the phenomenon of self-organized phase transitions (SOPTs): repeated transitions between synchronous and asynchronous firing states. We further explore the mechanics generating SOPTs on the basis of synaptic weight dynamics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. The Shi'ites, the West and the Future of Democracy: Reframing Political Change in a Religio-secular World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Rees

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article critically reviews Paul McGeough’s important analysis of the most recent Iraq war within a broader consideration of secular-religious relations in international affairs. The thesis of Mission Impossible: The Sheikhs, the US and the Future of Iraq (2004 can be summarised around two ideas: that the US strategy in Iraq was flawed because it wilfully bypassed the traditional power structures of Iraqi society; and that these structures, formed around the tribe and the mosque, are anti-democratic thus rendering attempts at democratisation impossible. The article affirms McGeough’s argument concerning the inadequacy of the US strategy, but critically examines the author’s fatalism toward the democratic capacity of Iraqi structures, notably the structure of the mosque. By broadening the notion of democracy to include religious actors and agendas, and by an introductory interpretation of the Shi’ite community as vital players in an emerging Iraqi democracy, the article attempts to deconstruct the author’s secularist view that the world of the mosque exists in a ‘parallel universe’ to the liberal democratic West. Reframing the Shi’ites as essential actors in the democratic project thus situates political discourse in a ‘religio-secular world’ and brings the ‘other worlds’ of religion and secularism together in a sphere of interdependence. Such an approach emphasises the importance of post-secular structures in the discourses on democratic change.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Land Cover Changes in the Simen Mountains National Park, a World Heritage Site in Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menale Wondie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The trend of land cover (LC and land cover change (LCC, both in time and space, was investigated at the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP, a World Heritage Site located in northern Ethiopia, between 1984 and 2003 using Geographical Information System (GIS and remote sensing (RS. The objective of the study was to generate spatially and temporally quantified information on land cover dynamics, providing the basis for policy/decision makers and resource managers to facilitate biodiversity conservation, including wild animals. Two satellite images (Landsat TM of 1984 and Landsat ETM+ of 2003 were acquired and supervised classification was used to categorize LC types. Ground Control Points were obtained in field condition for georeferencing and accuracy assessment. The results showed an increase in the areas of pure forest (Erica species dominated and shrubland but a decrease in the area of agricultural land over the 20 years. The overall accuracy and the Kappa value of classification results were 88 and 85%, respectively. The spatial setting of the LC classes was heterogeneous and resulted from the biophysical nature of SMNP and anthropogenic activities. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the existing LC and LCC in connection with wildlife habitat, conservation and management of SMNP.

  11. Precipitation in a warming world: Assessing projected hydro-climate changes in California and other Mediterranean climate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polade, Suraj D; Gershunov, Alexander; Cayan, Daniel R; Dettinger, Michael D; Pierce, David W

    2017-09-07

    In most Mediterranean climate (MedClim) regions around the world, global climate models (GCMs) consistently project drier futures. In California, however, projections of changes in annual precipitation are inconsistent. Analysis of daily precipitation in 30 GCMs reveals patterns in projected hydrometeorology over each of the five MedClm regions globally and helps disentangle their causes. MedClim regions, except California, are expected to dry via decreased frequency of winter precipitation. Frequencies of extreme precipitation, however, are projected to increase over the two MedClim regions of the Northern Hemisphere where projected warming is strongest. The increase in heavy and extreme precipitation is particularly robust over California, where it is only partially offset by projected decreases in low-medium intensity precipitation. Over the Mediterranean Basin, however, losses from decreasing frequency of low-medium-intensity precipitation are projected to dominate gains from intensifying projected extreme precipitation. MedClim regions are projected to become more sub-tropical, i.e. made dryer via pole-ward expanding subtropical subsidence. California's more nuanced hydrological future reflects a precarious balance between the expanding subtropical high from the south and the south-eastward extending Aleutian low from the north-west. These dynamical mechanisms and thermodynamic moistening of the warming atmosphere result in increased horizontal water vapor transport, bolstering extreme precipitation events.

  12. Climate Change Impact on the Southeastern Europe Security Environment and the Increasing Role of the Bulgarian Army as the World Warms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON THE SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT AND THE INCREASING ROLE OF THE BULGARIAN ARMY AS THE WORLD WARMS...DD-MM-YYYY) 10-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Climate Change ...14. ABSTRACT Climate change impacts on the security environment are real and have the potential to create unprecedented levels of risk through

  13. European Research Framework Programme. Research on Climate Change. Prepared for the Third World Climate Conference (WCC-3) and the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP-15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication gathers the abstracts of European research projects on climate change and related to climate change which have been completed recently or are ongoing under the sixth and seventh framework programmes for research. This document aims at providing a relevant overview of research activities on climate change funded by the European Community to participants to the third World Climate Conference held in Geneva in August 2009 and to the UNFCCC 15th Conference of the Parties meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009.

  14. A brief review of 210Pb sediment dating models and uncertainties in a world of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Irrespective of the model names used, assumptions and (usually forgotten) uncertainties, the fact is that 210Pb sediment dating is an increasingly relevant tool in our world of global change. 210Pb dating results are needed to assess historical trends of sea level rise, quantify blue carbon fluxes and reconstruct environmental records of biogeochemical proxies for diverse processes in the aquatic ecosystems (such as ocean acidification, hypoxia and pollution). Although in the past 210Pb profiles departing from "ideal" decay trends were usually discarded, all profiles have useful information. In this work we review the principles and assumptions of the most common 210Pb dating models, and propose a logical formulation and classification of the models. 210Pb dating models provide two kinds of results: chronologies (i.e. age models) and accumulation rates. In many cases, the use of sediment and/or mass accumulation rates (SAR and MAR) is needed to assess environmental fluxes or, simply, to describe changes, such as catchment erosion or saltmarsh accretion. Although uncertainty quadratic propagation is a well-known technique, it requires that all variables are fully independent and requires demanding mathematical expressions which might lead to wrong results. We present here a Monte Carlo method that makes calculation easier and, likely, error-free. Not unexpectedly, the most important uncertainty sources are measurement uncertainties, which impose limitations on common techniques such as gamma spectrometry. 210Pb chronology does not cover all anthropogenic impacts, such as those caused by ancient civilizations, so radiocarbon also plays an important role in this kind of work. We also conceptually revise the limitations of both techniques and encourage scientists to link both dating techniques with a symmetrically open mind. Acknowledgements: projects CONACYT PDCPN2013-01/214349 and CB2010/153492, UNAM PAPIIT-IN203313, PRODEP network "Aquatic contamination: levels and

  15. Thermal management of electronics using phase change material based pin fin heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baby, R; Balaji, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study carried out to explore the thermal characteristics of phase change material based heat sinks for electronic equipment cooling. The phase change material (PCM) used in this study is n – eicosane. All heat sinks used in the present study are made of aluminium with dimensions of 80 × 62 mm 2 base with a height of 25 mm. Pin fins acts as the thermal conductivity enhancer (TCE) to improve the distribution of heat more uniformly as the thermal conductivity of the PCM is very low. A total of three different pin fin heat sink geometries with 33, 72 and 120 pin fins filled with phase change materials giving rise to 4%, 9% and 15% volume fractions of the TCE respectively were experimentally investigated. Baseline comparisons are done with a heat sink filled with PCM, without any fin. Studies are conducted for heat sinks on which a uniform heat load is applied at the bottom for the finned and unfinned cases. The effect of pin fins of different volume fractions with power levels ranging from 4 to 8 W corresponding to a heat flux range of 1. 59 to 3.17 kW/m 2 , was explored in this paper. The volume fraction of the PCM (PCM volume / (Total volume – fin volume)) is also varied as 0. 3, 0.6 and 1 to determine the effect of PCM volume on the overall performance of the electronic equipment.

  16. Sub-nanometre resolution of atomic motion during electronic excitation in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Kirill V; Fons, Paul; Makino, Kotaro; Terashima, Ryo; Shimada, Toru; Kolobov, Alexander V; Tominaga, Junji; Bragaglia, Valeria; Giussani, Alessandro; Calarco, Raffaella; Riechert, Henning; Sato, Takahiro; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Kanade; Togashi, Tadashi; Yabashi, Makina; Wall, Simon; Brewe, Dale; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-02-12

    Phase-change materials based on Ge-Sb-Te alloys are widely used in industrial applications such as nonvolatile memories, but reaction pathways for crystalline-to-amorphous phase-change on picosecond timescales remain unknown. Femtosecond laser excitation and an ultrashort x-ray probe is used to show the temporal separation of electronic and thermal effects in a long-lived (>100 ps) transient metastable state of Ge2Sb2Te5 with muted interatomic interaction induced by a weakening of resonant bonding. Due to a specific electronic state, the lattice undergoes a reversible nondestructive modification over a nanoscale region, remaining cold for 4 ps. An independent time-resolved x-ray absorption fine structure experiment confirms the existence of an intermediate state with disordered bonds. This newly unveiled effect allows the utilization of non-thermal ultra-fast pathways enabling artificial manipulation of the switching process, ultimately leading to a redefined speed limit, and improved energy efficiency and reliability of phase-change memory technologies.

  17. Predicting adult weight change in the real world: a systematic review and meta-analysis accounting for compensatory changes in energy intake or expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, E J; Kaiser, K A; Dawson, J A; Alcorn, A S; Keating, K D; Allison, D B

    2015-08-01

    Public health and clinical interventions for obesity in free-living adults may be diminished by individual compensation for the intervention. Approaches to predict weight outcomes do not account for all mechanisms of compensation, so they are not well suited to predict outcomes in free-living adults. Our objective was to quantify the range of compensation in energy intake or expenditure observed in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched multiple databases (PubMed, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Cochrane, ProQuest, PsycInfo) up to 1 August 2012 for RCTs evaluating the effect of dietary and/or physical activity interventions on body weight/composition. subjects per treatment arm ≥5; ≥1 week intervention; a reported outcome of body weight/body composition; the intervention was either a prescribed amount of over- or underfeeding and/or supervised or monitored physical activity was prescribed; ≥80% compliance; and an objective method was used to verify compliance with the intervention (for example, observation and electronic monitoring). Data were independently extracted and analyzed by multiple reviewers with consensus reached by discussion. We compared observed weight change with predicted weight change using two models that predict weight change accounting only for metabolic compensation. Twenty-eight studies met inclusion criteria. Overfeeding studies indicate 96% less weight gain than expected if no compensation occurred. Dietary restriction and exercise studies may result in up to 12-44% and 55-64% less weight loss than expected, respectively, under an assumption of no behavioral compensation. Compensation is substantial even in high-compliance conditions, resulting in far less weight change than would be expected. The simple algorithm we report allows for more realistic predictions of intervention effects in free-living populations by accounting for the significant compensation that occurs.

  18. The study of composition changes in thin film coatings of Ge-As-Se type under relativistic electron irradiation by means of electron Auger spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, L.G.; Dovgoshej, N.I.; Savchenko, N.D.

    1991-01-01

    Data on the influence of relativistic electrons on depth profile of Ge 33 As 12 Se 55 films were obtained for the first time. It was established that the most sufficient change of element composition of films in result of electron irradiation took place in the surface layer and on film-sublayer interface. It can be explained by increase of diffusion of impurities and free atoms

  19. Transient cooling of electronics using phase change material (PCM)-based heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Ravi; Wang Xiangqi; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2008-01-01

    Use of a phase change material (PCM)-based heat sink in transient thermal management of plastic quad flat package (QFP) electronic devices was investigated experimentally and numerically. Results show that increased power inputs enhance the melting rate as well as the thermal performance of the PCM-based heat sinks until the PCM is fully melted. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model was proposed to simulate the problem and demonstrated good agreement with experimental data. Results indicate the potential for PCM-based heat sinks for use in intermittent-use devices

  20. From the "god and ghost world" to the "human and nature world" : a study of the changes of health care in Yongxing village in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Pingyuan

    2000-01-01

    The thesis aims at analyzing and explaining the changes that have occurred in health care in Yongxing village, a village located in Yongxing Xiang, Jingshan County, Hubei province in central China. Since its introduction, Western medicine has been widely used in the later half of the 20th century and has become the main form of medical care. It is now well integrated into the local setting. Traditional Chinese medicine, together with other traditional treatment forms (Buddhism and Taoism, Sha...

  1. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  2. Longitudinal relations of television, electronic games, and digital versatile discs with changes in diet in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbe, Jennifer; Willett, Walter C; Rosner, Bernard; Gortmaker, Steve L; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Field, Alison E

    2014-10-01

    Youth spend more time with screens than any activity except sleeping. Screen time is a risk factor for obesity, possibly because of the influence of food and beverage advertising on diet. We sought to assess longitudinal relations of screen time [ie, television, electronic games, digital versatile discs (DVDs)/videos, and total screen time] with the 2-y changes in consumption of foods of low nutritional quality (FLNQ) that are commonly advertised on screens [ie, sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food, sweets, salty snacks, and the sum of these foods (total FLNQ)] and fruit and vegetables. With the use of 2004, 2006, and 2008 waves of the Growing Up Today Study II, which consisted of a cohort of 6002 female and 4917 male adolescents aged 9-16 y in 2004, we assessed screen time (change and baseline) in relation to the 2-y dietary changes. Regression models included 4604 girls and 3668 boys with complete screen time and diet data on ≥2 consecutive questionnaires. Each hour-per-day increase in television, electronic games, and DVDs/videos was associated with increased intake of total FLNQ (range: 0.10-0.28 servings/d; P food, sweets, and salty snacks (range: 0.02-0.06 servings/d; P food groups and in sensitivity analyses, television was most consistently associated with dietary changes. Increases in screen time were associated with increased consumption of foods and beverages of low nutritional quality and decreased consumption of fruit and vegetables. Our results caution against excessive use of screen media, especially television, in youth. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Single Nanostructure Electrochemical Devices for Studying Electronic Properties and Structural Changes in Lithiated Si Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured Si is a promising anode material for the next generation of Li-ion batteries, but few studies have focused on the electrical properties of the Li-Si alloy phase, which are important for determining power capabilities and ensuring sufficient electrical conduction in the electrode structure. Here, we demonstrate an electrochemical device framework suitable for testing the electrical properties of single Si nanowires (NWs) at different lithiation states and correlating these properties with structural changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We fi nd that single Si NWs usually exhibit Ohmic I - V response in the lithiated state, with conductivities two to three orders of magnitude higher than in the delithiated state. After a number of sequential lithiation/delithiation cycles, the single NWs show similar conductivity after each lithiation step but show large variations in conductivity in the delithiated state. Finally, devices with groups of NWs in physical contact were fabricated, and structural changes in the NWs were observed after lithiation to investigate how the electrical resistance of NW junctions and the NWs themselves affect the lithiation behavior. The results suggest that electrical resistance of NW junctions can limit lithiation. Overall, this study shows the importance of investigating the electronic properties of individual components of a battery electrode (single nanostructures in this case) along with studying the nature of interactions within a collection of these component structures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Single Nanostructure Electrochemical Devices for Studying Electronic Properties and Structural Changes in Lithiated Si Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2011-07-19

    Nanostructured Si is a promising anode material for the next generation of Li-ion batteries, but few studies have focused on the electrical properties of the Li-Si alloy phase, which are important for determining power capabilities and ensuring sufficient electrical conduction in the electrode structure. Here, we demonstrate an electrochemical device framework suitable for testing the electrical properties of single Si nanowires (NWs) at different lithiation states and correlating these properties with structural changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We fi nd that single Si NWs usually exhibit Ohmic I - V response in the lithiated state, with conductivities two to three orders of magnitude higher than in the delithiated state. After a number of sequential lithiation/delithiation cycles, the single NWs show similar conductivity after each lithiation step but show large variations in conductivity in the delithiated state. Finally, devices with groups of NWs in physical contact were fabricated, and structural changes in the NWs were observed after lithiation to investigate how the electrical resistance of NW junctions and the NWs themselves affect the lithiation behavior. The results suggest that electrical resistance of NW junctions can limit lithiation. Overall, this study shows the importance of investigating the electronic properties of individual components of a battery electrode (single nanostructures in this case) along with studying the nature of interactions within a collection of these component structures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Constructal design of phase change material enclosures used for cooling electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbasi, Rasool; Salimpour, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in cooling methods for portable electronic devices have heightened the need for using the large latent heat capacity of phase change materials (PCM). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the thermal characteristics of a PCM-based heat sink with high conductive materials. The solution is acquired as a procession of optimization stages which starts with the elemental area and proceeds toward the first assembly. Every optimization stage is the result of maximizing the safe operation time without allowing the electronics to reach the critical temperature. Primarily, the degrees of freedom and constrains were defined and then by changing the geometrical parameters, the target function which is the maximization of operation time, was optimized. Results show that the melting process in rectangular enclosures with vertical fins attached to the heated bottom surface can be affected by the contact surface between the fin and PCM and the convection of the melted PCM. For a rectangular enclosure with a constant area, it is better to use wider enclosure than the square and thin one. Also results indicate that the ratio of the vertical fin thickness to the horizontal one does not have a considerable effect on performance. By increasing the number of enclosures, the contact surface is raised, but the performance is not necessarily improved. - Highlights: • Thermal characteristics of a finned PCM-based heat sink are studied. • Constructal theory was used to optimize the PCM enclosures. • By increasing the number of enclosures, the performance is not necessarily improved

  6. Electron microscopy investigations of changes in morphology and conductivity of LiFePO4/C electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scipioni, Roberto; Jørgensen, Peter S.; Ngo, Duc-The

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the structural degradation of a laboratory Li-ion battery LiFePO4/Carbon Black (LFP/CB) cathode by various electron microscopy techniques including low kV Focused Ion Beam (FIB)/Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 3D tomography. Several changes are observed in FIB/SEM images...

  7. The World of Journalism – The World of Public Relations Assessment of Changes in Relations Between Journalists and PR Managers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawroński Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative look at the results of similar studies relating to the diagnosis of cooperation between the journalists and representatives of the PR industry in Poland. Comparable subjects, arising from the similarity of used research tools, as well as comparable attempts of the research on both environments provide good opportunities of drawing overlapping conclusions from the two research projects. Although standardization of the cooperation between journalists and PR professionals is very difficult and its description is limited by a number of variables and differentiating factors, comparing both studies makes it possible to draw conclusions about some changes or elements that have remained unchanged in relations PR managers - journalists in Poland over the last 11 years.

  8. The World Airpower Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackburn, Mark

    1996-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing world a current, accurate, and easily accessible data base of all the world's airpower assets is valuable to military students, educators, and war gaming professionals alike...

  9. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Marres, N.

    2000-01-01

    New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two

  10. The Future of wildland fire management in a world of rapid change and great uncertainty: Overview of a futures research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Robert L. Olson; Leif A. DeVaney

    2012-01-01

    Past efforts to examine the future of wildland fire management have relied heavily on expertise from within the wildfire community. But changes in seemingly unrelated external factors - outside of the world of wildfire and fire management - can have unexpected and profound effects. This paper describes an ongoing sh1dy of the...

  11. Artful Teaching and Learning: The Bank Street Developmental-Interaction Approach at Midtown West School. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, Sam; Park, Soyoung; Lit, Ira

    2015-01-01

    This case study is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." Established in 1989, Midtown West is a New York City public elementary school serving approximately 350 students from kindergarten through grade five. With the support of Tony Alvarado,…

  12. Climate Change and Development Framings: A Comparative Analysis of the Human Development Report 2007/8 an the World Development Report 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); A.V. Portocarrero (Ana Victoria); A. Lera St. Clair

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe Human Development Report 2007/8 (HDR) and the World Development Report 2010 (WDR) are both devoted to the connections between climate change and development. The reports provide very different perspectives on where the key challenges reside. Their policy proposals are also different,

  13. An International Dialogue on Community Colleges in a Changing World. [Symposium Report of] New Orleans Jam Session (New Orleans, Louisiana, January 8-9, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Stuart; Liston, Cynthia

    This document details a symposium that brought together U.S., Canadian, and European experts, college leaders, and policy makers for an "International Dialogue on Community Colleges in a Changing World." Discussion centered on the following four topics: (1) Community colleges are the largest source of postsecondary education for…

  14. Changes in electron precipitation inferred from spectra deduced from D region electron densities during a post--magnetic storm effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montbriand, L.E.; Belrose, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of enhanced ionization after geomagnetic storms, commonly referred to as storm aftereffect, is investigated on the hypothesis that the enhancement is due to a 'drizzle' of energetic electrons from the radiation belts. The study utilized electron density-height profiles obtained from the partial reflection experiment at Ottawa and available information on the height profile of the steady state loss coefficient for energetic electron events in combination with the ion pair production treatments of Ress (1963) and Berger et al. (1974) to deduce two-component differential energy spectra of the electron drizzle. The period studied, December 13--20, 1970, was unique for examining poststorm effects in that the geomagnetic storm on December 14--15 was intense and brief, and it was preceded and followed by periods of geomagnetic calm. The results indicate that the drizzle deduced was minimal before the storm and on the storm day and maximized 2--3 days after the peak of the storm at a time when geomagnetic activity had returned to calm. The results also suggest that the spectrum was hardest shortly after the drizzle maximized. No satisfactory source for the enhanced ionization during the poststorm other than particle drizzle could be found that would produce both the magnitude and the diurnal variation of the effect observed, a conclusion which establishes the validity of the hypothesis made

  15. High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron Density Profile Changes in Response to Large Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter; Fung, Shing F.

    2016-01-01

    Large magnetic-storm-induced changes were detected in high-latitude topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h) in a database of profiles and digital topside ionograms, from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program, that enabled Ne(h) profiles to be obtained in nearly the same region of space before, during, and after a major magnetic storm (Dst -100nT). Storms where Ne(h) profiles were available in the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere had better coverage of solar wind parameters than storms with available Ne(h) profiles in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere. Large Ne(h) changes were observed during all storms, with enhancements and depletions sometimes near a factor of 10 and 0.1, respectively, but with substantial differences in the responses in the two hemispheres. Large spatial andor temporal Ne(h) changes were often observed during Dst minimum and during the storm recovery phase. The storm-induced Ne(h) changes were the most pronounced and consistent in the Northern Hemisphere in that large enhancements were observed during winter nighttime and large depletions during winter and spring daytime. The limited available cases suggested that these Northern Hemisphere enhancements increased with increases of the time-shifted solar wind velocity v, magnetic field B, and with more negative values of the B components except for the highest common altitude (1100km) of the profiles. There was also some evidence suggesting that the Northern Hemisphere depletions were related to changes in the solar wind parameters. Southern Hemisphere storm-induced enhancements and depletions were typically considerably less with depletions observed during summer nighttime conditions and enhancements during summer daytime and fall nighttime conditions.

  16. Electron induced conformational changes of an imine-based molecular switch on a Au(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotze, Christian; Henningsen, Nils; Franke, Katharina; Schulze, Gunnar; Pascual, Jose Ignacio [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Luo, Ying; Haag, Rainer [Inst. f. Organische Chemie, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Azobenzene-based molecules exhibit a cis-trans configurational photoisomerisation in solution. Recently, the adsorption properties of azobenzene derivatives have been investigated on different metal surfaces in order to explore the possible changes in the film properties induced by external stimuli. In azobenzene, the diazo-bridge is a key group for the isomerization process. Its interaction with a metal surface is dominated through the N lone-pair electrons, which reduces the efficiency of the conformational change. In order to reduce the molecule-surface interaction, we explore an alternative molecular architecture by substituting the diazo-bridge (-N=N-) of azobenzene by an imine-group (-N=CH-). We have investigated the imine-based compound para-carboxyl-di-benzene-imine (PCI) adsorbed on a Au(111) surface. The carboxylic terminations mediates the formation of strongly bonded molecular dimers, which align in ordered rows preferentially following the fcc regions of the Au(111) herringbone reconstruction. Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy was used to induce conformational changes between trans and cis state of individual molecules in a molecular monolayer.

  17. Preparation and thermal conductivity enhancement of composite phase change materials for electronic thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Weixiong; Zhang, Guoqing; Ke, Xiufang; Yang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Ziyuan; Liu, Chenzhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A kind of composite phase change material board (PCMB) is prepared and tested. • PCMB presents a large thermal storage capacity and enhanced thermal conductivity. • PCMB displays much better cooling effect in comparison to natural air cooling. • PCMB presents different cooling characteristics in comparison to ribbed radiator. - Abstract: A kind of phase change material board (PCMB) was prepared for use in the thermal management of electronics, with paraffin and expanded graphite as the phase change material and matrix, respectively. The as-prepared PCMB presented a large thermal storage capacity of 141.74 J/g and enhanced thermal conductivity of 7.654 W/(m K). As a result, PCMB displayed much better cooling effect in comparison to natural air cooling, i.e., much lower heating rate and better uniformity of temperature distribution. On the other hand, compared with ribbed radiator technology, PCMB also presented different cooling characteristics, demonstrating that they were suitable for different practical application

  18. Changing Rwandan vision of women and land, in the heart of the house, at the outskirts of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle de Lame

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Because the current situation is unstable and the countryside is out of reach, it is impossible to assess in what measures and ways the fact that many women carry the daily burden alone will affect, more generally, the views about gender and gender roles. Women can, indeed keep working in the name of their dead or disappeared husbands; still bearing in mind the old ideology of a continuity based on fidelity to the family ancestors. The disillusions about the further reaching effects on local communities, society, and nation, of beliefs related to the ritual gender complementarity will probably result in a yet more individualized vision of the family. It is realistic to suppose that the rising generation of women would have other views about their own rights, and be less submissive to men if they were, by law, recognized as equal to them on all grounds. This was, however, far from achieved before the genocide, even after the reform of the law which put daughters at an equal footing with sons as far as succession to land rights was concerned. The fact that a majority of households are now female-headed is no, in itself, a guarantee against oppression. If, then, gender roles remain perceived as unchanged, a majority of women will be oppressed in a very crude manner, that is to say, with very little "moral" justification of their exploitation. It also remains to be seen what kind of negotiation the peasant women will be able to achieve with those in power, either male or female. The hope for change rests with active efforts at providing women who are said to be 70% of household heads now, with structures giving them sufficient knowledge, efficacy and credit to organize without being patronized. There are examples of such attempts but their success can only be achieved on the basis of a democracy aiming at giving all access to basic rights. The old modes of exploitation and patronage could perfectly become, under the guises of feminism, associated

  19. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  20. Changes in the surface electronic states of semiconductor fine particles induced by high energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Asai, Keisuke; Ishigure, Kenkichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    The changes in the surface electronic states of Q-sized semiconductor particles in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, induced by high energy ion irradiation, were examined by observation of ion induced emission and photoluminescence (PL). Various emission bands attributed to different defect sites in the band gap were observed at the initial irradiation stage. As the dose increased, the emissions via the trapping sites decreased in intensity while the band-edge emission developed. This suggests that the ion irradiation would remove almost all the trapping sites in the band gap. The low energy emissions, which show a multiexponential decay, were due to a donor-acceptor recombination between the deeply trapped carriers. It was found that the processes of formation, reaction, and stabilization of the trapping sites would predominantly occur under the photooxidizing conditions. (author)