WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing transmission settings

  1. Transmission, Acquisition, Parameter-Setting, Reanalysis, and Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    2011-01-01

    Jurgen Meisel's (JM) article is literally thought-provoking, especially for the issues that one can raise out of the central position that he develops, viz., "although bilingual acquisition in situations of language contact can be argued to be of significant importance for explanations of grammatical change, reanalysis affecting parameter settings…

  2. Dynamic Experimental Research on Setting Signal Transmission of Induction Setting System in Muzzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xue-gong

    2009-01-01

    Muzzle induction setting is a high speed dynamic process. Based on analyzing the process of the projectile flying through an induction setting field, an experimental method is studied to test the effect of high speed plasma gas and high speed projectile on the induction setting system. Three tests are designed. The real-time coupling curves of induction setting signal are tested by coupling a test coil. The experimental results indicate that the electromagnetic field formed by high speed plasma gas can influence the signal transmission of induction setting system, and the influence can be reduced by opening some vents on muzzle; the high speed projectile changed the distributing characteristics of electromagnetic field in the induction setting field to reduce the amplitude of induction coupling signal.

  3. Enterprise Projects Set Risk Element Transmission Chaotic Genetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunbin Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to research projects set risk transfer process and improve risk management efficiency in projects management, combining chaos theory and genetic algorithm, put forward enterprise projects set risk element transmission chaos genetic model. Using logistic chaos mapping and chebyshev chaos mapping mixture, constructed a hybrid chaotic mapping system. The steps of adopting hybrid chaos mapping for genetic operation include projects set initialization, calculation of fitness, selection, crossover and mutation operators, fitness adjustment and condition judgment. The results showed that the model can simulate enterprise projects set risk transmission process very well and it also provides the basis for the enterprise managers to make decisions.

  4. Enterprise Projects Set Risk Element Transmission Chaotic Genetic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cunbin Li; Peng Li; Gongshu Lu

    2012-01-01

    In order to research projects set risk transfer process and improve risk management efficiency in projects management, combining chaos theory and genetic algorithm, put forward enterprise projects set risk element transmission chaos genetic model. Using logistic chaos mapping and chebyshev chaos mapping mixture, constructed a hybrid chaotic mapping system. The steps of adopting hybrid chaos mapping for genetic operation include projects set initialization, calculation of fitness, selection, c...

  5. Instruction manual model 600F, data transmission test set

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Information necessary for the operation and maintenance of the Model 600F Data Transmission Test Set is presented. A description is contained of the physical and functional characteristics; pertinent installation data; instructions for operating the equipment; general and detailed principles of operation; preventive and corrective maintenance procedures; and block, logic, and component layout diagrams of the equipment and its major component assemblies.

  6. Quantifying Transmission of Clostridium difficile within and outside Healthcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Margaret A.; Dubberke, Erik R.; Galvani, Alison P.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the effect of hospital and community-based transmission and control measures on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), we constructed a transmission model within and between hospital, community, and long-term care-facility settings. By parameterizing the model from national databases and calibrating it to C. difficile prevalence and CDI incidence, we found that hospitalized patients with CDI transmit C. difficile at a rate 15 (95% CI 7.2–32) times that of asymptomatic patients. Long-term care facility residents transmit at a rate of 27% (95% CI 13%–51%) that of hospitalized patients, and persons in the community at a rate of 0.1% (95% CI 0.062%–0.2%) that of hospitalized patients. Despite lower transmission rates for asymptomatic carriers and community sources, these transmission routes have a substantial effect on hospital-onset CDI because of the larger reservoir of hospitalized carriers and persons in the community. Asymptomatic carriers and community sources should be accounted for when designing and evaluating control interventions. PMID:26982504

  7. On some transmission problems set in a biological cell, analysis and resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbas, Rabah; Lemrabet, Keddour; Limam, Kheira; Medeghri, Ahmed; Meisner, Maëlis

    2015-10-01

    Some transmission problems are set in bodies with a crown of small thickness ε > 0. For instance, those concerning the conductivity in the biological cell. By a natural change of variables, we transform them in transmission problems set in two cylindrical bodies ] - ∞, 0 [ × ] - π, π [ and ] 0, δ [ × ] - π, π [ (where δ = ln ⁡ (1 + ε)) and then, in some general elliptic abstract differential equations (Pδ) δ > 0. The goal of this work is to give a complete study of these problems (Pδ) δ > 0 for every δ > 0. Existence, uniqueness and maximal regularity results are obtained for the classical solutions essentially by using the semigroups theory.

  8. An ultrasonic through-transmission technique for monitoring the setting of injectable calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajzer, Izabella; Piekarczyk, Wojciech; Castaño, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    An ultrasound through-transmission method to monitor the setting process of injectable calcium phosphate bone cements in body fluids is presented. This method can be used to determine the acoustic properties of the bone cement as it sets, which are linked to its material properties and provide some information about changes occurring within the cement. The development of the methodology of ultrasonic testing and execution of velocity measurements of the longitudinal and transverse waves using the through-transmission method made it possible to determine the material constants of samples during the setting and hardening process of an injectable cement paste in physiological fluids (i.e. the Young's modulus (E), the Poisson ratio (ν) and the shear modulus (G)), and to determine the degree of anisotropy of wave velocity in the samples. A strong advantage of the proposed method is that it is non-destructive, and the same sample can be used to monitor the whole process of the cement setting. The testing was performed on premixed and injectable calcium phosphate (CPC)/chitosan blend, where glycerol was used as a liquid phase. Comparisons between ultrasonic velocity and empirical tests such as compressive strength, porosity measurement, FTIR, SEM and XRD analysis at different days of immersion in Ringer's solutions showed that the ultrasonic velocity can be very useful to provide in situ information about changes occurring within the cement. PMID:27287094

  9. The changing transmission mechanism of New Zealand monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Rishab Sethi

    2008-01-01

    This is the second of two Bulletin articles on the transmission mechanism of New Zealand monetary policy. In the first article (Drew and Sethi 2007), we described this mechanism, detailing the process by which changes in the Reserve Bank’s primary monetary policy instrument, the Official Cash Rate (OCR), eventually influence the general level of prices. This article examines how certain aspects of the transmission mechanism have changed over time. Assessing these changes is especially topical...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  11. Reducing pathogen transmission in a hospital setting. Handshake versus fist bump: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, P A; Bourlai, T; Dutton, W; McClellan, W T

    2013-12-01

    Handshaking is a known vector for bacterial transmission between individuals. Handwashing has become a major initiative throughout healthcare systems to reduce transmission rates, but as many as 80% of individuals retain some disease-causing bacteria after washing. The fist bump is an alternative to the handshake that has become popular. We have determined that implementing the fist bump in the healthcare setting may further reduce bacterial transmission between healthcare providers by reducing contact time and total surface area exposed when compared with the standard handshake. PMID:24144553

  12. Socio-demographics and the development of malaria elimination strategies in the low transmission setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuquiyauri, Raul; Paredes, Maribel; Peñataro, Pablo; Torres, Sonia; Marin, Silvia; Tenorio, Alexander; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Abeles, Shira; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Gilman, Robert H; Kosek, Margaret; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2012-03-01

    This analysis presents a comprehensive description of malaria burden and risk factors in Peruvian Amazon villages where malaria transmission is hypoendemic. More than 9000 subjects were studied in contrasting village settings within the Department of Loreto, Peru, where most malaria occurs in the country. Plasmodium vivax is responsible for more than 75% of malaria cases; severe disease from any form of malaria is uncommon and death rare. The association between lifetime malaria episodes and individual and household covariates was studied using polychotomous logistic regression analysis, assessing effects on odds of some vs. no lifetime malaria episodes. Malaria morbidity during lifetime was strongly associated with age, logging, farming, travel history, and living with a logger or agriculturist. Select groups of adults, particularly loggers and agriculturists acquire multiple malaria infections in transmission settings outside of the main domicile, and may be mobile human reservoirs by which malaria parasites move within and between micro-regions within malaria endemic settings. For example, such individuals might well be reservoirs of transmission by introducing or reintroducing malaria into their home villages and their own households, depending on vector ecology and the local village setting. Therefore, socio-demographic studies can identify people with the epidemiological characteristic of transmission risk, and these individuals would be prime targets against which to deploy transmission blocking strategies along with insecticide treated bednets and chemoprophylaxis.

  13. Socio-Demographics and the Development of Malaria Elimination Strategies in the Low Transmission Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuquiyauri, Raul; Paredes, Maribel; Peñataro, Pablo; Torres, Sonia; Marin, Silvia; Tenorio, Alexander; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Abeles, Shira; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Gilman, Robert H.; Kosek, Margaret; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    This analysis presents a comprehensive description of malaria burden and risk factors in Peruvian Amazon villages where malaria transmission is hypoendemic. More than 9,000 subjects were studied in contrasting village settings within the Department of Loreto, Peru, where most malaria occurs in the country. Plasmodium vivax is responsible for more than 75% of malaria cases; severe disease from any form of malaria is uncommon and death rare. The association between lifetime malaria episodes and individual and household covariates was studied using polychotomous logistic regression analysis, assessing effects on odds of some vs. no lifetime malaria episodes. Malaria morbidity during lifetime was strongly associated with age, logging, farming, travel history, and living with a logger or agriculturist. Select groups of adults, particularly loggers and agriculturists acquire multiple malaria infections in transmission settings outside of the main domicile, and may be mobile human reservoirs by which malaria parasites move within and between micro-regions within malaria endemic settings. For example, such individuals might well be reservoirs of transmission by introducing or reintroducing malaria into their home villages and their own households, depending on vector ecology and the local village setting. Therefore, socio-demographic studies can identify people with the epidemiological characteristic of transmission risk, and these individuals would be prime targets against which to deploy transmission blocking strategies along with insecticide treated bednets and chemoprophylaxis. PMID:22100446

  14. Vulnerability to changes in malaria transmission due to climate change in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Malaria transmission in West Africa is strongly tied to climate; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the survival of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. As a result, the environmental suitability for malaria transmission in this region is expected to change as temperatures rise and rainfall patterns are altered. The vulnerability to changes in transmission varies throughout West Africa. Areas where malaria prevalence is already very high will be less sensitive to changes in transmission. Increases in environmental suitability for malaria transmission in the most arid regions may still be insufficient to allow sustained transmission. However, areas were malaria transmission currently occurs at low levels are expected to be the most sensitive to changes in environmental suitability for transmission. Here, we use data on current environment and malaria transmission rates to highlight areas in West Africa that we expect to be most vulnerable to an increase in malaria under certain climate conditions. We then analyze climate predictions from global climate models in vulnerable areas, and make predictions for the expected change in environmental suitability for malaria transmission using the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a mechanistic model developed to simulate village-scale response of malaria transmission to environmental variables in West Africa.

  15. Goal setting as a strategy for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecher, V J; Seijts, G H; Kok, G J; Latham, G P; Glasgow, R; DeVellis, B; Meertens, R M; Bulger, D W

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses the beneficial effects of setting goals in health behavior change and maintenance interventions. Goal setting theory predicts that, under certain conditions, setting specific difficult goals leads to higher performance when compared with no goals or vague, nonquantitative goals, such as "do your best." In contrast to the graduated, easy goals often set in health behavior change programs, goal setting theory asserts a positive linear relationship between degree of goal difficulty and level of performance. Research on goal setting has typically been conducted in organizational and laboratory settings. Although goal setting procedures are used in many health behavior change programs, they rarely have been the focus of systematic research. Therefore, many research questions still need to be answered regarding goal setting in the context of health behavior change. Finally, initial recommendations for the successful integration of goal setting theory in health behavior change programs are offered.

  16. Assessing temporal associations between environmental factors and malaria morbidity at varying transmission settings in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kigozi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors play a major role in transmission of malaria given their relationship to both the development and survival of the mosquito and parasite. The associations between environmental factors and malaria can be used to inform the development of early warning systems for increases in malaria burden. The objective of this study was to assess temporal relationships between rainfall, temperature and vegetation with malaria morbidity across three different transmission settings in Uganda. Methods Temporal relationships between environmental factors (weekly total rainfall, mean day time temperature and enhanced vegetation index series and malaria morbidity (weekly malaria case count data and test positivity rate series over the period January 2010–May 2013 in three sites located in varying malaria transmission settings in Uganda was explored using cross-correlation with pre-whitening. Sites included Kamwezi (low transmission, Kasambya (moderate transmission and Nagongera (high transmission. Results Nagongera received the most rain (30.6 mm and experienced, on average, the highest daytime temperatures (29.8 °C per week. In the study period, weekly TPR and number of malaria cases were highest at Kasambya and lowest at Kamwezi. The largest cross-correlation coefficients between environmental factors and malaria morbidity for each site was 0.27 for Kamwezi (rainfall and cases, 0.21 for Kasambya (vegetation and TPR, and −0.27 for Nagongera (daytime temperature and TPR. Temporal associations between environmental factors (rainfall, temperature and vegetation with malaria morbidity (number of malaria cases and TPR varied by transmission setting. Longer time lags were observed at Kamwezi and Kasambya compared to Nagongera in the relationship between rainfall and number of malaria cases. Comparable time lags were observed at Kasambya and Nagongera in the relationship between temperature and malaria morbidity. Temporal

  17. Influenza transmission during extreme indoor conditions in a low-resource tropical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamerius, James; Ojeda, Sergio; Uejio, Christopher K.; Shaman, Jeffrey; Lopez, Brenda; Sanchez, Nery; Gordon, Aubree

    2016-08-01

    Influenza transmission occurs throughout the planet across wide-ranging environmental conditions. However, our understanding of the environmental factors mediating transmission is evaluated using outdoor environmental measurements, which may not be representative of the indoor conditions where influenza is transmitted. In this study, we examined the relationship between indoor environment and influenza transmission in a low-resource tropical population. We used a case-based ascertainment design to enroll 34 households with a suspected influenza case and then monitored households for influenza, while recording indoor temperature and humidity data in each household. We show that the indoor environment is not commensurate with outdoor conditions and that the relationship between indoor and outdoor conditions varies significantly across homes. We also show evidence of influenza transmission in extreme indoor environments. Specifically, our data suggests that indoor environments averaged 29 °C, 18 g/kg specific humidity, and 68 % relative humidity across 15 transmission events observed. These indoor settings also exhibited significant temporal variability with temperatures as high as 39 °C and specific and relative humidity increasing to 22 g/kg and 85 %, respectively, during some transmission events. However, we were unable to detect differences in the transmission efficiency by indoor temperature or humidity conditions. Overall, these results indicate that laboratory studies investigating influenza transmission and virus survival should increase the range of environmental conditions that they assess and that observational studies investigating the relationship between environment and influenza activity should use caution using outdoor environmental measurements since they can be imprecise estimates of the conditions that mediate transmission indoors.

  18. Entomological Monitoring and Evaluation: Diverse Transmission Settings of ICEMR Projects Will Require Local and Regional Malaria Elimination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jan E.; Norris, Douglas E.; Donnelly, Martin J.; Beebe, Nigel W.; Burkot, Thomas R.; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Chery, Laura; Eapen, Alex; Keven, John B.; Kilama, Maxwell; Kumar, Ashwani; Lindsay, Steve W.; Moreno, Marta; Quinones, Martha; Reimer, Lisa J.; Russell, Tanya L.; Smith, David L.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Walker, Edward D.; Wilson, Mark L.; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented global efforts for malaria elimination in the past decade have resulted in altered vectorial systems, vector behaviors, and bionomics. These changes combined with increasingly evident heterogeneities in malaria transmission require innovative vector control strategies in addition to the established practices of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. Integrated vector management will require focal and tailored vector control to achieve malaria elimination. This switch of emphasis from universal coverage to universal coverage plus additional interventions will be reliant on improved entomological monitoring and evaluation. In 2010, the National Institutes for Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) established a network of malaria research centers termed ICEMRs (International Centers for Excellence in Malaria Research) expressly to develop this evidence base in diverse malaria endemic settings. In this article, we contrast the differing ecology and transmission settings across the ICEMR study locations. In South America, Africa, and Asia, vector biologists are already dealing with many of the issues of pushing to elimination such as highly focal transmission, proportionate increase in the importance of outdoor and crepuscular biting, vector species complexity, and “sub patent” vector transmission. PMID:26259942

  19. Personal clothing as a potential vector of respiratory virus transmission in childcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralton, Jan; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Rawlinson, William D

    2015-06-01

    Previous investigations of fomite transmission have focused on the presence of pathogens on inanimate objects in clinical settings. There has been limited investigation of fomite transmission in non-clinical pediatric settings where there is a high prevalence of respiratory virus infections. Over a 5 week period, this study investigated whether the personal clothing of teachers working in childcare centers was contaminated with viral RNA, and potentially could mediate virus transmission. Matched morning and evening clothing and nasal samples were collected for 313 teacher work days (TWDs). Human rhinoviruses (hRV) RNA were detected from samples using real-time PCR. Human rhinovirus RNA was detected in clothing samples on 16 TWDs and in nasal samples on 32 TWDs. There were no TWDs when teachers provided both positive nasal and clothing samples and only three TWDs when hRV persisted on clothing for the entire day. The detection of hRV RNA was significantly predicted by self-recognition of symptomatic illness by the teacher 2 days prior to detection. These findings suggest that teachers' personal clothing in childcare settings is unlikely to facilitate the transmission of hRV.

  20. Framing climate change in a popularised setting:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Engberg, Jan

    of the conference. In our part of the project, we look at how knowledge is created via the choice of metaphors. On the basis of an analysis of the framing of the COP15 conference and its goals as presented in the introductory statements by the two Danish presidents of the conference we have found a range of salient...... metaphors used about the event in the Danish press coverage reaching from seeing climate change negotiations as a road to mutual salvation, at one end of the scale, to seeing such negotiations as a kind of war between nations and interests. In our paper, we will present the background of the range...... of metaphors used and investigate the development in the use of these metaphors from the first to the last day of the conference in Danish newspapers. We will end the presentation by comparing our results with the metaphors we find in Spanish newspapers on the first and the last day of the conference...

  1. Comparative population structure of Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium falciparum under different transmission settings in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molyneux Malcolm E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Described here is the first population genetic study of Plasmodium malariae, the causative agent of quartan malaria. Although not as deadly as Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae is more common than previously thought, and is frequently in sympatry and co-infection with P. falciparum, making its study increasingly important. This study compares the population parameters of the two species in two districts of Malawi with different malaria transmission patterns - one seasonal, one perennial - to explore the effects of transmission on population structures. Methods Six species-specific microsatellite markers were used to analyse 257 P. malariae samples and 257 P. falciparum samples matched for age, gender and village of residence. Allele sizes were scored to within 2 bp for each locus and haplotypes were constructed from dominant alleles in multiple infections. Analysis of multiplicity of infection (MOI, population differentiation, clustering of haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium was performed for both species. Regression analyses were used to determine association of MOI measurements with clinical malaria parameters. Results Multiple-genotype infections within each species were common in both districts, accounting for 86.0% of P. falciparum and 73.2% of P. malariae infections and did not differ significantly with transmission setting. Mean MOI of P. falciparum was increased under perennial transmission compared with seasonal (3.14 vs 2.59, p = 0.008 and was greater in children compared with adults. In contrast, P. malariae mean MOI was similar between transmission settings (2.12 vs 2.11 and there was no difference between children and adults. Population differentiation showed no significant differences between villages or districts for either species. There was no evidence of geographical clustering of haplotypes. Linkage disequilibrium amongst loci was found only for P. falciparum samples from the seasonal transmission

  2. Research and Development of Engine-Generator Set Control System for Tracked Vehicle Electric Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ying; HUANG Qian; SUN Feng-chun; LIU Bo-lan; LIU Jia

    2007-01-01

    As an energy generating equipment, the engine-generator set supplies power to the electric transmission. Therefore, its control is one of the key technologies of electric vehicles. Based on the discussion about the demands to the engine-generator set in tracked vehicles, the detailed function of engine-generator and the control strategy are determined. The hardware and software of the control system are also developed and tested in a prototype vehicle. The experiment results show that the control system has good reliability and can satisfy the power requirements of vehicles under all operating conditions.

  3. Malaria transmission potential could be reduced with current and future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, C. C.; Sternberg, E. D.; Thomas, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest the potential for climate change to increase malaria incidence in cooler, marginal transmission environments. However, the effect of increasing temperature in warmer regions where conditions currently support endemic transmission has received less attention. We investigate how increases in temperature from optimal conditions (27 °C to 30 °C and 33 °C) interact with realistic diurnal temperature ranges (DTR: ± 0 °C, 3 °C, and 4.5 °C) to affect the ability of key vector species from Africa and Asia (Anopheles gambiae and An. stephensi) to transmit the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The effects of increasing temperature and DTR on parasite prevalence, parasite intensity, and mosquito mortality decreased overall vectorial capacity for both mosquito species. Increases of 3 °C from 27 °C reduced vectorial capacity by 51–89% depending on species and DTR, with increases in DTR alone potentially halving transmission. At 33 °C, transmission potential was further reduced for An. stephensi and blocked completely in An. gambiae. These results suggest that small shifts in temperature could play a substantial role in malaria transmission dynamics, yet few empirical or modeling studies consider such effects. They further suggest that rather than increase risk, current and future warming could reduce transmission potential in existing high transmission settings. PMID:27324146

  4. Variation transmission model for setting acceptance criteria in a multi-staged pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Richard O

    2012-03-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturing processes consist of a series of stages (e.g., reaction, workup, isolation) to generate the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Outputs at intermediate stages (in-process control) and API need to be controlled within acceptance criteria to assure final drug product quality. In this paper, two methods based on tolerance interval to derive such acceptance criteria will be evaluated. The first method is serial worst case (SWC), an industry risk minimization strategy, wherein input materials and process parameters of a stage are fixed at their worst-case settings to calculate the maximum level expected from the stage. This maximum output then becomes input to the next stage wherein process parameters are again fixed at worst-case setting. The procedure is serially repeated throughout the process until the final stage. The calculated limits using SWC can be artificially high and may not reflect the actual process performance. The second method is the variation transmission (VT) using autoregressive model, wherein variation transmitted up to a stage is estimated by accounting for the recursive structure of the errors at each stage. Computer simulations at varying extent of variation transmission and process stage variability are performed. For the scenarios tested, VT method is demonstrated to better maintain the simulated confidence level and more precisely estimate the true proportion parameter than SWC. Real data examples are also presented that corroborate the findings from the simulation. Overall, VT is recommended for setting acceptance criteria in a multi-staged pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  5. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  6. Terahertz transmission properties of a triadic-Cantor-set photonic crystal containing a semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tzu-Chyang; Liu, Chi-Chung; Huang, Chih-Hsi; Wu, Chien-Jang

    2016-08-01

    Terahertz transmission properties of a stage 3 triadic-Cantor-set photonic crystal (S3 TCS PC) containing a semiconductor of n-InSb are theoretically investigated. With the resonant frequency in the permittivity function of n-InSb, transmission responses can be classified as three regions. In the two regions with frequencies well above and below the resonant frequency, the permittivity functions are nearly a positive constant and n-InSb is dielectric-like. For these two regions, transmittance response of S3 TCS PC at a given number of periods Np reveals that, within a photonic band gap, there are two groups of defect modes with numbers of Np and Np-1, respectively. Defect modes are shown to be blue-shifted as the angle of incidence increases for both TE and TM waves. Additionally, adjusting the layer thickness enables us to control mode positions for the group of (Np-1)-mode, but the one with Np-mode is not able to be controlled. In a region of 5.1-6.2 THz, where the loss is large, there also are many transmission modes.

  7. Detecting a trend change in cross-border epidemic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2016-09-01

    A method for a system of Langevin equations is developed for detecting a trend change in cross-border epidemic transmission. The equations represent a standard epidemiological SIR compartment model and a meta-population network model. The method analyzes a time series of the number of new cases reported in multiple geographical regions. The method is applicable to investigating the efficacy of the implemented public health intervention in managing infectious travelers across borders. It is found that the change point of the probability of travel movements was one week after the WHO worldwide alert on the SARS outbreak in 2003. The alert was effective in managing infectious travelers. On the other hand, it is found that the probability of travel movements did not change at all for the flu pandemic in 2009. The pandemic did not affect potential travelers despite the WHO alert.

  8. Potential impact of climate change on schistosomiasis transmission in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yang, Guo-Jing; Yang, Kun; Wang, Xian-Hong; Hong, Qing-Biao; Sun, Le-Ping; Malone, John B; Kristensen, Thomas K; Bergquist, N Robert; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-02-01

    Appraisal of the present and future impact of climate change and climate variability on the transmission of infectious diseases is a complex but pressing public health issue. We developed a biology-driven model to assess the potential impact of rising temperature on the transmission of schistosomiasis in China. We found a temperature threshold of 15.4 degrees C for development of Schistosoma japonicum within the intermediate host snail (i.e., Oncomelania hupensis), and a temperature of 5.8 degrees C at which half the snail sample investigated was in hibernation. Historical data suggest that the occurrence of O. hupensis is restricted to areas where the mean January temperature is above 0 degrees C. The combination of these temperature thresholds, together with our own predicted temperature increases in China of 0.9 degrees C in 2030 and 1.6 degrees C in 2050 facilitated predictive risk mapping. We forecast an expansion of schistosomiasis transmission into currently non-endemic areas in the north, with an additional risk area of 783,883 km(2) by 2050, translating to 8.1% of the surface area of China. Our results call for rigorous monitoring and surveillance of schistosomiasis in a future warmer China. PMID:18256410

  9. Indirect Transmission of Influenza A Virus between Pig Populations under Two Different Biosecurity Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt W Allerson

    Full Text Available Respiratory disease due to influenza virus is common in both human and swine populations around the world with multiple transmission routes capable of transmitting influenza virus, including indirect routes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of fomites in influenza A virus (IAV transmission between pig populations separated by two different biosecurity settings. Thirty-five pigs were divided into four experimental groups: 10 pigs (1 replicate were assigned to the infected group (I, 10 pigs (2 replicates of 5 pigs were assigned to the low biosecurity sentinel group (LB, 10 pigs (2 replicates of 5 pigs were assigned to the medium biosecurity sentinel group (MB, and 5 pigs (1 replicate were assigned to the negative control group (NC. Eight of 10 pigs in the infected group were inoculated with IAV and 36 hours following inoculation, personnel movement events took place in order to move potentially infectious clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE to sentinel pig rooms. Following contact with the infected group, personnel moved to the MB group after designated hygiene measures while personnel moved directly to the LB group. Nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from pigs to assess IAV infection status and fomites were sampled and tested via RRT-PCR. All experimentally inoculated pigs were infected with IAV and 11 of the 144 fomite samples collected following contact with infected pigs were low level positive for IAV genome. One replicate of each sentinel groups LB and MB became infected with IAV and all five pigs were infected over time. This study provides evidence that fomites can serve as an IAV transmission route from infected to sentinel pigs and highlights the need to focus on indirect routes as well as direct routes of transmission for IAV.

  10. Simulation method for transmission-type radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET) operation by SPICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient simulation method for transmission-type radio-frequency single-electron transistors (RF-SETs) is developed. By introducing equivalent circuits of propagating microwaves through RF cables, we solve the master equation for RF-SETs self-consistently by using the conventional circuit simulator SPICE together with the SET current model. By examining transmitted waves from the transmission-type RF-SET, we show that the developed method successfully reproduces the numerical reference methods (calculated self- consistently). We also show that our method provides simple and fast ways to simulate and analyze RF-SETs even under complicated circuit geometry and in high frequencies over GHz. Based on the developed simulation method, we introduce the modulation technique to estimate the charge sensitivity of the transmission-type RF-SET

  11. Simulation method for transmission-type radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET) operation by SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun Seop; Oh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hee Tae; Kim, Yong Gyu; Son, Seung Hun; Choi, Bum Ho; Hwang, Sung Woo; Ahn, Doyel

    2009-02-01

    An efficient simulation method for transmission-type radio-frequency single-electron transistors (RF-SETs) is developed. By introducing equivalent circuits of propagating microwaves through RF cables, we solve the master equation for RF-SETs self-consistently by using the conventional circuit simulator SPICE together with the SET current model. By examining transmitted waves from the transmission-type RF-SET, we show that the developed method successfully reproduces the numerical reference methods (calculated self- consistently). We also show that our method provides simple and fast ways to simulate and analyze RF-SETs even under complicated circuit geometry and in high frequencies over GHz. Based on the developed simulation method, we introduce the modulation technique to estimate the charge sensitivity of the transmission-type RF-SET.

  12. Maternal-foetal transfer of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antibodies in a low transmission setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnaud, Sarah C.; McGready, Rose; Herten-Crabb, Asha; Powell, Rosanna; Guy, Andrew; Langer, Christine; Richards, Jack S.; Gilson, Paul R.; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Narum, David L.; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Simpson, Julie A.; Beeson, James G.; Nosten, François; Fowkes, Freya J. I.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy immunolglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are transferred from mother to neonate across the placenta. Studies in high transmission areas have shown transfer of P. falciparum-specific IgG, but the extent and factors influencing maternal-foetal transfer in low transmission areas co-endemic for both P. falciparum and P. vivax are unknown. Pregnant women were screened weekly for Plasmodium infection. Mother-neonate paired serum samples at delivery were tested for IgG to antigens from P. falciparum, P. vivax and other infectious diseases. Antibodies to malarial and non-malarial antigens were highly correlated between maternal and neonatal samples (median [range] spearman ρ = 0.78 [0.57–0.93]), although Plasmodium spp. antibodies tended to be lower in neonates than mothers. Estimated gestational age at last P. falciparum infection, but not P. vivax infection, was positively associated with antibody levels in the neonate (P. falciparum merozoite, spearman ρ median [range] 0.42 [0.33–0.66], PfVAR2CSA 0.69; P. vivax ρ = 0.19 [0.09–0.3]). Maternal-foetal transfer of anti-malarial IgG to Plasmodium spp. antigens occurs in low transmission settings. P. vivax IgG acquisition is not associated with recent exposure unlike P. falciparum IgG, suggesting a difference in acquisition of antibodies. IgG transfer is greatest in the final weeks of pregnancy which has implications for the timing of future malaria vaccination strategies in pregnant women. PMID:26861682

  13. Human norovirus transmission and evolution in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Miranda; van Beek, Janko; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2016-07-01

    Norovirus infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis, and outbreaks occur frequently. Several factors are currently increasing the challenge posed by norovirus infections to global health, notably the increasing number of infections in immunocompromised individuals, who are more susceptible to disease, and the globalization of the food industry, which enables large norovirus outbreaks to occur on an international scale. Furthermore, the rapid rate of the genetic and antigenic evolution of circulating noroviruses complicates the development of vaccines and therapies that are required to counter these challenges. In this Review, we describe recent advances in the study of the transmission, pathogenesis and evolution of human noroviruses, and consider the ongoing risk of norovirus outbreaks, together with the future prospects for therapeutics, in a rapidly changing world. PMID:27211790

  14. Comparing Effects of TCR and TSC on MHO Distance Protection Setting in 400 kV Algerian Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the performances of distance relays setting in 400 kV in Eastern Algerian transmission networks at Sonelgaz Group (Algerian company of Electrical and Gas compensated by shunt Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS. The facts are used for controlling transmission voltage, power flow, reactive power, and damping of power system oscillations in high power transfer levels. The effects of SVC devices i.e. Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR and the Thyristor Switched Capacitors (TSC insertion, on the total impedance of a transmission line protected by MHO distance relay are investigated. The modified setting zones protections for three forward zones (Z1, Z2 and Z3 have been calculated in order to improve the performances of distance relay protection and prevent circuit breaker nuisance tripping.

  15. A hybrid particle swarm optimization approach with neural network and set pair analysis for transmission network planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉成; 颜苏莉; 乞建勋

    2008-01-01

    Transmission network planning (TNP) is a large-scale, complex, with more non-linear discrete variables and the multi-objective constrained optimization problem. In the optimization process, the line investment, network reliability and the network loss are the main objective of transmission network planning. Combined with set pair analysis (SPA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), neural network (NN), a hybrid particle swarm optimization model was established with neural network and set pair analysis for transmission network planning (HPNS). Firstly, the contact degree of set pair analysis was introduced, the traditional goal set was converted into the collection of the three indicators including the identity degree, difference agree and contrary degree. On this bases, using shi(H), the three objective optimization problem was converted into single objective optimization problem. Secondly, using the fast and efficient search capabilities of PSO, the transmission network planning model based on set pair analysis was optimized. In the process of optimization, by improving the BP neural network constantly training so that the value of the fitness function of PSO becomes smaller in order to obtain the optimization program fitting the three objectives better. Finally, compared HPNS with PSO algorithm and the classic genetic algorithm, HPNS increased about 23% efficiency than THA, raised about 3.7% than PSO and improved about 2.96% than GA.

  16. Influence of contact definitions in assessment of the relative importance of social settings in disease transmission risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty J Bolton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Realistic models of disease transmission incorporating complex population heterogeneities require input from quantitative population mixing studies. We use contact diaries to assess the relative importance of social settings in respiratory pathogen spread using three measures of person contact hours (PCH as proxies for transmission risk with an aim to inform bipartite network models of respiratory pathogen transmission. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our survey examines the contact behaviour for a convenience sample of 65 adults, with each encounter classified as occurring in a work, retail, home, social, travel or "other" setting. The diary design allows for extraction of PCH-interaction (cumulative time in face-face conversational or touch interaction with contacts--analogous to the contact measure used in several existing surveys--as well as PCH-setting (product of time spent in setting and number of people present and PCH-reach (product of time spent in setting and number of people in close proximity. Heterogeneities in day-dependent distribution of risk across settings are analysed using partitioning and cluster analyses and compared between days and contact measures. Although home is typically the highest-risk setting when PCH measures isolate two-way interactions, its relative importance compared to social and work settings may reduce when adopting a more inclusive contact measure that considers the number and duration of potential exposure events. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneities in location-dependent contact behaviour as measured by contact diary studies depend on the adopted contact definition. We find that contact measures isolating face-face conversational or touch interactions suggest that contact in the home dominates, whereas more inclusive contact measures indicate that home and work settings may be of higher importance. In the absence of definitive knowledge of the contact required to facilitate transmission of various

  17. Implementing culture change in long-term dementia care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The approach to nursing in long-term care settings for people living with dementia continues to evolve from a traditional, task-oriented culture to one that is person-centred. Such change can be difficult to manage and may encounter considerable opposition; having an understanding of change management and leadership styles may help to make this transition easier. This article discusses the differences between task-oriented and person-centred care, theories of management, motivation and leadership styles, and focuses on those that are most appropriate for this type of change. An improved understanding of these theories will enable nurses to support others in the delivery of person-centred care. PMID:26938420

  18. A general approach to belief change in answer set programming

    CERN Document Server

    Delgrande, James; Tompits, Hans; Woltran, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We address the problem of belief change in (nonmonotonic) logic programming under answer set semantics. Unlike previous approaches to belief change in logic programming, our formal techniques are analogous to those of distance-based belief revision in propositional logic. In developing our results, we build upon the model theory of logic programs furnished by SE models. Since SE models provide a formal, monotonic characterisation of logic programs, we can adapt techniques from the area of belief revision to belief change in logic programs. We introduce methods for revising and merging logic programs, respectively. For the former, we study both subset-based revision as well as cardinality-based revision, and we show that they satisfy the majority of the AGM postulates for revision. For merging, we consider operators following arbitration merging and IC merging, respectively. We also present encodings for computing the revision as well as the merging of logic programs within the same logic programming framework...

  19. Dengue transmission in the small-island setting: investigations from the Caribbean island of Grenada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Macpherson, Calum N

    2009-01-01

    The Caribbean region has experienced a major surge in dengue activity in recent decades. Yet, for many, and especially the smaller islands, the true extent and general epidemiology of dengue transmission remains unclear because of inadequate systems of surveillance and reporting. We established...... benign dengue fever. A shift in serotype activity and modal age was evident during the noted transition, with the more densely populated south end of the island presenting the focus of transmission....

  20. Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

  1. Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine K; Iwamoto, Martha; Perkins, Kiran M; Polen, Kara N D; Hageman, Jeffrey; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Igbinosa, Irogue I; Khan, Sumaiya; Honein, Margaret A; Bell, Michael; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel. PMID:27010422

  2. Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine K; Iwamoto, Martha; Perkins, Kiran M; Polen, Kara N D; Hageman, Jeffrey; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Igbinosa, Irogue I; Khan, Sumaiya; Honein, Margaret A; Bell, Michael; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-03-25

    Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

  3. Blood-borne virus transmission in healthcare settings in Ireland: review of patient notification exercises 1997-2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohue, S

    2012-01-21

    A review of patient notification exercises (PNEs) carried out in Ireland between 1997 and 2011 to investigate potential exposure to blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in healthcare settings was undertaken to inform future policy and practice. A questionnaire was sent to key informants in the health services to identify all relevant PNEs. Structured interviews were conducted with key investigators, and available documentation was examined. Ten BBV-related PNEs were identified. Despite testing over 2000 patients, only one case of transmission was found. However, in-depth local investigations before undertaking the PNEs identified six cases of healthcare-associated transmission.

  4. Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Chersich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies reporting interventions for reducing HIV transmission among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa between January 2000 and July 2011. Medline (PubMed and non-indexed journals were searched for studies with quantitative study outcomes. Results: We located 26 studies, including seven randomized trials. Evidence supports implementation of the following interventions to reduce unprotected sex among female sex workers: peer-mediated condom promotion, risk-reduction counselling and skills-building for safer sex. One study found that interventions to counter hazardous alcohol-use lowered unprotected sex. Data also show effectiveness of screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs and syndromic STI treatment, but experience with periodic presumptive treatment is limited. HIV testing and counselling is essential for facilitating sex workers’ access to care and antiretroviral treatment (ART, but testing models for sex workers and indeed for ART access are little studied, as are structural interventions, which create conditions conducive for risk reduction. With the exception of Senegal, persistent criminalization of sex work across Africa reduces sex workers’ control over working conditions and impedes their access to health services. It also obstructs health-service provision and legal protection. Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence of effectiveness of targeted interventions with female sex workers in Africa to inform delivery of services for this population. With improved planning and political will, services – including peer interventions, condom promotion and STI screening – would act at multiple levels to reduce HIV exposure and transmission efficiency among sex workers

  5. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Nanostructural Changes in Phase-Change Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Meister, Stefan

    2011-04-26

    Phase-change memory (PCM) has been researched extensively as a promising alternative to flash memory. Important studies have focused on its scalability, switching speed, endurance, and new materials. Still, reliability issues and inconsistent switching in PCM devices motivate the need to further study its fundamental properties. However, many investigations treat PCM cells as black boxes; nanostructural changes inside the devices remain hidden. Here, using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observe real-time nanostructural changes in lateral Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) PCM bridges during switching. We find that PCM devices with similar resistances can exhibit distinct threshold switching behaviors due to the different initial distribution of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains, explaining variability of switching behaviors of PCM cells in the literature. Our findings show a direct correlation between nanostructure and switching behavior, providing important guidelines in the design and operation of future PCM devices with improved endurance and lower variability. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Investigation of unique hue setting changes with ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenyang Fu; Kaida Xiao; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Sophie Wuerger

    2011-01-01

    Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed. Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions. Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed. Based on the chromatic (protan, deutan, tritan) thresholds and using scaled cone signals, we predict the unique hue changes with ageing. A dependency on age for unique red and unique yellow for predicted hue angle is found. We conclude that the chromatic sensitivity deteriorates significantly with age, whereas the appearance of unique hues is much less affected, remaining almost constant despite the known changes in the ocular media.%@@ Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed.Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions.Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed.

  7. Changes in parasite transmission stage excretion after pheasant release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanúa, D; Acevedo, P; Höfle, U; Rodríguez, O; Gortázar, C

    2006-09-01

    The production of parasite transmission stages was investigated in the faeces of 77 farm-bred ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Coccidian oocysts (Eimeria sp.), and nematode eggs (Heterakis sp., and Capillaria-like eggs) were recovered before and after release but all birds were treated prior to release. Treatment with fenbendazole significantly reduced the abundance of transmission-stage excretion for all parasites, and reduced the prevalence in the case of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the excretion abundance for all parasites and in the prevalence of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. was found after release. Eggs of Ascaridia sp. were found only after releasing, suggesting infection ocurred in the wild. A negative relationship was found between the pheasant body condition and Heterakis excretion abundance and a higher abundance of Capillaria sp. eggs in female birds. No significant relationship was found between parasite excretion abundance and pheasant survival. Despite this, results suggest that an increase in the excretion of parasite transmission stages follows the release of captive pheasants into the wild. This can in part explain restocking failures, but also means that autochtonous free-living birds may become exposed to new and potentially harmful pathogens. To avoid these risks it is proposed that improved prophylactic measures should be taken. PMID:16923277

  8. Monkeypox disease transmission in an experimental setting: prairie dog animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus (MPXV is considered the most significant human public health threat in the genus Orthopoxvirus since the eradication of variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox. MPXV is a zoonotic agent endemic to forested areas of Central and Western Africa. In 2003, MPXV caused an outbreak in the United States due to the importation of infected African rodents, and subsequent sequential infection of North American prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus and humans. In previous studies, the prairie dog MPXV model has successfully shown to be very useful for understanding MPXV since the model emulates key characteristics of human monkeypox disease. In humans, percutaneous exposure to animals has been documented but the primary method of human-to-human MPXV transmission is postulated to be by respiratory route. Only a few animal model studies of MPXV transmission have been reported. Herein, we show that MPXV infected prairie dogs are able to transmit the virus to naive animals through multiple transmission routes. All secondarily exposed animals were infected with MPXV during the course of the study. Notably, animals secondarily exposed appeared to manifest more severe disease; however, the disease course was very similar to those of experimentally challenged animals including inappetence leading to weight loss, development of lesions, production of orthopoxvirus antibodies and shedding of similar levels or in some instances higher levels of MPXV from the oral cavity. Disease was transmitted via exposure to contaminated bedding, co-housing, or respiratory secretions/nasal mucous (we could not definitively say that transmission occurred via respiratory route exclusively. Future use of the model will allow us to evaluate infection control measures, vaccines and antiviral strategies to decrease disease transmission.

  9. Whole-genome sequencing to detect recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in settings with a high burden of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Yang, Chongguang; Peng, Ying; Lu, Liping; Sun, Guomei; Wu, Jie; Jin, Xiaoping; Hong, Jianjun; Li, Fabin; Mei, Jian; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Gao, Qian

    2014-07-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been used to trace the transmission of M. tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Previously published studies using WGS were conducted in developed countries with a low TB burden. We sought to evaluate the relative usefulness of traditional VNTR and SNP typing methods, WGS and epidemiological investigations to study the recent transmission of M. tuberculosis in a high TB burden country. We conducted epidemiological investigations of 42 TB patients whose M. tuberculosis isolates were classified into three clusters based on variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing. We applied WGS to 32 (76.2%) of the 42 strains and calculated the pairwise genomic distances between strains within each cluster. Eighteen (56.3%) of the 32 strains had genomic differences ≥100 SNPs with every other strain, suggesting that direct transmission did not likely occurred. Ten strains were grouped into four WGS-based clusters with genomic distances ≤5 SNPs within each cluster, and confirmed epidemiological links were identified in two of these clusters. Our results indicate that WGS provides reliable resolution for tracing the transmission of M. tuberculosis in high TB burden settings. The high resolution of WGS is particularly useful to confirm or exclude the possibility of direct transmission events defined by traditional typing methods.

  10. Consideration of future climatic changes in three geologic settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, G.M.

    1984-09-01

    Staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory are evaluating the potential for climatic change to affect the integrity of a nuclear waste repository at: (1) the Gibson Dome area of Utah; (2) the Palo Duro Basin of Texas; and (3) the Gulf Coast. Because a major assumption in this analysis is that a glacial age will recur, the climate of the last glacial period is examined for each location. Combining these paleoclimatic data with the current climatic data, each location is evaluated in light of the criteria given in Draft Revised General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960). The results of this analysis suggest that sites located in these areas are likely to meet the climate requirements set forth in the guidelines. However, further study is needed before a definitive statement can be made. In particular, modeling the effect of sea level change on the Gulf Coast groundwater system and obtaining an improved estimation for the increase in recharge during glacier times at the Texas and Utah locations would be useful. Several stragegies are presented for accomplishing this work. 94 references, 27 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Design of Pinion Machine Tool-settings for Spiral Bevel Gears by Controlling Contact Path and Transmission Errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xuemei; Fang Zongde; Xu Hao; Su Jinzhan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to design pinion machine tool-settings for spiral bevel gears by controlling contact path and transmis- sion errors. It is based on the satisfaction of contact condition of three given control points on the tooth surface. The three meshing points are controlled to be on a predesigned straight contact path that meets the pre-designed parabolic function of transmission errors. Designed separately, the magnitude of transmission errors and the orientation of the contact path are subjected to precise control. In addition, in order to meet the manufacturing requirements, we suggest to modify the values of blank offset, one of the pinion machine tool-settings, and redesign pinion ma- chine tool-settings to ensure that the magnitude and the geometry of transmission errors should not be influenced apart from minor effects on the predesigned straight contact path. The proposed approach together with its ideas has been proven by a numerical example and the manufacturing practice of a pair of spiral bevel gears.

  12. Optimal detection of a change-set in a spatial Poisson process

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanoff, B Gail; 10.1214/09-AAP629

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the classic change-point problem to a "change-set" framework: a spatial Poisson process changes its intensity on an unobservable random set. Optimal detection of the set is defined by maximizing the expected value of a gain function. In the case that the unknown change-set is defined by a locally finite set of incomparable points, we present a sufficient condition for optimal detection of the set using multiparameter martingale techniques. Two examples are discussed.

  13. Transmission Intensity and Drug Resistance in Malaria Population Dynamics : Implications for Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Alonso, David; Pascual, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Although the spread of drug resistance and the influence of climate change on malaria are most often considered separately, these factors have the potential to interact through altered levels of transmission intensity. The influence of transmission intensity on the evolution of drug resistance has b

  14. Age-related changes in the transmission properties of the human lens and their relevance to circadian entrainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Herbst, Kristina;

    2010-01-01

    To characterize age-related changes in the transmission of light through noncataractous human lenses.......To characterize age-related changes in the transmission of light through noncataractous human lenses....

  15. HIV transmission in the dental setting and the HIV-infected oral health care professional: workshop 1C.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flint, S R

    2011-04-01

    This workshop addressed two important issues: first, the global evidence of HIV transmission from health care provider to patient and from patient to health care provider in the general health care environment and the dental practice setting; second, in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, whether oral health care professionals living with HIV pose a risk of transmission to their patients and whether standard infection control is adequate to protect both the patient and the oral health care professional in dental practice. The workshop culminated in a general discussion and the formulation of a consensus statement from the participating delegates, representing more than 30 countries, on the criteria under which an HIV-infected oral health care professional might practice dentistry without putting patients at risk. This consensus statement, the Beijing Declaration, was agreed nem con.

  16. Transmission of SARS and MERS coronaviruses and influenza virus in healthcare settings: the possible role of dry surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, J A; Donskey, C; Yezli, S; Douthwaite, S; Goldenberg, S D; Weber, D J

    2016-03-01

    Viruses with pandemic potential including H1N1, H5N1, and H5N7 influenza viruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)/Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (CoV) have emerged in recent years. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and influenza virus can survive on surfaces for extended periods, sometimes up to months. Factors influencing the survival of these viruses on surfaces include: strain variation, titre, surface type, suspending medium, mode of deposition, temperature and relative humidity, and the method used to determine the viability of the virus. Environmental sampling has identified contamination in field-settings with SARS-CoV and influenza virus, although the frequent use of molecular detection methods may not necessarily represent the presence of viable virus. The importance of indirect contact transmission (involving contamination of inanimate surfaces) is uncertain compared with other transmission routes, principally direct contact transmission (independent of surface contamination), droplet, and airborne routes. However, influenza virus and SARS-CoV may be shed into the environment and be transferred from environmental surfaces to hands of patients and healthcare providers. Emerging data suggest that MERS-CoV also shares these properties. Once contaminated from the environment, hands can then initiate self-inoculation of mucous membranes of the nose, eyes or mouth. Mathematical and animal models, and intervention studies suggest that contact transmission is the most important route in some scenarios. Infection prevention and control implications include the need for hand hygiene and personal protective equipment to minimize self-contamination and to protect against inoculation of mucosal surfaces and the respiratory tract, and enhanced surface cleaning and disinfection in healthcare settings. PMID:26597631

  17. Transmission of SARS and MERS coronaviruses and influenza virus in healthcare settings: the possible role of dry surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, J A; Donskey, C; Yezli, S; Douthwaite, S; Goldenberg, S D; Weber, D J

    2016-03-01

    Viruses with pandemic potential including H1N1, H5N1, and H5N7 influenza viruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)/Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (CoV) have emerged in recent years. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and influenza virus can survive on surfaces for extended periods, sometimes up to months. Factors influencing the survival of these viruses on surfaces include: strain variation, titre, surface type, suspending medium, mode of deposition, temperature and relative humidity, and the method used to determine the viability of the virus. Environmental sampling has identified contamination in field-settings with SARS-CoV and influenza virus, although the frequent use of molecular detection methods may not necessarily represent the presence of viable virus. The importance of indirect contact transmission (involving contamination of inanimate surfaces) is uncertain compared with other transmission routes, principally direct contact transmission (independent of surface contamination), droplet, and airborne routes. However, influenza virus and SARS-CoV may be shed into the environment and be transferred from environmental surfaces to hands of patients and healthcare providers. Emerging data suggest that MERS-CoV also shares these properties. Once contaminated from the environment, hands can then initiate self-inoculation of mucous membranes of the nose, eyes or mouth. Mathematical and animal models, and intervention studies suggest that contact transmission is the most important route in some scenarios. Infection prevention and control implications include the need for hand hygiene and personal protective equipment to minimize self-contamination and to protect against inoculation of mucosal surfaces and the respiratory tract, and enhanced surface cleaning and disinfection in healthcare settings.

  18. A model for initiating change in the dialysis setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Norma J; Martin-Lester, Melinda J

    2012-10-01

    Implementing a significant change in an organization is one of the most challenging endeavors that faces a manager. If the change involves the establishment of new paradigms that will replace the existing ways of doing business, the challenge is particularly daunting. Change theory is a process that can be used to facilitate change in an organization. It provides a guide for the manager to follow in attaining a desired outcome. Several change theorists and their works are discussed. An example is provided using change theory to identify strategies for delivering a medication once per month from once a treatment. PMID:23427716

  19. Strategies for controlling non-transmissible infection outbreaks using a large human movement data set.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Hancock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction and control of the spread of infectious disease in human populations benefits greatly from our growing capacity to quantify human movement behavior. Here we develop a mathematical model for non-transmissible infections contracted from a localized environmental source, informed by a detailed description of movement patterns of the population of Great Britain. The model is applied to outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease, a potentially life-threatening form of pneumonia caused by the bacteria Legionella pneumophilia. We use case-report data from three recent outbreaks that have occurred in Great Britain where the source has already been identified by public health agencies. We first demonstrate that the amount of individual-level heterogeneity incorporated in the movement data greatly influences our ability to predict the source location. The most accurate predictions were obtained using reported travel histories to describe movements of infected individuals, but using detailed simulation models to estimate movement patterns offers an effective fast alternative. Secondly, once the source is identified, we show that our model can be used to accurately determine the population likely to have been exposed to the pathogen, and hence predict the residential locations of infected individuals. The results give rise to an effective control strategy that can be implemented rapidly in response to an outbreak.

  20. Revealing the Micro-scale Signature of Endemic Zoonotic Disease Transmission in an African Urban Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Bourhy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel approaches that combine epidemiological and genomic data provides new opportunities to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious diseases and determine the processes responsible for their spread and maintenance. Taking advantage of detailed epidemiological time series and viral sequence data from more than 20 years reported by the National Reference Centre for Rabies of Bangui, the capital city of Central African Republic, we used a combination of mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies in domestic dogs as well as the frequency of extinction and introduction events in an African city. We show that although dog rabies virus (RABV appears to be endemic in Bangui, its epidemiology is in fact shaped by the regular extinction of local chains of transmission coupled with the introduction of new lineages, generating successive waves of spread. Notably, the effective reproduction number during each wave was rarely above the critical value of 1, such that rabies is not self-sustaining in Bangui. In turn, this suggests that rabies at local geographic scales is driven by human-mediated dispersal of RABV among sparsely connected peri-urban and rural areas as opposed to dispersion in a relatively large homogenous urban dog population. This combined epidemiological and genomic approach enables development of a comprehensive framework for understanding disease persistence and informing control measures, indicating that control measures are probably best targeted towards areas neighbouring the city that appear as the source of frequent incursions seeding outbreaks in Bangui.

  1. Revealing the Micro-scale Signature of Endemic Zoonotic Disease Transmission in an African Urban Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhy, Hervé; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Hall, Matthew; Nouvellet, Pierre; Lepelletier, Anthony; Talbi, Chiraz; Watier, Laurence; Holmes, Edward C; Cauchemez, Simon; Lemey, Philippe; Donnelly, Christl A; Rambaut, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The development of novel approaches that combine epidemiological and genomic data provides new opportunities to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of infectious diseases and determine the processes responsible for their spread and maintenance. Taking advantage of detailed epidemiological time series and viral sequence data from more than 20 years reported by the National Reference Centre for Rabies of Bangui, the capital city of Central African Republic, we used a combination of mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies in domestic dogs as well as the frequency of extinction and introduction events in an African city. We show that although dog rabies virus (RABV) appears to be endemic in Bangui, its epidemiology is in fact shaped by the regular extinction of local chains of transmission coupled with the introduction of new lineages, generating successive waves of spread. Notably, the effective reproduction number during each wave was rarely above the critical value of 1, such that rabies is not self-sustaining in Bangui. In turn, this suggests that rabies at local geographic scales is driven by human-mediated dispersal of RABV among sparsely connected peri-urban and rural areas as opposed to dispersion in a relatively large homogenous urban dog population. This combined epidemiological and genomic approach enables development of a comprehensive framework for understanding disease persistence and informing control measures, indicating that control measures are probably best targeted towards areas neighbouring the city that appear as the source of frequent incursions seeding outbreaks in Bangui. PMID:27058957

  2. Predicted impacts of climate change on malaria transmission in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation due to climate change are expected to alter the spatial distribution of malaria transmission. This is especially true in West Africa, where malaria prevalence follows the current north-south gradients in temperature and precipitation. We assess the skill of GCMs at simulating past and present climate in West Africa in order to select the most credible climate predictions for the periods 2030-2060 and 2070-2100. We then use the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a mechanistic model of malaria transmission, to translate the predicted changes in climate into predicted changes availability of mosquito breeding sites, mosquito populations, and malaria prevalence. We investigate the role of acquired immunity in determining a population's response to changes in exposure to the malaria parasite.

  3. The Response of Environmental Capacity for Malaria Transmission in West Africa to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The climate of West Africa is characterized by north-south gradients in temperature and rainfall. Environmental capacity for malaria transmission (e.g. as measured by vectorial capacity) is strongly tied to these two variables; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the lifespan of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. A change in climate is therefore expected to lead to changes in the distribution of malaria transmission. Current general circulation models agree that the temperature in West Africa is expected to increase by several degrees in the next century. However they predict a wide range of possible rainfall scenarios in the future, from intense drying to significant increases in rainfall (Christensen et al., 2007). The effects these changes will have on environmental capacity for malaria transmission depend on the magnitude and direction of the changes, and on current conditions. For example, malaria transmission will be more sensitive to positive changes in rainfall in dry areas where mosquito populations are currently limited by water availability than in relatively wet areas. Here, we analyze combinations of changes in rainfall and temperature within the ranges predicted by GCMs, and assess the impact these combinations will have on the environmental capacity for malaria transmission. In particular, we identify climate change scenarios that are likely to have the greatest impact on environmental capacity for malaria transmission, as well as geographic "hot spots" where the greatest changes are to be expected. Christensen, J. H., Busuioc, A., & et al. (2007). Regional climate projections. In S. Solomon (Ed.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  4. Secondary mapping of lymphatic filariasis in Haiti-definition of transmission foci in low-prevalence settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Drexler

    Full Text Available To eliminate Lymphatic filariasis (LF as a public health problem, the World Health Organization (WHO recommends that any area with infection prevalence greater than or equal to 1% (denoted by presence of microfilaremia or antigenemia should receive mass drug administration (MDA of antifilarial drugs for at least five consecutive rounds. Areas of low-antigen prevalence (< 1% are thought to pose little risk for continued transmission of LF. Five low-antigen prevalence communes in Haiti, characterized as part of a national survey, were further assessed for transmission in this study. An initial evaluation of schoolchildren was performed in each commune to identify antigen-positive children who served as index cases for subsequent community surveys conducted among households neighboring the index cases. Global positioning system (GPS coordinates and immunochromatographic tests (ICT for filarial antigenemia were collected on approximately 1,600 persons of all ages in the five communes. The relationship between antigen-positive cases in the community and distance from index cases was evaluated using multivariate regression techniques and analyses of spatial clustering. Community surveys demonstrated higher antigen prevalence in three of the five communes than was observed in the original mapping survey; autochthonous cases were found in the same three communes. Regression techniques identified a significantly increased likelihood of being antigen-positive when living within 20 meters of index cases when controlling for age, gender, and commune. Spatial clustering of antigen-positive cases was observed in some, but not all communes. Our results suggest that localized transmission was present even in low-prevalence settings and suggest that better surveillance methods may be needed to detect microfoci of LF transmission.

  5. The dependence of the abstract boundary classification on a set of curves II: How the classification changes when the bounded parameter property satisfying set of curves changes

    CERN Document Server

    Whale, B E

    2012-01-01

    The abstract boundary uses sets of curves with the bounded parameter property (b.p.p.) to classify the elements of the abstract boundary into regular points, singular points, points at infinity and so on. Building on the material of Part one of this two part series, we show how this classification changes when the set of b.p.p. satisfying curves changes.

  6. Levels of Interferon-Gamma Increase after Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in a High-Transmission Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iukary Takenami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We investigated IFN-γ levels before and after a six month course of isoniazid among individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI in a high-transmission setting. Design. A total of 26 household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were positive for LTBI by tuberculin skin test completed six months of treatment and submitted a blood sample for a follow-up examination. The IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens was measured, and the results before and after the completion of LTBI treatment were compared. Results. Of the 26 study participants, 25 (96% showed an IFN-γ level higher than their baseline level before treatment (P≤0.001. Only one individual had a decreased IFN-γ level after treatment but remained positive for LTBI. Conclusion. In a high-transmission setting, the IFN-γ level has increased after LTBI treatment. Further studies must be undertaken to understand if this elevation is transient.

  7. Long-term effects of penicillin resistance and fitness cost on pneumococcal transmission dynamics in a developed setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Tilevik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP throughout the world threatens successful treatment of infections caused by this important bacterial pathogen. The rate at which PNSP clones spread in the community is thought to mainly be determined by two key determinants; the volume of penicillin use and the magnitude of the fitness cost in the absence of treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the impacts of penicillin consumption and fitness cost on pneumococcal transmission dynamics in a developed country setting. Methods: An individual-based network model based on real-life demographic data was constructed and applied in a developed country setting (Sweden. A population structure with transmission of carriage taking place within relevant mixing groups, i.e. families, day care groups, school classes, and other close contacts, was considered to properly assess the transmission dynamics for susceptible and PNSP clones. Several scenarios were simulated and model outcomes were statistically analysed. Results: Model simulations predicted that with an outpatient penicillin use corresponding to the sales in Sweden 2010 (118 recipes per 1,000 inhabitants per year, the magnitude of a fitness cost for resistance must be at least 5% to offset the advantage of penicillin resistance. Moreover, even if there is a fitness cost associated with penicillin resistance, a considerable reduction of penicillin usage appears to be required to significantly decrease the incidence of PNSP in a community. Conclusion: The frequency of PNSP clones is hard to reverse by simply reducing the penicillin consumption even if there is a biological cost associated with resistance. However, because penicillin usage does promote further spread of PNSP clones, it is important to keep down penicillin consumption considering future resistance problems.

  8. Picture this: Managed change and resistance in business network settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    2009-01-01

    context characterized by limited managerial authority over these activities. Our analysis suggests that change efforts unfold as a negotiated process during which the change project is re-negotiated to fit the multiple actor constituencies. The degree of overlap in the co-existing network pictures...

  9. Evaluation of 4 weeks' neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis as a component of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in a resource-rich setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferguson, Wendy

    2011-05-01

    In resource-rich settings, universal adoption of a 4- rather than 6-week neonatal antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis regimen could reduce toxicity and results in cost savings, provided prevention of mother-to-child transmission program effectiveness is not compromised.

  10. Secondary mapping of lymphatic filariasis in Haiti-definition of transmission foci in low-prevalence settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi; Washington, Charles H; Lovegrove, Maribeth; Grady, Caroline; Milord, Marie Denise; Streit, Thomas; Lammie, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    To eliminate Lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that any area with infection prevalence greater than or equal to 1% (denoted by presence of microfilaremia or antigenemia) should receive mass drug administration (MDA) of antifilarial drugs for at least five consecutive rounds. Areas of low-antigen prevalence (children who served as index cases for subsequent community surveys conducted among households neighboring the index cases. Global positioning system (GPS) coordinates and immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for filarial antigenemia were collected on approximately 1,600 persons of all ages in the five communes. The relationship between antigen-positive cases in the community and distance from index cases was evaluated using multivariate regression techniques and analyses of spatial clustering. Community surveys demonstrated higher antigen prevalence in three of the five communes than was observed in the original mapping survey; autochthonous cases were found in the same three communes. Regression techniques identified a significantly increased likelihood of being antigen-positive when living within 20 meters of index cases when controlling for age, gender, and commune. Spatial clustering of antigen-positive cases was observed in some, but not all communes. Our results suggest that localized transmission was present even in low-prevalence settings and suggest that better surveillance methods may be needed to detect microfoci of LF transmission. PMID:23071849

  11. Gender Writ Small: Gender Enactments and Gendered Narratives about Lab Organization and Knowledge Transmission in a Biomedical Engineering Research Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kareen Ror; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Newstetter, Wendy

    This article presents qualitative data and offers some innovative theoretical approaches to frame the analysis of gender in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) settings. It begins with a theoretical discussion of a discursive approach to gender that captures how gender is lived "on the ground." The authors argue for a less individualistic approach to gender. Data for this research project was gathered from intensive interviews with lab members and ethnographic observations in a biomedical engineering lab. Data analysis relied on a mixed methodology involving qualitative approaches and dialogues with findings from other research traditions. Three themes are highlighted: lab dynamics in relation to issues of critical mass, the division of labor, and knowledge transmission. The data illustrate how gender is created in interactions and is inflected through forms of social organization.

  12. A lesson from Argentina: Setting transmission tolls in a competitive auction is much better than regulating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Santiago (Chile); Inostroza, Juan Ricardo [AES Gener S.A., Sanchez Fontecilla 310, piso 3, Santiago (Chile)

    2008-07-15

    There are at least two procedures for setting the tolls paid by power line users. One consists of regulating them in a standard process. The other, which is used in Argentina, involves auctioning the lines to the lowest toll. In this paper we show that an auction yields higher expected social welfare if n {>=} 2 bid. Expected social welfare is even higher if, as in Argentina, those who benefit from the line can also bid and build. Moreover, when the social welfare is utilitarian, an auction beats regulation even when the regulator can perfectly audit costs ex post. We describe and examine the auction of the fourth Comahue transmission line in Argentina. Assuming that the regulator's information about costs is similar to the information held by the industry, the model suggests that had tolls been regulated, they would have been at least 61% higher. (author)

  13. A Documentary Analysis of the Use of Leadership and Change Theory in Changing Practice in Early Years Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    Early years professionals wrote about changes in their settings as part of their MA studies, and reflected on the use of theories of leadership in implementing these changes. This article describes a documentary analysis of the scripts produced. Initially basing the study in current knowledge of leadership and change in Early Years settings, the…

  14. Community-Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission among Households of Infected Cases: a Pooled Analysis of Primary Data from Three Studies across International Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, J.; Van Rijen, M.; Uhlemann, A.-C.; Miller, M.; Hafer, C.; Vavagiakis, P.; Shi, Q.; Johnson, P. D. R.; Coombs, G.; Van Den Bergh, M. Kluytmans; Kluytmans, J.; Bennett, C. M.; Lowy, F. D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Diverse strain types of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cause infections in community settings worldwide. To examine heterogeneity of spread within households and to identify common risk factors for household transmission across settings, primary data from studies conducted in New York, US, Breda, NL, and Melbourne, AU were pooled. Following MRSA infection of the index patient, household members completed questionnaires and provided nasal swabs. Swabs positive for S. aureus were genotyped by spa-sequencing. Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios for transmission of the clinical isolate to non-index household members. Great diversity of strain types existed across studies. Despite differences between studies, the index patient being colonized with the clinical isolate at the home visit (p<.01) and the percent of household members <18 years (p<.01) were independently associated with transmission. Targeted decolonization strategies could be used across geographic settings to limit household MRSA transmission. PMID:24763185

  15. Climate change, population immunity, and hyperendemicity in the transmission threshold of dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Oki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the probability of dengue epidemics could increase because of climate change. The probability of epidemics is most commonly evaluated by the basic reproductive number (R(0, and in mosquito-borne diseases, mosquito density (the number of female mosquitoes per person [MPP] is the critical determinant of the R(0 value. In dengue-endemic areas, 4 different serotypes of dengue virus coexist-a state known as hyperendemicity-and a certain proportion of the population is immune to one or more of these serotypes. Nevertheless, these factors are not included in the calculation of R(0. We aimed to investigate the effects of temperature change, population immunity, and hyperendemicity on the threshold MPP that triggers an epidemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We designed a mathematical model of dengue transmission dynamics. An epidemic was defined as a 10% increase in seroprevalence in a year, and the MPP that triggered an epidemic was defined as the threshold MPP. Simulations were conducted in Singapore based on the recorded temperatures from 1980 to 2009 The threshold MPP was estimated with the effect of (1 temperature only; (2 temperature and fluctuation of population immunity; and (3 temperature, fluctuation of immunity, and hyperendemicity. When only the effect of temperature was considered, the threshold MPP was estimated to be 0.53 in the 1980s and 0.46 in the 2000s, a decrease of 13.2%. When the fluctuation of population immunity and hyperendemicity were considered in the model, the threshold MPP decreased by 38.7%, from 0.93 to 0.57, from the 1980s to the 2000s. CONCLUSIONS: The threshold MPP was underestimated if population immunity was not considered and overestimated if hyperendemicity was not included in the simulations. In addition to temperature, these factors are particularly important when quantifying the threshold MPP for the purpose of setting goals for vector control in dengue-endemic areas.

  16. Changes in Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' through Insect Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Inoue, Hiromitsu; Iwanami, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Citrus greening (huanglongbing) is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. The disease is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' has the widest distribution. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is commonly transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. A previous study showed that isolates of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' were clearly differentiated by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) profiles at four loci in the genome. In this study, the VNTR analysis was further validated by assessing the stability of these repeats after multiplication of the pathogen upon host-to-host transmission using a 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strain from Japan. The results showed that some tandem repeats showed detectable changes after insect transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the repeat numbers VNTR 002 and 077 of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' change through psyllid transmission. VNTRs in the recipient plant were apparently unrelated to the growing phase of the vector. In contrast, changes in the number of tandem repeats increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods, whereas changes were not observed through psyllid transmission after relatively short acquisition and inoculation access periods, up to 20 and 19 days, respectively. PMID:26402645

  17. Changes in Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ through Insect Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Citrus greening (huanglongbing) is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. The disease is associated with three species of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ among which ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ has the widest distribution. ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ is commonly transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. A previous study showed that isolates of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ were clearly differentiated by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) profiles at four loci in the genome. In this study, the VNTR analysis was further validated by assessing the stability of these repeats after multiplication of the pathogen upon host-to-host transmission using a ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ strain from Japan. The results showed that some tandem repeats showed detectable changes after insect transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the repeat numbers VNTR 002 and 077 of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ change through psyllid transmission. VNTRs in the recipient plant were apparently unrelated to the growing phase of the vector. In contrast, changes in the number of tandem repeats increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods, whereas changes were not observed through psyllid transmission after relatively short acquisition and inoculation access periods, up to 20 and 19 days, respectively. PMID:26402645

  18. Changes in Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' through Insect Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Katoh

    Full Text Available Citrus greening (huanglongbing is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. The disease is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' has the widest distribution. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is commonly transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. A previous study showed that isolates of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' were clearly differentiated by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR profiles at four loci in the genome. In this study, the VNTR analysis was further validated by assessing the stability of these repeats after multiplication of the pathogen upon host-to-host transmission using a 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strain from Japan. The results showed that some tandem repeats showed detectable changes after insect transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the repeat numbers VNTR 002 and 077 of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' change through psyllid transmission. VNTRs in the recipient plant were apparently unrelated to the growing phase of the vector. In contrast, changes in the number of tandem repeats increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods, whereas changes were not observed through psyllid transmission after relatively short acquisition and inoculation access periods, up to 20 and 19 days, respectively.

  19. The role of climate variability and change in the transmission dynamics and geographic distribution of dengue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.T.D. Thai; K.L. Anders

    2011-01-01

    The mounting evidence for anthropogenic changes in global climate raises many pressing questions about the potential effects on biological systems, and in particular the transmission of infectious diseases. Vector-borne diseases, such as dengue, may be particularly sensitive to both periodic fluctua

  20. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission in households of infected cases : a pooled analysis of primary data from three studies across international settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knox, J; Van Rijen, M; Uhlemann, A-C; Miller, M; Hafer, C; Vavagiakis, P; Shi, Q; Johnson, P D R; Coombs, G; Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh, M; Kluytmans, J; Bennett, C M; Lowy, F D

    2015-01-01

    Diverse strain types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cause infections in community settings worldwide. To examine heterogeneity of spread within households and to identify common risk factors for household transmission across settings, primary data from studies conducted in New

  1. Transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  2. Temperature dependence of SET switching characteristics in phase-change memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Li, Zhen; Liu, Chang; Meng, Xiang-ru; Peng, Ju-hong; Lai, Zhi-bo; Miao, Xiang-shui

    2016-09-01

    The temperature dependence of crystallization kinetics of phase-change materials raises a series of reliability issues, while phase-change memory cells work at high temperature or thermal-disturbance condition. These issues hinder the development of ultrahigh-density storage devices. We investigate the evolution of SET switching characteristics of phase-change memory cells at high operating temperature. We show that the high temperature strongly impacts the SET state resistance. As a result, SET failure has been observed with elevated ambient temperature. Our SPICE simulations indicate that transient amorphization behavior during a complete SET pulse period is considered as the potential mechanism of SET failure. By modifying the SET pulse intensity and width linearly, we successfully reduce the SET failure in the experiments. The results illustrate that the demonstrated linear properties may optimize SET pulse performance.

  3. Estimating Plasmodium falciparum Transmission Rates in Low-Endemic Settings Using a Combination of Community Prevalence and Health Facility Data

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Yukich; Olivier Briët; Bretscher, Michael T.; Adam Bennett; Seblewengel Lemma; Yemane Berhane; Eisele, Thomas P; Joseph Keating; Thomas Smith

    2012-01-01

    As some malaria control programs shift focus from disease control to transmission reduction, there is a need for transmission data to monitor progress. At lower levels of transmission, it becomes increasingly more difficult to measure precisely, for example through entomological studies. Many programs conduct regular cross sectional parasite prevalence surveys, and have access to malaria treatment data routinely collected by ministries of health, often in health management information systems...

  4. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in intensive-care hospital settings: Transmission dynamics, persistence, and the impact of infection control programs

    OpenAIRE

    Daren J Austin; Bonten, Marc J.M.; Weinstein, Robert A; Slaughter, Sarah; Roy M Anderson

    1999-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) recently have emerged as a nosocomial pathogen especially in intensive-care units (ICUs) worldwide. Transmission via the hands of health-care workers is an important determinant of spread and persistence in a VRE-endemic ICU. We describe the transmission of nosocomial pathogens by using a micro-epidemiological framework based on the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases. By using the concept of a basic reproductive number, R0, defined as the ave...

  5. Community-based approaches for prevention of mother to child transmission in resource-poor settings: a social ecological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Katirayi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous barriers to optimal uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT services occur at community level (i.e., outside the healthcare setting. To achieve elimination of paediatric HIV, therefore, interventions must also work within communities to address these barriers and increase service use and need to be informed by evidence. This paper reviews community-based approaches that have been used in resource-limited settings to increase rates of PMTCT enrolment, retention in care and successful treatment outcomes. It aims to identify which interventions work, why they may do so and what knowledge gaps remain. Methods: First, we identified barriers to PMTCT that originate outside the health system. These were used to construct a social ecological framework categorizing barriers to PMTCT into the following levels of influence: individual, peer and family, community and sociocultural. We then used this conceptual framework to guide a review of the literature on community-based approaches, defined as interventions delivered outside of formal health settings, with the goal of increasing uptake, retention, adherence and positive psychosocial outcomes in PMTCT programmes in resource-poor countries. Results: Our review found evidence of effectiveness of strategies targeting individuals and peer/family levels (e.g., providing household HIV testing and training peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding and at community level (e.g., participatory women's groups and home-based care to support adherence and retention. Evidence is more limited for complex interventions combining multiple strategies across different ecological levels. There is often little information describing implementation; and approaches such as “community mobilization” remain poorly defined. Conclusions: Evidence from existing community approaches can be adapted for use in planning PMTCT. However, for successful replication of evidence

  6. Climate change impacts on West Nile virus transmission in a global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit

    2015-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), the most widely distributed virus of the encephalitic flaviviruses, is a vector-borne pathogen of global importance. The transmission cycle exists in rural and urban areas where the virus infects birds, humans, horses and other mammals. Multiple factors impact the transmission and distribution of WNV, related to the dynamics and interactions between pathogen, vector, vertebrate hosts and environment. Hence, among other drivers, weather conditions have direct and indirect influences on vector competence (the ability to acquire, maintain and transmit the virus), on the vector population dynamic and on the virus replication rate within the mosquito, which are mostly weather dependent. The importance of climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and winds) as drivers in WNV epidemiology is increasing under conditions of climate change. Indeed, recent changes in climatic conditions, particularly increased ambient temperature and fluctuations in rainfall amounts, contributed to the maintenance (endemization process) of WNV in various locations in southern Europe, western Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, the Canadian Prairies, parts of the USA and Australia. As predictions show that the current trends are expected to continue, for better preparedness, any assessment of future transmission of WNV should take into consideration the impacts of climate change. PMID:25688020

  7. Underwater asymmetric acoustic transmission structure using the medium with gradient change of impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Hu; Jie, Shi; Sheng-Guo, Shi; Yu, Sun; Zhong-Rui, Zhu

    2016-02-01

    We propose an underwater asymmetric acoustic transmission structure comprised of two media each with a gradient change of acoustic impedance. By gradually increasing the acoustic impedances of the media, the propagating direction of the acoustic wave can be continuously bent, resulting in allowing the acoustic wave to pass through along the positive direction and blocking acoustic waves from the negative one. The main advantages of this structure are that the asymmetric transmission effect of this structure can be realized and enhanced more easily in water. We investigate both numerically and experimentally the asymmetric transmission effect. The experimental results show that a highly efficient asymmetric acoustic transmission can be yielded within a remarkable broadband frequency range, which agrees well with the numerical prediction. It is of potential practical significance for various underwater applications such as reducing vibration and noise. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204049 and 11204050), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. IRT1228), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20122304120023 and 20122304120011).

  8. Tracing defaulters in HIV prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes through community health workers: results from a rural setting in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Vogt

    2015-10-01

    test result collection. Conclusions: The CHW-DT intervention did not reduce perinatal HIV transmission significantly. Retention improved moderately during the post-natal period, but cumulative retention decreased rapidly even after the intervention. We showed that transmission in resource-limited settings can be as low as in resource-rich countries if patients are fully retained in care. This requires structural changes to the regular PMTCT services, in which community health workers can, at best, play a complementary role.

  9. Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT program data in India: an emerging data set for appraising the HIV epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema K Sgaier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence based resource allocation and decentralized planning of an effective HIV/AIDS response requires reliable information on levels and trends of HIV at national and sub-national geographic levels. HIV sentinel surveillance data from antenatal clinics (HSS-ANC has been an important data source to assess the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, but has a number of limitations. We assess the value of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT programme data to appraise the HIV epidemic in India. METHODS/FINDINGS: HIV data from PPTCT sites were compared to HSS-ANC and general population level surveys at various geographic levels in the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Chi-square tests were used to ascertain statistical significance. PPTCT HIV prevalence was significantly lower than HSS-ANC HIV prevalence (0.92% vs. 1.22% in Andhra Pradesh, 0.65% vs. 0.89% in Karnataka, 0.52% vs. 0.60% in Maharashtra, p<0.001 for all three states. In all three states, HIV prevalence from PPTCT centres that were part of the sentinel surveillance was comparable to HSS-ANC prevalence but significantly higher than PPTCT centres that were not part of the sentinel surveillance. HIV prevalence from PPTCT data was comparable to that from general population surveys. In all three states, significant declines in HIV prevalence between 2007 and 2010 were observed with the PPTCT data set. District level analyses of HIV trends and sub-district level analysis of HIV prevalence were possible using the PPTCT and not the HSS-ANC data sets. CONCLUSION: HIV prevalence from PPTCT may be a better proxy for general population prevalence than HSS-ANC. PPTCT data allow for analysis of HIV prevalence and trends at smaller geographic units, which is important for decentralized planning of HIV/AIDS programming. With further improvements to the system, India could replace its HSS-ANC with PPTCT programme data for surveillance.

  10. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    This Maryland resource manual provides local education agencies with guidelines on how to handle body fluids to prevent the transmission of diseases, especially Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting. The first section summarizes the reasons for development of the manual. The second section summarizes…

  11. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent the Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Guidelines to prevent the transmission of blood-borne diseases, especially those caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting are provided in this resource manual for school staff. Sections include information on the reasons for the development of this manual; a summary of the means of HIV…

  12. Changes in corticospinal transmission following 8 weeks of ankle joint immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leukel, Christian; Taube, Wolfgang; Rittweger, Jörn;

    2015-01-01

    . Immobilization had no significant effects on spinal reflex measures. CONCLUSIONS: 8weeks of ankle joint immobilization was accompanied by pathway-specific modulation of corticospinal transmission. SIGNIFICANCE: It is particularly interesting that fast corticospinal projections were unaffected as these are......OBJECTIVES: Joint immobilization has previously been shown to modulate corticospinal excitability. The present study investigated changes in the excitability of distinct fractions of the corticospinal pathway by means of conditioning the H-reflex with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the...... primary motor cortex (Hcond). This method allows assessment of transmission in fast (monosynaptic) and slow(er) (polysynaptic) corticospinal pathways. METHODS: 9 subjects underwent 8weeks of unilateral ankle joint immobilization during daytime, 7 subjects served as controls. The measures obtained before...

  13. Employing injection-locked FP LDs to set up a hybrid CATV/MW/MMW WDM light wave transmission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Wu, Po-Yi; Peng, Peng-Chun; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Lin, Che-Yu

    2014-07-01

    A hybrid cable television (CATV)/microwave (MW)/millimeter-wave (MMW) wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) light wave transmission system based on injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) is proposed and demonstrated. Different from conventional hybrid WDM light wave transmission systems, which need wavelength-selected distributed feedback laser diodes to support various services, the proposed systems employ injection-locked FP LDs to provide multiple applications. Over a 40 km single-mode fiber transport, impressive performances of carrier-to-noise ratio/composite second-order/composite triple-beat/bit error rate are obtained for 550 MHz CATV/20 GHz MW/40 GHz MMW/60 GHz MMW signal transmissions. Such a hybrid WDM light wave transmission system would be attractive for fiber links to provide broadband integrated services.

  14. The age patterns of severe malaria syndromes in sub-Saharan Africa across a range of transmission intensities and seasonality settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Brian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A greater understanding of the relationship between transmission intensity, seasonality and the age-pattern of malaria is needed to guide appropriate targeting of malaria interventions in different epidemiological settings. Methods A systematic literature review identified studies which reported the age of paediatric hospital admissions with cerebral malaria (CM, severe malarial anaemia (SMA, or respiratory distress (RD. Study sites were categorized into a 3 × 2 matrix of Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity and seasonality. Probability distributions were fitted by maximum likelihood methods, and best fitting models were used to estimate median ages and to represent graphically the age-pattern of each outcome for each transmission category in the matrix. Results A shift in the burden of CM towards younger age groups was seen with increasing intensity of transmission, but this was not the case for SMA or RD. Sites with 'no marked seasonality' showed more evidence of skewed age-patterns compared to areas of 'marked seasonality' for all three severe malaria syndromes. Conclusions Although the peak age of CM will increase as transmission intensity decreases in Africa, more than 75% of all paediatric hospital admissions of severe malaria are likely to remain in under five year olds in most epidemiological settings.

  15. Priority setting in family change and clinical practice: the Family FIRO Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, W J; Colangelo, N; Hovander, D

    1991-06-01

    We update a theoretical framework for understanding priority setting for the management of family change, with special emphasis on developmental change. We propose that three core dimensions of family interaction--inclusion, control, and intimacy--constitute an optimal priority sequence for managing major family change stemming from life-cycle transitions and other stressful experiences. In the next section of the article, we compare the Family FIRO Model and other models of family change. Finally, we suggest that therapists can benefit from an explicit, clinical decision-making model for setting priorities in treatment: issues of inclusion take precedence over issues of control, which in turn take precedence over issues of intimacy.

  16. A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Ivor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries are scaling up malaria interventions towards elimination. This transition changes demands on malaria diagnostics from diagnosing ill patients to detecting parasites in all carriers including asymptomatic infections and infections with low parasite densities. Detection methods suitable to local malaria epidemiology must be selected prior to transitioning a malaria control programme to elimination. A baseline malaria survey conducted in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands in late 2008, as the first step in a provincial malaria elimination programme, provided malaria epidemiology data and an opportunity to assess how well different diagnostic methods performed in this setting. Methods During the survey, 9,491 blood samples were collected and examined by microscopy for Plasmodium species and density, with a subset also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. The performances of these diagnostic methods were compared. Results A total of 256 samples were positive by microscopy, giving a point prevalence of 2.7%. The species distribution was 17.5% Plasmodium falciparum and 82.4% Plasmodium vivax. In this low transmission setting, only 17.8% of the P. falciparum and 2.9% of P. vivax infected subjects were febrile (≥38°C at the time of the survey. A significant proportion of infections detected by microscopy, 40% and 65.6% for P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively, had parasite density below 100/μL. There was an age correlation for the proportion of parasite density below 100/μL for P. vivax infections, but not for P. falciparum infections. PCR detected substantially more infections than microscopy (point prevalence of 8.71%, indicating a large number of subjects had sub-microscopic parasitemia. The concordance between PCR and microscopy in detecting single species was greater for P. vivax (135/162 compared to P. falciparum (36/118. The malaria RDT detected the 12 microscopy and

  17. Change in settings for early-season influenza vaccination among US adults, 2012 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Gebremariam, Acham; Cowan, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    Vaccination in non-medical settings is recommended as a strategy to increase access to seasonal influenza vaccine. To evaluate change in early-season influenza vaccination setting, we analyzed data from the National Internet Flu Survey. Bivariate comparison of respondent characteristics by location of vaccination was assessed using chi-square tests. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to compare the predicted probability of being vaccinated in medical, retail, and mobile settings in 2012 vs 2013. In both 2012 and 2013, vaccination in medical settings was more likely among elderly adults, those with chronic conditions, and adults with a high school education or less. Adults 18-64 without a chronic condition had a lower probability of vaccination in the medical setting, and higher probability of vaccination in a retail or mobile setting, in 2013 compared to 2012. Adults 18-64 with a chronic condition had no change in their location of flu vaccination. Elderly adults had a lower probability of vaccination in the medical setting, and higher probability of vaccination in a retail setting, in 2013 compared to 2012. Non-medical settings continue to play an increasing role in influenza vaccination of adults, particularly for adults without a chronic condition and elderly adults. Retail and mobile settings should continue to be viewed as important mechanisms to ensure broad access to influenza vaccination. PMID:27486562

  18. Climate change and the future Nordic electricity market - Supply, demand, trade and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study has been to analyze the effects of climate changes on the Nordic electricity market. Concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere influences the climate, which then alter the amount of primary energy for countries or regions where hydropower and wind power constitutes important parts of the energy supply. Besides, the demand effect of increased temperature may be large in economies where heating makes a large share of total energy demand. In this report we apply climate change calculations from natural science and detailed inflow data from the authorities to estimate the change in primary energy supply for the hydropower dominated Nordic electricity market. The estimated inflow model shows an increase in primary inflow in the following 40 years of 6-15 per cent in the Nordic countries. An estimated temperature model shows a 2-4 per cent initial drop in demand in the same time period, due to increasing temperature. Within the context of a perfect competition electricity market model, we simulate the total market outcome. As primary supply increases, the production cost decreases, prices drops and the total demand increases as the price effect dominates the temperature effect. Since the hydropower plants are located differently from large consumer groups, the stress on the transmission networks is dramatic for some regions, which in the next face may trigger new investments in transmission network capacities (author)

  19. Changing patterns of malaria during 1996-2010 in an area of moderate transmission in Southern Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaillant Michel T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is reportedly receding in different epidemiological settings, but local long-term surveys are limited. At Mlomp dispensary in south-western Senegal, an area of moderate malaria transmission, year-round, clinically-suspected malaria was treated with monotherapy as per WHO and national policy in the 1990s. Since 2000, there has been a staggered deployment of artesunate-amodiaquine after parasitological confirmation; this was adopted nationally in 2006. Methods Data were extracted from clinic registers for the period between January 1996 and December 2010, analysed and modelled. Results Over the 15-year study period, the risk of malaria decreased about 32-times (from 0.4 to 0.012 episodes person-year, while anti-malarial treatments decreased 13-times (from 0.9 to 0.07 treatments person-year and consultations for fever decreased 3-times (from 1.8 to 0.6 visits person-year. This was paralleled by changes in the age profile of malaria patients so that the risk of malaria is now almost uniformly distributed throughout life, while in the past malaria used to concern more children below 16 years of age. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence of malaria risk receding between 1996-2010 and becoming equal throughout life where transmission used to be moderate. Infection rates are no longer enough to sustain immunity. Temporally, this coincides with deploying artemisinin combinations on parasitological confirmation, but other contributing causes are unclear.

  20. Social transmission of avoidance behavior under situational change in learned and unlearned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Masuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats receive information from other conspecifics by observation or other types of social interaction. Such social interaction may contribute to the effective adaptation to changes of environment such as situational switching. Learning to avoid dangerous places or objects rapidly occurs with even a single conditioning session, and the conditioned memory tends to be sustained over long periods. The avoidance is important for adaptation, but the details of the conditions under which the social transmission of avoidance is formed are unknown. We demonstrate that the previous experience of avoidance learning is important for the formation of behaviors for social transmission of avoidance and that the experienced rats adapt to a change of situation determined by the presence or absence of aversive stimuli. We systematically investigated social influence on avoidance behavior using a passive avoidance test in a light/dark two-compartment apparatus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into two groups, one receiving foot shocks and another with no aversive experience in a dark compartment. Experienced and inexperienced rats were further divided into subjects and partners. In Experiment 1, each subject experienced (1 interaction with an experienced partner, (2 interaction with an inexperienced partner, or (3 no interaction. In Experiment 2, each subject experienced interaction with a partner that received a shock. The entering latency to a light compartment was measured. The avoidance behavior of experienced rats was inhibited by interaction with inexperienced or experienced partners in a safely-changed situation. The avoidance of experienced rats was reinstated in a dangerously-changed situation by interaction with shocked rats. In contrast, the inexperienced rats were not affected by any social circumstances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that transmitted information among rats can be updated under a

  1. Assessing the Role of Climate Change in Malaria Transmission in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Ngarakana-Gwasira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of vector borne diseases like malaria to climate continues to raise considerable concern over the implications of climate change on future disease dynamics. The problem of malaria vectors shifting from their traditional locations to invade new zones is of important concern. A mathematical model incorporating rainfall and temperature is constructed to study the transmission dynamics of malaria. The reproduction number obtained is applied to gridded temperature and rainfall datasets for baseline climate and future climate with aid of GIS. As a result of climate change, malaria burden is likely to increase in the tropics, the highland regions, and East Africa and along the northern limit of falciparum malaria. Falciparum malaria will spread into the African highlands; however it is likely to die out at the southern limit of the disease.

  2. Increased prevalence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospital setting due to cross-species transmission of the bla NDM-1 element and clonal spread of progenitor resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Chen, Gongxiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangping; Cai, Jiachang; Chan, Edward W; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains collected from a hospital setting in China, in which consistent emergence of CRE strains were observable during the period of May 2013 to February 2014. Among the 45 CRE isolates tested, 21 (47%) strains were found to harbor the bla NDM-1 element, and the rest of 24 CRE strains were all positive for bla KPC-2. The 21 bla NDM-1-borne strains were found to comprise multiple Enterobacteriaceae species including nine Enterobacter cloacae, three Escherichia coli, three Citrobacter freundii, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two Klebsiella oxytoca, and two Morganella morganii strains, indicating that cross-species transmission of bla NDM-1 is a common event. Genetic analyses by PFGE and MLST showed that, with the exception of E. coli and E. cloacae, strains belonging to the same species were often genetically unrelated. In addition to bla NDM-1, several CRE strains were also found to harbor the bla KPC-2, bla VIM-1, and bla IMP-4 elements. Conjugations experiments confirmed that the majority of carbapenem resistance determinants were transferable. Taken together, our findings suggest that transmission of mobile resistance elements among members of Enterobacteriaceae and clonal spread of CRE strains may contribute synergistically to a rapid increase in the population of CRE in clinical settings, prompting a need to implement more rigorous infection control measures to arrest such vicious transmission cycle in CRE-prevalent areas. PMID:26136735

  3. Political science. When contact changes minds: an experiment on transmission of support for gay equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCour, Michael J; Green, Donald P

    2014-12-12

    Can a single conversation change minds on divisive social issues, such as same-sex marriage? A randomized placebo-controlled trial assessed whether gay (n = 22) or straight (n = 19) messengers were effective at encouraging voters (n = 972) to support same-sex marriage and whether attitude change persisted and spread to others in voters' social networks. The results, measured by an unrelated panel survey, show that both gay and straight canvassers produced large effects initially, but only gay canvassers' effects persisted in 3-week, 6-week, and 9-month follow-ups. We also find strong evidence of within-household transmission of opinion change, but only in the wake of conversations with gay canvassers. Contact with gay canvassers further caused substantial change in the ratings of gay men and lesbians more generally. These large, persistent, and contagious effects were confirmed by a follow-up experiment. Contact with minorities coupled with discussion of issues pertinent to them is capable of producing a cascade of opinion change. PMID:25504721

  4. Changes to TSR control set due to changes in mission and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) established to support plutonium production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) were heavily focused on engineered safety features that would mitigate potential accidents. With the change in mission in 1992 to Site closure, and considering antiquated equipment nearing the end of their useful life, a change in philosophy was adopted to emphasize preventive controls that are mostly administrative. The new Administrative Controls (ACs) developed in the last few years include discrete attributes of safety management programs (SMPs) that are specifically credited to prevent or mitigate an accident, and include requirements on handling individual deviations, programmatic deficiencies, and TSR AC violations. The primary benefit of these changes is fewer requirements on equipment that allow the contractor more flexibility to maintain the defense-in-depth safety systems in a more cost-effective manner. A disadvantage of these new ACs is that implementation has become cumbersome and difficult to manage, e.g., resulted in an increased burden of demonstrating compliance and required an additional infrastructure to track deviations and deficiencies. In order to improve the efficiency of the authorization basis (AB) process to support accelerated Site closure according to the 2006 Plan, the Site has recently modified the ABs to better focus on the programmatic elements that were credited in the accident analyses, and to rely on the Integrated Safety Management System to implement SMPs via one general TSR AC requirement. At the request of DOE/RFFO, a self-assessment of the Rocky Flats AB program was performed in November 1998 by Victor Stello, DOE Headquarters, along with representatives from other DOE sites and Defense Programs. Results of this self-assessment confirmed that the proposed AC changes would be beneficial and provided specific recommendations

  5. An update: choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2014-01-01

    food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future research should emphasize a real-life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings. Key findings: An increasing interest......Objective: The primary objective of this review was to update the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reducing energy intake. Methodology: 12 databases were searched systematically...

  6. Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Chersich (Matthew); S. Luchters (Stanley); I. Ntaganira (Innocent); A. Gerbase (Antonio); Y-R. Lo (Ying-Ru); F. Scorgie (Fiona); R. Steen (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies reporting interventions for

  7. Light and transmission electron microscopical changes associated with Leiurus quinqestriatus venom in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah H. Afifi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty California female rabbits were obtained from the Animal Care Center, College of Agriculture, South Valley University and acclimated to laboratory conditions for one week. The Leiurus quinquestriatus (LQ venom was collected from mature scorpions by electrical stimulation of the telson. A single dose of crude venom of 0.4 ml/kg (diluted in normal saline with a ratio of 1:1 was injected into a peripheral ear vein. The lungs, brains, hearts, kidneys, were sampled and fixed in 10% formalin from rabbits sacrificed at zero, 30 minutes, 1hr, and 4hrs, post-envenomation (three animals at each sacrifice. Respiratory distress and neurological manifestations were the main clinical signs. Congestion of the lungs was started at one hour postenvenomation. Vascular changes including hyperemia and hemorrhage were also observed till 24 hours post-envenomation. The main histopathological changes of the lungs were edema, hemorrhage, emphysema, and eosinophilic bronchitis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed several eosinophils with abundant granules and breakdown of their membranes suggesting degranulation. The cerebrum showed malacia and edema. Myocardial damage expressed by focal area of myolysis at half-hour post-envenomation and interstitial edema by at 1, and 4 hour post-envenomation was also evident. In conclusion, scorpion venom induced consistent and relevant histopathological changes in all examined organs.

  8. A stage of change approach to addiction in the medical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, J R; Brenner, S; Curtiss, D; Ferrigno, M; Kauffman, J

    1998-09-01

    Despite recent advances in its understanding and treatment, addiction remains a difficult challenge for clinicians within medical settings such as the general hospital. The use of single, traditional paradigms (disciplinary, therapeutic, educational, or libertarian) for approaching addiction-related problems have often failed to embrace the complexity of the patients' motivation to change. Prochaska and DiClemente's [7] stage of change model offers a realistic, practical, and broadly applicable means by which clinicians can facilitate behavioral change from the stage of denial (precontemplation) through that of sustained recovery (maintenance). Clinicians can help addicted individuals to move from precontemplation to contemplation by enhancing their ambivalence; from contemplation to preparation by considering their history of change; from preparation to action by flexibly intervening based on this understanding; and from action to maintenance by evaluating the outcomes of these interventions. A stage of change model is also useful in understanding the process of change in clinicians' own approaches to patients with substance use disorders.

  9. Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lourenco, Sofia; Laub Hansen, Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The primary objective of this review was to investigate the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reduce calorie intake. 12 databases were searched systematically for experimental ...

  10. REACH, non-testing approaches and the urgent need for a change in mind set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.; Kroese, E.D.; Tielemans, E.L.J.P.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Leeuwen, C.J. van

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of REACH cannot be achieved under the current risk assessment approach. A change in mind set among all the relevant stakeholders is needed: risk assessment should move away from a labor-intensive and animal-consuming approach to intelligent and pragmatic testing, by combining exposure

  11. Paradigms, Mental Models, and Mind-Sets: Triple Barriers to Transformational Change in School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a simile for understanding the power of paradigms, mental models, and mind-sets as religion-like phenomena. The author clarifies the meaning of the three phenomena to help readers to see how the phenomena become significant sources of resistance to change. He concludes by outlining a paradigm-shifting process to assist…

  12. Changes in Mobility of Children with Cerebral Palsy over Time and across Environmental Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, Beth L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Gracely, Edward J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; O'Neil, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined changes in mobility methods of children with cerebral palsy (CP) over time and across environmental settings. Sixty-two children with CP, ages 6-14 years and classified as levels II-IV on the Gross Motor Function Classification System, were randomly selected from a larger data base and followed for three to four years. On each…

  13. Effects of Goal Setting on Dietary and Physical Activity Changes in the Boy Scout Badge Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Hira; Watson, Kathy; Nguyen, Nga; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Jago, Russell; Cullen, Karen W.; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. Methods: A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was used with each group…

  14. Climate Change and Aedes Vectors: 21st Century Projections for Dengue Transmission in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Quam, Mikkel; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Stenlund, Hans; Ebi, Kristie; Massad, Eduardo; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-05-01

    Warming temperatures may increase the geographic spread of vector-borne diseases into temperate areas. Although a tropical mosquito-borne viral disease, a dengue outbreak occurred in Madeira, Portugal, in 2012; the first in Europe since 1920s. This outbreak emphasizes the potential for dengue re-emergence in Europe given changing climates. We present estimates of dengue epidemic potential using vectorial capacity (VC) based on historic and projected temperature (1901-2099). VC indicates the vectors' ability to spread disease among humans. We calculated temperature-dependent VC for Europe, highlighting 10 European cities and three non-European reference cities. Compared with the tropics, Europe shows pronounced seasonality and geographical heterogeneity. Although low, VC during summer is currently sufficient for dengue outbreaks in Southern Europe to commence-if sufficient vector populations (either Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) were active and virus were introduced. Under various climate change scenarios, the seasonal peak and time window for dengue epidemic potential increases during the 21st century. Our study maps dengue epidemic potential in Europe and identifies seasonal time windows when major cities are most conducive for dengue transmission from 1901 to 2099. Our findings illustrate, that besides vector control, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions crucially reduces the future epidemic potential of dengue in Europe. PMID:27322480

  15. Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Sozzi, Emanuele; Fabre, Kerline; Fesselet, Jean-François; Ebdon, James E.; Taylor, Huw

    2015-01-01

    The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease. The research presented here evaluated the design and operation of a novel treatment system, successfully used by Médecins Sans Frontières in Haiti to disinfect CTC wastewaters in situ, eliminating the need for road haulage and disposal of the waste to a poorly-manag...

  16. Assessment of malaria transmission changes in Africa, due to the climate impact of land use change using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 earth system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Caporaso, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Using mathematical modelling tools, we assessed the potential for land use change (LUC) associated with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change low- and high-end emission scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5) to impact malaria transmission in Africa. To drive a spatially explicit, dynamical malaria model, data from the four available earth system models (ESMs) that contributed to the LUC experiment of the Fifth Climate Model Intercomparison Project are used. Despite the limited size of the ESM ensemble, stark differences in the assessment of how LUC can impact climate are revealed. In three out of four ESMs, the impact of LUC on precipitation and temperature over the next century is limited, resulting in no significant change in malaria transmission. However, in one ESM, LUC leads to increases in precipitation under scenario RCP2.6, and increases in temperature in areas of land use conversion to farmland under both scenarios. The result is a more intense transmission and longer transmission seasons in the southeast of the continent, most notably in Mozambique and southern Tanzania. In contrast, warming associated with LUC in the Sahel region reduces risk in this model, as temperatures are already above the 25-30°C threshold at which transmission peaks. The differences between the ESMs emphasise the uncertainty in such assessments. It is also recalled that the modelling framework is unable to adequately represent local-scale changes in climate due to LUC, which some field studies indicate could be significant. PMID:27063732

  17. The use of individualized goal setting to facilitate behavior change in women with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuifbergen, Alexa K; Becker, Heather; Timmerman, Gayle M; Kullberg, Vicki

    2003-04-01

    Setting goals is a useful strategy for changing behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a wellness intervention for women with multiple sclerosis (MS) on achieving health-related goals set individually by each participant in the experimental group (N = 57) using goal attainment scaling. The two-phase intervention included lifestyle-change classes over 8 weeks, then telephone follow-up over 3 months. Participants were followed over an 8-month period. Goal achievement was assessed at baseline, 2 months (following class), 3 1/2 months (6 weeks after class), 5 months (following 3 months of telephone follow-up), and at 8 months. The majority of the women met or exceeded all their individualized goals for changing behavior at the 6-week postclass assessment. Achievement and maintenance of individual goals remained high (59%-84%) over the 5 months after class follow-ups. These data support the positive effects of wellness interventions for helping women with MS to meet their own individualized health goals. Setting goals with incremental steps helped participants to articulate their individual goals and monitor achievement over time.

  18. Synaptic transmission changes in fear memory circuits underlie key features of an animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Marie; Varin, Christophe; Hrupka, Brian; Pemberton, Darrel J; Steckler, Thomas; Shaban, Hamdy

    2012-02-01

    Non-competitive antagonists of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) such as phencyclidine (PCP) elicit schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals. Similarly, PCP dosing in rats produces typical behavioral phenotypes that mimic human schizophrenia symptoms. Although schizophrenic behavioral phenotypes of the PCP model have been extensively studied, the underlying alterations of intrinsic neuronal properties and synaptic transmission in relevant limbic brain microcircuits remain elusive. Acute brain slice electrophysiology and immunostaining of inhibitory neurons were used to identify neuronal circuit alterations of the amygdala and hippocampus associated with changes in extinction of fear learning in rats following PCP treatment. Subchronic PCP application led to impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and marked increases in the ratio of NMDA to 2-amino-3(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated currents at lateral amygdala (LA) principal neurons without alterations in parvalbumin (PV) as well as non-PV, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD 67) immunopositive neurons. In addition, LTP was impaired at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 hippocampal pathway coincident with a reduction in colocalized PV and GAD67 immunopositive neurons in the CA3 hippocampal area. These effects occurred without changes in spontaneous events or intrinsic membrane properties of principal cells in the LA. The impairment of LTP at both amygdalar and hippocampal microcircuits, which play a key role in processing relevant survival information such as fear and extinction memory concurred with a disruption of extinction learning of fear conditioned responses. Our results show that subchronic PCP administration in rats impairs synaptic functioning in the amygdala and hippocampus as well as processing of fear-related memories. PMID:22085880

  19. How do sharp transmission boundaries change the effective radius of a transiting exoplanet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betremieux, Yan; Swain, Mark R.

    2016-10-01

    Most radiative transfer codes for exoplanet transmission spectroscopy either use or are validated against the formalism of Lecavelier des Etangs et al. (2008). Although extremely useful to understand what shapes transmission spectra, this formalism does not consider the effects of sharp boundaries below which an exoplanet's limb transmission suddenly decreases. However, with recent advances on the effects of refraction in transmission spectroscopy (Bétrémieux & Kaltenegger 2014, Bétrémieux 2016), it turns out that all exoplanets possess one such boundary in the form of either a surface, optically-thick clouds, or in the form of a refractive boundary. We have deriveda first-order analytical expression for an exoplanet's effective radius, which can be used to further validate or improve radiative transfer codes, which accounts for the presence of these boundaries, and discuss their effects on exoplanetary transmission spectra.

  20. Global change data sets: Excerpts from the Master Directory, version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent awakening to the reality of human-induced changes to the environment has resulted in an organized effort to promote global change research. The goal of this research as outlined by NASA's Earth System Science Committee (Earth System Science: A closer View, 1988) is to understand the entire Earth system on a global scale by describing how its component parts and their interactions have evolved, how they function, and how they may be expected to evolve on all timescales. The practical result is the capacity to predict that evolution over the next decade to century. Key variables important for the study of global change include external forcing factors (solar radiance, UV flux), radiatively and chemically important trace species (CO2, CH4, N2O, etc.), atmospheric response variables (temperature, pressure, winds), landsurface properties (river run-off, snow cover, albedo, soil moisture, vegetation cover), and oceanic variables (sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, sea level ocean wind stress, currents, chlorophyll, biogeochemical fluxes). The purpose of this document is to identify existing data sets available (both remotely sensed and in situ data) covering some of these variables. This is not intended to be a complete list of global change data, but merely a highlight of what is available. The information was extracted from the Master Directory (MD), an on-line scientific data information service which may be used by any researcher. This report contains the coverage dates for the data sets, sources (satellites, instruments) of the data and where they are archived

  1. Changes of transmission characteristics for different optic radiation incidence angles in filters protecting against hazardous infrared radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Gralewicz; Janusz Kubrak; Grzegorz Owczarek

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the fundamental information concerning the types of protective optical filters used for protection against hazardous radiation within the visible and near-infrared spectrum range. The changes of transmission characteristics for different optic radiation angles of incidence with metallic reflective filters and interference filters have been analyzed. The results demonstrate that such changes exert no effect on the level of protection provided by the filters.

  2. [Histochemical findings of and fine structural changes in motor endplates in diseases with neuromuscular transmission abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshiro; Motomura, Masakatsu; Tsujihata, Mitsuhiro

    2011-07-01

    We herein review the histochemical findings and fine structural changes of motor endplates associated with diseases causing neuromuscular transmission abnormalities. In anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody-positive myasthenia gravis (MG), type 2 fiber atrophy is observed, and the motor endplates show a reduction in the nerve terminal area, simplification of the postsynaptic membrane, decreased number of acetylcholine receptors, and deposition of immune complexes. In anti-MuSK antibody-positive MG, the fine structure shows a decrease in the postsynaptic membrane length, but the secondary synaptic cleft is preserved. There is no decrease in the number of AChRs, and there are no deposits of immune complexes at the motor endplates. Patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome show type 2 fiber atrophy, their motor endplates show a decrease in both the mean postsynaptic area and postsynaptic membrane length in the brachial biceps muscle. Congenital myasthenic syndrome with episodic apnea is characterized only by small-sized synaptic vesicles; the postsynaptic area is preserved. In subjects with congenital myasthenic syndrome with acetylcholinesterase deficiency, quantitative electron microscopy reveals a significant decrease in the nerve terminal size and presynaptic membrane length; further, the Schwann cell processes extend into the primary synaptic cleft, and partially or completely occlude the presynaptic membrane. The postsynaptic folds are degenerated, and associated with pinocytotic vesicles and labyrinthine membranous networks. Patients with slow-channel congenital myasthenia syndrome show type 1 fiber predominance, and their junctional folds are typically degenerated with widened synaptic space and loss of AChRs. Patients with AChR deficiency syndrome caused by recessive mutations in AChR subunits also show type 1 fiber predominance, and while most junctional folds are normal, some are simplified and have smaller than normal endplates. Rapsin and Mu

  3. Cerebral Blood Flow Dynamics and Head-of-Bed Changes in the Setting of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Kung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Head-of-bed (HOB elevation is usually restricted in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. The goal of this study is to correlate HOB changes ( and with cerebral blood flow using transcranial Doppler (TCD and thermal diffusion probe in SAH patients. Thirteen patients with SAH were prospectively enrolled in the study. Eight patients underwent placement of a thermal diffusion probe for regional CBF measurement. CBF values were measured with the patients in flat ( and upright sitting positions ( at days 3, 7, and 10. The average increase in blood flow velocity when changing HOB from to was 7.8% on day 3, 0.1% on day 7, and 13.1% on day 10. The middle cerebral artery had the least changes in velocity. The average regional CBF measurement was 22.7 ± 0.3 mL/100 g/min in the supine position and 23.6 ± 9.1 mg/100 g/min in the sitting position. The changes were not statistically significant. None of the patients developed clinical cerebral vasospasm. Changing HOB position in the setting of SAH did not significantly affect cerebral or regional blood flow. These data suggest that early mobilization should be considered given the detrimental effects of prolonged bed rest.

  4. Empirical investigation of SET seasoning effects in Phase Change Memory arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, C.; Chimenton, A.; Olivo, P.

    2011-04-01

    In this work we have investigated the seasoning effect in SET state occurring during cycling of multimegabit Phase Change Memory arrays. The impact of the erasing waveform on this phenomenon has been experimentally evaluated. The physical nature of the phenomenon has been discussed in relation to the electro-thermal characteristics of the active material. The study of such phenomenon is also important to comprehend the transition dynamics of the GST material towards its crystalline state and to develop accurate models allowing an estimate of the PCM cells behavior as a function of the operative cycles.

  5. Tracing Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by whole genome sequencing in a high incidence setting: a retrospective population-based study in East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn-Mortensen, K.; Soborg, B.; Koch, A.; Ladefoged, K.; Merker, M.; Lillebaek, T.; Andersen, A. B.; Niemann, S.; Kohl, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    In East Greenland, a dramatic increase of tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been observed in recent years. Classical genotyping suggests a genetically similar Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain population as cause, however, precise transmission patterns are unclear. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Mtb isolates from 98% of culture-positive TB cases through 21 years (n = 182) which revealed four genomic clusters of the Euro-American lineage (mainly sub-lineage 4.8 (n = 134)). The time to the most recent common ancestor of lineage 4.8 strains was found to be 100 years. This sub-lineage further diversified in the 1970s, and massively expanded in the 1990s, a period of lowered TB awareness in Greenland. Despite the low genetic strain diversity, WGS data revealed several recent short-term transmission events in line with the increasing incidence in the region. Thus, the isolated setting and the uniformity of circulating Mtb strains indicated that the majority of East Greenlandic TB cases originated from one or few strains introduced within the last century. Thereby, the study shows the consequences of even short interruptions in TB control efforts in previously TB high incidence areas and demonstrates the potential role of WGS in detecting ongoing micro epidemics, thus guiding public health efforts in the future. PMID:27615360

  6. Tracing Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission by whole genome sequencing in a high incidence setting: a retrospective population-based study in East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn-Mortensen, K; Soborg, B; Koch, A; Ladefoged, K; Merker, M; Lillebaek, T; Andersen, A B; Niemann, S; Kohl, T A

    2016-01-01

    In East Greenland, a dramatic increase of tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been observed in recent years. Classical genotyping suggests a genetically similar Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain population as cause, however, precise transmission patterns are unclear. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Mtb isolates from 98% of culture-positive TB cases through 21 years (n = 182) which revealed four genomic clusters of the Euro-American lineage (mainly sub-lineage 4.8 (n = 134)). The time to the most recent common ancestor of lineage 4.8 strains was found to be 100 years. This sub-lineage further diversified in the 1970s, and massively expanded in the 1990s, a period of lowered TB awareness in Greenland. Despite the low genetic strain diversity, WGS data revealed several recent short-term transmission events in line with the increasing incidence in the region. Thus, the isolated setting and the uniformity of circulating Mtb strains indicated that the majority of East Greenlandic TB cases originated from one or few strains introduced within the last century. Thereby, the study shows the consequences of even short interruptions in TB control efforts in previously TB high incidence areas and demonstrates the potential role of WGS in detecting ongoing micro epidemics, thus guiding public health efforts in the future. PMID:27615360

  7. Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, Emanuele; Fabre, Kerline; Fesselet, Jean-François; Ebdon, James E.; Taylor, Huw

    2015-01-01

    The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease. The research presented here evaluated the design and operation of a novel treatment system, successfully used by Médecins Sans Frontières in Haiti to disinfect CTC wastewaters in situ, eliminating the need for road haulage and disposal of the waste to a poorly-managed hazardous waste facility, thereby providing an effective barrier to disease transmission through a novel but simple sanitary intervention. The physico-chemical protocols eventually successfully treated over 600 m3 of wastewater, achieving coagulation/flocculation and disinfection by exposure to high pH (Protocol A) and low pH (Protocol B) environments, using thermotolerant coliforms as a disinfection efficacy index. In Protocol A, the addition of hydrated lime resulted in wastewater disinfection and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids. In Protocol B, disinfection was achieved by the addition of hydrochloric acid, followed by pH neutralization and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids using aluminum sulfate. Removal rates achieved were: COD >99%; suspended solids >90%; turbidity >90% and thermotolerant coliforms >99.9%. The proposed approach is the first known successful attempt to disinfect wastewater in a disease outbreak setting without resorting to the alternative, untested, approach of ‘super chlorination’ which, it has been suggested, may not consistently achieve adequate disinfection. A basic analysis of costs demonstrated a significant saving in reagent costs compared with the less reliable approach of super-chlorination. The proposed approach to in situ sanitation in cholera treatment centers and other disease outbreak settings represents a timely response to a UN call for onsite disinfection of wastewaters generated in such emergencies, and the

  8. Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, Emanuele; Fabre, Kerline; Fesselet, Jean-François; Ebdon, James E; Taylor, Huw

    2015-01-01

    The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease. The research presented here evaluated the design and operation of a novel treatment system, successfully used by Médecins Sans Frontières in Haiti to disinfect CTC wastewaters in situ, eliminating the need for road haulage and disposal of the waste to a poorly-managed hazardous waste facility, thereby providing an effective barrier to disease transmission through a novel but simple sanitary intervention. The physico-chemical protocols eventually successfully treated over 600 m3 of wastewater, achieving coagulation/flocculation and disinfection by exposure to high pH (Protocol A) and low pH (Protocol B) environments, using thermotolerant coliforms as a disinfection efficacy index. In Protocol A, the addition of hydrated lime resulted in wastewater disinfection and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids. In Protocol B, disinfection was achieved by the addition of hydrochloric acid, followed by pH neutralization and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids using aluminum sulfate. Removal rates achieved were: COD >99%; suspended solids >90%; turbidity >90% and thermotolerant coliforms >99.9%. The proposed approach is the first known successful attempt to disinfect wastewater in a disease outbreak setting without resorting to the alternative, untested, approach of 'super chlorination' which, it has been suggested, may not consistently achieve adequate disinfection. A basic analysis of costs demonstrated a significant saving in reagent costs compared with the less reliable approach of super-chlorination. The proposed approach to in situ sanitation in cholera treatment centers and other disease outbreak settings represents a timely response to a UN call for onsite disinfection of wastewaters generated in such emergencies, and the

  9. Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Sozzi

    Full Text Available The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease. The research presented here evaluated the design and operation of a novel treatment system, successfully used by Médecins Sans Frontières in Haiti to disinfect CTC wastewaters in situ, eliminating the need for road haulage and disposal of the waste to a poorly-managed hazardous waste facility, thereby providing an effective barrier to disease transmission through a novel but simple sanitary intervention. The physico-chemical protocols eventually successfully treated over 600 m3 of wastewater, achieving coagulation/flocculation and disinfection by exposure to high pH (Protocol A and low pH (Protocol B environments, using thermotolerant coliforms as a disinfection efficacy index. In Protocol A, the addition of hydrated lime resulted in wastewater disinfection and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids. In Protocol B, disinfection was achieved by the addition of hydrochloric acid, followed by pH neutralization and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids using aluminum sulfate. Removal rates achieved were: COD >99%; suspended solids >90%; turbidity >90% and thermotolerant coliforms >99.9%. The proposed approach is the first known successful attempt to disinfect wastewater in a disease outbreak setting without resorting to the alternative, untested, approach of 'super chlorination' which, it has been suggested, may not consistently achieve adequate disinfection. A basic analysis of costs demonstrated a significant saving in reagent costs compared with the less reliable approach of super-chlorination. The proposed approach to in situ sanitation in cholera treatment centers and other disease outbreak settings represents a timely response to a UN call for onsite disinfection of wastewaters generated in such

  10. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Jackie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess the risk of being malaria sero-positive at two consecutive time points during the rainy season and investigates who is most likely to sero-convert over the transmission season. Methods In 2005, two cross-sectional surveys, one in the middle and the other at the end of the malaria transmission season, were carried out in two ecologically distinct regions in Cambodia. Parasitological and serological data were collected in four districts. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Glutamate Rich Protein (GLURP and Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119 were detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The force of infection was estimated using a simple catalytic model fitted using maximum likelihood methods. Risks for sero-converting during the rainy season were analysed using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART method. Results A total of 804 individuals participating in both surveys were analysed. The overall parasite prevalence was low (4.6% and 2.0% for P. falciparum and 7.9% and 6.0% for P. vivax in August and November respectively. P. falciparum force of infection was higher in the eastern region and increased between August and November, whilst P. vivax force of infection was higher in the western region and remained similar in both surveys. In the western region, malaria transmission changed very little across the season (for both species. CART analysis for P. falciparum in the east highlighted age, ethnicity, village of residence and forest work as important predictors for malaria exposure during the rainy season. Adults were more likely to increase their antibody responses to P. falciparum during the

  11. Co-registration and bias corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantifying glacier thickness change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nuth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are an increasing number of digital elevation models (DEMs available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes difficult and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: (i remove DEM shifts, (ii check for elevation-dependent biases, and (iii check for higher-order, sensor-specific biases. A simple, analytic and robust method to co-register elevation data is presented in regions where stable terrain is either plentiful (case study New Zealand or limited (case study Svalbard. The method is demonstrated using the three global elevation data sets available to date, SRTM, ICESat and the ASTER GDEM, and with automatically generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5-HRS. After 3-D co-registration, significant biases related to elevation were found in some of the stereoscopic DEMs. Biases related to the satellite acquisition geometry (along/cross track were detected at two frequencies in the automatically generated ASTER DEMs. The higher frequency bias seems to be related to satellite jitter, most apparent in the back-looking pass of the satellite. The origins of the more significant lower frequency bias is uncertain. ICESat-derived elevations are found to be the most consistent globally available elevation data set available so far. Before performing regional-scale glacier elevation change studies or mosaicking DEMs from multiple individual tiles (e.g. ASTER GDEM, we recommend to co-register all elevation data to ICESat as a global vertical reference system.

  12. Co-registration and bias corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantifying glacier thickness change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2011-03-01

    There are an increasing number of digital elevation models (DEMs) available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes difficult and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: (i) remove DEM shifts, (ii) check for elevation-dependent biases, and (iii) check for higher-order, sensor-specific biases. A simple, analytic and robust method to co-register elevation data is presented in regions where stable terrain is either plentiful (case study New Zealand) or limited (case study Svalbard). The method is demonstrated using the three global elevation data sets available to date, SRTM, ICESat and the ASTER GDEM, and with automatically generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5-HRS. After 3-D co-registration, significant biases related to elevation were found in some of the stereoscopic DEMs. Biases related to the satellite acquisition geometry (along/cross track) were detected at two frequencies in the automatically generated ASTER DEMs. The higher frequency bias seems to be related to satellite jitter, most apparent in the back-looking pass of the satellite. The origins of the more significant lower frequency bias is uncertain. ICESat-derived elevations are found to be the most consistent globally available elevation data set available so far. Before performing regional-scale glacier elevation change studies or mosaicking DEMs from multiple individual tiles (e.g. ASTER GDEM), we recommend to co-register all elevation data to ICESat as a global vertical reference system.

  13. Investigation of structural change of purple membrane in storage by transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The structural change of purple membrane during storage has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope. It is found that many liposomes have spontaneously evolved from the purple membrane sheets isolated three years ago. The membrane proteins on the liposomes, bacteriorhodopsin, are still presented as trimers in 2-D hexagonal structure, which is the same as that in natural cell membrane. However, the cytoplasmic surface of purple membrane faced outside on the liposomes.

  14. Energy filtering transmission electron microscopy and atomistic simulations of tribo-induced hybridization change of nanocrystalline diamond coating

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchet, M.I.D.; Matta, C.; Vacher, B; Le-Mogne, T.; Martin, J. M.; Lautz, J. von; T. Ma; Pastewka, L.; Otschik, J.; Gumbsch, P.; Moseler, M.

    2015-01-01

    The tribofilm formed on nanocrystalline diamond coating during ultralow friction in presence of water and glycerol lubrication has been studied experimentally by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) on focus ion beam (FIB) cross sections. Surprisingly, even under mild tribological conditions, a tribo-induced hybridization change (sp(3) towards sp(2)) can be clearly detected at the top of the coating resulting in the formation ...

  15. Projecting the impact of climate change on the transmission of Ross River virus: methodological challenges and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W; Dale, P; Turner, L; Tong, S

    2014-10-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) is the most common vector-borne disease in Australia. It is vitally important to make appropriate projections on the future spread of RRV under various climate change scenarios because such information is essential for policy-makers to identify vulnerable communities and to better manage RRV epidemics. However, there are many methodological challenges in projecting the impact of climate change on the transmission of RRV disease. This study critically examined the methodological issues and proposed possible solutions. A literature search was conducted between January and October 2012, using the electronic databases Medline, Web of Science and PubMed. Nineteen relevant papers were identified. These studies demonstrate that key challenges for projecting future climate change on RRV disease include: (1) a complex ecology (e.g. many mosquito vectors, immunity, heterogeneous in both time and space); (2) unclear interactions between social and environmental factors; and (3) uncertainty in climate change modelling and socioeconomic development scenarios. Future risk assessments of climate change will ultimately need to better understand the ecology of RRV disease and to integrate climate change scenarios with local socioeconomic and environmental factors, in order to develop effective adaptation strategies to prevent or reduce RRV transmission. PMID:24612684

  16. Metabolic and Kidney Diseases in the Setting of Climate Change, Water Shortage, and Survival Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard J; Stenvinkel, Peter; Jensen, Thomas; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal, Carlos; Song, Zhilin; Bankir, Lise; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G

    2016-08-01

    Climate change (global warming) is leading to an increase in heat extremes and coupled with increasing water shortage, provides a perfect storm for a new era of environmental crises and potentially, new diseases. We use a comparative physiologic approach to show that one of the primary mechanisms by which animals protect themselves against water shortage is to increase fat mass as a means for providing metabolic water. Strong evidence suggests that certain hormones (vasopressin), foods (fructose), and metabolic products (uric acid) function as survival signals to help reduce water loss and store fat (which also provides a source of metabolic water). These mechanisms are intricately linked with each other and stimulated by dehydration and hyperosmolarity. Although these mechanisms were protective in the setting of low sugar and low salt intake in our past, today, the combination of diets high in fructose and salty foods, increasing temperatures, and decreasing available water places these survival signals in overdrive and may be accelerating the obesity and diabetes epidemics. The recent discovery of multiple epidemics of CKD occurring in agricultural workers in hot and humid environments may represent harbingers of the detrimental consequences of the combination of climate change and overactivation of survival pathways.

  17. Translating Physical Activity Evidence to Hospital Settings: A Call for Culture Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon J; Carr, Lucas J

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence exists on the multiple physical and psychological benefits of physical activity (PA) across the lifespan. Yet, the vast majority of Americans engage in highly sedentary lifestyles, and most do not meet recommended PA levels that can achieve health benefits. Moreover, nurses and other healthcare providers are highly inconsistent in their PA recommendations to patients in all settings, as well as in achieving their own levels of PA. The consequences are growing obesity and health-related conditions, disability, and mortality. A culture change is sorely needed that reimagines and reintegrates PA into the course of daily life activities. In this article, we present the research on PA benefits, declining PA levels, and healthcare practice deficits and propose designing an inpatient unit of the future with a mission of PA for all that is integrated into the fabric and operations of the unit. Malcolm Gladwell's Tipping Point ideas are used as a change framework to guide strategies recommended in this futuristic unit. These strategies include leadership by clinical nurse specialists, engagement of other key people, resources, and structures. The entire process will require bold leadership and a willingness to think outside existing models of hospital care, which are costly and outdated. PMID:27309785

  18. Metabolic and Kidney Diseases in the Setting of Climate Change, Water Shortage, and Survival Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard J; Stenvinkel, Peter; Jensen, Thomas; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal, Carlos; Song, Zhilin; Bankir, Lise; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G

    2016-08-01

    Climate change (global warming) is leading to an increase in heat extremes and coupled with increasing water shortage, provides a perfect storm for a new era of environmental crises and potentially, new diseases. We use a comparative physiologic approach to show that one of the primary mechanisms by which animals protect themselves against water shortage is to increase fat mass as a means for providing metabolic water. Strong evidence suggests that certain hormones (vasopressin), foods (fructose), and metabolic products (uric acid) function as survival signals to help reduce water loss and store fat (which also provides a source of metabolic water). These mechanisms are intricately linked with each other and stimulated by dehydration and hyperosmolarity. Although these mechanisms were protective in the setting of low sugar and low salt intake in our past, today, the combination of diets high in fructose and salty foods, increasing temperatures, and decreasing available water places these survival signals in overdrive and may be accelerating the obesity and diabetes epidemics. The recent discovery of multiple epidemics of CKD occurring in agricultural workers in hot and humid environments may represent harbingers of the detrimental consequences of the combination of climate change and overactivation of survival pathways. PMID:27283495

  19. Wetlands as a Record of Climate Change and Hydrological Response in Arid Rift Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, G. M.

    2004-12-01

    Of all the terrestrial depositional settings, rift basins typically provide the greatest accommodation space, and consequently have some of the longest records of continental sedimentation. Lake deposits were the only rift component studied for records of long-term climatic change and for testing hypotheses of orbital forcing. Recently, the continuing quest for the paleontological and cultural records of human origins entombed in the sedimentary rocks of the East African Rift System raised questions concerning hydrologic and biologic response to climatic change. Additional issues are the impact of climate on paleolandscapes and the environmental stresses that might have affected human evolution. Other important indicators of rift hydrology, such as springs and wetlands are now emerging as viable records of climate change. Rift valley basins are shallow, hydrologically closed systems that are responsive to shifts in climate, and specifically sensitive to changes in the hydrologic budget (P-ET). Long term wet-dry cycles in the low latitudes are thought to be astronomically controlled, i.e. Milankovitch precession cycles (19-23 ka). In the tropics, precipitation (P) varies with changes in solar insolation which fluctuates similarly. Springs and groundwater-fed wetlands are common, however the sources and sustainability of water or what geologic factors lead to the formation and longevity of wetlands is not well established. It appears that rainfall is trapped on topographic highs (rift fault blocks and volcanoes). This meteoric water infiltrates quickly through porous volcanic rocks and is stored in aquifers and released slowly. As a component of the rift hydrologic system, wetlands appear to be reliable indicators of rainfall fluctuations on both Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch time scales. Wetland sediments are commoner in the geologic record during times of higher rainfall and are less common during drier periods. Modern arid rift wetland records are peats and

  20. Malaria surveillance-response strategies in different transmission zones of the People's Republic of China: preparing for climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo-Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sound understanding of malaria transmission patterns in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China is crucial for designing effective surveillance-response strategies that can guide the national malaria elimination programme (NMEP. Using an established biology-driven model, it is expected that one may design and refine appropriate surveillance-response strategies for different transmission zones, which, in turn, assist the NMEP in the ongoing implementation period (2010–2020 and, potentially, in the post-elimination stage (2020–2050. Methods Environmental data obtained from 676 locations across P.R. China, such as monthly temperature and yearly relative humidity (YRH, for the period 1961–2000 were prepared. Smoothed surface maps of the number of months suitable for parasite survival derived from monthly mean temperature and YRH were generated. For each decade, the final malaria prediction map was overlaid by two masked maps, one showing the number of months suitable for parasite survival and the other the length of YRH map in excess of 60%. Results Considering multiple environmental factors simultaneously, the environmental variables suitable for malaria transmission were found to have shifted northwards, which was especially pronounced in northern P.R. China. The unstable suitable regions (transmission periods between five and six months showed increased transmission intensity due to prolonged suitable periods, especially in the central part of the country. Conclusion Adequate and effective surveillance-response strategies for NMEP should be designed to achieve the goal of malaria elimination in P.R. China by 2020, especially in the zones predicted to be the most vulnerable for climate change.

  1. Literature survey: Relations between stress change, deformation and transmissivity for fractures and deformation zones based on in situ investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Aasa (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This literature survey is focused upon relations between stress change, deformation and transmissivity for fractures and deformation zones and aims at compiling and commenting on relevant information and references with focus on data from in situ investigations. Main issues to investigate are: - Impact of normal stress change and deformation on transmissivity, for fractures and deformation zones. - Impact of shear stress and displacement on transmissivity, for fractures and deformation zones for different normal load conditions. Considering the line of research within the area, the following steps in the development can be identified. During the 1970's and 1980's, the fundamentals of rock joint deformation were investigated and identification and description of mechanisms were made in the laboratory. In the 1990's, coupling of stress-flow properties of rock joints were made using hydraulic testing to identify and describe the mechanisms in the field. Both individual fractures and deformation zones were of interest. In situ investigations have also been the topic of interest the last ten years. Further identification and description of mechanisms in the field have been made including investigation and description of system of fractures, different types of fractures (interlocked/mated or mismatched/unmated) and how this is coupled to the hydromechanical behavior. In this report, data from in situ investigations are compiled and the parameters considered to be important to link fracture deformation and transmissivity are normal stiffness, k{sub n} and hydraulic aperture, b{sub h}. All data except for those from one site originate from investigations performed in granitic rock. Normal stiffness, k{sub n}, and hydraulic aperture, b{sub h}, are correlated, even though data are scattered. In general, the largest variation is seen for small hydraulic apertures and high normal stiffness. The increasing number of contact points (areas) and fracture filling are

  2. The impact of climate change on infectious disease transmission: perceptions of CDC health professionals in Shanxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junni Wei

    Full Text Available There have been increasing concerns about the challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change, especially in developing countries including China. Health professionals play a significant role in the battle to control and prevent infectious diseases. This study therefore aims to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC in different levels in China, and to consider adaptation measures to deal with the challenge of climate change. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 staff in CDCs in Shanxi Province, China, whose routine work involves disease control and prevention. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods and logistic regression. A majority of the CDC staff were aware of the health risks from climate change, especially its impacts on infectious disease transmission in their jurisdictions, and believed climate change might bring about both temporal and spatial change in transmission patterns. It was thought that adaptation measures should be established including: strengthening/improving currently existing disease surveillance systems and vector monitoring; building CDC capacity in terms of infrastructure and in-house health professional training; development and refinement of relevant legislation, policies and guidelines; better coordination among various government departments; the involvement of the community in infectious disease interventions; and collaborative research with other institutions. This study provides a snapshot of the understanding of CDC staff regarding climate change risks relevant to infectious diseases and adaptation in China. Results may help inform future efforts to develop adaptation measures to minimize infectious disease risks due to climate change.

  3. Alteration of PHYA expression change circadian rhythms and timing of bud set in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarewa, Iwanka; Ibáñez, Cristian; Johansson, Mikael; Ogren, Erling; Mozley, David; Nylander, Eva; Chono, Makiko; Moritz, Thomas; Eriksson, Maria E

    2010-05-01

    In many temperate woody species, dormancy is induced by short photoperiods. Earlier studies have shown that the photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) promotes growth. Specifically, Populus plants that over-express the oat PHYA gene (oatPHYAox) show daylength-independent growth and do not become dormant. However, we show that oatPHYAox plants could be induced to set bud and become cold hardy by exposure to a shorter, non-24 h diurnal cycle that significantly alters the relative position between endogenous rhythms and perceived light/dark cycles. Furthermore, we describe studies in which the expression of endogenous Populus tremula x P. tremuloides PHYTOCHROME A (PttPHYA) was reduced in Populus trees by antisense inhibition. The antisense plants showed altered photoperiodic requirements, resulting in earlier growth cessation and bud formation in response to daylength shortening, an effect that was explained by an altered innate period that leads to phase changes of clock-associated genes such as PttCO2. Moreover, gene expression studies following far-red light pulses show a phyA-mediated repression of PttLHY1 and an induction of PttFKF1 and PttFT. We conclude that the level of PttPHYA expression strongly influences seasonally regulated growth in Populus and is central to co-ordination between internal clock-regulated rhythms and external light/dark cycles through its dual effect on the pace of clock rhythms and in light signaling.

  4. In situ transmission electron microscopy investigation of the structural changes in carbon nanotubes during electron emission at high currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doytcheva, Maya [Philips Research, Professor Holstlaan 4, 5656 AA Eindhovene (Netherlands); Kaiser, Monja [Philips Research, Professor Holstlaan 4, 5656 AA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jonge, Niels de [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6030 (United States)

    2006-07-14

    The structural changes in carbon nanotubes under electron emission conditions were investigated in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The measurements were performed on individually mounted free-standing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It was found that the structure of the carbon nanotubes did not change gradually, as is the case with field emission electron sources made of sharp metal tips. Instead, changes occurred only above a current level of a few microamperes, which was different for each nanotube. Above the threshold current, carbon nanotubes underwent either structural damage, such as shortening and splitting of the apex of the nanotube, or closing of their open cap. The results are discussed on the basis of several models for degradation mechanisms.

  5. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigation of the Structural Changes in Carbon Nanotubes During Electron Emission at High Currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doytcheva, Maya [Philips Research, The Netherlands; Kaiser, Monja [Philips Research, The Netherlands; De Jonge, Niels [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The structural changes in carbon nanotubes under electron emission conditions were investigated in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The measurements were performed on individually mounted free-standing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It was found that the structure of the carbon nanotubes did not change gradually, as is the case with field emission electron sources made of sharp metal tips. Instead, changes occurred only above a current level of a few microamperes, which was different for each nanotube. Above the threshold current, carbon nanotubes underwent either structural damage, such as shortening and splitting of the apex of the nanotube, or closing of their open cap. The results are discussed on the basis of several models for degradation mechanisms.

  6. Change of cholinergic transmission and memory deficiency induced by injection of b-amyloid protein into NBM of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓峰; 叶惟泠; 梅镇彤

    2001-01-01

    The change of cholinergic transmission of b-amyloid protein (b-AP) treated rats was studied by intracerebral microdialysis sampling combined with HPLC analysis. b-AP1-40 was injected into nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). Passive avoidance response test (step-down test) and delayed alternation task were used for memory testing. The impairment of memory after injection of b-AP1-40 into NBM exhibited mainly the deficiency of short-term working memory. One week after injection of b-AP1-40 the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from frontal cortex of freely-moving rats decreased significantly, and the response of cholinergic nerve ending to the action of high [K+] solution was rather weak. In control animals the percentage of increase of ACh- release during behavioral performance was 57%, while in b-AP1-40 - treated rats it was 34%. The temporary in-crease of the ACh-release of the rat put into a new place was also significantly diminished in b-AP1-40 -treated rats. The results show that the injection of b-AP1-40 into NBM impairs the cholinergic transmission in frontal cortex, and the impairment of cholinergic transmission may be the main cause of the deficit of working memory.

  7. Radiation-induced changes in optical transmission in vitreous semiconductors of the Gex Sb40-x S60 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of γ-irradiation on the optical properties of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of the Gex Sb40-x S60 ternary system is studied. It is established that a magnitude of radiation-induced effects in the investigated glasses depends on their chemical composition. It is obtained that maximum γ-induced changes in optical transmission reveal in glasses characterized by the average coordination number Z = 2.67, that is, near the point of the so-called topological phase transition from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional glass structure

  8. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eHamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view. To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations, induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  9. Factors enhancing utilization of and adherence to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service in an urban setting in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murithi, Lydia Karuta; Masho, Saba W; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2015-04-01

    Despite expansive scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services in Kenya over the last decade, Kenya remains one of the countries contributing to high numbers of children living with HIV globally and is among the 22 PMTCT global plan priority countries. Using structured and in-depth interviews this study examined enabling factors that enhance utilization of and adherence to PMTCT services in an urban setting in Kenya. HIV-positive birthmothers (N = 55) whose infants were HIV-negative at the time of the study completed a structured interview and a subset (n = 15) participated in in-depth interviews. The majority of the mothers (98 %) delivered at a health facility and 91 % exclusively breastfed. Further, 91 % attended clinic appointments regularly and 69.1 % strictly adhered to prescribed medication dosage and schedules. However, 18 % had not disclosed their HIV status to anybody, 27 % did not use condom during sex, 95 % did not participate in AIDS support groups and 53 % of their male partners were not involved in PMTCT. Four key themes facilitating PMTCT success emerged from the qualitative data: supportive counseling, striving for motherhood, assurance of confidentiality; and confirmation, affirmation and admiration. HIV/AIDS related stigma and gender imbalances create many missed opportunities for HIV-positive mothers to reach out for support from family and community, apply acquired knowledge and access more affordable care. To be successful, PMTCT programs should be aware of these factors and ensure that mothers are provided with culturally competent care. PMID:25381562

  10. CHESS-changing horizon efficient set search: A simple principle for multiobjective optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Pedro Manuel F. C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept for generating approximations to the non-dominated set in multiobjective optimization problems. The approximation set A is constructed by solving several single-objective minimization problems in which a particular function D(A, z) is minimized. A new algorithm to...

  11. Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: the "HIV Treatment as Prevention" experience in a Canadian setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio S G Montaner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been renewed call for the global expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the framework of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP. However, population-level sustainability of this strategy has not been characterized. METHODS: We used population-level longitudinal data from province-wide registries including plasma viral load, CD4 count, drug resistance, HAART use, HIV diagnoses, AIDS incidence, and HIV-related mortality. We fitted two Poisson regression models over the study period, to relate estimated HIV incidence and the number of individuals on HAART and the percentage of virologically suppressed individuals. RESULTS: HAART coverage, median pre-HAART CD4 count, and HAART adherence increased over time and were associated with increasing virological suppression and decreasing drug resistance. AIDS incidence decreased from 6.9 to 1.4 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0330 and HIV-related mortality decreased from 6.5 to 1.3 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0115. New HIV diagnoses declined from 702 to 238 cases (66% decrease; p = 0.0004 with a consequent estimated decline in HIV incident cases from 632 to 368 cases per year (42% decrease; p = 0.0003. Finally, our models suggested that for each increase of 100 individuals on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence decreased 1.2% and for every 1% increase in the number of individuals suppressed on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence also decreased by 1%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that HAART expansion between 1996 and 2012 in BC was associated with a sustained and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Our findings support the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of HIV treatment as prevention within an adequately resourced environment with no financial barriers to diagnosis, medical care or antiretroviral drugs. The 2013 Consolidated World Health Organization Antiretroviral

  12. Density changes in shear bands of a metallic glass determined by correlative analytical transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rösner, Harald, E-mail: rosner@uni-muenster.de [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Peterlechner, Martin [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Kübel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schmidt, Vitalij [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Wilde, Gerhard [Institut für Materialphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Density changes between sheared zones and their surrounding amorphous matrix as a result of plastic deformation in a cold-rolled metallic glass (melt-spun Al{sub 88}Y{sub 7}Fe{sub 5}) were determined using high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) detector intensities supplemented by electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and nano-beam diffraction analyses. Sheared zones or shear bands were observed as regions of bright or dark contrast arising from a higher or lower density relative to the matrix. Moreover, abrupt contrast changes from bright to dark and vice versa were found within individual shear bands. We associate the decrease in density mainly with an enhanced free volume in the shear bands and the increase in density with concomitant changes of the mass. This interpretation is further supported by changes in the zero loss and Plasmon signal originating from such sites. The limits of this new approach are discussed. - Highlights: • We describe a novel approach for measuring densities in shear bands of metallic glasses. • The linear relation of the dark-field intensity I/I{sub 0} and the mass thickness ρt was used. • Individual shear bands showed abrupt contrast changes from bright to dark and vice versa. • Density changes ranging from about −10% to +6% were found for such shear bands. • Mixtures of amorphous/medium range ordered domains were found within the shear bands.

  13. Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Paul E; Waldock, Joanna; Christophides, George K; Hemming, Deborah; Agusto, Folashade; Evans, Katherine J; Fefferman, Nina; Gaff, Holly; Gumel, Abba; LaDeau, Shannon; Lenhart, Suzanne; Mickens, Ronald E; Naumova, Elena N; Ostfeld, Richard S; Ready, Paul D; Thomas, Matthew B; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge; Michael, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is owing not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but also, perhaps most crucially, to the multitude of epidemiological, ecological and socio-economic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the past 10-15 years. In this review, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector-pathogen systems. PMID:25688012

  14. A vectorial capacity product to monitor changing malaria transmission potential in epidemic regions of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Pietro; Vancutsem, Christelle; Klaver, Robert; Rowland, James; Connor, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are two of the major factors triggering malaria epidemics in warm semi-arid (desert-fringe) and high altitude (highland-fringe) epidemic risk areas. The ability of the mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium spp. is dependent upon a series of biological features generally referred to as vectorial capacity. In this study, the vectorial capacity model (VCAP) was expanded to include the influence of rainfall and temperature variables on malaria transmission potential. Data from two remote sensing products were used to monitor rainfall and temperature and were integrated into the VCAP model. The expanded model was tested in Eritrea and Madagascar to check the viability of the approach. The analysis of VCAP in relation to rainfall, temperature and malaria incidence data in these regions shows that the expanded VCAP correctly tracks the risk of malaria both in regions where rainfall is the limiting factor and in regions where temperature is the limiting factor. The VCAP maps are currently offered as an experimental resource for testing within Malaria Early Warning applications in epidemic prone regions of sub-Saharan Africa. User feedback is currently being collected in preparation for further evaluation and refinement of the VCAP model.

  15. Comparing environmental changes and habitability settings in the geological history of Sahara and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, G. G.; Sabbadini, R.; Komatsu, G.

    2014-12-01

    Sahara has experienced during its long geological history a large number of climatic changes from humid conditions (with savanna-type environments) to dry conditions (with hot desert environments). Therefore, since the late Miocene (?), Sahara experienced periods with rivers, lakes, deltas, and swamps alternated with dry periods with strong aeolian activity and the formation of deflation surface and sand seas. The fluvio-lacustrine deposits formed during humid periods have been strongly reworked by wind processes during the dry periods leaving only the coarse-grained portion of the sediments (conglomerate to rudite). This highly efficient reworking eeolian mechanism affected both of the fluvial and deltaic channel deposits and the large inland lakes, flood plains and other waterlogged areas. The former occurs, at present day, as morphological features and coarse-grained remnants of large fluvial systems whereas the latter are mostly buried below sand seas such as Grand Erg Oriental, Erg Chech, and Azawad. While the sand to silt material accumulated (mostly by saltation) in the sand seas and sand sheets, the finer portion (able to enter the wind as suspended material) was probably swallowed in the large- scale atmospheric circulation redistributed in Sahara itself, in adjacent continents (mostly Europe and South America), and oceans. This geological setting is similar to the one of Mars where fluvial deposits and morphologies abound as largely eroded discontinuous remains. Large-scale alluvial basins and terminal lakes or waterlogged areas (such as the allucial plain in Zephyria) have been largely present in the Martian Noachian-Hesperian time (and possibly even later) but relatively scanty sedimentary deposits testify their existence. When deposits are present they are basically coarse-grained (e.g. the meandering channels of the Eberswalde deltaic plain) due to the long lasting aeolian erosion similarly than the Sahara example. The wind, that dominated the long

  16. Climate change and parasite transmission: how temperature affects parasite infectivity via predation on infective stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Welsh, J.E.; Drent, J.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect disease risk in many parasite-host systems, e.g., via an effect of temperature on infectivity (temperature effects). However, recent studies indicate that ambient communities can lower disease risk for hosts, for instance via predation on free-living stages of pa

  17. Tracing defaulters in HIV prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes through community health workers: results from a rural setting in Zimbabwe.

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Vogt; Cecilia Ferreyra; Andrea Bernasconi; Lewis Ncube; Fabian Taziwa; Winnie Marange; David Wachi; Heiko Becher

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: High retention in care is paramount to reduce vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes but remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. We aimed to assess the effects of community health worker–based defaulter tracing (CHW-DT) on retention in care and mother-to-child HIV transmission, an innovative approach that has not been evaluated to date. Methods: We analyzed patient records of 1878 HIV-pos...

  18. Pathways of information transmission among wild songbirds follow experimentally imposed changes in social foraging structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Ben C.

    2016-01-01

    Animals regularly use information from others to shape their decisions. Yet, determining how changes in social structure affect information flow and social learning strategies has remained challenging. We manipulated the social structure of a large community of wild songbirds by controlling which individuals could feed together at automated feeding stations (selective feeders). We then provided novel ephemeral food patches freely accessible to all birds and recorded the spread of this new information. We demonstrate that the discovery of new food patches followed the experimentally imposed social structure and that birds disproportionately learnt from those whom they could forage with at the selective feeders. The selective feeders reduced the number of conspecific information sources available and birds subsequently increased their use of information provided by heterospecifics. Our study demonstrates that changes to social systems carry over into pathways of information transfer and that individuals learn from tutors that provide relevant information in other contexts. PMID:27247439

  19. Biochemical, histopathological, and transmission electron microscopic ultrastructural changes in mice after exposure to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Khan, Haris M; Khan, Aijaz A; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Waseem, Mohammad; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2016-08-01

    Four-week-old mice, weighing about 25-35 g were divided into five groups (8 mice in each group): vehicle control, low- (0.5 g/kg), middle- (1 g/kg), high- (3 g/kg), and exceptionally high-dose (5 g/kg). After first and second weeks of intraperitoneal exposure to AgNPs, biochemical, histopathological, and electron microscopic ultrastructural changes were investigated. No significant changes were observed in SGOT and ALP levels after first week of exposure, while the level of SGPT significantly increased (p groups of treated mice. However, significant (p groups of treated mice only at high-dose (3 and 5 g/kg). No remarkable changes in lipid profile were observed. Light microscopic histopathological investigation shows that first week treatment had not perceptible effect on the cytoarchitecture on liver, kidney, and spleen; while, second week treatment had only sporadic mild effects on these organs. However, no ultrastructural electron microscopic changes were observed in liver, kidney, and spleen of mice treated with 0.5, 1, and 3 g/kg of AgNPs when sacrificed on first and second week; while, exceptionally high-dose (5 g/kg) of AgNPs resulted in slight nuclear chromatin condensation and irregularities in nuclear membrane. The results suggested that AgNPs could be well tolerated in mice when given intraperitoneally and no death has been found during the experiment in any groups of treated mice. Interestingly, significant (group is suggestive of curious hypoglycemic role of AgNPs warranting further study to explore its possible therapeutic potential in hyperglycemic conditions as well as its mechanism of action at molecular level. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 945-956, 2016. PMID:25648600

  20. Ready, Set, Change! Development and usability testing of an online readiness for change decision support tool for healthcare organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Timmings, Caitlyn; Khan, Sobia; Moore, Julia E; Marquez, Christine; Pyka, Kasha; Straus, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    Background To address challenges related to selecting a valid, reliable, and appropriate readiness assessment measure in practice, we developed an online decision support tool to aid frontline implementers in healthcare settings in this process. The focus of this paper is to describe a multi-step, end-user driven approach to developing this tool for use during the planning stages of implementation. Methods A multi-phase, end-user driven approach was used to develop and test the usability of a...

  1. Subtle alterations of excitatory transmission are linked to presynaptic changes in the hippocampus of PINK1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feligioni, Marco; Mango, Dalila; Piccinin, Sonia; Imbriani, Paola; Iannuzzi, Filomena; Caruso, Alessandra; De Angelis, Francesca; Blandini, Fabio; Mercuri, Nicola B; Pisani, Antonio; Nisticò, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Homozygous or heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene have been linked to early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Several neurophysiological studies have demonstrated alterations in striatal synaptic plasticity along with impaired dopamine release in PINK1-deficient mice. Using electrophysiological methods, here we show that PINK1 loss of function causes a progressive increase of spontaneous glutamate-mediated synaptic events in the hippocampus, without influencing long-term potentiation. Moreover, fluorescence analysis reveals increased neurotrasmitter release although our biochemical results failed to detect which presynaptic proteins might be engaged. This study provides a novel role for PINK1 beyond the physiology of nigrostriatal dopaminergic circuit. Specifically, PINK1 might contribute to preserve synaptic function and glutamatergic homeostasis in the hippocampus, a brain region underlying cognition. The subtle changes in excitatory transmission here observed might be a pathogenic precursor to excitotoxic neurodegeneration and cognitive decline often observed in PD. Using electrophysiological and fluorescence techniques, we demonstrate that lack of PINK1 causes increased excitatory transmission and neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus, which might lead to the cognitive decline often observed in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26850695

  2. Changing malaria transmission and implications in China towards National Malaria Elimination Programme between 2010 and 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hai Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards the implementation of national malaria elimination programme in China since 2010, the epidemiology of malaria has changed dramatically, and the lowest malaria burden was achieved yearly. It is time to analyze the changes of malaria situation based on surveillance data from 2010 to 2012 to reconsider the strategies for malaria elimination. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Malaria epidemiological data was extracted from the provincial annual reports in China between 2010 and 2012. The trends of the general, autochthonous and imported malaria were analyzed, and epidemic areas were reclassified according to Action Plan of China Malaria Elimination (2010-2020. As a result, there reported 2743 malaria cases with a continued decline in 2012, and around 7% autochthonous malaria cases accounted. Three hundred and fifty-three individual counties from 19 provincial regions had autochthonous malaria between 2010 and 2012, and only one county was reclassified into Type I (local infections detected in 3 consecutive years and the annual incidences ≥ 1/10,000 again. However, the imported malaria cases reported of each year were widespread, and 598 counties in 29 provinces were suffered in 2012. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Malaria was reduced significantly from 2010 to 2012 in China, and malaria importation became an increasing challenge. It is necessary to adjust or update the interventions for subsequent malaria elimination planning and resource allocation.

  3. Climate Change Education in Formal Settings, K-14: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is occurring, is very likely caused by human activities, and poses significant risks for a broad range of human and natural systems. Each additional ton of greenhouse gases emitted commits us to further change and greater risks. In the judgment of the Committee on America's Climate Choices, the environmental, economic, and…

  4. Predicting Plausible Impacts of Sets of Climate and Land Use Change Scenario on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the new decade ushers in, there will be new challenges. The world’s population is increasing and the land use patterns are changing. Inevitably with these global changes, there will be various environmental consequences. For example, our water resources, both in terms of qu...

  5. A coherent set of future land use change scenarios for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Reginster, I.; Araújo, Miguel B.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a range of future, spatially explicit, land use change scenarios for the EU15, Norway and Switzerland based on an interpretation of the global storylines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that are presented in the special report on emissions scenarios (SRES......). The methodology is based on a qualitative interpretation of the SRES storylines for the European region, an estimation of the aggregate totals of land use change using various land use change models and the allocation of these aggregate quantities in space using spatially explicit rules. The spatial patterns...... are further downscaled from a resolution of 10 min to 250 m using statistical downscaling procedures. The scenarios include the major land use/land cover classes urban, cropland, grassland and forest land as well as introducing new land use classes such as bioenergy crops. The scenario changes are most...

  6. Antenatal HIV-1 RNA load and timing of mother to child transmission; a nested case-control study in a resource poor setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirenje Mike Z

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine HIV-1 RNA load during the third trimester of pregnancy and evaluate its effect on in utero and intra-partum/postpartum transmissions in a breastfeeding population. Design A nested case-control study within a PMTCT cohort of antiretroviral therapy naive pregnant women and their infants. Methods A case was a mother who transmitted HIV-1 to her infant (transmitter who was matched to one HIV-1 positive but non-transmitting mother (control. Results From a cohort of 691 pregnant women, 177 (25.6% were HIV-1 positive at enrolment and from these 29 (23% transmitted HIV-1 to their infants, 10 and 19 during in utero and intra-partum/postpartum respectively. Twenty-four mothers sero-converted after delivery and three transmitted HIV-1 to their infants. Each unit increase in log10 viral load was associated with a 178 cells/mm3 and 0.2 g/dL decrease in TLC and hemoglobin levels, p = 0.048 and 0.021 respectively, and a 29% increase in the risk of transmission, p = 0.023. Intra-partum/postpartum transmitters had significantly higher mean viral load relative to their matched controls, p = 0.034. Conclusion Antenatal serum HIV-1 RNA load, TLC and hemoglobin levels were significantly associated with vertical transmission but this association was independent of transmission time. This finding supports the rationale for preventive strategies designed to reduce vertical transmission by lowering maternal viral load.

  7. An Example of How to Supplement Goal Setting to Promote Behavior Change for Families Using Motivational Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxten, Michelle; Flattum, Colleen; Fulkerson, Jayne

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the components and use of motivational interviewing (MI) within a behavior change intervention to promote healthful eating and family meals and prevent childhood obesity. The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus intervention was part of a two-arm randomized-controlled trial and included 81 families (children 8-12 years old and their parents) in the intervention condition. The intervention included 10 monthly, 2-hour group sessions and 5 bimonthly motivational/goal-setting phone calls. Data were collected for intervention families only at each of the goal-setting calls and a behavior change assessment was administered at the 10th/final group session. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the MI call data and behavior assessment. Overall group attendance was high (68% attending ≥7 sessions). Motivational/goal-setting phone calls were well accepted by parents, with an 87% average completion rate. More than 85% of the time, families reported meeting their chosen goal between calls. Families completing the behavioral assessment reported the most change in having family meals more often and improving home food healthfulness. Researchers should use a combination of delivery methods using MI when implementing behavior change programs for families to promote goal setting and healthful eating within pediatric obesity interventions. PMID:26940585

  8. Adaptation to Climate Change: How we are set to cope with the impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Huq, Saleemul

    2007-06-15

    Climate change is now very much with us, and for the poorest of the poor the implications are particularly daunting. These often remote or marginalised communities are so burdened they will struggle to meet the coming challenges. Adaptation – learning to cope with rising temperature and other effects of climate change – is a difficult but essential task for these vulnerable millions. This briefing paper defines climate change adaptation and shows why it matters, who needs to adapt most, and what shape adaptation must take across a range of scales and sectors.

  9. Co-registration and bias corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantifying glacier thickness change

    OpenAIRE

    Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2011-01-01

    There are an increasing number of digital elevation models (DEMs) available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes difficult and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: (i) remove DEM shifts, (ii) check for elev...

  10. Setting the Agenda : The Scope to Act on Climate Change Interests for Chinese NGOs

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese state and society are frequently engaged in an area of mutual concern: the increasing threat of climate change. The state is approaching this concern by directing China’s development towards a low-carbon economy, where the aim is to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions without limiting economic growth. Societal actors such as social organisations started emerging in China in the 1980s and are to a further extent than before interacting politically with state matters, climate change...

  11. UV Laser Induced Transmission Change of Pure and Doped Silica Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Junlin; DENG Tao; LUO Jie; BAN Qingrong

    2008-01-01

    Pure and F,GeO2-doped silica glass cut from fiber preforms prepared by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition(PCVD) were investigated by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy.The ultraviolet absorption characteristics of these glasses were also studied after UV laser irradiation and heating treatment.It was found that absorption band near 240 nm assigned to GODC was found both in GeO2-doped and F-GeO2 co-doped silica glass,but absorption intensity of the latter was lower than that of the former.It's because F can react with GODC and GeE' simultaneously and reduce their concentration.After irradiation,UV absorption change of F-GeO2 co-doped silica glass was weaker than that of GeO2-doped silica glass,it thus can be concluded that introduction of F could depress the UV absorption of GeO2-doped silica core effectively.

  12. Climaite - a three factor climate change ecosystem manipulation study: set up and approaches for data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Mikkelsen, Teis; Beier, Claus; Schmidt, Inger Kappel;

    In a new Danish climate change related field scale experiment, CLIMAITE, we are investigating the impacts of individual and multiple simultaneous global changes on ecosystem processes and functioning in a Danish semi natural grassland vegetation dominated by Deschampsia flexuosa and Calluna...... vulgaris. The Climaite experiment involves three global change factors: elevated CO2 (510 ppm), elevated temperature (+ 1-2 C) and altered precipitation (1-1.5 months extended drought in May-July) all compared to ambient conditions in a complete factorial design. The experiment includes six replicates......, the physiological status of plants, soil water chemistry and emission of green house gasses. The CO2 is enhanced all year around during daylight hours in 6 plots by the use of a FACE system (F. Miglietta design). Temperature elevation is achieved by night time warming where IR reflective curtains automatically...

  13. Computer Anxiety and Performance: An Application of a Change Model in a Pedagogical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mayur S.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the adverse effects of computer anxiety on student performance and reports an application of a change management process to a class on computers in business that attempted to reduce computer anxiety and improve learning and performance through a pedagogical intervention. Considers implications of results that showed lower anxiety but not…

  14. Structural Change in Advanced Nations : A New Set of Stylised Facts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgenson, D.W.; Timmer, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    We provide new evidence on patterns of structural change in advanced economies, reconsidering the stylised facts put forward by Kaldor (1967), Kuznets (1971) and Maddison (1980). Since 1980 the services sector has overwhelmingly predominated in the economic activity of the European Union, Japan and

  15. Structural Change in Advanced Nations : A New Set of Stylised Facts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgenson, Dale W.; Timmer, Marcel P.

    2011-01-01

    We provide new evidence on patterns of structural change in advanced economies, reconsidering the stylised facts put forward by Kaldor (1963), Kuznets (1971), and Maddison (1980). Since 1980, the services sector has overwhelmingly predominated in the economic activity of the European Union, Japan, a

  16. Task-specific effects of tDCS-induced cortical excitability changes on cognitive and motor sequence set shifting performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Leite

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS on two set shifting tasks. Set shifting ability is defined as the capacity to switch between mental sets or actions and requires the activation of a distributed neural network. Thirty healthy subjects (fifteen per site received anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or the primary motor cortex (M1. We measured set shifting in both cognitive and motor tasks. The results show that both anodal and cathodal single session tDCS can modulate cognitive and motor tasks. However, an interaction was found between task and type of stimulation as anodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 was found to increase performance in the cognitive task, while cathodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 had the opposite effect on the motor task. Additionally, tDCS effects seem to be most evident on the speed of changing sets, rather than on reducing the number of errors or increasing the efficacy of irrelevant set filtering.

  17. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  18. Simulated Benefits of Green Infrastructure for Urban Stormwater Management under Climate Change in Different Hydroclimatic and Archetypal Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. E.; Butcher, J.; Sarkar, S.; Clark, C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change could significantly alter the occurrence and management of urban stormwater runoff quantity and quality. Responding to this challenge requires an improved understanding of potential changes together with the effectiveness of management responses for reducing impacts under range of potential future climatic conditions. Traditional gray stormwater infrastructure generally uses single-purpose, hard structures including detention basins and storm sewers to dispose of rainwater. Green infrastructure (GI) uses vegetation and soil to manage rainwater where it falls. GI has been gaining in popularity, and has been shown to provide a number of benefits for adapting to climate change including effects on stormwater quantity, quality and carbon and nutrient biogeochemical cycling. Uncertainty remains, however, due to limited understanding of GI performance in different hydroclimatic and urban settings, and in response to changes in climate. In this study we use simulation modeling to assess the impacts of climate change on both gray (wet ponds) and green infrastructure practices (green roofs, swales, bioretention) in different hydroclimatic and urban settings. Simulations were conducted using RHESSYs, a mechanistic, hydrologic and biogeochemical model, for 36 characteristic urban "archetypes" (AUSs) representing different development patterns and GI practices found in typical U.S. cities. Climate change scenarios are based on dynamically and temporally downscaled, mid-21st century climate model output from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Results suggest altered mass and energy inputs will cause changes in performance of these practices for water quantity, water quality, and carbon sequestration that vary across the country. Infrastructure design should take these potential changes into consideration.

  19. A Set-Up of 7 Laser Triangulation Sensors and a Draw-Wire Sensor for Measuring Relative Displacement of a Piston Rod Mechanical Lead-Through Transmission in an Offshore Wave Energy Converter on the Ocean Floor

    OpenAIRE

    E. Strömstedt; Svensson, O.; Leijon, M

    2012-01-01

    A concept for offshore wave energy conversion is being developed at the Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion at Uppsala University in Sweden. The wave energy converter (WEC) in focus contains a piston rod mechanical lead-through transmission for transmitting the absorbed mechanical wave energy through the generator capsule wall while preventing seawater from entering the capsule. A set-up of 7 laser triangulation sensors has been installed inside the WEC to measure relative...

  20. Predictors of Staff Turnover and Turnover Intentions within Addiction Treatment Settings: Change Over Time Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Bryan R.; Hunter, Brooke D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which changes over time in clinicians’ responses to measures of work attitude (eg, job satisfaction) and psychological climate (eg, supervisor support) could predict actual turnover and turnover intentions above and beyond absolute levels of these respective measures. Longitudinal data for this study were collected from a sample of clinicians (N = 96) being trained to implement an evidence-based treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. Supporting fin...

  1. Developing a mental health care plan in a low resource setting: the theory of change approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Hailemariam, M; Fekadu, A.; Selamu, M; Alem, A.; Medhin, G; Giorgis, TW; DeSilva, M.; Breuer, E

    2015-01-01

    Background Scaling up mental healthcare through integration into primary care remains the main strategy to address the extensive unmet mental health need in low-income countries. For integrated care to achieve its goal, a clear understanding of the organisational processes that can promote and hinder the integration and delivery of mental health care is essential. Theory of Change (ToC), a method employed in the planning, implementation and evaluation of complex community initiatives, is an i...

  2. Electrocardiographic Changes in Certain Cardiovascular Physiological and Pathological Settings. Impact on Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Simov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Review on electrocardiographic changes provoked by aging, diagnostic tests, cardiac surgery, hemodialysis, diabetes, etc., is the objective of the current material. Several electrocardiographic (ECG parameters that are well known risk markers of arrhythmias, incidental heart failure and sudden cardiac death (SCD are discussed: QRS amplitude, QRS morphology, QRS duration, QRS alternans, T-wave amplitude, T-wave morphology, T-wave alternans, negative T-waves, 3D-spatial angle between maximal QRS and T vectors of the vectorcardiographic loops, ST-segment elevation, QT-interval dispersion, and heart rate. All reviewed parameters are compared with the results on the ECG-alterations, induced by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery. Two parameters showed an improvement in the patients' condition: QRS-T angle and cardiac autonomic innervation while two others (T-wave alternans and heart rate indicated deterioration. We tend to assume that the deterioration in this early post-operative period is an effect of the post-surgery trauma. We speculate that this effect will fade away in a period of a month and more after surgery, and we intend to conduct such a research in the future. The analysis of ECG's changes will help to better assess the impact of the CABG surgery.

  3. Prostate cancer diagnosis in a resource-poor setting: the changing role of digital rectal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muhammed

    2011-07-01

    We undertook this study in order to determine the current role of digital rectal examination (DRE) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in a resource-poor setting. The diagnosis of prostate cancer has been revolutionized by the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for biopsy guidance and more efficient biopsy equipment, but they are not readily available in most developing countries. This is a prospective study of 131 patients with suspected prostate cancer based on clinical presentation, DRE and elevated PSA. The presence or absence of cancer was confirmed by biopsy and histologic examination. Patients with screen- or incidentally-detected prostate cancer were excluded. The most common symptom was the development of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). All patients had abnormal DRE and indurated prostate was the most frequent finding (50%). The mean PSA was 33.9 ng/mL: of the 131 patients, 80 (61.1%) had a malignant histology following biopsy, 47 (35.9%) were benign and four (3.0%) were prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). The low specificity of DRE in the diagnosis of prostate cancer requires that it should be combined with other diagnostic modalities such as PSA and TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. Thus government and health-care providers in resource-poor countries must strive to make these facilities available in order to improve prostate cancer diagnosis.

  4. NASA's Global Change Master Directory: Discover and Access Earth Science Data Sets, Related Data Services, and Climate Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Alicia; Olsen, Lola; Ritz, Scott; Morahan, Michael; Cepero, Laurel; Stevens, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory provides the scientific community with the ability to discover, access, and use Earth science data, data-related services, and climate diagnostics worldwide. The GCMD offers descriptions of Earth science data sets using the Directory Interchange Format (DIF) metadata standard; Earth science related data services are described using the Service Entry Resource Format (SERF); and climate visualizations are described using the Climate Diagnostic (CD) standard. The DIF, SERF and CD standards each capture data attributes used to determine whether a data set, service, or climate visualization is relevant to a user's needs. Metadata fields include: title, summary, science keywords, service keywords, data center, data set citation, personnel, instrument, platform, quality, related URL, temporal and spatial coverage, data resolution and distribution information. In addition, nine valuable sets of controlled vocabularies have been developed to assist users in normalizing the search for data descriptions. An update to the GCMD's search functionality is planned to further capitalize on the controlled vocabularies during database queries. By implementing a dynamic keyword "tree", users will have the ability to search for data sets by combining keywords in new ways. This will allow users to conduct more relevant and efficient database searches to support the free exchange and re-use of Earth science data. http://gcmd.nasa.gov/

  5. Methamphetamine, morphine, and their combination: acute changes in striatal dopaminergic transmission evaluated by microdialysis in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Frederico C; Lourenço, Elita; Milhazes, Nuno; Morgadinho, Teresa; Ribeiro, Carlos F; Ali, Syed F; Macedo, Tice R

    2006-08-01

    The co-administration of methamphetamine (METH) and MOR (MOR)-like compounds is becoming increasingly popular among drug abusers. Recently, it was demonstrated that rats would self-inject METH-heroin combination and that this combination produced a greater rewarding effect than the identical doses of METH alone and it was further suggested that enhanced reward might underlie the popularity of this combination. However, there is null information on the effects of the MOR-METH combination on striatal dopaminergic transmission. In the present article, in vivo brain microdialysis was used to examine the effects of two METH doses (1 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.; [METH1: hyperlocomotion-inducing] and [METH5: stereotypy-inducing], respectively) and MOR (10 mg/kg, i.p. [MOR10]) either alone or in combination on dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) release in caudate putamen (CPu) in freely moving rats. METH1 evoked a transient threefold increase in DA overflow in only one-third of dosed rats. On the contrary, METH5 elicited a 11-fold increase in the extracellular DA levels 30 min after dosing and stayed significantly (P < 0.05) above control levels up to 1.5 h. On the other hand, MOR10 did not significantly change DA extracellular levels. MOR10-METH1 combination prolonged DA outflow for 1 h in all rats dosed without changing peak effect compared to METH1. On the other hand, MOR10-METH5 combination did not change the peak effect nor the DA outflow profile compared to METH5 alone. Consistently, there is a concentration-dependent decrease in DOPAC efflux evoked by METH: METH1 evoked a smaller decrease in DOPAC outflow showing a tendency for returning to basal values whereas METH5 kept DOPAC extracellular levels reduced throughout the experiment. Again, MOR10 did not significantly change DOPAC extracellular levels. MOR delayed the onset without changing METH effect on the DOPAC output. These findings provide suggestive evidence that MOR potentiated the increase in

  6. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Jackie; Speybroeck, Nico; Sochanta, Tho;

    2012-01-01

    In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess...

  7. Reliability and sensitivity to change of the OMERACT rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score in a multireader, longitudinal setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavardsholm, ea; Østergaard, Mikkel; Kvan, NP;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra- and interreader reliability and the sensitivity to change of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (RAMRIS) system on digital images of the wrist joints of patients with early or...... established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Ten sets of baseline and 1-year followup MR images of the wrists of patients with progressive changes on conventional hand radiographs were scored independently by 4 readers on 2 consecutive days, preceded by reader training and calibration. The MR images were...... acquired and scored according to the recommendations from the OMERACT MRI group. The intra- and interreader agreement (evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs]) and the sensitivity to change (evaluated by the smallest detectable difference [SDD]) were determined for scores of synovitis...

  8. Scale up use of family planning services to prevent maternal transmission of HIV among discordant couples: a cross-sectional study within a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuete M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Martin Kuete,1,2 HongFang Yuan,1 Aude Laure Tchoua Kemayou,2 Emmanuel Ancel Songo,2 Fan Yang,1 XiuLan Ma,1 ChengLiang Xiong,1 HuiPing Zhang1 1Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Center, Family Planning and Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 2Main Maternity of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yaounde Central Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Yaounde, Cameroon Background: Integration of family planning services (FPS into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. Methods: We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon. First, structured questionnaires related to family planning use, PMTCT services use, and infection risk of the sexual partner were administered to the first trimester pregnant women who were HIV infected and living with uninfected partners. Second, 2 weeks before the delivery date, the women were interviewed according to the prior counseling interventions received, in order to assess their behavior on FPS, antiretroviral therapy (ART use, delivery option, and infant nourishment to be adopted. P-values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant in the statistical analyses. Results: Of 94 HIV-infected women, 69% were stable couples. Only 13% of women had attended FPS before conception. Although the vast majority were knowledgeable about modern and traditional contraception methods, only 19% had experienced effective contraceptive methods. However, 66% preferred condom use, 45% having three children still expressed a desire to conceive, while 44% reported

  9. Modeling approaches to detect land-use changes: Urbanization analyzed on a set of 43 US catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Bahar; Oudin, Ludovic; Furusho-Percot, Carina; Ribstein, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Paired catchment approach probably provides the most robust method to detect the effects of land-use change on catchments' flow characteristics. This approach is limited by the availability of two neighbor catchments with and without land-use change under similar climate conditions. This paper uses a hydrological model to detect the hydrological change caused by urbanization. This study describes (1) use a statistical method to evaluate change detection relative to variation of land use change, (2) simulation of non-urban condition for the urban catchment with an alternative approach, to this aim stream flow series of urban catchments have been reconstructed from the period that urbanization had not taken place yet, and (3) the model validation with observed data. This paper intends to compare the flow changes detected by two different approaches: a regional statistical approach (the paired-catchment approach) and a conceptual modeling approach (the residual approach) on the particular case of urbanized catchments. To investigate the sensitivity of the results to the settings of both approaches, the comparison is made on a relatively large number of 43 catchments located in the United States, with relatively large gradients in terms of geomorphology and hydroclimatic characteristics. Results show that the two approaches are generally in relative good agreement in terms of detection and quantification of changes for the three flow characteristics analyzed (mean annual flow, high and low flow characteristics). Besides, it is found that the impact of urbanization on the catchment's hydrologic response is difficult to generalize: the proportion of nonsignificant trends, significantly increasing decreasing trends are on the same order of magnitude, even if an increase in urban areas generally has a greater impact on mean flows and high flows than on low flows.

  10. What's in an elevation difference? Accuracy and corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantification of glacier changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nuth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing number of DEMs available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes impossible and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: remove DEM shifts, check for elevation-dependent biases, and check for higher-order, sensor-specific biases. An analytic, simple and robust method to co-register elevation data is presented in regions where stable terrain is either plentiful (case study New Zealand or limited (case study Svalbard. The method is exemplified using the three global elevation data sets available, SRTM, ICESat and the ASTER GDEM, and with automatically generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5-HRS. After three-dimensional co-registration, significant biases related to elevation were found in some of the stereoscopic DEMs. Biases related to the satellite acquisition geometry (along/cross track were detected at two frequencies in the automatically generated ASTER DEMs. The higher frequency bias seems to be related to satellite emph{jitter}, most effective in the back-looking pass of the satellite. The origins of the more significant lower frequency bias is uncertain. ICESat-derived elevations are found to be the most consistent globally available elevation data set available so far. Before performing regional-scale glacier elevation change studies or mosaicking DEMs from multiple individual tiles (e.g. ASTER GDEM, we recommend to co-register all elevation data to ICESat as a global vertical reference system. The proposed methodological framework is exemplified for elevation changes on the Fox, Franz Joseph, Tasman and Murchison glaciers of New Zealand and the glaciers of central Spitsbergen, Svalbard.

  11. What's in an elevation difference? Accuracy and corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantification of glacier changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2010-10-01

    There is an increasing number of DEMs available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes impossible and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: remove DEM shifts, check for elevation-dependent biases, and check for higher-order, sensor-specific biases. An analytic, simple and robust method to co-register elevation data is presented in regions where stable terrain is either plentiful (case study New Zealand) or limited (case study Svalbard). The method is exemplified using the three global elevation data sets available, SRTM, ICESat and the ASTER GDEM, and with automatically generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5-HRS. After three-dimensional co-registration, significant biases related to elevation were found in some of the stereoscopic DEMs. Biases related to the satellite acquisition geometry (along/cross track) were detected at two frequencies in the automatically generated ASTER DEMs. The higher frequency bias seems to be related to satellite emph{jitter}, most effective in the back-looking pass of the satellite. The origins of the more significant lower frequency bias is uncertain. ICESat-derived elevations are found to be the most consistent globally available elevation data set available so far. Before performing regional-scale glacier elevation change studies or mosaicking DEMs from multiple individual tiles (e.g. ASTER GDEM), we recommend to co-register all elevation data to ICESat as a global vertical reference system. The proposed methodological framework is exemplified for elevation changes on the Fox, Franz Joseph, Tasman and Murchison glaciers of New Zealand and the glaciers of central Spitsbergen, Svalbard.

  12. Scale up use of family planning services to prevent maternal transmission of HIV among discordant couples: a cross-sectional study within a resource-limited setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Martin; Yuan, HongFang; Tchoua Kemayou, Aude Laure; Songo, Emmanuel Ancel; Yang, Fan; Ma, XiuLan; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Background Integration of family planning services (FPS) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. Methods We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon. First, structured questionnaires related to family planning use, PMTCT services use, and infection risk of the sexual partner were administered to the first trimester pregnant women who were HIV infected and living with uninfected partners. Second, 2 weeks before the delivery date, the women were interviewed according to the prior counseling interventions received, in order to assess their behavior on FPS, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, delivery option, and infant nourishment to be adopted. P-values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant in the statistical analyses. Results Of 94 HIV-infected women, 69% were stable couples. Only 13% of women had attended FPS before conception. Although the vast majority were knowledgeable about modern and traditional contraception methods, only 19% had experienced effective contraceptive methods. However, 66% preferred condom use, 45% having three children still expressed a desire to conceive, while 44% reported abortions, 65% had tried to avoid the current pregnancy, and 12% of women were ART naïve. Several predictors such as education, abortion rate, unplanned pregnancies, and partners’ decision were associated with the nonuse of effective contraceptive methods. Moreover, barriers including sex inequity, lack of partner support, ART shortages, and lack of HIV viral load monitoring were prevalent among the participants (P=0.001). However FPS use, ART compliance, and safe options to PMTCT

  13. Echographic and kinetic changes in the shoulder joint after manual wheelchair propulsion under two different workload settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Solís-Mozos, Marta; Crespo-Ruiz, Beatriz; Del-Ama Eng, Antonio J; Pérez-Rizo, Enrique; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Jiménez-Díaz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a high prevalence of shoulder pain due to the use of the upper extremity for independent mobility, transfers, and other activities of daily living. Indeed, shoulder pain dramatically affects quality of life of these individuals. There is limited evidence obtained through radiographic techniques of a relationship between the forces acting on the shoulder during different propulsion conditions and shoulder pathologies. Today, ultrasound is widely accepted as a precise tool in diagnosis, displaying particularly effectiveness in screening the shoulder rotator cuff. Thus, we set out to perform an ultrasound-based study of the acute changes to the shoulder soft tissues after propelling a manual wheelchair in two workload settings. Shoulder joint kinetics was recorded from 14 manual wheelchair users with SCI while they performed high- and low-intensity wheelchair propulsion tests (constant and incremental). Shoulder joint forces and moments were obtained from inverse dynamic methods, and ultrasound screening of the shoulder was performed before and immediately after the test. Kinetic changes were more relevant after the most intensive task, showing the significance of high-intensity activity, yet no differences were found in ultrasound-related parameters before and after each propulsion task. It therefore appears that further studies will be needed to collect clinical data and correlate data regarding shoulder pain with both ultrasound images and data from shoulder kinetics. PMID:25566539

  14. ECHOGRAPHIC AND KINETIC CHANGES IN THE SHOULDER JOINT AFTER MANUAL WHEELCHAIR PROPULSION UNDER TWO DIFFERENT WORKLOAD SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel eGil-Agudo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractManual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury have a high prevalence of shoulder pain, due to the use of the upper extremity for independent mobility, transfers and other activities of daily living. Indeed, shoulder pain dramatically affects quality of life of these individuals. There is limited evidence obtained through radiographic techniques of a relationship between the forces acting on the shoulder during different propulsion conditions and shoulder pathologies. Today, ultrasound is widely accepted as a precise tool in diagnosis, displaying particularly effectiveness in screening the shoulder rotator cuff. Thus, we set out to perform an ultrasound-based study of the acute changes to the shoulder soft tissues after propelling a manual wheelchair in two workload settings. Shoulder joint kinetics was recorded from 14 manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury while they performed high and low intensity wheelchair propulsion tests (constant and incremental. Shoulder joint forces and moments were obtained from inverse dynamic methods, and ultrasound screening of the shoulder was performed before and immediately after the test. Kinetic changes were more relevant after the most intensive task, showing the significance of high intensity activity, yet no differences were found in ultrasound-related parameters before and after each propulsion task. It therefore appears that further studies will be needed to collect clinical data and correlate data regarding shoulder pain with both ultrasound images and data from shoulder kinetics.

  15. Barriers to access prevention of mother-to-child transmission for HIV positive women in a well-resourced setting in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Pamela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to Vietnamese policy, HIV-infected women should have access at least to HIV testing and Nevirapine prophylaxis, or where available, to adequate counselling, HIV infection staging, ARV prophylaxis, and infant formula. Many studies in high HIV prevalence settings have reported low coverage of PMTCT services, but there have been few reports from low HIV prevalence settings, such as Asian countries. We investigated the access of HIV-infected pregnant women to PMTCT services in the well-resourced setting of the capital city, Hanoi. Methods Fifty-two HIV positive women enrolled in a self-help group in Hanoi were consulted, through in-depth interviews and bi-weekly meetings, about their experiences in accessing PMTCT services. Results Only 44% and 20% of the women had received minimal and comprehensive PMTCT services, respectively. Nine women did not receive any services. Twenty-two women received no counselling. The women reported being limited by lack of knowledge and information due to poor counselling, gaps in PMTCT services, and fear of stigma and discrimination. HIV testing was done too late for optimal interventions and poor quality of care by health staff was frequently mentioned. Conclusion In a setting where PMTCT is available, HIV-infected women and children did not receive adequate care because of barriers to accessing those services. The results suggest key improvements would be improving quality of counselling and making PMTCT guidelines available to health services. Women should receive early HIV testing with adequate counselling, safe care and prophylaxis in a positive atmosphere towards HIV-infected women.

  16. Clinical Variation of Plasmodium falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 Genotypes in Young Children Living in a Seasonally High Malaria Transmission Setting in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulama, Issiaka; Sermé, Samuel S; Bougouma, Edith C; Diarra, Amidou; Tiono, Alfred B; Ouedraogo, Alphonse; Konate, Amadou T; Nebie, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B

    2015-01-01

    The association between P. falciparum eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 polymorphism in the pathogenicity of malaria disease was investigated. We therefore compared the prevalence of different alleles between symptomatic and asymptomatic malarial children under five years of age living in Burkina Faso. Blood filter papers were collected during the 2008 malaria transmission season from 228 symptomatic and 199 asymptomatic children under five years of age. All patients were living in the rural area of Saponé at about 50 km from Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. P. falciparum parasite DNA was extracted using QIAGEN kits and the alleles diversity was assessed by a nested PCR. PCR products were then digested by restriction enzymes based on already described polymorphic regions of the eba-175, ama-1, and msp-3 genes. The individual alleles eba-175_FCR3 and msp-3_K1 frequencies were statistically higher (p 0.05). The comparative analysis of P. falciparum genotypes indicated that the polymorphism in eba-175 and msp-3 genotypes varied between asymptomatic and symptomatic clinical groups and may contribute to the pathogenesis of malaria. PMID:26634149

  17. The cost of changing physical activity behaviour: evidence from a "physical activity pathway" in the primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull Fiona C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Physical Activity Care Pathway' (a Pilot for the 'Let's Get Moving' policy is a systematic approach to integrating physical activity promotion into the primary care setting. It combines several methods reported to support behavioural change, including brief interventions, motivational interviewing, goal setting, providing written resources, and follow-up support. This paper compares costs falling on the UK National Health Service (NHS of implementing the care pathway using two different recruitment strategies and provides initial insights into the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Methods A combination of a time driven variant of activity based costing, audit data through EMIS and a survey of practice managers provided patient-level cost data for 411 screened individuals. Self reported physical activity data of 70 people completing the care pathway at three month was compared with baseline using a regression based 'difference in differences' approach. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in combination with hypothesis testing were used to judge how robust findings are to key assumptions and to assess the uncertainty around estimates of the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Results It cost £53 (SD 7.8 per patient completing the PACP in opportunistic centres and £191 (SD 39 at disease register sites. The completer rate was higher in disease register centres (27.3% vs. 16.2% and the difference in differences in time spent on physical activity was 81.32 (SE 17.16 minutes/week in patients completing the PACP; so that the incremental cost of converting one sedentary adult to an 'active state' of 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week amounts to £ 886.50 in disease register practices, compared to opportunistic screening. Conclusions Disease register screening is more costly than opportunistic patient recruitment. However, additional costs come with a higher

  18. Age-targeted HIV treatment and primary prevention as a ‘ring fence’ to efficiently interrupt the age patterns of transmission in generalized epidemic settings in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershteyn, Anna; Klein, Daniel J.; Eckhoff, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Generalized HIV epidemics propagate to future generations according to the age patterns of transmission. We hypothesized that future generations could be protected from infection using age-targeted prevention, analogous to the ring-fencing strategies used to control the spread of smallpox. Methods We modeled age-targeted or cohort-targeted outreach with HIV treatment and/or prevention using EMOD-HIV v0·8, an individual-based network model of HIV transmission in South Africa. Results Targeting ages 20 to 30 with intensified outreach, linkage, and eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) averted 45% as many infections as universal outreach for approximately one-fifth the cost beyond existing HIV services. Though cost-effective, targeting failed to eliminate all infections to those under 20 due to vertical and inter-generational transmission. Cost-effectiveness of optimal prevention strategies included US$6238 per infection averted targeting ages 10–30, US$5031 targeting 20–30, US$4279 targeting 22–27, and US$3967 targeting 25–27, compared to US$10 812 for full-population test-and-treat. Minimizing burden (disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) rather than infections resulted in older target age ranges because older adults were more likely to receive a direct health benefit from treatment. Conclusions Age-targeted treatment for HIV prevention is unlikely to eliminate HIV epidemics, but is an efficient strategy for reducing new infections in generalized epidemics settings. PMID:27008897

  19. Impact of anthropogenic and natural environmental changes on Echinococcus transmission in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echinococcus transmission is known to be affected by various environmental factors, which may be modified by human influence or natural events including global warming. Considerable population growth in the last fifty years in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR, the People’s Republic of China (PRC, has led to dramatic increases in deforestation and modified agricultural practices. In turn, this has resulted in many changes in the habitats for the definitive and intermediate hosts of both Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which have increased the risks for transmission of both parasites, affecting echinococcosis prevalence and human disease. Ecological environmental changes due to anthropogenic activities and natural events drive Echinococcus transmission and NHAR provides a notable example illustrating how human activity can impact on a parasitic infection of major public health significance. It is very important to continually monitor these environmental (including climatic factors that drive the distribution of Echinococcus spp. and their impact on transmission to humans because such information is necessary to formulate reliable future public health policy for echinococcosis control programs and to prevent disease spread.

  20. Preventing transmission of infectious agents in the pediatric in-patients hematology–oncology setting: what is the role for non-pharmacological prophylaxis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Caselli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite a continuous will to protect the immune compromised host from infections, evidence based indications for intervention by non-pharmacological toools are still lacking in oncology. Nevertheless, guidelines on standard precaution and trasmission base precaution are available. They may be important in order to reduce the risk of trasmission of infection in selected healthcare settings, such as the pediatric hematology-oncology wards. . AIEOP Centers agree that for children treated with chemotherapy both of these approaches should be implemented and vigorously enforced, while additional policies, including strict environmental isolation should be restricetd to patients with selected clinical conditions or complications.

  1. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  2. Setting objectives for community and systems change: an application of concept mapping for planning a statewide health improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochim, William M K; Milstein, Bobby; Wood, Betty J; Jackson, Susan; Pressler, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    The Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) used concept mapping techniques to engage local stakeholders and national subject area experts in defining the community and system factors that affect individuals' behaviors related to tobacco, nutrition, and physical activity. Over eight working days, project participants brainstormed 496 statements (edited to a final set of 90), which were then sorted and rated for their importance and feasibility. A sequence of multivariate statistical analyses, including multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis, generated maps and figures that were then interpreted by project stakeholders. The results were immediately incorporated into an official plan, approved by the governor and state legislature, recommending how Hawaii's tobacco settlement resources could be used to create sustainable changes in population health. The results also provide empirical support for the premise that both community and systems factors ought to be considered when planning comprehensive health improvement initiatives. PMID:14965431

  3. Combination therapy using intratumoral bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and vincristine in dogs with transmissible venereal tumours : therapeutic efficacy and histological changes : article

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mukaratirwa; S. Chitanga; T. Chimatira; C. Makuleke; S.T. Sayi; E. Bhebhe

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic efficacy and histological changes after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), vincristine and BCG/vincristine combination therapy of canine transmissible venereal tumours (CTVT) were studied. Twenty dogs with naturally occurring CTVT in the progression stage were divided into 4 groups and treated with intratumoral BCG, vincristine, BCG/vincristine combination therapy or intratumoral buffered saline (control group). Tumour sizes were determined weekly and tumour response to therapy was a...

  4. Studies on Clinical Aspects, Pathological Changes, Immunohistochemistry, 14-3-3 protein, PrP Gene, and Animal Transmission of Creutzldt-Jakob Disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Shilie; Zhao Jiexu; Jiang Xinmei; Song Xiaonan; Wang Weimin; Fan Yengyeng; Tao Yuiqin; Chen Xiuyun

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinical manifestations, pathological changes, expression of PrP gene, 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and experimental animal transmission of Creuizfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in China. Methods Clinical aspects of 24 patients with CJD which was confirmed neuropathological were evaluated. Brain sections of 10 cases of them were given immunostaining with antiserum to a synthetic polypeptide of prioni protein (PrP). PrP gene was analyzed in 10 cases, and 14-3-3 protein in CSF was detected in 5 cases. Experimental mouse transmission was carried out using brain suspension from 7 patients with CJD. Results 1) Nineteen cases with sporadic CJD, 3 cases with iatrogenic CJD, 1 case with inherited CJD and 1 case with coexistence of Alzheimer disease(AD) and CJD were found. 2) The percentage of acute and subacute onset was high up to 96%. The illness duration was shorter in a subacute onset and the brain atrophy was not obvious.3) The synaptic type of PrP deposition was shown in paraffin sections in all -cases by immunostaining.4) 14-3-3 protein was detected in 5 eases in cerebrospinal fluid with CJD 5) Spongiform degeneration and PrP deposition could be shown in the brain sections of experimental mouse transmission. Conclusion There are special characteristics in clinical aspects of CJD in China. The detection of 14-3-3 protein can provide objective evidence for early diagnosis of CJD in order to prevent its transmission

  5. No effect of insecticide treated curtain deployment on aedes infestation in a cluster randomized trial in a setting of low dengue transmission in Guantanamo, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Toledo

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Insecticide Treated Curtain (ITC deployment for reducing dengue vector infestation levels in the Cuban context with intensive routine control activities. A cluster randomized controlled trial took place in Guantanamo city, east Cuba. Twelve neighborhoods (about 500 households each were selected among the ones with the highest Aedes infestation levels in the previous two years, and were randomly allocated to the intervention and control arms. Long lasting ITC (PermaNet were distributed in the intervention clusters in March 2009. Routine control activities were continued in the whole study area. In both study arms, we monitored monthly pre- and post-intervention House Index (HI, number of houses with at least 1 container with Aedes immature stages/100 houses inspected, during 12 and 18 months respectively. We evaluated the effect of ITC deployment on HI by fitting a generalized linear regression model with a negative binomial link function to these data.At distribution, the ITC coverage (% of households using ≥1 ITC reached 98.4%, with a median of 3 ITC distributed/household. After 18 months, the coverage remained 97.4%. The local Aedes species was susceptible to deltamethrin (mosquito mortality rate of 99.7% and the residual deltamethrin activity in the ITC was within acceptable levels (mosquito mortality rate of 73.1% after one year of curtain use. Over the 18 month observation period after ITC distribution, the adjusted HI rate ratio, intervention versus control clusters, was 1.15 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.34. The annualized cost per household of ITC implementation was 3.8 USD, against 16.8 USD for all routine ACP activities.Deployment of ITC in a setting with already intensive routine Aedes control actions does not lead to reductions in Aedes infestation levels.

  6. Foraging choices of vampire bats in diverse landscapes: potential implications for land use change and disease transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Streicker, Daniel G.; Jacob E. Allgeier

    2016-01-01

    In Latin America, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is the primary reservoir of rabies, a zoonotic virus that kills thousands of livestock annually and causes sporadic and lethal human rabies outbreaks. The proliferation of livestock provides an abundant food resource for this obligate blood-feeding species that could alter its foraging behaviour and rabies transmission, but poor understanding of the dietary plasticity of vampire bats limits understanding of how livestock influences ra...

  7. The monetary transmission mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Peter N. Ireland

    2005-01-01

    The monetary transmission mechanism describes how policy-induced changes in the nominal money stock or the short-term nominal interest rate impact on real variables such as aggregate output and employment. Specific channels of monetary transmission operate through the effects that monetary policy has on interest rates, exchange rates, equity and real estate prices, bank lending, and firm balance sheets. Recent research on the transmission mechanism seeks to understand how these channels work ...

  8. Effects of a healthy food supply intervention in a military setting: positive changes in cereal, fat and sugar containing foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham Clarissa ML

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, all men are liable to military service and a clear majority completes service. The increasing prevalence of obesity also among soldiers concerns conscripts’ food choices. Conscripts are served nutritionally planned regular main meals but individual choices take place in free-time eating. This study assesses the effects in conscripts’ eating habits in an intervention targeting the supply of healthy foods available in the military setting. Methods Participants were 604 18-21-year old male conscripts of whom 242 belonged to Control Group and 362 to Intervention Group. Participants of Control Group were historical controls performing military service one year before Intervention Group. The intervention targeted selection, placement, and attractiveness of healthy foods in garrison refectories and soldier’s home cafeterias, the two main food providers in the military. Dietary intake data was collected by self-administered questionnaire at three time points: before/beginning of military service (T0, 8 weeks (T1 and 6 months (T2 of military service. Outcome measures were food consumption frequencies and four dietary indexes (Cereal Index, Fruit and Vegetable Index, Fat Index and Sugar Index developed to characterize the diet. Changes between study groups in outcome variables and in time were analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Results Significant (p  Conclusions In the military setting, healthier food choices can be promoted by intervening on the main food environments by improving the supply of healthy foods. However, impacting on conscripts’ individual selection as fruit and vegetable consumption is more challenging.

  9. Baseline survey of pregnant women 's knowledge of treat-ment to prevent mother-to-child human immuno-deficien-cy virus transmission in a resource limited setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Onwere; Obioha Okoro; Bright Chigbu; Chuks Kamanu; Christian Aluka; Paul Feyi-Wa-boso

    2008-01-01

    Despite continuing advances in scientific knowledge about treatments to prevent mother-to-child (MTCT)of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV),there is a paucity of data on pregnant women's knowledge of treat-ments to prevent MTCT of HIV in Aba,South Eastern Nigeria.We investigated pregnant women's knowledge of the availability of treatments to prevent MTCT of HIV in the low resourced setting of Aba town in South Eastern Nigeria.A descriptive study involving 100 consecutive and consenting patients at the antenatal clinic of Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH),Aba,South Eastern Nigeria over the period 1st November, 2007 to 30th November,2007.Using a structured questionnaire,the respondents'sociodemographic data were obtained as well as their knowledge of the availability of treatments to prevent mother to child HIV transmission in pregnant women and self-reported data on their having ever tested for HIV.Knowledge regarding availability of treatment to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV was good as 95% of the respondents were aware that such treatment was available.Knowledge that treatment is available to help someone infected by HIV to live longer was also good as 96% of the respondents were aware of the availability of such treatment.Seventy one percent of the respondents had ever tested for HIV.The levels of knowledge regarding the availability of treatment to prevent mother to child HIV transmission and to help someone infected with HIV are good.Thus, utilization of anti-retroviral prophylaxis amongst HIV infected pregnant women in this community would be ex-pected to be high if the drugs were available.This will reduce the impact of HIV,especially in children.

  10. Application of Ecosystem Models to Assess Environmental Drivers of Mosquito Abundance and Virus Transmission Risk and Associated Public Health Implications of Climate and Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F.; Barker, C.; Park, B.; Reisen, W.; Michaelis, A.; Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Milesi, C.; Hiatt, S.; Nemani, R.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a modeling framework that integrates satellite observations, meteorological observations, and ancillary data to support monitoring and modeling of ecosystem and land surface conditions in near real-time. TOPS provides spatially continuous gridded estimates of a suite of measurements describing environmental conditions, and these data products are currently being applied to support the development of new models capable of forecasting estimated mosquito abundance and transmission risk for mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile virus. We present results from the modeling analyses, describe their incorporation into the California Vectorborne Disease Surveillance System, and describe possible implications of projected climate and land use change for patterns in mosquito abundance and transmission risk for West Nile virus in California.

  11. Goal setting and lifestyle changes in a nurse-led counselling programme for leg ulcer patients: an explorative analysis of nursing records.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glind, I.M. van de; Heinen, M.M.; Evers, A.W.; Achterberg, T. van

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe goals set in individual nurse-led lifestyle counselling sessions in leg ulcer patients, and to explore patient and goal characteristics in relation to health behaviour change. BACKGROUND: Goal setting is increasingly used in nurse-led counselling programmes, but the

  12. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  13. Taphonomy of deciduous leaves and changes in the d13C signal after deposition in fresh water settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Simon; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Nebelsick, James; Grein, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Carbon isotopic signals from fossil plant material are an important source of information for palaeoecology and palaeoclimatology. Usually, the 13C isotope is depleted in plant material, compared to the atmospheric 13C content, because 13C is discriminated against 12C during the process of photosynthesis. The degree of 13C discrimination depends on the photosynthetic pathway (C3, C4 and CAM) and is substantially affected by environmental factors (for example, water stress). Various plant material components, however, differ also with respect to their 13C content. It is generally assumed that the d13C signal found in fossil plants reflects that of the living plant to a sufficient degree. Obtaining information on possible alterations during the taphonomic process is, however, desirable. In this study, changes in d13C of deciduous leaves are monitored, from the living leaf still attached to the tree to leaves deposited in fresh water setting for one or more years, thus focusing on early stages of taphonomy. The considered taxa are species from Quercus (oak) and Fagus (beech). Deposited leaves from three fresh water environments in Southwestern Germany were studied: active stream in a forest, still water pond in a forest, and a waterlogged moor environment. Additionally to the isotope measurements, the degree of leaf tissue degradation and colonization with degrading organisms were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  14. Resistance to changing practice from pro re nata prescriptions to patient group directions in acute mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, O; Baker, J A

    2013-09-01

    Poor practice associated with pro re nata (PRN) prescriptions in mental health is known to be common and can increase the risk of serious and potentially fatal side effects. A contributing factor to poor practice is the lack of a clear chain of accountability between the decision to prescribe and administer PRN prescriptions. To address this problem, a patient group direction (PGD) for acute behavioural disturbance (lorazepam 0.5-2 mg) and staff training materials were developed. The intention was to replace PRN prescriptions with the PGD in two mental health trusts. One of the potential benefits of this would be the removal of the contribution of PRN to high and combined dose antipsychotic prescriptions. This proposal, however, was met with significant resistance in both trusts and did not replace PRN as a result. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted with 16 RMNs working in the two trusts, to explore the reasons why the PGD was met with resistance. Senior nurses perceived resistance to be associated with anxieties over increased responsibility for decision making. Junior nurses reported concerns regarding the medicalization of the nursing role, the paperwork associated with the PGD and the training approach used. Future efforts to implement PGDs in mental health settings must carefully consider the methods for engaging effectively with participating organizations, in terms of managing change and completing the necessary groundwork for successful implementation. PMID:22957970

  15. Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Changes Observed in Diabetes Prevention Programs in US Settings: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Mudaliar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP study showed that weight loss in high-risk adults lowered diabetes incidence and cardiovascular disease risk. No prior analyses have aggregated weight and cardiometabolic risk factor changes observed in studies implementing DPP interventions in nonresearch settings in the United States.In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we pooled data from studies in the United States implementing DPP lifestyle modification programs (focused on modest [5%-7%] weight loss through ≥150 min of moderate physical activity per week and restriction of fat intake in clinical, community, and online settings. We reported aggregated pre- and post-intervention weight and cardiometabolic risk factor changes (fasting blood glucose [FBG], glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c], systolic or diastolic blood pressure [SBP/DBP], total [TC] or HDL-cholesterol. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases from January 1, 2003, to May 1, 2016. Two reviewers independently evaluated article eligibility and extracted data on study designs, populations enrolled, intervention program characteristics (duration, number of core and maintenance sessions, and outcomes. We used a random effects model to calculate summary estimates for each outcome and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI. To examine sources of heterogeneity, results were stratified according to the presence of maintenance sessions, risk level of participants (prediabetes or other, and intervention delivery personnel (lay or professional. Forty-four studies that enrolled 8,995 participants met eligibility criteria. Participants had an average age of 50.8 years and body mass index (BMI of 34.8 kg/m2, and 25.2% were male. On average, study follow-up was 9.3 mo (median 12.0 with a range of 1.5 to 36 months; programs offered a mean of 12.6 sessions, with mean participant attendance of 11.0 core sessions. Sixty percent of programs offered some form of

  16. From 2020 to 2030, from Copenhagen to Paris: a mind-set change for the European climate policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Councils of March 2007 and October 2014 have defined the major guidelines of the European climate policy for the 2010-2020 and 2020-2030 decades. These commitments have then been used as negotiation road-maps for two major conferences on climate held under the United-Nations umbrella, in Copenhagen in 2009 and in Paris in December 2015. In both cases, the aim was, and still is, to reach a global agreement to take over the Kyoto Protocol. The first one was a failure for the European diplomacy and all hopes are now placed in the second, which may well be the last chance for the international climate talks. After seven years, time frames look similar but the context is very different. Domestically, the economic crisis has constrained the investment capacity of Member States and pushed competitiveness higher in the ranks of priorities. Internationally, the centre of gravity of energy demand and greenhouse gases emissions has shifted to emerging countries, advocating for an update of the North-South paradigm which had governed the Kyoto protocol. Lastly, although there is no coordinated action against global warming at this stage, the urgent need to act receives a wider support and more and more initiatives are taken, such as the ones recently announced by China and the United-States. Because of these elements, among others, the EU cannot simply extend the approach initiated seven years ago. The European climate policy opens a new chapter and the conclusions of the European Council of October 2014 have clearly set the tone. A change of mind-set may have occurred, in the sense that the 2030 targets reaffirm Europe's commitment to the shift towards a low carbon economy, while instigating more flexibility to ensure stronger cost-effectiveness. It is a strong signal for the world but this renewed approach still needs to be consolidated, both in the way of implementing the key reforms announced and in the way of approaching the Paris conference

  17. Assessing the potential impact and uncertainty of climate, land use change and demographic trends on malaria transmission in Africa by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Caporaso, Luca; Colon-Gonzalez, Felipe

    2014-05-01

    Previous analyses of data has shown that in addition to variability and longer term trends in climate variables, both land use change (LUC) and population mobility and urbanisation trends can impact malaria transmission intensities and socio-economic burden. With the new regional VECTRI dynamical malaria model it is now possible to examine these in an integrated modelling framework. Using 5 global climate models which were bias corrected using the WATCH data for the recent ISIMIP project, the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP), population projections disaggregated from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) and Land use change from the HYDE model output used in the CMIP5 process, we construct a multi-member ensemble of malaria transmission intensity projections for 2050. The ensemble integrations indicate that climate has the leading impact on malaria changes, but that population growth and urbanisation can offset the effect of climate locally. LUC impacts can also be significant on the local scale but their assessment is highly uncertain and only indicative in this study. It is argued that the study should be repeated with a range of malaria models or VECTRI configurations in order to assess the additional uncertainty due to the malaria model assumptions.

  18. A Secondary Voltage Control Method for an AC/DC Coupled Transmission System Based on Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Fengda; Guo, Qinglai; Sun, Hongbin;

    2015-01-01

    to keep the voltage of the pilot bus tracking its set point considering the DC system’s transmission schedule change. The approach is inspired by model predictive control (MPC) to compensate for predictable voltage change affected by DC side transmission power flow and the potential capacitor switching...

  19. Game Changing Usage of High-Voltage Power Transmission Systems as Extremely Large Antennas for Space Physical and Geophysical Remote Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Geomagnetic storms drive geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in high-voltage power transmission systems worldwide. GIC distribution in the transmission system is...

  20. 基于集对分析法的输变电项目经济效益后评估%Post-evaluation of Economic Benefit of Power Transmission Project Based on Set Pair Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冰; 蒋政; 傅进; 杨毅

    2013-01-01

    This article firstly introduces set pair analysis into the post-evaluation of economic benefit of power transmission, and puts forward detailed calculated ways and steps of applying set pair analysis into post-evaluation of economic benefit for single project. Meanwhile it uses judgment matrix of hierarchy analysis to determine various index weights. Taking the construction project of a 35KV substation for example, after the post-evaluation of economic benefit the results turn out that this way can make scientific and reasonable evaluation. It enjoys the merits of brief calculation, convenient operation and high credibility.%首次把集对分析法引入到输变电项目经济效益后评价中,提出了应用集对分析法对单一项目进行经济效益后评价的具体计算方法和步骤,并利用层次分析法的判断矩阵确定各指标权重.以某35 kV变电站的建设项目为算例,进行了经济效益后评价,结果显示该方法可以做出比较科学合理的评价,计算简明,便于操作,且可信度高.

  1. Hamstring Fatigue and Muscle Activation Changes During Six Sets of Nordic Hamstring Exercise in Amateur Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul W M; Lovell, Ric; Knox, Michael F; Brennan, Scott L; Siegler, Jason C

    2015-11-01

    The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a bodyweight movement commonly prescribed to increase eccentric hamstring strength and reduce the incidence of strain injury in sport. This study examined hamstring fatigue and muscle activation responses throughout 6 sets of 5 repetitions of the NHE. Ten amateur-level soccer players performed a single session of 6 sets of 5 repetitions of NHE. Maximal eccentric and concentric torque output (in newton meters) was measured after every set. Hamstrings electromyograms (EMG) were measured during all maximal contractions and exercise repetitions. Hamstring maximal eccentric torque was reduced throughout the range of motion after only a single set of NHE between 7.9 and 17.1% (p ≤ 0.05), with further reductions in subsequent sets. Similarly, maximal concentric torque reductions between 7.8 and 17.2% were observed throughout the range of motion after 1 set of NHE (p ≤ 0.05). During the descent phase of the NHE repetitions, hamstring muscle activity progressively increased as the number of sets performed increased. These increases were observed in the first half of the range of motion. During the ascent phase, biceps femoris muscle activity but not medial hamstrings was reduced from the start of exercise during latter sets of repetitions. These data provide unique insight into the extent of fatigue induced from a bodyweight only exercise after a single set of 5 repetitions. Strength and conditioning coaches need to be aware of the speed and extent of fatigue induced from NHE, particularly in practical settings in which this exercise is now prescribed before sport-specific training sessions (i.e., the FIFA-11 before soccer training). PMID:25886019

  2. How often should a red blood cell administration set be changed while a patient is being transfused? A commentary and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blest, A; Roberts, M; Murdock, J; Watson, D; Brunskill, S

    2008-04-01

    Current recommendations vary with regard to the frequency of change of a red blood cell (RBC) administration set. A full review was undertaken to evaluate the recommendations for how often a RBC administration set should be changed while a patient is being transfused. Comprehensive searches of Medline, Embase, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, handsearching of transfusion journals, guidelines and websites and contact with administration set manufacturers identified 32 relevant papers: 11 clinical updates; 11 guidelines; 5 manufacturer data sheets; 3 standards; 1 Department of Health report and 1 expert opinion. Recommendations varied widely across papers. There was no pattern in recommendation by paper type, date or country of origin. Recommendations were based on change of RBC administration set either after a given number of hours or number of RBC units. The recommendations varied widely and ranged from 4 to 48 h and from 'every unit' to 'several units'. The most frequent recommendations were change of RBC administration set after 12 h or 4 units. Methodological quality of the included papers is poor. There is no formal evidence base on which to support current recommendations or challenge the current British Committee for Standards in Haematology guideline. Targeted research aimed at establishing an evidence base may be warranted and would need to document other variables that can impact frequency of change, including type of filter, age of blood and duration of RBC transfusion. PMID:18399846

  3. The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Desmond; Harden, Samantha M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Kaulius, Megan; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Dowd, A Justine; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from goal setting theory (Latham & Locke, 1991; Locke & Latham, 2002; Locke et al., 1981), the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity (PA) behaviour. A literature search returned 41,038 potential articles. Included studies consisted of controlled experimental trials wherein participants in the intervention conditions set PA goals and their PA behaviour was compared to participants in a control group who did not set goals. A meta-analysis was ultimately carried out across 45 articles (comprising 52 interventions, 126 effect sizes, n = 5912) that met eligibility criteria using a random-effects model. Overall, a medium, positive effect (Cohen's d(SE) = .552(.06), 95% CI = .43-.67, Z = 9.03, p goal setting interventions in relation to PA behaviour was found. Moderator analyses across 20 variables revealed several noteworthy results with regard to features of the study, sample characteristics, PA goal content, and additional goal-related behaviour change techniques. In conclusion, multi-component goal setting interventions represent an effective method of fostering PA across a diverse range of populations and settings. Implications for effective goal setting interventions are discussed.

  4. Change of teicoplanin loading dose requirement for incremental increases of systemic inflammatory response syndrome score in the setting of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takafumi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Takata, Tohru; Irie, Keiichi; Sano, Kazunori; Imakyure, Osamu; Mishima, Kenichi; Futagami, Koujiro

    2016-08-01

    Background Target trough concentrations are recommended for teicoplanin (TEIC) to minimize its adverse effects and to maximize efficacy in sepsis caused by grampositive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, optimal doses to attain proper trough values in patients with sepsis have not yet been well established for TEIC. Objective This study investigated whether the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score could predict the pharmacokinetics of TEIC in patients with sepsis. Setting This study was conducted at Fukuoka University Hospital in Japan. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients using TEIC between April 2012 and March 2015. SIRS positive was defined as infection with a SIRS score ≥2. Estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a Bayesian method. Creatinine clearance rates were estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula (eCcr). Main outcome measure Change of TEIC loading dose requirement for incremental increases of SIRS score. Results In total, 133 patients were enrolled: 50 non-SIRS patients and 83 patients with SIRS. The TEIC plasma trough concentration was significantly lower in SIRS than non-SIRS patients (15.7 ± 7.1 vs. 20.1 ± 8.6 μg/mL; P < 0.01), although there was no significant difference in the loading dose administered. Moreover, SIRS scores were increasingly predictive of eCcr and TEIC clearance in a stepwise manner. To achieve the target trough concentration (15-30 μg/mL), the optimal doses required in non-SIRS versus SIRS patients were 12-24 versus 18-30 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the first 48 h. Conclusions These findings suggest that the pharmacokinetics of TEIC are altered in SIRS patients, who required higher doses than non-SIRS patients to achieve the target trough concentration. We suggest that the SIRS score can become a new modality to determine the initial TEIC loading dose. PMID:27125378

  5. Expert voices for change: bridging the silos-towards healthy and sustainable settings for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooris, Mark

    2013-03-01

    The settings approach to health promotion, first advocated in the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, was introduced as an expression of the 'new public health', generating both acclaim and critical discourse. Reflecting an ecological model, a systems perspective and whole system thinking, the approach has been applied in a wide range of geographical and organisational contexts. This paper reports on a qualitative study undertaken through in-depth interviews with key individuals widely acknowledged to have been the architects and pilots of the settings movement. Exploring the development of the settings approach, policy and practice integration, and connectedness 'outwards', 'upwards' and 'beyond health', it concludes that the settings approach has much to offer-but will only realise its potential impact on the wellbeing of people, places and the planet if it builds bridges between silos and reconfigures itself for the globalised 21st century. PMID:23376729

  6. Knowledge Production and Transmission in a Changing Society: Challenges Facing Law Lecturers in a Distance Education Environment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Susan

    2006-01-01

    In this article I highlight the challenges facing a law lecturer in a multicultural society in transformation where the student is being prepared to serve society in different occupational fields as a professional person. I indicate that the law itself cannot effect change. For this we need properly trained lawyers. For an effective transformation…

  7. Combining process-based and correlative models improves predictions of climate change effects on Schistosoma mansoni transmission in eastern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Sofie Stensgaard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, two broad types of approach for predicting the impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases can be distinguished: i empirical-statistical (correlative approaches that use statistical models of relationships between vector and/or pathogen presence and environmental factors; and ii process-based (mechanistic approaches that seek to simulate detailed biological or epidemiological processes that explicitly describe system behavior. Both have advantages and disadvantages, but it is generally acknowledged that both approaches have value in assessing the response of species in general to climate change. Here, we combine a previously developed dynamic, agentbased model of the temperature-sensitive stages of the Schistosoma mansoni and intermediate host snail lifecycles, with a statistical model of snail habitat suitability for eastern Africa. Baseline model output compared to empirical prevalence data suggest that the combined model performs better than a temperature-driven model alone, and highlights the importance of including snail habitat suitability when modeling schistosomiasis risk. There was general agreement among models in predicting changes in risk, with 24-36% of the eastern Africa region predicted to experience an increase in risk of up-to 20% as a result of increasing temperatures over the next 50 years. Vice versa the models predicted a general decrease in risk in 30-37% of the study area. The snail habitat suitability models also suggest that anthropogenically altered habitat play a vital role for the current distribution of the intermediate snail host, and hence we stress the importance of accounting for land use changes in models of future changes in schistosomiasis risk.

  8. The Born transmission eigenvalue problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Colton, David; Rezac, Jacob D.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we study the distribution of transmission eigenvalues in the complex plane for obstacles whose contrast is small in magnitude. We use a first order approximation of the refractive index to derive and study an approximate interior transmission problem. In the case of spherically stratified media, we prove existence and discreteness of transmission eigenvalues and derive a condition under which the complex part of transmission eigenvalues cannot lie in a strip parallel to the real axis. For obstacles with general shape, we demonstrate that if transmission eigenvalues exist then they form a discrete set.

  9. Rapid-cycle brainstorming: facilitating whole-systems change in time- and scheduling-challenged health care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Zakariasen, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Kenneth Zakariasen1, Isabel Henderson21Leadership and Organizational Change Studies Initiative, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 2Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Whole-systems approaches to organizational change dominate the contemporary change literature. They focus on widespread engagement of people within organizations, individual and collective ownership of both process and results, and...

  10. Change management and partnership: achieving a solution to provide peritoneal dialysis in a long-term care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charlie; Campbell, Jill

    2009-01-01

    Health care organizations must respond quickly to today's volatile and changing environment. This article describes how St. Michael's Hospital (acute care hospital) and the Drs. Paul and John Rekai Centre (long-term care facility) collaborated to use an innovative approach to address pressures of change affecting peritoneal dialysis (PD) care delivery for the elderly. The collaborative applied Galpin's (1996) nine-stage Change Management Model to implement the organizational change. Both organizations generated a shared vision to improve timely access to nursing homes for patients requiring both placement and ongoing peritoneal dialysis. They analyzed their current status and committed resources for the collaboration. Both organizations generated general and detailed recommendations for PD care delivery processes. A pilot was implemented and refinement of the collaboration occurred prior to formal roll out. This application of a change management model to establish organizational partnership may be of interest to those seeking to establish similar collaborations.

  11. Continuously Variable Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Chain slides along two cones, in novel transmission concept. Transmission includes chain drive between two splined shafts. Chain sprockets follow surfaces of two cones. As one chain sprocket moves toward smaller diameter other chain sprocket moves toward larger diameter, thereby changing "gear" ratio. Movement initiated by tension applied to chain by planetary gear mechanism. Device positive, simple, and efficient over wide range of speed ratios.

  12. Simulation of SET Operation in Phase-Change Random Access Memories with Heater Addition and Ring-Type Contactor for Low-Power Consumption by Finite Element Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yue-Feng; SONG Zhi-Tang; LING Yun; LIU Yan; FENG Song-Lin

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established for comprehensive electrical and thermal analysis during SET operation. The SET behaviours of the heater addition structure (HS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) structure are compared with each other. There are two ways to reduce the RESET current, applying a high resistivity interfaciai layer and building a new device structure. The simulation results indicate that the variation of SET current with different power reduction ways is little. This study takes the RESET and SET operation current into consideration, showing that the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future devices with high heat efficiency and high-density, due to its high heat efficiency in RESET operation.

  13. 42 CFR 447.205 - Public notice of changes in Statewide methods and standards for setting payment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... methods and standards; (2) Give an estimate of any expected increase or decrease in annual aggregate expenditures; (3) Explain why the agency is changing its methods and standards; (4) Identify a local agency...

  14. Reliability and sensitivity to change of the OMERACT rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score in a multireader, longitudinal setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavardsholm, ea; Østergaard, Mikkel; Kvan, NP;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra- and interreader reliability and the sensitivity to change of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (RAMRIS) system on digital images of the wrist joints of patients with early...... acquired and scored according to the recommendations from the OMERACT MRI group. The intra- and interreader agreement (evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs]) and the sensitivity to change (evaluated by the smallest detectable difference [SDD]) were determined for scores of synovitis...... 0.74 for synovitis, 0.67 for erosion, and 0.95 for edema). The average-measure ICCs were > or =0.94 for all components of both the status scores and change scores. CONCLUSION: The RAMRIS showed very good intrareader reliability, good interreader reliability, and a high level of sensitivity to change...

  15. Radiation stimulated changes in the transmission of chalcogenide glasses As2S3-Ge2S3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation - optical properties of chalcogenide glass-like semiconductors systems As2S3-Ge2S3 in the field of topological 2D-3D of phase transition are investigated. It is shown, that a gamma irradiation by an absorbed doze 4.4·106 Gy results in long-wave shift of a spectral position of their edge of optical passing. The observable effect depends on a structural type of researched glasses and essentially varies near to 2D-3D of phase transition. Two making shifts of an edge of passing are detected: static, remaining a constant long time after irradiation and dynamic, gradually damping during 2-3 months. It is supposed, that the microstructural mechanism of the data changes is stipulated by processes coordination defect creation in a structural framework of samples

  16. What's in an elevation difference? Accuracy and corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantification of glacier changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing number of DEMs available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes impossible and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: remove DEM shifts, check for elevation-dependent biases, and check fo...

  17. Poster: Observing change in crowded data sets in 3D space - Visualizing gene expression in human tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Rogowski, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    We have been confronted with a real-world problem of visualizing and observing change of gene expression between different human tissues. In this paper, we are presenting a universal representation space based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as opposed to force-directed layouts encountered most often in similar problems. We are discussing the methods we devised to make observing change more convenient in a 3D virtual reality environment. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Changes in basal rates and bolus calculator settings in insulin pumps during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jonathan M; Secher, Anna L; Ringholm, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    and HbA1c were recorded. Results were compared with 96 women with type 1 diabetes on multiple daily injection therapy. RESULTS: Throughout pregnancy, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio decreased at all three main meals. The most pronounced decrease was observed at breakfast, where the carbohydrate......c levels during pregnancy, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia and pregnancy outcomes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio declined 4-fold from early to late pregnancy, whereas......OBJECTIVE: To explore insulin pump settings in a cohort of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator. METHODS: Twenty-seven women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy were included in this study. At 8, 12, 21, 27 and 33 weeks, insulin pump settings...

  19. CHANGING TRENDS OF HIV INFECTION IN PPTCT (PREVENTION OF PARENT TO CHILD TRANSMISSION GOVERNMENT GENERAL HOSPITAL, GUNTUR, ANDHRA PRADESH, SOUTH INDIA, 2002-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Rao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to know the various changing trends in the HIV infection in the antenatal women attending the PPTCT department, Government General Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, during 2002 to 2013. METHODS: This is a retrospective study done in Government General Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, during 2002 to 2013. The data was collected from the records maintained in the PPTCT department and the changing trends of HIV infection in antenatal women were studied. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of HIV infection in antenatal women decreased from 4.4% to 0.84%. Monthly average number of HIV positive deliveries in our institution varies from 150 to 250 cases. Percentage of caesarian section done was about 20% of cases. More number of cases were from urban than rural areas. Initially the cases were more in low socio-economic status. Young primigravida women around 20 years were more infected. High risk behavior of the husband was mainly responsible for the transmission of the disease. HIV infection was common in the innocent housewife. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that the HIV infection among pregnant women in our institution shows various changing trends and a decreasing incidence due to the effective implementation of the PPTCT programme under the National AIDS control programme started in the year 2002.

  20. Function and its Changes of Agenda Setting in the Network Communication%议程设置在网络传播中的功能及变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹林; 吴铮

    2015-01-01

    "议程设置功能"理论从考察大众传播在人们的环境认知过程中的作用入手,揭示了大众传媒的有力影响.然而,随着新媒体的广泛应用,网络议程设置的重要性逐渐凸显,网络传播互动性强、言论表达自由等特点都使得"议程设置"的模式发生变化.随着传受双方主动性的变迁,出现了公众自我议程设置,并对传统媒体的议程设置产生影响.%Starting from studying mass communication effects in the process of people's environment cognitive, agenda setting function theory reveals the strong influence of mass media. However, with the wide application of new media, the importance of the network agenda setting highlights gradually, the strong interactivity of network spread and freedom of expression etc characteristics make the agenda setting mode changed. With the initiative changes of the two sides of disseminators and recipients, the public self-agenda setting emerges, and has an effect on the agenda setting of traditional media.

  1. Promoting changes in diet and physical activity in breast and colorectal cancer screening settings: an unexplored opportunity for endorsing healthy behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annie S; Mackison, Dionne; Boath, Callum; Steele, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The importance of diet, physical activity, and weight management in breast and colorectal cancer prevention is widely recognized. While there may be many "teachable moments" that could be used to assess and initiate changes in these behaviors by health professionals (to complement public health campaigns), there is little evidence that lifestyle is discussed within cancer screening settings. The lack of advocacy about lifestyle in these settings may endorse poor health behaviors, in particular the absence of guidance to visibly obese patients. To fully use the teachable moment, patients need to be aware of the relationship between diet and physical activity and the risk of cancer and to be able to relate guidance to personal behaviors. Results from cardiovascular and diabetes prevention programs provide evidence about the components of effective behavior change programs which could be used in the screening setting. Findings from interventions initiated in the colorectal cancer screening setting suggest that such programs can be delivered but it is not clear how acceptable these are in routine health services. Effective interventions delivered in this setting also offer an important opportunity to contribute to the reduction of the overall burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. PMID:23324132

  2. The change in the dynamics of Costa Rica’s electoral set up: a case of dealignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando SÁNCHEZ CAMPOS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the last two general elections (1998 and 2002 in Costa Rica, suggest that the country’s electoral dynamics have exited their apparent stability and entered a process of change. The present study evaluates the main signs of this change (rising levels of absenteeism, ticket-splitting, electoral volatility, and support for third parties, and defines it as an «electoral dealignment» process. Moreover, it argues that there is evidence to conclude that electoral dealignment in Costa Rica seems to be a result of a process of «partisan dealignment».

  3. Characterizing the regional pattern and temporal change of groundwater levels by analyses of a well log data set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmuda PARVIN; Naoyuki TADAKUMA; Hisafumi ASAUE; Katsuaki KOIKE

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of the amount and quality of groundwater resources is an important issue around the world.Changes in groundwater levels need to be monitored in efforts to preserve groundwater.This study investigates suitable methods to characterize changes in the groundwater level and determine the factors involved.The area of Kumamoto,a city in central Kyushu,southwest Japan,was selected to demonstrate the usefulness of the methods because this area is one of the richest in Japan in terms of groundwater resources and takes all its water from groundwater.Data of the groundwater level recorded at 69 wells from 1979 to 2007 were used in geostatistical and correlogram analyses.First,strong correlation between the topography and groundwater level was identified.Incorporating this correlation into spatial modeling of the groundwater level,co-kriging was demonstrated to be more accurate than ordinary kriging.The co-kriging results clarified the hydraulic characteristics of the Kumamoto area; the patterns of shallow and deep groundwater levels were agreeable generally,and the general trends of their annual average levels were similar regardless of precipitation.Another important feature was that the correlograms for the precipitation amount and groundwater level had a constant shape and changed smoothly with a change in lag time regardless of the precipitation only in the area of Togawa lava.These characteristics are probably due to the connections between shallow and deep aquifers and the high permeability of Togawa lava.

  4. 2006 C. H. McCloy Research Lecture: Defining Learning as Conceptual Change in Physical Education and Physical Activity Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Catherine D.

    2007-01-01

    The author discusses a line of research examining the acquisition, organization, and use of knowledge associated with conceptual change in which she is engaged at the University of Maryland. It builds on foundational research by scholars in science, mathematics, and reading education as well as in motor learning and physical education pedagogy,…

  5. The Relationships between Leadership Practice and Teacher Motivation, Capacity, and Work Setting as Related to Change in Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Linda Marie

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated the necessity for changes in literacy assessment and instruction. Well respected authorities have agreed that direct, explicit, and systematic instruction in the five basic components of reading (i.e., phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension) is essential to ensure that all students have an…

  6. Symmetry in farm-retail price transmission: pork in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This study intends to determine the farm-retail price transmission behaviors of pork in Malaysia to serve as a good implication for pork pricing system in Malaysia. Using data from January 1997 to December 2008, both the Houck and ECM approaches were found symmetric where a change in farm price of pork was observed to have similar change in retail price of pork in Malaysia. The price setting system of pork can therefore be further described by the estimated price transmission elasticities whe...

  7. Improving hand hygiene compliance for the reduction of nosocomial infections: recommendations for behaviour change in a health care setting

    OpenAIRE

    Reason, Florence Paige

    2008-01-01

    Nosocomial infection rates are highly dependent on hand hygiene compliance within health care facilities. This paper examines the literature concerning elements of effective hand hygiene interventions and relevant behaviour change theory, in addition to current practice surrounding hand hygiene interventions in leading institutions, in order to inform and propose recommendations for the improvement and success of the University Health Network’s current hand hygiene initiative. The results of ...

  8. Nature of changes in body composition indices in students during physical training using a set of athleticism.

    OpenAIRE

    Chernozub A.A.

    2011-01-01

    During investigations it was established that there are important changes in body composition parameters university students, who in the classroom with the general physical culture introduced by the training facilities with athleticism. The level indicators of body composition and dynamics are fully dependent on the employment structure, volume and intensity of physical exertion their focus. It is established that achieving the optimal performance of body composition may occur even with minim...

  9. Transmissible amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernberg, L O; Rising, A; Johansson, J; Jaudzems, K; Westermark, P

    2016-08-01

    There are around 30 human diseases associated with protein misfolding and amyloid formation, each one caused by a certain protein or peptide. Many of these diseases are lethal and together they pose an enormous burden to society. The prion protein has attracted particular interest as being shown to be the pathogenic agent in transmissible diseases such as kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Whether similar transmission could occur also in other amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and serum amyloid A amyloidosis is a matter of intense research and debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that novel biomaterials such as artificial spider silk are potentially amyloidogenic. Here, we provide a brief introduction to amyloid, prions and other proteins involved in amyloid disease and review recent evidence for their potential transmission. We discuss the similarities and differences between amyloid and silk, as well as the potential hazards associated with protein-based biomaterials. PMID:27002185

  10. Quantifying changes in the rates of forest clearing in Indonesia from 1990 to 2005 using remotely sensed data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Matthew C; Potapov, Peter V; Pittman, Kyle [South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Stehman, Stephen V [State University of New York, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Arunarwati, Belinda [Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta 10270 (Indonesia); Stolle, Fred, E-mail: Matthew.Hansen@sdstate.ed [World Resources Institute, Washington, DC 20002 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Timely and accurate data on forest change within Indonesia is required to provide government, private and civil society interests with the information needed to improve forest management. The forest clearing rate in Indonesia is among the highest reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), behind only Brazil in terms of forest area lost. While the rate of forest loss reported by FAO was constant from 1990 through 2005 (1.87 Mha yr{sup -1}), the political, economic, social and environmental drivers of forest clearing changed at the close of the last century. We employed a consistent methodology and data source to quantify forest clearing from 1990 to 2000 and from 2000 to 2005. Results show a dramatic reduction in clearing from a 1990s average of 1.78 Mha yr{sup -1} to an average of 0.71 Mha yr{sup -1} from 2000 to 2005. However, annual forest cover loss indicator maps reveal a near-monotonic increase in clearing from a low in 2000 to a high in 2005. Results illustrate a dramatic downturn in forest clearing at the turn of the century followed by a steady resurgence thereafter to levels estimated to exceed 1 Mha yr{sup -1} by 2005. The lowlands of Sumatra and Kalimantan were the site of more than 70% of total forest clearing within Indonesia for both epochs; over 40% of the lowland forests of these island groups were cleared from 1990 to 2005. The method employed enables the derivation of internally consistent, national-scale changes in the rates of forest clearing, results that can inform carbon accounting programs such as the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD) initiative.

  11. Quantifying changes in the rates of forest clearing in Indonesia from 1990 to 2005 using remotely sensed data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew C.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Potapov, Peter V.; Arunarwati, Belinda; Stolle, Fred; Pittman, Kyle

    2009-07-01

    Timely and accurate data on forest change within Indonesia is required to provide government, private and civil society interests with the information needed to improve forest management. The forest clearing rate in Indonesia is among the highest reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), behind only Brazil in terms of forest area lost. While the rate of forest loss reported by FAO was constant from 1990 through 2005 (1.87 Mha yr-1), the political, economic, social and environmental drivers of forest clearing changed at the close of the last century. We employed a consistent methodology and data source to quantify forest clearing from 1990 to 2000 and from 2000 to 2005. Results show a dramatic reduction in clearing from a 1990s average of 1.78 Mha yr-1 to an average of 0.71 Mha yr-1 from 2000 to 2005. However, annual forest cover loss indicator maps reveal a near-monotonic increase in clearing from a low in 2000 to a high in 2005. Results illustrate a dramatic downturn in forest clearing at the turn of the century followed by a steady resurgence thereafter to levels estimated to exceed 1 Mha yr-1 by 2005. The lowlands of Sumatra and Kalimantan were the site of more than 70% of total forest clearing within Indonesia for both epochs; over 40% of the lowland forests of these island groups were cleared from 1990 to 2005. The method employed enables the derivation of internally consistent, national-scale changes in the rates of forest clearing, results that can inform carbon accounting programs such as the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD) initiative.

  12. System Re-set: High LET Radiation or Transient Musculoskeletal Disuse Cause Lasting Changes in Oxidative Defense Pathways Within Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, A.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Six months post-IR, there were no notable changes in skeletal expression of 84 principal genes in the p53 signaling pathway due to low dose IR (0.5Gy), HU, or both. In contrast, numerous genes relevant to oxidative stress were regulated by the treatments, typically in a direction indicative of increased oxidative stress and impaired defense. IR and HU independently reduced (between 0.46 to 0.88 fold) expression levels of Noxa1, Gpx3, Prdx2, Prdx3, and Zmynd17. Surprisingly, transient HU alone (sham-irradiated) decreased expression of several redox-related genes (Gpx1,Gstk1, Prdx1, Txnrd2), which were not affected significantly by IR alone. Irradiation increased (1.13 fold) expression of a gene responsible for production of superoxides by neutrophils (NCF2). Of interest, only combined treatment with HU and IR led to increased expression levels of Ercc2, (1.19 fold), a DNA excision repair enzyme. Differences in gene expression levels may reflect a change in gene expression on a per cell basis, a shift in the repertoire of specific cell types within the tissue, or both. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were elevated to comparable levels (1.6-fold) due to IR, HU or both, indicative of elevated systemic nitrosyl stress. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of changes in skeletal expression of oxidative stress-related genes six months after irradiation and/or transient unloading tended to be relatively modest (0.46-1.15 fold), whereas the p53 pathway was not affected. The finding that many different oxidative stress-related genes differed from controls at this late time point implicates a generalized impairment of oxidative defense within skeletal tissue, which coincides with both profound radiation damage to osteoprogenitors/stem cells in bone marrow and impaired remodeling of mineralized tissue.

  13. Nature of changes in body composition indices in students during physical training using a set of athleticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernozub A.A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During investigations it was established that there are important changes in body composition parameters university students, who in the classroom with the general physical culture introduced by the training facilities with athleticism. The level indicators of body composition and dynamics are fully dependent on the employment structure, volume and intensity of physical exertion their focus. It is established that achieving the optimal performance of body composition may occur even with minimal training work. Planning sessions with physical cultures s light variation of volume and intensity of stress, achieves the required level of adaptation processes.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of torsional vibration behavior of the shafting of a turbo generator set to changes of its mechanical parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Danmei; LIU Zhanhui; ZHANG Hengliang; YANG Changzhu; DONG Chuan

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at a 300 MW turbo-generator model,the sensitivity of natural torsional frequencies and modes of torsional vibration (TV) to the rotational inertia and stiffness of the turbo-generator were analyzed.Calculation results show that the variation of the rotational inertia or stiffness either of the rotor system as a whole (namely shafting) or only locally may both remarkably influence the TV characteristics of the rotor.The influence of localized variation is still notable although it is not as great as that of the rotor as a whole.The segments on the shafting,which contribute more to a certain mode of vibration,have a greater influence on the pertaining order of TV.Compared with the modal shape,a larger slope can be observed at these sections of the rotor for the particular mode.Thus,frequencies can be modulated by modifying the local construction of the rotor to make the natural TV frequency of a certain order avoid some specific value,herewith arriving at the objective of tuning.Therefore,it is very important,in the course of modeling for the purpose of studying the TV of the shafting of a turbo-set,to accurately determine the structural parameters of parts that have a relatively sensitive effect on the TV behavior.

  15. How the Second Delta Committee Set the Agenda for Climate Change Adaptation: A Dutch Case Study on Framing Strategies for Policy Change

    OpenAIRE

    Verduijn, S.H.; Meijerink, S.V.; Leroy, P.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the Second State Delta Committee, commissioned by the Dutch Secretary of Public Works and Water Management, provided suggestions on how to defend the Netherlands against the expected impacts of climate change, such as sea level rise, longer periods of drought, more intense periods of rainfall and additional land subsidence over the coming two hundred years (Veerman, 2008). In this paper we show that even though no crisis actually occurred, the Second Delta Committee succeeded in thre...

  16. Lessons learned from curriculum changes and setting curriculum objectives at the University of Pennsylvania's Earth and Environmental Science Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent restructuring of the University of Pennsylvania’s curriculum, including a revised multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major and a proposed Environmental Science major has led to several changes, including a mandatory junior research seminar. Feedback from students indicates that a more structured curriculum has helped guide them through the multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major. The addition of mandatory courses in Statistics, Geographical and Environmental Modeling, as well as Economics and Policy has ensured that students have important skills needed to succeed after graduation. We have compiled a curriculum objective matrix to clarify both the broad and focused objectives of our curriculum and how each course helps to fulfill these objectives. An important aspect of both majors is the Senior Thesis. The junior research seminar was recently revised to help students prepare for their thesis research. Topic selection, library research, data presentation, basic research methods, advisor identification, and funding options are discussed. Throughout the course, faculty from within the department lecture about their research and highlight opportunities for undergraduates. In one assignment, students are given a few types of datasets and asked to present the data and error analysis in various formats using different software (SPSS and Excel). The final paper was a research proposal outlining the student’s Senior Thesis. Based on both the university and instructor written course evaluations, students felt they benefited most from writing their senior thesis proposal; doing assignments on data analysis, library research and critical analysis; and the faculty research lectures. The lessons learned in restructuring this flexible major and providing a research seminar in the junior year may benefit other departments considering such changes.

  17. Moving into protected areas? Setting conservation priorities for Romanian reptiles and amphibians at risk from climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Viorel D; Rozylowicz, Laurenţiu; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Niculae, Iulian Mihăiţă; Cucu, Adina Livia

    2013-01-01

    Rapid climate change represents one of the top threats to biodiversity, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Range shifts are a key response, but in many cases are incompatible with the current extent of protected areas. In this study we used ensemble species distribution models to identify range changes for 21 reptile and 16 amphibian species in Romania for the 2020s and 2050s time horizons under three emission scenarios (A1B = integrated world, rapid economic growth, A2A = divided world, rapid economic growth [realistic scenario], B2A = regional development, environmentally-friendly scenario) and no- and limited-dispersal assumptions. We then used irreplaceability analysis to test the efficacy of the Natura 2000 network to meet conservation targets. Under all scenarios and time horizons, 90% of the species suffered range contractions (greatest loses under scenarios B2A for 2020s, and A1B for 2050s), and four reptile species expanded their ranges. Two reptile and two amphibian species are predicted to completely lose climate space by 2050s. Currently, 35 species do not meet conservation targets (>40% representation in protected areas), but the target is predicted to be met for 4 - 14 species under future climate conditions, with higher representation under the limited-dispersal scenario. The Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions have the highest irreplaceability value, and act as climate refugia for many reptiles and amphibians. The Natura 2000 network performs better for achieving herpetofauna conservation goals in the future, owing to the interaction between drastic range contractions, and range shifts towards existing protected areas. Thus, conservation actions for herpetofauna in Romania need to focus on: (1) building institutional capacity of protected areas in the Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions, and (2) facilitating natural range shifts by improving the conservation status of herpetofauna outside protected areas

  18. Moving into protected areas? Setting conservation priorities for Romanian reptiles and amphibians at risk from climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel D Popescu

    Full Text Available Rapid climate change represents one of the top threats to biodiversity, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Range shifts are a key response, but in many cases are incompatible with the current extent of protected areas. In this study we used ensemble species distribution models to identify range changes for 21 reptile and 16 amphibian species in Romania for the 2020s and 2050s time horizons under three emission scenarios (A1B = integrated world, rapid economic growth, A2A = divided world, rapid economic growth [realistic scenario], B2A = regional development, environmentally-friendly scenario and no- and limited-dispersal assumptions. We then used irreplaceability analysis to test the efficacy of the Natura 2000 network to meet conservation targets. Under all scenarios and time horizons, 90% of the species suffered range contractions (greatest loses under scenarios B2A for 2020s, and A1B for 2050s, and four reptile species expanded their ranges. Two reptile and two amphibian species are predicted to completely lose climate space by 2050s. Currently, 35 species do not meet conservation targets (>40% representation in protected areas, but the target is predicted to be met for 4 - 14 species under future climate conditions, with higher representation under the limited-dispersal scenario. The Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions have the highest irreplaceability value, and act as climate refugia for many reptiles and amphibians. The Natura 2000 network performs better for achieving herpetofauna conservation goals in the future, owing to the interaction between drastic range contractions, and range shifts towards existing protected areas. Thus, conservation actions for herpetofauna in Romania need to focus on: (1 building institutional capacity of protected areas in the Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions, and (2 facilitating natural range shifts by improving the conservation status of herpetofauna outside

  19. How do modes of public engagement impact the development of robust data sets for climate change research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, T. M.; Rosemartin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Engaging non-scientists in data collection through formally organized programs, referred to as Public Participation in Scientific Research (PPSR), has proven to be a successful solution for providing data that are critical to natural resource management and to improving scientific understanding. The data sets that these programs yield often represent scales far beyond what science or management budgets could allow. The long-term success of such programs hinges on their abilities to maintain participants in generating high-quality, reliable data. We propose that participants' retention rates, activity level, and data quality may be related to the level of support and contact they receive from program staff or representatives. The USA National Phenology Network's national-scale plant and animal phenology observation program, Nature's Notebook, has been active since 2009. This program engages thousands of citizen scientists in tracking plant and animal life cycle activity over the course of the year. The program is designed such that all information participants need to register, learn the observation protocols and necessary details to participate, and submit observations is available online. Participants may contact USA-NPN staff for assistance as needed; otherwise, the primary form of contact that these participants receive is email newsletters including updates, data summaries, news tidbits, and relevant articles from USA-NPN staff. In an alternative model of participation, many established groups and organizations, including Master Gardener chapters, nature centers, arboreta, National Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges, have chosen to engage groups of individuals locally in tracking phenology using Nature's Notebook. Though these participants receive the same support and communications from USA-NPN staff, what sets these groups apart from individuals participating in Nature's Notebook independently is the additional face-to-face contact, interaction, and support

  20. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  1. Building a statistical emulator for prediction of crop yield response to climate change: a global gridded panel data set approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malcolm; De Cian, Enrica; Wing, Ian Sue

    2015-04-01

    There is widespread concern that trends and variability in weather induced by climate change will detrimentally affect global agricultural productivity and food supplies. Reliable quantification of the risks of negative impacts at regional and global scales is a critical research need, which has so far been met by forcing state-of-the-art global gridded crop models with outputs of global climate model (GCM) simulations in exercises such as the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP)-Fastrack. Notwithstanding such progress, it remains challenging to use these simulation-based projections to assess agricultural risk because their gridded fields of crop yields are fundamentally denominated as discrete combinations of warming scenarios, GCMs and crop models, and not as model-specific or model-averaged yield response functions of meteorological shifts, which may have their own independent probability of occurrence. By contrast, the empirical climate economics literature has adeptly represented agricultural responses to meteorological variables as reduced-form statistical response surfaces which identify the crop productivity impacts of additional exposure to different intervals of temperature and precipitation [cf Schlenker and Roberts, 2009]. This raises several important questions: (1) what do the equivalent reduced-form statistical response surfaces look like for crop model outputs, (2) do they exhibit systematic variation over space (e.g., crop suitability zones) or across crop models with different characteristics, (3) how do they compare to estimates based on historical observations, and (4) what are the implications for the characterization of climate risks? We address these questions by estimating statistical yield response functions for four major crops (maize, rice, wheat and soybeans) over the historical period (1971-2004) as well as future climate change scenarios (2005-2099) using ISIMIP-Fastrack data for five GCMs and seven crop models

  2. Novel infinitely Variable Transmission allowing efficient transmission ratio variations at rest

    OpenAIRE

    Everarts, Christophe; Dehez, Bruno; Ronsse, Renaud; Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT) and Infinitely Variable Transmissions (IVT) can considerably improve the locomotion efficiency in legged robot. A CVT is a transmission whose ratio can be continuously varied and an IVT is a transmission whose ratio can be continuously varied from positive to negative values. However, efficient use of such transmissions in walking applications requires changing the transmission ratio at a minimal energy cost, even at rest, i...

  3. The ultrastructural changes in the liver cells induced by high doses of Benzodiazepine Tranquilizing drugs: An experimental transmission electron microscopic study on male guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzodiazepines are tranquilizing psychotropic drugs. Unfortunately, despite their therapeutic benefits, they are illegally consumed in high doses by some addicts to reach a sedative, exhilarative and euphoria state similar to that produced by narcotic substances. The present study, using transmission electron microscope on male guinea pigs, aims to investigate the potential ultrastructural changes in the liver cells induced by the high doses of Benzodiazepines. Animals in three treated groups administrated a daily combined dose consisted of (10mg Alprazolam with 10mg Diazepam/day/animal) for three different treatment periods: 7, 15, and 25 days. The ultrastructural examination of the hepatocytes of the animals treated for 15 days showed limited changes in the form of marginal heterochromatine accompanied with marginal nucleoli enlargement. On the other hand, severe ultrastructural damages are observed in the animals treated for 25 days, which appeared in the following various patterns: fatty degeneration of the hepatocytes as indicated by the accumulation of large number of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, marked nuclear atrophy in some necrotic hepatocytes, massive nuclear degeneration in other hepatocytes, mitochondrial damages in the form of cristea destruction accompanied with abnormal oval shape, massive lysis of the cytoplasmic organelles with severe plasma membrane rupture. In conclusion, the observed ultrastructural damages in the present study may refer to the potential hepatotoxic effects of the high dose of Benzodiazepins. It is recommended that much more official restrictions should be applied on the pharmacies sector to prevent any illegal selling of these drugs in order to prevent abusers from obtaining them, as unfortunately in some developing countries the illegal selling of these drugs is known to occur due to the absence of official control. (author)

  4. Evolution and change of He bubbles in He-containing Ti films upon thermal treatment studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Guangai [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230029 (China); Wu, Erdong, E-mail: ewu@imr.ac.cn [National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Huang, Chaoqiang [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230029 (China); Cheng, Chun [National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yan, Guanyun [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wang, Xiaolin [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230029 (China); Liu, Shi [National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Tian, Qiang; Chen, Bo [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wu, Zhonghua [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Yi; Wang, Jie [Institute of Shanghai Apply Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-05-02

    Evolution and change of He bubbles in magnetron sputtering prepared He-containing Ti films under thermal treatment are studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction. Incorporation of He introduces a large number of He-vacancy clusters and some voids in the films, and significantly increases SAXS intensity and causes anisotropic scattering. The change of He induced defects during annealing is affected by thermal diffusion and migration of trapped He to the surface and between interfaces of He induced defects within the films. Annealing at 200 and 400 °C reduces intensity and anisotropy of SAXS, in accord with observed shrinking and disappearance of the voids. The simultaneous growth of non-uniformly distributed He bubbles to the sizes of 1–2 nm and a population level of 10{sup 5}/μm{sup 3} are detected in the temperature range. The changes are explained by migration and coalescence mechanisms, which requires low apparent activation energy. Inconsistence between TEM and SAXS observations is noted and attributed to thinning induced internal stress relaxation of TEM specimen. Remarkable enlargement of He bubbles, associated with increased SAXS intensity and fractal dimension, is observed after 600 °C annealing, indicating involvement of Ostwald Ripening (OR) mechanism. The OR process dominates at 800 °C, where the high temperature provides activation energy for accelerated He dissociation from small bubbles into larger ones, and generating textured microstructure and agglomerated bubble clusters. The inhomogeneous bubble size distribution observed at this temperature covers a broad range of about 10–50 nm and possessing a population density level of 10{sup 3}/μm{sup 3}. - Highlights: • Change of He bubbles in thermally treated Ti–He films is studied by SAXS and TEM. • SAXS reveals size distribution and fractional population of He bubbles in films. • He-vacancy clusters in Ti–He film

  5. Identifying Malaria Transmission Foci for Elimination Using Human Mobility Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W; DeLeenheer, Patrick; Tatem, Andrew J; Alegana, Victor A; Caughlin, T Trevor; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Lourenço, Christopher; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Smith, David L

    2016-04-01

    Humans move frequently and tend to carry parasites among areas with endemic malaria and into areas where local transmission is unsustainable. Human-mediated parasite mobility can thus sustain parasite populations in areas where they would otherwise be absent. Data describing human mobility and malaria epidemiology can help classify landscapes into parasite demographic sources and sinks, ecological concepts that have parallels in malaria control discussions of transmission foci. By linking transmission to parasite flow, it is possible to stratify landscapes for malaria control and elimination, as sources are disproportionately important to the regional persistence of malaria parasites. Here, we identify putative malaria sources and sinks for pre-elimination Namibia using malaria parasite rate (PR) maps and call data records from mobile phones, using a steady-state analysis of a malaria transmission model to infer where infections most likely occurred. We also examined how the landscape of transmission and burden changed from the pre-elimination setting by comparing the location and extent of predicted pre-elimination transmission foci with modeled incidence for 2009. This comparison suggests that while transmission was spatially focal pre-elimination, the spatial distribution of cases changed as burden declined. The changing spatial distribution of burden could be due to importation, with cases focused around importation hotspots, or due to heterogeneous application of elimination effort. While this framework is an important step towards understanding progressive changes in malaria distribution and the role of subnational transmission dynamics in a policy-relevant way, future work should account for international parasite movement, utilize real time surveillance data, and relax the steady state assumption required by the presented model. PMID:27043913

  6. Transmission positron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyama, Masao [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan)]. E-mail: doyama@ntu.ac.jp; Kogure, Yoshiaki [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Inoue, Miyoshi [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Kurihara, Toshikazu [Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator, Research Organization (KEK), Ohno 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yoshiie, Toshimasa [Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University, Noda, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0451 (Japan); Oshima, Ryuichiro [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Matsuya, Miyuki [Electron Optics Laboratory (JEOL) Ltd., Musashino 3-1-2, Akishima 196-0021 (Japan)

    2006-02-28

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons.

  7. Derivatives Effect on Monetary Policy Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Coenraad Vrolijk

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the monetary policy transmission mechanism in the presence of derivatives markets. The effect of adding derivatives markets is analyzed independently for each of the main channels of monetary policy transmission: interest rates, credit, and exchange rates. Theoretically, derivatives trading speeds up transmission to financial asset prices, but changes in the transmission to the real economy are ambiguous. Using the structural vector autoregression methodology, a...

  8. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanstad, Alan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Will demand resources such as energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and distributed generation (DG) have an impact on electricity transmission requirements? Five drivers for transmission expansion are discussed: interconnection, reliability, economics, replacement, and policy. With that background, we review the results of a set of transmission studies that were conducted between 2010 and 2013 by electricity regulators, industry representatives, and other stakeholders in the three physical interconnections within the United States. These broad-based studies were funded by the US Department of Energy and included scenarios of reduced load growth due to EE, DR, and DG. While the studies were independent and used different modeling tools and interconnect-specific assumptions, all provided valuable results and insights. However, some caveats exist. Demand resources were evaluated in conjunction with other factors, and limitations on transmission additions between scenarios made understanding the role of demand resources difficult. One study, the western study, included analyses over both 10- and 20-year planning horizons; the 10-year analysis did not show near-term reductions in transmission, but the 20-year indicated fewer transmission additions, yielding a 36percent capital cost reduction. In the eastern study the reductions in demand largely led to reductions in local generation capacity and an increased opportunity for low-cost and renewable generation to export to other regions. The Texas study evaluated generation changes due to demand, and is in the process of examining demand resource impacts on transmission.

  9. Transcending Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Trittin, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication...... in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores the implications of switching from an instrumental...... to a constitutive notion of communication. Findings – The study brings forth four main findings: from the CCO view, organizations are constituted by several, partly dissonant, and potentially contradictory communicative practices. From that viewpoint, the potential impact of CSR communication becomes a matter...

  10. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.

  11. Deformation mechanism study of a hot rolled Zr-2.5Nb alloy by transmission electron microscopy. II. In situ transmission electron microscopy study of deformation mechanism change of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy upon heavy ion irradiation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Fei; Daymond, Mark R.; Yao, Zhongwen; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2015-03-14

    The effect of heavy-ion irradiation on deformation mechanisms of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy was investigated by using the in situ transmission electron microscopy deformation technique. The gliding behavior of prismatic < a > dislocations has been dynamically observed before and after irradiation at room temperature and 300 degrees C. Irradiation induced loops were shown to strongly pin the gliding dislocations. Unpinning occurred while loops were incorporated into or eliminated by < a > dislocations. In the irradiated sample, loop depleted areas with a boundary parallel to the basal plane trace were found by post-mortem observation after room temperature deformation, supporting the possibility of basal channel formation in bulk neutron irradiated samples. Strong activity of pyramidal slip was also observed at both temperatures, which might be another important mechanism to induce plastic instability in irradiated zirconium alloys. Finally, {01 (1) over bar1}< 0 (1) over bar 12 > twinning was identified in the irradiated sample deformed at 300 degrees C.

  12. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz C. de S. Dias; Oswaldo Marçal Jr.; GLASSER Carmem M.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the prog...

  13. Hematological changes in women and infants exposed to an AZT-containing regimen for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Ziske

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tanzanian guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (PMTCT recommend an antiretroviral combination regimen involving zidovudine (AZT during pregnancy, single-dosed nevirapine at labor onset, AZT plus Lamivudine (3TC during delivery, and AZT/3TC for 1-4 weeks postpartum. As drug toxicities are a relevant concern, we assessed hematological alterations in AZT-exposed women and their infants. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cohort of HIV-positive women, either with AZT intake (n = 82, group 1 or without AZT intake (n = 62, group 2 for PMTCT during pregnancy, was established at Kyela District Hospital, Tanzania. The cohort also included the infants of group 1 with an in-utero AZT exposure ≥4 weeks, receiving AZT for 1 week postpartum (n = 41, and infants of group 2 without in-utero AZT exposure, receiving a prolonged 4-week AZT tail (n = 58. Complete blood counts were evaluated during pregnancy, birth, weeks 4-6 and 12. RESULTS: For women of group 1 with antenatal AZT intake, we found a statistically significant decrease in hemoglobin level, red blood cells, white blood cells, granulocytes, as well as an increase in red cell distribution width and platelet count. At delivery, the median red blood cell count was significantly lower and the median platelet count was significantly higher in women of group 1 compared to group 2. At birth, infants from group 1 showed a lower median hemoglobin level and granulocyte count and a higher frequency of anemia and granulocytopenia. At 4-6 weeks postpartum, the mean neutrophil granulocyte count was significantly lower and neutropenia was significantly more frequent in infants of group 2. CONCLUSIONS: AZT exposure during pregnancy as well as after birth resulted in significant hematological alterations for women and their newborns, although these changes were mostly mild and transient in nature. Research involving larger cohorts is needed to further analyze the impact

  14. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Mugyenyi, Godfrey Rwambuka; Obua, Celestino; Atuhumuza, Elly Bronney; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Tornes, Yarine Fajardo; Agaba, Amon Ganaafa; Siedner, Mark Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL) versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH. Methods Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241). Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%. Results A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6%) developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0%) had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85%) in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL. Conclusion WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell

  15. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cathyln Atukunda

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241. Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6% developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0% had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85% in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

  16. Two Techniques for Estimating Deglacial Mean-Ocean δ13 C Change from the Same Set of 493 Benthic δ13C Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. D.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Gebbie, G.

    2013-12-01

    The crux of carbon redistribution over the deglaciation centers on the ocean, where the isotopic signature of terrestrial carbon (δ13C terrestrial carbon = -25‰) is observed as a 0.3-0.7‰ shift in benthic foraminiferal δ13C. Deglacial mean-ocean δ13C estimates vary due to different subsets of benthic δ13C data and different methods of weighting the mean δ13C by volume. Here, we present a detailed 1-to-1 comparison of two methods of calculating mean δ13C change and uncertainty estimates using the same set of 493 benthic Cibicidoides spp. δ13C measurements for the LGM and Late Holocene. The first method divides the ocean into 8 regions, and uses simple line fits to describe the distribution of δ13C data for each timeslice over 0.5-5 km depth. With these line fits, we estimate the δ13C value at 100-meter intervals and weight those estimates by the regional volume at each depth slice. The mean-ocean δ13C is the sum of these volume-weighted regional δ13C estimates and the uncertainty of these mean-ocean δ13C estimates is computed using Monte Carlo simulations. The whole-ocean δ13C change is estimated using extrapolated surface- and deep-ocean δ13C estimates, and an assumed δ13C value for the Southern Ocean. This method yields an estimated LGM-to-Holocene change of 0.38×0.07‰ for 0.5-5km and 0.35×0.16‰ for the whole ocean (Peterson et al., 2013, submitted to Paleoceanography). The second method reconstructs glacial and modern δ13C by combining the same data compilation as above with a steady-state ocean circulation model (Gebbie, 2013, submitted to Paleoceanography). The result is a tracer distribution on a 4-by-4 degree horizontal resolution grid with 23 vertical levels, and an estimate of the distribution's uncertainty that accounts for the distinct modern and glacial water-mass geometries. From both methods, we compare the regional δ13C estimates (0.5-5 km), surface δ13C estimates (0-0.5 km), deep δ13C estimates (>5 km), Southern Ocean

  17. Mode of delivery in HIV-infected pregnant women and prevention of mother-to-child transmission: changing practices in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Boer, K; England, K;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine temporal and geographical patterns of mode of delivery in the European Collaborative Study (ECS), identify factors associated with elective caesarean section (CS) delivery in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and explore associations between ...... mode of delivery and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT)....

  18. Tree sets

    OpenAIRE

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    We study an abstract notion of tree structure which generalizes tree-decompositions of graphs and matroids. Unlike tree-decompositions, which are too closely linked to graph-theoretical trees, these `tree sets' can provide a suitable formalization of tree structure also for infinite graphs, matroids, or set partitions, as well as for other discrete structures, such as order trees. In this first of two papers we introduce tree sets, establish their relation to graph and order trees, and show h...

  19. Quantum Contact Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔迪

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:Quantum transmission is based on quantum entanglement, which is a kind of the phenomenon of quantum mechanics. Quantum object refers to two or more between the localized, the classic strong correlation. When two object quantum entanglement in the quantum state is not independent, but related, and the correlation distance, a pair of electronic of entanglement state, no matter how far apart, they spin direction will remain an up and a down. If one of the electronic spin direction is changed, another of the electron spin direction wil follow to change immediately.

  20. High intensity interval training in a real world setting: a randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lunt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. METHODS: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg, before and after the 12 week interventions. RESULTS: On ITT (intention to treat analyses, baseline (N = 49 and exit (N = 39 [Formula: see text]O2 was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, -0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and -1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03. The actual (observed, rather than prescribed time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001. On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a

  1. Deformation mechanism study of a hot rolled Zr-2.5Nb alloy by transmission electron microscopy. II. In situ transmission electron microscopy study of deformation mechanism change of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy upon heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Fei; Daymond, Mark R., E-mail: mark.daymond@queensu.ca; Yao, Zhongwen [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kirk, Marquis A. [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    The effect of heavy-ion irradiation on deformation mechanisms of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy was investigated by using the in situ transmission electron microscopy deformation technique. The gliding behavior of prismatic 〈a〉 dislocations has been dynamically observed before and after irradiation at room temperature and 300 °C. Irradiation induced loops were shown to strongly pin the gliding dislocations. Unpinning occurred while loops were incorporated into or eliminated by 〈a〉 dislocations. In the irradiated sample, loop depleted areas with a boundary parallel to the basal plane trace were found by post-mortem observation after room temperature deformation, supporting the possibility of basal channel formation in bulk neutron irradiated samples. Strong activity of pyramidal slip was also observed at both temperatures, which might be another important mechanism to induce plastic instability in irradiated zirconium alloys. Finally, (011{sup ¯}1)〈01{sup ¯}12〉 twinning was identified in the irradiated sample deformed at 300 °C.

  2. Long-term change and stability in the California Current System: lessons from CalCOFI and other long-term data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebstock, Ginger A.

    2003-08-01

    The California Current System (CCS) is a highly variable system, both spatially and temporally, that is strongly affected by low-frequency climatic fluctuations. This paper reviews evidence for long-term (decadal-scale) change in the physics and biology of the CCS over the last 50-100 years, as well as evidence for stability in planktonic community structure and long-term persistence of populations. Increases in water temperature, thermocline depth and stratification in the CCS have been accompanied by changes in populations of kelp, diatoms, foraminifera, radiolarians, intertidal invertebrates, zooplankton, fish and seabirds. However, there is also evidence for stability in assemblages of larval fish, calanoid copepods and radiolarians. Statistical averaging (the portfolio effect) may explain some aspects of stability in assemblages. Advection of planktonic populations may account for rapid recovery of biomass and dominance structure following perturbations such as strong El Niño events. Planktonic populations in the CCS may be adapted to large-scale biotic and abiotic variability, through a combination of advection of populations and life history traits. Several lessons may be learned from the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations and other long-term data sets: (1) long time series are needed to understand the dynamics of the ecosystem; (2) life histories are important determinants of species responses to environmental forcing, even in the plankton; and (3) the CCS is simultaneously variable and stable, and these properties are not necessarily in conflict.

  3. Accounting-related transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various initiatives have been undertaken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deregulate wholesale electric energy markets. These initiatives have focused on restructuring the transmission systems in the US and recently have culminated in a proposal requiring formation of and participation in regional transmission organizations. The overall form of regulation selected to determine rates for transmission entities as well as underlying regulatory decisions reached on key issues will have profound implications for transmission entities. For example, traditional cost-based regulation would require one set of accounting and reporting rules, while incentive-based regulation may not be subject to those same rules. An overview of some of the major accounting and financial reporting issues that will need to be considered is presented

  4. Study on connectivity of water-conducting features from the spatial changes of transmissivity based on the hydraulic packer testing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transformation of transmissivity from derivative of pressure transient data obtained from hydraulic packer testing has applied to the testing data from fractured rock of Mizunami site Japan and Onkalo site Finland. The results show hydrogeological conceptual model for the tested area such as connectivity and continuity of the water-conducting features could be established by the proposed methodology. This method would provide useful information to the hydrogeological and transport modeling and simulation. (author)

  5. Development of primer sets that can verify the enrichment of histone modifications, and their application to examining vernalization-mediated chromatin changes in Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanabe, Takahiro; Osabe, Kenji; Itabashi, Etsuko; Okazaki, Keiichi; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-07-20

    Epigenetic regulation is crucial for the development of plants and for adaptation to a changing environment. Recently, genome-wide profiles of histone modifications have been determined by a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and genomic tiling arrays (ChIP on chip) or ChIP and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) in species including Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and maize. Validation of ChIP analysis by PCR or qPCR using positive and negative regions of histone modification is necessary. In contrast, information about histone modifications is limited in Chinese cabbage, Brassica rapa. The aim of this study was to develop positive and negative control primer sets for H3K4me3 (trimethylation of the 4(th) lysine of H3), H3K9me2, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3 in B. rapa. The expression and histone modification of four FLC paralogs in B. rapa, before and after vernalization, were examined using the method developed here. After vernalization, expression of all four BrFLC genes was reduced, and accumulation of H3K27me3 was observed in three of them. As with A. thaliana, the vernalization response and stability of FLC repression correlated with the accumulation of H3K27me3. These results suggest that the epigenetic state during vernalization is important for high bolting resistance in B. rapa. The positive and negative control primer sets developed here revealed positive and negative histone modifications in B. rapa that can be used as a control for future studies. PMID:27074983

  6. Digital data set of water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level-change contour for the High Plains aquifer in the Central United States, 1980 to 1994. The High Plains aquifer extends...

  7. Digital data set of water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the central United States, 1980 to 1995. The High Plains aquifer...

  8. Digital data set of water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1980 to 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level-change contours for the High Plains aquifer in the Central United States, 1980 to 1996. The High Plains aquifer...

  9. ECOLOGICAL CHANGE AS A FACTOR IN RENEWED MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN AN ERADICATED AREA. A LOCALIZED OUTBREAK OF A. AQUASALIS-TRANSMITTED MALARIA ON THE DEMERARA RIVER ESTUARY, BRITISH GUIANA, IN THE FIFTEENTH YEAR OF A. DARLINGI AND MALARIA ERADICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIGLIOLI, G

    1963-01-01

    In British Guiana, the successful eradication of Anopheles darlingi and malaria from the coastal areas has caused a very rapid increase in the population and has favoured a considerable social and economic improvement and expansion of both agriculture and industry. Housing and industrial developments and the constantly expanding rice cultivation have taken over most of the accessible pasture-lands, displacing the livestock which previously abounded around villages and settlements. Mechanization on the roads and in the fields increases daily, and the horse, the mule, the donkey and the ploughing oxen are gradually becoming obsolete.In some areas these changes have already caused such an upset in the balance between the human and the livestock population that A. aquasalis, a very abundant species all along the coast, but until recently entirely "fixed" by the livestock population, is now shifting its attention from livestock to man. On the Demerara river estuary, an area where malaria transmission was interrupted sixteen years ago and where eradication has been continually maintained, this mosquito has been responsible for a sharp, but localized, outbreak of P. vivax malaria. An entirely new epidemiological problem thus presents itself.Environmental changes, introduced and fostered by successful malaria eradication, may thus cause an anopheline species, potentially capable of malaria transmission, but originally inactive and harmless as a vector, to alter its feeding habits and thereby renew transmission. The immediate and long-term significance of some secondary and potential vectors may therefore require renewed evaluation in the planning of malaria eradication campaigns.

  10. How the Second Delta Committee Set the Agenda for Climate Adaptation Policy: A Dutch Case Study on Framing Strategies for Policy Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon H. Verduijn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Second State Delta Committee, commissioned by the Dutch Secretary of Public Works and Water Management, provided suggestions on how to defend the Netherlands against the expected impacts of climate change, such as sea level rise, longer periods of drought, more intense periods of rainfall and additional land subsidence over the coming two hundred years (Veerman, 2008. In this paper we show that even though no crisis actually occurred, the Second Delta Committee succeeded in three areas. First, the committee managed to create awareness and set the agenda for climate adaptation policy and the issue of safety in Dutch water management. Second, the committee succeeded to a large extent in getting the media, the public and politics to accept its frame and framing of the problems, causes, moral judgments and suggested remedies. Third, the committee has to a certain degree already succeeded in having its recommendations translated into policy programmes. It will be argued that framing strategies were key to the committee’s success and that the committee used various framing strategies to convince the Cabinet, citizens and others of the urgency and necessity of implementing adaptation measures. The most important framing strategies identified were adherence to the climate adaptation narrative, using the story of our delta identity, creating a sense of urgency and collectiveness, and creating a crisis narrative.

  11. Tremendous change of the earth surface system and tectonic setting of salt-lake formation in Yuncheng Basin since 7.1 Ma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 李彩光; 田国强; 张文治; 刘椿; 宁联元; 岳军; 程自刚; 何翠英

    2002-01-01

    The Yuncheng salt lake has formed under the setting of stepped subsidence of fault-blocks from the north to the south in Yuncheng Basin. In the phase of red clay accumulation during 7.1-3.6 Ma, the size of palaeo-lake was larger than the present salt lake, and palaeo-monsoon had formed. At 3.6 Ma, the northern basement in the basin raised abruptly due to the radiative effect of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplifting, and palaeo-lake was contracting southwards. At ca. 2.6 Ma ancient river flowed into the northern part of the basin. During ca. 2.0-1.9 Ma aerolian effect strengthened and loess started to accumulate on the most part of the basin. Since ca. 1.8-1.0 Ma the subsidence of the lake fault-block has been speeding up abruptly. As under the natural hydrogradient the salt lake received enough groundwater supply, and the rate of loess accumulation in the lake area was lower than that of subsidence of the lake fault-block, the lake could be preserved and becomes the only modern lake on Chinese Loess Plateau. Four large strengthening change records of the monsoon were found in the lake sequence of 5.8-1.9 Ma B.P.

  12. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... Healthcare Providers: Sexual Transmission of Zika Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  13. Open Access Transmission and Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, K.

    1996-09-01

    In April 1996, the Federal Regulatory Commission (PERC) approved Orders 888 and 889 and released a draft rule for public comment on capacity reservation tariffs (CRTs). Order No. 888 requires electric utilities to file transmission tariffs that would allow transmission access to third parties who want to conduct wholesale transactions, and Order No. 889 requires transmission-owning utilities to set up open access, same-time information systems (OASIS), using commercial software and Internet protocols. This paper discusses these Orders in detail, as well as some of the issues before FERC with implications for renewables, which include: transmission pricing; transmission terms and conditions; reassignment of transmission capacity; defining state and FERC jurisdiction over transmission and distribution; the pricing of ancillary services; and the adoption and implementation of independent system operators.

  14. Sundhedsfremmende settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magne, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Dette kapitel giver en indføring i settingsperspektivet i sundhedsfremme og et indblik i anvendelsen af begrebet ’settings for sundhedsfremme’ i en sundhedspædagogisk sammenhæng. Kapitlet viser, hvordan elementer i de miljøer og kontekster, som mennesker tager del i i dagligdagen, har betydning for...... sundhed. Disse miljøer, også kaldet settings, kan være skoler, hospitaler, arbejdspladser, uddannelsesinstitutioner og lokalområder eller andre steder, hvor mennesker lever deres hverdagsliv. På grundlag af kapitlet kan læseren: • få indsigt i sundhedens forskellige determinanter og dermed mulighed for...... kritisk at vurdere grundlaget for sundhedspædagogisk intervention • reflektere settingsperspektivet i sundhedsfremme som et teoretisk skifte fra at se sundhed som bundet til individuel risikoadfærd til at anskue settings som komplekse fænomener med afgørende betydning for medlemmernes sundhed – uanset...

  15. The Monetary Transmission Mechanism: An Empirical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Taylor

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the monetary transmission mechanism describing the impact of changes in monetary policy on real GDP. Changes in financial market prices--including long-term interest rates and exchange rates--are the main vehicle for the transmission of policy. The framework incorporates rational expectations and policy rules. It is empirical and appears to fit the facts well.

  16. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  17. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  18. Setting Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Aaron J.

    1977-01-01

    The author questions the extent to which educators have relied on "relevance" and learner participation in objective-setting in the past decade. He describes a useful approach to learner-oriented evaluation in which content relevance was not judged by participants until after they had been exposed to it. (MF)

  19. Change in Health-Related Quality of Life among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients at Primary Health Care Settings in South Africa: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S Louw

    Full Text Available Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB remains a major public health challenge in South Africa. However, little attention is paid to the impact of health related quality of life (HRQL among TB patients at the beginning and at the end of TB treatment. This study assesses factors associated with HRQL among tuberculosis patients in three high risk provinces in South Africa.A prospective cohort study was conducted at primary health care settings. Patients completed the HRQL social functioning (SF-12 health survey. Comparison of Physical Health Summary Score (PCS and Mental Health Summary Score (MCS was assessed at 6 months after treatment. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs were used to examine the factors associated with changes in HRQL.In all patients, after 6 months of treatment there was a significant improvement in HRQL with the biggest increase in the PCS. A higher educational qualification had a strong significant positive effect on the mental HRQL. Psychological distress showed a significant negative association with physical and mental HRQL after six months. Permanent residence showed a significant positive association with mental HRQL among TB patients compared to those living in shack/traditional dwellings. Rating ones health as being good and fair/poor was significantly associated with poor physical HRQL. Twenty drinks or more in the past month had a significant negative effect on the physical HRQL.The findings suggest that programmes targeted at improving TB treatment success should have specific interventions for patients with low educational background, impoverished households/communities and those with hazardous or harmful alcohol use.

  20. Integration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT postpartum services with other HIV care and treatment services within the maternal and child health setting in Zimbabwe, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Wiegert

    Full Text Available We assessed the integration of PMTCT services during the postpartum period including early infant diagnosis of HIV (EID and adult and pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART in maternal and child health (MCH facilities in Zimbabwe.From August to December 2012 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 151 MCH facilities. A questionnaire was used to survey each site about staff training, dried blood spot sample (DBS collection, turnaround time (TAT for test results, PMTCT services, and HIV care and treatment linkages for HIV-infected mothers and children and HIV-exposed infants. Descriptive analyses were used. Of the facilities surveyed, all facilities were trained on DBS collection and 92% responded. Approximately, 99% of responding facilities reported providing DBS collection and a basic HIV-exposed infant service package including EID, extended nevirapine prophylaxis, and use of cotrimoxazole. DBS collection was integrated with immunisations at 83% of facilities, CD4 testing with point-of-care machines was available at 37% of facilities, and ART for both mothers and children was provided at 27% of facilities. More than 80% of facilities reported that DBS test results take >4 weeks to return; TAT did not have a direct association with any specific type of transport, distance to the lab, or intermediate stops for data to travel.Zimbabwe has successfully scaled up and integrated the national EID and PMTCT programs into the existing MCH setting. The long TAT of infant DBS test results and the lack of integrated ART programs in the MCH setting could reduce effectiveness of the national PMTCT and ART programs. Addressing these important gaps will support successful implementation of the 2014 Zimbabwe's PMTCT guidelines under which all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women will be offered life-long ART and decentralized ART care.

  1. Constructive Sets in Computable Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育熙

    1997-01-01

    The original interpretation of the constructive set theory CZF in Martin-Loef's type theory uses the‘extensional identity types’.It is generally believed that these‘types’do not belong to type theory.In this paper it will be shown that the interpretation goes through without identity types.This paper will also show that the interpretation can be given in an intensional type theory.This reflects the computational nature of the interpretation.This computational aspect is reinforced by an ω-Set moel of CZF.

  2. Microstructure changes during non-conventional heat treatment of thin Ni-Ti wires by pulsed electric current studied by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delville, R., E-mail: remi.delville@ua.ac.be [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Malard, B.; Pilch, J.; Sittner, P. [Institute of Physics, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha (Czech Republic); Schryvers, D. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    Transmission electron microscopy, electrical resistivity measurements and mechanical testing were employed to investigate the evolution of microstructure and functional superelastic properties of 0.1 mm diameter as-drawn Ni-Ti wires subjected to a non-conventional heat treatment by controlled electric pulse currents. This method enables a better control of the recovery and recrystallization processes taking place during the heat treatment and accordingly a better control on the final microstructure. Using a stepwise approach of millisecond pulse annealing, it is shown how the microstructure evolves from a severely deformed state with no functional properties to an optimal nanograined microstructure (20-50 nm) that is partially recovered through polygonization and partially recrystallized and that has the best functional properties. Such a microstructure is highly resistant against dislocation slip upon cycling, while microstructures annealed for longer times and showing mostly recrystallized grains were prone to dislocation slip, particularly as the grain size exceeds 200 nm.

  3. Optical set-reset latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2013-01-29

    An optical set-reset (SR) latch is formed from a first electroabsorption modulator (EAM), a second EAM and a waveguide photodetector (PD) which are arranged in an optical and electrical feedback loop which controls the transmission of light through the first EAM to latch the first EAM in a light-transmissive state in response to a Set light input. A second waveguide PD controls the transmission of light through the second EAM and is used to switch the first EAM to a light-absorptive state in response to a Reset light input provided to the second waveguide PD. The optical SR latch, which may be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or a GaAs substrate) as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC), stores a bit of optical information and has an optical output for the logic state of that bit of information.

  4. Price transmission in the agri-food value chain - from a farmer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    Price transmission in the agri-food value chain - when changes in one price cause another price downstream to change - is an important issue for farmers, markets and the economy as an efficient market price setting is crucial for all market players. However, there are numerous examples of price t...... at the same time, gain access to segments with higher margins and greater market power....

  5. The evidence of mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in Pakistan and the need for hepatitis B immunization policy change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish the hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B 'e' antigen seroprevalence of mothers and their children aged 6-36 months and to assess the risk of hepatitis B transmission occurring in infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive mothers in Pakistan. Methods: Mothers and their children were selected from eight districts of three provinces that have been identified as high hepatitis B prevalence areas between May 2010 to February 2011. Ages of the children and their vaccination status were obtained from the lady health workers' registers and also verified from the mothers. Five ml of blood was drawn from all the children and their mothers for testing. All sera were tested for anti-hepatitis B. Those found negative were run for HBsAg the sueface antigen and those positive for it were further run for hepatitis B 'e' antigen. All tests were run on Abbott machine using chemiluminesence method. EPI-info 12 was used for statistical purposes. Results: A total of 1561 mothers and their 1612 children were tested. Among the mothers, 590 (37.8%) were hepatitis B antibody positive. Remaining 971 (62.2%) samples were tested for surface antigen and 123 (12.7%) were found positive of which 27 (22%) showed HBeAg positivity. Out of 1612 children tested, 975 (60.5%) were positive. Remaining 637 (39.5%) were tested for surface antigen and 49 (8%) were found positive of which 24 (49%) were HBeAg positive with a perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission rate of 5.4% by 12 months of age. Of the 123 surface antigen positive mothers, 18 (14.6%) had children who were also positive, while of the 1489 children born to the 1438 surface antigen negative mothers, 31 (2.1%) were positive. Children born to surface antigen positive mothers had eight times higher risk of getting hepatitis B virus infection and the risk rose to 17 times if the mother was also HBeAg positive. Hepatitis B vaccination record showed that 1229 (76.25%) children were vaccinated at six weeks

  6. Simulated Benefits of Green Infrastructure for Urban Stormwater Management under Climate Change in Different Hydroclimatic and Archetypal Urban Settings [Abstract 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change could significantly alter the occurrence and management of urban stormwater runoff quantity and quality. Responding to this challenge requires an improved understanding of potential changes together with the effectiveness of management responses for reducing impact...

  7. The tower of Babel: Different perceptions and controversies on change and status of North Sea fish stocks in multi-stakeholder settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.C.; Densen, van W.L.T.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fishermen, scientists, national policy makers, and staff of environmental NGOs (ENGOs) hold different perceptions about temporal patterns in fish stocks. Perception differences are problematic in multi-stakeholder settings, because they elicit controversies and unbalanced disputes. These hinder effe

  8. High Intensity Interval Training in a Real World Setting: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study in Overweight Inactive Adults, Measuring Change in Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Lunt; Nick Draper; Marshall, Helen C.; Logan, Florence J.; Hamlin, Michael J.; Shearman, Jeremy P.; Cotter, James D.; Kimber, Nicholas E.; Gavin Blackwell; Frampton, Christopher M. A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training) improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot) study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. METHODS: Participant...

  9. Transmission system planning in competitive and restructured environment - case study: part-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In continuation with previous paper, it is obvious that transmission planning in competitive and restructured environment is very important to have an efficient and economical power system / transmission network in changing trends globally. The recommendations give in part of this paper are implemented on a case study. The conclusions drawn by the study done in part clearly gives positive results in favor of transmission system planning in competitive and restructured environment to have open access and on non-discriminatory basis including the features of wheeling transactions and controlled by the regulatory body to monitor the activities of private set up specially from defense point of view and reliability and stability of the system. The results obtained in previous paper are going to be implemented on a study case. Results of application of transmission system planning in competitive and restructured environment is given at the end. (author)

  10. Epidemiology of Infant Dengue Cases Illuminates Serotype-Specificity in the Interaction between Immunity and Disease, and Changes in Transmission Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Clapham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infants born to dengue immune mothers acquire maternal antibodies to dengue. These antibodies, though initially protective, decline during the first year of life to levels thought to be disease enhancing, before reaching undetectable levels. Infants have long been studied to understand the interaction between infection and disease on an individual level.Considering infants (cases <1 year old as a unique group, we analyzed serotype specific dengue case data from patients admitted to a pediatric hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. We show differences in the propensity of serotypes to cause disease in individuals with dengue antibodies (infants and post-primary cases and in individuals without dengue antibodies (primary cases. The mean age of infant cases differed among serotypes, consistent with previously observed differential waning of maternal antibody titers by serotype. We show that trends over time in epidemiology of infant cases are consistent with those observed in the whole population, and therefore with trends in the force of infection.Infants with dengue are informative about the interaction between antibody and the dengue serotypes, confirming that in this population DENV-2 and DENV-4 almost exclusively cause disease in the presence of dengue antibody despite infections occurring in others. We also observe differences between the serotypes in the mean age in infant cases, informative about the interaction between waning immunity and disease for the different serotypes in infants. In addition, we show that the mean age of infant cases over time is informative about transmission in the whole population. Therefore, ongoing surveillance for dengue in infants could provide useful insights into dengue epidemiology, particularly after the introduction of a dengue vaccine targeting adults and older children.

  11. Impact of climate change and man-made irrigation systems on the transmission risk, long-term trend and seasonality of human and animal fascioliasis in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Afshan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of the province of Punjab, Pakistan are endemic for fascioliasis, resulting in high economic losses due to livestock infection but also affecting humans directly. The prevalence in livestock varies pronouncedly in space and time (1-70%. Climatic factors influencing fascioliasis presence and potential spread were analysed based on data from five mete- orological stations during 1990-2010. Variables such as wet days (Mt, water-budget-based system (Wb-bs indices and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, were obtained and correlated with geographical distribution, seasonality patterns and the two-decade evolution of fascioliasis in livestock throughout the province. The combined approach by these three indices proved to furnish a useful tool to analyse the complex epidemiology that includes (i sheep-goats and cattle- buffaloes presenting different immunological responses to fasciolids; (ii overlap of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica; (iii co-existence of highlands and lowlands in the area studied; and (iv disease transmission following bi-seasonality with one peak related to natural rainfall and another peak related to man-made irrigation. Results suggest a human infection situa- tion of concern and illustrate how climate and anthropogenic environment modifications influence both geographical dis- tribution and seasonality of fascioliasis risks. Increased fascioliasis risk throughout the Punjab plain and its decrease in the northern highlands of the province became evident during the study period. The high risk in the lowlands is worrying given that Punjab province largely consists of low-altitude, highly irrigated plains. The importance of livestock in this province makes it essential to prioritise adequate control measures. An annual treatment scheme to control the disease is recom- mended to be applied throughout the whole province.

  12. Impact of climate change and man-made irrigation systems on the transmission risk, long-term trend and seasonality of human and animal fascioliasis in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshan, Kiran; Fortes-Lima, Cesar A; Artigas, Patricio; Valero, Adela M; Qayyum, Mazhar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of the province of Punjab, Pakistan are endemic for fascioliasis, resulting in high economic losses due to livestock infection but also affecting humans directly. The prevalence in livestock varies pronouncedly in space and time (1-70%). Climatic factors influencing fascioliasis presence and potential spread were analysed based on data from five meteorological stations during 1990-2010. Variables such as wet days (Mt), water-budget-based system (Wb-bs) indices and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were obtained and correlated with geographical distribution, seasonality patterns and the two-decade evolution of fascioliasis in livestock throughout the province. The combined approach by these three indices proved to furnish a useful tool to analyse the complex epidemiology that includes (i) sheep-goats and cattlebuffaloes presenting different immunological responses to fasciolids; (ii) overlap of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica; (iii) co-existence of highlands and lowlands in the area studied; and (iv) disease transmission following bi-seasonality with one peak related to natural rainfall and another peak related to man-made irrigation. Results suggest a human infection situation of concern and illustrate how climate and anthropogenic environment modifications influence both geographical distribution and seasonality of fascioliasis risks. Increased fascioliasis risk throughout the Punjab plain and its decrease in the northern highlands of the province became evident during the study period. The high risk in the lowlands is worrying given that Punjab province largely consists of low-altitude, highly irrigated plains. The importance of livestock in this province makes it essential to prioritise adequate control measures. An annual treatment scheme to control the disease is recommended to be applied throughout the whole province.

  13. 基于随机游走模型的质量信息传递的焓变机制研究%Research on Enthalpy Change Mechanism of Quality Information Transmission Based on Random Walk Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史丽萍; 唐书林; 刘强; 苑婧婷

    2012-01-01

    Considering the different perception ability for quality information by different customers, the paper argued "enthalpy" in physics, defined the fluctuation of customs' perception value caused by quality information as enthalpy change of quality information transmission, and that enthalpy change of quality information was the key indicator of describing quality evolution. The paper adopted random walk model to establish enthalpy change model of quality different times, further discovered the time and space of enthalpy change. Research results indicated that enthalpy change of quality information transmission obeyed Gaussian distribution, whose convergence was proportional to perception ability of quality information by customer. Positive enthalpy change could increase customer' s perception value, which would purchase desire; negative enthalpy change would cause "enthalpy black hole" of customer' s perception value, which would betoken the occurrence of quality crisis. Comparing the enthalpy and price of different times Could identify the development stage and affecting region of quality crisis, which would provide distinguishing basis for enterprise decision.%从顾客对质量信息的感知能力差异出发,本文认为质量信息的传递会导致顾客感知价值呈现波动性,因此引入物理学中"焓"的概念,将因质量信息引起顾客感知价值的波动定义为"质量信息传递的焓变",认为质量信息的焓变是描述质量演变的关键性指标.本文利用随机游走理论建立了质量信息传递的焓变模型来描述同一时间不同顾客、同一顾客不同时间的焓,发现焓变的时间和空间.研究结果表明质量信息传递的焓变服从高斯分布,其收敛性跟顾客对质量信息的感知能力成正比.正焓变会增加顾客感知价值,提升购买欲望;负焓变会使顾客感知价值出现"焓黑洞",预示着质量危机的发生.对比不同时刻的焓和价格可以识别出质量危机

  14. Change in composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A; Alifrangis, Michael; Hosea, Kenneth M;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A dramatic decline in the incidence of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in coastal East Africa has recently been reported to be paralleled (or even preceded) by an equally dramatic decline in malaria vector density, despite absence of organized vector control. ...... to differences in biology and vectorial capacity of the An. gambiae s.l. complex the change in sibling species composition will have important implications for the epidemiology and control of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in the study area....

  15. Will the changes proposed to the conceptual framework’s definitions and recognition criteria provide a better basis for the IASB standard setting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brouwer; M. Hoogendoorn; E. Naarding

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the International Accounting Standards Board’s (IASB) efforts, in a discussion paper (DP) of 2013, to develop a new conceptual framework (CF) in the light of its stated ambition to establish a robust and consistent basis for future standard setting, thereby guiding standard

  16. Watching Handball Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    , due to the dramaturgic structure of handball transmissions, viewers consider such transmissions particularly reliable and effective sources of entertainment. The transmissions’ entertainment value derives from their specific ability to give the viewers a complex experience of feeling autonomous...

  17. Change in composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derua Yahya A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dramatic decline in the incidence of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in coastal East Africa has recently been reported to be paralleled (or even preceded by an equally dramatic decline in malaria vector density, despite absence of organized vector control. As part of investigations into possible causes for the change in vector population density, the present study analysed the Anopheles gambiae s.l. sibling species composition in north-eastern Tanzania. Methods The study was in two parts. The first compared current species complex composition in freshly caught An. gambiae s.l. complex from three villages to the composition reported from previous studies carried out 2–4 decades ago in the same villages. The second took advantage of a sample of archived dried An. gambiae s.l. complex specimens collected regularly from a fourth study village since 2005. Both fresh and archived dried specimens were identified to sibling species of the An. gambiae s.l. complex by PCR. The same specimens were moreover examined for Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti infection by PCR. Results As in earlier studies, An. gambiae s.s., Anopheles merus and Anopheles arabiensis were identified as sibling species found in the area. However, both study parts indicated a marked change in sibling species composition over time. From being by far the most abundant in the past An. gambiae s.s. was now the most rare, whereas An. arabiensis had changed from being the most rare to the most common. P. falciparum infection was rarely detected in the examined specimens (and only in An. arabiensis whereas W. bancrofti infection was prevalent and detected in all three sibling species. Conclusion The study indicates that a major shift in An. gambiae s.l. sibling species composition has taken place in the study area in recent years. Combined with the earlier reported decline in overall malaria vector density, the study suggests that this

  18. Goal Setting and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  19. Study on the changes in the East Asian precipitation in the mid-1990s using a high-resolution global downscaled atmospheric data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Kim, Jung-Eun; Wu, Renguang; Yoshimura, Kei

    2014-03-01

    A high-resolution global atmospheric data set (DA126) is used to understand the East Asian summer precipitation variability. It is found that a fine resolution of the DA126 precipitation data is able to reveal the detailed structures of the rainfall variability over East Asia and southern China in comparison with global analysis precipitation data sets such as the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). The first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the DA126 precipitation data over East Asia accurately reflect a decadal shift in rainfall over southern China in the mid-1990s. Furthermore, the first EOF-related precipitation of the DA126 is related to the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability (i.e., El Niño/Southern Oscillation), and the second EOF-related precipitation is associated with the Indian Ocean SST variability. Consequently, the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean SSTs have different associations with the East Asian monsoon precipitation variability. However, it is difficult to find such a relationship in the first two EOFs of the CMAP data set over East Asia. Using the DA126 precipitation data set, our further analysis indicates that warming of both the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean causes an increase in the rainfall anomaly over southern China after the mid-1990s, which results in a decadal shift in the rainfall anomaly after the mid-1990s. In addition, the first EOF-related precipitation is associated with both the Pacific-Japan-like (PJ-like) pattern and the Eurasian-like pattern. In contrast, the second EOF-related precipitation is only associated with the PJ-like wave trains from the western Pacific to East Asia.

  20. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  1. Nosocomial transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Danish Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetem, David J; Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit;

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has changed the epidemiology of MRSA infections worldwide. In contrast to hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), CA-MRSA more frequently affects healthy individuals, both with and without recent healthcare...... exposure. Despite obvious epidemiological differences, it is unknown whether differences in nosocomial transmissibility exist. We have, therefore, quantified the transmissibility, expressed by the single admission reproduction number (R(A)), of CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA in hospital settings in Denmark....

  2. Changes in the epithelium of the vaginal complex during the estrous cycle of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica. 1. Transmission electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regli, Christian; Kress, Annetrudi

    2002-01-01

    The vaginal complex of marsupials differs from that of eutherians. Cervices open separately in a sinus vaginalis or cul-de-sac. Two lateral vaginae adjoin the sinus vaginalis and fuse at the level of the urethra opening and form the sinus urogenitalis. During the estrous cycle the vaginal epithelium undergoes a number of specified morphological changes. This paper is the first to describe these changes on an ultrastructural level in a marsupial. Investigations in Monodelphis vagina reveal that a cyclic switch exists between a keratinized and a stratified nonkeratinized epithelium. Keratinization starts during proestrus and reaches its maximum during estrus. In the postestrus, desquamation of the stratum corneum takes place, mostly in two steps. In metestrus one to two additional layers of the now nonkeratinized surface cells are shed into the vaginal lumen. Typical cell structures, such as keratin filaments, keratohyalin and membrane-coating granules, are involved in the keratinization process. Keratohyalin is found in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus of stratum granulosum cells, a phenomenon which is known from other parakeratinized epithelia of rapid turnover. Membrane-coating granules, responsible for the permeability barrier between the epithelial cells, are of the nonlamellated type in the nonkeratinized epithelium and produce an amorphous material in the intercellular spaces after extrusion. At periods, however, when the epithelium is keratinized, membrane-coating granules are of the lamellated type and form a lamellated barrier structure after extrusion in the intercellular space. The loss of the protective keratinized layers asks for an additional defense mechanism for the epithelium. The migration of leukocytes through the epithelium predominantly during post- and metestrus and their presence in the vaginal lumen may play a protective role together with the bacterial content.

  3. Determining Robust Impacts of Land-Use-Induced Land Cover Changes on Surface Temperature over China and surrounding regions: Results from the First Set of LUCID Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zheng; Guo, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    The project Land-Use and Climate, Identification of Robust Impacts (LUCID) was designed to address the robustness of biogeophysical impacts of historical land use-land cover change (LULCC). LUCID used seven atmosphere-land models with a common experimental design to explore those impacts of LULCC that are robust and consistent across the climate models. The biogeophysical impacts of LULCC were also compared to the impact of elevated greenhouse gases and resulting changes in sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent (hereafter SST/CO2). Focusing the analysis on China and surrounding regions, the climate models involved in LUCID show, however, significant differences in the magnitude and the seasonal partitioning of the temperature change. The LULCC-induced cooling is directed by decreases in absorbed solar radiation, but its amplitude is 30 to 50% smaller than the one that would be expected from the sole radiative changes. This results from direct impacts on the total turbulent energy flux (related to changes in land-cover properties other than albedo, such as evapotranspiration efficiency or surface roughness) that decreases at all seasons, and thereby induces a relative warming in all models. The magnitude of those processes varies significantly from model to model, resulting on different climate responses to LULCC.

  4. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission.

  5. Mechanisms underlying disease transmission between spatially separated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnik, van B.A.D.

    2014-01-01

      Transmission of infections between spatially separated hosts is a common problem, not only during major outbreaks of livestock diseases, but also in many other settings such as the transmission of infectious diseases between plants and crops or in healthcare settings. During the last major e

  6. Studies on transmission property changes of optical fibers inside an OPGW heated by conducting or discharge currents; OPGW tsuden/hoden kanetsu ni yoru hikari denso tokusei hendo no kento (sodensen kanshi hoho no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, I.; Seikai, S.; Takenaka, T. [Kansai Elecatric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-09-30

    Temperature of OPGW's is known to increase due to thunderbolt. Therefore, the measurement of transmission characteristic changes of optical fibers inside the OPGW is seems to be useful method to supervise the electric power sending systems. Candidates for the detectable characteristics are optical loss, Brilloum frequency shift and Raman scattering power because distribution of these changes can be measured by OTDR techniques. In this experiments, those properties are investigated using a high voltage supply system at the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. A test OPGW containing 24 fibers including 22 single-mode and 2 multi-mode fibers is installed with a span length of 20m. In the current conducting test, the OPGW is heated up to 250 degree C through three times conduction of 6kA with each duration time of 600 or 700ms. In the discharge current test, electric charge of 50C(coulomb), 100C and 200C with 20ms duration are applied. The results of the experiments are summarized as follows. The optical loss change is negligible small except for the fiber brake case and the Brilloum frequency shift is not always suitable because the sensitivity is small. The temperature measurement by the Raman scattering observation using the multi-mode fibers is found to have enough sensitivity and accuracy. However, residual problem is to increase the sensitivity of it for single mode fibers. (author)

  7. Transmission system planning in competitive and restructured environment: part-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In restructured environment, competitive markets expose transmission planners to new uncertainties. These are handled using a decision analysis approach whose key contribution is quantifying, minimizing risk with least cost effective plans. Power utility worldwide is under the process of disintegration these days. Now, it is the need of time that existing trends should be changed with the new ones in competitive restructured environment to escape from the present situation and enter into a new set up which is more reliable both from service and stability point of view. Traditionally, transmission planning used to be done by a state owned vertically integrated utility. This type of control on utilities is going to be diminished in coming restructured environment. In restructured environment, open access and on non-discriminatory basis clearly explains its importance including the aspects which gives better and more reliable and stable service in addition to future expansion provisions along with the role of private sector, but not affecting the country's security at any cost. A proper regulatory body must check the activities of private set up transmission planners and also it is must be for private sector to act upon the rules provided by the regulatory authority of that country. The are bound to act upon the guidelines provided by that Regulatory Authority. (author)

  8. 目标设定:促进糖尿病患者行为改变的方法%Goal Setting: a Strategy for Behavior Change of Patients with Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴辽芳; 周秋红; 田京玉; 袁莉晴; 邓姗

    2011-01-01

    Goal setting, a procedure for translating patients' self-management and behavior change intentions into goals, is a common behavioral intervention and contributes to behavior change. This paper is to introduce the kind of goals, the principle and procedure of goal setting and the effects of goal setting used in diabetes education program. The results show that although goal setting is an effective strategy for behavior change, it is not a routine part of clinical care. Three factors contribute to the problem. First, patient education materials are not usualy designed to facilitate goal setting. Second, health workers are not trained to help patients create goals.Third, health workers lack time. To help patients set and achieve behavioral goals, the corresponding curriculum should be developed and health workers should be trained.%目标设定是将患者的自我管理和行为改变意图转换为目标的过程,是一种常见的、行之有效的行为干预策略.本文介绍了目标的种类、目标设定的原则、方法及利用目标设定的方法进行糖尿病教育的效果,分析了目标设定在实际应用中存在的问题,为以后更好地利用目标设定的方法进行糖尿病教育,从而达到改变患者行为的目的提供了理论依据.

  9. Modelling the impact of artemisinin combination therapy and long-acting treatments on malaria transmission intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy C Okell

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Artemisinin derivatives used in recently introduced combination therapies (ACTs for Plasmodium falciparum malaria significantly lower patient infectiousness and have the potential to reduce population-level transmission of the parasite. With the increased interest in malaria elimination, understanding the impact on transmission of ACT and other antimalarial drugs with different pharmacodynamics becomes a key issue. This study estimates the reduction in transmission that may be achieved by introducing different types of treatment for symptomatic P. falciparum malaria in endemic areas. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a mathematical model to predict the potential impact on transmission outcomes of introducing ACT as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in six areas of varying transmission intensity in Tanzania. We also estimated the impact that could be achieved by antimalarials with different efficacy, prophylactic time, and gametocytocidal effects. Rates of treatment, asymptomatic infection, and symptomatic infection in the six study areas were estimated using the model together with data from a cross-sectional survey of 5,667 individuals conducted prior to policy change from sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to ACT. The effects of ACT and other drug types on gametocytaemia and infectiousness to mosquitoes were independently estimated from clinical trial data. Predicted percentage reductions in prevalence of infection and incidence of clinical episodes achieved by ACT were highest in the areas with low initial transmission. A 53% reduction in prevalence of infection was seen if 100% of current treatment was switched to ACT in the area where baseline slide-prevalence of parasitaemia was lowest (3.7%, compared to an 11% reduction in the highest-transmission setting (baseline slide prevalence = 57.1%. Estimated percentage reductions in incidence of clinical episodes were similar. The absolute size of the public health impact

  10. Essays in financial transmission rights pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Barry

    This work examines issues in the pricing of financial transmission rights in the PJM market region. The US federal government is advocating the creation of large-scale, not-for-profit regional transmission organizations to increase the efficiency of the transmission of electricity. As a non-profit entity, PJM needs to allocate excess revenues collected as congestion rents, and the participants in the transmission markets need to be able to hedge their exposure to congestion rents. For these purposes, PJM has developed an instrument known as the financial transmission right (FTR). This research, utilizing a new data set assembled by the author, looks at two aspects of the FTR market. The first chapter examines the problem of forecasting congestion in a transmission grid. In the PJM FTR system firms bid in a competitive auction for FTRs that cover a period of one month. The auctions take place in the middle of the previous month; therefore firms have to forecast congestion rents for the period two to six weeks after the auction. The common methods of forecasting congestion are either time-series models or full-information engineering studies. In this research, the author develops a forecasting system that is more economically grounded than a simple time-series model, but requires less information than an engineering model. This method is based upon the arbitrage-cost methodology, whereby congesting is calculated as the difference of two non-observable variables: the transmission price difference that would exist in the total absence of transmission capacity between two nodes, and the ability of the existing transmission to reduced that price difference. If the ability to reduce the price difference is greater than the price difference, then the cost of electricity at each node will be the same, and congestion rent will be zero. If transmission capacity limits are binding on the flow of power, then a price difference persists and congestion rents exist. Three

  11. Essays in financial transmission rights pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Barry

    This work examines issues in the pricing of financial transmission rights in the PJM market region. The US federal government is advocating the creation of large-scale, not-for-profit regional transmission organizations to increase the efficiency of the transmission of electricity. As a non-profit entity, PJM needs to allocate excess revenues collected as congestion rents, and the participants in the transmission markets need to be able to hedge their exposure to congestion rents. For these purposes, PJM has developed an instrument known as the financial transmission right (FTR). This research, utilizing a new data set assembled by the author, looks at two aspects of the FTR market. The first chapter examines the problem of forecasting congestion in a transmission grid. In the PJM FTR system firms bid in a competitive auction for FTRs that cover a period of one month. The auctions take place in the middle of the previous month; therefore firms have to forecast congestion rents for the period two to six weeks after the auction. The common methods of forecasting congestion are either time-series models or full-information engineering studies. In this research, the author develops a forecasting system that is more economically grounded than a simple time-series model, but requires less information than an engineering model. This method is based upon the arbitrage-cost methodology, whereby congesting is calculated as the difference of two non-observable variables: the transmission price difference that would exist in the total absence of transmission capacity between two nodes, and the ability of the existing transmission to reduced that price difference. If the ability to reduce the price difference is greater than the price difference, then the cost of electricity at each node will be the same, and congestion rent will be zero. If transmission capacity limits are binding on the flow of power, then a price difference persists and congestion rents exist. Three

  12. The emissions reduction commitments set out by the U.S. and China are welcome steps towards avoiding dangerous climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Bob

    2014-01-01

    On 12 November President Obama and China’s President Xi Jinping announced a commitment that the two countries would reduce their greenhouse gas emissions beyond what had been previously promised. Bob Ward looks at the agreement, writing that while it bodes well for next year’s Paris climate change summit, stronger commitments will be needed for emissions to stay below the warming limit.

  13. On the setting change of scaling factors for the homogeneous solidified wastes from Tsuruga Plant I of Japan Atomic Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a request from business operator for confirmation of the generated wastes and their point of view, necessary observation data and required information, JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) examined the adaptability to the guidelines and regulations of the proposal for changing the scaling factors of Strontium 90 in the homogeneous solidified wastes (concentrated effluent solidified with asphalt) generated from Tsuruga Plant I during 2004-2005. The availability of the proposal is agreed in this report. (S. Ohno)

  14. How the Second Delta Committee Set the Agenda for Climate Adaptation Policy: A Dutch Case Study on Framing Strategies for Policy Change

    OpenAIRE

    Simon H. Verduijn; Sander V. Meijerink; Pieter Leroy

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the Second State Delta Committee, commissioned by the Dutch Secretary of Public Works and Water Management, provided suggestions on how to defend the Netherlands against the expected impacts of climate change, such as sea level rise, longer periods of drought, more intense periods of rainfall and additional land subsidence over the coming two hundred years (Veerman, 2008). In this paper we show that even though no crisis actually occurred, the Second Delta Committee succeeded in thre...

  15. Resistive and reactive changes to the impedance of intracortical microelectrodes can be mitigated with polyethylene glycol under acute in vitro and in vivo settings

    OpenAIRE

    Salah eSommakia; Janak eGaire; Rickus, Jenna L.; Otto, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The reactive response of brain tissue to implantable intracortical microelectrodes is thought to negatively affect their recordable signal quality and impedance, resulting in unreliable longitudinal performance. The relationship between the progression of the reactive tissue into a glial scar and the decline in device performance is unclear. We show that exposure to a model protein solution in vitro and acute implantation result in both resistive and capacitive changes to electrode impedance,...

  16. Changes in the ground water regime on the right side of the Danube after setting Gabcikovo hydro power structures into operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A differentiated decrease of the ground water level occurred on the right-hand side of the Danube, during the long-lasting low water levels in the Danube before damming. The ground water flow from the inland agglomeration of Petrzalka and the Austrian territory enabled the transport of contaminants towards the wells of Waterworks Rusovce - Ostrovne lucky -Mokrad. The rise of the water level in the Cunovo Reservoir has constituted a radical change in the ground water level and flow. On the right hand side of the Danube, the ground water level in the area of the works has increased by approximately 2 - 4 m. The increase of ground water level has had a positive impact on the discharge of the waterworks wells. At present, the prevailing direction of the ground flow is from the Danube towards the water supply well field at Rusovce, and further inland. Since the total dissolved solids in the ground water were originally very high, even up to 1000 mg/l at some localities, a decrease is regarded as a dominant and positive change in the area. The content of chlorides and sulphates, and the total dissolved solids, rapidly decrease at the wells, which were directly affected by the water from urbanized territory before damming. Concerning microbiological parameters the water level raised in the Danube has not caused any extraordinary changes in the wells. Concentrations of all metal microelements is far under the standard limits for drinking water. Therefore, a very positive change with respect to ground water quality, linked with the increase of the proportion of the water infiltrated from the Danube, has been observed. New conditions constitute, from both quantitative and qualitative points of view, an unambiguous profit. (authors). 3 figs., 2 maps, 5 refs

  17. ClimateQUAL® and Thinklets: Using ClimateQUAL® with Group Support Systems to Facilitate Discussion and Set Priorities for Organizational Change at Criss Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hillyer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article discusses a series of actions taken by the Criss Library at the University of Nebraska at Omaha to implement organizational change, using the ClimateQUAL® survey and facilitated discussions with ThinkTank™ group decision software. The library had experienced significant changes over a five-year period, with a renovation of the facility and three reorganizations resulting in a 50% staff turnover. Recognizing the strain that years of construction and personnel changes had placed on the organization, there was a desire to uncover the mood of the employees and reveal the issues behind low morale, uneasiness, and fear.Methods – In November 2009, the library conducted a ClimateQUAL® survey to develop a baseline to assess the effectiveness of any changes. After the results were distributed to library faculty and staff, a series of two-hour facilitated discussions was held to gather opinions and ideas for solutions using thinkLets, a pattern language for reasoning toward a goal. The group support system ThinkTank™ software was loaded onto computers, and employees were able to add their ideas anonymously during the sessions. Finally, 12 employees (29% completed a four-question survey on their perceptions of the facilitated discussions.Results – The facilitated discussions returned 76 sub-themes in 12 categories: staffing and scheduling issues, staff unity/teamwork, communication, goodwill/morale, accountability, decision-making, policy issues, skills and training, leadership, ergonomics/physical work environment, respect, and bullying. An advisory team culled the 76 sub-themes into 40 improvement strategies. Five were implemented immediately, and the remaining 35 were scheduled to be presented to the faculty and staff via an online survey. Participants’ perceptions of the facilitated discussions were mixed. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they did not feel safe speaking out about issues, most

  18. Comparison of Hounsfield units by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest by using the CT phantom made with a 3D printer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seung, Youl Hun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we have observed the change of the Hounsfield (HU) in the alteration of by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest (ROI) at focus on kVp and mAs. Four-channel multi-detector computed tomography was used to get transverse axial scanning images and HU. Three dimensional printer which is type of fused deposition modeling (FDM) was used to produce the Phantom. The structure of the phantom was designed to be a type of cylinder that contains 33 mm, 24 mm, 19 mm, 16 mm, 9 mm size of circle holes that are symmetrically located. It was charged with mixing iodine contrast agent and distilled water in the holes. The images were gained with changing by 90 kVp, 120 kVp, 140 kVp and 50 mAs, 100 mAs, 150 mAs, respectively. The ‘image J’ was used to get the HU measurement of gained images of ROI. As a result, it was confirmed that kVp affects to HU more than mAs. And it is suggested that the smaller size of physical area, the more decreasing HU even in material of a uniform density and the smaller setting size of ROI, the more increasing HU. Therefore, it is reason that to set maximum ROI within 5 HU is the best way to minimize in the alteration of by changing in size of physical area and setting size of region of interest.

  19. Revitalizing the setting approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Toft, Ulla; Reinbach, Helene Christine;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe concept of health promotion rests on aspirations aiming at enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Health promotion action is facilitated in settings such as schools, homes and work places. As a contribution to the promotion of healthy lifestyles, we have...... impact of supersetting initiatives. The supersetting approach is an ecological approach, which places the individual in a social, environmental and cultural context, and calls for a holistic perspective to change potentials and developmental processes with a starting point in the circumstances of people¿s...... in local community settings and on the strengths of social interaction and local ownership as drivers of change processes. Interventions based on a supersetting approach are first and foremost characterised by being integrated, but also participatory, empowering, context-sensitive and knowledge...

  20. Synthesising 30 years of mathematical modelling of Echinococcus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-An M Atkinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis is a complex zoonosis that has domestic and sylvatic lifecycles, and a range of different intermediate and definitive host species. The complexities of its transmission and the sparse evidence on the effectiveness of control strategies in diverse settings provide significant challenges for the design of effective public health policy against this disease. Mathematical modelling is a useful tool for simulating control packages under locally specific transmission conditions to inform optimal timing and frequency of phased interventions for cost-effective control of echinococcosis. The aims of this review of 30 years of Echinococcus modelling were to discern the epidemiological mechanisms underpinning models of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis transmission and to establish the need to include a human transmission component in such models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A search was conducted of all relevant articles published up until July 2012, identified from the PubMED, Web of Knowledge and Medline databases and review of bibliographies of selected papers. Papers eligible for inclusion were those describing the design of a new model, or modification of an existing mathematical model of E. granulosus or E. multilocularis transmission. A total of 13 eligible papers were identified, five of which described mathematical models of E. granulosus and eight that described E. multilocularis transmission. These models varied primarily on the basis of six key mechanisms that all have the capacity to modulate model dynamics, qualitatively affecting projections. These are: 1 the inclusion of a 'latent' class and/or time delay from host exposure to infectiousness; 2 an age structure for animal hosts; 3 the presence of density-dependent constraints; 4 accounting for seasonality; 5 stochastic parameters; and 6 inclusion of spatial and risk structures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This review discusses the conditions under

  1. Transmission system planning in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrie, D.; Macedo, F.X.; Mcconnach, J.S. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, new and modified approaches to planning the large transmission system that serves the province of Ontario, Canada, have been necessary to accommodate the rapidly changing planning environment including slower uncertain growth, ageing of facilities, integration of demand side management and non utility generation options, increased competitiveness, increased financial stresses and affordable constraints. This paper describes some of the new and modified approaches and tools that have been adopted or are being developed by Ontario Hydro to cope with this changing environment. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Pricing and Capacity Planning Problems in Energy Transmission Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer

    of an electricity transmission network to switch lines in and out in an operational context in order to optimise the network flow. We show that transmission switching in systems with large-scale wind power may alleviate network congestions and reduce curtailment of wind power leading to higher utilisation...... and transmission pricing problems in energy transmission networks. Although the modelling framework applies to energy networks in general, most of the applications discussed concern the transmission of electricity. A number of the problems presented involves transmission switching, which allows the operator...... of installed wind power capacity. We present formulations of — and efficient solution methods for— the transmission line capacity expansion problem and the unit commitment problem with transmission switching. We also show that transmission switching may radically change the optimal line capacity expansion...

  3. Finite-difference interblock transmissivity for unconfined aquifers and for aquifers having smoothly varying transmissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, D.J.; Appel, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    More accurate alternatives to the widely used harmonic mean interblock transmissivity are proposed for block-centered finite-difference models of ground-water flow in unconfined aquifers and in aquifers having smoothly varying transmissivity. The harmonic mean is the exact interblock transmissivity for steady-state one-dimensional flow with no recharge if the transmissivity is assumed to be spatially uniform over each finite-difference block, changing abruptly at the block interface. However, the harmonic mean may be inferior to other means if transmissivity varies in a continuous or smooth manner between nodes. Alternative interblock transmissivity functions are analytically derived for the case of steady-state one-dimensional flow with no recharge. The second author has previously derived the exact interblock transmissivity, the logarithmic mean, for one-dimensional flow when transmissivity is a linear function of distance in the direction of flow. We show that the logarithmic mean transmissivity is also exact for uniform flow parallel to the direction of changing transmissivity in a two- or three-dimensional model, regardless of grid orientation relative to the flow vector. For the case of horizontal flow in a homogeneous unconfined or water-table aquifer with a horizontal bottom and with areally distributed recharge, the exact interblock transmissivity is the unweighted arithmetic mean of transmissivity at the nodes. This mean also exhibits no grid-orientation effect for unidirectional flow in a two-dimensional model. For horizontal flow in an unconfined aquifer with no recharge where hydraulic conductivity is a linear function of distance in the direction of flow the exact interblock transmissivity is the product of the arithmetic mean saturated thickness and the logarithmic mean hydraulic conductivity. For several hypothetical two- and three-dimensional cases with smoothly varying transmissivity or hydraulic conductivity, the harmonic mean is shown to yield

  4. Self-Adaptive Matching Method of Signal and Energy Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 曲秀杰; 李喆; 张峰

    2003-01-01

    Aimed at the rapid message setting of the passive systems, the efficiency of energy transmission and the characteristics of signal transmission in the message setting are analyzed, which is based on the methods of the circuit analysis and the electromagnetic induction technology. A self-adaptive impedance matching method of signal and energy transmission, which can set the message rapidly and effectively, is put forward. The electromagnetic induct setting system will reach the highest energy transmission efficiency when the equivalent resistance of the second loop is equal to the resistance of the first loop. The greater the ratio of the equivalent resistances is, the higher efficient the signal transmission has. Moreover, the validity of the method is verified by circuit design and tests.

  5. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. de S. Dias

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level.

  6. Data Transmission Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  7. Full circuit calculation for electromagnetic pulse transmission in a high current facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenkang; Guo, Fan; Chen, Lin; Song, Shengyi; Wang, Meng; Xie, Weiping; Deng, Jianjun

    2014-11-01

    We describe herein for the first time a full circuit model for electromagnetic pulse transmission in the Primary Test Stand (PTS)—the first TW class pulsed power driver in China. The PTS is designed to generate 8-10 MA current into a z -pinch load in nearly 90 ns rise time for inertial confinement fusion and other high energy density physics research. The PTS facility has four conical magnetic insulation transmission lines, in which electron current loss exists during the establishment of magnetic insulation. At the same time, equivalent resistance of switches and equivalent inductance of pinch changes with time. However, none of these models are included in a commercially developed circuit code so far. Therefore, in order to characterize the electromagnetic transmission process in the PTS, a full circuit model, in which switch resistance, magnetic insulation transmission line current loss and a time-dependent load can be taken into account, was developed. Circuit topology and an equivalent circuit model of the facility were introduced. Pulse transmission calculation of shot 0057 was demonstrated with the corresponding code FAST (full-circuit analysis and simulation tool) by setting controllable parameters the same as in the experiment. Preliminary full circuit simulation results for electromagnetic pulse transmission to the load are presented. Although divergences exist between calculated and experimentally obtained waveforms before the vacuum section, consistency with load current is satisfactory, especially at the rising edge.

  8. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  9. Determination of set-membership identifiability sets

    OpenAIRE

    Ravanbod-Hosseini, Laleh; Verdière, Nathalie; Jauberthie, Carine

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the concept of set-membership identifiability introduced in \\cite{jauberthie}. Given a model, a set-membership identifiable set is a connected set in the parameter domain of the model such that its corresponding trajectories are distinct to trajectories arising from its complementary. For obtaining the so-called set-membership identifiable sets, we propose an algorithm based on interval analysis tools. The proposed algorithm is decomposed into three parts namely {\\it minci...

  10. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  11. Secured Message Transmission in Mobile AD HOC Networks through Identification and Removal of Byzantine Failures

    CERN Document Server

    Anitha, V

    2011-01-01

    The emerging need for mobile ad hoc networks and secured data transmission phase is of crucial importance depending upon the environments like military. In this paper, a new way to improve the reliability of message transmission is presented. In the open collaborative MANET environment, any node can maliciously or selfishly disrupt and deny communication of other nodes. Dynamic changing topology makes it hard to determine the adversary nodes that affect the communication in MANET. An SMT protocol provides a way to secure message transmission by dispersing the message among several paths with minimal redundancy. The multiple routes selected are known as APS -Active Path Set. This paper describes a technique for fault discovery process to identify Byzantine failures which include nodes that drop, modify, or mis-route packets in an attempt to disrupt the routing service. An adaptive probing technique detects a malicious link through binary search and according to the nodes behavior, these links are avoided in th...

  12. Dengue transmission based on urban environmental gradients in different cities of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on the dengue transmission in different regions of Pakistan. For this purpose, the data of dengue cases for 2009-2012 from four different cities (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi) of the country is collected, evaluated, and compiled. To identify the reasons and regions of higher risk of Dengue transmission, land use classification, analysis of climate covariates and drainage patterns was done. Analysis involves processing of SPOT 5 10 m, Landsat TM 30 m data sets, and SRTM 90 m digital elevation models by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are based on the change in urbanization and population density, analysis of temperature, rainfall, and wind speed; calculation of drainage patterns including stream features, flow accumulation, and drainage density of the study areas. Results suggest that the low elevation areas with calm winds and minimum temperatures higher than the normal, rapid increase in unplanned urbanization, low flow accumulation, and higher drainage density areas favor the dengue transmission.

  13. Tremendous change of the earth surface system and tectonic setting of salt-lake formation in Yuncheng Basin since 7.1 Ma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Qiang

    2002-01-01

    [1]Yue Leping, Palaeomagnetic polarity boundary recorded in Chinese loess and red clay, and geological significance, Acta Geophysica Sinica (in Chinese), 1995, 38(3): 311-320.[2]Zhang Yunxiang, Cheng Danling, Xue Xiangxu et al., The genetic types of the Late Neogene red clay in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, Journal of Stratigraphy (in Chinese), 1998, 22(1): 10-15.[3]Cande, S. C., Kent, D. V., A new geomagnetic polarity time scale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, Journal of Geo-physical Research, 1992, 97(13): 917-951.[4]Cande, S. C., Kent, D. V., Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timesacle for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1995, 100(6): 93-95.[5]Sun Donghuai, Liu Tungsheng, Chen Mingyang et al., Magnetostratigraphy and climate of the red clay sequence from Chinese Loess Plateau, Science in China, Ser. D, 1997, 40: 339-343.[6]Sun Donghuai, Chen Mingyang, John, S. et al., The age of magnetostratigraphy and palaeoclimatic record for Late Ceno-zoic aeolian accumulation sequence on China Loess Plateau, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1998, 28(1): 79-84.[7]Zhu Zhaoyu, Ding Zhongli, The Climatic and Tectonic Evolution in the Loess Plateau of China during the Quaternary (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994, 145-154.[8]Sun Jianzhong, Zhao Jingbo et al., Quaternary of Loess Plateau of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1991, 89-112.[9]Yue Jun, Wen Qizhong, Analytical models for the palaeoenvironmental evolution in the Nihewan beds, Acta Geological Sinica (in Chinese), 1990, 64: 249-256.[10]Wang Sumin, Yu Yuansheng, Wu Ruijin et al., Daihai-Lake Environment and Climate Change, Hefei: China Science and Tectonology University Press, 1990, 191.[11]De Deckker, P., Ostracods of athalassic saline lakes, Hydrobiologia, 1981, 81: 131-144.[12]Anadón, P., Utrilla, R., Julia, R., Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of a

  14. 4th International Conference on Power Transmissions

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This books contains the Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Power Transmissions, that was held in Sinaia, Romania from June 20 -23, 2012. Power Transmissions is a very complex and multi-disciplinary scientific field of Mechanical Engineering that covers the different types of transmissions (mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic) as well as all the machine elements involved, such as gears, bearings, shafts, couplings and a lot more. It concerns not only their basic theory but also their design, analysis, testing, application and maintenance. The requirements set to modern power transmissions are really tough to meet: They need to be more efficient, stronger, smaller, noiseless, easier to produce and to cost less. There is a strong demand to become easier in operation and maintenance, or even automatic and in maintenance-free. Last but not least, they should be easily recycled and respect the environment. Joint efforts of specialists from both academia and industry can significantly contribute to fulf...

  15. The transmission of African culture to children

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Tanon Lora

    2014-01-01

    African ancient traditions suffered a major historical change as a result of colonization. Several decades after decolonization and access to independence, what is the situation and place of the African culture in Africa and outside Africa? Does African culture perpetuate effectively today? What are the obstacles to the transmission of African culture to our children? What are the beliefs or elements that have influenced the transmission of our culture after the period of independence? Roughl...

  16. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  17. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  18. The new diatom training set from the Polish Baltic coast and diatom-based transfer functions as a tool for understanding past changes in the southern Baltic coastal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutyńska, Monika; Szpikowska, Grażyna; Woszczyk, Michał; Suchińska, Anita; Burchardt, Lubomira; Messyasz, Beata

    2014-05-01

    The transfer function method has been developed as a useful tool for reconstruction of the past environmental changes. It is based on the assumption that the modern species, which ecological requirements are known, can be used to quantitative reconstructions of the past changes. The aim of the study was to gather test sets and to build diatom-based transfer function, which can be used to reconstruct changes in the trophic state and salinity in the coastal lakes on the Polish Baltic coast. In the previous years there were several attempts made to reconstruct these parameters in lagoonal waters on the Baltic coasts in Germany, Denmark, Finland, Netherland, Sweden and Norway. But so far there is no diatom test set and transfer function was built for the Polish coastal lakes. We sample diatoms form 12 lakes located along the polish Baltic coast. At the same time we monitor the physical-chemical conditions in the lakes, which includes lake water chemical composition (chlorides, phosphorous and sulphur), pH, salinity, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen. We collect samples form the lakes as well as from the Baltic Sea and we analyse the whole phytoplankton composition, however the special focus in put on diatoms. The results of the analysis show seasonal changes in the chemical and physical water properties. The diatom assemblage composition and species frequency also changed significantly. This study is a contribution to the projects: NN 306 064 640 financed by National Science Centre, Poland and Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association.

  19. Protecting the unborn -- reducing mother-to-child transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, A

    1998-02-01

    HIV is transmitted to a child during pregnancy, at birth, or through the mother's milk during infancy. Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, 3.8 million children are estimated to have become infected with HIV and 2.7 million have died. More than 9% acquired HIV through their HIV-positive mothers and in 1997, 1600 children were infected daily. Since many women in developing countries do not have access to clean water, it is unsafe for them to bottle feed. As such, HIV-infected women in such settings have been encouraged to breast feed their infants despite the risk of perinatal HIV transmission. The most recent research, however, indicates that 10-25% of fetal/infant HIV infections occur intrauterine, 60-75% during delivery, and 20-40% postpartum. It is estimated that breast feeding increases the risk of infection by 5-40%. These findings have led the principal administrator of the European Union's HIV/AIDS program and other health experts to recommend that children be weaned from breast feeding at 4-6 months, a change from existing breast feeding guidelines. As several trials end in the near future, important results are expected in 1998 on how to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. The ethics of involving pregnant women in Africa and Asia in clinical trials to reduce perinatal HIV transmission and vitamin A supplements and vaginal lavages are discussed.

  20. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  1. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews...... with psychologists, which were analyzed using the framework of the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with minor changes to the procedure of categorization. Using Harré’s (2002, 2012) Positioning Theory, it is shown that determining goals and deciding if they have been reached are processes...... that are based on asymmetric collaboration between the therapist and the client. Determining goals and deciding when they are reached are not “sterile” procedures, as both the client and the therapist might have different agendas when working therapeutically. The psychologists that participated in this study...

  2. Down hole transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  3. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  4. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  5. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Judson; Joseph Prescott; Vincent Munster

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fil...

  6. Glutamate Transmission in Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kalivas, Peter W.; LaLumiere, Ryan; Knackstedt, Lori; Shen, Haowei

    2008-01-01

    Cortico-striatal glutamate transmission has been implicated in both the initiation and expression of addiction related behaviors, such as locomotor sensitization and drug seeking. While glutamate transmission onto dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area undergoes transient plasticity important for establishing addiction-related behaviors, glutamatergic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the expression of these behaviors. This information points to the value of exploring ...

  7. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  8. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  9. HIV Transmission at a Saudi Arabia Hemodialysis Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Mashragi, Faisal; Bernstein, Robert S.; Al-Mazroa, Mohammad; Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq; Filemban, Sanaa; Assiri, Abdullah; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Hazmi, Mohammad; Alzahrani, Abdullah; Stephens, Gwen; Memish, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Hemodialysis is associated with increased risk of healthcare-associated infections but considered a low-risk setting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. We investigated 3 hemodialysis unit (HDU) patients with new HIV infections to determine whether transmission was hemodialysis-associated and to correct factors that contributed to transmission. Methods.  Each patient was evaluated for HIV risk factors. Blood samples were tested to determine relatedness of HIV str...

  10. No change in viral set point or CD4 cell decline among antiretroviral treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected individuals enrolled in the Danish HIV Cohort Study in 1995-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kronborg, G; Larsen, C S;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have reported faster progression of HIV infection than anticipated based on results from earlier studies. The aim of the present study was to examine if the virulence of HIV-1 infection changed in the period 1995-2010 among chronically HIV-infected individuals in Denmark....... METHODS: We included all patients registered in the Danish HIV Cohort Study, who were diagnosed in 1995-2009, had a CD4 count > 100 cells/μL at diagnosis and had at least two CD4 measurements prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Changes in viral set point and rate of CD4 cell decline from...... enrolment until the initiation of ART by calendar year of HIV diagnosis were analysed. Time to first CD4 count...

  11. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  12. Pneumothorax effects on pulmonary acoustic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, Hansen A; Balk, Robert A; Warren, William H; Royston, Thomas J; Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Sandler, Richard H

    2015-08-01

    Pneumothorax (PTX) is an abnormal accumulation of air between the lung and the chest wall. It is a relatively common and potentially life-threatening condition encountered in patients who are critically ill or have experienced trauma. Auscultatory signs of PTX include decreased breath sounds during the physical examination. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the changes in sound transmission in the thorax due to PTX in humans. Nineteen human subjects who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery, during which lung collapse is a normal part of the surgery, participated in the study. After subjects were intubated and mechanically ventilated, sounds were introduced into their airways via an endotracheal tube. Sounds were then measured over the chest surface before and after lung collapse. PTX caused small changes in acoustic transmission for frequencies below 400 Hz. A larger decrease in sound transmission was observed from 400 to 600 Hz, possibly due to the stronger acoustic transmission blocking of the pleural air. At frequencies above 1 kHz, the sound waves became weaker and so did their changes with PTX. The study elucidated some of the possible mechanisms of sound propagation changes with PTX. Sound transmission measurement was able to distinguish between baseline and PTX states in this small patient group. Future studies are needed to evaluate this technique in a wider population.

  13. Nonlinear transmission properties in bacteriorhodopsin-embedded photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Teruya

    2003-11-01

    Transmission spectra and photoinduced transmission change are observed in periodic waveguide which consist of a quartz grating substrate and a thin protein film of bacteriorhodopsin. We propose a scheme to achieve all optical switching using the photoinduced refractive index change of bacteriorhodopsin.

  14. 蔬菜批发市场和零售市场价格变化及传导机制研究%Research on Vegetable Price Changes and Transmission Mechanism between Wholesale and Retail Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵安平; 赵友森; 王川; 王晓东

    2011-01-01

    以北京市场大白菜、黄瓜和菠菜为对象,探究批发与零售市场蔬菜价格传导机制.采用相关系数、变异系数、批零比分析蔬菜批零市场价格的各自变化规律,建立VAR模型,运用Granger因果检验、脉冲响应函数和方差分解等分析批零价格相互关系.得出批零价格相关性强,零售市场价格较批发市场稳定,3种蔬菜批发与零售价格比值均维持在2倍的关系.大白菜批零价格互为Granger因果关系,而黄瓜和菠菜则是从批发到零售价格单向引导.脉冲响应函数和方差分解分析表明,不同蔬菜品种批零市场发挥的作用存在一定差异,但是总体来看批发市场或批发商在批零价格传导中发挥主导作用,是价格变动的中心环节,零售商相对处于弱势地位.在此基础上提出完善市内农产品流通机制.规范批发市场经营,引导零售商在市场竞争中发挥更大作用.%This paper explored the wholesale and retail vegetable prices transmission mechanism, at the base of prices of cabbage, cucumber and spinach in Beijing markets. And using correlation coefficient, coefficient of variation, the ratio of wholesale and retail prices, this paper analyzed the price change rules in both wholesale and retail market, and also explored the relationship between wholesale and retail prices, with the establishment of VAR model, Granger causality test, impulse response functions and variance decomposition.The results demonstratd that when wholesale and retail prices obtain a strong correlation, retail market prices were more stable than those of wholesale, and the ratio relationship of the three kinds of vegetables between wholesale and retail prices maintains at 2 times. The cabbage price of wholesale and retail had Granger causal relationship with each other, while prices of cucumber and spinach were in one-way guide from the wholesale to retail price. Impulse response function and variance decomposition analysis

  15. Effect of the one-child policy on influenza transmission in China: a stochastic transmission model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21% in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, -0.15% (SD 1.85%, between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a

  16. Change in basic motor abilities, quality of movement and everyday activities following intensive, goal-directed, activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting for children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaale Helga K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of intensive training for children with cerebral palsy (CP remain uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact on motor function, quality of movements and everyday activities of three hours of goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting, five days a week for a period of three weeks. Methods A repeated measures design was applied with three baseline and two follow up assessments; immediately and three weeks after intervention. Twenty-two children with hemiplegia (n = 7, diplegia (n = 11, quadriplegia (n = 2 and ataxia (n = 2 participated, age ranging 3-9 y. All levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS were represented. Parents and professionals participated in goal setting and training. ANOVA was used to analyse change over repeated measures. Results A main effect of time was shown in the primary outcome measure; Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66, mean change being 4.5 (p Conclusions Basic motor abilities and self-care improved in young children with CP after goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy with involvement of their local environment, and their need for caregiver assistance in self-care and mobility decreased. The individualized training within a group context during a limited period of time was feasible and well-tolerated. The coherence between acquisition of basic motor abilities and quality of movement should be further examined.

  17. Transmission planning in a deregulated environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    and approaches toward transmission planning should be carefully designed to ensure system reliability as well as meeting the market requirements. A market-oriented approach for transmission planning in a deregulated environment is proposed. Case studies using the IEEE 14-bus system and the Australian national......The worldwide trend for the deregulation of the electricity generation and transmission industries has led to dramatic changes in system operation and planning procedures. The optimum approach to transmission-expansion planning in a deregulated environment is an open problem especially when...... the responsibilities of the organisations carrying out the planning work need to be addressed. To date there is a consensus that the system operator and network manager perform the expansion planning work in a centralised way. However, with an increasing input from the electricity market, the objectives, constraints...

  18. Transmission loss between single-mode Gaussian antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlot, Nicolas; Rohde, Michael

    2016-08-22

    We analytically derive a set of formulas for the transmission loss in vacuum between antennas that send and receive single-mode Gaussian beams. We relate our results to standard far-field link budget parameters.

  19. 2006 Final Transmission Proposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-06-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration BPABPA with respect to the adoption of transmission and ancillary services rates for the two-year rate period beginning October 1, 2005, and ending September 30, 2007 (fiscal years (FY) 2006-2007)(2006 Final Transmission and Ancillary Services Rate Proposal). These decisions are based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding. The transmission and ancillary services rates adopted in this ROD are the rates proposed as a result of a comprehensive settlement agreement between BPA's Transmission Business Line (BPA-TBL) and a diverse group of transmission customers, including BPA's Power Business Line (BPA-PBL), regional investor-owned utilities, partial and full requirements customers of the BPA-PBL, Direct Services Industrial (DSI) customers, and merchant generators. The decisions in this ROD to adopt the rates and charges proposed by the settlement agreement are not intended to create or imply any factual , legal, procedural or substantive precedent, or to create agreement to any underlying principle or methodology.

  20. Ultrahigh Transmission Optical Nanofibers

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, J E; Grover, J A; Solano, P; Kordell, P R; Wong-Campos, J D; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L

    2014-01-01

    We present a procedure for reproducibly fabricating ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers (530 nm diameter and 84 mm stretch) with single-mode transmissions of 99.95 $ \\pm$ 0.02%, which represents a loss from tapering of 2.6 $\\,\\times \\,$ 10$^{-5}$ dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. When controllably launching the next family of higher-order modes on a fiber with 195 mm stretch, we achieve a transmission of 97.8 $\\pm$ 2.8%, which has a loss from tapering of 5.0 $\\,\\times \\,$ 10$^{-4}$ dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. Our pulling and transfer procedures allow us to fabricate optical nanofibers that transmit more than 400 mW in high vacuum conditions. These results, published as parameters in our previous work, present an improvement of two orders of magnitude less loss for the fundamental mode and an increase in transmission of more than 300% for higher-order modes, when following the protocols detailed in this paper. We extract from the transmission during the pull, the only reported...

  1. Supplementary magnetic tests for railway wheel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Hilary ŻUREK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During manufacturing process the wheel set is subjected to many different flaw detection methods; however, these methods are not sufficient while the wheel set is in service. The paper presents an example of monitoring of magnetic parameters changes of wheel set rolling surface (changes result from material degradation due to materialfatigue.

  2. NONLINEAR DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF VISCOELATIC TRANSMISSION BELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghui; Gao Qing; Jian Kailin; Yin Xuegang

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic responses of viscoelastic axially transmission belts are investigated and the Kelvin viscoelastic differential constitutive model is employed to characterize the material property of belts. The generalized equation of motion is obtained for a viscoelatic axially transmission belts with geometric nonlinearity first, and then is reduced to be a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying Galerkin's method. Finally, the effects of viscosity parameter and elastic parameter and the moving velocity of the belts on the transient responses are investigated by the research of digital simulation.

  3. Fast neutrons transmission measurement setup at KFUPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Center for Applied Physical Sciences, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Rehman Khateeb-ur; Nagadi, M.M.; Kidwai, S. [Kind Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Physics, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2002-08-01

    A fast neutron transmission based experimental set up has been developed to determine concentration of hydrogen in the bulk sample. The facility has been tested with transmission of 2.8 MeV neutrons through cylindrical samples. NE213 scintillation detector was used to detect transmitted fast neutrons. In preliminary tests of the facility wood and soil samples containing known amount of water were analyzed. Intensity of fast neutrons transmitted through the samples shows linear correlation with water contents of the soil sample. The facility and results of the preliminary tests will be presented. (author)

  4. Optimisation of Video-Data Transmission in Telematic System

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Bubenikova; Peter Holecko; Rastislav Pirnik

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyse, define, and summarise the requirements on networks connecting telematic technologies based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). The paper describes the methodics of setting and a general concept of technological networks interface based on available and applicable standards Focus is set on optimisation of data transmission in the form of a video-stream and its tunnelling through xDSL transmission technology. The implementation of the designed compres...

  5. Optimisation of video-data transmission in telematic system

    OpenAIRE

    Bubeníková, Emília; Pirník, Rastislav; Holečko, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyse, define, and summarise the requirements on networks connecting telematic technologies based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). The paper describes the methodics of setting and a general concept of technological networks interface based on available and applicable standards Focus is set on optimisation of data transmission in the form of a video-stream and its tunnelling through xDSL transmission technology. The implementation of the designed compressi...

  6. Probabilistic transmission system planning

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    "The book is composed of 12 chapters and three appendices, and can be divided into four parts. The first part includes Chapters 2 to 7, which discuss the concepts, models, methods and data in probabilistic transmission planning. The second part, Chapters 8 to 11, addresses four essential issues in probabilistic transmission planning applications using actual utility systems as examples. Chapter 12, as the third part, focuses on a special issue, i.e. how to deal with uncertainty of data in probabilistic transmission planning. The fourth part consists of three appendices, which provide the basic knowledge in mathematics for probabilistic planning. Please refer to the attached table of contents which is given in a very detailed manner"--

  7. Dynamic lung transmission studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive method for determining regional lungvolumes, which could replace bronchospirometry in routine clinical use. Transmission through the thorax of sup(99m)Tc-gammarays is measured by means of a gamma camera on line with a computer. The technique of measurement and data analysis is described and tested in several series of phantom studies. The results proved to be good: the mean difference with the real volumes was -4%. The error varied between -10% and +1. Transmission studies and bronchospirometry are compared in a group of 11 patients and there proved to be a good correspondence between the results of these methods. It is concluded that transmission experiments can determine the vital capacity of both lungs as a whole as accurately as spirometry and allows the measurement of vital capacity for each lung separately with the same accuracy as bronchospirometry. (Auth.)

  8. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  9. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Mekibib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  10. The potential for sexual transmission to compromise control of Ebola virus outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John E; Drake, John M; Rohani, Pejman; Park, Andrew W

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that sexual contact may give rise to transmission of Ebola virus long after infection has been cleared from blood. We develop a simple mathematical model that incorporates contact transmission and sexual transmission parametrized from data relating to the 2013-2015 West African Ebola epidemic. The model explores scenarios where contact transmission is reduced following infection events, capturing behaviour change, and quantifies how these actions reducing transmission may be compromised by sexual transmission in terms of increasing likelihood, size and duration of outbreaks. We characterize the extent to which sexual transmission operates in terms of the probability of initial infection resolving to sexual infectiousness and the sexual transmission rate, and relate these parameters to the overall case burden. We find that sexual transmission can have large effects on epidemic dynamics (increasing attack ratios from 25% in scenarios without sexual transmission but with contact-transmission-reducing behaviour, up to 80% in equivalent scenarios with sexual transmission). PMID:27277951

  11. Thermal influence on precise gear transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Fei, Yetai; Miao, EnMing; Zhang, Xiao-rou

    2013-01-01

    Conjugate meshing of involute gears is required in precise gear transmission. However, in the working process, the heat generated in friction results in deformation of the tooth profile of the gear, radial and axial deformation of the shaft and bearing. Meanwhile, there is thermal deformation with non-similarity in the gear box that the shafts and bearings are installed on, which leads to a change of the bearing clearance, axis deflection of the shaft and the gear meshing state. As a result of all these effects, vibration and noise are generated in the transmission system, and it intensifies the possibility of damaging the parts. In this paper, mathematical physics methods and thermal elastic theory are employed to analyze the influence of tooth profiles, gear parameters (transmission ratio i, overlapping coefficients ɛ, backlash jn, etc), gear meshing, working clearance of the bearing (it relates with the initial clearance, tolerance matching, rotational speed, temperature changes, etc) and the shape of the gear box (cylindricity error, axis deflection, etc) caused by the temperature change. The result can be employed in selecting gear parameters and designing the shape of the gear tooth, bearing clearance and shell structure, and it is also helpful to the design of gear transmissions and screw transmissions.

  12. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  13. Principal Components Analysis of Triaxial Vibration Data From Helicopter Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Huff, Edward M.

    2001-01-01

    Research on the nature of the vibration data collected from helicopter transmissions during flight experiments has led to several crucial observations believed to be responsible for the high rates of false alarms and missed detections in aircraft vibration monitoring systems. This work focuses on one such finding, namely, the need to consider additional sources of information about system vibrations. In this light, helicopter transmission vibration data, collected using triaxial accelerometers, were explored in three different directions, analyzed for content, and then combined using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to analyze changes in directionality. In this paper, the PCA transformation is applied to 176 test conditions/data sets collected from an OH58C helicopter to derive the overall experiment-wide covariance matrix and its principal eigenvectors. The experiment-wide eigenvectors. are then projected onto the individual test conditions to evaluate changes and similarities in their directionality based on the various experimental factors. The paper will present the foundations of the proposed approach, addressing the question of whether experiment-wide eigenvectors accurately model the vibration modes in individual test conditions. The results will further determine the value of using directionality and triaxial accelerometers for vibration monitoring and anomaly detection.

  14. Nosocomial Transmission of SARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nelson; Sung, Joseph J.Y.

    2003-12-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a newly emerged infectious disease with moderately high transmissibility. Nosocomial outbreaks were responsible for the propagation of the epidemic worldwide. Health care workers (HCW) are at particular high risk because of their close contact with patients, involvement in medical procedures, and handling of excreta/fomites. Good hospital organization and appropriate infection control strategies are essential to prevent/interrupt disease transmission from patients to HCWs (and vice versa) and among inpatients and HCWs themselves. Education and training should target broadly to all HCWs.

  15. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  16. Exoplanet Transmission Spectroscopy using KMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Parviainen, Hannu; Thatte, Niranjan; Barstow, Joanna K; Evans, Thomas M; Gibson, Neale

    2015-01-01

    KMOS (K-Band Multi Object Spectrograph) is a novel integral field spectrograph installed in the VLT's ANTU unit. The instrument offers an ability to observe 24 2.8"$\\times$2.8" sub-fields positionable within a 7.2' patrol field, each sub-field producing a spectrum with a 14$\\times$14-pixel spatial resolution. The main science drivers for KMOS are the study of galaxies, star formation, and molecular clouds, but its ability to simultaneously measure spectra of multiple stars makes KMOS an interesting instrument for exoplanet atmosphere characterization via transmission spectroscopy. We set to test whether transmission spectroscopy is practical with KMOS, and what are the conditions required to achieve the photometric precision needed, based on observations of a partial transit of WASP-19b, and full transits of GJ 1214b and HD 209458b. Our analysis uses the simultaneously observed comparison stars to reduce the effects from instrumental and atmospheric sources, and Gaussian processes to model the residual system...

  17. Harmonics in transmission power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz

    , provided that background harmonic distortion, and the network configuration, are not changing during the measurement. It is shown that switching of a shunt linear power system component can result in variation of the harmonic levels that can be measured and used to verify the harmonic model of the network....... Three novel methods are also proposed, where switching of a series component can be used for the same purpose. Two of these methods are based on the determination of transfer harmonic impedance of the network and the third approach, which is actually used in the project, is based on injection......, in order to determine which power system component, when switched, results in the largest change in harmonic levels, some initial harmonic simulations, using the created harmonic model of Energinet.dk transmission network, are performed. The criterion is that the measuring equipment shall not be installed...

  18. Transmission analysis in WDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a computer-based simulator for transmission analysis in optical wavelength division multiplexing networks. A great part of the work concerns fundamental optical network simulator issues. Among these issues are identification of the versatility and user......-friendliness demands which such a simulator must meet, development of the "spectral window representation" for representation of the optical signals and finding an effective way of handling the optical signals in the computer memory. One important issue more is the rules for the determination of the order in which...... the different component models are invoked during the simulation of a system. A simple set of rules which makes it possible to simulate any network architectures is laid down. The modelling of the nonlinear fibre and the optical receiver is also treated. The work on the fibre concerns the numerical solution...

  19. Transmission of preferences and beliefs about female labor market participation : direct evidence on the role of mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Ricardo; Machado, Matilde P.; Carro, Jesús M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, economists have established that culture—defined as a common set of preferences and beliefs —affects economic outcomes, including the levels of female labor force participation. Although this literature has argued that culture is transmitted from parents to children, it has also recognized the difficulty in empirically disentangling the parental transmission of preferences and/or beliefs from other confounding factors, such as technological change or investment in education. Using c...

  20. Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV. (authors)

  1. Dilemmas of Cultural Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováts-Németh, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental problem of the 21st century is that in the modern civilization "the transmission of values is not stable." There is nothing, except for the natural sense of justice and some legal traditions, which would exercise selective power on social behavior. At a critical time in 1949 Albert Szent-Györgyi drew the attention to the…

  2. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  3. Improving Transmission Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Saraswat, Kavita; Gupta, Amol

    2016-01-01

    Development of power transmission networks requires long lead times and substantial capital. Optimization of investment is especially critical in fast-growing economies such as India’s, where there are competing demands on financial resources, and utilities need to maintain adequate cash flow to expand electricity service for economic growth and poverty reduction. As shown by examples from...

  4. Transplacental transmission of Bluetongue virus serotype 1 and serotype 8 in sheep: virological and pathological findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam T W van der Sluijs

    Full Text Available The Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8 strain, which emerged in Europe in 2006, had an unusually high ability to cause foetal infection in pregnant ruminants. Other serotypes of BTV had already been present in Europe for more than a decade, but transplacental transmission of these strains had never been demonstrated. To determine whether transplacental transmission is a unique feature of BTV-8 we compared the incidence and pathological consequences of transplacental transmission of BTV-8 to that of BTV-1. Nine pregnant ewes were infected with either BTV-8 or BTV-1. The BTV strains used for the infection were field strains isolated on embryonated chicken eggs and passaged twice on mammalian cells. Blood samples were taken to monitor the viraemia in the ewes. Four weeks after the infection, the foetuses were examined for pathological changes and for the presence of BTV. BTV-8 could be demonstrated in 12 foetuses (43% from 5 ewes (56%. %. BTV-1 was detected in 14 foetuses (82% from 6 ewes (67%. Pathological changes were mainly found in the central nervous system. In the BTV-8 group, lympho-histiocytic infiltrates, gliosis and slight vacuolation of the neuropil were found. BTV-1 infection induced a severe necrotizing encephalopathy and severe meningitis, with macroscopic hydranencephaly or porencephaly in 8 foetuses. In our experimental setting, using low passaged virus strains, BTV-1 was able to induce transplacental transmission to a higher incidence compared to BTV-8, causing more severe pathology.

  5. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross

  6. Condition Monitoring Method for Automatic Transmission Clutches

    OpenAIRE

    Agusmian Partogi Ompusunggu; Jean-Michel Papy; Steve Vandenplas; Paul Sas; Hendrik Van Brussel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a condition monitoring method for wet friction clutches which might be useful for automatic transmission applications. The method is developed based on quantifying the change of the relative rotational velocity signal measured between the input and output shaft of a clutch. Prior to quantifying the change, the raw velocity signal is preprocessed to capture the relative velocity signal of interest. Three dimensionless parameters, namely the normalized eng...

  7. Climate and Dengue Transmission: Evidence and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Cory W.; Comrie, Andrew C.; Ernst, Kacey

    2013-01-01

    Background: Climate influences dengue ecology by affecting vector dynamics, agent development, and mosquito/human interactions. Although these relationships are known, the impact climate change will have on transmission is unclear. Climate-driven statistical and process-based models are being used to refine our knowledge of these relationships and predict the effects of projected climate change on dengue fever occurrence, but results have been inconsistent. Objective: We sought to identify ma...

  8. The effect of electric transmission constraints on how power generation companies bid in the Colombian electrical power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gallego Vega

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research about the effect of transmission constraints on both expected electrical energy to be dispatched and power generation companies’ bidding strategies in the Colombian electrical power market. The proposed model simulates the national transmission grid and economic dispatch by means of optimal power flows. The proposed methodology allows structural problems in the power market to be analyzed due to the exclusive effect of trans- mission constraints and the mixed effect of bidding strategies and transmission networks. A new set of variables is proposed for quantifying the impact of each generation company on system operating costs and the change in expected dispatched energy. A correlation analysis of these new variables is presented, revealing some interesting linearities in some generation companies’ bidding patterns.

  9. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  10. Data transmission networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexovich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

  11. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  12. ECRH transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The M.I.T. gyrotron group operates a 140 GHz, short pulse (1μs) gyrotron with output power, at present, of up to 175 kW. Output radiation has been obtained in several modes, including TE03 at 140 GHz, TE23 at 137 GHz, TE42 at 128 GHz and TE52 at 145 GHz. Studies have been carried out of the mode purity, both in frequency and in space, of gyrotron output radiation. These studies investigate parasitic mode excitation and mode conversion of gyrotron output power. Far field patterns of gyrotron radiation have been investigated to determine mode symmetry and purity. These results are useful in estimating the efficiency of various transmission systems. Finally, a new approach to quasi-optical transmission lines and mode converters, using axisymmetric optics, is suggested

  13. Global wireless power transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1995-01-01

    Economic and environmental pressures require the development of technologies that are compatible with the Earth’s environment and acceptable to society. An emerging power supply option based on Nikola Tesla’s concept of wireless power transmission (WPT) can be applied to transmit power over intercontinental distances with power relay satellites (PRS) [1] to access renewable energy sources at undeveloped or underutilized remote sites, and to convert solar energy in space for use on Earth on a ...

  14. Wireless Power Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Pragati S. Chawardol; Deepali R. Badre ,; , Mithul S. There

    2014-01-01

    A great concern has been voiced in recent years over the extensive use of energy, the limited supply of resourses, and the pollution of the environment from the use of present energy conversion systems. Electrical power accounts for much of the energy consumed. One of the major issue in power system is the losses occurs during the transmission and distribution of electrical power. As the demand increases day by day, the power generation increases and the power loss is also increas...

  15. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Axon, Anthony T. R.

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter gastroduodenitis is a serious chronic infectious disease that is responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. An understanding of the way in which it spreads is fundamentally important when considering measures for its control. Its prevalence is highest in the developing world and in individuals with a disadvantaged socio-economic childhood. The disease is believed to be contracted during the early years of life. A faeco-oral mode of transmission is considered by many to b...

  16. Transmission of light through magnetic nanocavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoka, Piotr; Skeren, Tomas; Hilgendorff, Michael; Zhi, Linjie; Paudel, Trilochan; Kempa, Krzysztof; Giersig, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The transmission of light through a metallic film stack on a transparent substrate, perforated with a periodic array of cylindrical holes/nanocavities, is studied. The structure is fabricated by using self-assembled nanosphere lithography. Since one layer in the film stack is made of a ferromagnetic metal (iron), exposure of the structure to a solution containing iron oxide nanoparticles causes nanoparticle accumulation inside the nanocavities. This changes the dielectric constant inside the nanocavities and thus affects the light transmission. Simulations are in good agreement with experiment, and show large sensitivity of the response to the amount of iron oxide nanoparticles deposited. This could be used in various sensor applications. PMID:21916008

  17. Electromagnetic analysis using transmission line variables

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This book employs a relatively new method for solving electromagnetic problems, one which makes use of a transmission line matrix (TLM). The propagation space is imagined to be filled with this matrix. The propagating fields and physical properties are then mapped onto the matrix. Mathematically, the procedures are identical with the traditional numerical methods; however, the interpretation and physical appeal of the transmission line matrix are far superior. Any change in the matrix has an immediate physical significance. What is also very important is that the matrix becomes a launching pad

  18. NB Power Transmission system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [NB Power Transmission, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The NB Power Transmission System operates 6700 km of transmission lines having voltages of 69 kV, 138 kV, 230 kV, and 345 kV. The history of lightning protection on this transmission system was presented. Lightning protection with shield wires has been applied selectively on the 69 kV and 138 kV lines and has been applied to all lines in the 230 kV and 345 kV range. Beginning in 2000, line arresters were installed on selected 69 kV and 138 kV lines. It was noted that although overhead shield wires are commonly installed to capture lightning strikes and shield the conductors, problems can occur if the electrical flashover of insulators result in a line to ground fault. Good grounding is needed to ensure that lightning enters the ground from the tower. The new approach is to install line arresters on structures without overhead shield wires. Line arresters are surge arresters applied in parallel with the insulator string. This new line arrester technology was tested by installing nearly 1200 arresters in the Saint John area. This paper described the reasons for choosing line arresters over shield wires and presented the methods of installation. The problems and failure rates of the installed line arresters were presented along with solutions, including solutions to protect lines against lightning in areas with heavy icing. Recommendations for future research into the use, application and development of line arresters were also presented. tabs., figs.

  19. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  20. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  1. Interrupting malaria transmission: quantifying the impact of interventions in regions of low to moderate transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Gatton

    Full Text Available Malaria has been eliminated from over 40 countries with an additional 39 currently planning for, or committed to, elimination. Information on the likely impact of available interventions, and the required time, is urgently needed to help plan resource allocation. Mathematical modelling has been used to investigate the impact of various interventions; the strength of the conclusions is boosted when several models with differing formulation produce similar data. Here we predict by using an individual-based stochastic simulation model of seasonal Plasmodium falciparum transmission that transmission can be interrupted and parasite reintroductions controlled in villages of 1,000 individuals where the entomological inoculation rate is <7 infectious bites per person per year using chemotherapy and bed net strategies. Above this transmission intensity bed nets and symptomatic treatment alone were not sufficient to interrupt transmission and control the importation of malaria for at least 150 days. Our model results suggest that 1 stochastic events impact the likelihood of successfully interrupting transmission with large variability in the times required, 2 the relative reduction in morbidity caused by the interventions were age-group specific, changing over time, and 3 the post-intervention changes in morbidity were larger than the corresponding impact on transmission. These results generally agree with the conclusions from previously published models. However the model also predicted changes in parasite population structure as a result of improved treatment of symptomatic individuals; the survival probability of introduced parasites reduced leading to an increase in the prevalence of sub-patent infections in semi-immune individuals. This novel finding requires further investigation in the field because, if confirmed, such a change would have a negative impact on attempts to eliminate the disease from areas of moderate transmission.

  2. 47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transmission system facilities. (a) The following changes are prohibited: (1) Those that would result in the.... (2) Those that would cause the transmission system to exceed the equipment performance measurements... test operations at the full authorized ERP may commence immediately upon installation pursuant to §...

  3. 人巨细胞病毒在乳汁中的载量变化及其传播风险%Loads change of HCMV in breast milk and the risk of transmission via breast milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 崔会玲; 段歌红; 陈茂才; 冀恒涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨人巨细胞病毒(HCMV)DNA在乳汁中的载量变化以揭示其通过母乳喂养将病毒传播给婴儿的风险。方法选择2013年9月~2014年10月于郑州大学第二附属医院产科住院的305名产妇(哺乳期母亲)及其婴儿作为实验对象,选择同期103名奶粉喂养婴儿为对照,用实时荧光定量PCR方法检测其乳汁、尿液和外周血白细胞中的HCMV病毒DNA载量,数据进行统计学分析比较各组差异。结果产后第6周乳汁病毒DNA总阳性率为44.92%,其中有73名母亲将病毒传播给了婴儿,72名是非传播者。传播者的DNA载量为(4.70±1.26)(lg)而非传播者为(3.08±0.88)(lg),差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01)。病毒DNA阳性乳汁喂养的婴儿感染率(50.68%)显著高于阴性乳汁喂养的婴儿(3.70%)和奶粉喂养的婴儿(9.71%),差异均有高度统计学意义(P<0.01)。而且母乳喂养及奶粉喂养的早产儿的尿液HCMV-DNA阳性率(83.33%、37.50%)均高于足月儿(47.76%、7.37%),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。乳汁病毒DNA载量高于3.42者,84%将病毒传播给婴儿,而低于3.42者75%没有传播病。因此,2600 copies/mL(lg2600=3.42)为传播者的临界值。结论含有病毒的乳汁是HCMV的重要传染源,而且建议乳汁HCMV DNA载量2600 copies/mL作为传播者的临界值。早产儿对HCMV更为易感,尿液病毒DNA检测用来诊断HCMV具有很好的敏感性。%Objective To discuss the loads change of HCMV in breast milk and to reveal the risk of transmission to in-fants via breast-feeding. Methods From September 2013 to October 2014, 305 lactating mothers admitted to Obstetric Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital, and their 308 infants were screened for HCMV, with 103 formula-fed in-fants in the same period were selected as control. HCMV DNA isolated from breast milk, urine and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC

  4. Improving the Energy Market: Algorithms, Market Implications, and Transmission Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Paula Ann

    corresponding to the accuracy and AC-feasiblity of the solution. This linearization was tested on the IEEE and Polish systems, which range from 14 to 3375 buses and 20 to 4161 transmission lines. It had an accuracy of 0.5% or less for all but the 30-bus system. It also solved in linear time with CPLEX, while the non-linear version solved in O(n1.11) to O(n1.39). The sequential linearization is slower than the nonlinear formulation for smaller problems, but faster for larger problems, and its linear computational time means it would continue solving faster for larger problems. A major consideration to implementing algorithms to solve the optimal generator dispatch is ensuring that the resulting prices from the algorithm will support the market. Since the sequential linearization is linear, it is convex, its marginal values are well-defined, and there is no duality gap. The prices and settlements obtained from the sequential linearization therefore can be used to run a market. This market will include extra prices and settlements for reactive power and voltage, compared to the present-day market, which is based on real power. An advantage of this is that there is a very clear pool that can be used for reactive power/voltage support payments, while presently there is not a clear pool to take them out of. This method also reveals how valuable reactive power and voltage are at different locations, which can enable better planning of reactive resource construction. Transmission switching increases the feasible region of the generator dispatch, which means there may be a better solution than without transmission switching. Power flows on transmission lines are not directly controllable; rather, the power flows according to how it is injected and the physical characteristics of the lines. Changing the network topology changes the physical characteristics, which changes the flows. This means that sets of generator dispatch that may have previously been infeasible due to the flow

  5. Sets in Coq, Coq in Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Barras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is about formalizing models of various type theories of the Calculus of Constructions family. Here we focus on set theoretical models. The long-term goal is to build a formal set theoretical model of the Calculus of Inductive Constructions, so we can be sure that Coq is consistent with the language used by most mathematicians.One aspect of this work is to axiomatize several set theories: ZF possibly with inaccessible cardinals, and HF, the theory of hereditarily finite sets. On top of these theories we have developped a piece of the usual set theoretical construction of functions, ordinals and fixpoint theory. We then proved sound several models of the Calculus of Constructions, its extension with an infinite hierarchy of universes, and its extension with the inductive type of natural numbers where recursion follows the type-based termination approach.The other aspect is to try and discharge (most of these assumptions. The goal here is rather to compare the theoretical strengths of all these formalisms. As already noticed by Werner, the replacement axiom of ZF in its general form seems to require a type-theoretical axiom of choice (TTAC.

  6. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  7. Sets resilient to erosion

    CERN Document Server

    Pegden, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    The erosion of a set in Euclidean space by a radius r>0 is the subset of X consisting of points at distance >/-r from the complement of X. A set is resilient to erosion if it is similar to its erosion by some positive radius. We give a somewhat surprising characterization of resilient sets, consisting in one part of simple geometric constraints on convex resilient sets, and, in another, a correspondence between nonconvex resilient sets and scale-invariant (e.g., 'exact fractal') sets.

  8. Alberta's transmission development policy : review and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta's Department of Energy (ADOE) released a policy paper in November 2003 regarding power transmission development for the province. The transmission development policy (TDP) is intended to promote economic growth in Alberta while ensuring consumers with reliable, reasonably priced electricity. This presentation reviewed the main features of the policy and then focused on the allocation of costs to generation customers. The author argued that the proposed changes would result in a sub-optimal development of generation and higher total electricity bills for consumers. He argued that the policy will spare generation customers of any obligation to pay wire-related costs other than local interconnection costs. This would weaken a long-standing ADOE policy which requires generators to pay costs that depend on their location on the transmission system. With the new proposal, generators would not be responsible for ancillary service costs even when they provide direct benefits, and they would pay for system losses on a zonal basis. The author recommended that location charges should be large enough to influence the siting decisions of generators. He also recommended that generators should pay their fare share of transmission use-of-system charges, including ancillary services that provide benefits to generators in the form of a stable, reliable transmission system. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Economic analysis for transmission operation and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun

    2011-12-01

    Restructuring of the electric power industry has caused dramatic changes in the use of transmission system. The increasing congestion conditions as well as the necessity of integrating renewable energy introduce new challenges and uncertainties to transmission operation and planning. Accurate short-term congestion forecasting facilitates market traders in bidding and trading activities. Cost sharing and recovery issue is a major impediment for long-term transmission investment to integrate renewable energy. In this research, a new short-term forecasting algorithm is proposed for predicting congestion, LMPs, and other power system variables based on the concept of system patterns. The advantage of this algorithm relative to standard statistical forecasting methods is that structural aspects underlying power market operations are exploited to reduce the forecasting error. The advantage relative to previously proposed structural forecasting methods is that data requirements are substantially reduced. Forecasting results based on a NYISO case study demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, a negotiation methodology is developed to guide transmission investment for integrating renewable energy. Built on Nash Bargaining theory, the negotiation of investment plans and payment rate can proceed between renewable generation and transmission companies for cost sharing and recovery. The proposed approach is applied to Garver's six bus system. The numerical results demonstrate fairness and efficiency of the approach, and hence can be used as guidelines for renewable energy investors. The results also shed light on policy-making of renewable energy subsidies.

  10. aTmcam: A Simple Atmospheric Transmission Monitoring Camera For Sub 1% Photometric Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ting; Kessler, R; Burke, D L; Marshall, J L; Wise, J; Rheault, J -P; Carona, D W; Boada, S; Prochaska, T; Allen, R

    2013-01-01

    Traditional color and airmass corrections can typically achieve ~0.02 mag precision in photometric observing conditions. A major limiting factor is the variability in atmospheric throughput, which changes on timescales of less than a night. We present preliminary results for a system to monitor the throughput of the atmosphere, which should enable photometric precision when coupled to more traditional techniques of less than 1% in photometric conditions. The system, aTmCam, consists of a set of imagers each with a narrow-band filter that monitors the brightness of suitable standard stars. Each narrowband filter is selected to monitor a different wavelength region of the atmospheric transmission, including regions dominated by the precipitable water absorption and aerosol scattering. We have built a prototype system to test the notion that an atmospheric model derived from a few color indices measurements can be an accurate representation of the true atmospheric transmission. We have measured the atmospheric t...

  11. A Procedure for Socially Valid Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Howell, Amber; Carpenter, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting poses a significant challenge for service providers in both clinical and educational settings. With today's call for services that contribute to meaningful changes in children, there is an increased need for goal-setting procedures that are socially valid. This article presents such a procedure and illustrates its use through a case…

  12. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  13. Research and Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present situation provides a challenge for us to reconsider the necessary link between science and pedagogy, between research and the transmission of knowledge. The Ministry of National education has just inaugurated a broad consultation of teachers on every level with a view to modernising and giving coherence to the programs of secondary education. Armand Frémont will head the group of experts responsible for history and geography. Is this a coincidence? The changeover in the jury for t...

  14. On the transmission of terahertz radiation through silicon-based structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persano, Anna, E-mail: anna.persano@le.imm.cnr.it; Francioso, Luca; Cola, Adriano [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems–Unit of Lecce, National Council of Research (IMM-CNR), Via Monteroni, Lecce 73100 (Italy); Torres, Jérémie; Nouvel, Philippe; Varani, Luca [Institut d' Electronique du Sud, CNRS UMR 5214, TeraLab, University Montpellier 2, Montpellier (France); Korotyeyev, Vadym V.; Lyaschuk, Yu M. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)

    2014-07-28

    We report on the transmission of a terahertz (THz) radiation through prototype structures based on a p-type silicon substrate. In particular, the bare substrate and progressively more complicated multilayer structures were investigated, allowing to address the effect on the transmission of different factors, such as the orientation of interdigitated contacts with respect to the polarized beam, the temperature, and the current flowing through a conductive SnO{sub 2} nanorods layer. A suitable experimental set-up was developed for the direct spectral measurement of transmission in the range of 0.75–1.1 THz at room and low temperatures. A simple Drude-Lorentz model was formulated, finding a quantitative agreement with the experimental transmission spectrum of the bare substrate at room temperature. For the multilayer structures, the spectra variations observed with temperature are well accounted by the corresponding change of the mobility of holes in the silicon p-type substrate. The influence of the contact orientation is consistent with that of a polarizing metallic grating. Finally, Joule heating effects are observed in the spectra performed as a function of the current flowing through the SnO{sub 2} nanorods layer. The experimental results shown here, together with their theoretical interpretation, provide insights for the development of devices fabricated on conductive substrates aimed to absorb/modulate radiation in the THz range.

  15. Altimeter Setting Indicator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Altimeter Setting Indicator (ASI) is an aneroid system used at airports to provide an altimeter setting for aircraft altimeters. This indicator may be an analog...

  16. Landslides, Set 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set expands the topics included in Set 1 and includes (in addition to landslides) rockfalls, rock avalanches, mud flows, debris flows, slumps, creep, and...

  17. Value Set Authority Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The VSAC provides downloadable access to all official versions of vocabulary value sets contained in the 2014 Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Each value set...

  18. Transmission Properties of Fiber Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chun-rong; ZHU Sheng-xiang; XIAO Zhi-gang

    2004-01-01

    Transmission properties of tapered fiber including right cone fiber and bend optical fiber are discussed. The transmission efficiency of the tapered fiber is measured. The curve of transmission efficiency versus taper cone angle is given. By the scalar wave equation and Gaussian approximation, transmission properties of the two kinds of tapered fibers are analyzed, the power losses caused by taper cone angle and by the bending are also calculated. From the experiments and theoretical analysis, it could come to a conclusion that the wider the taper cone angle is, the higher the transmission efficiency will be.

  19. Neutrosophic Crisp Set & Relations

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Salama; Hewayda ElGhawalby

    2014-01-01

    In a world full of indeterminacy, traditional crisp set with its boundaries of truth and false has not infused itself with the ability of reflecting the reality. Therefore, neutrosophic found its place into contemporary research as an alternative representation of the real world. In this paper, we aim to develop a new type of neutrosophic crisp sets called the *-Neutrosophic crisp sets as a generaliza tion of the star intuitionistic set introduced by Indira et al.[4] , and hence studying s...

  20. Rascal finite sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Papini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider finite sets in a normed, infinite dimensional space. First, we study the following problem: given a finite set $F$, does there exist a sphere containing $F$ on its surface? We indicate some results and we collect some examples concerning this problem, also for sets of small cardinality. Then we give an example of a three-point set, in a Hilbert space, without incenter.

  1. Axiomatic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1972-01-01

    This clear and well-developed approach to axiomatic set theory is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, finite sets and cardinal numbers, rational and real numbers, and other subjects. 1960 edition.

  2. Paired fuzzy sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we want to stress the relevance of paired fuzzy sets, as already proposed in previous works of the authors, as a family of fuzzy sets that offers a unifying view for different models based upon the opposition of two fuzzy sets, simply allowing the existence of different types...

  3. Vague集%Vague Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡; 徐章艳; 饶勇

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,we first introduce vague set,then give the definition of intersection and union based on vague set with t-norm and t-conorm of the point value. Thus we gain some properties of intersection and union of vague set.

  4. Sets, Planets, and Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mark; Beltran, Jane; Buell, Jason; Conrey, Brian; Davis, Tom; Donaldson, Brianna; Detorre-Ozeki, Jeanne; Dibble, Leila; Freeman, Tom; Hammie, Robert; Montgomery, Julie; Pickford, Avery; Wong, Justine

    2013-01-01

    Sets in the game "Set" are lines in a certain four-dimensional space. Here we introduce planes into the game, leading to interesting mathematical questions, some of which we solve, and to a wonderful variation on the game "Set," in which every tableau of nine cards must contain at least one configuration for a player to pick up.

  5. Broadband transmission EPR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred R Hagen

    Full Text Available EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9-10 GHz range. Most (biomolecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin - nuclear spin interactions and electron spin - electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8-2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

  6. Eastern wind integration and transmission study overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D. [United States Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States). National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed the electricity system operational impacts and benefits of long distance transmission accessing multiple wind resources in New England. The aim of the eastern wind integration and transmission study (EWITS) was to determine the impact of geographical diversity on system variability, and to understand the role of wind forecasting in ensuring reliability. Mesoscale modelling was evaluated, as well as transmission and integration studies. Mesoscale modelling is conducted to identify wind sites and develop high quality wind resource data sets, as well as to develop wind power plant outputs. Scenarios for 20 and 30 per cent wind integration includes the development of local resources with lower capacity factors; and high capacity factor wind development with larger transmission components. All the scenarios required the use of offshore wind resources. The study also examined export capacity for each of the studied areas. Wind integration, reliability analyses, and hourly modelling approaches were reviewed. Future research will include sensitivity studies related to carbon pricing and stochastic modelling. tabs., figs.

  7. Design and Transmission Analysis of an Asymmetrical Spherical Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Caro, Stéphane; Wang, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an asymmetrical spherical parallel manipulator and its transmissibility analysis. This manipulator contains a center shaft to both generate a decoupled unlimited-torsion motion and support the mobile platform for high positioning accuracy. This work addresses the transmission...... analysis and optimal design of the proposed manipulator based on its kinematic analysis. The input and output transmission indices of the manipulator are defined for its optimum design based on the virtual coefficient between the transmission wrenches and twist screws. The sets of optimal parameters...... are identified and the distribution of the transmission index is visualized. Moreover, a comparative study regarding to the performances with the symmetrical spherical parallel manipulators is conducted and the comparison shows the advantages of the proposed manipulator with respect to its spherical parallel...

  8. Elements of set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Enderton, Herbert B

    1977-01-01

    This is an introductory undergraduate textbook in set theory. In mathematics these days, essentially everything is a set. Some knowledge of set theory is necessary part of the background everyone needs for further study of mathematics. It is also possible to study set theory for its own interest--it is a subject with intruiging results anout simple objects. This book starts with material that nobody can do without. There is no end to what can be learned of set theory, but here is a beginning.

  9. Sets avoiding integral distances

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    We study open point sets in Euclidean spaces $\\mathbb{R}^d$ without a pair of points an integral distance apart. By a result of Furstenberg, Katznelson, and Weiss such sets must be of Lebesgue upper density zero. We are interested in how large such sets can be in $d$-dimensional volume. We determine the lower and upper bounds for the volumes of the sets in terms of the number of their connected components and dimension, and also give some exact values. Our problem can be viewed as a kind of inverse to known problems on sets with pairwise rational or integral distances.

  10. Generalization Rough Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Di; ZHANG Jun-feng; HU Shou-song

    2008-01-01

    In order to avoid the discretization in the classical rough set theory, a generlization rough set theory is proposed.At first, the degree of general importance of an attribute and attribute subsets are presented.Then, depending on the degree of general importance of attribute, the space distance can be measured with weighted method.At last, a generalization rough set theory based on the general near neighborhood relation is proposed.The proposed theory partitions the universe into the tolerant modules, and forms lower approximation and upper approximation of the set under general near neighborhood relationship, which avoids the discretization in Pawlak's rough set theory.

  11. Noncomputable Spectral Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Teutsch, J

    2007-01-01

    It is possible to enumerate all computer programs. In particular, for every partial computable function, there is a shortest program which computes that function. f-MIN is the set of indices for shortest programs. In 1972, Meyer showed that f-MIN is Turing equivalent to 0'', the halting set with halting set oracle. This paper generalizes the notion of shortest programs, and we use various measures from computability theory to describe the complexity of the resulting "spectral sets." We show that under certain Godel numberings, the spectral sets are exactly the canonical sets 0', 0'', 0''', ... up to Turing equivalence. This is probably not true in general, however we show that spectral sets always contain some useful information. We show that immunity, or "thinness" is a useful characteristic for distinguishing between spectral sets. In the final chapter, we construct a set which neither contains nor is disjoint from any infinite arithmetic set, yet it is 0-majorized and contains a natural spectral set. Thus ...

  12. Multidimensional set switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Sowon; Andersen, George J; Kramer, Arthur F

    2003-06-01

    The present study examined the organization of preparatory processes that underlie set switching and, more specifically, switch costs. On each trial, subjects performed one of two perceptual judgment tasks, color or shape discrimination. Subjects also responded with one of two different response sets. The task set and/or the response set switched from one to the other after 2-6 repeated trials. Response set, task set, and double set switches were performed in both blocked and randomized conditions. Subjects performed with short (100-msec) and long (800-msec) preparatory intervals. Task and response set switches had an additive effect on reaction times (RTs) in the blocked condition. Such a pattern of results suggests a serial organization of preparatory processes when the nature of switches is predictable. However, task and response set switches had an underadditive effect on RTs in the random condition when subjects performed with a brief cue-to-target interval. This pattern of results suggests overlapping task and response set preparation. These findings are discussed in terms of strategic control of preparatory processes in set switching. PMID:12921431

  13. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  14. FPGA Implementation of Video Transmission System Based on LTE

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Yan; Zhang Qianlong; Tang An

    2015-01-01

    In order to support high-definition video transmission, an implementation of video transmission system based on Long Term Evolution is designed. This system is developed on Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA ML605 Evaluation Board. The paper elaborates the features of baseband link designed in Xilinx ISE and protocol stack designed in Xilinx SDK, and introduces the process of setting up hardware and software platform in Xilinx XPS. According to test, this system consumes less hardware resource and is able ...

  15. Transmission models and management of lymphatic filariasis elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Edwin; Gambhir, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The planning and evaluation of parasitic control programmes are complicated by the many interacting population dynamic and programmatic factors that determine infection trends under different control options. A key need is quantification about the status of the parasite system state at any one given timepoint and the dynamic change brought upon that state as an intervention program proceeds. Here, we focus on the control and elimination of the vector-borne disease, lymphatic filariasis, to show how mathematical models of parasite transmission can provide a quantitative framework for aiding the design of parasite elimination and monitoring programs by their ability to support (1) conducting rational analysis and definition of endpoints for different programmatic aims or objectives, including transmission endpoints for disease elimination, (2) undertaking strategic analysis to aid the optimal design of intervention programs to meet set endpoints under different endemic settings and (3) providing support for performing informed evaluations of ongoing programs, including aiding the formation of timely adaptive management strategies to correct for any observed deficiencies in program effectiveness. The results also highlight how the use of a model-based framework will be critical to addressing the impacts of ecological complexities, heterogeneities and uncertainties on effective parasite management and thereby guiding the development of strategies to resolve and overcome such real-world complexities. In particular, we underscore how this approach can provide a link between ecological science and policy by revealing novel tools and measures to appraise and enhance the biological controllability or eradicability of parasitic diseases. We conclude by emphasizing an urgent need to develop and apply flexible adaptive management frameworks informed by mathematical models that are based on learning and reducing uncertainty using monitoring data, apply phased or sequential

  16. Gas transmission pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural gas transmission system consists of facilities that are normally regarded as being a natural monopoly. This is a property the natural gas network share with the telecommunication and the electricity network. All of these networks have, to some degree, been deregulated during the last decades. The deregulation of the natural gas network was in Europe formalized when the gas directive was passed in the European Commission 22 June 1998. This directive opens for third party access to the transportation facilities in the natural gas network. Open network access is important in order to achieve gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in achieving this. Due to the technical nature of the gas network, several physical and technical threshold values exist. If such values are trespassed, only minor incremental deliveries in on part can cause significant unintended reductions elsewhere. When performing analyses on optimal operation of a natural gas network, it is therefore necessary to take into consideration these properties. In this paper the physical properties of the natural gas flow are modeled by taking into account the design parameters of the pipelines in the system and the effects of pressure difference between the nodes in the network. The connection between pressure difference and gas flow is handled with the Weymouth-equation. A quadratic optimization model is constructed in order to analyze operation of the network. This paper examines how the efficiency of the natural gas market is affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system. The tariff regimes investigated include fixed fees, nodal pricing, Chao-Peck pricing and zonal pricing. An examination of the existing tariff-regime in the North-Sea will also be performed as well as a comparison with the above mentioned tariff mechanisms. To perform the analyses, an example network will be presented and analyzed. By combining the physical flow calculations

  17. Sensitivity analysis of the age-structured malaria transmission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addawe, Joel M.; Lope, Jose Ernie C.

    2012-09-01

    We propose an age-structured malaria transmission model and perform sensitivity analyses to determine the relative importance of model parameters to disease transmission. We subdivide the human population into two: preschool humans (below 5 years) and the rest of the human population (above 5 years). We then consider two sets of baseline parameters, one for areas of high transmission and the other for areas of low transmission. We compute the sensitivity indices of the reproductive number and the endemic equilibrium point with respect to the two sets of baseline parameters. Our simulations reveal that in areas of either high or low transmission, the reproductive number is most sensitive to the number of bites by a female mosquito on the rest of the human population. For areas of low transmission, we find that the equilibrium proportion of infectious pre-school humans is most sensitive to the number of bites by a female mosquito. For the rest of the human population it is most sensitive to the rate of acquiring temporary immunity. In areas of high transmission, the equilibrium proportion of infectious pre-school humans and the rest of the human population are both most sensitive to the birth rate of humans. This suggests that strategies that target the mosquito biting rate on pre-school humans and those that shortens the time in acquiring immunity can be successful in preventing the spread of malaria.

  18. Swing Set Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambe Verma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT India is a vast country based on agriculture and irrigation is the most important factor for agriculture. In India there are many sources provide for irrigation. Every day new technologies are emerged in the world which brings a revolutionary change in the nature of this world. day by day the energy resources used by the large population of this world are coming on the last stage This project give the idea that how the other different form of energy can be used and implemented efficiently to overcome from this problem The aim of this project is to achieve the objective of energy lasting problem which is likely to be faced over in coming decades. Energy lasting is a big problem in India. This is faced by every people who live in the country. Swing energy is the form of energy. In this paper we have represented the methodology of swing energy using for rural area of application. This paper is all about Swing Set Water Pump in which the water pump will execute with the help of a swing set of canopy type. As we need a motor to operate the water pump but in this project we use the swing in the place of motor and we use oscillatory motion of swing in the place of rotating motion of a motor. Everybody has needed the energy at an increasing rate ever since he came on the Earth. Because of this lot of energy has been exhausted and wasted. All the member are dedicated the amount of their important time to participate in multiple meetings read and research for making the content to the report. We would especially like to thanks for the efficient condition of the entire Advisory member and their experiences. This study was initial and performed within the BUDDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GIDA Gorakhpur the final report represents the labour and interest of the entire member working for this project. Finally we would like to thanks to all the member of our college workshop who helped us in manufacturing of this project model.

  19. Transmission rights and market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the concerns about physical transmission rights relate to the ability to implicitly or explicitly remove that transmission capacity from the market-place. Under a very strict form of physical right, owners could simply choose not to sell it if they don't want to use it. Modifications that require the release of spare capacity back into an open market could potentially alleviate this problem but there is concern that such releases would not occur far enough in advance to be of much use to schedulers. Similarly, the transmission capacity that is made available for use by non-rights holders can also be manipulated by the owners of transmission rights. The alternative form, financial transmission rights, provide to their owners congestion payments, but physical control of transmission paths. In electricity markets such as California's, even financial transmission rights could potentially be utilized to effectively withhold transmission capacity from the marketplace. However, methods for withholding transmission capacity are somewhat more convoluted, and probably more difficult, for owners of financial rights than for owners of physical rights. In this article, the author discusses some of the potential concerns over transmission rights and their use for the exercise of various forms of market power

  20. Near infrared transmission through clothing: applications in sensing and screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, D. A.; Canal, C. M.; Saleem, A.; Davis, L. A. J.; Green, R. J.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments have been performed to demonstrate that near infrared (NIR) transmission through a wide range of clothing materials is possible. Studies have shown that the characteristics of NIR transmission are affected by both the type of fibre used, and the weave pattern. A series of experiments has indicated that NIR transmission is also dependent on other variables such as fabric porosity and dye colour. It is shown that, in many cases, transmission coefficients are sufficiently high that imaging and spectroscopy of objects hidden behind clothing samples should be possible. However, while transmission through clothing at NIR wavelengths in the 750-1,700 nm range is often more effective than in the visible or IR regions, the fabrics themselves will modify the transmitted signal in terms of spatial effects, intensity and spectral content. The paper also describes the possible use of near infrared signals to identify objects that are hidden behind clothing layers. This can be done using spectroscopy. It is important, however, to distinguish the various contributions that exist within the backscattered signal. A set of careful laboratory experiments have demonstrated that transmission through a set of different clothing fabrics does modify the spectral content of signals, but that the spectrum of a particular chemical can still be identified, provided certain steps are taken. These involve a set of careful calibration measurements, and the use of processing techniques for the retrieval of data. It will be shown that this is possible for both granular solids and selected liquids.

  1. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    the principle behind the elasticity theory. However, if fitting the Söhne model to stress measurements in all three depths, the stresses were underestimated at 0.3 and 0.6 m depth, and overestimated at 0.9 m depth. A fit of the model based on data only at 0.3 m depth indicated that stresses were transmitted......We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...

  2. Fiber optic data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Steven T.

    1987-01-01

    The Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is currently developing a fiber optic data bus transmission and reception system that could eventually replace copper cable connections in airplanes. The original form of the system will transmit information from an encoder to a transponder via a fiber optic cable. An altimeter and an altitude display are connected to a fiber optic transmitter by copper cable. The transmitter converts the altimetry data from nine bit parallel to serial form and send these data through a fiber optic cable to a receiver. The receiver converts the data using a cable similar to that used between the altimeter and display. The transmitting and receiving ends also include a display readout. After completion and ground testing of the data bus, the system will be tested in an airborne environment.

  3. Thrips transmission of tospoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Jacobson, Alana L; Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the disease tomato spotted wilt was first described in Australia. Since that time, knowledge of this disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips (insects in the order Thysanoptera) has revealed a complex relationship between the virus, vector, plant host, and environment. Numerous tospoviruses and thrips vectors have been described, revealing diversity in plant host range and geographical distributions. Advances in characterization of the tripartite interaction between the virus, vector, and plant host have provided insight into molecular and ecological relationships. Comparison to animal-infecting viruses in the family Bunyaviridae has enabled the identification of commonalities between tospoviruses and other bunyaviruses in transmission by arthropod vectors and molecular interactions with hosts. This review provides a special emphasis on TSWV and Frankliniella occidentalis, the model tospovirus-thrips pathosystem. However, other virus-vector combinations are also of importance and where possible, comparisons are made between different viruses and thrips vectors. PMID:26340723

  4. Acronical Risings and Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept found in historical primary sources, and useful in contemporary historiography, is the acronical rising and setting of stars (or planets). Topocentric terms, they provide information about a star's relationship to the Sun and thus its visibility in the sky. Yet there remains ambiguity as to what these two phrases actually mean. "Acronical” is said to have come from the Greek akros ("point,” "summit,” or "extremity") and nux ("night"). While all sources agree that the word is originally Greek, there are alternate etymologies for it. A more serious difficulty with acronical rising and setting is that there are two competing definitions. One I call the Poetical Definition. Acronical rising (or setting) is one of the three Poetical Risings (or Settings) known to classicists. (The other two are cosmical rising/setting, discussed below, and the more familiar helical rising/setting.) The term "poetical" refers to these words use in classical poetry, e. g., that of Columella, Hesiod, Ovid, Pliny the Younger, and Virgil. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” usually is meant in this context. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun sets, it sets acronically. In contrast with the Poetical Definition, there also is what I call the Astronomical Definition. The Astronomical Definition is somewhat more likely to appear in astronomical, mathematical, or navigational works. When the Astronomical Definition is recorded in dictionaries, it is often with the protasis "In astronomy, . . . ." The Astronomical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun rises, it sets acronically. I will attempt to sort this all out in my talk.

  5. A data set of worldwide glacier fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    P. W. Leclercq; Oerlemans, J.; H. J. Basagic; I. Bushueva; Cook, A. J.; Le Bris, R.

    2014-01-01

    Glacier fluctuations contribute to variations in sea level and historical glacier length fluctuations are natural indicators of past climate change. To study these subjects, longterm information of glacier change is needed. In this paper we present a data set of global long-term glacier length fluctuations. The data set is a compilation of available information on changes in glacier length worldwide, including both measured and reconstructed glacier length fluctuations. All 471 length series ...

  6. The Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Tushar Poddar; Hasmik V Khachatryan; Randa Sab

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines monetary transmission in Jordan using the vector autoregressive approach. We find that the real 3-month CD rate, the Central Bank's operating target, affects bank retail rates and that monetary policy, measured by the spread between the 3-month CD rate and the U.S. Federal Funds rate, is effective in influencing foreign reserves. We do not find evidence of monetary policy affecting output. Output responds very little to changes in bank lending rates. Furthermore, equity pr...

  7. Facts controllers in power transmission and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Padiyar, KR

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: The emerging technology of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) enables planning and operation of power systems at minimum costs, without compromising security. This is based on modern high power electronic systems that provide fast controllability to ensure ''flexible'' operation under changing system conditions. This book presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject by discussing the operating principles, mathematical models, control design and issues that affect the applications. The concepts are explained often with illustrative examples and case studies. In partic

  8. Droplets and modes of respiratory disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia

    2014-11-01

    Direct observation of violent expirations such as sneezes and coughs events reveal that such flows are multiphase turbulent buoyant clouds with suspended droplets of various sizes. The effects of ambient conditions indoors, such as moisture and temperature, coupled with the water content of such clouds are key in shaping the pathogen footprint emitted by potentially sick individuals. Such pathogen footprint can change the patterns of respiratory disease transmission. We discuss how the fluid dynamics of violent expirations can help inform how.

  9. aTmcam: A Simple Atmospheric Transmission Monitoring Camera For Sub 1 Percent Photometric Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; DePoy, D. L.; Kessler, R.; Burke, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Wise, J.; Rheault, J.-P.; Carona, D. W.; Boada, S.; Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.

    2016-05-01

    Traditional color and airmass corrections can typically achieve ˜0.02 mag precision in photometric observing conditions. A major limiting factor is the variability in atmospheric throughput, which changes on timescales of less than a night. We present preliminary results for a system to monitor the throughput of the atmosphere, which should enable photometric precision when coupled to more traditional techniques of less than 1% in photometric conditions. The system, aTmCam, consists of a set of imagers each with a narrow-band filter that monitors the brightness of suitable standard stars. Each narrowband filter is selected to monitor a different wavelength region of the atmospheric transmission, including regions dominated by the precipitable water absorption and aerosol scattering. We have built a prototype system to test the notion that an atmospheric model derived from a few color indices measurements can be an accurate representation of the true atmospheric transmission. We have measured the atmospheric transmission with both narrowband photometric measurements and spectroscopic measurements; we show that the narrowband imaging approach can predict the changes in the throughput of the atmosphere to better than ˜10% across a broad wavelength range, so as to achieve photometric precision less than 0.01 mag.

  10. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  11. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  12. Detecting emerging transmissibility of avian influenza virus in human households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in humans underlines the need to track the ability of these viruses to spread among humans. A human-transmissible avian influenza virus is expected to cause clusters of infections in humans living in close contact. Therefore, epidemiological analysis of infection clusters in human households is of key importance. Infection clusters may arise from transmission events from (i the animal reservoir, (ii humans who were infected by animals (primary human-to-human transmission, or (iii humans who were infected by humans (secondary human-to-human transmission. Here we propose a method of analysing household infection data to detect changes in the transmissibility of avian influenza viruses in humans at an early stage. The method is applied to an outbreak of H7N7 avian influenza virus in The Netherlands that was the cause of more than 30 human-to-human transmission events. The analyses indicate that secondary human-to-human transmission is plausible for the Dutch household infection data. Based on the estimates of the within-household transmission parameters, we evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis, and conclude that it is unlikely that all household infections can be prevented with current antiviral drugs. We discuss the applicability of our method for the detection of emerging human-to-human transmission of avian influenza viruses in particular, and for the analysis of within-household infection data in general.

  13. Annotated Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Straccia, Umberto

    2005-01-01

    We present Annotated Answer Set Programming, that extends the ex pressive power of disjunctive logic programming with annotation terms, taken from the generalized annotated logic programming framework.

  14. Feedback Control of Transmission Line by Static VAR Compensators (TSC & TCR Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arushi Jaiswal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Voltage profile maintenance of a transmission system can be done by using feedback control methodology and the compensation technique used is Static VAR compensation. This thesis describes a MATLAB based SIMULINK model that can be implemented in real time systems to maintain a constant voltage profile during load changes and fault conditions. In any power system the basic requirement is to keep the voltage of the system constant so that the load functions properly. Whenever there is a fault or any load is disconnected, the active and reactive power requirements of the system changes. As a result, the voltage of the system changes. Therefore to maintain a constant voltage profile shunt compensators are used near the load end, in the model presented in this project. Fuzzy logic is also implemented to set the proper compensation required

  15. Horizontal versus familial transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schwarz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Helicobacter pylori is thought to occur mainly during childhood, and predominantly within families. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining H. pylori isolates from large population samples and to the extensive genetic diversity between isolates, the transmission and spread of H. pylori remain poorly understood. We studied the genetic relationships of H. pylori isolated from 52 individuals of two large families living in a rural community in South Africa and from 43 individuals of 11 families living in urban settings in the United Kingdom, the United States, Korea, and Colombia. A 3,406 bp multilocus sequence haplotype was determined for a total of 142 H. pylori isolates. Isolates were assigned to biogeographic populations, and recent transmission was measured as the occurrence of non-unique isolates, i.e., isolates whose sequences were identical to those of other isolates. Members of urban families were almost always infected with isolates from the biogeographic population that is common in their location. Non-unique isolates were frequent in urban families, consistent with familial transmission between parents and children or between siblings. In contrast, the diversity of H. pylori in the South African families was much more extensive, and four distinct biogeographic populations circulated in this area. Non-unique isolates were less frequent in South African families, and there was no significant correlation between kinship and similarity of H. pylori sequences. However, individuals who lived in the same household did have an increased probability of carrying the same non-unique isolates of H. pylori, independent of kinship. We conclude that patterns of spread of H. pylori under conditions of high prevalence, such as the rural South African families, differ from those in developed countries. Horizontal transmission occurs frequently between persons who do not belong to a core family, blurring the pattern of familial

  16. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  17. Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Salama; Florentin Smarandache

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce new types of neutrosophic crisp sets with three types 1, 2, 3. After given the fundamental definitions and operations, we obtain several properties, and discussed the relationship between neutrosophic crisp sets and others. Also, we introduce and study the neutrosophic crisp point and neutrosophic crisp relations. Possible applications to database are touched upon.

  18. China Sets Resources Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMin

    2003-01-01

    All mineral mining in China now has a set road to follow, and straying off its path will attract severe penalties. The country's first-round programs for provincial mineral resources exploitation took effect in mid-January, setting output goals and designating mining regions.

  19. The concept of the set to objectification of LLLT exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryko, Lukasz; Gilewski, Marian; Szymanska, Justyna; Zajac, Andrzej; Rosc, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    In this article authors present the developed optoelectronic set for controlled, repeatable exposure by electromagnetic radiation of biological structures in the spectral band of tissue transmission window 600-1000 nm. The set allows for an objective selection and control of exposure parameters and comparison of results for variable energetic, spectral and polarization parameters of radiation beam. Possibility of objective diagnostics of tissue state during laser treatment was provided in the presented optoelectronic set.

  20. EC Transmission Line Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH and CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. (Ref. 2) Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  1. Transmission of digital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showen, Charles R.

    1971-01-01

    The Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, established a pilot project to evaluate equipment that would transmit date recorded on 16-channel paper tapes over voice-grade telephone lines from field offices to the Washington, D.C., Automatic Data Processing Unit (A.D.P. Unit). Such equipment would allow computer-processed data for current-purpose hydrologic data stations to be made available in a more timely manner. The specifications for the equipment were prepared in March 1970; invitations to bid were solicited, a contract was awarded and the equipment was delivered in November 1970. The equipment included two reader/transmitter units, and one receiver/recorder unit. The reader/transmitter units transmit manually entered fixed information, i.e. station number, beginning date and time, and ending date and time, and photoelectrically read and transmit the 16-channel paper tape data. The receiver/recorder unit records the transmitted information on IBM-compatible magnetic tape. This report summarizes the information gained from a year of pilot operation of the equipment, with and without a computer terminal at the field level, and makes recommendations for establishing a data-transmission system in the Water Resources Division.

  2. EC Transmission Line Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  3. Acoustic data transmission method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, A.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes a method for transmitting time line data through a drillstring having drill pipe sections connected end-to-end by joints from a first location below the surface of the earth to a second location at or near the surface of the earth, the length and cross-sectional area of the drill pipe sections being different from the length and cross-sectional area of the joints. It comprises generating acoustic data signals having a single frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring; transmitting the data signals through the drillstring from either the first location to the second location or from the second location to the first location during a time period prior to the onset of reflective interference caused by the data signals reflecting from along the length of the drillstring, the time period being equal to or less than the time for the data signals to travel three lengths of the drillstring; stopping the transmission of data signals at the onset of the reflective interference and allowing the acoustic signals to substantially attenuate; and detecting the data signals at the respective first or second location.

  4. Research on target information optics communications transmission characteristic and performance in multi-screens testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanshan

    2016-04-01

    To enhance the stability and reliability of multi-screens testing system, this paper studies multi-screens target optical information transmission link properties and performance in long-distance, sets up the discrete multi-tone modulation transmission model based on geometric model of laser multi-screens testing system and visible light information communication principle; analyzes the electro-optic and photoelectric conversion function of sender and receiver in target optical information communication system; researches target information transmission performance and transfer function of the generalized visible-light communication channel; found optical information communication transmission link light intensity space distribution model and distribution function; derives the SNR model of information transmission communication system. Through the calculation and experiment analysis, the results show that the transmission error rate increases with the increment of transmission rate in a certain channel modulation depth; when selecting the appropriate transmission rate, the bit error rate reach 0.01.

  5. Simulation of worms transmission in computer network based on SIRS fuzzy epidemic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darti, I.; Suryanto, A.; Yustianingsih, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we study numerically the behavior of worms transmission in a computer network. The model of worms transmission is derived by modifying a SIRS epidemic model. In this case, we consider that the transmission rate, recovery rate and rate of susceptible after recovery follows fuzzy membership functions, rather than constants. To study the transmission of worms in a computer network, we solve the model using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. Our numerical results show that the fuzzy transmission rate and fuzzy recovery rate may lead to a changing of basic reproduction number which therefore also changes the stability properties of equilibrium points.

  6. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission. PMID:26978066

  7. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  8. Generation and tooth contact analysis of spiral bevel gears with predesigned parabolic functions of transmission errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Lee, Hong-Tao

    1989-01-01

    A new approach for determination of machine-tool settings for spiral bevel gears is proposed. The proposed settings provide a predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors and the desired location and orientation of the bearing contact. The predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors is able to absorb piece-wise linear functions of transmission errors that are caused by the gear misalignment and reduce gear noise. The gears are face-milled by head cutters with conical surfaces or surfaces of revolution. A computer program for simulation of meshing, bearing contact and determination of transmission errors for misaligned gear has been developed.

  9. Avoidance of Pressure Oscillations in Discrete Fluid Power Systems with Transmission Lines - An Analytical Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    transmission lines often impose pressure oscillation/ pressure waves to occur in systems operated discrete or very fast. The current work focus on developing an analytical algorithm computing the flow requirement into a cylinder chamber through a transmission line that will impose a smooth pressure change...... in the cylinder chamber. This is realised based on a lumped parameter transmission line model. The algorithm is tested with two different transmission line models....

  10. Set theory essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Emil G

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Set Theory includes elementary logic, sets, relations, functions, denumerable and non-denumerable sets, cardinal numbers, Cantor's theorem, axiom of choice, and order relations.

  11. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  12. Setting the minimum wage

    OpenAIRE

    Boeri, Tito

    2009-01-01

    The process leading to the setting of the minimum wage so far has been fairly overlooked by economists. This paper suggests that this is a serious limitation as the setting regime contributes to explain cross-country variation in the fine-tuning of the minimum wage, hence in the way in which the trade-off between reducing poverty among working people and shutting down low productivity jobs is addressed. There are two common ways of setting national minimum wages: they are either government le...

  13. Social Set Visualizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao;

    2015-01-01

    in relation to the garment factory accidents in Bangladesh, and analyze the results. The enterprise application domain for the dashboard is corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the targeted end-users are CSR researchers and practitioners. The design of the dashboard was based on the social set analysis...... consisted of technical testing, usability testing, and domain-specific testing with CSR students and yielded positive results. In conclusion, we discuss the new analytical- approach of social set analysis and conclude with a discussion of the benefits of set theoretical approaches based on the social...

  14. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  15. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  16. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  17. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  18. Landslides, Set 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set of slides graphically illustrates the potential danger that major earthquakes pose to school structures and to the children and adults who happen to be...

  19. General Paleoclimatology Data Sets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data of past climate and environment derived from unusual proxy evidence. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional summary...

  20. HEDIS Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) is a tool used by more than 90 percent of Americas health plans to measure performance on important...