WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing regulatory scene

  1. Global Transsaccadic Change Blindness During Scene Perception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, John

    2003-01-01

    .... The results from two experiments demonstrated a global transsaccadic change-blindness effect, suggesting that point-by-point visual representations are not functional across saccades during complex scene perception. Ahstract.

  2. Changing scenes: memory for naturalistic events following change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo; Sundström, Anna

    2004-11-01

    Research on scene perception indicates that viewers often fail to detect large changes to scene regions when these changes occur during a visual disruption such as a saccade or a movie cut. In two experiments, we examined whether this relative inability to detect changes would produce systematic biases in event memory. In Experiment 1, participants decided whether two successively presented images were the same or different, followed by a memory task, in which they recalled the content of the viewed scene. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a short video, in which an actor carried out a series of daily activities, and central scenes' attributes were changed during a movie cut. A high degree of change blindness was observed in both experiments, and these effects were related to scene complexity (Experiment 1) and level of retrieval support (Experiment 2). Most important, participants reported the changed, rather than the initial, event attributes following a failure in change detection. These findings suggest that attentional limitations during encoding contribute to biases in episodic memory.

  3. The scene and the unseen: manipulating photographs for experiments on change blindness and scene memory: image manipulation for change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Felix; Elzemann, Anne; Busch, Niko A

    2014-09-01

    The change blindness paradigm, in which participants often fail to notice substantial changes in a scene, is a popular tool for studying scene perception, visual memory, and the link between awareness and attention. Some of the most striking and popular examples of change blindness have been demonstrated with digital photographs of natural scenes; in most studies, however, much simpler displays, such as abstract stimuli or "free-floating" objects, are typically used. Although simple displays have undeniable advantages, natural scenes remain a very useful and attractive stimulus for change blindness research. To assist researchers interested in using natural-scene stimuli in change blindness experiments, we provide here a step-by-step tutorial on how to produce changes in natural-scene images with a freely available image-processing tool (GIMP). We explain how changes in a scene can be made by deleting objects or relocating them within the scene or by changing the color of an object, in just a few simple steps. We also explain how the physical properties of such changes can be analyzed using GIMP and MATLAB (a high-level scientific programming tool). Finally, we present an experiment confirming that scenes manipulated according to our guidelines are effective in inducing change blindness and demonstrating the relationship between change blindness and the physical properties of the change and inter-individual differences in performance measures. We expect that this tutorial will be useful for researchers interested in studying the mechanisms of change blindness, attention, or visual memory using natural scenes.

  4. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed - a phenomenon referred to as "change blindness." This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical) layouts or as global-incongruent (random) arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts). Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of "global precedence" in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  5. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eConci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed – a phenomenon referred to as ‘change blindness’. This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical layouts or as global-incongruent (random arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts. Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of global precedence in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  6. Visual search for changes in scenes creates long-term, incidental memory traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utochkin, Igor S; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2018-05-01

    Humans are very good at remembering large numbers of scenes over substantial periods of time. But how good are they at remembering changes to scenes? In this study, we tested scene memory and change detection two weeks after initial scene learning. In Experiments 1-3, scenes were learned incidentally during visual search for change. In Experiment 4, observers explicitly memorized scenes. At test, after two weeks observers were asked to discriminate old from new scenes, to recall a change that they had detected in the study phase, or to detect a newly introduced change in the memorization experiment. Next, they performed a change detection task, usually looking for the same change as in the study period. Scene recognition memory was found to be similar in all experiments, regardless of the study task. In Experiment 1, more difficult change detection produced better scene memory. Experiments 2 and 3 supported a "depth-of-processing" account for the effects of initial search and change detection on incidental memory for scenes. Of most interest, change detection was faster during the test phase than during the study phase, even when the observer had no explicit memory of having found that change previously. This result was replicated in two of our three change detection experiments. We conclude that scenes can be encoded incidentally as well as explicitly and that changes in those scenes can leave measurable traces even if they are not explicitly recalled.

  7. Saliency predicts change detection in pictures of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    It has been proposed that the visual system encodes the salience of objects in the visual field in an explicit two-dimensional map that guides visual selective attention. Experiments were conducted to determine whether salience measurements applied to regions of pictures of outdoor scenes could predict the detection of changes in those regions. To obtain a quantitative measure of change detection, observers located changes in pairs of colour pictures presented across an interstimulus interval (ISI). Salience measurements were then obtained from different observers for image change regions using three independent methods, and all were positively correlated with change detection. Factor analysis extracted a single saliency factor that accounted for 62% of the variance contained in the four measures. Finally, estimates of the magnitude of the image change in each picture pair were obtained, using nine separate visual filters representing low-level vision features (luminance, colour, spatial frequency, orientation, edge density). None of the feature outputs was significantly associated with change detection or saliency. On the other hand it was shown that high-level (structural) properties of the changed region were related to saliency and to change detection: objects were more salient than shadows and more detectable when changed.

  8. Sustained change blindness to incremental scene rotation: a dissociation between explicit change detection and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Henderson, John M

    2004-07-01

    In a change detection paradigm, the global orientation of a natural scene was incrementally changed in 1 degree intervals. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants demonstrated sustained change blindness to incremental rotation, often coming to consider a significantly different scene viewpoint as an unchanged continuation of the original view. Experiment 3 showed that participants who failed to detect the incremental rotation nevertheless reliably detected a single-step rotation back to the initial view. Together, these results demonstrate an important dissociation between explicit change detection and visual memory. Following a change, visual memory is updated to reflect the changed state of the environment, even if the change was not detected.

  9. The changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, G.

    1999-01-01

    The role and value of regulation in the energy sector was discussed, demonstrating how, despite common perception, regulation is an essential part of Canada's strategy to find and develop new opportunities. The future vision of regulation for industry participants was presented with particular focus on issues related to streamlining the regulatory process. As far as pipelines are concerned, regulatory actions are necessary to facilitate capacity increases and to ensure the line's integrity, safety and environmental record. Furthermore, regulation provides economic solutions where market forces cannot provide them, as for example where business has elements of monopoly. It arbitrates interests of landowners, business, consumers, and environmental groups. It looks for ways to ensure conditions under which competition can flourish. It acts as the guardian of citizens' rights in a democratic society by providing citizens with an opportunity to be heard on the building or expansion of pipelines and associated facilities. As citizens become more and more concerned about their property and the land that surrounds them, citizen involvement in decision making about how industry activity affects their quality of life will become correspondingly more important. Regulatory agencies are committed to facilitate this engagement by flexible hearing procedures and by making use of evolving communication and information technology

  10. Sleep Promotes Lasting Changes in Selective Memory for Emotional Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica ePayne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although we know that emotional events enjoy a privileged status in our memories, we still have much to learn about how emotional memories are processed, stored, and how they change over time. Here we show a positive association between REM sleep and the selective consolidation of central, negative aspects of complex scenes. Moreover, we show that the placement of sleep is critical for this selective emotional memory benefit. When testing occurred 24hr post-encoding, subjects who slept soon after learning (24hr Sleep First group had superior memory for emotional objects compared to subjects whose sleep was delayed for 16hr post-encoding following a full day of wakefulness (24hr Wake First group. However, this increase in memory for emotional objects corresponded with a decrease in memory for the neutral backgrounds on which these objects were placed. Furthermore, memory for emotional objects in the 24hr Sleep First group was comparable to performance after just a 12hr delay containing a night of sleep, suggesting that sleep soon after learning selectively stabilizes emotional memory. These results suggest that the sleeping brain preserves in long-term memory only what is emotionally salient and perhaps most adaptive to remember.

  11. Sleep promotes lasting changes in selective memory for emotional scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jessica D; Chambers, Alexis M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Although we know that emotional events enjoy a privileged status in our memories, we still have much to learn about how emotional memories are processed, stored, and how they change over time. Here we show a positive association between REM sleep and the selective consolidation of central, negative aspects of complex scenes. Moreover, we show that the placement of sleep is critical for this selective emotional memory benefit. When testing occurred 24 h post-encoding, subjects who slept soon after learning (24 h Sleep First group) had superior memory for emotional objects compared to subjects whose sleep was delayed for 16 h post-encoding following a full day of wakefulness (24 h Wake First group). However, this increase in memory for emotional objects corresponded with a decrease in memory for the neutral backgrounds on which these objects were placed. Furthermore, memory for emotional objects in the 24 h Sleep First group was comparable to performance after just a 12 h delay containing a night of sleep, suggesting that sleep soon after learning selectively stabilizes emotional memory. These results suggest that the sleeping brain preserves in long-term memory only what is emotionally salient and perhaps most adaptive to remember.

  12. Regulatory change and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2015-01-01

    Report submitted by a Working Group established by the Committee on the Global Financial System and the Markets Committee. The Group was chaired by Ulrich Bindseil (European Central Bank) and William R Nelson (Federal Reserve Board). Financial regulation is evolving, as policymakers seek to strengthen the financial system in order to make it more robust and resilient. Changes in the regulatory environment are likely to have an impact on financial system structure and on the behaviour of finan...

  13. The changing nuclear scene: 30 years in retrospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this historical review of the last thirty years of nuclear science, the author points to changes in public awareness, government policies, economic considerations and energy expectations. When the Institution of Nuclear Engineers was founded many developed countries were committed to a rapidly expanding nuclear energy programme, with a variety of reactor systems and applications. Research and education funding was generous and fossil fuel prices high. Today, many aspects have changed. The Chernobyl accident has shaken public confidence. Nuclear power is much more expensive than was originally predicted. Fossil fuel prices are comparatively low. Optimism for the future of nuclear power centres around worries about the greenhouse effect and burning fossil fuels, and the ineffective wind and wave alternatives. (author)

  14. Change detection in urban and rural driving scenes: Effects of target type and safety relevance on change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Filtness, Ashleigh J; Jeans, Rhiannon

    2017-03-01

    The ability to detect changes is crucial for safe driving. Previous research has demonstrated that drivers often experience change blindness, which refers to failed or delayed change detection. The current study explored how susceptibility to change blindness varies as a function of the driving environment, type of object changed, and safety relevance of the change. Twenty-six fully-licenced drivers completed a driving-related change detection task. Changes occurred to seven target objects (road signs, cars, motorcycles, traffic lights, pedestrians, animals, or roadside trees) across two environments (urban or rural). The contextual safety relevance of the change was systematically manipulated within each object category, ranging from high safety relevance (i.e., requiring a response by the driver) to low safety relevance (i.e., requiring no response). When viewing rural scenes, compared with urban scenes, participants were significantly faster and more accurate at detecting changes, and were less susceptible to "looked-but-failed-to-see" errors. Interestingly, safety relevance of the change differentially affected performance in urban and rural environments. In urban scenes, participants were more efficient at detecting changes with higher safety relevance, whereas in rural scenes the effect of safety relevance has marginal to no effect on change detection. Finally, even after accounting for safety relevance, change blindness varied significantly between target types. Overall the results suggest that drivers are less susceptible to change blindness for objects that are likely to change or move (e.g., traffic lights vs. road signs), and for moving objects that pose greater danger (e.g., wild animals vs. pedestrians). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mission Risk Reduction Regulatory Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division supports NASA's mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research by integrating environmental considerations into programs and projects early-on, thereby proactively reducing NASA's exposure to institutional, programmatic and operational risk. As part of this effort, NASA established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) as a resource for detecting, analyzing, and communicating environmental regulatory risks to the NASA stakeholder community. The RRAC PC focuses on detecting emerging environmental regulations and other operational change drivers that may pose risks to NASA programs and facilities, and effectively communicating the potential risks. For example, regulatory change may restrict how and where certain activities or operations may be conducted. Regulatory change can also directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Regulatory change can result in significant adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities due to NASA's stringent performance requirements for materials and components related to human-rated space vehicles. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented a system for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the process utilized by the RRACPC to communicate regulatory change and the associated

  16. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his open-quotes environmental presidency.close quotes As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is open-quotes buildableclose quotes from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands

  17. Scene incongruity and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Clarke, Jason; Erol, Muge; Bert, John

    2017-02-01

    Does scene incongruity, (a mismatch between scene gist and a semantically incongruent object), capture attention and lead to conscious perception? We explored this question using 4 different procedures: Inattention (Experiment 1), Scene description (Experiment 2), Change detection (Experiment 3), and Iconic Memory (Experiment 4). We found no differences between scene incongruity and scene congruity in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, although in Experiment 3 change detection was faster for scenes containing an incongruent object. We offer an explanation for why the change detection results differ from the results of the other three experiments. In all four experiments, participants invariably failed to report the incongruity and routinely mis-described it by normalizing the incongruent object. None of the results supports the claim that semantic incongruity within a scene invariably captures attention and provide strong evidence of the dominant role of scene gist in determining what is perceived. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Detecting temporal changes in acoustic scenes: The variable benefit of selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demany, Laurent; Bayle, Yann; Puginier, Emilie; Semal, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Four experiments investigated change detection in acoustic scenes consisting of a sum of five amplitude-modulated pure tones. As the tones were about 0.7 octave apart and were amplitude-modulated with different frequencies (in the range 2-32 Hz), they were perceived as separate streams. Listeners had to detect a change in the frequency (experiments 1 and 2) or the shape (experiments 3 and 4) of the modulation of one of the five tones, in the presence of an informative cue orienting selective attention either before the scene (pre-cue) or after it (post-cue). The changes left intensity unchanged and were not detectable in the spectral (tonotopic) domain. Performance was much better with pre-cues than with post-cues. Thus, change deafness was manifest in the absence of an appropriate focusing of attention when the change occurred, even though the streams and the changes to be detected were acoustically very simple (in contrast to the conditions used in previous demonstrations of change deafness). In one case, the results were consistent with a model based on the assumption that change detection was possible if and only if attention was endogenously focused on a single tone. However, it was also found that changes resulting in a steepening of amplitude rises were to some extent able to draw attention exogenously. Change detection was not markedly facilitated when the change produced a discontinuity in the modulation domain, contrary to what could be expected from the perspective of predictive coding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Political Economy of Regulatory Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain the broader evolution of British merger control. To this end it outlines a novel critical political economy perspective on regulation and regulatory change which differs from established political economy approaches, such as the regulatory capitalism/state perspectives...... to the analysis of the evolution of British merger control provides some important new insights, most notably that the content, form, and scope of merger control in Britain have been deeply transformed in accordance with neoliberal ideas since the 1980s and that this process, which was part of a broader...

  20. Driving Organizational Change From the Bedside: The AACN Clinical Scene Investigator Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Susan R; Goodyear-Bruch, Caryl; Olney, Adrienne; Hanson, Dave; Altman, Marian S; Varn-Davis, Natasha S; Brinker, Debbie; Lavandero, Ramón; Cox, Karen S

    2017-08-01

    Staff nurses are pivotal in leading change related to quality improvement efforts, although many lack skills to steer change from the bedside. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) staff nurse leadership program, Clinical Scene Investigator (CSI) Academy, teaches and empowers staff nurses in leadership skills and change concepts to translate evidence into practice affecting patient outcomes. To describe the curriculum of the AACN CSI Academy that provides staff nurses with the leadership skills required to create unit-based change projects that positively impact patient/family outcomes. The curriculum of the Academy included leadership topics, communication, change concepts, quality improvement methods, project management, and data management and analysis. Each team of participants collected project data to show improvements in patient care. The program evaluation used many data sources to assess the program effectiveness, relating to the professional growth of the participant nurses. The participants assessed project patient outcomes, sustainability, and spread. The first cohort of CSI participants included 164 direct care nurses from 42 hospitals in 6 cities. They rated the Academy highly in the program evaluation, and they reported that the Academy contributed to their professional development. The individual hospital quality improvement projects resulted in positive patient and estimated fiscal outcomes that were generally sustained 1 year after the program. With the skills, tools, and support obtained from participation in the CSI Academy, staff nurses can make substantial contributions to their organizations in clinical and possibly fiscal outcomes. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  1. Developmental Changes in Attention to Faces and Bodies in Static and Dynamic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Stoesz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing individuals show a strong visual preference for faces and face-like stimuli; however, this may come at the expense of attending to bodies or to other aspects of a scene. The primary goal of the present study was to provide additional insight into the development of attentional mechanisms that underlie perception of real people in naturalistic scenes. We examined the looking behaviours of typical children, adolescents, and young adults as they viewed static and dynamic scenes depicting one or more people. Overall, participants showed a bias to attend to faces more than on other parts of the scenes. Adding motion cues led to a reduction in the number, but an increase in the average duration of face fixations in single-character scenes. When multiple characters appeared in a scene, motion-related effects were attenuated and participants shifted their gaze from faces to bodies, or made off-screen glances. Children showed the largest effects related to the introduction of motion cues or additional characters, suggesting that they find dynamic faces difficult to process, and are especially prone to look away from faces when viewing complex social scenes – a strategy that could reduce the cognitive and the affective load imposed by having to divide one’s attention between multiple faces. Our findings provide new insights into the typical development of social attention during natural scene viewing, and lay the foundation for future work examining gaze behaviours in typical and atypical development.

  2. Detecting Damaged Building Regions Based on Semantic Scene Change from Multi-Temporal High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Tu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of damaged building regions is crucial to emergency response actions and rescue work after a disaster. Change detection methods using multi-temporal remote sensing images are widely used for this purpose. Differing from traditional methods based on change detection for damaged building regions, semantic scene change can provide a new point of view since it can indicate the land-use variation at the semantic level. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for detecting damaged building regions based on semantic scene change in a visual Bag-of-Words model. Pre- and post-disaster scene change in building regions are represented by a uniform visual codebook frequency. The scene change of damaged and non-damaged building regions is discriminated using the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. An evaluation of experimental results, for a selected study site of the Longtou hill town of Yunnan, China, which was heavily damaged in the Ludian earthquake of 14 March 2013, shows that this method is feasible and effective for detecting damaged building regions. For the experiments, WorldView-2 optical imagery and aerial imagery is used.

  3. Strengthening Regulatory Competence in a Changing Nuclear Regulatory Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illizastigui, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper addresses the approach followed by the Cuban National Center for Nuclear Safety for the management of current and new competences of its regulatory staff with the aim of allowing those staff to effectively fulfill their core regulatory functions. The approach is realized through an Integrated System for Competence Building, which is based on the IAEA recommendations, shown to be effective in ensuring the necessary competence in the relevant areas. In the author’s opinion, competence of the regulatory staff in the area of human and organizational factors is of paramount importance and needs to be further strengthened in order to be able to assess safety performance at the facilities and detect early signs of deteriorating safety performance. The former is defined by the author as the core regulatory function “Analysis” which covers the entire spectrum of assessment tasks carried out by the regulatory staff to: a) detect declining safety performance, b) diagnose latent weaknesses (root causes) and c) make effective safety culture interventions. The author suggests that competence associated with the fulfillment of the analysis function is distinctly identified and dealt with separately in the current system of managing regulatory competence. (author)

  4. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eHamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view. To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations, induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  5. Age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Johanna; De Beukelaer, Sophie; Kraft, Antje; Ohl, Sven; Audebert, Heinrich J; Brandt, Stephan A

    2013-01-01

    Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view). To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age, and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game-experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media.

  6. Something for everyone? Changes and choices in the ethno-party scene in urban nightlife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, S.

    2011-01-01

    The urban population is becoming increasingly diverse and growing (ethnic) diversity is having a singular effect on nightlife in Dutch cities. By studying the motivation behind and nightlife choices of the young people who participate in ethno-party scenes, Boogaarts-de Bruin investigates how the

  7. Age-related changes in perception of movement in driving scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacherez, Philippe; Turner, Laura; Lester, Robert; Burns, Zoe; Wood, Joanne M

    2014-07-01

    Age-related changes in motion sensitivity have been found to relate to reductions in various indices of driving performance and safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the basis of this relationship in terms of determining which aspects of motion perception are most relevant to driving. Participants included 61 regular drivers (age range 22-87 years). Visual performance was measured binocularly. Measures included visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and motion sensitivity assessed using four different approaches: (1) threshold minimum drift rate for a drifting Gabor patch, (2) Dmin from a random dot display, (3) threshold coherence from a random dot display, and (4) threshold drift rate for a second-order (contrast modulated) sinusoidal grating. Participants then completed the Hazard Perception Test (HPT) in which they were required to identify moving hazards in videos of real driving scenes, and also a Direction of Heading task (DOH) in which they identified deviations from normal lane keeping in brief videos of driving filmed from the interior of a vehicle. In bivariate correlation analyses, all motion sensitivity measures significantly declined with age. Motion coherence thresholds, and minimum drift rate threshold for the first-order stimulus (Gabor patch) both significantly predicted HPT performance even after controlling for age, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that individual differences in DOH accuracy partly explained these relationships, where those individuals with poorer motion sensitivity on the coherence and Gabor tests showed decreased ability to perceive deviations in motion in the driving videos, which related in turn to their ability to detect the moving hazards. The ability to detect subtle movements in the driving environment (as determined by the DOH task) may be an important contributor to effective hazard perception, and is associated with age, and an individuals' performance on tests of

  8. Hierarchical 2.5D scene alignment for change detection with large viewpoint differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wouw, D.; Dubbelman, G.; de With, P.H.N.

    2016-01-01

    Change detection from mobile platforms is a relevant topic in the field of intelligent vehicles and has many applications, such as countering improvised explosive devices (C-IED). Existing real-time C-IED systems are not robust against large viewpoint differences, which are unavoidable under

  9. Fisheries regulatory regimes and resilience to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea, Elena; Pearlman, Isaac; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E

    2017-05-01

    Climate change is already producing ecological, social, and economic impacts on fisheries, and these effects are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude in the future. Fisheries governance and regulations can alter socio-ecological resilience to climate change impacts via harvest control rules and incentives driving fisher behavior, yet there are no syntheses or conceptual frameworks for examining how institutions and their regulatory approaches can alter fisheries resilience to climate change. We identify nine key climate resilience criteria for fisheries socio-ecological systems (SES), defining resilience as the ability of the coupled system of interacting social and ecological components (i.e., the SES) to absorb change while avoiding transformation into a different undesirable state. We then evaluate the capacity of four fisheries regulatory systems that vary in their degree of property rights, including open access, limited entry, and two types of rights-based management, to increase or inhibit resilience. Our exploratory assessment of evidence in the literature suggests that these regulatory regimes vary widely in their ability to promote resilient fisheries, with rights-based approaches appearing to offer more resilience benefits in many cases, but detailed characteristics of the regulatory instruments are fundamental.

  10. Applications of a morphological scene change detection (MSCD) for visual leak and failure identification in process and chemical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Harvey, Paul K.; Smith, Jeremy S.

    2010-10-01

    Morphological Scene Change Detection (MSCD) is a process typically tasked at detecting relevant changes in a guarded environment for security applications. This can be implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) by a combination of binary differences based around exclusive-OR (XOR) gates, mathematical morphology and a crucial threshold setting. The additional ability to set up the system in virtually any location due to the FPGA makes it ideal for insertion into an autonomous mobile robot for patrol duties. However, security is not the only potential of this robust algorithm. This paper details how such a system can be used for the detection of leaks in piping for use in the process and chemical industries and could be deployed as stated in the above manner. The test substance in this work was water, which was pumped either as a liquid or as low pressure steam through a simple pipe configuration with holes at set points to simulate the leaks. These holes were situated randomly at either the center of a pipe (in order to simulate an impact to it) or at a joint or corner (to simulate a failed weld). Imagery of the resultant leaks, which were visualised as drips or the accumulation of steam, which where analysed using MATLAB to determine their pixel volume in order to calibrate the trigger for the MSCD. The triggering mechanism is adaptive to make it possible in theory for the type of leak to be determined by the number of pixels in the threshold of the image and a numerical output signal to state which of the leak situations is being observed. The system was designed using the DSP Builder package from Altera so that its graphical nature is easily comprehensible to the non-embedded system designer. Furthermore, all the data from the DSP Builder simulation underwent verification against MATLAB comparisons using the image processing toolbox in order to validate the results.

  11. A Change of Scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Kaargaard

    2005-01-01

    Using the commercial recordings of Kurt Weill's musical production for Broadway (from Knickerbocker Holiday (1938) to Lost in the Stars (1949)) as an example, the paper will focus on the formation of the ‘original Broadway cast album' as a particular phonographic genre during the 1940s....... By discussing the character of the phonographic 'reconceptualization' of the Broadway musical, influenced as it was by the interplay of various contextual factors (technological, commercial, cultural, aesthetic), and the nature of the resulting ‘work', it is the aim of the paper to point to some of the key...

  12. Managing education/training resources to survive regulatory change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headley-Walker, L.; DeSain, G.

    1985-01-01

    The road to development of nuclear training and education programs that prepare operators to not only competently operate a commercial nuclear power plant under routine conditions but also acquire the knowledge, experience, and confidence necessary to perform under the rigors of a significant off-normal incident has been filled with speculative opinion, recommendations, disagreement, guidelines, and downright confusion. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) had not produced a regulation that specifically addresses the nature of education/training related to off-normal incidents. No one educational process currently offered fully addresses the ideal solution for those employed in the nuclear industry. The only practical solution must be the result of collaborative efforts between utilities and educational resources. The Regents College Degree Collaboration Model provides a worthy vehicle for positive movement toward this solution and survival of the ever-changing regulatory constraints in education

  13. Blindness to a simultaneous change of all elements in a scene, unless there is a change in summary statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Jun; Holcombe, Alex O

    2012-03-06

    Sudden change of every object in a display is typically conspicuous. We find however that in the presence of a secondary task, with a display of moving dots, it can be difficult to detect a sudden change in color of all the dots. A field of 200 dots, half red and half green, half moving rightward and half moving leftward, gave the appearance of two surfaces. When all 200 dots simultaneously switched color between red and green, performance in detecting the switch was very poor. A key display characteristic was that the color proportions on each surface (summary statistics) were not affected by the color switch. When the color switch is accompanied by a change in these summary statistics, people perform well in detecting the switch, suggesting that the secondary task does not disrupt the availability of this statistical information. These findings suggest that when the change is missed, the old and new colors were represented, but the color-location pattern (binding of colors to locations) was not represented or not compared. Even after extended viewing, changes to the individual color-location pattern are not available, suggesting that the feeling of seeing these details is misleading.

  14. Regulatory aspects of management of change - Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear licensees are increasingly required to adapt to a more challenging commercial environment as moves to de-regulate electricity markets gather pace. One of the costs that is often perceived as being amenable to control is staffing, and hence there is significant exploration of new strategies for managing staffing levels. This report presents the outputs from a Workshop convened by the Special Experts' Group in Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF) of the Committee for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and organised by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). The purpose of the workshop was to facilitate the exchange of views on, and approaches towards, the regulation of organisational change. The major risks associated with organisational change were discussed, and a range of regulatory challenges was identified for detailed discussion. There was agreement that the licensee must retain the responsibility to manage its own business but that organisational issues should be subject to regulatory scrutiny if they have the potential to impact on safety. The regulator should be able to demonstrate an approach to oversight of organisational change which is valid, transparent and consistent, and should inform the licensee of its expectations in terms of information supplied, communication and timing. The workshop confirmed that there is significant agreement between regulators concerning the need for licensees to put in place arrangements to manage organisational change. There was also broad consensus on what should constitute the elements of a licensee's management of change process. Differing views were evident about the balance between regulatory scrutiny of the process, as opposed to the outcomes of change, which largely represents differing regulatory regimes and philosophies. However, it was acknowledged that the regulator must be capable of taking an early view of the adequacy of proposed changes, rather than monitoring outcomes alone

  15. Changes in Cis-regulatory Elements during Morphological Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lee Paul

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available How have animals evolved new body designs (morphological evolution? This requires explanations both for simple morphological changes, such as differences in pigmentation and hair patterns between different Drosophila populations and species, and also for more complex changes, such as differences in the forelimbs of mice and bats, and the necks of amphibians and reptiles. The genetic changes and pathways involved in these evolutionary steps require identification. Many, though not all, of these events occur by changes in cis-regulatory (enhancer elements within developmental genes. Enhancers are modular, each affecting expression in only one or a few tissues. Therefore it is possible to add, remove or alter an enhancer without producing changes in multiple tissues, and thereby avoid widespread (pleiotropic deleterious effects. Ideally, for a given step in morphological evolution it is necessary to identify (i the change in phenotype, (ii the changes in gene expression, (iii the DNA region, enhancer or otherwise, affected, (iv the mutation involved, (v the nature of the transcription or other factors that bind to this site. In practice these data are incomplete for most of the published studies upon morphological evolution. Here, the investigations are categorized according to how far these analyses have proceeded.

  16. Power plant construction contracting in a changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The 1965 blackout in the Northeast provided the wake-up call that spawned in unprecedented program of power plant construction by electric utilities. This building program began in the late 1960s and continued unabated through the 1970s. Beginning in the late 1970s, state regulators began in era of 'prudence' reviews which disallowed as imprudent significant portions of the costs of certain nuclear units being brought on line at the time. This regulatory experience brought about a fundamental change in the way in which utilities evaluated the need for additional capacity. This paper explores construction contracting trends in light of recent developments in the relationship between the electric utility and the state regulator. It is within this context that the utility decides: (1) whether to build, buy, or save; and (2) if the decision is to build, which project planning and administration considerations will maximize the utility's ability to incorporate project costs into the ratebase. In order to put these issues into their proper perspective, this paper first presents a brief overview of the prudence decisions of the past, and the chilling effect of these decisions generally on new project planning. The paper next focuses on the recent changes to the post-construction prudence review model, including the introduction of pre-approval arrangements and rolling prudence reviews. Following that will be a survey of new construction spending decisions in light of these changes. After an analysis of the bases for the prudence disallowances of the past and the application of the lessons learned from these disallowances to contract planning and administration issues of today, the paper will close with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used contract delivery methods in today's regulatory environment

  17. The BC-Alberta intertie : impact of regulatory change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.; Hughes, K.

    2004-01-01

    The interconnected electricity system between the provinces of British Columbia (BC) and Alberta was discussed with reference to the Cranbrook-Langdon 500 kV line and two 138 kV transmission lines. The lines in British Columbia are owned by BC Hydro and operated by the BC Transmission Corporation, while the lines in Alberta are owned by AltaLink and operated by the Alberta Electric Systems Operator (AESO). The operating terms and conditions are established by an Interconnection Agreement between all parties. The Alberta-BC Intertie was designed to operate at an operating transfer capacity of 1200 MW from BC to Alberta, and 1000 MW from Alberta to BC. The operational limits on Intertie capacity were imposed due to voltage constraints within Alberta during high load periods resulting from insufficient transmission support. It was noted that available capacity is often under-utilized because sometimes it is not economical to schedule into or out of Alberta due to better market conditions in the Pacific Northwest. Transmission users in BC have explicit transmission rights which must be purchased on an hourly basis. However, transmission rights in Alberta follow dispatch of generation through Power Pool bidding. The impact of an under-utilized transmission capacity is higher wholesale prices in both Alberta and in the Pacific Northwest because ratepayers end up paying for the under-used capacity. This presentation also outlined regulatory change in Alberta with reference to consolidation of Alberta's Transmission Administrator, Power Pool Administrator and system controller functions; Alberta's new transmission policy; and, the enhanced role of market surveillance administrator. It also outlined the regulatory change in British Columbia with reference to the creation of the BC Transmission Corporation; the Heritage Contract; and, stepped rates and retail access. The effect of changes on intertie usage in both Alberta and British Columbia were also outlined. 31 refs

  18. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  19. Regulatory changes raise troubling questions for genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara J; Dorschner, Michael O; Burke, Wylie; Jarvik, Gail P

    2014-11-01

    By 6 October 2014, many laboratories in the United States must begin honoring new individual data access rights created by recent changes to federal privacy and laboratory regulations. These access rights are more expansive than has been widely understood and pose complex challenges for genomic testing laboratories. This article analyzes regulatory texts and guidances to explore which laboratories are affected. It offers the first published analysis of which parts of the vast trove of data generated during next-generation sequencing will be accessible to patients and research subjects. Persons tested at affected laboratories seemingly will have access, upon request, to uninterpreted gene variant information contained in their stored variant call format, binary alignment/map, and FASTQ files. A defect in the regulations will subject some non-CLIA-regulated research laboratories to these new access requirements unless the Department of Health and Human Services takes swift action to avert this apparently unintended consequence. More broadly, all affected laboratories face a long list of daunting operational, business, compliance, and bioethical issues as they adapt to this change and to the Food and Drug Administration's recently announced plan to publish draft guidance outlining a new oversight framework for lab-developed tests.

  20. Multi- and hyperspectral scene modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Christoph C.; Tuttle, Ronald F.

    2011-06-01

    This paper shows how to use a public domain raytracer POV-Ray (Persistence Of Vision Raytracer) to render multiand hyper-spectral scenes. The scripting environment allows automatic changing of the reflectance and transmittance parameters. The radiosity rendering mode allows accurate simulation of multiple-reflections between surfaces and also allows semi-transparent surfaces such as plant leaves. We show that POV-Ray computes occlusion accurately using a test scene with two blocks under a uniform sky. A complex scene representing a plant canopy is generated using a few lines of script. With appropriate rendering settings, shadows cast by leaves are rendered in many bands. Comparing single and multiple reflection renderings, the effect of multiple reflections is clearly visible and accounts for 25% of the overall apparent canopy reflectance in the near infrared.

  1. Changing emphasis at the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the Office of Research is to ensure availability of sound technical information for timely decision making in support of the NRC's safety mission. The Office of Research is changing some of its emphasis to better meet the expected needs of the NRC's regulatory offices. Long-standing programs in support of operating reactors are nearing completion. These programs include plant aging and severe accident research for currently operating plants. This meeting will also address the new challenges faced by the NRC in its review of the advanced light water and non-light water reactors. As plant aging and severe accident research programs are nearing completion, the research activities are coming to focus on the emerging technologies, for example, digital instrumentation and control systems, both as replacement equipment for operating plants and as the technology of choice and necessity for the advanced reactors. Necessity, because analog equipment is becoming obsolete. Other examples include the use of new materials in operating plants, human factors considerations in the design and operation of the advanced plants, thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the advanced reactors, and new construction techniques

  2. PC Scene Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; Cosby, David; Bunfield, Dennis H.; Mayhall, Anthony J.; Trimble, Darian E.

    2007-04-01

    AMRDEC has successfully tested hardware and software for Real-Time Scene Generation for IR and SAL Sensors on COTS PC based hardware and video cards. AMRDEC personnel worked with nVidia and Concurrent Computer Corporation to develop a Scene Generation system capable of frame rates of at least 120Hz while frame locked to an external source (such as a missile seeker) with no dropped frames. Latency measurements and image validation were performed using COTS and in-house developed hardware and software. Software for the Scene Generation system was developed using OpenSceneGraph.

  3. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ...] Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for Petitions for..., Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD 20737... process changes APHIS is making to our petition process, go to http://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet...

  4. 78 FR 69694 - Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...] Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity and... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms... information on the AGA Web site. If you need special accommodations due to a disability, please contact...

  5. Underwater Scene Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nanyoung

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an underwater scene composition for elementary-education majors. This project deals with watercolor with crayon or oil-pastel resist (medium); the beauty of nature represented by fish in the underwater scene (theme); texture and pattern (design elements); drawing simple forms (drawing skill); and composition…

  6. Scene construction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stéphane; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Bayard, Sophie; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    Recent research has revealed that schizophrenia patients are impaired in remembering the past and imagining the future. In this study, we examined patients' ability to engage in scene construction (i.e., the process of mentally generating and maintaining a complex and coherent scene), which is a key part of retrieving past experiences and episodic future thinking. 24 participants with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls were asked to imagine new fictitious experiences and described their mental representations of the scenes in as much detail as possible. Descriptions were scored according to various dimensions (e.g., sensory details, spatial reference), and participants also provided ratings of their subjective experience when imagining the scenes (e.g., their sense of presence, the perceived similarity of imagined events to past experiences). Imagined scenes contained less phenomenological details (d = 1.11) and were more fragmented (d = 2.81) in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Furthermore, positive symptoms were positively correlated to the sense of presence (r = .43) and the perceived similarity of imagined events to past episodes (r = .47), whereas negative symptoms were negatively related to the overall richness of the imagined scenes (r = -.43). The results suggest that schizophrenic patients' impairments in remembering the past and imagining the future are, at least in part, due to deficits in the process of scene construction. The relationships between the characteristics of imagined scenes and positive and negative symptoms could be related to reality monitoring deficits and difficulties in strategic retrieval processes, respectively. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Trying to Educate Employees to Participate in an Ongoing Change Process, Using an "Experimentarium" as the Scene for Reflective Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Kofoed, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    The initiating question guiding this paper is how employee participation can be established during an organisational change process in order to improve the employees' involvement in the change process. A case study in which an "experimentarium" (learning lab) was conducted in a medium size Danish...

  8. 76 FR 78059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65927; File No. SR-OCC-2011-15] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to Management of..., future regulatory requirements for clearinghouses could impose liquidity requirements that would be...

  9. Trying to Educate Employees to Participate in an Ongoing Change Process, Using an "Experimentarium" as the Scene for Reflective Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Kofoed, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    The initiating question guiding this paper is how employee participation can be established during an organisational change process in order to improve the employees' involvement in the change process. A case study in which an "experimentarium" (learning lab) was conducted in a medium size Danish...... company is presented. The case study demonstrates that it is feasible to generate employee participation in designing their future working environment in the experimentarium during the change process, when careful attention is given to the influence of negative situational factors...

  10. Climate experts. The IPCC in Four Questions. Behind-the-scene of Climate Research. Climate Change: evidences and Uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beriot, Nicolas; Jouzel, Jean; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Braconnot, Pascale; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Le Treut, Herve; Pachauri, Rajendra; Cazenave, Anny; Planton, Serge; Feral, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and government delegations from around the world gathered in Stockholm (Sweden) in September 2013 to approve the first volume of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This document reviews existing scientific knowledge on the Earth's climate. How was it prepared? How do scientists conduct research on climate change? What do they know for certain? What remains to be discovered?

  11. How Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Spontaneously Attend to Real-World Scenes: Use of a Change Blindness Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhauser, Michal; Aran, Adi; Grynszpan, Ouriel

    2018-01-01

    Visual attention of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was assessed using a change blindness paradigm. Twenty-five adolescents with ASD aged 12-18 years and 25 matched typically developing (TD) adolescents viewed 36 pairs of digitized real-world images. Each pair of images was displayed in a "flicker paradigm" whereby a…

  12. Nurse leaders' experiences of implementing regulatory changes in sexual health nursing practice in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Stevenson, Janine

    2013-05-01

    Most research about regulatory policy change concerning expanded nursing activities has emphasized advanced practice roles and acute care settings. This study is a contribution to the small pool of research concerned with regulatory policy implementation for nurses undertaking expanded nursing practice activities in a public health context. Using the regulatory changes in certified nursing practice in one Canadian province as our starting point, we investigated the experiences of nurse leaders in implementing this change. Using a qualitative interpretive descriptive approach informed by tenets of complexity theory, we examined the experiences of 16 nurse leaders as situated within the larger public health care system in which nurses practice. Two interrelated themes, (a) preparing for certification and (b) the certification process, were identified to illustrate how competing and contrasting demands between health care and regulatory organizations created substantial barriers to policy change. Implications for health service delivery and future research are discussed.

  13. Changing our regulatory structure to accommodate a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of various regulatory schemes were assessed based on the assumption that certain aspects of transmission and distribution will have to be regulated even after deregulation comes into effect. Price regulation and incentive regulation are the two main forms used to ensure equitable availability of various transmission/wheeling services to distributors, and service quality, wheeling, and prices to be charged by distributors to customers. It was found on balance that only effective market forces spur efficiency, and regulations are only second best. Incentive regulation was not considered to be significantly more efficient than price regulation. The effectiveness of either form will depend upon market conditions and the skill of the regulator

  14. 77 FR 65815 - Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    .... 070726412-1300-02] RIN 0648-BA24 Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name Change; Notice of Effective Date AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries... geographical areas to the sanctuary and change the name of the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary (FBNMS or...

  15. Scenes of the self, and trance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Broekman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trance shows the Self as a process involved in all sorts and forms of life. A Western perspective on a self and its reifying tendencies is only one (or one series of those variations. The process character of the self does not allow any coherent theory but shows, in particular when confronted with trance, its variability in all regards. What is more: the Self is always first on the scene of itself―a situation in which it becomes a sign for itself. That particular semiotic feature is again not a unified one but leads, as the Self in view of itself does, to series of scenes with changing colors, circumstances and environments. Our first scene “Beyond Monotheism” shows semiotic importance in that a self as determining component of a trance-phenomenon must abolish its own referent and seems not able to answer the question, what makes trance a trance. The Pizzica is an example here. Other social features of trance appear in the second scene, US post traumatic psychological treatments included. Our third scene underlines structures of an unfolding self: beginning with ‘split-ego’ conclusions, a self’s engenderment appears dependent on linguistic events and on spoken words in the first place. A fourth scene explores that theme and explains modern forms of an ego ―in particular those inherent to ‘citizenship’ or a ‘corporation’. The legal consequences are concentrated in the fifth scene, which considers a legal subject by revealing its ‘standing’. Our sixth and final scene pertains to the relation between trance and commerce. All scenes tie together and show parallels between Pizzica, rights-based behavior, RAVE music versus disco, commerce and trance; they demonstrate the meaning of trance as a multifaceted social phenomenon.

  16. Crisis, criticism, change: Regulatory reform in the wake of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, Kimberly A.; )

    2015-01-01

    Accidents are a forcing function for change in the nuclear industry. While these events can shed light on needed technical safety reforms, they can also shine a light on needed regulatory system reforms. The TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in Japan is the most recent example of this phenomenon, but it is not the only one. In the wake of the three major accidents that have occurred in the nuclear power industry - Three Mile Island (TMI) in the United States; Chernobyl in Ukraine, in the former Soviet Union; and the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident in Japan - a commission or committee of experts issued a report (or reports) with harsh criticism of the countries' regulatory system. And each of these accidents prompted changes in the respective regulatory systems. In looking at these responses, however, one must ask if this crisis, criticism, change approach is working and whether regulatory bodies around the world should instead undertake their own systematic reviews, un-prompted by crisis, to better ensure safety. This article will attempt to analyse the issue of regulatory reform in the wake of nuclear accidents by first providing a background in nuclear regulatory systems, looking to international and national legal frameworks. Next, the article will detail a cross-section of current regulatory systems around the world. Following that, the article will analyse the before and after of the regulatory systems in the United States, the Soviet Union and Japan in relation to the TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Finally, taking all this together, the article will address some of the international and national efforts to define exactly what makes a good regulator and provide conclusions on regulatory reform in the wake of nuclear accidents. (author)

  17. 77 FR 40392 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Changes To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to solicit comments.... I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change.... [[Page 40393

  18. Fumigant emission reductions with TIF warrant regulatory changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husein Ajwa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With methyl bromide's phase-out, most growers have turned to alternative fumigants, particularly 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D and chloropicrin. These alternatives are tightly regulated because they are classified as toxic air contaminants and volatile organic compounds; the latter combine with other substances to produce ground-level ozone (smog. Two ambient air monitoring studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of totally impermeable film (TIF to reduce emissions from shank applications of chloropicrin and 1,3-D. In 2009, a study demonstrated that TIF reduced chloropicrin and 1,3-D peak emissions by 45% and 38%, respectively, but TIF did not reduce total emissions when it was cut after 6 days. In 2011, increasing the tarp period from 5 to 10 days decreased chloropicrin and 1,3-D peak emissions by 88% and 78%, and their total emissions by 64% and 43%, respectively. Concurrent dynamic flux chamber results corroborated the ambient air monitoring data. These studies provide regulatory agencies with mitigation measures that should allow continued fumigant use at efficacious application rates.

  19. Hospital law: the changing scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, H L

    1978-01-01

    The liability of hospitals in tort law has been a fairly recent development. Formerly, hospitals were protected from liability under the doctrine of charitable immunity. Legal "immunity" avoids liability in tort essentially under all circumstances. It is conferred not because of the particular facts of the situation but because of the status or position of the favored defendant. It does not deny the tort, merely the resulting liability. Such immunity does not mean that conduct that would amount to a tort on the part of other defendants is not still equally tortious in character, but merely that for the protection of the particular defendant, or of the interests which he represents, he is given absolution from liability. Similarly, the "captain-of-the-ship" and the attendant "borrowed or lent servant" doctrine is being abandoned. As medical technology continues to advance, the modern hospital will undoubtedly assume a greater responsibility toward its patients--with amplified medical-legal implications. The hospital is no longer a hotel where patients stay, awaiting treatment by their private physicians. The theory that the hospital does not act through its employees--physicians, nurses, and others--no longer reflects the trend in judicial philosophy. The decisions cited reflect the current trend in judicial analysis and thinking. Medical science has provided numerous benefits to humankind, but along with those benefits, numerous risks have accrued. Whether hospitals should have to bear the responsibilities inherent in such risks is a much-argued matter. However, hospital liability, in fact, is the trend of our judicial determination. The ramifications of this trend have been many. Hospitals and physicians will closely scrutinize surgical operations and other hospitals procedures and practices. The fact remains clear that responsibility for every patient is now shared by both the physicians and the hospital--share and share alike. The present thinking is that the liabilities can be minimized, without shifting the duties, obligations, and responsibilities, through risk management. Prevention, as always, is the best cure.

  20. Crime Scene Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Barbara; Kohlmeier, Kris; Kiel, Robert D.

    Casting students in grades 5 through 12 in the roles of reporters, lawyers, and detectives at the scene of a crime, this interdisciplinary activity involves participants in the intrigue and drama of crime investigation. Using a hands-on, step-by-step approach, students work in teams to investigate a crime and solve a mystery. Through role-playing…

  1. 77 FR 3646 - Proposed Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    .... 100908440-1615-01] RIN 0648-BA24 Proposed Expansion of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Regulatory Changes, and Sanctuary Name Change AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean... in the Federal Register to revise the regulations for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary (76...

  2. Assessment of safety culture: Changing regulatory approach in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronaky, Jozsef; Toth, Andras

    2002-01-01

    Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) is changing its inspection practice and assessment methods of safety performance and safety culture in operating nuclear facilities. The new approach emphasises integrated team inspection of safety cornerstones and systematic assessment of safety performance of operators. (author)

  3. Firms dealing with regulatory change: innovation and political influence strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, Joeri; Farla, Jacco; Hekkert, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Firm-level strategies, particularly political strategies, are overlooked in transition studies. Therefore, we study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation that attempts to drive transition. We use

  4. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Diane

    2013-01-01

    administration: Clinton (122.3 ± 36.4, Bush (29.5 ± 16.2 and Obama (41.7 ± 11.1. Conclusions Most regulatory letters released by FDA headquarters were related to marketing and advertising activities of pharmaceutical companies. The number of regulatory letters was highest during the second Clinton administration, diminished during the Bush administrations, and increased again during the Obama administration. A further assessment of the impact of changes in federal administration on the enforcement activities of the FDA is required.

  5. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diane; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Montagne, Michael

    2013-01-22

    ± 16.2) and Obama (41.7 ± 11.1). Most regulatory letters released by FDA headquarters were related to marketing and advertising activities of pharmaceutical companies. The number of regulatory letters was highest during the second Clinton administration, diminished during the Bush administrations, and increased again during the Obama administration. A further assessment of the impact of changes in federal administration on the enforcement activities of the FDA is required.

  6. The Brazilian Policy on Climate Change: Regulatory and Governance Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

    2012-01-01

    Through the Copenhagen Accord and the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) in Cancun, Brazil has confirmed its national voluntary reduction targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with reductions between 36.1 per cent and 38.9 per cent of projected emissions by 2020. These targets were defined in the National Climate Change Policy (PNMC, in Portuguese) approved by the National Congress (Law No. 12.187, dated 29 December 2009). These national targets focus on controlling deforestation, which...

  7. 77 FR 40396 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Changes To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to solicit comments on.... Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The... principal office and at the Public Reference Room of the Commission. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's...

  8. 77 FR 1099 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... change from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory.../ , and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the... sections A, B, and C below, of the most significant aspects of such statements. A. Self-Regulatory...

  9. 76 FR 61453 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65433; File No. SR-C2-2011-024] Self-Regulatory... change from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory... Office of the Secretary and at the Commission. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the...

  10. SAMPEG: a scene-adaptive parallel MPEG-2 software encoder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farin, D.S.; Mache, N.; With, de P.H.N.; Girod, B.; Bouman, C.A.; Steinbach, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a fully software-based MPEG-2 encoder architecture, which uses scene-change detection to optimize the Group-of-Picture (GOP) structure for the actual video sequence. This feature enables easy, lossless edit cuts at scene-change positions and it also improves overall picture

  11. Features of heart rate variability capture regulatory changes during kangaroo care in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, D.R.; Joshi, R.; van Pul, C.; Atallah, N.L.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Oei, S.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Andriessen, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Study design: Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo

  12. 77 FR 66196 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... Accounting Principles (``GAAP''). Canadian clearing members that use Form 1 report the same, and in some... Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to Financial... financial reporting by Canadian clearing members to reflect the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization...

  13. In silico modeling of epigenetic-induced changes in photoreceptor cis-regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Reafa A; Dunham, Nicholas R; Enke, Raymond A; Berndsen, Christopher E

    2018-01-01

    DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic repressor of mRNA transcription in many plant and vertebrate systems. However, the mechanism of this repression is not fully understood. The process of transcription is controlled by proteins that regulate recruitment and activity of RNA polymerase by binding to specific cis-regulatory sequences. Cone-rod homeobox (CRX) is a well-characterized mammalian transcription factor that controls photoreceptor cell-specific gene expression. Although much is known about the functions and DNA binding specificity of CRX, little is known about how DNA methylation modulates CRX binding affinity to genomic cis-regulatory elements. We used bisulfite pyrosequencing of human ocular tissues to measure DNA methylation levels of the regulatory regions of RHO , PDE6B, PAX6 , and LINE1 retrotransposon repeats. To describe the molecular mechanism of repression, we used molecular modeling to illustrate the effect of DNA methylation on human RHO regulatory sequences. In this study, we demonstrate an inverse correlation between DNA methylation in regulatory regions adjacent to the human RHO and PDE6B genes and their subsequent transcription in human ocular tissues. Docking of CRX to the DNA models shows that CRX interacts with the grooves of these sequences, suggesting changes in groove structure could regulate binding. Molecular dynamics simulations of the RHO promoter and enhancer regions show changes in the flexibility and groove width upon epigenetic modification. Models also demonstrate changes in the local dynamics of CRX binding sites within RHO regulatory sequences which may account for the repression of CRX-dependent transcription. Collectively, these data demonstrate epigenetic regulation of CRX binding sites in human retinal tissue and provide insight into the mechanism of this mode of epigenetic regulation to be tested in future experiments.

  14. Accounting for Technological Change in Regulatory Impact Analyses: The Learning Curve Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Regulatory impact assessment is formally required by the U.S. and many other nations in order to help governments weigh the costs and benefits of proposed regulations, particularly as they compare to those of alternative actions and other government priorities. 1 One of the “best practices” of regulatory impact assessments, as established by the OECD, is to use estimates of costs that are grounded in economic theory. Economic theory indicates that changes in compliance costs should be expected over time as a result of factors related to technological innovation. But many U.S. regulatory impact assessments have traditionally employed a practice that is in conflict with this expectation: they take current estimates of the costs of complying with a proposed regulation and project that those costs will remain unchanged over the full time period that the regulation would be in effect.

  15. Regulatory policy and structural change in the natural gas industry: A transaction cost perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has recently promoted policy initiatives designed to substitute market responsive industry practices for the micro-management regulatory practices previously employed. These new policies are expected to generate a flexible gas pricing policy that more accurately reflects market supply and demand conditions. Historically, much of the regulation of this industry was enacted to ensure that pipeline companies would be able to recover the very large up-front investments in immobile equipment that characterize the production, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas. The institutional detail available from historical accounts of the development of the industry are used to describe structural change over time. Regulatory policy, the level of asset specificity, and the extent of secondary environmental uncertainty are all shown to exert significant effects on the level of integration into production, storage and marketing

  16. Guidance of Attention to Objects and Locations by Long-Term Memory of Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W.; Rasmussen, Ian P.

    2008-01-01

    Four flicker change-detection experiments demonstrate that scene-specific long-term memory guides attention to both behaviorally relevant locations and objects within a familiar scene. Participants performed an initial block of change-detection trials, detecting the addition of an object to a natural scene. After a 30-min delay, participants…

  17. A new method for measuring the thermal regulatory properties of phase change material (PCM) fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X; Fan, J

    2009-01-01

    Several methods already exist for the measurement of the thermal regulatory properties of fabrics containing phase change materials (PCMs). However, they do not adequately simulate the actual use condition; consequently the measurements may not have relevance to the performance of PCM fabrics in actual use. Here we report on the development of a new method, which better simulates the real use situation. In this method, a hot plate, simulating the human body, generates a constant amount of heat depending on the type of human activity to be simulated. The hot plate covered by the PCM fabric is then exposed to a thermal transient simulating a wearer moving from one thermal environment to another; the changes of surface temperature and heat loss of the hot plate are then recorded and used to characterize the thermal regulatory properties of the PCM fabrics

  18. Regulatory changes to renewable energy support schemes: An international investment law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Paleckaite, Gintare

    2014-01-01

    Thesist analyzes how regulatory changes related to renewable energy investment support schemes can be perceived under international investment law standards and how possible decisions of international investment law tribunals could impact investment in this sector. This research is based on case studies of two states: Spain and the Czech Republic and claims against them. These cases will assist in analyzing the effects of the amendment/revocation of renewable energy support schemes. Answers t...

  19. Resilient Prosumer Scenario in a Changing Regulatory Environment—The UniRCon Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Sanduleac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments are pushing for new solutions based upon massive integration of renewable electricity generation in networks already facing many challenges. This paper presents a novel approach to managing the energy transfer towards prosumers making use of smart management of local energy storage. The proposed design (including storage dimensioning is based on several operating scenarios in which the prosumer might operate as: (i a “load only” entity (from a grid perspective, thus exhibiting investment resiliency against regulatory changes and high energy efficiency; or (ii a prosumer, in case regulatory opportunistic profit might be available. This can be realized within a newly proposed Uni-directional Resilient Consumer (UniRCon architecture. The major aim of the proposed architecture is to achieve optimal self-consumption while avoiding curtailment even in a changing regulatory environment like, for example, the total lack of incentives for generation based on renewable energy sources (RES. One of the major advantages of the proposed architecture consists in the adaptability to changes in the regulatory and market environment. The term resilience is used with multiple meanings: (a the prosumer’s financial resilience against regulatory changes when investment calculations assume no-grid injections; (b the prosumer’s technical resilience, with electrical design based on standalone operation; (c the resilience of clusters of interconnected end-user installations with enabled community-level electricity exchange, independent of the existing main grid supply; (d the contribution to grid resilience, by enabling AC microgrid (MG operation in island mode when large portions of the grid are formed by clusters of UniRCon prosumers (the ease of islanding segmentation of the local grid in case of emergencies. For proof of concept, three use-cases are detailed: (i photovoltaic (PV installations connected behind the meter; (ii PV and

  20. Automatic structural scene digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Wang, Yuhan; Cosker, Darren; Li, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic system for the analysis and labeling of structural scenes, floor plan drawings in Computer-aided Design (CAD) format. The proposed system applies a fusion strategy to detect and recognize various components of CAD floor plans, such as walls, doors, windows and other ambiguous assets. Technically, a general rule-based filter parsing method is fist adopted to extract effective information from the original floor plan. Then, an image-processing based recovery method is employed to correct information extracted in the first step. Our proposed method is fully automatic and real-time. Such analysis system provides high accuracy and is also evaluated on a public website that, on average, archives more than ten thousands effective uses per day and reaches a relatively high satisfaction rate.

  1. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrat...

  2. 78 FR 13103 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... intermediate holding company from the ownership structure of the Exchange. C. Self-Regulatory Organization's...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending Its Rules To..., Inc., Thereby Eliminating NYSE Arca Holdings, Inc. From the Ownership Structure of the Exchange...

  3. 77 FR 52096 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ...'s rules, the financial and regulatory risk management controls and supervisory procedures required...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by... that broker-dealers appropriately control the risks associated with market access, so as not to...

  4. 77 FR 52097 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... financial and regulatory risk management controls and supervisory procedures required by Rule 15c3-5 under...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by... that broker-dealers appropriately control the risks associated with market access, so as not to...

  5. 77 FR 25770 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... settings via Regulatory Bulletin. The Mechanism protects Market Makers from the risk associated with an...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending NYSE Amex Options Rule 928NY Specifying That the Potential Range for the Settings Applicable to the Market Maker Risk...

  6. 75 FR 2899 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-61333; File No. SR-NYSE-2009-117] Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Amending Its... regulatory program. III. Discussion and Commission's Findings After careful review, the Commission finds that...

  7. Evolution of regulatory networks towards adaptability and stability in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deok-Sun

    2014-11-01

    Diverse biological networks exhibit universal features distinguished from those of random networks, calling much attention to their origins and implications. Here we propose a minimal evolution model of Boolean regulatory networks, which evolve by selectively rewiring links towards enhancing adaptability to a changing environment and stability against dynamical perturbations. We find that sparse and heterogeneous connectivity patterns emerge, which show qualitative agreement with real transcriptional regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The characteristic scaling behavior of stability reflects the balance between robustness and flexibility. The scaling of fluctuation in the perturbation spread shows a dynamic crossover, which is analyzed by investigating separately the stochasticity of internal dynamics and the network structure differences depending on the evolution pathways. Our study delineates how the ambivalent pressure of evolution shapes biological networks, which can be helpful for studying general complex systems interacting with environments.

  8. Setting the scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, S.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for the special meeting on the breeder reactor are outlined with some reference to the special Scottish interest in the topic. Approximately 30% of the electrical energy generated in Scotland is nuclear and the special developments at Dounreay make policy decisions on the future of the commercial breeder reactor urgent. The participants review the major questions arising in arriving at such decisions. In effect an attempt is made to respond to the wish of the Secretary of State for Energy to have informed debate. To set the scene the importance of energy availability as regards to the strength of the national economy is stressed and the reasons for an increasing energy demand put forward. Examination of alternative sources of energy shows that none is definitely capable of filling the foreseen energy gap. This implies an integrated thermal/breeder reactor programme as the way to close the anticipated gap. The problems of disposal of radioactive waste and the safeguards in the handling of plutonium are outlined. Longer-term benefits, including the consumption of plutonium and naturally occurring radioactive materials, are examined. (author)

  9. Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

  10. 17 CFR 249.819 - Form 19b-4, for electronic filing with respect to proposed rule changes by all self-regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... filing with respect to proposed rule changes by all self-regulatory organizations. 249.819 Section 249..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Forms for Self-Regulatory Organization Rule Changes and Forms for....819 Form 19b-4, for electronic filing with respect to proposed rule changes by all self-regulatory...

  11. 77 FR 67427 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Rules provide updates related to anti-money laundering legislation applicable to customers, clarify... proposed rule change will have any impact or impose any burden on competition. C. Self-Regulatory...

  12. 77 FR 42349 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Defining a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... ATP Holders via Regulatory Bulletin regarding the rule change. The Exchange plans to issue notice....\\7\\ \\7\\ See Notice, supra note 3, at 32158. III. Discussion The Commission finds that the proposed...

  13. Albedo estimation for scene segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-03-01

    Standard methods of image segmentation do not take into account the three-dimensional nature of the underlying scene. For example, histogram-based segmentation tacitly assumes that the image intensity is piecewise constant, and this is not true when the scene contains curved surfaces. This paper introduces a method of taking 3d information into account in the segmentation process. The image intensities are adjusted to compensate for the effects of estimated surface orientation; the adjusted intensities can be regarded as reflectivity estimates. When histogram-based segmentation is applied to these new values, the image is segmented into parts corresponding to surfaces of constant reflectivity in the scene. 7 references.

  14. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTLE, CHARLES Q.; PETERS, RALPH R.; RIGDON, J. BRIAN; SMALL, DANIEL E.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  15. When planning is not enough: the self-regulatory effect of implementation intentions on changing snacking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Leona; Bagozzi, Richard P; Spanjol, Jelena

    2010-05-01

    This study examined whether matching implementation intentions to people's regulatory orientation affects the effectiveness of changing unhealthy snacking habits. Participants' regulatory orientation was either measured (as a chronic trait) or manipulated (as a situational state), and participants were randomly assigned to implementation intention conditions to eat more healthy snacks or avoid eating unhealthy ones. A self-reported online food diary of healthy and unhealthy snacks over a 2-day period. Participants with weak unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks when forming any type of implementation intentions (regardless of match or mismatch with their regulatory orientation), while participants with strong unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks only when forming implementation intentions that matched their regulatory orientations. RESULTS suggest that implementation intentions that match regulatory orientation heighten motivation intensity and put snacking under intentional control for people with strong unhealthy snacking habits. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Workshop: Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Modeling Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (2010 - part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this workshop Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis. focused on conceptual and methodological issues - integrated assessment modeling and valuation.

  17. Workshop: Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Modeling Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (2011 - part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this workshop Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis. focused on conceptual and methodological issues - estimating impacts and valuing damages on a sectoral basis.

  18. Evolutionary changes of Hox genes and relevant regulatory factors provide novel insights into mammalian morphological modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kui; Sun, Xiaohui; Chen, Meixiu; Sun, Yingying; Tian, Ran; Wang, Zhengfei; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang

    2018-01-01

    The diversity of body plans of mammals accelerates the innovation of lifestyles and the extensive adaptation to different habitats, including terrestrial, aerial and aquatic habitats. However, the genetic basis of those phenotypic modifications, which have occurred during mammalian evolution, remains poorly explored. In the present study, we synthetically surveyed the evolutionary pattern of Hox clusters that played a powerful role in the morphogenesis along the head-tail axis of animal embryos and the main regulatory factors (Mll, Bmi1 and E2f6) that control the expression of Hox genes. A deflected density of repetitive elements and lineage-specific radical mutations of Mll have been determined in marine mammals with morphological changes, suggesting that evolutionary changes may alter Hox gene expression in these lineages, leading to the morphological modification of these lineages. Although no positive selection was detected at certain ancestor nodes of lineages, the increased ω values of Hox genes implied the relaxation of functional constraints of these genes during the mammalian evolutionary process. More importantly, 49 positively-selected sites were identified in mammalian lineages with phenotypic modifications, indicating adaptive evolution acting on Hox genes and regulatory factors. In addition, 3 parallel amino acid substitutions in some Hox genes were examined in marine mammals, which might be responsible for their streamlined body. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. 17 CFR 249.822 - Form 19b-7, for electronic filing with respect to proposed rule changes by self-regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... filing with respect to proposed rule changes by self-regulatory organizations under Section 19(b)(7)(A... proposed rule changes by self-regulatory organizations under Section 19(b)(7)(A) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. This form shall be used by self-regulatory organizations, as defined in section 3(a)(25...

  20. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  1. Regulatory assessment of brand changes in the commercial tobacco product market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, G Ferris; Connolly, G N

    2009-08-01

    Regulatory oversight of tobacco product design has gained momentum in the US and internationally. Appropriate standards for assessing commercial brands and characterising product features must be considered a priority. An area of potential concern is in-market design changes adopted within a single commercial brand over time. Internal tobacco industry documents were identified and used to assess internal discussion of product guidelines and practices regarding in-market brand changes. Commercial tobacco products undergo a constant process of revision in-market, beginning at the most basic level of physical product characteristics and components, and including every aspect of design. These revisions commonly exceed guidelines for acceptable product variance adopted within the industry. While consumer and market testing is conducted to ensure that products remain acceptable to users, explicit marketing often may not accompany brand changes. In the absence of such marketing, it should not be assumed that a brand remains unchanged. For manufacturers, assessment of competitor brands includes identification and analysis of non-routine changes; that is, those changes likely to significantly alter the character of a given brand. Regulators must adopt a similar practice in determining standards for product evaluation in the face of ongoing commercial product revision.

  2. Features of Heart Rate Variability Capture Regulatory Changes During Kangaroo Care in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommers, Deedee R; Joshi, Rohan; van Pul, Carola; Atallah, Louis; Feijs, Loe; Oei, Guid; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; Andriessen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) can serve as a surrogate measure to track regulatory changes during kangaroo care, a period of parental coregulation distinct from regulation within the incubator. Nurses annotated the starting and ending times of kangaroo care for 3 months. The pre-kangaroo care, during-kangaroo care, and post-kangaroo care data were retrieved in infants with at least 10 accurately annotated kangaroo care sessions. Eight HRV features (5 in the time domain and 3 in the frequency domain) were used to visually and statistically compare the pre-kangaroo care and during-kangaroo care periods. Two of these features, capturing the percentage of heart rate decelerations and the extent of heart rate decelerations, were newly developed for preterm infants. A total of 191 kangaroo care sessions were investigated in 11 preterm infants. Despite clinically irrelevant changes in vital signs, 6 of the 8 HRV features (SD of normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of the SD, percentage of consecutive normal-to-normal intervals that differ by >50 ms, SD of heart rate decelerations, high-frequency power, and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio) showed a visible and statistically significant difference (P heart rate decelerations. HRV-based features may be clinically useful for capturing the dynamic changes in autonomic regulation in response to kangaroo care and other changes in environment and state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pervasive and stochastic changes in the TCR repertoire of regulatory T-cell-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingjie; Sharma, Rahul; Kung, John T; Deshmukh, Umesh S; Jarjour, Wael N; Fu, Shu Man; Ju, Shyr-Te

    2008-04-01

    We hypothesize that regulatory T-cell (Treg)-deficient strains have an altered TCR repertoire in part due to the expansion of autoimmune repertoire by self-antigen. We compared the Vbeta family expression profile between B6 and Treg-lacking B6.Cg-Foxp3(sf)(/Y) (B6.sf) mice using fluorescent anti-Vbeta mAbs and observed no changes. However, while the spectratypes of 20 Vbeta families among B6 mice were highly similar, the Vbeta family spectratypes of B6.sf mice were remarkably different from B6 mice and from each other. Significant spectratype changes in many Vbeta families were also observed in Treg-deficient IL-2 knockout (KO) and IL-2Ralpha KO mice. Such changes were not observed with anti-CD3 mAb-treated B6 mice or B6 CD4+CD25- T cells. TCR transgenic (OT-II.sf) mice displayed dramatic reduction of clonotypic TCR with concomitant increase in T cells bearing non-transgenic Vbeta and Valpha families, including T cells with dual receptors expressing reduced levels of transgenic Valpha and endogenous Valpha. Collectively, the data demonstrate that Treg deficiency allows polyclonal expansion of T cells in a stochastic manner, resulting in widespread changes in the TCR repertoire.

  4. 77 FR 47472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... proposed rule change to make certain amendments that, in part, clarified the operation of the new Market... equitable principles of trade, to remove impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and open market...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by...

  5. 77 FR 38879 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... marketable non-displayed interest, the Market Maker would be required to re-enter a quotation for purposes of...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change Adding New... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to add new...

  6. 76 FR 55148 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Adopt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Adopt Rules for the...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to adopt rules for the qualification, listing, and delisting... the Proposal The Exchange proposes rules to adopt a program for the qualification, listing, and...

  7. 75 FR 69491 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by New York Stock Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63266; File No. SR-NYSE-2010-67] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by New York Stock Exchange LLC Changing the NYBX Order Execution Sequence November 5, 2010. I. Introduction On September 9, 2010, the New York...

  8. Changes to Regulatory Systems for more Efficient Nuclear Energy Deployment: An Industry Viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelin, H.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear energy is required to play a much larger role in the energy mix in most credible energy scenarios that address climate change (680 GW additional capacity by 2050 according to IEA, 1000 GW according to World Nuclear Association). To reach these ambitious targets, a concerted effort will be required involving industry, governments and regulators. Changes to regulatory systems and processes – including licensing (design, site, operation), export control, security and waste - is one important area that can stimulate faster and more cost effective development of nuclear capacity. In the past, regulators were mainly concerned with authorizing a limited number of reactors from a limited number of designs under a national standard. Today regulators need resources to assess a wider range of designs, while each licensee needs to complete a thorough safety assessment even if the design has been assessed and approved elsewhere. These developments are the inevitable consequence of globalization and competition within the industry. This paper examines the current state of nuclear regulation in relation to the main attributes of good regulation as defined by the OECD. It further looks at ongoing efforts among regulators to share experience or harmonize requirements, such as within MDEP, or to agree common safety levels, such as in WENRA, in order to reach common positions and improve their regulatory approaches. Finally, it will assess the work of industry to demonstrate the benefits – both in terms of efficiency as well as safety – of harmonised regulations notably through the activities of the World Nuclear Association/CORDEL Working Group. (author)

  9. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  10. Categorization of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Rummukainen

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the perceptual attributes of natural dynamic audiovisual scenes. We presented thirty participants with 19 natural scenes in a similarity categorization task, followed by a semi-structured interview. The scenes were reproduced with an immersive audiovisual display. Natural scene perception has been studied mainly with unimodal settings, which have identified motion as one of the most salient attributes related to visual scenes, and sound intensity along with pitch trajectories related to auditory scenes. However, controlled laboratory experiments with natural multimodal stimuli are still scarce. Our results show that humans pay attention to similar perceptual attributes in natural scenes, and a two-dimensional perceptual map of the stimulus scenes and perceptual attributes was obtained in this work. The exploratory results show the amount of movement, perceived noisiness, and eventfulness of the scene to be the most important perceptual attributes in naturalistically reproduced real-world urban environments. We found the scene gist properties openness and expansion to remain as important factors in scenes with no salient auditory or visual events. We propose that the study of scene perception should move forward to understand better the processes behind multimodal scene processing in real-world environments. We publish our stimulus scenes as spherical video recordings and sound field recordings in a publicly available database.

  11. An assessment of the contribution of NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] regulatory growth to nuclear plant cost growth using engineering scope changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of NRC regulations to the growth in nuclear power plant capital costs using the case study method. The two plants selected for the case studies are Florida Power and Light Company's (FP and L) St. Lucie Unit 1 (SL1) and St. Lucie Unit 2 (SL2). SL1 was constructed in the early 1970s and was granted an operating license in 1976. SL2 was constructed in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and was granted an operating license in 1983. The information bases were the amendments to the contracts between FP and L and its architect-engineer/constructor, i.e., the ''scope changes''. These were examined and analyzed for causation, i.e., NRC-initiated or utility-initiated, and all of the costs associated with scope changes of each type were aggregated to determine the contribution of each. Although the scope changes accounted for only a small fraction of the total cost growth for either plant, they were still used to determine the relative contribution of regulatory growth to cost growth. Unexpectedly, a significantly higher percentage of out-of-scope work (approximately 84%) was attributable to NRC regulatory requirements for SL1 than SL2 (approximately 47%). These results were unexpected because SL2 was constructed during a period in which regulation was considered to be particularly unstable. However, a more detailed analysis of causation indicates that a shift occurred from an ad-hoc mode of regulation in the early 1970s to a more prescriptive process in the late 1970s. Thus the number of formal NRC requirements may not be a valid measure of regulatory stability

  12. World energy scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondi, H

    1980-01-01

    Coal will have an increasing role in world energy in the next three decades. The coming dependence on coal as the major fuel will radically affect international cooperation, as the US, USSR, and China account for approx. 85% of the known geological resources, and coal's likely economic marginality poses questions as to which producer will be capable of a profitable export trade. Energy transportability is becoming more important, as people can no longer move near to the sources. Also discussed are the uncompetitiveness of wasteful energy expenditure; the crucial relation of energy consumption to a country's gross national product; the energy intensities of selected industries; the necessity of elasticity in responding to changing energy supplies; the need for increased energy consumption in building up the developing countries; and good control, made achievable via advances in solid-state electronics, as the deciding factor in proper energy management.

  13. Identifying Cis-Regulatory Changes Involved in the Evolution of Aerobic Fermentation in Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenguo; Wang, Tzi-Yuan; Tsai, Bing-Shi; Wu, Fang-Ting; Yu, Fu-Jung; Tseng, Yu-Jung; Sung, Huang-Mo; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Gene regulation change has long been recognized as an important mechanism for phenotypic evolution. We used the evolution of yeast aerobic fermentation as a model to explore how gene regulation has evolved and how this process has contributed to phenotypic evolution and adaptation. Most eukaryotes fully oxidize glucose to CO2 and H2O in mitochondria to maximize energy yield, whereas some yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its relatives, predominantly ferment glucose into ethanol even in the presence of oxygen, a phenomenon known as aerobic fermentation. We examined the genome-wide gene expression levels among 12 different yeasts and found that a group of genes involved in the mitochondrial respiration process showed the largest reduction in gene expression level during the evolution of aerobic fermentation. Our analysis revealed that the downregulation of these genes was significantly associated with massive loss of binding motifs of Cbf1p in the fermentative yeasts. Our experimental assays confirmed the binding of Cbf1p to the predicted motif and the activator role of Cbf1p. In summary, our study laid a foundation to unravel the long-time mystery about the genetic basis of evolution of aerobic fermentation, providing new insights into understanding the role of cis-regulatory changes in phenotypic evolution. PMID:23650209

  14. Extensive evolutionary changes in regulatory element activity during human origins are associated with altered gene expression and positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Shibata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species.

  15. Beyond scene gist: Objects guide search more than scene background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Kathryn; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2017-06-01

    Although the facilitation of visual search by contextual information is well established, there is little understanding of the independent contributions of different types of contextual cues in scenes. Here we manipulated 3 types of contextual information: object co-occurrence, multiple object configurations, and background category. We isolated the benefits of each contextual cue to target detectability, its impact on decision bias, confidence, and the guidance of eye movements. We find that object-based information guides eye movements and facilitates perceptual judgments more than scene background. The degree of guidance and facilitation of each contextual cue can be related to its inherent informativeness about the target spatial location as measured by human explicit judgments about likely target locations. Our results improve the understanding of the contributions of distinct contextual scene components to search and suggest that the brain's utilization of cues to guide eye movements is linked to the cue's informativeness about the target's location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Neural Scene Segmentation by Oscillatory Correlation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, DeLiang

    2000-01-01

    The segmentation of a visual scene into a set of coherent patterns (objects) is a fundamental aspect of perception, which underlies a variety of important tasks such as figure/ground segregation, and scene analysis...

  17. 75 FR 64767 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Y-Exchange Rules To Conform to the Current Rules of BATS Exchange October 13, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b... hereby given that on October 4, 2010, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BYX'') filed with the...

  18. 78 FR 15394 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Adopting... paragraph (d) it contains a provision establishing how the transition period from NYSE Rule 477 will work... to announce the effective date of the new rules at least 30 days in advance in an Information...

  19. 76 FR 67238 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65619, File No. SR-BATS-2011-032] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Adopt Rules Applicable to Auctions Conducted by the Exchange for Exchange-Listed Securities October 25, 2011. I. Introduction On August 22, 2011,...

  20. 77 FR 38351 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... copper market is the third largest metals market in terms of physical volume. Much of the copper traded...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List and Trade Shares of iShares Copper Trust Pursuant to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201 June 22, 2012. Pursuant to Section...

  1. 75 FR 13614 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... to handle the additional traffic associated with the listing and trading of $1 strikes where the...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Establish Strike... 1012 (Series of Options Open for Trading) to establish strike-price intervals for options on Index...

  2. A “New Deal” for the profession : Regulatory initiatives, changing knowledge conceptions and the Committee on Accounting Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detzen, Dominic

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze how “New Deal” regulatory initiatives, primarily the Securities Acts and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), changed US auditors’ professional knowledge conception, culminating in the 1938 expansion of the Committee on Accounting Procedure

  3. Changes in cis-regulatory elements of a key floral regulator are associated with divergence of inflorescence architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Elske; Della Pina, Serena; Castel, Rob; Souer, Erik; Koes, Ronald

    2015-08-15

    Higher plant species diverged extensively with regard to the moment (flowering time) and position (inflorescence architecture) at which flowers are formed. This seems largely caused by variation in the expression patterns of conserved genes that specify floral meristem identity (FMI), rather than changes in the encoded proteins. Here, we report a functional comparison of the promoters of homologous FMI genes from Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and Antirrhinum. Analysis of promoter-reporter constructs in petunia and Arabidopsis, as well as complementation experiments, showed that the divergent expression of leafy (LFY) and the petunia homolog aberrant leaf and flower (ALF) results from alterations in the upstream regulatory network rather than cis-regulatory changes. The divergent expression of unusual floral organs (UFO) from Arabidopsis, and the petunia homolog double top (DOT), however, is caused by the loss or gain of cis-regulatory promoter elements, which respond to trans-acting factors that are expressed in similar patterns in both species. Introduction of pUFO:UFO causes no obvious defects in Arabidopsis, but in petunia it causes the precocious and ectopic formation of flowers. This provides an example of how a change in a cis-regulatory region can account for a change in the plant body plan. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. 77 FR 39288 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... (i) ``ATP Holders,'' as that term is defined in Rule 900.2NY(5); (ii) Sponsored Participants, as that term is defined in Rule 900.2NY(77); and (iii) non-ATP Holder broker-dealers and vendors that request... change as described in Items I, II, and III below, which Items have been prepared by the self-regulatory...

  5. 77 FR 55885 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Exchange Rule 3307 To Institute a Five Millisecond Delay in the Execution Time of Marketable Orders on... millisecond delay in the execution time of marketable orders on NASDAQ OMX PSX. Notice of the proposed rule...

  6. 76 FR 21085 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. By- Laws April 8, 2011. I. Introduction On February 8, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market... vote cast either ``for'' or ``against'' that director's election. In its filing, NASDAQ noted that...

  7. 76 FR 4968 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Listing and Trading Shares of the AdvisorShares Active Bear ETF January 19, 2011. I. Introduction On... of the security or investment in the portfolio. \\14\\ Under accounting procedures followed by the Fund...

  8. 75 FR 1439 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Rescinding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ...(a)(iv). Finally, because DMMs no longer act as agent for orders on the Display Book under the rules... fails to follow the Policy would not be in violation the Order Display rule \\8\\ and/or the Firm Quote...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Rescinding NYSE Information...

  9. 75 FR 65541 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63132; File No. SR-Phlx-2010-118] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. To Expand the $.50 Strike Price Program October 19, 2010. On August 25, 2010, NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. (``Phlx'' or ``Exchange...

  10. 77 FR 67851 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68177; File No. SR-BOX-2012-003] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Price Improvement Period November 7, 2012. I. Introduction On July 25, 2012, BOX Options Exchange LLC (``Exchange...

  11. 75 FR 38585 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62396; File No. SR-BX-2010-012] Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Codify Prices for Co-Location Services June 28, 2010. I. Introduction On January 29, 2010, NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc. (``BX'' or ``Exchange...

  12. 75 FR 38584 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62395; File No. SR-Phlx-2010-18] Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Codify Prices for Co-Location Services June 28, 2010. I. Introduction On January 29, 2010, NASDAQ OMX PHLX (``Phlx'' or...

  13. 75 FR 80553 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63558; File No. SR-NYSEAmex-2010-100] Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Complex Orders December 16, 2010. I. Introduction On October 20, 2010, NYSE Amex LLC (``NYSE Amex'' or the ``Exchange...

  14. 78 FR 28680 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69545; File No. SR-ICC-2013-03] Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Recovery and Resolution Arrangements May 9, 2013. On March 7, 2013, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with the...

  15. La tecnología cambió los escenarios: el efecto Pigmalión se hizo realidad Technology changed scene or Pygmalion came true

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cabero Almenara

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las diferentes tecnologías de la información y comunicación han cambiado con el paso de los años las diferentes sociedades por donde se han ido implantando. La consagración y adopción de las diferentes tecnologías ha consistido en procesos formativos mediante los cuales las creencias y expectativas que se les atribuían han hecho tal efecto que al final acaban por ser realidades y ante ella hemos de enfrentarnos. Ese trabajo refleja la invisibilidad con que las tecnologías han irrumpido en la vida diaria. This paper gives a summary of how the different information and communication technologies have changed the societies which have used them through the years. Consecration and adoption of different technologies have fulfilled beliefs and expectations that eventually have come true.

  16. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  17. Stages As Models of Scene Geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedović, V.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Redert, A.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently,

  18. Foreign capital, forest change and regulatory compliance in Congo Basin forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Jodi S; Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Steinberg, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forest change is driven by demand in distant markets. Equally, investments in tropical forest landscapes by capital originating from distant emerging economies are on the rise. Understanding how forest outcomes vary by investment source is therefore becoming increasingly important. We empirically evaluate the relationship between investment source and deforestation from 2000 to 2010 in the Republic of Congo. A Congolese forestry code was implemented in 2000 to mitigate degradation of production forests by standardizing all logging in the country according to sustainable forest management (SFM) guidelines. Following the implementation of this law, the majority (73%) of Congo’s production forests were managed by European (40%) and Asian (33%) companies. European concessions had the highest rates of total and core deforestation, followed by Asian concessions, indicating that the fragmentation of intact forests in Congo is strongly associated with industrial logging fueled by foreign capital. European concession holders were also far more likely to comply with SFM policies, followed by Asian concessions, suggesting that compliance with Sustainable Forest Management policies may not mitigate degradation in tropical production forests. Further evaluation of the relationship between investment source, regulatory compliance, and outcomes in tropical countries is essential for effective conservation of tropical forest ecosystems. (paper)

  19. Foreign capital, forest change and regulatory compliance in Congo Basin forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jodi S.; Nolte, Christoph; Steinberg, Jessica; Agrawal, Arun

    2014-04-01

    Tropical forest change is driven by demand in distant markets. Equally, investments in tropical forest landscapes by capital originating from distant emerging economies are on the rise. Understanding how forest outcomes vary by investment source is therefore becoming increasingly important. We empirically evaluate the relationship between investment source and deforestation from 2000 to 2010 in the Republic of Congo. A Congolese forestry code was implemented in 2000 to mitigate degradation of production forests by standardizing all logging in the country according to sustainable forest management (SFM) guidelines. Following the implementation of this law, the majority (73%) of Congo’s production forests were managed by European (40%) and Asian (33%) companies. European concessions had the highest rates of total and core deforestation, followed by Asian concessions, indicating that the fragmentation of intact forests in Congo is strongly associated with industrial logging fueled by foreign capital. European concession holders were also far more likely to comply with SFM policies, followed by Asian concessions, suggesting that compliance with Sustainable Forest Management policies may not mitigate degradation in tropical production forests. Further evaluation of the relationship between investment source, regulatory compliance, and outcomes in tropical countries is essential for effective conservation of tropical forest ecosystems.

  20. Simulator scene display evaluation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for aligning and calibrating scene displays in an aircraft simulator has a base on which all of the instruments for the aligning and calibrating are mounted. Laser directs beam at double right prism which is attached to pivoting support on base. The pivot point of the prism is located at the design eye point (DEP) of simulator during the aligning and calibrating. The objective lens in the base is movable on a track to follow the laser beam at different angles within the field of vision at the DEP. An eyepiece and a precision diopter are movable into a position behind the prism during the scene evaluation. A photometer or illuminometer is pivotable about the pivot into and out of position behind the eyepiece.

  1. Building hospital capacity planning mechanisms in Poland: The impact of 2016/2017 regulatory changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Sowada, Christoph; Domagała, Alicja; Więckowska, Barbara

    2018-02-07

    Capacity planning is a crucial component of modern health care governance. The aim of this paper is to analyze the requirements that need to be met to build effective hospital capacity planning mechanisms in Poland. In this context, the recent regulatory changes strongly influencing hospital sector functioning, including introduction of health care needs maps, capital investment assessment, and hospital network regulations, are analyzed. Some possible ways forward, based on review of international experiences in hospital capacity planning, are discussed. Applied methods include literature review and analysis of statistical data as well as desk analysis of key national regulations related to hospital sector. Results indicate that at the system level, the process of capacity planning involves 4 elements: capital investment in facilities, equipment, and technology; service delivery; allocation of staff; and financial resources. For hospital capacity planning to be effective, the strategic decision at the macrolevel must be complemented by appropriate management of individual hospitals. The major challenge of building hospital capacity planning mechanism in Poland is imbedding it into the overall health system strategy. Because of the lack of such a strategy, the practical implementation of the ad hoc changes, which have been introduced, shows some inconsistencies. The regulations implemented between 2016 and 2017 provided a basis for hospital capacity planning, yet still need evaluation and adjustments. Also, including a mechanism for human resources planning is of crucial importance. The regulations should provide incentives for reducing oversized hospital infrastructure with simultaneous development of the long-term and coordinated care models. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  3. Ionizing radiation sources: very diversified means, multiple applications and a changing regulatory environment. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about ionizing radiation source means, applications and regulatory environment. Twenty eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Overview of sources - some quantitative data from the national inventory of ionizing radiation sources (Yann Billarand, IRSN); 2 - Overview of sources (Jerome Fradin, ASN); 3 - Regulatory framework (Sylvie Rodde, ASN); 4 - Alternatives to Iridium radiography - the case of pressure devices at the manufacturing stage (Henri Walaszek, Cetim; Bruno Kowalski, Welding Institute); 5 - Dosimetric stakes of medical scanner examinations (Jean-Louis Greffe, Charleroi hospital of Medical University); 6 - The removal of ionic smoke detectors (Bruno Charpentier, ASN); 7 - Joint-activity and reciprocal liabilities - Organisation of labour risk prevention in case of companies joint-activity (Paulo Pinto, DGT); 8 - Consideration of gamma-graphic testing in the organization of a unit outage activities (Jean-Gabriel Leonard, EDF); 9 - Radiological risk control at a closed and independent work field (Stephane Sartelet, Areva); 10 - Incidents and accidents status and typology (Pascale Scanff, IRSN); 11 - Regional overview of radiation protection significant events (Philippe Menechal, ASN); 12 - Incident leading to a tritium contamination in and urban area - consequences and experience feedback (Laurence Fusil, CEA); 13 - Experience feedback - loss of sealing of a calibration source (Philippe Mougnard, Areva); 14 - Blocking incident of a 60 Co source (Bruno Delille, Salvarem); 15 - Triggering of gantry's alarm: status of findings (Philippe Prat, Syctom); 16 - Non-medical electric devices: regulatory changes (Sophie Dagois, IRSN; Jerome Fradin, ASN); 17 - Evaluation of the dose equivalent rate in pulsed fields: method proposed by the IRSN and implementation test (Laurent Donadille, IRSN

  4. NTL 11 spent fuel flask - meeting the challenge of regulatory and technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cory, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    By June 2005, when shipments of spent fuel for reprocessing from Germany are concluded, the NTL11 flask type will have been responsible for transporting a total of 1500 tonnes of heavy metal in the form of spent fuel. Excluding domestic transports in France and the UK, this represents 25% of the total European spent fuel transported for reprocessing since the flasks came into service in 1977. Approximately 40% of the total for the flask type will have been transported to BNFL's Sellafield facility, the remainder to Cogema at La Hague. The NTL11 flask can justifiably be described as being the workhorse of BNFL's European spent fuel transport business. The NTL11 flask started life under the ownership of Nuclear Transport Limited, an associate company of BNFL, and in recent years the original fleet of five flasks has been absorbed into the BNFL inventory. A recent build programme has seen a further four flasks added to the fleet, an expedient measure to cope with the additional transport requirements imposed by the need to meet the June 2005 deadline for the removal of contracted fuels from Germany. While there have been certain evolutionary changes affecting the package design, there have also been more significant changes in the Design Safety Case. These have sometimes been necessary to meet regulatory changes, or the challenges posed by the regulators. In other cases advantage has been taken of improvements in analytical techniques to demonstrate increased margins of operational safety. Where possible those margins have also been increased by other means, such as taking advantage of commercial trends to reduce package thermal loads. The NTL11 flask was designed around the reactor and fuel characteristics prevailing in the 1970's. Over the lifetime of the flask the responsible engineering teams have faced and met the successive challenges to develop the capability of the Package to face the changing requirements of the industry and the Transport Regulations. Both

  5. NEGOTIATING STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY FOLLOWING REGULATORY CHANGES TO A PROVINCIAL METHADONE PROGRAM IN VANCOUVER, CANADA: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Keewatin, Chereece; Milloy, MJ; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2015-01-01

    While regulatory frameworks governing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) require highly regimented treatment programs that shape treatment outcomes, little research has examined the effects of regulatory changes to these programs on those receiving treatment, and located their experiences within the wider context of socialstructural inequities. In British Columbia (BC), Canada, provincial regulations governing MMT have recently been modified, including: replacing the existing methadone formulation with Methadose® (pre-mixed and 10 times more concentrated); prohibiting pharmacy delivery of methadone; and, prohibiting pharmacies incentives for methadone dispensation. We undertook this study to examine the impacts of these changes on a structurally vulnerable population enrolled in MMT in Vancouver, BC. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 people enrolled in MMT and recruited from two ongoing observational prospective cohort studies comprised of drug-using individuals in the six-month period in 2014 following these regulatory changes. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically, and by drawing on the concept of ‘structural vulnerability’. Findings underscore how these regulatory changes disrupted treatment engagement, producing considerable health and social harms. The introduction of Methadose® precipitated increased withdrawal symptoms. The discontinuation of pharmacy delivery services led to interruptions in MMT and codispensed HIV medications due to constraints stemming from their structural vulnerability (e.g., poverty, homelessness). Meanwhile, the loss of pharmacy incentives limited access to material supports utilized by participants to overcome barriers to MMT, while diminishing their capacity to assert some degree of agency in negotiating dispensation arrangements with pharmacies. Collectively, these changes functioned to compromise MMT engagement and increased structural vulnerability to harm, including re-initiation of injection drug

  6. Semi-automatic scene generation using the Digital Anatomist Foundational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, B A; Rosse, C; Brinkley, J F

    1999-01-01

    A recent survey shows that a major impediment to more widespread use of computers in anatomy education is the inability to directly manipulate 3-D models, and to relate these to corresponding textual information. In the University of Washington Digital Anatomist Project we have developed a prototype Web-based scene generation program that combines the symbolic Foundational Model of Anatomy with 3-D models. A Web user can browse the Foundational Model (FM), then click to request that a 3-D scene be created of an object and its parts or branches. The scene is rendered by a graphics server, and a snapshot is sent to the Web client. The user can then manipulate the scene, adding new structures, deleting structures, rotating the scene, zooming, and saving the scene as a VRML file. Applications such as this, when fully realized with fast rendering and more anatomical content, have the potential to significantly change the way computers are used in anatomy education.

  7. Changing scene highlights III. [Iowa State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassel, V. A.; Harl, Neil E.; Legvold, Sam; Ruedenberg, Klaus; Swenson, Clayton A.; Burnet, George; Fisher, Ray W.; Gschneidner, Karl A.; Hansen, Robert S.; Kliewer, Kenneth L.; Wildman, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    The research programs in progress at Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, are reviewed: hydrogen (storage), materials, catalysts, TRISTAN (their laboratory isotope separator), coal preparation, coal classification, land reclamation (after surface mining, nitinol, neutron radiography, grain dust explosions, biomass conversion, etc). (LTC)

  8. Turbomachinery: latest developments in a changing scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The contributions to the 1991 European Conference on the latest developments in turbomachinery are presented. The topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics methods applied to the aerodynamics of turbine blades; developments associated with steam turbines and gas turbines; flow patterns for turbine blades; compressor design and development; turbine test facilities; film cooling; heat transfer; theoretical treatment of transonic and unsteady flow; condensation phenomena and wet steam flow; water extraction from steam turbine blades; wetness losses in steam turbines in nuclear power plants and pressure loss reduction; aerodynamic instabilities arising from governing valves in Pressurized Water Reactor steam turbines. (UK)

  9. Deliberations on nuclear safety regulatory system in a changing industrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear safety concern, which may accompany such external environmental factors as privatization and restructuring of the electric power industry, is emerging as an international issue. In order to cope with the concern about nuclear safety, it is important to feedback valuable experiences of advanced countries that restructured their electric power industries earlier and further to reflect the current safety issues, which are raised internationally, fully into the nuclear safety regulatory system. This paper is to review the safety issues that might take place in the process of increasing competition in the nuclear power industry, and further to present a basic direction and effective measures for ensuring nuclear safety in response thereto from the viewpoint of safety regulation. It includes a political direction for a regulatory body's efforts to rationalize and enforce efficiently its regulation. It proposes to ensure that regulatory specialty and regulatory cost are stably secured. Also, this paper proposes maintaining a sound nuclear safety regulatory system to monitor thoroughly the safety management activities of the industry, which might be neglected as a result of focusing on reduction of the cost for producing electric power. (author)

  10. Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

  11. Associative Processing Is Inherent in Scene Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoff, Elissa M.; Tarr, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    How are complex visual entities such as scenes represented in the human brain? More concretely, along what visual and semantic dimensions are scenes encoded in memory? One hypothesis is that global spatial properties provide a basis for categorizing the neural response patterns arising from scenes. In contrast, non-spatial properties, such as single objects, also account for variance in neural responses. The list of critical scene dimensions has continued to grow—sometimes in a contradictory manner—coming to encompass properties such as geometric layout, big/small, crowded/sparse, and three-dimensionality. We demonstrate that these dimensions may be better understood within the more general framework of associative properties. That is, across both the perceptual and semantic domains, features of scene representations are related to one another through learned associations. Critically, the components of such associations are consistent with the dimensions that are typically invoked to account for scene understanding and its neural bases. Using fMRI, we show that non-scene stimuli displaying novel associations across identities or locations recruit putatively scene-selective regions of the human brain (the parahippocampal/lingual region, the retrosplenial complex, and the transverse occipital sulcus/occipital place area). Moreover, we find that the voxel-wise neural patterns arising from these associations are significantly correlated with the neural patterns arising from everyday scenes providing critical evidence whether the same encoding principals underlie both types of processing. These neuroimaging results provide evidence for the hypothesis that the neural representation of scenes is better understood within the broader theoretical framework of associative processing. In addition, the results demonstrate a division of labor that arises across scene-selective regions when processing associations and scenes providing better understanding of the functional

  12. Regulatory practices and standards: the international scene and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Essler, W.; Maurer, H.A.; Reijen, G. van.

    1978-01-01

    At national level, codification of standards governing the licensing and operation of nuclear installations is very different, ranging from criteria to regulations, according to the degree of the obligation imposed by national authorities; it also reflects the variety of national situations and the peculiarities of the legal and political systems. The need to agree upon a level of nuclear safety which is generally recognised as satisfactory and to exchange scientific and technological information in this field has greatly stimulated international co-operation, in particular within the framework of specialized international organisations such as IAEA, ISO, Euratom and OECD/NEA. Harmonization of such standards is particularly important from the viewpoint of public opinion in the countries concerned. In addition, the intrinsic safety of nuclear power plants, assurances as to the duration of plant life should increasingly be highlighted in future. (NEA) [fr

  13. Regulatory issues with multiplicity in drug approval: Principles and controversies in a changing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Norbert; Brandt, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Recently, new draft guidelines on multiplicity issues in clinical trials have been issued by European Medicine Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Multiplicity is an issue in clinical trials, if the probability of a false-positive decision is increased by insufficiently accounting for testing multiple hypotheses. We outline the regulatory principles related to multiplicity issues in confirmatory clinical trials intended to support a marketing authorization application in the EU, describe the reasons for an increasing complexity regarding multiple hypotheses testing and discuss the specific multiplicity issues emerging within the regulatory context and being relevant for drug approval.

  14. Places in the Brain: Bridging Layout and Object Geometry in Scene-Selective Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Moira R; Persichetti, Andrew S; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Dilks, Daniel D

    2017-06-13

    Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation, we found that the PPA is indeed sensitive to relative length and angle changes in pictures of scenes, but not pictures of objects that reliably elicited responses to the same geometric changes in object-selective cortical regions. Moreover, we found that the OPA is also sensitive to such changes, while the RSC is tolerant to such changes. Thus, the geometric information typically associated with object recognition is also used during some aspects of scene processing. These findings provide evidence that scene-selective cortex differentially represents the geometric properties guiding navigation versus scene categorization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. 75 FR 51866 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Transfer Service of National Securities Clearing Corporation August 16, 2010. I. Introduction On June 4... complements a Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (``FINRA'') rule requiring FINRA members to use... specified time frames. \\5\\ CNS is an ongoing accounting system which nets today's Settling Trades with...

  16. Dynamics of scene representations in the human brain revealed by magnetoencephalography and deep neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Khosla, Aditya; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Oliva, Aude

    2017-01-01

    Human scene recognition is a rapid multistep process evolving over time from single scene image to spatial layout processing. We used multivariate pattern analyses on magnetoencephalography (MEG) data to unravel the time course of this cortical process. Following an early signal for lower-level visual analysis of single scenes at ~100 ms, we found a marker of real-world scene size, i.e. spatial layout processing, at ~250 ms indexing neural representations robust to changes in unrelated scene properties and viewing conditions. For a quantitative model of how scene size representations may arise in the brain, we compared MEG data to a deep neural network model trained on scene classification. Representations of scene size emerged intrinsically in the model, and resolved emerging neural scene size representation. Together our data provide a first description of an electrophysiological signal for layout processing in humans, and suggest that deep neural networks are a promising framework to investigate how spatial layout representations emerge in the human brain. PMID:27039703

  17. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  18. Scene Integration Without Awareness: No Conclusive Evidence for Processing Scene Congruency During Continuous Flash Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Boelens, David; van Overwalle, Jaana; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-07-01

    A recent study showed that scenes with an object-background relationship that is semantically incongruent break interocular suppression faster than scenes with a semantically congruent relationship. These results implied that semantic relations between the objects and the background of a scene could be extracted in the absence of visual awareness of the stimulus. In the current study, we assessed the replicability of this finding and tried to rule out an alternative explanation dependent on low-level differences between the stimuli. Furthermore, we used a Bayesian analysis to quantify the evidence in favor of the presence or absence of a scene-congruency effect. Across three experiments, we found no convincing evidence for a scene-congruency effect or a modulation of scene congruency by scene inversion. These findings question the generalizability of previous observations and cast doubt on whether genuine semantic processing of object-background relationships in scenes can manifest during interocular suppression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Regulatory pressure and income smoothing by banks in response to anticipated changes to the Basel Ⅱ Accordq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Yeong Lim; Kevin Ow Yong

    2017-01-01

    We examine the effects of the revised Basel II rules on bank managers’ discretionary behavior, specifically income smoothing and loan loss provisioning. As the revised rules exert greater regulatory pressure on corporate than retail banking, we predict corporate bank managers to reduce risk-taking activities or increase income smoothing. Analysis of segmental reports reveals greater(less) income smoothing in the corporate banking segments of low-capital(high-capital) banks during the Basel II period, with their managers recognizing loan loss provisions in a less timely fashion. We find no such effects for retail banking. Although we document an initially negative market reaction to the regulatory announcements, that reaction weakens over time. Overall,the study highlights the unintended consequences of the banking rule changes.

  20. Regulatory pressure and income smoothing by banks in response to anticipated changes to the Basel II Accord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Yeong Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effects of the revised Basel II rules on bank managers’ discretionary behavior, specifically income smoothing and loan loss provisioning. As the revised rules exert greater regulatory pressure on corporate than retail banking, we predict corporate bank managers to reduce risk-taking activities or increase income smoothing. Analysis of segmental reports reveals greater (less income smoothing in the corporate banking segments of low-capital (high-capital banks during the Basel II period, with their managers recognizing loan loss provisions in a less timely fashion. We find no such effects for retail banking. Although we document an initially negative market reaction to the regulatory announcements, that reaction weakens over time. Overall, the study highlights the unintended consequences of the banking rule changes.

  1. B7-H4-Ig treatment of normal mice changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases the potential of regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna N; Schmidt, Esben G W; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed by professio......Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed...... of severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice undergoing T cell transfer colitis did not influence the course of disease probably reflecting the lack of Tregs in this model of chronic colitis. In conclusion, we show that treatment with B7-H4-Ig in vivo changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases...

  2. Current and new developments in transport and regulatory issues concerning radioisotopes: managing change for minimum business impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Neil; Coppell, David; Rogers, David; Schrader, John

    2004-01-01

    Changes in the regulatory framework governing the Radiation Processing Industry have the potential to make a real business impact on day-to-day profitability. Many areas of the Radiation Processing Industry are affected by changes in the regulatory framework within which these areas are managed. When planning for such changes the transportation element in the shipment of sealed cobalt radiation sources is an area that is often neglected by some parts of the distribution chain. A balance must be struck between the cobalt supplier and the facility operator/customer that rests upon how much the customer needs to know about the intricacies of cobalt shipment. The objective of this paper is to highlight areas of possible business impact and reassure the users of sealed radiation sources that the global suppliers of these products are used to negotiating local variations in regulations governing the physical transportation of radiation sources, changes in regulations governing the design, manufacture and use of transportation containers and changes in the availability of commercial shippers and shipping routes. The major suppliers of industrial quantities of cobalt-60 are well placed to lead their customers through this complex process as a matter of routine

  3. Literacy in the contemporary scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B. Kleiman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the relationship between literacy and contemporaneity. I take as a point of departure for my discussion school literacy and its links with literacies in other institutions of the contemporary scene, in order to determine the relation between contemporary ends of reading and writing (in other words, the meaning of being literate in contemporary society and the practices and activities effectively realized at school in order to reach those objectives. Using various examples from teaching and learning situations, I discuss digital literacy practices and multimodal texts and multiliteracies from both printed and digital cultures. Throughout, I keep as a background for the discussion the functions and objectives of school literacy and the professional training of teachers who would like to be effective literacy agents in the contemporary world.

  4. Changing the regulation for regulating the change: Innovation-driven regulatory developments for smart grids, smart metering and e-mobility in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Schiavo, Luca; Delfanti, Maurizio; Fumagalli, Elena; Olivieri, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    For a long time considered as technologically mature, electric systems are now facing a period of rapid evolution, inspired by climate change concerns. Several studies show that current regulation of natural monopolies does not offer sufficient incentives for network operators (and network users) to participate in this process. Taking Italy as a case study, this paper analyses how energy regulation can change to support the current transformation. We describe the recent regulatory interventions in the domain of smart grids, smart metering and electromobility, with a specific emphasis on the provisions aimed at fostering innovation—an issue that until recently has received almost no attention in the literature nor in the practice of regulation. The progress we observe is considerable in all new areas of concern, and, above all, in the regulator's commitment to provide the right incentives for investments in demonstration projects: the acquisition of experience is regarded as essential to move to more sophisticated regulatory instruments. Finally, regulation is also increasingly concerned with network users, both traditional and new, with the objective to stimulate more active behaviours. - Highlights: ► Regulatory changes in Italy: smart grids, smart metering and electromobility. ► Identification of indicators for regulating innovative investments. ► Demonstration projects for smart grids and EV recharging infrastructures. ► Proposal of an output-based regulation for smart grids. ► Time of Use pricing for residential and small commercial consumers

  5. Changing innovation into a registered product: From concept to regulatory approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Linda

    2018-05-01

    Innovation in animal health pharmaceuticals is important to address unmet and underserved medical needs, and often comes from products initially developed for human medicine. The purpose of the review is to help readers understand how breakthroughs from human biotechnology may be developed for use in veterinary medicine, while understanding the key drivers to success, the difficulties of regulatory approval, and the realistic risks and rewards of developing applications for animals. The types of human drugs which may be useful for veterinary applications are reviewed, including examples. The regulatory path is discussed, with a review of the various oversight agencies, and the categories of data required to be submitted, including safety, efficacy, manufacturing, environmental impact and human food safety. In conclusion, the cost, development time, and barriers to innovation in veterinary medical pharmaceuticals are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

  7. When Does Repeated Search in Scenes Involve Memory? Looking at versus Looking for Objects in Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Melissa L. -H.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    One might assume that familiarity with a scene or previous encounters with objects embedded in a scene would benefit subsequent search for those items. However, in a series of experiments we show that this is not the case: When participants were asked to subsequently search for multiple objects in the same scene, search performance remained…

  8. The air quality and regional climate effects of widespread solar power generation under a changing regulatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Zhai, P.; Menon, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade significant reductions of NOx and SOx emissions from coal burning power plants in the U.S. have been achieved due to regulatory action and substitution of new generation towards natural gas and wind power. Low natural gas prices, ever decreasing solar generation costs, and proposed regulatory changes, such as to the Cross State Air Pollution Rule, promise further long-run coal power plant emission reductions. Reduced power plant emissions have the potential to affect ozone and particulate air quality and influence regional climate through aerosol cloud interactions and visibility effects. Here we investigate, on a national scale, the effects on future (~2030) air quality and regional climate of power plant emission regulations in contrast to and combination with policies designed to aggressively promote solar electricity generation. A sophisticated, economic and engineering based, hourly power generation dispatch model is developed to explore the integration of significant solar generation resources (>10% on an energy basis) at various regions across the county, providing detailed estimates of substitution of solar generation for fossil fuel generation resources. Future air pollutant emissions from all sectors of the economy are scaled based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory to account for activity changes based on population and economic projections derived from county level U.S. Census data and the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Outlook. Further adjustments are made for technological and regulatory changes applicable within various sectors, for example, emission intensity adjustments to on-road diesel trucking due to exhaust treatment and improved engine design. The future year 2030 is selected for the emissions scenarios to allow for the development of significant solar generation resources. A regional climate and air quality model (Weather Research and Forecasting, WRF model) is

  9. Stages as models of scene geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, Vladimir; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Redert, André; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2010-09-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently, we identify geometric scene categorization as the first step toward robust and efficient depth estimation from single images. We introduce 15 typical 3D scene geometries called stages, each with a unique depth profile, which roughly correspond to a large majority of broadcast video frames. Stage information serves as a first approximation of global depth, narrowing down the search space in depth estimation and object localization. We propose different sets of low-level features for depth estimation, and perform stage classification on two diverse data sets of television broadcasts. Classification results demonstrate that stages can often be efficiently learned from low-dimensional image representations.

  10. Number of perceptually distinct surface colors in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Franch, Iván; Foster, David H

    2010-09-30

    The ability to perceptually identify distinct surfaces in natural scenes by virtue of their color depends not only on the relative frequency of surface colors but also on the probabilistic nature of observer judgments. Previous methods of estimating the number of discriminable surface colors, whether based on theoretical color gamuts or recorded from real scenes, have taken a deterministic approach. Thus, a three-dimensional representation of the gamut of colors is divided into elementary cells or points which are spaced at one discrimination-threshold unit intervals and which are then counted. In this study, information-theoretic methods were used to take into account both differing surface-color frequencies and observer response uncertainty. Spectral radiances were calculated from 50 hyperspectral images of natural scenes and were represented in a perceptually almost uniform color space. The average number of perceptually distinct surface colors was estimated as 7.3 × 10(3), much smaller than that based on counting methods. This number is also much smaller than the number of distinct points in a scene that are, in principle, available for reliable identification under illuminant changes, suggesting that color constancy, or the lack of it, does not generally determine the limit on the use of color for surface identification.

  11. Evaluating confidence in the impact of regulatory nutrient reduction and assessing the competing impact of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, I.; Friedrichs, M. A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Human impacts on the Chesapeake Bay through increased nutrient run-off as a result of land-use change, urbanization, and industrialization, have resulted in a degradation of water quality over the last half-century. These direct impacts, compounded with human-induced climate changes such as warming, rising sea level, and changes in precipitation, have elevated the conversation surrounding the future of the Bay's water quality. As a result, in 2010, a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) was established for the Chesapeake Bay that limited nutrient and sediment input in an effort to increase dissolved oxygen. This research utilizes a multiple model approach to evaluate confidence in the estuarine water quality modeling portion of the TMDL. One of the models is then used to assess the potential impact climate change may have on the success of currently mandated nutrient reduction levels in 2050. Results demonstrate that although the models examined differ structurally and in biogeochemical complexity, they project a similar attainment of regulatory water quality standards after nutrient reduction, while also establishing that meeting water quality standards is relatively independent of hydrologic conditions. By developing a Confidence Index, this research identifies the locations and causes of greatest uncertainty in modeled projections of water quality. Although there are specific locations and times where the models disagree, this research lends an increased degree of confidence in the appropriateness of the TMDL levels and in the general impact nutrient reductions will have on Chesapeake Bay water quality under current environmental conditions. However, when examining the potential impacts of climate change, this research shows that the combined impacts of increasing temperature, sea level, and river flow negatively affect dissolved oxygen throughout the Chesapeake Bay and impact progress towards meeting the water quality standards associated with the TMDL with

  12. Changes in regulatory molecules for lymphangiogenesis in intestinal lymphangiectasia with enteric protein loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokari, Ryota; Kitagawa, Noritake; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Kurihara, Chie; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Nagao, Shigeaki; Hibi, Toshifumi; Miura, Soichiro

    2008-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) and LYVE-1 are specifically expressed in the endothelium of the lymphatic systems. VEGF-C, D, FOXC2, Prox 1, and SOX18 are known to play central roles in lymphatic development. We investigated the expression of regulatory molecules for lymphangiogenesis in the duodenal mucosa of idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia. Biopsy samples were obtained from duodenal biopsies in patients with intestinal lymphangiectasia complicated with protein-losing from white spot lesions in which lymphangiectasia was histologically confirmed. Immunohistochemical analysis for VEGFR3 and LYVE-1 was performed. mRNA expression of VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR3, and transcription factors was determined by the quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. In the control mucosa, VEGFR3 was weakly expressed on the central lymphatic vessels in the lamina propria and LYVE-1 was expressed mainly on the lymphatic vessels in the submucosa. In intestinal lymphangiectasia, VEGFR3 and LYVE-1 expression levels were increased on the mucosal surface corresponding to widely dilated lymphatic vessels, while they were decreased in the deeper mucosa. mRNA expression study showed a significant increase in the expression level of VEGFR3 in lymphangiectasia, but the expression of VEGF-C and -D mRNA was significantly suppressed compared with that in controls despite the presence of lymphangiectasia. The mRNA expression levels of FOXC2 and SOX18 were also decreased, whereas Prox 1 was not altered. There is an altered expression of regulatory molecules for lymphangiogenesis in the duodenal mucosa in these patients.

  13. Regulatory changes in the management of the structural integrity of the vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, M.; Jardi, X.; Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Marcelles, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the changes that have recently occurred in both the normative and ASME code, affecting the monitoring programs of the vessel. Also, the changes will be discussed in the future are envisaged in codes and regulations.

  14. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated, and there remain critical shortcomings in current approaches th...... ill-posed problems, (2) the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, (3) efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and (4) the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress toward behavioral goals....

  15. From frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana: the impact of regulatory change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Cheong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of whether adaptations to past disasters can impede adaptation to new disasters of a different type or intensity will be analyzed by examining the transition from frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana. In particular, the effects of changed regulatory structures from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are investigated. The article describes how the federal, state, and local governments adjust. In addition, it illustrates the shifting focus on the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. It wraps up with a discussion of the uncertainty that is pervasive in the case of the oil spill derived from changed regulations and the novelty of the disaster.

  16. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  17. SCEGRAM: An image database for semantic and syntactic inconsistencies in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlschläger, Sabine; Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa

    2017-10-01

    Our visual environment is not random, but follows compositional rules according to what objects are usually found where. Despite the growing interest in how such semantic and syntactic rules - a scene grammar - enable effective attentional guidance and object perception, no common image database containing highly-controlled object-scene modifications has been publically available. Such a database is essential in minimizing the risk that low-level features drive high-level effects of interest, which is being discussed as possible source of controversial study results. To generate the first database of this kind - SCEGRAM - we took photographs of 62 real-world indoor scenes in six consistency conditions that contain semantic and syntactic (both mild and extreme) violations as well as their combinations. Importantly, always two scenes were paired, so that an object was semantically consistent in one scene (e.g., ketchup in kitchen) and inconsistent in the other (e.g., ketchup in bathroom). Low-level salience did not differ between object-scene conditions and was generally moderate. Additionally, SCEGRAM contains consistency ratings for every object-scene condition, as well as object-absent scenes and object-only images. Finally, a cross-validation using eye-movements replicated previous results of longer dwell times for both semantic and syntactic inconsistencies compared to consistent controls. In sum, the SCEGRAM image database is the first to contain well-controlled semantic and syntactic object-scene inconsistencies that can be used in a broad range of cognitive paradigms (e.g., verbal and pictorial priming, change detection, object identification, etc.) including paradigms addressing developmental aspects of scene grammar. SCEGRAM can be retrieved for research purposes from http://www.scenegrammarlab.com/research/scegram-database/ .

  18. Robotic Discovery of the Auditory Scene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinson, E; Schultz, A

    2007-01-01

    .... Motivated by the large negative effect of ambient noise sources on robot audition, the long-term goal is to provide awareness of the auditory scene to a robot, so that it may more effectively act...

  19. Scene Integration for Online VR Advertising Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kalochristianakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scene composition approach that allows the combinational use of standard three dimensional objects, called models, in order to create X3D scenes. The module is an integral part of a broader design aiming to construct large scale online advertising infrastructures that rely on virtual reality technologies. The architecture addresses a number of problems regarding remote rendering for low end devices and last but not least, the provision of scene composition and integration. Since viewers do not keep information regarding individual input models or scenes, composition requires the consideration of mechanisms that add state to viewing technologies. In terms of this work we extended a well-known, open source X3D authoring tool.

  20. Regulatory change for organ procurement organizations: certifying the success of transplantation in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Charles E

    2006-09-01

    In June 2006, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services released the final rule for the conditions of participation for organ procurement organizations in the United States. The new guidelines change the way OPOs are measured, shifting from a population-based set of performance measures to a system that is based on eligible donors and conversion rates. In addition to the change in measurement philosophy, CMS has included statements, regarding organizational structure, staffing, and research as standard measures for OPOs. The change from solely donation and transplantation measures is significant for the community, and will result in changes in the way OPOs structure their organizations and governing and clinical boards.

  1. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  2. 77 FR 3531 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Enhance Risk Management.... Description The rule change will enhance the risk management controls associated with DTC's Receiver... Participant's net debit cap is placed on a pending (recycling) queue until another transaction creates...

  3. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitates natural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in the Arctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competition...... on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Arctic Council (AC) are taken into consideration under climate change effects, to assess how global legal frameworks and institutions can deal with China’s strategy in the Arctic Ocean. China’s is moving away from its role as “humble power” to one of “informal...... imperialistic” resulting in substantial impact on the Arctic and Antartic dynamism. Due to ice-melting, an easy access to natural resources, China’s Arctic strategy in the Arctic Ocean has reinforced its military martitime strategy and has profoundly changed its maritime military doctrine shifting from regional...

  4. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  5. 77 FR 39781 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... would be for an IPO. \\3\\ 15 U.S.C. 77a. Significant regulatory concerns, including accounting fraud... accounting fraud or subject to other concealed and undisclosed legal or regulatory problems. For purposes of...

  6. Chronic stress and peripheral pain: Evidence for distinct, region-specific changes in visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gen; Hong, Shuangsong; Hayes, John M; Wiley, John W

    2015-11-01

    Chronic stress alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhances visceral and somatosensory pain perception. It is unresolved whether chronic stress has distinct effects on visceral and somatosensory pain regulatory pathways. Previous studies reported that stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia is associated with reciprocal alterations of endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pain pathways in DRG neurons innervating the pelvic viscera. In this study, we compared somatosensory and visceral hyperalgesia with respect to differential responses of peripheral pain regulatory pathways in a rat model of chronic, intermittent stress. We found that chronic stress induced reciprocal changes in the endocannabinoid 2-AG (increased) and endocannabinoid degradation enzymes COX-2 and FAAH (decreased), associated with down-regulation of CB1 and up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in L6-S2 DRG but not L4-L5 DRG neurons. In contrast, sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 were up-regulated in L4-L5 but not L6-S2 DRGs in stressed rats, which was reproduced in control DRGs treated with corticosterone in vitro. The reciprocal changes of CB1, TRPV1 and sodium channels were cell-specific and observed in the sub-population of nociceptive neurons. Behavioral assessment showed that visceral hyperalgesia persisted, whereas somatosensory hyperalgesia and enhanced expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channels in L4-L5 DRGs normalized 3 days after completion of the stress phase. These data indicate that chronic stress induces visceral and somatosensory hyperalgesia that involves differential changes in endovanilloid and endocannabinoid pathways, and sodium channels in DRGs innervating the pelvic viscera and lower extremities. These results suggest that chronic stress-induced visceral and lower extremity somatosensory hyperalgesia can be treated selectively at different levels of the spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 19057 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing Proposed Rule Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... categories. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the... by ICEEU. A. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the.... 78q-1(b)(3)(F). B. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on Burden on Competition ICE Clear Europe...

  8. 75 FR 39714 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing this notice to....C. 78a. \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of the.... II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed...

  9. 76 FR 77877 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    .... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the...). II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed... self-regulatory organization has prepared summaries, set forth in Sections A, B and C below, of the...

  10. 76 FR 61444 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's... Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory... IV below. The self-regulatory organization has prepared summaries, set forth in Sections A, B and C...

  11. 78 FR 48732 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Changes to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization... Exchange, and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of... A, B, and C below, of the most significant aspects of such statements. A. Self-Regulatory...

  12. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 8, Regulatory Framework Intersections: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  13. 78 FR 36616 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... of this proposed rule change filing, the United Kingdom, Mexico, Ireland, Switzerland, Spain, Norway... services industry already contain provisions allocating the risk of any FATCA Withholding tax that will...

  14. Changes in Translational Efficiency is a Dominant Regulatory Mechanism in the Environmental Response of Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Ronald C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Serres, Margrethe H.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Hill, Eric A.; Romine, Margaret F.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wiley, H. S.

    2013-09-23

    To understand how cell physiological state affects mRNA translation, we used Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 grown under steady state conditions at either aerobic or suboxic conditions. Using a combination of quantitative proteomics and RNA-Seq, we generated high-confidence data on >1000 mRNA and protein pairs. By using a steady state model, we found that differences in protein-mRNA ratios were primarily caused by differences in the translational efficiency of specific genes. When oxygen levels were lowered, 28% of the proteins showed at least a 2-fold change in expression. Altered transcription levels appeared responsible for 26% of the protein changes, altered translational efficiency appeared responsible for 46% and a combination of both were responsible for the remaining 28%. Changes in translational efficiency were significantly correlated with the codon usage pattern of the genes and measurable tRNA pools changed in response to altered O2 levels. Our results suggest that changes in the translational efficiency of proteins, in part caused by altered tRNA pools, is a major determinant of regulated protein expression in bacteria.

  15. Regulatory challenges posed by a changing nuclear fuel industry in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.W.; Tew, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the UK, all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle are regulated by HSE's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) through a licensing regime established by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. This paper describes that regime, and also the organisational and technological changes which have taken place in the nuclear fuel industry in recent years. Such organisational changes have included restructuring, staff reductions, the greater use of contractors and possible privatisation. The paper then addresses the response of the regulator to such changes, both in terms of the licensing process and the inspection activities on site. It describes in particular new HSE Guidance - ''Nuclear Site Licences: Notes for Applicants'' - which introduces the key concept of a management prospectus for nuclear licensees. (author)

  16. Regulatory Changes and Productivity of the Banking Sector in the Indian Sub-Continent

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbar Jaffry; Yaseen Ghulam; Sean Pascoe; Joe Cox

    2005-01-01

    This study seeks to measure changes in technical efficiency levels within the banking sectors of the Indian sub-continent: specifically India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, over the period 1993–2002. This study is done in the context of a number of sweeping deregulations across the sub-continent in the early 1990s, and the possible effect these may have had upon efficiency levels. A Malmquist Index of TFP change over the time-period in question is employed, along with a Tobit regression, in order...

  17. Oculomotor capture during real-world scene viewing depends on cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Michi; Brockmole, James R; Boot, Walter R; Henderson, John M

    2011-03-25

    It has been claimed that gaze control during scene viewing is largely governed by stimulus-driven, bottom-up selection mechanisms. Recent research, however, has strongly suggested that observers' top-down control plays a dominant role in attentional prioritization in scenes. A notable exception to this strong top-down control is oculomotor capture, where visual transients in a scene draw the eyes. One way to test whether oculomotor capture during scene viewing is independent of an observer's top-down goal setting is to reduce observers' cognitive resource availability. In the present study, we examined whether increasing observers' cognitive load influences the frequency and speed of oculomotor capture during scene viewing. In Experiment 1, we tested whether increasing observers' cognitive load modulates the degree of oculomotor capture by a new object suddenly appeared in a scene. Similarly, in Experiment 2, we tested whether increasing observers' cognitive load modulates the degree of oculomotor capture by an object's color change. In both experiments, the degree of oculomotor capture decreased as observers' cognitive resources were reduced. These results suggest that oculomotor capture during scene viewing is dependent on observers' top-down selection mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 60695 - Regulatory Reorganization; Administrative Changes to Regulations Due to the Consolidation of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Consolidation of the Financial Management Service and the Bureau of the Public Debt Into the Bureau of the... Service''). The new bureau consolidated the bureaus formerly known as the Financial Management Service... Register on May 24, 2013. This consolidation requires reorganization of, and administrative changes to...

  19. 77 FR 520 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... one of the reference ETFs measured by the index is a gold- or silver-based ETF.\\5\\ Generally, OCC... security of an underlying relative performance index is an ETF designed to measure the return of gold or... changes to OCC's By-Laws clarifying that options on the CBOE Gold ETF Volatility Index will be cleared and...

  20. Indirect land use change and biofuels. Mathematical analysis reveals a fundamental flaw in the regulatory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, S.; Dale, B.E.; Heijungs, R.; Azapagic, A.; Darlington, T.; Kahlbaum, D.

    2014-01-01

    In the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has used partial equilibrium models to estimate the overall indirect land use change (iLUC) associated with the biofuel scenario mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

  1. Moving through a multiplex holographic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrongovius, Martina

    2013-02-01

    This paper explores how movement can be used as a compositional element in installations of multiplex holograms. My holographic images are created from montages of hand-held video and photo-sequences. These spatially dynamic compositions are visually complex but anchored to landmarks and hints of the capturing process - such as the appearance of the photographer's shadow - to establish a sense of connection to the holographic scene. Moving around in front of the hologram, the viewer animates the holographic scene. A perception of motion then results from the viewer's bodily awareness of physical motion and the visual reading of dynamics within the scene or movement of perspective through a virtual suggestion of space. By linking and transforming the physical motion of the viewer with the visual animation, the viewer's bodily awareness - including proprioception, balance and orientation - play into the holographic composition. How multiplex holography can be a tool for exploring coupled, cross-referenced and transformed perceptions of movement is demonstrated with a number of holographic image installations. Through this process I expanded my creative composition practice to consider how dynamic and spatial scenes can be conveyed through the fragmented view of a multiplex hologram. This body of work was developed through an installation art practice and was the basis of my recently completed doctoral thesis: 'The Emergent Holographic Scene — compositions of movement and affect using multiplex holographic images'.

  2. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  3. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Jean; Bouvier, Vincent; Guillemé, Julien; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2012-01-01

    When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF) of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell's law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled). The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes. PMID:23226987

  4. Correlated Topic Vector for Scene Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang

    2017-07-01

    Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.

  5. The development of brain systems associated with successful memory retrieval of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofen, Noa; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Schuil, Karen D I; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2012-07-18

    Neuroanatomical and psychological evidence suggests prolonged maturation of declarative memory systems in the human brain from childhood into young adulthood. Here, we examine functional brain development during successful memory retrieval of scenes in children, adolescents, and young adults ages 8-21 via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Recognition memory improved with age, specifically for accurate identification of studied scenes (hits). Successful retrieval (correct old-new decisions for studied vs unstudied scenes) was associated with activations in frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. Activations associated with successful retrieval increased with age in left parietal cortex (BA7), bilateral prefrontal, and bilateral caudate regions. In contrast, activations associated with successful retrieval did not change with age in the MTL. Psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that there were, however, age-relate changes in differential connectivity for successful retrieval between MTL and prefrontal regions. These results suggest that neocortical regions related to attentional or strategic control show the greatest developmental changes for memory retrieval of scenes. Furthermore, these results suggest that functional interactions between MTL and prefrontal regions during memory retrieval also develop into young adulthood. The developmental increase of memory-related activations in frontal and parietal regions for retrieval of scenes and the absence of such an increase in MTL regions parallels what has been observed for memory encoding of scenes.

  6. Changes in peripheral blood level of regulatory T cells in patients with malignant melanoma during treatment with dendritic cell vaccination and low-dose IL-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjoern, J; Brimnes, M K; Andersen, M H

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cell (Treg) levels were evaluated in 46 progressive patients with melanoma treated with a dendritic cell-based vaccine and concomitant low-dose IFN-α and IL-2. The regulatory subset of CD4 T cells, characterized by CD25(high......) , was prospectively analysed in fresh blood, and treatment-associated quantitative and qualitative changes were analysed. By the 4th vaccine, patients showed a marked increase in CD4+ CD25(high) T cell subset from 6% to 22% (P...

  7. Changes in peripheral blood level of regulatory T cells in patients with malignant melanoma during treatment with dendritic cell vaccination and low-dose IL-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjoern, J; Brimnes, M K; Andersen, M H

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cell (Treg) levels were evaluated in 46 progressive patients with melanoma treated with a dendritic cell-based vaccine and concomitant low-dose IFN-a and IL-2. The regulatory subset of CD4 T cells, characterized by CD25(high......) , was prospectively analysed in fresh blood, and treatment-associated quantitative and qualitative changes were analysed. By the 4th vaccine, patients showed a marked increase in CD4+ CD25(high) T cell subset from 6% to 22% (P...

  8. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  9. Behind the scenes at Effekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorman Jensen, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Effect´s breakthrough was dramatic, and was one of the factors that led to changes in the debate concerning planning. Today young architects work on many varied assignments that include everything from showcase design to architecture in Central America......Effect´s breakthrough was dramatic, and was one of the factors that led to changes in the debate concerning planning. Today young architects work on many varied assignments that include everything from showcase design to architecture in Central America...

  10. Cross-cultural differences in item and background memory: examining the influence of emotional intensity and scene congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Sturkie, Charlee M; Rochester, Nina M; Liu, Xiaodong; Gutchess, Angela H

    2018-07-01

    After viewing a scene, individuals differ in what they prioritise and remember. Culture may be one factor that influences scene memory, as Westerners have been shown to be more item-focused than Easterners (see Masuda, T., & Nisbett, R. E. (2001). Attending holistically versus analytically: Comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 922-934). However, cultures may differ in their sensitivity to scene incongruences and emotion processing, which may account for cross-cultural differences in scene memory. The current study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine scene memory while controlling for scene congruency and the perceived emotional intensity of the images. American and East Asian participants encoded pictures that included a positive, negative, or neutral item placed on a neutral background. After a 20-min delay, participants were shown the item and background separately along with similar and new items and backgrounds to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that even when congruency and emotional intensity were controlled, there was evidence that Americans had better item memory than East Asians. Incongruent scenes were better remembered than congruent scenes. However, this effect did not differ by culture. This suggests that Americans' item focus may result in memory changes that are robust despite variations in scene congruency and perceived emotion.

  11. Effect of Smoking Scenes in Films on Immediate Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. Purpose This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. Methods 100 cigarette smokers aged 18–25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Results Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR 6.73; 1.00–45.25 comparing the top to bottom percentiles of exposure) were more likely to smoke during the break. Level of nicotine dependence (OR 1.71; 1.27–2.32 per point on the FTND scale), “contemplation” (OR 9.07; 1.71–47.99) and “precontemplation” (OR 7.30; 1.39–38.36) stages of change, and impulsivity (OR 1.21; 1.03–1.43), were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. Conclusions There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. PMID:20307802

  12. Modeling global scene factors in attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, Antonio

    2003-07-01

    Models of visual attention have focused predominantly on bottom-up approaches that ignored structured contextual and scene information. I propose a model of contextual cueing for attention guidance based on the global scene configuration. It is shown that the statistics of low-level features across the whole image can be used to prime the presence or absence of objects in the scene and to predict their location, scale, and appearance before exploring the image. In this scheme, visual context information can become available early in the visual processing chain, which allows modulation of the saliency of image regions and provides an efficient shortcut for object detection and recognition. 2003 Optical Society of America

  13. Changes of microRNA profile and microRNA-mRNA regulatory network in bones of ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee Hyun; Ohn, Jung Hun; Song, Jung Ah; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Park, Hyojung; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Park, Woog-Yang; Shin, Chan Soo

    2014-03-01

    Growing evidence shows the possibility of a role of microRNAs (miRNA) in regulating bone mass. We investigated the change of miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles in bone tissue in an ovariectomized mice model and evaluated the regulatory mechanism of bone mass mediated by miRNAs in an estrogen-deficiency state. Eight-week-old female C3H/HeJ mice underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (Sham-op), and their femur and tibia were harvested to extract total bone RNAs after 4 weeks for microarray analysis. Eight miRNAs (miR-127, -133a, -133a*, -133b, -136, -206, -378, -378*) were identified to be upregulated after OVX, whereas one miRNA (miR-204) was downregulated. Concomitant analysis of mRNA microarray revealed that 658 genes were differentially expressed between OVX and Sham-op mice. Target prediction of differentially expressed miRNAs identified potential targets, and integrative analysis using the mRNA microarray results showed that PPARγ and CREB pathways are activated in skeletal tissues after ovariectomy. Among the potential candidates of miRNA, we further studied the role of miR-127 in vitro, which exhibited the greatest changes after OVX. We also studied the effects of miR-136, which has not been studied in the context of bone mass regulation. Transfection of miR-127 inhibitor has enhanced osteoblastic differentiation in UAMS-32 cells as measured by alkaline phosphatase activities and mRNA expression of osteoblast-specific genes, whereas miR-136 precursor has inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, transfection of both miR-127 and miR-136 inhibitors enhanced the osteocyte-like morphological changes and survival in MLO-Y4 cells, whereas precursors of miR-127 and -136 have aggravated dexamethasone-induced cell death. Both of the precursors enhanced osteoclastic differentiation in bone marrow macrophages, indicating that both miR-127 and -136 are negatively regulating bone mass. Taken together, these results suggest a novel insight into the

  14. Market redesign and regulatory change : how companies doing business in Alberta's power markets will be affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Power Pool of Alberta (PPA) began its operations in 1996 based on a model with a single price set based on day ahead offers/bids and real time dispatch. The Electric Utilities Act was amended in 1998 and direct sales were permitted in 1999. The Power Purchase Arrangement Auction was implemented in 2000. Significant events took place in 2001, including: (1) retail competition, (2) PPAs began operations, (3) restrictions on direct sales were removed, (4) forward exchange operation, and (5) ancillary services market. In 2002, the Market Achievement Plan II was implemented and government industry structure was reviewed. There are several considerations regarding market redesign, such as day ahead market, capacity market, congestion management, and Northwest Regional Transmission Organization (RTO West). The role of the International Standard Organization (ISO) was discussed, with reference to the Independent System Operator, Independent Market Operator, and Transmission and Market Planner. Redesign must involve all participants and include informed, phased in changes

  15. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Inactivation Induces Cell Senescence through Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1-Mediated Lipogenesis in Chang Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Mie; Song, Insun; Seo, Yong-Hak; Yoon, Gyesoon

    2013-12-01

    Enhanced lipogenesis plays a critical role in cell senescence via induction of expression of the mature form of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which contributes to an increase in organellar mass, one of the indicators of senescence. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which signaling molecules control SREBP1-mediated lipogenesis and senescence. We developed cellular models for stress-induced senescence, by exposing Chang cells, which are immortalized human liver cells, to subcytotoxic concentrations (200 µM) of deferoxamine (DFO) and H2O2. In this model of stress-induced cell senescence using DFO and H2O2, the phosphorylation profile of glycogen synthase kinase 3α (GSK3α) and β corresponded closely to the expression profile of the mature form of SREBP-1 protein. Inhibition of GSK3 with a subcytotoxic concentration of the selective GSK3 inhibitor SB415286 significantly increased mature SREBP1 expression, as well as lipogenesis and organellar mass. In addition, GSK3 inhibition was sufficient to induce senescence in Chang cells. Suppression of GSK3 expression with siRNAs specific to GSK3α and β also increased mature SREBP1 expression and induced senescence. Finally, blocking lipogenesis with fatty acid synthase inhibitors (cerulenin and C75) and siRNA-mediated silencing of SREBP1 and ATP citrate lyase (ACL) significantly attenuated GSK3 inhibition-induced senescence. GSK3 inactivation is an important upstream event that induces SREBP1-mediated lipogenesis and consequent cell senescence.

  16. Review of infrared scene projector technology-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, Ronald G.; Barnard, Kenneth J.; Burroughs, E. E.; Deep, Raymond G.; Williams, Owen M.

    1994-07-01

    The importance of testing IR imagers and missile seekers with realistic IR scenes warrants a review of the current technologies used in dynamic infrared scene projection. These technologies include resistive arrays, deformable mirror arrays, mirror membrane devices, liquid crystal light valves, laser writers, laser diode arrays, and CRTs. Other methods include frustrated total internal reflection, thermoelectric devices, galvanic cells, Bly cells, and vanadium dioxide. A description of each technology is presented along with a discussion of their relative benefits and disadvantages. The current state of each methodology is also summarized. Finally, the methods are compared and contrasted in terms of their performance parameters.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations of conformation changes of HIV-1 regulatory protein on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Daohui; Li, Libo; He, Daohang; Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou@scut.edu.cn

    2016-07-30

    Graphical abstract: Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene accompanied by early conformational change from α-helix to β-sheet structures was observed by molecular simulations. This work presents the molecular mechanism of graphene-induced peptide conformational alteration and sheds light on developing graphene-based materials to inhibit HIV. - Highlights: • Graphene induced early structural transition of Vpr13-33 is studied by MD simulations. • Both π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions orchestrate the peptide adsorption. • Vpr has an increased propensity of β-sheet content on graphene surface. • To develop graphene-based materials to inhibit HIV is possible. - Abstract: The fragment of viral protein R (Vpr), Vpr13-33, plays an important role in regulating nuclear importing of HIV genes through channel formation in which it adopts a leucine-zipper-like alpha-helical conformation. A recent experimental study reported that helical Vpr13-33 would transform to β-sheet or random coil structures and aggregate on the surface of graphene or graphene oxide through hydrophobic interactions. Due to experimental limitations, however, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the adsorption dynamics at the early stage of the conformational transition at water-graphene interface and the underlying driving force at molecular level. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore the conformation transition phenomena. Vpr13-33 kept α-helical structure in solution, but changed to β-sheet structure when strongly adsorbed onto graphene. Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. The cluster analysis identified the most significant populated conformation and the early stage of structure conversion from α-helical to β-sheet was found, but the full β-sheet propagation was not observed. Free energy landscape analysis further complemented the transformation analysis of

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of conformation changes of HIV-1 regulatory protein on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Daohui; Li, Libo; He, Daohang; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene accompanied by early conformational change from α-helix to β-sheet structures was observed by molecular simulations. This work presents the molecular mechanism of graphene-induced peptide conformational alteration and sheds light on developing graphene-based materials to inhibit HIV. - Highlights: • Graphene induced early structural transition of Vpr13-33 is studied by MD simulations. • Both π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions orchestrate the peptide adsorption. • Vpr has an increased propensity of β-sheet content on graphene surface. • To develop graphene-based materials to inhibit HIV is possible. - Abstract: The fragment of viral protein R (Vpr), Vpr13-33, plays an important role in regulating nuclear importing of HIV genes through channel formation in which it adopts a leucine-zipper-like alpha-helical conformation. A recent experimental study reported that helical Vpr13-33 would transform to β-sheet or random coil structures and aggregate on the surface of graphene or graphene oxide through hydrophobic interactions. Due to experimental limitations, however, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the adsorption dynamics at the early stage of the conformational transition at water-graphene interface and the underlying driving force at molecular level. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore the conformation transition phenomena. Vpr13-33 kept α-helical structure in solution, but changed to β-sheet structure when strongly adsorbed onto graphene. Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. The cluster analysis identified the most significant populated conformation and the early stage of structure conversion from α-helical to β-sheet was found, but the full β-sheet propagation was not observed. Free energy landscape analysis further complemented the transformation analysis of

  19. Multistate outbreak of Listeriosis linked to turkey deli meat and subsequent changes in US regulatory policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Newbern, E Claire; Griffin, Patricia M; Graves, Lewis M; Hoekstra, R Michael; Baker, Nicole L; Hunter, Susan B; Holt, Kristin G; Ramsey, Fred; Head, Marcus; Levine, Priscilla; Johnson, Geraldine; Schoonmaker-Bopp, Dianna; Reddy, Vasudha; Kornstein, Laura; Gerwel, Michal; Nsubuga, Johnson; Edwards, Leslie; Stonecipher, Shelley; Hurd, Sharon; Austin, Deri; Jefferson, Michelle A; Young, Suzanne D; Hise, Kelley; Chernak, Esther D; Sobel, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    Listeriosis, a life-threatening foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes, affects approximately 2500 Americans annually. Between July and October 2002, an uncommon strain of L. monocytogenes caused an outbreak of listeriosis in 9 states. We conducted case finding, a case-control study, and traceback and microbiological investigations to determine the extent and source of the outbreak and to propose control measures. Case patients were infected with the outbreak strain of L. monocytogenes between July and November 2002 in 9 states, and control patients were infected with different L. monocytogenes strains. Outcome measures included food exposure associated with outbreak strain infection and source of the implicated food. Fifty-four case patients were identified; 8 died, and 3 pregnant women had fetal deaths. The case-control study included 38 case patients and 53 control patients. Case patients consumed turkey deli meat much more frequently than did control patients (P = .008, by Wilcoxon rank-sum test). In the 4 weeks before illness, 55% of case patients had eaten deli turkey breast more than 1-2 times, compared with 28% of control patients (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-17.1). Investigation of turkey deli meat eaten by case patients led to several turkey processing plants. The outbreak strain was found in the environment of 1 processing plant and in turkey products from a second. Together, the processing plants recalled > 30 million pounds of products. Following the outbreak, the US Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service issued new regulations outlining a L. monocytogenes control and testing program for ready-to-eat meat and poultry processing plants. Turkey deli meat was the source of a large multistate outbreak of listeriosis. Investigation of this outbreak helped guide policy changes designed to prevent future L. monocytogenes contamination of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

  20. Behind the scenes at the LHC inauguration

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    On 21 October the LHC inauguration ceremony will take place and people from all over CERN have been busy preparing. With delegations from 38 countries attending, including ministers and heads of state, the Bulletin has gone behind the scenes to see what it takes to put together an event of this scale.

  1. OpenSceneGraph 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook full of recipes with practical examples enriched with code and the required screenshots for easy and quick comprehension. You should be familiar with the basic concepts of the OpenSceneGraph API and should be able to write simple programs. Some OpenGL and math knowledge will help a lot, too.

  2. The primal scene and symbol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedecken, Dietmut

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the meaning of the primal scene for symbol formation by exploring its way of processing in a child's play. The author questions the notion that a sadomasochistic way of processing is the only possible one. A model of an alternative mode of processing is being presented. It is suggested that both ways of processing intertwine in the "fabric of life" (D. Laub). Two clinical vignettes, one from an analytic child psychotherapy and the other from the analysis of a 30 year-old female patient, illustrate how the primal scene is being played out in the form of a terzet. The author explores whether the sadomasochistic way of processing actually precedes the "primal scene as a terzet". She discusses if it could even be regarded as a precondition for the formation of the latter or, alternatively, if the "combined parent-figure" gives rise to ways of processing. The question is being left open. Finally, it is shown how both modes of experiencing the primal scene underlie the discoursive and presentative symbol formation, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Bin; Yan, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models

  4. From Theatre Improvisation To Video Scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Friis, Preben

    2018-01-01

    At Sygehus Lillebaelt, a Danish hospital, there has been a focus for several years on patient communi- cation. This paper reflects on a course focusing on engaging with the patient’s existential themes in particular the negotiations around the creation of video scenes. In the initial workshops, w...

  5. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  6. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  7. Emotional and neutral scenes in competition: orienting, efficiency, and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2007-12-01

    To investigate preferential processing of emotional scenes competing for limited attentional resources with neutral scenes, prime pictures were presented briefly (450 ms), peripherally (5.2 degrees away from fixation), and simultaneously (one emotional and one neutral scene) versus singly. Primes were followed by a mask and a probe for recognition. Hit rate was higher for emotional than for neutral scenes in the dual- but not in the single-prime condition, and A' sensitivity decreased for neutral but not for emotional scenes in the dual-prime condition. This preferential processing involved both selective orienting and efficient encoding, as revealed, respectively, by a higher probability of first fixation on--and shorter saccade latencies to--emotional scenes and by shorter fixation time needed to accurately identify emotional scenes, in comparison with neutral scenes.

  8. The time course of natural scene perception with reduced attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, I.I.A.; Ghebreab, S.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Scholte, H.S.

    Attention is thought to impose an informational bottleneck on vision by selecting particular information from visual scenes for enhanced processing. Behavioral evidence suggests, however, that some scene information is extracted even when attention is directed elsewhere. Here, we investigated the

  9. 76 FR 49522 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... company. \\5\\ 15 U.S.C. 77a. Significant regulatory concerns, including accounting fraud allegations, have... listed company) is not engaged in undetected accounting fraud or subject to other concealed and...

  10. 78 FR 68488 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... bad faith or unethically.''). Rule 2010--Equities is a broad ethical concept that covers all unethical... regulatory responsibilities for certain NYSE rules and rule interpretations (``FINRA Incorporated NYSE Rules...

  11. Changes and clinical significance of CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells in Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jintao; Yu Peiling; Dong Jingwei; Liao Qihong; Liu Dongliang; Zeng Hongyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of Graves disease by observing the changes of CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - regulatory T cells (Treg) population in the patients. Methods: Flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg of CD4 + T cells in 90 Graves disease patients (Graves disease group) and 50 healthy adults (control group). Thyroid function and autoantibody levels were determined simultaneously. The t test was adopted for comparison between groups. The relationship between CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg and thyroid function was analyzed by linear correlation analysis. Results: The percentages of CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg in Graves disease group and control group were 1.39%±1.09% and 4.59%±1.14% separately. There was significant difference between the two groups (t=16.4, P<0.01). There were negative correlation between CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg percentages and total triiodothyronine, total thyroxine,free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and thyrotropin receptor antibody,thyroglobulin antibody, thyroid microsomal antibody (r=-0.62, -0.65, -0.56, -0.71, -0.50, -0.15, all P<0.01). Conclusions: The reduction of CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg percentages in Graves disease group and close relations of CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg with thyroid function and thyroid autoantibody levels suggest that CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - Treg decrease in the number may be associated with the onset of Graves disease. CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - may be the specific marker of Treg. (authors)

  12. Video Scene Parsing with Predictive Feature Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Xin; Xiao, Huaxin; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yang, Jimei; Chen, Yunpeng; Dong, Jian; Liu, Luoqi; Jie, Zequn; Feng, Jiashi; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we address the challenging video scene parsing problem by developing effective representation learning methods given limited parsing annotations. In particular, we contribute two novel methods that constitute a unified parsing framework. (1) \\textbf{Predictive feature learning}} from nearly unlimited unlabeled video data. Different from existing methods learning features from single frame parsing, we learn spatiotemporal discriminative features by enforcing a parsing network to ...

  13. Interactive Procedural Modelling of Coherent Waterfall Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Emilien , Arnaud; Poulin , Pierre; Cani , Marie-Paule; Vimont , Ulysse

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Combining procedural generation and user control is a fundamental challenge for the interactive design of natural scenery. This is particularly true for modelling complex waterfall scenes where, in addition to taking charge of geometric details, an ideal tool should also provide a user with the freedom to shape the running streams and falls, while automatically maintaining physical plausibility in terms of flow network, embedding into the terrain, and visual aspects of...

  14. Where and when Do Objects Become Scenes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiye G. Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Scenes can be understood with extraordinary speed and facility, not merely as an inventory of individual objects but in the coding of the relations among them. These relations, which can be readily described by prepositions or gerunds (e.g., a hand holding a pen, allows the explicit representation of complex structures. Where in the brain are inter-object relations specified? In a series of fMRI experiments, we show that pairs of objects shown as interacting elicit greater activity in LOC than when the objects are depicted side-by-side (e.g., a hand beside a pen. Other visual areas, PPA, IPS, and DLPFC, did not show this sensitivity to scene relations, rendering it unlikely that the relations were computed in these regions. Using EEG and TMS, we further show that LOC's sensitivity to object interactions arises around 170ms post stimulus onset and that disruption of normal LOC activity—but not IPS activity—is detrimental to the behavioral sensitivity of inter-object relations. Insofar as LOC is the earliest cortical region where shape is distinguished from texture, our results provide strong evidence that scene-like relations are achieved simultaneously with the perception of object shape and not inferred at some stage following object identification.

  15. A Virtual Environments Editor for Driving Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald R. Mourant

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to enable the rapid creation of three-dimensional virtual driving environments. We designed and implemented a high-level scene editor that allows a user to construct a driving environment by pasting icons that represent 1 road segments, 2 road signs, 3 trees and 4 buildings. These icons represent two- and three-dimensional objects that have been predesigned. Icons can be placed in the scene at specific locations (x, y, and z coordinates. The editor includes the capability of a user to "drive" a vehicle using a computer mouse for steering, accelerating and braking. At any time during the process of building a virtual environment, a user may switch to "Run Mode" and inspect the three-dimensional scene by "driving" through it using the mouse. Adjustments and additions can be made to the virtual environment by going back to "Build Mode". Once a user is satisfied with the threedimensional virtual environment, it can be saved in a file. The file can used with Java3D software that enables the traversing of three-dimensional environments. The process of building virtual environments from predesigned icons can be applied to many other application areas. It will enable novice computer users to rapidly construct and use three-dimensional virtual environments.

  16. Gay and Lesbian Scene in Metelkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Velikonja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of the gay and lesbian scene in ACC Metelkova, while specifying the preliminary aspects of establishing and building gay and lesbian activism associated with spatial issues. The struggle for space or occupying public space is vital for the gay and lesbian scene, as it provides not only the necessary socializing opportunities for gays and lesbians, but also does away with the historical hiding of homosexuality in the closet, in seclusion and silence. Because of their autonomy and long-term, continuous existence, homo-clubs at Metelkova contributed to the consolidation of the gay and lesbian scene in Slovenia and significantly improved the opportunities for cultural, social and political expression of gays and lesbians. Such a synthesis of the cultural, social and political, further intensified in Metelkova, and characterizes the gay and lesbian community in Slovenia from the very outset of gay and lesbian activism in 1984. It is this long-term synthesis that keeps this community in Slovenia so vital and politically resilient.

  17. Evaluating color descriptors for object and scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Koen E A; Gevers, Theo; Snoek, Cees G M

    2010-09-01

    Image category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects and scene types. So far, intensity-based descriptors have been widely used for feature extraction at salient points. To increase illumination invariance and discriminative power, color descriptors have been proposed. Because many different descriptors exist, a structured overview is required of color invariant descriptors in the context of image category recognition. Therefore, this paper studies the invariance properties and the distinctiveness of color descriptors (software to compute the color descriptors from this paper is available from http://www.colordescriptors.com) in a structured way. The analytical invariance properties of color descriptors are explored, using a taxonomy based on invariance properties with respect to photometric transformations, and tested experimentally using a data set with known illumination conditions. In addition, the distinctiveness of color descriptors is assessed experimentally using two benchmarks, one from the image domain and one from the video domain. From the theoretical and experimental results, it can be derived that invariance to light intensity changes and light color changes affects category recognition. The results further reveal that, for light intensity shifts, the usefulness of invariance is category-specific. Overall, when choosing a single descriptor and no prior knowledge about the data set and object and scene categories is available, the OpponentSIFT is recommended. Furthermore, a combined set of color descriptors outperforms intensity-based SIFT and improves category recognition by 8 percent on the PASCAL VOC 2007 and by 7 percent on the Mediamill Challenge.

  18. S3-2: Colorfulness Perception Adapting to Natural Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Mizokami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our visual system has the ability to adapt to the color characteristics of environment and maintain stable color appearance. Many researches on chromatic adaptation and color constancy suggested that the different levels of visual processes involve the adaptation mechanism. In the case of colorfulness perception, it has been shown that the perception changes with adaptation to chromatic contrast modulation and to surrounding chromatic variance. However, it is still not clear how the perception changes in natural scenes and what levels of visual mechanisms contribute to the perception. Here, I will mainly present our recent work on colorfulness-adaptation in natural images. In the experiment, we examined whether the colorfulness perception of an image was influenced by the adaptation to natural images with different degrees of saturation. Natural and unnatural (shuffled or phase-scrambled images are used for adapting and test images, and all combinations of adapting and test images were tested (e.g., the combination of natural adapting images and a shuffled test image. The results show that colorfulness perception was influenced by adaptation to the saturation of images. A test image appeared less colorful after adaptation to saturated images, and vice versa. The effect of colorfulness adaptation was the strongest for the combination of natural adapting and natural test images. The fact that the naturalness of the spatial structure in an image affects the strength of the adaptation effect implies that the recognition of natural scene would play an important role in the adaptation mechanism.

  19. The time course of natural scene perception with reduced attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Iris I A; Ghebreab, Sennay; Lamme, Victor A F; Scholte, H Steven

    2016-02-01

    Attention is thought to impose an informational bottleneck on vision by selecting particular information from visual scenes for enhanced processing. Behavioral evidence suggests, however, that some scene information is extracted even when attention is directed elsewhere. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of this ability by examining how attention affects electrophysiological markers of scene perception. In two electro-encephalography (EEG) experiments, human subjects categorized real-world scenes as manmade or natural (full attention condition) or performed tasks on unrelated stimuli in the center or periphery of the scenes (reduced attention conditions). Scene processing was examined in two ways: traditional trial averaging was used to assess the presence of a categorical manmade/natural distinction in event-related potentials, whereas single-trial analyses assessed whether EEG activity was modulated by scene statistics that are diagnostic of naturalness of individual scenes. The results indicated that evoked activity up to 250 ms was unaffected by reduced attention, showing intact categorical differences between manmade and natural scenes and strong modulations of single-trial activity by scene statistics in all conditions. Thus initial processing of both categorical and individual scene information remained intact with reduced attention. Importantly, however, attention did have profound effects on later evoked activity; full attention on the scene resulted in prolonged manmade/natural differences, increased neural sensitivity to scene statistics, and enhanced scene memory. These results show that initial processing of real-world scene information is intact with diminished attention but that the depth of processing of this information does depend on attention. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. The elephant in the room: Inconsistency in scene viewing and representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotorno, Sara; Tatler, Benjamin W

    2017-10-01

    We examined the extent to which semantic informativeness, consistency with expectations and perceptual salience contribute to object prioritization in scene viewing and representation. In scene viewing (Experiments 1-2), semantic guidance overshadowed perceptual guidance in determining fixation order, with the greatest prioritization for objects that were diagnostic of the scene's depicted event. Perceptual properties affected selection of consistent objects (regardless of their informativeness) but not of inconsistent objects. Semantic and perceptual properties also interacted in influencing foveal inspection, as inconsistent objects were fixated longer than low but not high salience diagnostic objects. While not studied in direct competition with each other (each studied in competition with diagnostic objects), we found that inconsistent objects were fixated earlier and for longer than consistent but marginally informative objects. In change detection (Experiment 3), perceptual guidance overshadowed semantic guidance, promoting detection of highly salient changes. A residual advantage for diagnosticity over inconsistency emerged only when selection prioritization could not be based on low-level features. Overall these findings show that semantic inconsistency is not prioritized within a scene when competing with other relevant information that is essential to scene understanding and respects observers' expectations. Moreover, they reveal that the relative dominance of semantic or perceptual properties during selection depends on ongoing task requirements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Emotional facial expressions evoke faster orienting responses, but weaker emotional responses at neural and behavioural levels compared to scenes: A simultaneous EEG and facial EMG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavratzakis, Aimee; Herbert, Cornelia; Walla, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously with facial electromyography (fEMG) to determine whether emotional faces and emotional scenes are processed differently at the neural level. In addition, it was investigated whether these differences can be observed at the behavioural level via spontaneous facial muscle activity. Emotional content of the stimuli did not affect early P1 activity. Emotional faces elicited enhanced amplitudes of the face-sensitive N170 component, while its counterpart, the scene-related N100, was not sensitive to emotional content of scenes. At 220-280ms, the early posterior negativity (EPN) was enhanced only slightly for fearful as compared to neutral or happy faces. However, its amplitudes were significantly enhanced during processing of scenes with positive content, particularly over the right hemisphere. Scenes of positive content also elicited enhanced spontaneous zygomatic activity from 500-750ms onwards, while happy faces elicited no such changes. Contrastingly, both fearful faces and negative scenes elicited enhanced spontaneous corrugator activity at 500-750ms after stimulus onset. However, relative to baseline EMG changes occurred earlier for faces (250ms) than for scenes (500ms) whereas for scenes activity changes were more pronounced over the whole viewing period. Taking into account all effects, the data suggests that emotional facial expressions evoke faster attentional orienting, but weaker affective neural activity and emotional behavioural responses compared to emotional scenes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Changes of CD(4)(+) Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and CD(4)(+)IL-17+T cells in acrolein exposure rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming; Tu, Ling; Liang, Yinghong; Li, Jia; Gong, Yanjie; Zhang, Yihua; Yang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the changes of CD(4)(+) IL-17+T (Th17) and CD(4)(+)Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) cells in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) , and therefore to explore the role of Th17 and Treg in acrolein exposure airway inflammation in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: a 2 wk acrolein exposure group, a 4 wk acrolein exposure group, a 2 wk control group and a 4 wk control group (n=10 each). Cells in BALF were collected and analyzed by absolute and differential cell counts.IL-17 and IL-6 levels in serum and BALF were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of CD(4)(+)IL-17+T and CD(4)(+) Foxp3+Treg in peripheral blood and BALF were determined by flow cytometry.The mRNA expressions of IL-17 and Foxp3 were measured by real-time PCR. Comparisons of the data between different groups were performed using one-way ANOVA, and SNK and Games-Howell test were used for comparison between 2 groups. Levels of IL-17 were remarkable increased in the 2 wk acrolein exposure group and the 4 wk acrolein exposure group in serum [(52.64 ± 1.89) ng/L, (76.73 ± 5.57) ng/L], and BALF [(79.07 ± 5.67) ng/L, (96.61 ± 6.44) ng/L] compared with the 2 wk control group [(40.05 ± 3.12) ng/L, (56.75 ± 4.37) ng/L] and the 4 wk control group [(38.75 ± 3.23) ng/L, (53.27 ± 4.48) ng/L], all Pcells and macrophages (r=0.5126, 0.5437, all Pcells and an vary of inflammatory cytokines were evident in airway inflammation of acrolein exposed rats, suggesting that Treg was involved in the immunological regulation and Th17 was associated with the persistent inflammation in acrolein induced airway inflammation in rats.

  3. 17 CFR 240.19b-4 - Filings with respect to proposed rule changes by self-regulatory organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and fairly implied by that rule. (e) For the purposes of this paragraph, new derivative securities... the product class that would include the new derivative securities product and the self-regulatory... within five business days after commencement of trading a new derivative securities product. (f) A...

  4. 75 FR 36136 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... is the practice of NYSE Euronext's Global Risk and Audit Services Department (``RAS''), which...) and Section 401(a) of the Exchange's Bylaws To Eliminate the Exchange's Audit Committee, Compensation... eliminate the Exchange's Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, and Regulatory Oversight Committee. The...

  5. 76 FR 1477 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... relating to distribution, compliance of sales and marketing materials, and certain regulatory compliance... Futures Contracts targeting a long notional exposure equivalent to approximately +200% of a Fund's... Leveraged Fund will sell a sufficient number of Short Index Futures Contracts targeting a short notional...

  6. 76 FR 79729 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... plc as signatories. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the... is the recognition that CDS contracts cleared by ICC referencing broad-based securities indices are... would, among other things, decompose CDS contracts referencing broad-based [[Page 79730

  7. 78 FR 26826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ...\\ Accordingly, the affiliate relationship between Phlx and NOS, its member, raises the issue of an exchange's... unfair competitive advantage and potential conflicts of interest between an exchange's self-regulatory... potential for conflicts of interest in instances where a member firm is affiliated with an exchange of which...

  8. 78 FR 29795 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc ; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...\\ Accordingly, the affiliate relationship between BX and NOS, its member, raises the issue of an exchange's... unfair competitive advantage and potential conflicts of interest between an exchange's self-regulatory... potential for conflicts of interest in instances where a member firm is affiliated with an exchange of which...

  9. 78 FR 10666 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... PHLX. BX, NASDAQ, PHLX and NES are affiliates. Accordingly, the affiliate relationship between PHLX and... conflicts of interest between an exchange's self-regulatory obligations and its commercial interests.\\7\\ \\7...). Recognizing that the Commission has previously expressed concern regarding the potential for conflicts of...

  10. 78 FR 12123 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... in Items I, II, and III below, which Items have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization... Exchange proposes to amend the times in which certain ATP Holders are required to notify the Exchange in... to extend the time ATP Holders acting as agent for Customer orders have to notify the Exchange of a...

  11. 77 FR 21120 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ..., specifically SPDR S&P 500 (SPY), Apple, Inc. (AAPL), SPDR Gold Trust (GLD), Google Inc. (GOOG), and Amazon.com...), and Amazon.com Inc. (AMZN) for all expirations applicable to 100 share options in each class. The... available at the Exchange, www.nyse.com , and the Commission's Public Reference Room. II. Self-Regulatory...

  12. 78 FR 62841 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... million, shares of liquidity during the month, which is a higher rate than the base rate of $0.0007 per... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70655; File No. SR-BX-2013-054] Self-Regulatory... Exchange Rule 7018(a) With Respect to Transactions in Securities Priced at $1 per Share or Greater October...

  13. 78 FR 16749 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...-regulatory organization has prepared summaries, set forth in Sections A, B, and C below, of the most... Plan's goal to address extraordinary market volatility. Accordingly, when the underlying security is in... theory, the liquidity provided by requiring Market Makers to continue to quote during a Limit or Straddle...

  14. 75 FR 2902 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... market activity altogether. In today's evolving regulatory climate, the Exchange believes that the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-61326; File No. SR-Phlx-2009-113] Self... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on...

  15. Primal scene derivatives in the work of Yukio Mishima: the primal scene fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Ronald N

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the preoccupation with fire, revenge, crucifixion, and other fantasies as they relate to the primal scene. The manifestations of these fantasies are demonstrated in a work of fiction by Yukio Mishima. The Temple of the Golden Pavillion. As is the case in other writings of Mishima there is a fusion of aggressive and libidinal drives and a preoccupation with death. The primal scene is directly connected with pyromania and destructive "acting out" of fantasies. This article is timely with regard to understanding contemporary events of cultural and national destruction.

  16. Popular music scenes and aging bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Andy

    2018-06-01

    During the last two decades there has been increasing interest in the phenomenon of the aging popular music audience (Bennett & Hodkinson, 2012). Although the specter of the aging fan is by no means new, the notion of, for example, the aging rocker or the aging punk has attracted significant sociological attention, not least of all because of what this says about the shifting socio-cultural significance of rock and punk and similar genres - which at the time of their emergence were inextricably tied to youth and vociferously marketed as "youth musics". As such, initial interpretations of aging music fans tended to paint a somewhat negative picture, suggesting a sense in which such fans were cultural misfits (Ross, 1994). In more recent times, however, work informed by cultural aging perspectives has begun to consider how so-called "youth cultural" identities may in fact provide the basis of more stable and evolving identities over the life course (Bennett, 2013). Starting from this position, the purpose of this article is to critically examine how aging members of popular music scenes might be recast as a salient example of the more pluralistic fashion in which aging is anticipated, managed and articulated in contemporary social settings. The article then branches out to consider two ways that aging members of music scenes continue their scene involvement. The first focuses on evolving a series of discourses that legitimately position them as aging bodies in cultural spaces that also continue to be inhabited by significant numbers of people in their teens, twenties and thirties. The second sees aging fans taking advantage of new opportunities for consuming live music including winery concerts and dinner and show events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The perception of naturalness correlates with low-level visual features of environmental scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G Berman

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that interacting with natural environments vs. more urban or built environments can have salubrious psychological effects, such as improvements in attention and memory. Even viewing pictures of nature vs. pictures of built environments can produce similar effects. A major question is: What is it about natural environments that produces these benefits? Problematically, there are many differing qualities between natural and urban environments, making it difficult to narrow down the dimensions of nature that may lead to these benefits. In this study, we set out to uncover visual features that related to individuals' perceptions of naturalness in images. We quantified naturalness in two ways: first, implicitly using a multidimensional scaling analysis and second, explicitly with direct naturalness ratings. Features that seemed most related to perceptions of naturalness were related to the density of contrast changes in the scene, the density of straight lines in the scene, the average color saturation in the scene and the average hue diversity in the scene. We then trained a machine-learning algorithm to predict whether a scene was perceived as being natural or not based on these low-level visual features and we could do so with 81% accuracy. As such we were able to reliably predict subjective perceptions of naturalness with objective low-level visual features. Our results can be used in future studies to determine if these features, which are related to naturalness, may also lead to the benefits attained from interacting with nature.

  18. Terrain Simplification Research in Augmented Scene Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    environment. As one of the most important tasks in augmented scene modeling, terrain simplification research has gained more and more attention. In this paper, we mainly focus on point selection problem in terrain simplification using triangulated irregular network. Based on the analysis and comparison of traditional importance measures for each input point, we put forward a new importance measure based on local entropy. The results demonstrate that the local entropy criterion has a better performance than any traditional methods. In addition, it can effectively conquer the "short-sight" problem associated with the traditional methods.

  19. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    in the way that the certain actions and events which have taken place have left a variety of marks and traces which may be read and interpreted. Traces of blood, nails, hair constitutes (DNA)codes which can be decrypted and deciphered, in the same way as traces of gun powder, bullet holes, physical damage...... and interpretation. During her investigation the detective's ability to make logical reasoning and deductive thinking as well as to make use of her imagination is crucial to how the crime scene is first deconstructed and then reconstructed as a setting for the story (that is the actions of crime). By decoding...

  20. Image policy, subjectivation and argument scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at discussing, with focus on Jacques Rancière, how an image policy can be noticed in the creative production of scenes of dissent from which the political agent emerge, appears and constitute himself in a process of subjectivation. The political and critical power of the image is linked to survival acts: operations and attempts that enable to resist to captures, silences and excesses comitted by the media discourses, by the social institutions and by the State.

  1. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  2. IR characteristic simulation of city scenes based on radiosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xixian; Zhou, Fugen; Bai, Xiangzhi; Yu, Xiyu

    2013-09-01

    Reliable modeling for thermal infrared (IR) signatures of real-world city scenes is required for signature management of civil and military platforms. Traditional modeling methods generally assume that scene objects are individual entities during the physical processes occurring in infrared range. However, in reality, the physical scene involves convective and conductive interactions between objects as well as the radiations interactions between objects. A method based on radiosity model describes these complex effects. It has been developed to enable an accurate simulation for the radiance distribution of the city scenes. Firstly, the physical processes affecting the IR characteristic of city scenes were described. Secondly, heat balance equations were formed on the basis of combining the atmospheric conditions, shadow maps and the geometry of scene. Finally, finite difference method was used to calculate the kinetic temperature of object surface. A radiosity model was introduced to describe the scattering effect of radiation between surface elements in the scene. By the synthesis of objects radiance distribution in infrared range, we could obtain the IR characteristic of scene. Real infrared images and model predictions were shown and compared. The results demonstrate that this method can realistically simulate the IR characteristic of city scenes. It effectively displays the infrared shadow effects and the radiation interactions between objects in city scenes.

  3. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alex D; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-05-25

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movements by semantic similarity among objects during real-world scene inspection and search. By selecting scenes from the LabelMe object-annotated image database and applying latent semantic analysis (LSA) to the object labels, we generated semantic saliency maps of real-world scenes based on the semantic similarity of scene objects to the currently fixated object or the search target. An ROC analysis of these maps as predictors of subjects' gaze transitions between objects during scene inspection revealed a preference for transitions to objects that were semantically similar to the currently inspected one. Furthermore, during the course of a scene search, subjects' eye movements were progressively guided toward objects that were semantically similar to the search target. These findings demonstrate substantial semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes and show its importance for understanding real-world attentional control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lateralized discrimination of emotional scenes in peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Rodríguez-Chinea, Sandra; Fernández-Martín, Andrés

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates whether there is lateralized processing of emotional scenes in the visual periphery, in the absence of eye fixations; and whether this varies with emotional valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant), specific emotional scene content (babies, erotica, human attack, mutilation, etc.), and sex of the viewer. Pairs of emotional (positive or negative) and neutral photographs were presented for 150 ms peripherally (≥6.5° away from fixation). Observers judged on which side the emotional picture was located. Low-level image properties, scene visual saliency, and eye movements were controlled. Results showed that (a) correct identification of the emotional scene exceeded the chance level; (b) performance was more accurate and faster when the emotional scene appeared in the left than in the right visual field; (c) lateralization was equivalent for females and males for pleasant scenes, but was greater for females and unpleasant scenes; and (d) lateralization occurred similarly for different emotional scene categories. These findings reveal discrimination between emotional and neutral scenes, and right brain hemisphere dominance for emotional processing, which is modulated by sex of the viewer and scene valence, and suggest that coarse affective significance can be extracted in peripheral vision.

  5. Explicit Foreground and Background Modeling in The Classification of Text Blocks in Scene Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriman, Bowornrat; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2015-01-01

    Achieving high accuracy for classifying foreground and background is an interesting challenge in the field of scene image analysis because of the wide range of illumination, complex background, and scale changes. Classifying fore- ground and background using bag-of-feature model gives a good result.

  6. Error Detection, Factorization and Correction for Multi-View Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess-Flores, Mauricio [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2011-11-10

    Scene reconstruction from video sequences has become a prominent computer vision research area in recent years, due to its large number of applications in fields such as security, robotics and virtual reality. Despite recent progress in this field, there are still a number of issues that manifest as incomplete, incorrect or computationally-expensive reconstructions. The engine behind achieving reconstruction is the matching of features between images, where common conditions such as occlusions, lighting changes and texture-less regions can all affect matching accuracy. Subsequent processes that rely on matching accuracy, such as camera parameter estimation, structure computation and non-linear parameter optimization, are also vulnerable to additional sources of error, such as degeneracies and mathematical instability. Detection and correction of errors, along with robustness in parameter solvers, are a must in order to achieve a very accurate final scene reconstruction. However, error detection is in general difficult due to the lack of ground-truth information about the given scene, such as the absolute position of scene points or GPS/IMU coordinates for the camera(s) viewing the scene. In this dissertation, methods are presented for the detection, factorization and correction of error sources present in all stages of a scene reconstruction pipeline from video, in the absence of ground-truth knowledge. Two main applications are discussed. The first set of algorithms derive total structural error measurements after an initial scene structure computation and factorize errors into those related to the underlying feature matching process and those related to camera parameter estimation. A brute-force local correction of inaccurate feature matches is presented, as well as an improved conditioning scheme for non-linear parameter optimization which applies weights on input parameters in proportion to estimated camera parameter errors. Another application is in

  7. Efficient 3D scene modeling and mosaicing

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosevici, Tudor

    2013-01-01

    This book proposes a complete pipeline for monocular (single camera) based 3D mapping of terrestrial and underwater environments. The aim is to provide a solution to large-scale scene modeling that is both accurate and efficient. To this end, we have developed a novel Structure from Motion algorithm that increases mapping accuracy by registering camera views directly with the maps. The camera registration uses a dual approach that adapts to the type of environment being mapped.   In order to further increase the accuracy of the resulting maps, a new method is presented, allowing detection of images corresponding to the same scene region (crossovers). Crossovers then used in conjunction with global alignment methods in order to highly reduce estimation errors, especially when mapping large areas. Our method is based on Visual Bag of Words paradigm (BoW), offering a more efficient and simpler solution by eliminating the training stage, generally required by state of the art BoW algorithms.   Also, towards dev...

  8. Tachistoscopic illumination and masking of real scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichka, David; Philbeck, John W; Gajewski, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    Tachistoscopic presentation of scenes has been valuable for studying the emerging properties of visual scene representations. The spatial aspects of this work have generally been focused on the conceptual locations (e.g., next to the refrigerator) and directional locations of objects in 2-D arrays and/or images. Less is known about how the perceived egocentric distance of objects develops. Here we describe a novel system for presenting brief glimpses of a real-world environment, followed by a mask. The system includes projectors with mechanical shutters for projecting the fixation and masking images, a set of LED floodlights for illuminating the environment, and computer-controlled electronics to set the timing and initiate the process. Because a real environment is used, most visual distance and depth cues can be manipulated using traditional methods. The system is inexpensive, robust, and its components are readily available in the marketplace. This article describes the system and the timing characteristics of each component. We verified the system's ability to control exposure to time scales as low as a few milliseconds.

  9. 76 FR 66344 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change... 31, 2011, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a National Association of... consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12, 2008 (Rulebook Consolidation Process). For convenience...

  10. 75 FR 17456 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... terms. For more information about the rulebook consolidation process, see Information Notice, March 12...

  11. A hierarchical inferential method for indoor scene classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jingzhe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor scene classification forms a basis for scene interaction for service robots. The task is challenging because the layout and decoration of a scene vary considerably. Previous studies on knowledge-based methods commonly ignore the importance of visual attributes when constructing the knowledge base. These shortcomings restrict the performance of classification. The structure of a semantic hierarchy was proposed to describe similarities of different parts of scenes in a fine-grained way. Besides the commonly used semantic features, visual attributes were also introduced to construct the knowledge base. Inspired by the processes of human cognition and the characteristics of indoor scenes, we proposed an inferential framework based on the Markov logic network. The framework is evaluated on a popular indoor scene dataset, and the experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  12. Improving nuclear regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring that nuclear installations are operated and maintained in such a way that their impact on public health and safety is as low as reasonably practicable has been and will continue to be the cornerstone of nuclear regulation. In the past, nuclear incidents provided the main impetus for regulatory change. Today, economic factors, deregulation, technological advancements, government oversight and the general requirements for openness and accountability are leading regulatory bodies to review their effectiveness. In addition, seeking to enhance the present level of nuclear safety by continuously improving the effectiveness of regulatory bodies is seen as one of the ways to strengthen public confidence in the regulatory systems. This report covers the basic concepts underlying nuclear regulatory effectiveness, advances being made and future requirements. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  13. Recognizing the Stranger: Recognition Scenes in the Gospel of John

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Bro

    Recognizing the Stranger is the first monographic study of recognition scenes and motifs in the Gospel of John. The recognition type-scene (anagnōrisis) was a common feature in ancient drama and narrative, highly valued by Aristotle as a touching moment of truth, e.g., in Oedipus’ tragic self...... structures of the type-scene in order to show how Jesus’ true identity can be recognized behind the half-mask of his human appearance....

  14. [Change of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells and NK Cells in peripheral blood of children with acute leukemia and its possible significance in tumor immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze-Lin; Hu, Guan-Yu; Chen, Fu-Xiong; Lu, Hui-Min; Wu, Zi-Liang; Li, Hua-Mei; Wei, Feng-Gui; Guan, Jing-Ming; Wu, Li-Ping

    2010-06-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the changes of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells and NK cells in peripheral blood of acute leukemia children at different stages, the function of immune system and the possible roles of the CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells as well as NK cells in leukemia immunity. The number and proportion of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells and NK cells were detected by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 53 acute leukemia children, including 25 patients in new diagnosis and 28 patients in continuous complete remission (CCR), and were compared with that of 20 normal children. The results indicated that the mean proportion of CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(+) in CD4(+) T cells of peripheral blood in newly diagnosed patients, patients with CCR and normal children were (9.55 +/- 2.41)%, (8.54 +/- 2.51)% and (6.25 +/- 0.85)% respectively, the mean proportions of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(+) in newly diagnosed patients and patients with CCR were higher than that in normal children, the mean proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(+) in newly diagnosed patients were higher than that in patients with CCR (p cell count in patients with acute leukaemia decreased as compared with normal control, while after achieving CCR, the NK cell count in patients were also less than that in normal control (4.11 +/- 3.87% and 10.41 +/- 7.20% vs 14.06 +/- 5.95%, p regulatory T cells is a simple, reproductive and accurate method, and the CD4(+) CD25(+) CD127(+) T cells can better reflect the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. The increase of regulatory T cells and decrease of NK cells in pediatric patients with acute leukemia indicate that the function of NK cells may be depressed. Treg T cells play a role in occurrence and development of leukemia, and are involved in down-regulating NK cell function.

  15. The occipital place area represents the local elements of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Frederik S; Julian, Joshua B; Kubilius, Jonas; Kanwisher, Nancy; Dilks, Daniel D

    2016-05-15

    Neuroimaging studies have identified three scene-selective regions in human cortex: parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and occipital place area (OPA). However, precisely what scene information each region represents is not clear, especially for the least studied, more posterior OPA. Here we hypothesized that OPA represents local elements of scenes within two independent, yet complementary scene descriptors: spatial boundary (i.e., the layout of external surfaces) and scene content (e.g., internal objects). If OPA processes the local elements of spatial boundary information, then it should respond to these local elements (e.g., walls) themselves, regardless of their spatial arrangement. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded similarly to images of intact rooms and these same rooms in which the surfaces were fractured and rearranged, disrupting the spatial boundary. Next, if OPA represents the local elements of scene content information, then it should respond more when more such local elements (e.g., furniture) are present. Indeed, we found that OPA, but not PPA or RSC, responded more to multiple than single pieces of furniture. Taken together, these findings reveal that OPA analyzes local scene elements - both in spatial boundary and scene content representation - while PPA and RSC represent global scene properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A statistical model for radar images of agricultural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, V. S.; Shanmugan, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.; Stiles, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The presently derived and validated statistical model for radar images containing many different homogeneous fields predicts the probability density functions of radar images of entire agricultural scenes, thereby allowing histograms of large scenes composed of a variety of crops to be described. Seasat-A SAR images of agricultural scenes are accurately predicted by the model on the basis of three assumptions: each field has the same SNR, all target classes cover approximately the same area, and the true reflectivity characterizing each individual target class is a uniformly distributed random variable. The model is expected to be useful in the design of data processing algorithms and for scene analysis using radar images.

  17. 77 FR 57630 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... change was published for comment in the Federal Register on July 30, 2012.\\3\\ The Commission received no comment letters regarding the proposed rule change. This order approves the proposed rule change. \\1\\ 15 U...

  18. Surface-illuminant ambiguity and color constancy: effects of scene complexity and depth cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, James M; Maloney, Shannon I; Brainard, David H

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study how scene complexity and cues to depth affect human color constancy. Specifically, two levels of scene complexity were compared. The low-complexity scene contained two walls with the same surface reflectance and a test patch which provided no information about the illuminant. In addition to the surfaces visible in the low-complexity scene, the high-complexity scene contained two rectangular solid objects and 24 paper samples with diverse surface reflectances. Observers viewed illuminated objects in an experimental chamber and adjusted the test patch until it appeared achromatic. Achromatic settings made tinder two different illuminants were used to compute an index that quantified the degree of constancy. Two experiments were conducted: one in which observers viewed the stimuli directly, and one in which they viewed the scenes through an optical system that reduced cues to depth. In each experiment, constancy was assessed for two conditions. In the valid-cue condition, many cues provided valid information about the illuminant change. In the invalid-cue condition, some image cues provided invalid information. Four broad conclusions are drawn from the data: (a) constancy is generally better in the valid-cue condition than in the invalid-cue condition: (b) for the stimulus configuration used, increasing image complexity has little effect in the valid-cue condition but leads to increased constancy in the invalid-cue condition; (c) for the stimulus configuration used, reducing cues to depth has little effect for either constancy condition: and (d) there is moderate individual variation in the degree of constancy exhibited, particularly in the degree to which the complexity manipulation affects performance.

  19. The scene is set for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Now that the electromagnetic calorimeter support and the mini space frame have been installed, practically all ALICE’s infrastructure is in place. The calorimeter support, an austenitic stainless steel shell weighing 30 tonnes, was slid gently inside the detector, in between the face of the magnet and the space frame. With the completion of two major installation projects, the scene is finally set for the ALICE experiment…or at least it nearly is, as a few design studies, minor installation jobs and measurements still need to be carried out before the curtain can finally be raised. The experiment’s chief engineer Diego Perini confirms: "All the heavy infrastructure for ALICE has been in place and ready for the grand opening since December 2007." The next step will be the installation of additional modules on the TOF and TRD detectors between January and March 2008, and physicists have already started testing the equipment with co...

  20. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo

    2015-02-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.

  1. The past, present, and future of the U.S. electric power sector: Examining regulatory changes using multivariate time series approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Kyle Edwin

    The U.S. energy sector has undergone continuous change in the regulatory, technological, and market environments. These developments show no signs of slowing. Accordingly, it is imperative that energy market regulators and participants develop a strong comprehension of market dynamics and the potential implications of their actions. This dissertation contributes to a better understanding of the past, present, and future of U.S. energy market dynamics and interactions with policy. Advancements in multivariate time series analysis are employed in three related studies of the electric power sector. Overall, results suggest that regulatory changes have had and will continue to have important implications for the electric power sector. The sector, however, has exhibited adaptability to past regulatory changes and is projected to remain resilient in the future. Tests for constancy of the long run parameters in a vector error correction model are applied to determine whether relationships among coal inventories in the electric power sector, input prices, output prices, and opportunity costs have remained constant over the past 38 years. Two periods of instability are found, the first following railroad deregulation in the U.S. and the second corresponding to a number of major regulatory changes in the electric power and natural gas sectors. Relationships among Renewable Energy Credit prices, electricity prices, and natural gas prices are estimated using a vector error correction model. Results suggest that Renewable Energy Credit prices do not completely behave as previously theorized in the literature. Potential reasons for the divergence between theory and empirical evidence are the relative immaturity of current markets and continuous institutional intervention. Potential impacts of future CO2 emissions reductions under the Clean Power Plan on economic and energy sector activity are estimated. Conditional forecasts based on an outlined path for CO2 emissions are

  2. 77 FR 7652 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Revise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Procedures Related to Certain Technical and Operational Changes Relating to Credit Default Swap Contracts... changes described below with its Clearing Members. These changes seek to improve drafting and cross... purpose of specifying technical operational changes relating to CDS Contracts (as defined at ICE Clear...

  3. Structural changes of the regulatory proteins bound to the thin filaments in skeletal muscle contraction by X-ray fiber diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yasunobu; Takezawa, Yasunori; Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Ueno, Yutaka; Minakata, Shiho; Tanaka, Hidehiro; Wakabayashi, Katsuzo

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the structural changes related to the regulation mechanism in skeletal muscle contraction, the intensity changes of thin filament-based reflections were investigated by X-ray fiber diffraction. The time course and extent of intensity changes of the first to third order troponin (TN)-associated meridional reflections with a basic repeat of 38.4 nm were different for each of these reflections. The intensity of the first and second thin filament layer lines changed in a reciprocal manner both during initial activation and during the force generation process. The axial spacings of the TN-meridional reflections decreased by ∼0.1% upon activation relative to the relaxing state and increased by ∼0.24% in the force generation state, in line with that of the 2.7-nm reflection. Ca 2+ -binding to TN triggered the shortening and a change in the helical symmetry of the thin filaments. Modeling of the structural changes using the intensities of the thin filament-based reflections suggested that the conformation of the globular core domain of TN altered upon activation, undergoing additional conformational changes at the tension plateau. The tail domain of TN moved together with tropomyosin during contraction. The results indicate that the structural changes of regulatory proteins bound to the actin filaments occur in two steps, the first in response to the Ca 2+ -binding and the second induced by actomyosin interaction

  4. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  5. Being There: (Re)Making the Assessment Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Chris W.

    2011-01-01

    I use Burkean analysis to show how neoliberalism undermines faculty assessment expertise and underwrites testing industry expertise in the current assessment scene. Contending that we cannot extricate ourselves from our limited agency in this scene until we abandon the familiar "stakeholder" theory of power, I propose a rewriting of the…

  6. The Influence of Color on the Perception of Scene Gist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Monica S.; Henderson, John M.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments the authors used a new contextual bias paradigm to explore how quickly information is extracted from a scene to activate gist, whether color contributes to this activation, and how color contributes, if it does. Participants were shown a brief presentation of a scene followed by the name of a target object. The target object could…

  7. Visual search for arbitrary objects in real scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, George A.; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Kuzmova, Yoana I.; Sherman, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    How efficient is visual search in real scenes? In searches for targets among arrays of randomly placed distractors, efficiency is often indexed by the slope of the reaction time (RT) × Set Size function. However, it may be impossible to define set size for real scenes. As an approximation, we hand-labeled 100 indoor scenes and used the number of labeled regions as a surrogate for set size. In Experiment 1, observers searched for named objects (a chair, bowl, etc.). With set size defined as the number of labeled regions, search was very efficient (~5 ms/item). When we controlled for a possible guessing strategy in Experiment 2, slopes increased somewhat (~15 ms/item), but they were much shallower than search for a random object among other distinctive objects outside of a scene setting (Exp. 3: ~40 ms/item). In Experiments 4–6, observers searched repeatedly through the same scene for different objects. Increased familiarity with scenes had modest effects on RTs, while repetition of target items had large effects (>500 ms). We propose that visual search in scenes is efficient because scene-specific forms of attentional guidance can eliminate most regions from the “functional set size” of items that could possibly be the target. PMID:21671156

  8. Children's Development of Analogical Reasoning: Insights from Scene Analogy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Morrison, Robert G.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    We explored how relational complexity and featural distraction, as varied in scene analogy problems, affect children's analogical reasoning performance. Results with 3- and 4-year-olds, 6- and 7-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and 13- and 14-year-olds indicate that when children can identify the critical structural relations in a scene analogy…

  9. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...

  10. Selective scene perception deficits in a case of topographical disorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Lowe, Matthew X; Pishdadian, Sara; Rivest, Josée; Cant, Jonathan S; Moscovitch, Morris

    2017-07-01

    Topographical disorientation (TD) is a neuropsychological condition characterized by an inability to find one's way, even in familiar environments. One common contributing cause of TD is landmark agnosia, a visual recognition impairment specific to scenes and landmarks. Although many cases of TD with landmark agnosia have been documented, little is known about the perceptual mechanisms which lead to selective deficits in recognizing scenes. In the present study, we test LH, a man who exhibits TD and landmark agnosia, on measures of scene perception that require selectively attending to either the configural or surface properties of a scene. Compared to healthy controls, LH demonstrates perceptual impairments when attending to the configuration of a scene, but not when attending to its surface properties, such as the pattern of the walls or whether the ground is sand or grass. In contrast, when focusing on objects instead of scenes, LH demonstrates intact perception of both geometric and surface properties. This study demonstrates that in a case of TD and landmark agnosia, the perceptual impairments are selective to the layout of scenes, providing insight into the mechanism of landmark agnosia and scene-selective perceptual processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The neural bases of spatial frequency processing during scene perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Louise; Ramanoël, Stephen; Peyrin, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Theories on visual perception agree that scenes are processed in terms of spatial frequencies. Low spatial frequencies (LSF) carry coarse information whereas high spatial frequencies (HSF) carry fine details of the scene. However, how and where spatial frequencies are processed within the brain remain unresolved questions. The present review addresses these issues and aims to identify the cerebral regions differentially involved in low and high spatial frequency processing, and to clarify their attributes during scene perception. Results from a number of behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that spatial frequency processing is lateralized in both hemispheres, with the right and left hemispheres predominantly involved in the categorization of LSF and HSF scenes, respectively. There is also evidence that spatial frequency processing is retinotopically mapped in the visual cortex. HSF scenes (as opposed to LSF) activate occipital areas in relation to foveal representations, while categorization of LSF scenes (as opposed to HSF) activates occipital areas in relation to more peripheral representations. Concomitantly, a number of studies have demonstrated that LSF information may reach high-order areas rapidly, allowing an initial coarse parsing of the visual scene, which could then be sent back through feedback into the occipito-temporal cortex to guide finer HSF-based analysis. Finally, the review addresses spatial frequency processing within scene-selective regions areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. PMID:24847226

  12. 47 CFR 80.1127 - On-scene communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....1127 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1127 On-scene communications. (a) On-scene communications...

  13. Emotional Scene Content Drives the Saccade Generation System Reflexively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster…

  14. Visual search for arbitrary objects in real scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Alvarez, George A; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Kuzmova, Yoana I; Sherman, Ashley M

    2011-08-01

    How efficient is visual search in real scenes? In searches for targets among arrays of randomly placed distractors, efficiency is often indexed by the slope of the reaction time (RT) × Set Size function. However, it may be impossible to define set size for real scenes. As an approximation, we hand-labeled 100 indoor scenes and used the number of labeled regions as a surrogate for set size. In Experiment 1, observers searched for named objects (a chair, bowl, etc.). With set size defined as the number of labeled regions, search was very efficient (~5 ms/item). When we controlled for a possible guessing strategy in Experiment 2, slopes increased somewhat (~15 ms/item), but they were much shallower than search for a random object among other distinctive objects outside of a scene setting (Exp. 3: ~40 ms/item). In Experiments 4-6, observers searched repeatedly through the same scene for different objects. Increased familiarity with scenes had modest effects on RTs, while repetition of target items had large effects (>500 ms). We propose that visual search in scenes is efficient because scene-specific forms of attentional guidance can eliminate most regions from the "functional set size" of items that could possibly be the target.

  15. Cognitive organization of roadway scenes : an empirical study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundy, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes six studies investigating the cognitive organization of roadway scenes. These scenes were represented by still photographs taken on a number of roads outside of built-up areas. Seventy-eight drivers, stratified by age and sex to simulate the Dutch driving population,

  16. Superpixel-Based Feature for Aerial Image Scene Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Image scene recognition is a core technology for many aerial remote sensing applications. Different landforms are inputted as different scenes in aerial imaging, and all landform information is regarded as valuable for aerial image scene recognition. However, the conventional features of the Bag-of-Words model are designed using local points or other related information and thus are unable to fully describe landform areas. This limitation cannot be ignored when the aim is to ensure accurate aerial scene recognition. A novel superpixel-based feature is proposed in this study to characterize aerial image scenes. Then, based on the proposed feature, a scene recognition method of the Bag-of-Words model for aerial imaging is designed. The proposed superpixel-based feature that utilizes landform information establishes top-task superpixel extraction of landforms to bottom-task expression of feature vectors. This characterization technique comprises the following steps: simple linear iterative clustering based superpixel segmentation, adaptive filter bank construction, Lie group-based feature quantification, and visual saliency model-based feature weighting. Experiments of image scene recognition are carried out using real image data captured by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The recognition accuracy of the proposed superpixel-based feature is 95.1%, which is higher than those of scene recognition algorithms based on other local features.

  17. Iconic memory for the gist of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jason; Mack, Arien

    2014-11-01

    Does iconic memory contain the gist of multiple scenes? Three experiments were conducted. In the first, four scenes from different basic-level categories were briefly presented in one of two conditions: a cue or a no-cue condition. The cue condition was designed to provide an index of the contents of iconic memory of the display. Subjects were more sensitive to scene gist in the cue condition than in the no-cue condition. In the second, the scenes came from the same basic-level category. We found no difference in sensitivity between the two conditions. In the third, six scenes from different basic level categories were presented in the visual periphery. Subjects were more sensitive to scene gist in the cue condition. These results suggest that scene gist is contained in iconic memory even in the visual periphery; however, iconic representations are not sufficiently detailed to distinguish between scenes coming from the same category. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. QT interval correction for drug-induced changes in body temperature during integrated cardiovascular safety assessment in regulatory toxicology studies in dogs: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amrani, Abdel-Ilah; El Amrani-Callens, Francine; Loriot, Stéphane; Singh, Pramila; Forster, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular safety assessment requires accurate evaluation of QT interval, which depends on the length of the cardiac cycle and also on core body temperature (BT). Increases in QT interval duration have been shown to be associated with decreases in BT in dogs. An example of altered QT interval duration associated with changes in body temperature observed during a 4-week regulatory toxicology study in dogs is presented. Four groups of Beagle dogs received the vehicle or test item once on Day 1, followed by a 4-week observation period. Electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters were continuously recorded on Days 1 and 26 by jacketed external telemetry (JET). Core body temperature (BT) was measured with a conventional rectal thermometer at appropriate time-points during the Day 1 recording period. Decreased BT was observed approximately 2h after treatment on Day 1, along with increased QT interval duration corrected according to the Van de Water formula (QTcV), but the effect was no longer observed after correction for changes in BT [QTcVcT=QTcV-14(37.5-BT)] according to the Van der Linde formula. No significant changes in QTcV were reported at the end of the observation period, on Day 26. The present study demonstrates that core body (rectal) temperature can easily be monitored at appropriate time-points during JET recording in regulatory toxicology studies in dogs, in order to correct QT interval duration values for treatment-related changes in BT. The successful application of the Van der Linde formula to correct QTc prolongation for changes in BT was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Thermal-Hydraulic Research Program: Maintaining expertise in a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Shotkin, L.M.; Baratta, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) thermal-hydraulic research program enjoyed ample funding, sponsored extensive experimental and analytical development programs, and attracted worldwide expertise. With the completion of the major experimental programs and with the promulgation of the revised emergency core-cooling system rule, both the funding and prominence of thermal-hydraulic research at the NRC have declined in recent years. This has led justifiably to the concern by some that the program may no longer have the minimal elements needed to maintain both expertise and world-class status. The purpose of this article is to describe the NRC's current thermal-hydraulic research program and to show how this program ensures maintenance of a viable, robust research effort and retention of needed expertise and international leadership

  20. Dynamic Frames Based Generation of 3D Scenes and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features from a 3D tool. This approach enables higher level of code generation flexibility and the reusability of the main code and scene artifacts in a form of textual templates. An example of the generated application is presented and discussed.

  1. System and method for extracting dominant orientations from a scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Julian; Rosman, Guy; Freifeld, Oren; Leonard, John J.; Fisher, III; , John W.

    2017-05-30

    In one embodiment, a method of identifying the dominant orientations of a scene comprises representing a scene as a plurality of directional vectors. The scene may comprise a three-dimensional representation of a scene, and the plurality of directional vectors may comprise a plurality of surface normals. The method further comprises determining, based on the plurality of directional vectors, a plurality of orientations describing the scene. The determined plurality of orientations explains the directionality of the plurality of directional vectors. In certain embodiments, the plurality of orientations may have independent axes of rotation. The plurality of orientations may be determined by representing the plurality of directional vectors as lying on a mathematical representation of a sphere, and inferring the parameters of a statistical model to adapt the plurality of orientations to explain the positioning of the plurality of directional vectors lying on the mathematical representation of the sphere.

  2. 76 FR 60957 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Change to the Benchmark Index Applicable to the Russell Equity ETF September 26, 2011. I. Introduction On... applicable to the Russell Equity ETF (``Fund,'' formerly known as the ``One Fund''). The proposed rule change... ETF, and the name of U.S. One Trust was changed to Russell Exchange Traded Funds Trust (``Trust...

  3. Fixations on objects in natural scenes: dissociating importance from salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marius e’t Hart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object’s importance for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (common/important or a rarely named (rare/unimportant object, track the observers’ eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after.When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast.Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene and salience (relevance for attention. If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist, and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object’s importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in reading.

  4. Using MODIS spectral information to classify sea ice scenes for CERES radiance-to-flux inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J.; Su, W.; Liang, L.; Eitzen, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites measure the shortwave (SW) radiance reflected from the Earth. In order to provide an estimate of the top-of-atmosphere reflected SW flux we need to know the anisotropy of the radiance reflected from the scene. Sea Ice scenes are particularly complex due to the wide range of surface conditions that comprise sea ice. For example, the anisotropy of snow-covered sea ice is quite different to that of sea ice with melt-ponds. To attempt to provide a consistent scene classification we have developed the Sea Ice Brightness Index (SIBI). The SIBI is defined as one minus the normalized difference between reflectances from the 0.469 micron and 0.858 micron bands from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. For brighter snow-covered sea ice scenes the SIBI value is close to 1.0. As the surface changes to bare ice, melt ponds, etc. the SIBI decreases. For open water the SIBI value is around 0.2-0.3. The SIBI exhibits no dependence on viewing zenith or solar zenith angle, allowing for consistent scene identification. To use the SIBI we classify clear-sky CERES field-of-views over sea ice into 3 groups; SIBI≥0.935, 0.935>SIBI≥0.85 and SIBISIBI based ADMs. Using the second metric, we see a reduction in the latitude/longitude binned mean RMS error between the ADM predicted radiance and the measured radiance from 8% to 7% in May and from 17% to 12% in July. These improvements suggest that using the SIBI to account for changes in the sea ice surface will lead to improved CERES flux retrievals.

  5. Position-Invariant Robust Features for Long-Term Recognition of Dynamic Outdoor Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawewong, Aram; Tangruamsub, Sirinart; Hasegawa, Osamu

    A novel Position-Invariant Robust Feature, designated as PIRF, is presented to address the problem of highly dynamic scene recognition. The PIRF is obtained by identifying existing local features (i.e. SIFT) that have a wide baseline visibility within a place (one place contains more than one sequential images). These wide-baseline visible features are then represented as a single PIRF, which is computed as an average of all descriptors associated with the PIRF. Particularly, PIRFs are robust against highly dynamical changes in scene: a single PIRF can be matched correctly against many features from many dynamical images. This paper also describes an approach to using these features for scene recognition. Recognition proceeds by matching an individual PIRF to a set of features from test images, with subsequent majority voting to identify a place with the highest matched PIRF. The PIRF system is trained and tested on 2000+ outdoor omnidirectional images and on COLD datasets. Despite its simplicity, PIRF offers a markedly better rate of recognition for dynamic outdoor scenes (ca. 90%) than the use of other features. Additionally, a robot navigation system based on PIRF (PIRF-Nav) can outperform other incremental topological mapping methods in terms of time (70% less) and memory. The number of PIRFs can be reduced further to reduce the time while retaining high accuracy, which makes it suitable for long-term recognition and localization.

  6. Through the regulatory hoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    There are many regulatory hoops through which waste generators, brokers, and disposal site operators must jump to dispose of waste safely. As the proposed exclusionary date of January 1, 1986, approaches, these regulatory hoops have the distinct possibility of multiplying or at least changing shape. The state of Washington, in its role as an Agreement State with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, licenses and inspects the commercial operator of the Northwest Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal site on the Hanford Reservation. Washington has received as much as 53%, or 1.4 million cubic feet per year, of the nation's total volume of waste disposed. To control such a large volume of waste, a regulatory program involving six agencies has developed over the years in Washington

  7. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  8. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.

  9. State Educational Policy-Making: a Changing Scene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    1977-01-01

    Education has moved into the mainstream of state politics. The future quality of the public schools may well depend on how accurately educators perceive and how effectively they participate in the political arena. (Author/IRT)

  10. Setting the scene : About planning and a world in change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, Gert; Boelens, Luuk; de Roo, Gert; Boelens, Luuk

    2016-01-01

    Today’s world is predominantly urban. Most urban regions are located in delta regions. And delta regions face severe pressures because of their fragile environments, their delicate relationship with existing ecological habitats and coastal zones, which need protection, and the increasing constraints

  11. Surgical management of perforated duodenal ulcer: the changing scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, J M; McFarlane, M E C; Newnham

    2004-12-01

    To determine the management of perforated duodenal ulcer at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) in this era of Helicobacter pylori, the medical records of all patients seen at the UHWI during the period July 1997 to June 2002 with an intra-operative diagnosis of perforated peptic ulcer were reviewed The records were analyzed for the following: age, gender, duration of symptoms, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, smoking status, operative repair duration of hospitalization, Helicobacter pylori status and medical therapy, peri-operative complications, mortality and recurrence. Ninety per cent of the cases were males. All females in whom perforation occurred were age 50 years and older compared to males where 58% of cases presented before age 50 years. Perforations in acute ulcers occurred in 80% of cases. The majority of patients were male smokers. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use was also an important risk factor in elderly females. Simple surgical closure and standard triple therapy antibiotics to eradicate Helicobacter pylori was the most common treatment offered. Mortality was one per cent and follow-up poor but 11% of patients had documented recurrent peptic ulceration. In this study population, perforated duodenal ulcer occured overwhelmingly in males less than 50 years of age. There is a trend towards exclusive simple surgical closure and H pylori eradication at the UHWI for patients with perforated duodenal ulcer but this needs to be supported by documentation of H pylori prevalence in the population of patients presenting with perforated peptic ulcers.

  12. Dynamic changes of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in spleen and brain of canine distemper virus-infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qeska, V; Barthel, Y; Iseringhausen, M; Tipold, A; Stein, V M; Khan, M A; Baumgärtner, W; Beineke, A

    2013-12-15

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection causes immunosuppression and demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs. In viral diseases, an ambiguous function of regulatory T cells (Treg), with both beneficial effects by reducing immunopathology and detrimental effects by inhibiting antiviral immunity, has been described. However, the role of Treg in the pathogenesis of canine distemper remains unknown. In order to determine the effect of CDV upon immune homeostasis, the amount of Foxp3(+) Treg in spleen and brain of naturally infected dogs has been determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, splenic cytokine expression has been quantified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Splenic depletion of Foxp3(+) Treg was associated with an increased mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor and decreased transcription of interleukin-2 in the acute disease phase, indicative of disturbed immunological counter regulation in peripheral lymphoid organs. In the brain, a lack of Foxp3(+) Treg in predemyelinating and early demyelinating lesions and significantly increased infiltrations of Foxp3(+) Treg in chronic demyelinating lesions were observed. In conclusion, disturbed peripheral and CNS immune regulation associated with a reduction of Treg represents a potential prerequisite for excessive neuroinflammation and early lesion development in canine distemper leukoencephalitis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 78 FR 31989 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... maker strategies to maintain best buy and sell quotations which are `reasonably related to the market... regulation, persons who regularly implement market maker strategies to maintain best buy and sell quotations... particular securities, and adopting associated pricing changes. The overall purpose of these changes is to...

  14. 77 FR 36324 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... of NYSE MKT LLC (collectively the ``Organizational Documents'') to make certain conforming changes... Regulated Subsidiaries, and make certain conforming changes to the Organizational Documents, as set forth... independent, objective perspectives, while at the same time affording NYSE Euronext sufficient flexibility to...

  15. 78 FR 28654 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-CBOE-2011-114) (order granting approval of a proposed rule change relating to Complex Order processing... rule change relating to Complex Order processing in CBOE's Hybrid 3.0 classes). \\10\\ The Exchange notes... Auction (``DNA'') designation for Complex Orders; (iii) add a definition of conforming ratio; \\8\\ (iv...

  16. 76 FR 28257 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... tie-breakers are criteria that operate in a hierarchy. If one and only one price satisfies the first... consolidated quote. The effect of this change is that the Exchange will not disseminate the very last Order... imbalance only contains non-routable interest. While this change could have the effect of reducing the last...

  17. 77 FR 74707 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... the Pring Turner Business Cycle ETF Under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600 December 11, 2012. On October... Pring Turner Business Cycle ETF (``Fund''). The proposed rule change was published for comment in the... proprietary business cycle research, the Sub-Adviser proactively will change the Fund's asset allocation and...

  18. 77 FR 51599 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Proposed Rule Change As with the Standard North American Corporate Single Names currently cleared, ICC... the following twenty additional investment grade Standard North American Corporate Single Name CDS... Single Names do not require any changes to the body of the ICC Rules. ICC will clear the Additional...

  19. 77 FR 73106 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... default swaps and European Corporate Single-Name credit default swaps. Notice of the proposed rule change... Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change To Add Rules Related to the Clearing of iTraxx Europe Index CDS and European Corporate Single-Name CDS December 3, 2012. On September...

  20. 76 FR 69783 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Directors, which C2 believes will provide it, the Nominating and Governance Committee and the Representative... instructions to Form 19b-4, the Exchange noted in Item 2 of its filing that it needed to obtain, but had not..., and Voting Agreement changes set forth in this proposed rule change. The Exchange also noted that it...

  1. 76 FR 10073 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ..., primarily China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and... par value traded to be considered as an eligible investment. Economic and other conditions in Asia may... will change from time to time in response to economic events and changes to the credit ratings of the...

  2. 76 FR 805 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Trading Shares of the SPDR Nuveen S&P High Yield Municipal Bond ETF December 30, 2010. Pursuant to Section... Change The Exchange proposes to list and trade shares of the SPDR Nuveen S&P High Yield Municipal Bond ETF under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 5.2(j)(3), Commentary .02. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  3. 75 FR 6072 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... delisting process if such rule changes are found to benefit Nasdaq's financial position.\\46\\ [[Page 6075... SEC filing made by listing companies, including proxies and annual and quarterly financial reports... the changes that have taken place in the financial markets, the existing time periods are unreasonably...

  4. Detection of chromatic and luminance distortions in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Wang, Karen; Menzies, Samantha; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2015-09-01

    A number of studies have measured visual thresholds for detecting spatial distortions applied to images of natural scenes. In one study, Bex [J. Vis.10(2), 1 (2010)10.1167/10.2.231534-7362] measured sensitivity to sinusoidal spatial modulations of image scale. Here, we measure sensitivity to sinusoidal scale distortions applied to the chromatic, luminance, or both layers of natural scene images. We first established that sensitivity does not depend on whether the undistorted comparison image was of the same or of a different scene. Next, we found that, when the luminance but not chromatic layer was distorted, performance was the same regardless of whether the chromatic layer was present, absent, or phase-scrambled; in other words, the chromatic layer, in whatever form, did not affect sensitivity to the luminance layer distortion. However, when the chromatic layer was distorted, sensitivity was higher when the luminance layer was intact compared to when absent or phase-scrambled. These detection threshold results complement the appearance of periodic distortions of the image scale: when the luminance layer is distorted visibly, the scene appears distorted, but when the chromatic layer is distorted visibly, there is little apparent scene distortion. We conclude that (a) observers have a built-in sense of how a normal image of a natural scene should appear, and (b) the detection of distortion in, as well as the apparent distortion of, natural scene images is mediated predominantly by the luminance layer and not chromatic layer.

  5. Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.

  6. IL-33 Effect on Quantitative Changes of CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ryba-Stanisławowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-33 is an IL-1 cytokine family member, with ability to induce both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. It binds to ST2 receptor, whose deficiency is associated with enhanced inflammatory response. The most recent studies have shown the immunoregulatory effect of IL-33 on Tregs in animal models. As type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease, where Treg defects have been described, we aimed to analyze the in vitro influence of recombinant IL-33 on quantitative properties of regulatory CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ T cells. CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ as well as CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ST2+ Tregs were analyzed by flow cytometry. In a group of patients with type 1 diabetes in vitro IL-33 treatment induced regulatory CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ cell frequencies as well as upregulating the surface expression of ST2 molecule. In addition, the number of CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ cells carrying ST2 receptor increased significantly. Similar effect was observed in case of the FOXP3 expression. We did not observe any significant changes in IL-33 treated cells of healthy controls. The level of ST2 was higher in serum of patients with type 1 diabetes in comparison to their healthy counterparts. We propose that IL-33 becomes an additional immunostimulatory factor used to induce Treg expansion in future clinical trials of adoptive therapy in type 1 diabetes.

  7. Three-dimensional measurement system for crime scene documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.

  8. Graphics processing unit (GPU) real-time infrared scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Chad L.; Gouthas, Efthimios (Themie); Williams, Owen M.

    2007-04-01

    VIRSuite, the GPU-based suite of software tools developed at DSTO for real-time infrared scene generation, is described. The tools include the painting of scene objects with radiometrically-associated colours, translucent object generation, polar plot validation and versatile scene generation. Special features include radiometric scaling within the GPU and the presence of zoom anti-aliasing at the core of VIRSuite. Extension of the zoom anti-aliasing construct to cover target embedding and the treatment of translucent objects is described.

  9. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Alex D.; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movemen...

  10. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki UENO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  11. AR goggles make crime scene investigation a desk job

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Jacob; NORTHFIELD, Dean

    2012-01-01

    CRIME scene investigators could one day help solve murders without leaving the office. A pair of augmented reality glasses could allow local police to virtually tag objects in a crime scene, and build a clean record of the scene in 3D video before evidence is removed for processing.\\ud The system, being developed by Oytun Akman and colleagues at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, consists of a head-mounted display receiving 3D video from a pair of attached cameras controll...

  12. Organophosphate-Induced Changes in the PKA Regulatory Function of Swiss Cheese/NTE Lead to Behavioral Deficits and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is a Wallerian-type axonopathy that occurs weeks after exposure to certain organophosphates (OPs). OPs have been shown to bind to Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE), thereby inhibiting its enzymatic activity. However, only OPs that also induce the so-called aging reaction cause OPIDN. This reaction results in the release and possible transfer of a side group from the bound OP to NTE and it has been suggested that this induces an unknown toxic function of NTE. To further investigate the mechanisms of aging OPs, we used Drosophila, which expresses a functionally conserved orthologue of NTE named Swiss Cheese (SWS). Treating flies with the organophosporous compound tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) resulted in behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration two weeks after exposure, symptoms similar to the delayed effects observed in other models. In addition, we found that primary neurons showed signs of axonal degeneration within an hour after treatment. Surprisingly, increasing the levels of SWS, and thereby its enzymatic activity after exposure, did not ameliorate these phenotypes. In contrast, reducing SWS levels protected from TOCP-induced degeneration and behavioral deficits but did not affect the axonopathy observed in cell culture. Besides its enzymatic activity as a phospholipase, SWS also acts as regulatory PKA subunit, binding and inhibiting the C3 catalytic subunit. Measuring PKA activity in TOCP treated flies revealed a significant decrease that was also confirmed in treated rat hippocampal neurons. Flies expressing additional PKA-C3 were protected from the behavioral and degenerative phenotypes caused by TOCP exposure whereas primary neurons were not. In addition, knocking-down PKA-C3 caused similar behavioral and degenerative phenotypes as TOCP treatment. We therefore propose a model in which OP-modified SWS cannot release PKA-C3 and that the resulting loss of PKA-C3 activity plays a crucial role in developing

  13. 76 FR 24069 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... in the Exchange's LLC Agreement and By-Laws, including technical and grammatical changes to reflect... categories: ``Committees Composed Solely of Directors'' or ``Committees Not Composed Solely of Directors...

  14. 77 FR 44702 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Process and would not necessitate any changes to order processing.\\4\\ \\4\\ The Exchange notes that when it... received from other market centers are marked as intermarket sweep orders, which by definition, are not...

  15. 77 FR 14048 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... taxation, adverse changes in investment or exchange control regulations, political instability, which could... principal stability than is typically available in a portfolio of lower-rated longer-term, fixed income...

  16. 77 FR 20854 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... change is available on the Exchange's Web site, at the Exchange's principal office and in the Public... available would enable tracing of some, but not all, of the erroneous executions comprising an error... all comments on the Commission's [[Page 20858

  17. Up in smoke: regulatory immortality for 'grandfathered' power plants under the NSR rule changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad G. Schneider [Clean Air Task Force (USA)

    2004-01-01

    The US New Source Review (NSR) program requires power plant owners to install modern pollution control whenever they upgrade their plants in a way that will cause more pollution. The Clean Air Task Force and other environmental organizations and dozens of states and municipalities have challenged changes to the NSR rule change exempting grandfathered power plants under certain conditions. The author discussed this legislation and whether the Clear Skies Act will be effective. 9 refs.

  18. Detecting anomalies in crowded scenes via locality-constrained affine subspace coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yaxiang; Wen, Gongjian; Qiu, Shaohua; Li, Deren

    2017-07-01

    Video anomaly event detection is the process of finding an abnormal event deviation compared with the majority of normal or usual events. The main challenges are the high structure redundancy and the dynamic changes in the scenes that are in surveillance videos. To address these problems, we present a framework for anomaly detection and localization in videos that is based on locality-constrained affine subspace coding (LASC) and a model updating procedure. In our algorithm, LASC attempts to reconstruct the test sample by its top-k nearest subspaces, which are obtained by segmenting the normal samples space using a clustering method. A sample with a large reconstruction cost is detected as abnormal by setting a threshold. To adapt to the scene changes over time, a model updating strategy is proposed. We experiment on two public datasets: the UCSD dataset and the Avenue dataset. The results demonstrate that our method achieves competitive performance at a 700 fps on a single desktop PC.

  19. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  20. Ca2+-induced PRE-NMR changes in the troponin complex reveal the possessive nature of the cardiac isoform for its regulatory switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Cordina

    Full Text Available The interaction between myosin and actin in cardiac muscle, modulated by the calcium (Ca2+ sensor Troponin complex (Tn, is a complex process which is yet to be fully resolved at the molecular level. Our understanding of how the binding of Ca2+ triggers conformational changes within Tn that are subsequently propagated through the contractile apparatus to initiate muscle activation is hampered by a lack of an atomic structure for the Ca2+-free state of the cardiac isoform. We have used paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE-NMR to obtain a description of the Ca2+-free state of cardiac Tn by describing the movement of key regions of the troponin I (cTnI subunit upon the release of Ca2+ from Troponin C (cTnC. Site-directed spin-labeling was used to position paramagnetic spin labels in cTnI and the changes in the interaction between cTnI and cTnC subunits were then mapped by PRE-NMR. The functionally important regions of cTnI targeted in this study included the cTnC-binding N-region (cTnI57, the inhibitory region (cTnI143, and two sites on the regulatory switch region (cTnI151 and cTnI159. Comparison of 1H-15N-TROSY spectra of Ca2+-bound and free states for the spin labeled cTnC-cTnI binary constructs demonstrated the release and modest movement of the cTnI switch region (∼10 Å away from the hydrophobic N-lobe of troponin C (cTnC upon the removal of Ca2+. Our data supports a model where the non-bound regulatory switch region of cTnI is highly flexible in the absence of Ca2+ but remains in close vicinity to cTnC. We speculate that the close proximity of TnI to TnC in the cardiac complex is favourable for increasing the frequency of collisions between the N-lobe of cTnC and the regulatory switch region, counterbalancing the reduction in collision probability that results from the incomplete opening of the N-lobe of TnC that is unique to the cardiac isoform.

  1. The influence of color on emotional perception of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Maurizio; De Cesarei, Andrea; Ferrari, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Is color a critical factor when processing the emotional content of natural scenes? Under challenging perceptual conditions, such as when pictures are briefly presented, color might facilitate scene segmentation and/or function as a semantic cue via association with scene-relevant concepts (e.g., red and blood/injury). To clarify the influence of color on affective picture perception, we compared the late positive potentials (LPP) to color versus grayscale pictures, presented for very brief (24 ms) and longer (6 s) exposure durations. Results indicated that removing color information had no effect on the affective modulation of the LPP, regardless of exposure duration. These findings imply that the recognition of the emotional content of scenes, even when presented very briefly, does not critically rely on color information. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Scene Categorization in Alzheimer's Disease: A Saccadic Choice Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Lenoble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We investigated the performance in scene categorization of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD using a saccadic choice task. Method: 24 patients with mild AD, 28 age-matched controls and 26 young people participated in the study. The participants were presented pairs of coloured photographs and were asked to make a saccadic eye movement to the picture corresponding to the target scene (natural vs. urban, indoor vs. outdoor. Results: The patients' performance did not differ from chance for natural scenes. Differences between young and older controls and patients with AD were found in accuracy but not saccadic latency. Conclusions: The results are interpreted in terms of cerebral reorganization in the prefrontal and temporo-occipital cortex of patients with AD, but also in terms of impaired processing of visual global properties of scenes.

  3. Scene Classification Using High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garner, Jamada

    2002-01-01

    ...), High-spatial resolution (8-meter), 4-color MSI data from IKONOS provide a new tool for scene classification, The utility of these data are studied for the purpose of classifying the Elkhorn Slough and surrounding wetlands in central...

  4. Radiative transfer model for heterogeneous 3-D scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Kirchner, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A general mathematical framework for simulating processes in heterogeneous 3-D scenes is presented. Specifically, a model was designed and coded for application to radiative transfers in vegetative scenes. The model is unique in that it predicts (1) the directional spectral reflectance factors as a function of the sensor's azimuth and zenith angles and the sensor's position above the canopy, (2) the spectral absorption as a function of location within the scene, and (3) the directional spectral radiance as a function of the sensor's location within the scene. The model was shown to follow known physical principles of radiative transfer. Initial verification of the model as applied to a soybean row crop showed that the simulated directional reflectance data corresponded relatively well in gross trends to the measured data. However, the model can be greatly improved by incorporating more sophisticated and realistic anisotropic scattering algorithms

  5. The core to regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 436, 500, and 636, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act all can have significant effects on an LDC's operations. Such changes in an LDC's environments must be balanced by changes within the utility, its marketplace, and its state regulatory environment. The question is where to start. For Columbia Gas Distribution Cos., based in Columbus, OH, the new operating foundation begins with each employee. Internal strength is critical in designing initiatives that meet the needs of the marketplace and are well-received by regulators. Employees must understand not only the regulatory environment in which the LDC operates, but also how their work contributes to a positive regulatory relationship. To achieve this, Columbia initiated the COntinuing Regulatory Education program, or CORE, in 1991. CORE is a regulatory-focused, information-initiative program coordinated by Columbia's Regulatory Policy, Planning, and Government Affairs Department. The CORE programs can take many forms, such as emerging issue discussions, dialogues with regulators and key parties, updates on regulatory fillings, regulatory policy meetings, and formal training classes. The speakers and discussion facilitators can range from human resource department trainers to senior officers, from regulatory department staff members to external experts, or from state commissioners to executives from other LDCs. The goals of CORE initiatives are to: Support a professional level of regulatory expertise through employee participation in well-developed regulatory programs presented by credible experts. Encourage a constructive state regulatory environment founded on communication and cooperation. CORE achieves these goals via five program levels: introductory basics, advanced learning, professional expertise, crossfunctional dialogues, and external idea exchanges

  6. 76 FR 32005 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Listing and Trading of the Guggenheim Enhanced Core Bond ETF and Guggenheim Enhanced Ultra- Short Bond ETF... change to list and trade shares (``Shares'') of the Guggenheim Enhanced Core Bond ETF and Guggenheim Enhanced Ultra-Short Bond ETF (each a ``Fund,'' and, together, the ``Funds'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule...

  7. 75 FR 4600 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... states that the fee reduction would also respond to the price competition provided by alternative... Prices constitute ``non-core data;'' i.e., the Exchange does not require a central processor to... Changes in NYSE Realtime Reference Prices Service January 22, 2010. I. Introduction On November 27, 2009...

  8. 75 FR 29792 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... administered pursuant to the Exchange's minor rule plan (``MRP''). As amended, the fine schedule would now..., the Commission believes that the proposed changes to the MRP should strengthen the Exchange's ability... quote spread parameter rule, under the MRP, reasonably addresses quoting violations on an electronic...

  9. 76 FR 55956 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Commentary .02(b)(4) to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.200, means any combination of investments, including cash... investment objective of USMI is for the daily changes in percentage terms of its Units' net asset value... Fundamentals of Commodity Futures Returns,'' Gorton, Rouwenhorst and Hayashi (September 2008), Yale...

  10. 77 FR 36307 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Restated Operating Agreement of NYSE MKT LLC (collectively the ``Organizational Documents'') to make... directors of the Regulated Subsidiaries, and make certain conforming changes to the Organizational Documents... independent, objective perspectives, while at the same time affording NYSE Euronext sufficient flexibility to...

  11. 76 FR 59472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Global Markets, Inc. only, not to the governance of the Exchange. The Exchange will continue to be... the Amended and Restated Bylaws of BATS Global Markets, Inc. September 19, 2011. Pursuant to Section... of the Exchange's sole stockholder, BATS Global Markets, Inc. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  12. 76 FR 59462 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... herein relate to the bylaws of BATS Global Markets, Inc. only, not to the governance of the Exchange. The... Restate the Amended and Restated Bylaws of BATS Global Markets, Inc. September 19, 2011. Pursuant to... of the Exchange's sole stockholder, BATS Global Markets, Inc. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  13. 77 FR 17533 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... for other cleared products, and not through the CLS Bank International (``CLS'') system. At present..., effective January 17, 2012, all payments that had been settled via CLS including Upfront Fees, Quarterly... Europe has also engaged in a public consultation process in relation to all the changes, pursuant to the...

  14. 76 FR 62112 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... risk by maintaining an aggregate portfolio duration of between two and eight years under normal market....wisdomtree.com . WisdomTree Asset Management, Inc. (``WisdomTree Asset Management'') is the investment...-dealers regarding access to information concerning the composition and/or changes to the Fund's portfolio...

  15. 76 FR 75932 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... the equivalent of $5 billion in local currency sovereign debt. The criteria used to evaluate whether a... Change The Exchange proposes to list and trade the shares of the following fund of the WisdomTree Trust.... Purpose The Exchange proposes to list and trade the Shares of the WisdomTree Emerging Markets Inflation...

  16. 78 FR 77743 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...\\ a proposed rule change to list and trade shares (``Shares'') of the PIMCO Diversified Income... proposes to list and trade the Shares of the Funds pursuant to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600, which governs... to other risks, such as interest rate or currency risk. A Fund may also use forwards to enhance...

  17. 77 FR 3532 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... component currencies. The price used for the calculation of the Index is the mid-point between the Bloomberg... Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to list and trade... (``UTP'').\\3\\ The Exchange proposes to list and trade shares (``Shares'') of the following pursuant to...

  18. 77 FR 15440 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... component currencies. The price used for the calculation of the Index is the mid-point between the Bloomberg... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to list... The Exchange proposes to list and trade shares (``Shares'') of the following funds (each a ``Fund...

  19. 75 FR 479 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving the Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... operation of the closing process, with an eye toward any potential changes in the behavior of market... orders; and (x) codify the hierarchy of allocation of interest in the closing transaction in NYSE Amex... codify the hierarchy of allocation logic applied to interest participating in the closing transaction...

  20. 75 FR 71760 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... portfolio, Peritus will perform its own independent investment analysis of each issuer to determine its... in a portfolio of securities selected by its investment advisor consistent with its investment... with respect to access to information concerning the composition and/or changes to the portfolio). \\7...

  1. 78 FR 62809 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... not be added, since the initial strikes go as low as possible ($1). Or, assume that the McDonald's... proposed rule change from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. [[Page 62810

  2. 77 FR 27255 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Reduce the Current Level of Risk Mutualization Among Clearing Participants and To Modify the Initial Margin Risk Model So That It Is Easier for... modifications to its risk model for clearing credit default swaps (``CDS'') contracts. For the first...

  3. 77 FR 65920 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Trading of Shares of the Pring Turner Business Cycle ETF Under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600 October 25... Turner Business Cycle ETF. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site... and trade shares (``Shares'') of the Pring Turner Business Cycle ETF (``Fund'') under NYSE Arca...

  4. 77 FR 63380 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... generally reduce changes in the market price of securities from their original purchase price because, upon... commitment. The Fund will only make commitments to purchase such securities with the intention of actually... purchase fixed income securities issued by U.S. or foreign corporations \\6\\ or financial institutions...

  5. 77 FR 13668 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Rule 604(h) that is being moved to new Rule 613. Accordingly, trading floor personnel will continue to... Supervisor, or ``SU,'' if applicable. This provision is being moved, unchanged, in its entirety to new Rule... to finders,\\36\\ and is being moved to Rule 614(b), without change. \\36\\ This provision is identical...

  6. 77 FR 66209 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68119; File No. SR-ICEEU-2012-08)] Self... way risk'' involving correlation between the risk of default of an underlying sovereign and the risk..., including back tests and stress tests. ICE Clear Europe believes that the proposed rule change to add New...

  7. 78 FR 68111 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... entered by ATP Holders. \\7\\ Under Rules 980NY(c)(i)-(iii), incoming orders or quotes, or those residing in... ATP Holder During the Trading Day November 6, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities... (``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I, II, and III below, which Items have been...

  8. 77 FR 39535 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Trust (GLD), Google Inc. (GOOG), and Amazon.com Inc. (AMZN). These issues were selected because they are... S&P 500 (SPY), Apple, Inc. (AAPL), SPDR Gold Trust (GLD), Google Inc. (GOOG), and Amazon.com Inc... contracts''). The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site at www.nyse.com...

  9. 78 FR 17731 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... foregoing proposed rule change: (1) Does not significantly affect the protection of investors or the public... also lead to investor confusion. The Exchange notes that the Commission approved Mini Options on SPY... level of retail investor participation in trading options on these underlying securities. Mini Options...

  10. 78 FR 73911 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... effects a change that: (i) Does not significantly affect the protection of investors or the public... general, to protect investors and the public interest. The Exchange believes that extending the SPY Pilot... market makers, institutional investors and retail investors, to establish greater positions when pursuing...

  11. 77 FR 61649 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... clearance of the following twenty additional investment grade Standard North American Corporate Single Name... ``Additional Single Names''). As with the Standard North American Corporate Single Names currently cleared, ICC... Single Names do not require any changes to the body of the ICC Rules. ICC will clear the Additional...

  12. 77 FR 17536 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to Its Risk Model To Reduce the... Model so That It Is Easier for Market Participants To Measure Their Risk March 20, 2012. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on March 8, 2012, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with the Securities and...

  13. 78 FR 76479 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Amendment No. 1, in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc... Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1, in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination... connection with the proposed business combination (the ``Combination''), as described in more detail below...

  14. 78 FR 76415 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Amendment No. 1, in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc... Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1, in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination... connection with the proposed business combination (the ``Combination''), as described in more detail below...

  15. 77 FR 47461 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... portfolio price to small parallel shifts in interest rates. When measured across a portfolio, the effective... business day) for the Fund. The identity and number or par value of the Deposit Securities may change... the identities and quantities of the portfolio of securities and other assets (``Disclosed Portfolio...

  16. 78 FR 72965 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... type called a Midpoint Passive Liquidity (``MPL'') Order; (2) NYSE MKT Rule 1000--Equities to specify... Order into the Retail Liquidity Program. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the...) NYSE MKT Rule 107C--Equities to incorporate the new MPL Order into the Retail Liquidity Program...

  17. 76 FR 24548 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... securities at fair value as determined in good faith using methods approved by the Funds' Board of Trustees... Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, the Student Loan Marketing Association, the National Credit Union... change is consistent with the Act. Comments may be submitted by any of the following methods: Electronic...

  18. 75 FR 8164 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... long-term investment horizons. The Fund's investment objective is non- fundamental and may be changed... December 15, 2005. The Trust is registered with the Commission as an investment company.\\5\\ \\3\\ NYSE Arca... an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a) (``1940 Act...

  19. 77 FR 41829 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Market Maker Peg Order below one round lot, the market maker would need to enter a new order, after... Amendment No. 1, To Adopt a New Market Maker Peg Order Available to Exchange Market Makers July 10, 2012... Change The Exchange proposes to adopt a new Market Maker Peg Order to provide similar functionality as...

  20. 75 FR 39074 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    .... Accordingly, a 10% percent price movement in a leveraged ETP may not signify extraordinary volatility. Because....14, Entitled ``Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Volatility'' June 30, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19... Volatility'' to add additional securities to the pilot rule. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  1. 75 FR 39084 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    .... Accordingly, a 10% percent price movement in a leveraged ETP may not signify extraordinary volatility. Because....14, Entitled ``Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Volatility.'' June 30, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19... Volatility'' to add additional securities to the pilot rule. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  2. 76 FR 71405 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Codify...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to amend NYSE Amex Equities Rule... representing buying interest inquired about selling interest in one of his or her assigned securities and later a Floor broker representing selling interest makes an inquiry about buying interest, the assigned...

  3. 75 FR 19436 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ..., the Commission is not publishing it for comment.\\4\\ This order approves the proposed rule change, as... NASDAQ OMX Corporate Governance Guidelines, however, provide a different standard for uncontested... contained in the Corporate Governance Guidelines; contested elections would remain subject to the plurality...

  4. 77 FR 42533 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... corporate governance documents.\\8\\ \\7\\ See Section 3(a)(27) of the Act, 15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(27). \\8\\ See... Bylaws, along with other corporate documents, are rules of the Exchange \\7\\ and must be filed with the... Corporate Structure and Deletion of Duplicative or Obsolete Text The proposed rule changes reflect the...

  5. 75 FR 22169 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... the proxy card) must immediately tender his or her resignation from the Board. NYSE proposed to amend... Bylaws, the proxy card would change for an uncontested election, and the stockholders would be given the... counted as a vote either ``for'' or ``against'' such director's election). If any incumbent director fails...

  6. 75 FR 13170 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by New York Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... proxy card) must immediately tender his or her resignation from the Board. The Board will then decide..., the proxy card would change for an uncontested election, and the stockholders would be given the... counted as a vote cast either ``for'' or ``against'' such director's election). In the event that any...

  7. 75 FR 38576 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NYSE Arca, Inc. To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... were to be made available on the proxy card) must immediately tender his or her resignation from the.... Under the proposed amendment to the Bylaws, the proxy card would change for an uncontested election, and... director's election (with ``abstentions'' not counted as a vote cast either ``for'' or ``against'' such...

  8. 78 FR 68116 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Liquidity Program November 6, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934... to establish a Retail Liquidity Program (``Program'' or ``proposed rule change'') to attract... new NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.44 to establish a Retail Liquidity Program to attract additional retail...

  9. 78 FR 59390 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Amendment No. 1 Thereto, To Amend the Competitive Liquidity Provider Program September 20, 2013. On June 17...'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to establish the Competitive Liquidity... Liquidity Provider Program to apply only to corporate issues. On June 24, 2013, the Exchange submitted...

  10. 77 FR 20863 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... change is available on the Exchange's Web site, at the Exchange's principal office and in the Public... Member's order. Also, if the information available would enable tracing of some, but not all, of the... all comments on the Commission's Internet Web site ( http://www.sec.gov/rules/sro.shtml ). Copies of...

  11. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-04-01

    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Developing Scene Understanding Neural Software for Realistic Autonomous Outdoor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    computer using a single graphics processing unit (GPU). To the best of our knowledge, an implementation of the open-source Python -based AlexNet CNN on...1. Introduction Neurons in the brain enable us to understand scenes by assessing the spatial, temporal, and feature relations of objects in the...effort to use computer neural networks to augment human neural intelligence to improve our scene understanding (Krizhevsky et al. 2012; Zhou et al

  13. STREAM PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-15

    PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-2-0072 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62788F 6...of Figures 1 The 3D processing pipeline flowchart showing key modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 Overall view (data flow) of the proposed...pipeline flowchart showing key modules. from motion and bundle adjustment algorithm. By fusion of depth masks of the scene obtained from 3D

  14. 3D Traffic Scene Understanding From Movable Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Andreas; Lauer, Martin; Wojek, Christian; Stiller, Christoph; Urtasun, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel probabilistic generative model for multi-object traffic scene understanding from movable platforms which reasons jointly about the 3D scene layout as well as the location and orientation of objects in the scene. In particular, the scene topology, geometry, and traffic activities are inferred from short video sequences. Inspired by the impressive driving capabilities of humans, our model does not rely on GPS, lidar, or map knowledge. Instead, it takes advantage of a diverse set of visual cues in the form of vehicle tracklets, vanishing points, semantic scene labels, scene flow, and occupancy grids. For each of these cues, we propose likelihood functions that are integrated into a probabilistic generative model. We learn all model parameters from training data using contrastive divergence. Experiments conducted on videos of 113 representative intersections show that our approach successfully infers the correct layout in a variety of very challenging scenarios. To evaluate the importance of each feature cue, experiments using different feature combinations are conducted. Furthermore, we show how by employing context derived from the proposed method we are able to improve over the state-of-the-art in terms of object detection and object orientation estimation in challenging and cluttered urban environments.

  15. Presentation of 3D Scenes Through Video Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacci, Andrea; Ganovelli, Fabio; Corsini, Massimiliano; Scopigno, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Using synthetic videos to present a 3D scene is a common requirement for architects, designers, engineers or Cultural Heritage professionals however it is usually time consuming and, in order to obtain high quality results, the support of a film maker/computer animation expert is necessary. We introduce an alternative approach that takes the 3D scene of interest and an example video as input, and automatically produces a video of the input scene that resembles the given video example. In other words, our algorithm allows the user to "replicate" an existing video, on a different 3D scene. We build on the intuition that a video sequence of a static environment is strongly characterized by its optical flow, or, in other words, that two videos are similar if their optical flows are similar. We therefore recast the problem as producing a video of the input scene whose optical flow is similar to the optical flow of the input video. Our intuition is supported by a user-study specifically designed to verify this statement. We have successfully tested our approach on several scenes and input videos, some of which are reported in the accompanying material of this paper.

  16. Political conservatism predicts asymmetries in emotional scene memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark; Gonzalez, Frank J; Giuseffi, Karl; Sievert, Benjamin; Smith, Kevin B; Hibbing, John R; Dodd, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Variation in political ideology has been linked to differences in attention to and processing of emotional stimuli, with stronger responses to negative versus positive stimuli (negativity bias) the more politically conservative one is. As memory is enhanced by attention, such findings predict that memory for negative versus positive stimuli should similarly be enhanced the more conservative one is. The present study tests this prediction by having participants study 120 positive, negative, and neutral scenes in preparation for a subsequent memory test. On the memory test, the same 120 scenes were presented along with 120 new scenes and participants were to respond whether a scene was old or new. Results on the memory test showed that negative scenes were more likely to be remembered than positive scenes, though, this was true only for political conservatives. That is, a larger negativity bias was found the more conservative one was. The effect was sizeable, explaining 45% of the variance across subjects in the effect of emotion. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between political ideology and asymmetries in emotion processing extend to memory and, furthermore, suggest that exploring the extent to which subject variation in interactions among emotion, attention, and memory is predicted by conservatism may provide new insights into theories of political ideology. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Two Distinct Scene-Processing Networks Connecting Vision and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Christopher; Esteva, Andre; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    A number of regions in the human brain are known to be involved in processing natural scenes, but the field has lacked a unifying framework for understanding how these different regions are organized and interact. We provide evidence from functional connectivity and meta-analyses for a new organizational principle, in which scene processing relies upon two distinct networks that split the classically defined parahippocampal place area (PPA). The first network of strongly connected regions consists of the occipital place area/transverse occipital sulcus and posterior PPA, which contain retinotopic maps and are not strongly coupled to the hippocampus at rest. The second network consists of the caudal inferior parietal lobule, retrosplenial complex, and anterior PPA, which connect to the hippocampus (especially anterior hippocampus), and are implicated in both visual and nonvisual tasks, including episodic memory and navigation. We propose that these two distinct networks capture the primary functional division among scene-processing regions, between those that process visual features from the current view of a scene and those that connect information from a current scene view with a much broader temporal and spatial context. This new framework for understanding the neural substrates of scene-processing bridges results from many lines of research, and makes specific functional predictions.

  18. Changes of regulatory T cells, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10 in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yong-Chao; Shen, Jian; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Liang, Ling; Bo, Chao-Sheng; Sui, Yi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory T lymphocyte cells (Treg) associated with interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) have implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), yet the existing evidence remains unclear. Hereby we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the changes in T1DM patients. A total of 1407 T1DM patients and 1373 healthy controls from 40 case-control studies were eventually included in the pooling analysis. Compared with the controls, T1DM patients had decreased frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg (p=0.0003), CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg (p=0.020), and the level of TGF-β (p=0.030). Decrease in IL-10 (p=0.14) was not significant. All the changes remained significant when the studies with low NOS scores and publication bias were excluded. In conclusion, peripheral Treg and serum TGF-β are reduced in type 1 diabetes mellitus whereas changes in serum IL-10 are not significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptions of inpatient rehabilitation changes after the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service 2010 regulatory updates contrasted with actual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Richard V; Roberts, Pamela S; DiVita, Margaret A; Niewczyk, Paulette; Granger, Carl V

    2014-01-01

    To compare and contrast subjective perceptions with objective compliance of the impact of the 2010 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service updates of the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual. Cross-sectional survey. An electronic survey was sent by the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation to all enrolled inpatient rehabilitation facility subscribers (n = 817). The survey was sent April 15, 2011, and responses were tabulated if they were received by May 15, 2011. Comparing and contrasting of the subjective perception to objective evaluation and/or compliance with the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual on case mix index, length of stay, admissions by diagnostic category as well as perception of preadmission screening, postadmission evaluation, plan of care, and interdisciplinary conferencing. Twenty-five percent of the 817 facilities responded, for a total of 209 responses. Complete data were present in 148 of the respondents. For most diagnostic categories, perception of change did not mirror reality of change; neither did the perception between change in case mix index and length of stay. Perception did match reality in stroke and multiple trauma cases; respondents perceived an increase in admissions for the 2 impairments, and there was an overall increase in reality. Comparison with actual data identified that gaps exist between diagnostic category perceptions and actual diagnostic category admission performance. Regulations such as the 75%-60% rule and audit focus on non-neurologic conditions as well as actual inpatient rehabilitation facility program payment reports may have influenced respondents perceptions to change associated with the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual modifications. This disparity between perception and actual data may have implications for programmatic planning, forecasting, and resource allocation. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  1. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  2. Dealing with change and uncertainty within the regulatory frameworks for flood defense infrastructure in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Goytia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas existing literature on the interactions among law, adaptive governance, and resilience in the water sector often focuses on quality or supply issues, this paper addresses adaptation in national water laws in relation to increasing flood risks. In particular, this paper analyzes the extent to which legal rules governing flood defense infrastructure in a selection of European countries (England, France, Sweden, and The Netherlands allow for response and adaptation to change and uncertainty. Although there is evidence that the legal rules on the development of new infrastructure require that changing conditions be considered, the adaptation of existing infrastructure is a more complicated matter. Liability rules fail to adequately address damages resulting from causes external to the action or inaction of owners and managers, in particular extreme events. A trend toward clearer, and in some cases, increased public powers to ensure the safety of flood defense infrastructure is observed. The paper concludes that legal rules should ensure not only that decisions to build flood defenses are based on holistic and future-oriented assessments, but also that this is reflected in the implementation and operation of these structures.

  3. Memory for sound, with an ear toward hearing in complex auditory scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Joel S; Gregg, Melissa K

    2011-10-01

    An area of research that has experienced recent growth is the study of memory during perception of simple and complex auditory scenes. These studies have provided important information about how well auditory objects are encoded in memory and how well listeners can notice changes in auditory scenes. These are significant developments because they present an opportunity to better understand how we hear in realistic situations, how higher-level aspects of hearing such as semantics and prior exposure affect perception, and the similarities and differences between auditory perception and perception in other modalities, such as vision and touch. The research also poses exciting challenges for behavioral and neural models of how auditory perception and memory work.

  4. The Effects of Linguistic Labels Related to Abstract Scenes on Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Inomata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Boundary extension is the false memory beyond the actual boundary of a picture scene. Gagnier (2011 suggested that a linguistic label has no effect on the magnitude of boundary extension. Although she controlled the timing of the presentation or information of the linguistic label, the information of stimulus was not changed. In the present study, the depiction of the main object was controlled in order to change the contextual information of a scene. In experiment, the 68 participants were shown 12 pictures. The stimulus consisted pictures that depicted the main object or did not depict the main object, and half of them were presented with linguistic description. Participants rated the object-less pictures more closely than the original pictures, when the former were presented with linguistic labels. However, when they were presented without linguistic labels, boundary extension did not occur. There was no effect of labels on the pictures that depicted the main objects. On the basis of these results, the linguistic label enhances the representation of the abstract scene like a homogeneous field or a wall. This finding suggests that boundary extension may be affected by not only visual information but also by other sensory information mediated by linguistic representation.

  5. Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation process as a probable mechanism for the diurnal regulatory changes of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Vidal, J; Le Marechal, P; Gadal, P; Queiroz, O; Kluge, M; Kruger, I

    1986-04-14

    Day and night forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) (PEPC) were extracted from leaves of the CAM plants Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. tubiflora and K. blossfeldiana previously fed with [32P] labelled phosphate solution. A one-step immunochemical purification followed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography showed that, in all species, the night form of the enzyme was phosphorylated and not the day form. Limited acid hydrolysis of the night form and two-dimensional separation identified predominantly labelled phosphoserine and phosphothreonine. In vitro addition of exogenous acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) to desalted night form-containing extracts resulted within 30 min in a shift in PEPC enzymic properties similar to the in vivo changes from night to day form. It is suggested that phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of the enzyme could be the primary in vivo process which might explain the observed rhythmicity of enzymic properties.

  6. Impacts of the Bolivian regulatory changes for the future of natural gas in Brazil; Impacto na relacao Brasil-Bolivia com a nacionalizacao dos hidrocarbonetos bolivianos de 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Berrnardo Pestana Mello C.; Saraiva, Thiago Carvalho; Bone, Rosemarie Broker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to clarify and understand the reasons for the current economic policy and trade between Bolivia and Brazil, the latter represented by PETROBRAS, as the year 2006. Focuses on the regulatory change in Bolivia that culminated in a period of re-nationalization of its mineral wealth as opposed to international interests, including Brazilians, and agreements entered into during the opening of the market in the country. Thus, set in the Latin American actual situation, we undertake to understand the process and its consequences for Brazil, which, even with the third largest gas reserves in the region, in the short term, it follows as an importer of this feature. To have a concrete base with foundations and analyze what happens today, we must understand the political history of Bolivia and their internal changes. So we divided the work into two parts: first, we analyze the neo liberal period, and the agreements signed with Brazil in the hydrocarbon sector, for mutual benefits. In the second part, we understand the political rise of Evo Morales and the nationalization process of national wealth and the consequent crisis that developed with the international oil companies, especially with PETROBRAS, to the final outcome on the price, production and export of gas.

  7. Beware: The empire striking back: An update of regulatory changes in Ontario`s gas and electricity business as at February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, K. [Gowling, Strathy and Henderson, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    A review of what is happening with regard to deregulation of the gas and electricity industry in Ontario was presented. Recently, a series of government actions in Ontario have recommended fundamental changes in the gas and electric power sector. Prior to the October 31, 1985 agreement, no competitive market existed within local distribution franchises in Ontario or elsewhere in Canada. The Agreement created gas on gas competition and enabled consumers to purchase natural gas from producers at negotiated prices. The Ontario government`s proposed legislation and implementation schedule forecasts even more fundamental changes for the province`s electric power industry. Essentially, the legislation proposes to break up Ontario Hydro into several different entities and transfer regulatory authority to the Ontario Energy Board. The pending legislation also envisages the structural separation of local distribution companies into natural monopolies which will compete in the marketplace. The possibility of privatizing part or all of Ontario`s nuclear assets is also part of the ongoing debate. It was the author`s view that unless there is immediate and complete structural separation of all monopoly services within the gas and electric utilities, the market will not be truly competitive. Instead, regulated monopoly pricing would be replaced by unregulated oligopoly pricing. 1 tab.

  8. A view not to be missed: Salient scene content interferes with cognitive restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Jagt, Alexander P. N.; Craig, Tony; Brewer, Mark J.; Pearson, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Attention Restoration Theory (ART) states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that perceptual saliency of scene content can function as an empirically derived indicator of fascination. Saliency levels were established by measuring speed of scene category detection using a Go/No-Go detection paradigm. Experiment 1 shows that built scenes are more salient than natural scenes. Experiment 2 replicates these findings using greyscale images, ruling out a colour-based response strategy, and additionally shows that built objects in natural scenes affect saliency to a greater extent than the reverse. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the saliency of scene content is directly linked to cognitive restoration using an established restoration paradigm. Overall, these findings demonstrate an important link between the saliency of scene content and related cognitive restoration. PMID:28723975

  9. Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, and changes in the expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins induced by cerium oxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahanavaj; Ansari, Anees A.; Rolfo, Christian; Coelho, Andreia; Abdulla, Maha; Al-Khayal, Khayal; Ahmad, Rehan

    2017-12-01

    Cerium oxide nanocrystals (CeO2-NCs) exhibit superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic activities. Based on these catalytic activities, CeO2-NCs have been suggested to have the potential to treat various diseases. The crystalline size of these materials is an important factor that influences the performance of CeO2-NCs. Previous reports have shown that several metal-based nanocrystals, including CeO2-NCs, can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. To characterize the anticancer activities of CeO2-NCs, several assays related to the mechanism of cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis has been performed. Here, we have carried out a systematic study to characterize CeO2-NCs phase purity (X-ray diffraction), morphology (electron microscopy), and optical features (optical absorption, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence) to better establish their potential as anticancer drugs. Our study revealed anticancer effects of CeO2-NCs in HT29 and SW620 colorectal cancer cell lines with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.26 and 121.18 μg ml-1, respectively. Reductions in cell viability indicated the cytotoxic potential of CeO2-NCs in HT29 cells based on inverted and florescence microscopy assessments. The mechanism of cytotoxicity confirmed by estimating possible changes in the expression levels of Bcl2, BclxL, Bax, PARP, cytochrome c, and β-actin (control) proteins in HT29 cells. Down-regulation of Bcl2 and BclxL and up-regulation of Bax, PARP, and cytochrome c proteins suggested the significant involvement of CeO2-NCs exposure in the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, biocompatibility assay showed minimum effect of CeO2-NCs on human red blood cells.

  10. Covering Risks in the Public Administration – an In-Depth Analysis of the Regulatory Changes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cocosatu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing in a trans-disciplinary manner the institutional and functional changesof the public administration under crisis. The current analysis looks in depth of the financial, economic, and,more importantly, social crisis in relation to the reforms imposed by both the internal and externalstakeholders. The decision-makers have not taken into account the risk factors, triggering legislativeincoherence and instability due to the challenging and approval as non-constitutional of many such normativeacts by the Romanian Constitutional Court. The research objectives search to clear up the measures’coherence in the context of a declining public budget and a negative growth period, when the shrunk publicfunds need to be properly allocated. Therefore, the answer that our research is looking for should pertain tothe following concern: can the government’s actions be considered solutions to the problems raised by thecurrent context? The answers shall aim at both restoring the legal and economic balance, as defined in theworking hypothesis. The lax fiscal policy of the expenditures brings about an involuntary fiscal contraction inthe event of an economic downturn (Rosen and Gayer, 2010, as it was the case in Romania. Those lack ofprudence shall be addressed in our analysis, with specific reference to the already established literatureexplanations involving the decision-makers trust in the „good days shall be around forever”, which triggers abelief that the expenditures’ expansion can be permanent. Regarding the paper methodology, this study isproceeding via bibliographical research, so that the reasoning behind the paper is clearly underlined as thisresearch is actually triggered by the radical changes made by both legislatures and practitioners as a responseto crisis. Further, the manuscript makes use of direct observation and legislative analysis and extensivedocumentary research of national tax policy and statistics relevant

  11. Research on hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dandan; Liu, Fang; Gao, Jiaobo; Sun, Kefeng; Hu, Yu; Li, Yu; Xie, Junhu; Zhang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a simulation method of hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence for hyperspectral equipment evaluation and target detection algorithm. Because of high spectral resolution, strong band continuity, anti-interference and other advantages, in recent years, hyperspectral imaging technology has been rapidly developed and is widely used in many areas such as optoelectronic target detection, military defense and remote sensing systems. Digital imaging simulation, as a crucial part of hardware in loop simulation, can be applied to testing and evaluation hyperspectral imaging equipment with lower development cost and shorter development period. Meanwhile, visual simulation can produce a lot of original image data under various conditions for hyperspectral image feature extraction and classification algorithm. Based on radiation physic model and material characteristic parameters this paper proposes a generation method of digital scene. By building multiple sensor models under different bands and different bandwidths, hyperspectral scenes in visible, MWIR, LWIR band, with spectral resolution 0.01μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm have been simulated in this paper. The final dynamic scenes have high real-time and realistic, with frequency up to 100 HZ. By means of saving all the scene gray data in the same viewpoint image sequence is obtained. The analysis results show whether in the infrared band or the visible band, the grayscale variations of simulated hyperspectral images are consistent with the theoretical analysis results.

  12. Radio Wave Propagation Scene Partitioning for High-Speed Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high-speed rail (HSR scenarios, and therefore we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along the Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger-dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger-dedicated line, and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300 km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station, and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems.

  13. Integration of heterogeneous features for remote sensing scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Xiong, Xingnan; Ning, Chen; Shi, Aiye; Lv, Guofang

    2018-01-01

    Scene classification is one of the most important issues in remote sensing (RS) image processing. We find that features from different channels (shape, spectral, texture, etc.), levels (low-level and middle-level), or perspectives (local and global) could provide various properties for RS images, and then propose a heterogeneous feature framework to extract and integrate heterogeneous features with different types for RS scene classification. The proposed method is composed of three modules (1) heterogeneous features extraction, where three heterogeneous feature types, called DS-SURF-LLC, mean-Std-LLC, and MS-CLBP, are calculated, (2) heterogeneous features fusion, where the multiple kernel learning (MKL) is utilized to integrate the heterogeneous features, and (3) an MKL support vector machine classifier for RS scene classification. The proposed method is extensively evaluated on three challenging benchmark datasets (a 6-class dataset, a 12-class dataset, and a 21-class dataset), and the experimental results show that the proposed method leads to good classification performance. It produces good informative features to describe the RS image scenes. Moreover, the integration of heterogeneous features outperforms some state-of-the-art features on RS scene classification tasks.

  14. Unconscious analyses of visual scenes based on feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ryosuke; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2015-06-01

    To efficiently process a cluttered scene, the visual system analyzes statistical properties or regularities of visual elements embedded in the scene. It is controversial, however, whether those scene analyses could also work for stimuli unconsciously perceived. Here we show that our brain performs the unconscious scene analyses not only using a single featural cue (e.g., orientation) but also based on conjunctions of multiple visual features (e.g., combinations of color and orientation information). Subjects foveally viewed a stimulus array (duration: 50 ms) where 4 types of bars (red-horizontal, red-vertical, green-horizontal, and green-vertical) were intermixed. Although a conscious perception of those bars was inhibited by a subsequent mask stimulus, the brain correctly analyzed the information about color, orientation, and color-orientation conjunctions of those invisible bars. The information of those features was then used for the unconscious configuration analysis (statistical processing) of the central bars, which induced a perceptual bias and illusory feature binding in visible stimuli at peripheral locations. While statistical analyses and feature binding are normally 2 key functions of the visual system to construct coherent percepts of visual scenes, our results show that a high-level analysis combining those 2 functions is correctly performed by unconscious computations in the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Changes of Regulatory T Cells and of Proinflammatory and Immunosuppressive Cytokines in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-chao Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of regulatory T cells (Treg, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. We performed a comprehensive search up to July 2016 for all clinical studies about the changes of Treg, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, and TNF-α in T2DM patients versus healthy controls. Results. A total of 91 articles (5642 cases and 7378 controls were included for this meta-analysis. Compared with the controls (all p<0.001, the patients had increased serum levels of IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α but decreased the percentage of peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg and serum IL-10 level. Furthermore, the percentage of peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg (p<0.001 and serum IL-10 level (p=0.033 were significantly lower in the patients with complication and in the patients without complication, respectively. No significant changes about the percentage of CD4+CD25+Treg (p=0.360 and serum IL-17 level (p=0.459 were found in T2DM patients. Conclusions. T2DM patients have decreased the percentage of peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg and levels of serum IL-10 but elevated serum levels of IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α. Presence of diabetic complications further lowers the peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg number.

  16. Global intensity correction in dynamic scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, P.J.; Schutte, K.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Changing image intensities causes problems for many computer vision applications operating in unconstrained environments. We propose generally applicable algorithms to correct for global differences in intensity between images recorded with a static or slowly moving camera, regardless of the cause

  17. Examination of the Suicide Characteristics Based on the Scene Investigation in Capital Budapest (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, István; Vörös, Krisztina; Marcsa, Boglárka; Váradi-T, Aletta; Kosztya, Sándor; Törő, Klára

    2015-09-01

    Medicolegal evaluation of postmortem findings at the death scene represents an important part of forensic medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and characteristics of suicide events. Data collection was performed from the police scene investigation reports in capital Budapest between 2009 and 2011. In this study, epidemiological parameters such as age, gender, time and place of death, postmortem changes, suicidal method, seasonal and daily distribution, natural diseases, earlier psychiatric treatment, socioeconomic risks, supposed cause of death, final notes, earlier suicide attempts, and suicide ideations were analyzed. There were 892 suicide cases (619 males, 273 females) detected in the investigated period. Hanging, overdose of prescription medications, jumping, use of firearms, drowning, and electrotrauma showed statistical differences among genders (p<0.05). The most common methods of suicide among men and women were hanging (57.4%) and overdose of prescription medications (33%), respectively. Death scene characteristics represent the important factors for forensic medicine. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. [Study on the modeling of earth-atmosphere coupling over rugged scenes for hyperspectral remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Jie; Jiang, Cheng; Jia, Guo-Rui

    2014-01-01

    Adjacency effects may introduce errors in the quantitative applications of hyperspectral remote sensing, of which the significant item is the earth-atmosphere coupling radiance. However, the surrounding relief and shadow induce strong changes in hyperspectral images acquired from rugged terrain, which is not accurate to describe the spectral characteristics. Furthermore, the radiative coupling process between the earth and the atmosphere is more complex over the rugged scenes. In order to meet the requirements of real-time processing in data simulation, an equivalent reflectance of background was developed by taking into account the topography and the geometry between surroundings and targets based on the radiative transfer process. The contributions of the coupling to the signal at sensor level were then evaluated. This approach was integrated to the sensor-level radiance simulation model and then validated through simulating a set of actual radiance data. The results show that the visual effect of simulated images is consistent with that of observed images. It was also shown that the spectral similarity is improved over rugged scenes. In addition, the model precision is maintained at the same level over flat scenes.

  19. Traffic Command Gesture Recognition for Virtual Urban Scenes Based on a Spatiotemporal Convolution Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyong Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent recognition of traffic police command gestures increases authenticity and interactivity in virtual urban scenes. To actualize real-time traffic gesture recognition, a novel spatiotemporal convolution neural network (ST-CNN model is presented. We utilized Kinect 2.0 to construct a traffic police command gesture skeleton (TPCGS dataset collected from 10 volunteers. Subsequently, convolution operations on the locational change of each skeletal point were performed to extract temporal features, analyze the relative positions of skeletal points, and extract spatial features. After temporal and spatial features based on the three-dimensional positional information of traffic police skeleton points were extracted, the ST-CNN model classified positional information into eight types of Chinese traffic police gestures. The test accuracy of the ST-CNN model was 96.67%. In addition, a virtual urban traffic scene in which real-time command tests were carried out was set up, and a real-time test accuracy rate of 93.0% was achieved. The proposed ST-CNN model ensured a high level of accuracy and robustness. The ST-CNN model recognized traffic command gestures, and such recognition was found to control vehicles in virtual traffic environments, which enriches the interactive mode of the virtual city scene. Traffic command gesture recognition contributes to smart city construction.

  20. Visual properties and memorising scenes: Effects of image-space sparseness and uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavský, Jiří; Děchtěrenko, Filip

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that humans have a remarkable capacity to memorise a large number of scenes. The research on memorability has shown that memory performance can be predicted by the content of an image. We explored how remembering an image is affected by the image properties within the context of the reference set, including the extent to which it is different from its neighbours (image-space sparseness) and if it belongs to the same category as its neighbours (uniformity). We used a reference set of 2,048 scenes (64 categories), evaluated pairwise scene similarity using deep features from a pretrained convolutional neural network (CNN), and calculated the image-space sparseness and uniformity for each image. We ran three memory experiments, varying the memory workload with experiment length and colour/greyscale presentation. We measured the sensitivity and criterion value changes as a function of image-space sparseness and uniformity. Across all three experiments, we found separate effects of 1) sparseness on memory sensitivity, and 2) uniformity on the recognition criterion. People better remembered (and correctly rejected) images that were more separated from others. People tended to make more false alarms and fewer miss errors in images from categorically uniform portions of the image-space. We propose that both image-space properties affect human decisions when recognising images. Additionally, we found that colour presentation did not yield better memory performance over grayscale images.

  1. Walk This Way: Improving Pedestrian Agent-Based Models through Scene Activity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Crooks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian movement is woven into the fabric of urban regions. With more people living in cities than ever before, there is an increased need to understand and model how pedestrians utilize and move through space for a variety of applications, ranging from urban planning and architecture to security. Pedestrian modeling has been traditionally faced with the challenge of collecting data to calibrate and validate such models of pedestrian movement. With the increased availability of mobility datasets from video surveillance and enhanced geolocation capabilities in consumer mobile devices we are now presented with the opportunity to change the way we build pedestrian models. Within this paper we explore the potential that such information offers for the improvement of agent-based pedestrian models. We introduce a Scene- and Activity-Aware Agent-Based Model (SA2-ABM, a method for harvesting scene activity information in the form of spatiotemporal trajectories, and incorporate this information into our models. In order to assess and evaluate the improvement offered by such information, we carry out a range of experiments using real-world datasets. We demonstrate that the use of real scene information allows us to better inform our model and enhance its predictive capabilities.

  2. a Low-Cost Panoramic Camera for the 3d Documentation of Contaminated Crime Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; Toschi, I.; Sturdy-Colls, C.; Remondino, F.

    2017-11-01

    Crime scene documentation is a fundamental task which has to be undertaken in a fast, accurate and reliable way, highlighting evidence which can be further used for ensuring justice for victims and for guaranteeing the successful prosecution of perpetrators. The main focus of this paper is on the documentation of a typical crime scene and on the rapid recording of any possible contamination that could have influenced its original appearance. A 3D reconstruction of the environment is first generated by processing panoramas acquired with the low-cost Ricoh Theta 360 camera, and further analysed to highlight potentials and limits of this emerging and consumer-grade technology. Then, a methodology is proposed for the rapid recording of changes occurring between the original and the contaminated crime scene. The approach is based on an automatic 3D feature-based data registration, followed by a cloud-to-cloud distance computation, given as input the 3D point clouds generated before and after e.g. the misplacement of evidence. All the algorithms adopted for panoramas pre-processing, photogrammetric 3D reconstruction, 3D geometry registration and analysis, are presented and currently available in open-source or low-cost software solutions.

  3. Representation of Gravity-Aligned Scene Structure in Ventral Pathway Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Siavash; Connor, Charles E

    2016-03-21

    The ventral visual pathway in humans and non-human primates is known to represent object information, including shape and identity [1]. Here, we show the ventral pathway also represents scene structure aligned with the gravitational reference frame in which objects move and interact. We analyzed shape tuning of recently described macaque monkey ventral pathway neurons that prefer scene-like stimuli to objects [2]. Individual neurons did not respond to a single shape class, but to a variety of scene elements that are typically aligned with gravity: large planes in the orientation range of ground surfaces under natural viewing conditions, planes in the orientation range of ceilings, and extended convex and concave edges in the orientation range of wall/floor/ceiling junctions. For a given neuron, these elements tended to share a common alignment in eye-centered coordinates. Thus, each neuron integrated information about multiple gravity-aligned structures as they would be seen from a specific eye and head orientation. This eclectic coding strategy provides only ambiguous information about individual structures but explicit information about the environmental reference frame and the orientation of gravity in egocentric coordinates. In the ventral pathway, this could support perceiving and/or predicting physical events involving objects subject to gravity, recognizing object attributes like animacy based on movement not caused by gravity, and/or stabilizing perception of the world against changes in head orientation [3-5]. Our results, like the recent discovery of object weight representation [6], imply that the ventral pathway is involved not just in recognition, but also in physical understanding of objects and scenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of smoking scenes in films on immediate smoking: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J; Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. 100 cigarette smokers aged 18-25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a 10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR=3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR=6.73, 95% CI=1.00, 45.25, comparing the top to bottom 5th percentiles of exposure). Level of nicotine dependence (OR=1.71, 95% CI=1.27, 2.32 per point on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scale); contemplation (OR=9.07, 95% CI=1.71, 47.99) and precontemplation (OR=7.30, 95% CI=1.39, 38.36) stages of change; and impulsivity (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03, 1.43) were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Narrative Collage of Image Collections by Scene Graph Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fei; Yi, Miao; Feng, Hui; Hu, Shenghong; Xiao, Chunxia

    2017-10-04

    Narrative collage is an interesting image editing art to summarize the main theme or storyline behind an image collection. We present a novel method to generate narrative images with plausible semantic scene structures. To achieve this goal, we introduce a layer graph and a scene graph to represent relative depth order and semantic relationship between image objects, respectively. We firstly cluster the input image collection to select representative images, and then extract a group of semantic salient objects from each representative image. Both Layer graphs and scene graphs are constructed and combined according to our specific rules for reorganizing the extracted objects in every image. We design an energy model to appropriately locate every object on the final canvas. Experiment results show that our method can produce competitive narrative collage result and works well on a wide range of image collections.

  6. Gordon Craig's Scene Project: a history open to revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a review of Gordon Craig’s Scene project, an invention patented in 1910 and developed until 1922. Craig himself kept an ambiguous position whether it was an unfulfilled project or not. His son and biographer Edward Craig sustained that Craig’s original aims were never achieved because of technical limitation, and most of the scholars who examined the matter followed this position. Departing from the actual screen models saved in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Craig’s original notebooks, and a short film from 1963, I defend that the patented project and the essay published in 1923 mean, indeed, the materialisation of the dreamed device of the thousand scenes in one scene

  7. Scene recognition based on integrating active learning with dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengxi; Yin, Xueyan; Yang, Lin; Gong, Chengrong; Zheng, Caixia; Yi, Yugen

    2018-04-01

    Scene recognition is a significant topic in the field of computer vision. Most of the existing scene recognition models require a large amount of labeled training samples to achieve a good performance. However, labeling image manually is a time consuming task and often unrealistic in practice. In order to gain satisfying recognition results when labeled samples are insufficient, this paper proposed a scene recognition algorithm named Integrating Active Learning and Dictionary Leaning (IALDL). IALDL adopts projective dictionary pair learning (DPL) as classifier and introduces active learning mechanism into DPL for improving its performance. When constructing sampling criterion in active learning, IALDL considers both the uncertainty and representativeness as the sampling criteria to effectively select the useful unlabeled samples from a given sample set for expanding the training dataset. Experiment results on three standard databases demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed IALDL.

  8. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  9. Real-time maritime scene simulation for ladar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Chad L.; Gouthas, Efthimios; Swierkowski, Leszek; Williams, Owen M.

    2011-06-01

    Continuing interest exists in the development of cost-effective synthetic environments for testing Laser Detection and Ranging (ladar) sensors. In this paper we describe a PC-based system for real-time ladar scene simulation of ships and small boats in a dynamic maritime environment. In particular, we describe the techniques employed to generate range imagery accompanied by passive radiance imagery. Our ladar scene generation system is an evolutionary extension of the VIRSuite infrared scene simulation program and includes all previous features such as ocean wave simulation, the physically-realistic representation of boat and ship dynamics, wake generation and simulation of whitecaps, spray, wake trails and foam. A terrain simulation extension is also under development. In this paper we outline the development, capabilities and limitations of the VIRSuite extensions.

  10. Use of AFIS for linking scenes of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefetz, Ido; Liptz, Yakir; Vaturi, Shaul; Attias, David

    2016-05-01

    Forensic intelligence can provide critical information in criminal investigations - the linkage of crime scenes. The Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is an example of a technological improvement that has advanced the entire forensic identification field to strive for new goals and achievements. In one example using AFIS, a series of burglaries into private apartments enabled a fingerprint examiner to search latent prints from different burglary scenes against an unsolved latent print database. Latent finger and palm prints coming from the same source were associated with over than 20 cases. Then, by forensic intelligence and profile analysis the offender's behavior could be anticipated. He was caught, identified, and arrested. It is recommended to perform an AFIS search of LT/UL prints against current crimes automatically as part of laboratory protocol and not by an examiner's discretion. This approach may link different crime scenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Virtual environments for scene of crime reconstruction and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Toby L. J.; Murta, Alan D.; Gibson, Simon

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes research conducted in collaboration with Greater Manchester Police (UK), to evalute the utility of Virtual Environments for scene of crime analysis, forensic investigation, and law enforcement briefing and training. We present an illustrated case study of the construction of a high-fidelity virtual environment, intended to match a particular real-life crime scene as closely as possible. We describe and evaluate the combination of several approaches including: the use of the Manchester Scene Description Language for constructing complex geometrical models; the application of a radiosity rendering algorithm with several novel features based on human perceptual consideration; texture extraction from forensic photography; and experiments with interactive walkthroughs and large-screen stereoscopic display of the virtual environment implemented using the MAVERIK system. We also discuss the potential applications of Virtual Environment techniques in the Law Enforcement and Forensic communities.

  12. Changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network during early period of ibrutinib therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: the significant decrease in T regulatory cells number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorecka, Monika; Goracy, Aneta; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Kowal, Malgorzata; Ibanez, Blanca; Jankowska-Lecka, Olga; Macheta, Arkadiusz; Nowaczynska, Aleksandra; Drab-Urbanek, Elzbieta; Chocholska, Sylwia; Jawniak, Dariusz; Hus, Marek

    2017-05-23

    B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation signal plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and kinase inhibitors directed toward the BCR pathway are now the promising anti-leukemic drugs. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, demonstrates promising clinical activity in CLL. It is reported that ibrutinib, additionally to directly targeting leukemic cells, also inhibits the interactions of these cells with T cells, macrophages and accessory cells. Assessment of these mechanisms is important because of their non -direct anti-leukemic effects and to identify possible side effects connected with long-term drug administration.The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL. The analysis was performed on a group of 19 patients during first month of ibrutinib therapy. The standard multicolor flow cytometry and cytometric bead array methods were used for assessment of T-cell subsets and cytokines/chemokines, respectively.The data obtained indicates that Ibrutinib treatment results in changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL patients. Particularly, a significant reduction of T regulatory cells in peripheral blood was observed. By targeting these populations of T cells Ibrutinib can stimulate rejection of tumor cells by the immune system.

  13. Changes in Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) and Regulatory Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD) Enzymes Following Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in the Neonatal Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hannah X; Jones, Nicole M

    2016-03-01

    Hypoxia leads to activation of many cellular adaptive processes which are regulated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 consists of HIF-1α and HIF-1ß subunits and levels of HIF-1α protein are regulated by HIF prolyl-hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1, 2, 3). The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression of HIF-1α and PHDs at various time points after hypoxia-ischemia (HI), using a neonatal rat model of HI brain injury. Sprague-Dawley rat pups (postnatal day 7) were anaesthetized and underwent right carotid artery occlusion and were then exposed to 6 % oxygen for 2.5 h at 37 °C. HI injured animals demonstrated a significant reduction in the size of the ipsilateral hemisphere, compared to sham controls. Protein analysis using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that 24 h after HI, there was a significant increase in PHD3 protein and an increase of HIF-1α compared to controls. At the 72 h time point, there was a reduction in PHD3 protein, which appeared to relate to cellular loss. There were no changes in PHD1 or PHD2 protein levels after HI when compared to age-matched controls. Further studies are necessary to establish roles for the HIF-1 regulatory enzyme PHD3 in brain injury processes.

  14. Regulatory and licensee surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the workshop two CSNI/WGHOF surveys were distributed. One survey was directed at regulatory bodies and the other was directed at plant licensees. The surveys were: 1 - Regulatory Expectations of Licensees' Arrangements to Ensure Suitable Organisational Structure, Resources and Competencies to Manage Safety (sent to WGHOF regulatory members). The survey requested that the respondents provide a brief overview of the situation related to plant organisations in their country, their regulatory expectations and their formal requirements. The survey addressed three subjects: the demonstration and documentation of organisational structures, resources and competencies, organisational changes, issues for improvement (for both current and new plants). Responses were received from eleven regulatory bodies. 2 - Approaches to Justify Organisational Suitability (sent to selected licensees). The purpose of the survey to was to gain an understanding of how licensees ensure organisational suitability, resources and competencies. This information was used to assist in the development of the issues and subjects that were addressed at the group discussion sessions. Responses were received from over fifteen licensees from nine countries. The survey requested that the licensees provide information on how they ensure effective organisational structures at their plants. The survey grouped the questions into the following four categories: organisational safety functions, resource and competence, decision-making and communication, good examples and improvement needs. The findings from these surveys were used in conjunction with other factors to identify the key issues for the workshop discussion sessions. The responses from these two surveys are discussed briefly in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. More extensive reviews of the regulatory and licensee responses are provided in Appendix 1

  15. Multiple vehicle routing and dispatching to an emergency scene

    OpenAIRE

    M S Daskin; A Haghani

    1984-01-01

    A model of the distribution of arrival time at the scene of an emergency for the first of many vehicles is developed for the case in which travel times on the links of the network are normally distributed and the path travel times of different vehicles are correlated. The model suggests that the probability that the first vehicle arrives at the scene within a given time may be increased by reducing the path time correlations, even if doing so necessitates increasing the mean path travel time ...

  16. Cortical Representations of Speech in a Multitalker Auditory Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvvada, Krishna C; Simon, Jonathan Z

    2017-09-20

    The ability to parse a complex auditory scene into perceptual objects is facilitated by a hierarchical auditory system. Successive stages in the hierarchy transform an auditory scene of multiple overlapping sources, from peripheral tonotopically based representations in the auditory nerve, into perceptually distinct auditory-object-based representations in the auditory cortex. Here, using magnetoencephalography recordings from men and women, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in distinct hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. Using systems-theoretic methods of stimulus reconstruction, we show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex contain dominantly spectrotemporal-based representations of the entire auditory scene. Here, both attended and ignored speech streams are represented with almost equal fidelity, and a global representation of the full auditory scene with all its streams is a better candidate neural representation than that of individual streams being represented separately. We also show that higher-order auditory cortical areas, by contrast, represent the attended stream separately and with significantly higher fidelity than unattended streams. Furthermore, the unattended background streams are more faithfully represented as a single unsegregated background object rather than as separated objects. Together, these findings demonstrate the progression of the representations and processing of a complex acoustic scene up through the hierarchy of the human auditory cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using magnetoencephalography recordings from human listeners in a simulated cocktail party environment, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in separate hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. We show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex use a dominantly spectrotemporal-based representation of the entire auditory

  17. Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    mumgs0.USmusa 7.AUWOJO 4. CIUTAC Rm6ANT Wuugme*j James V/. Mlahoney DACA? 6-85-C-00 10 NOQ 1 4-85-K-O 124 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory US USS 545...0197 672 IMAGE CHUWING: DEINING SPATIAL UILDING PLOCKS FOR 142 SCENE ANRLYSIS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAIIAIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAO J...Technical Report 980 F-Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene DTm -Analysis S ELECTED James V. Mahoney’ MIT Artificial Intelligence

  18. Improved content aware scene retargeting for retinitis pigmentosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Atabany Walid I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we present a novel scene retargeting technique to reduce the visual scene while maintaining the size of the key features. The algorithm is scalable to implementation onto portable devices, and thus, has potential for augmented reality systems to provide visual support for those with tunnel vision. We therefore test the efficacy of our algorithm on shrinking the visual scene into the remaining field of view for those patients. Methods Simple spatial compression of visual scenes makes objects appear further away. We have therefore developed an algorithm which removes low importance information, maintaining the size of the significant features. Previous approaches in this field have included seam carving, which removes low importance seams from the scene, and shrinkability which dynamically shrinks the scene according to a generated importance map. The former method causes significant artifacts and the latter is inefficient. In this work we have developed a new algorithm, combining the best aspects of both these two previous methods. In particular, our approach is to generate a shrinkability importance map using as seam based approach. We then use it to dynamically shrink the scene in similar fashion to the shrinkability method. Importantly, we have implemented it so that it can be used in real time without prior knowledge of future frames. Results We have evaluated and compared our algorithm to the seam carving and image shrinkability approaches from a content preservation perspective and a compression quality perspective. Also our technique has been evaluated and tested on a trial included 20 participants with simulated tunnel vision. Results show the robustness of our method at reducing scenes up to 50% with minimal distortion. We also demonstrate efficacy in its use for those with simulated tunnel vision of 22 degrees of field of view or less. Conclusions Our approach allows us to perform content aware video

  19. Virginia Power's regulatory reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    Virginia Power has two nuclear plants, North Anna and Surry Power Stations, which have two units each for a total of four nuclear units. In 1992, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission solicited comments from the nuclear industry to obtain their ideas for reducing the regulatory burden on nuclear facilities. Pursuant to the new regulatory climate, Virginia Power developed an internal program to evaluate and assess the regulatory and self-imposed requirements to which they were committed, and to pursue regulatory relief or internal changes where possible and appropriate. The criteria were that public safety must be maintained, and savings must be significant. Up to the date of the conference, over US$22 million of one-time saving had been effected, and US$2.75 million in annual savings

  20. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  1. Recognition and attention guidance during contextual cueing in real-world scenes: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmole, James R; Henderson, John M

    2006-07-01

    When confronted with a previously encountered scene, what information is used to guide search to a known target? We contrasted the role of a scene's basic-level category membership with its specific arrangement of visual properties. Observers were repeatedly shown photographs of scenes that contained consistently but arbitrarily located targets, allowing target positions to be associated with scene content. Learned scenes were then unexpectedly mirror reversed, spatially translating visual features as well as the target across the display while preserving the scene's identity and concept. Mirror reversals produced a cost as the eyes initially moved toward the position in the display in which the target had previously appeared. The cost was not complete, however; when initial search failed, the eyes were quickly directed to the target's new position. These results suggest that in real-world scenes, shifts of attention are initially based on scene identity, and subsequent shifts are guided by more detailed information regarding scene and object layout.

  2. Behind the Scenes of Artistic Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana; Jensen, Julie Borup; Hersted, Lone

    , asking the question: how do artists create, learn, and organise their work? This book explores these questions by means of original empirical data (interviews with 22 artists) and theoretical research in the field of the arts and creativity from a learning perspective. Findings shed an original light...... on how artists learn and create, and how their creative learning and change processes come about, for instance when facilitating and leading creative processes....

  3. The Price and Volatility Dynamics in the Swedish-Norwegian Renewable Electricity Certificate MarketA Study of Spillover Effects and Regulatory changes

    OpenAIRE

    Finell, Philip; Hiller, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The market for renewable electricity certificates (REC) is the primary support system for renewable energy in Sweden and Norway. Regulatory uncertainty and equity markets have previously been proven to impact the volatility of the REC spot contract. As policy makers, renewable electricity investors and other stakeholders aim for profitability and efficient regulation, additional insights of the dynamics in the  REC market is needed. This study examines regulatory uncertainty on both REC spot ...

  4. Fuzzy Emotional Semantic Analysis and Automated Annotation of Scene Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in electronic and imaging techniques, the production of digital images has rapidly increased, and the extraction and automated annotation of emotional semantics implied by images have become issues that must be urgently addressed. To better simulate human subjectivity and ambiguity for understanding scene images, the current study proposes an emotional semantic annotation method for scene images based on fuzzy set theory. A fuzzy membership degree was calculated to describe the emotional degree of a scene image and was implemented using the Adaboost algorithm and a back-propagation (BP neural network. The automated annotation method was trained and tested using scene images from the SUN Database. The annotation results were then compared with those based on artificial annotation. Our method showed an annotation accuracy rate of 91.2% for basic emotional values and 82.4% after extended emotional values were added, which correspond to increases of 5.5% and 8.9%, respectively, compared with the results from using a single BP neural network algorithm. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy rate based on our method reached approximately 89%. This study attempts to lay a solid foundation for the automated emotional semantic annotation of more types of images and therefore is of practical significance.

  5. Evaluating Color Descriptors for Object and Scene Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Image category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects and scene types. So far, intensity-based descriptors have been widely used for feature extraction at salient points. To increase illumination invariance and discriminative power, color descriptors have been

  6. Non-uniform crosstalk reduction for dynamic scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, F.A.; Liere, van R.; Fröhlich, B.

    2007-01-01

    Stereo displays suffer from crosstalk, an effect that reduces or even inhibits the viewer's ability to correctly perceive depth. Previous work on software crosstalk reduction focussed on the preprocessing of static scenes which are viewed from a fixed viewpoint. However, in virtual environments

  7. Range and intensity vision for rock-scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, SG

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  8. Modelling Technology for Building Fire Scene with Virtual Geographic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.

  9. Words Matter: Scene Text for Image Classification and Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; Tao, R.; Gevers, T.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Text in natural images typically adds meaning to an object or scene. In particular, text specifies which business places serve drinks (e.g., cafe, teahouse) or food (e.g., restaurant, pizzeria), and what kind of service is provided (e.g., massage, repair). The mere presence of text, its words, and

  10. Significance of perceptually relevant image decolorization for scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Divakaran, Govind; Soman, Kutti Padanyl

    2017-11-01

    Color images contain luminance and chrominance components representing the intensity and color information, respectively. The objective of this paper is to show the significance of incorporating chrominance information to the task of scene classification. An improved color-to-grayscale image conversion algorithm that effectively incorporates chrominance information is proposed using the color-to-gray structure similarity index and singular value decomposition to improve the perceptual quality of the converted grayscale images. The experimental results based on an image quality assessment for image decolorization and its success rate (using the Cadik and COLOR250 datasets) show that the proposed image decolorization technique performs better than eight existing benchmark algorithms for image decolorization. In the second part of the paper, the effectiveness of incorporating the chrominance component for scene classification tasks is demonstrated using a deep belief network-based image classification system developed using dense scale-invariant feature transforms. The amount of chrominance information incorporated into the proposed image decolorization technique is confirmed with the improvement to the overall scene classification accuracy. Moreover, the overall scene classification performance improved by combining the models obtained using the proposed method and conventional decolorization methods.

  11. Estimating cotton canopy ground cover from remotely sensed scene reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many agricultural applications require spatially distributed information on growth-related crop characteristics that could be supplied through aircraft or satellite remote sensing. A study was conducted to develop and test a methodology for estimating plant canopy ground cover for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from scene reflectance. Previous studies indicated that a relatively simple relationship between ground cover and scene reflectance could be developed based on linear mixture modeling. Theoretical analysis indicated that the effects of shadows in the scene could be compensated for by averaging the results obtained using scene reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelengths. The methodology was tested using field data collected over several years from cotton test plots in Texas and California. Results of the study appear to verify the utility of this approach. Since the methodology relies on information that can be obtained solely through remote sensing, it would be particularly useful in applications where other field information, such as plant size, row spacing, and row orientation, is unavailable

  12. Ontology of a scene based on Java 3D architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén González Crespo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to make an approach to the class hierarchy of a scene built with the architecture Java 3D, to develop an ontology of a scene as from the semantic essential components for the semantic structuring of the Web3D. Java was selected because the language recommended by the W3C Consortium for the Development of the Web3D oriented applications as from X3D standard is Xj3D which compositionof their Schemas is based the architecture of Java3D In first instance identifies the domain and scope of the ontology, defining classes and subclasses that comprise from Java3D architecture and the essential elements of a scene, as its point of origin, the field of rotation, translation The limitation of the scene and the definition of shaders, then define the slots that are declared in RDF as a framework for describing the properties of the classes established from identifying thedomain and range of each class, then develops composition of the OWL ontology on SWOOP Finally, be perform instantiations of the ontology building for a Iconosphere object as from class expressions defined.

  13. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  14. Coping with Perceived Ethnic Prejudice on the Gay Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2017-01-01

    There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…

  15. Semantic Categorization Precedes Affective Evaluation of Visual Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by…

  16. Cultural heritage and history in the European metal scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper, de S.; Molpheta, S.; Pille, S.; Saouma, R.; During, R.; Muilwijk, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an inquiry on the use of history and cultural heritage in the metal scene. It is an attempt to show how history and cultural heritage can possibly be spread among people using an unconventional way. The followed research method was built on an explorative study that included an

  17. The role of memory for visual search in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Hoa Võ, Melissa; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    Many daily activities involve looking for something. The ease with which these searches are performed often allows one to forget that searching represents complex interactions between visual attention and memory. Although a clear understanding exists of how search efficiency will be influenced by visual features of targets and their surrounding distractors or by the number of items in the display, the role of memory in search is less well understood. Contextual cueing studies have shown that implicit memory for repeated item configurations can facilitate search in artificial displays. When searching more naturalistic environments, other forms of memory come into play. For instance, semantic memory provides useful information about which objects are typically found where within a scene, and episodic scene memory provides information about where a particular object was seen the last time a particular scene was viewed. In this paper, we will review work on these topics, with special emphasis on the role of memory in guiding search in organized, real-world scenes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Learning object-to-class kernels for scene classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhen, Xiantong; Shao, Ling

    2014-08-01

    High-level image representations have drawn increasing attention in visual recognition, e.g., scene classification, since the invention of the object bank. The object bank represents an image as a response map of a large number of pretrained object detectors and has achieved superior performance for visual recognition. In this paper, based on the object bank representation, we propose the object-to-class (O2C) distances to model scene images. In particular, four variants of O2C distances are presented, and with the O2C distances, we can represent the images using the object bank by lower-dimensional but more discriminative spaces, called distance spaces, which are spanned by the O2C distances. Due to the explicit computation of O2C distances based on the object bank, the obtained representations can possess more semantic meanings. To combine the discriminant ability of the O2C distances to all scene classes, we further propose to kernalize the distance representation for the final classification. We have conducted extensive experiments on four benchmark data sets, UIUC-Sports, Scene-15, MIT Indoor, and Caltech-101, which demonstrate that the proposed approaches can significantly improve the original object bank approach and achieve the state-of-the-art performance.

  19. Semi-Supervised Multitask Learning for Scene Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuelong; Mou, Lichao

    2015-09-01

    Scene recognition has been widely studied to understand visual information from the level of objects and their relationships. Toward scene recognition, many methods have been proposed. They, however, encounter difficulty to improve the accuracy, mainly due to two limitations: 1) lack of analysis of intrinsic relationships across different scales, say, the initial input and its down-sampled versions and 2) existence of redundant features. This paper develops a semi-supervised learning mechanism to reduce the above two limitations. To address the first limitation, we propose a multitask model to integrate scene images of different resolutions. For the second limitation, we build a model of sparse feature selection-based manifold regularization (SFSMR) to select the optimal information and preserve the underlying manifold structure of data. SFSMR coordinates the advantages of sparse feature selection and manifold regulation. Finally, we link the multitask model and SFSMR, and propose the semi-supervised learning method to reduce the two limitations. Experimental results report the improvements of the accuracy in scene recognition.

  20. Characteristics of nontrauma scene flights for air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Margaret G; Fletcher, Erica N; Werman, Howard; McKenzie, Lara B

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the use of air medical transport for patients with medical, rather than traumatic, emergencies. This study describes the practices of air transport programs, with respect to nontrauma scene responses, in several areas throughout the United States and Canada. A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted of all nontrauma scene flights from 2008 and 2009. Flight information and patient demographic data were collected from 5 air transport programs. Descriptive statistics were used to examine indications for transport, Glasgow Coma Scale Scores, and loaded miles traveled. A total of 1,785 nontrauma scene flights were evaluated. The percentage of scene flights contributed by nontraumatic emergencies varied between programs, ranging from 0% to 44.3%. The most common indication for transport was cardiac, nonST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (22.9%). Cardiac arrest was the indication for transport in 2.5% of flights. One air transport program reported a high percentage (49.4) of neurologic, stroke, flights. The use of air transport for nontraumatic emergencies varied considerably between various air transport programs and regions. More research is needed to evaluate which nontraumatic emergencies benefit from air transport. National guidelines regarding the use of air transport for nontraumatic emergencies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anticipatory scene representation in preschool children's recall and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindel, Erica; Intraub, Helene

    2017-09-01

    Behavioral and neuroscience research on boundary extension (false memory beyond the edges of a view of a scene) has provided new insights into the constructive nature of scene representation, and motivates questions about development. Early research with children (as young as 6-7 years) was consistent with boundary extension, but relied on an analysis of spatial errors in drawings which are open to alternative explanations (e.g. drawing ability). Experiment 1 replicated and extended prior drawing results with 4-5-year-olds and adults. In Experiment 2, a new, forced-choice immediate recognition memory test was implemented with the same children. On each trial, a card (photograph of a simple scene) was immediately replaced by a test card (identical view and either a closer or more wide-angle view) and participants indicated which one matched the original view. Error patterns supported boundary extension; identical photographs were more frequently rejected when the closer view was the original view, than vice versa. This asymmetry was not attributable to a selection bias (guessing tasks; Experiments 3-5). In Experiment 4, working memory load was increased by presenting more expansive views of more complex scenes. Again, children exhibited boundary extension, but now adults did not, unless stimulus duration was reduced to 5 s (limiting time to implement strategies; Experiment 5). We propose that like adults, children interpret photographs as views of places in the world; they extrapolate the anticipated continuation of the scene beyond the view and misattribute it to having been seen. Developmental differences in source attribution decision processes provide an explanation for the age-related differences observed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Visualization of spatial-temporal data based on 3D virtual scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianghong; Liu, Jiping; Wang, Yong; Bi, Junfang

    2009-10-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to realize the expression of the three-dimensional dynamic visualization of spatialtemporal data based on three-dimensional virtual scene, using three-dimensional visualization technology, and combining with GIS so that the people's abilities of cognizing time and space are enhanced and improved by designing dynamic symbol and interactive expression. Using particle systems, three-dimensional simulation, virtual reality and other visual means, we can simulate the situations produced by changing the spatial location and property information of geographical entities over time, then explore and analyze its movement and transformation rules by changing the interactive manner, and also replay history and forecast of future. In this paper, the main research object is the vehicle track and the typhoon path and spatial-temporal data, through three-dimensional dynamic simulation of its track, and realize its timely monitoring its trends and historical track replaying; according to visualization techniques of spatialtemporal data in Three-dimensional virtual scene, providing us with excellent spatial-temporal information cognitive instrument not only can add clarity to show spatial-temporal information of the changes and developments in the situation, but also be used for future development and changes in the prediction and deduction.

  3. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  4. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  5. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  6. British Coal and the energy scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruttenden, M G [British Coal Corporation, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe British Coal's (BCC) present position in a rapidly changing UK Energy Market where competition, with imported coal and with other fuels, particularly natural gas is likely to continue to increase. As a relatively high cost coal producer by world standards BCC, while continuing its efforts to improve productivity and lower costs, must work to enhance the value of its product in the market place both by improving quality to more closely match customers individual needs and by offering supporting services which ensure overall customer satisfaction. The paper explores each market sector and describes the steps which the Corporation is taking to improve its competitive position in each market with particular reference to quality standards and supporting services. Finally it attempts to forecast some possible new developments for the future. 3 tabs.

  7. Characteristics of color memory for natural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Kinjiro; Uchikawa, Keiji; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2002-08-01

    To study the characteristics of color memory for natural images, a memory-identification task was performed with differing color contrasts; three of the contrasts were defined by chromatic and luminance components of the image, and the others were defined with respect to the categorical colors. After observing a series of pictures successively, subjects identified the pictures using a confidence rating. Detection of increased contrasts tended to be harder than detection of decreased contrasts, suggesting that the chromaticness of pictures is enhanced in memory. Detecting changes within each color category was more difficult than across the categories. A multiple mechanism that processes color differences and categorical colors is briefly considered. 2002 Optical Society of America

  8. Construction and Optimization of Three-Dimensional Disaster Scenes within Mobile Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Because mobile virtual reality (VR is both mobile and immersive, three-dimensional (3D visualizations of disaster scenes based in mobile VR enable users to perceive and recognize disaster environments faster and better than is possible with other methods. To achieve immersion and prevent users from feeling dizzy, such visualizations require a high scene-rendering frame rate. However, the existing related visualization work cannot provide a sufficient solution for this purpose. This study focuses on the construction and optimization of a 3D disaster scene in order to satisfy the high frame-rate requirements for the rendering of 3D disaster scenes in mobile VR. First, the design of a plugin-free browser/server (B/S architecture for 3D disaster scene construction and visualization based in mobile VR is presented. Second, certain key technologies for scene optimization are discussed, including diverse modes of scene data representation, representation optimization of mobile scenes, and adaptive scheduling of mobile scenes. By means of these technologies, smartphones with various performance levels can achieve higher scene-rendering frame rates and improved visual quality. Finally, using a flood disaster as an example, a plugin-free prototype system was developed, and experiments were conducted. The experimental results demonstrate that a 3D disaster scene constructed via the methods addressed in this study has a sufficiently high scene-rendering frame rate to satisfy the requirements for rendering a 3D disaster scene in mobile VR.

  9. Sensory substitution: the spatial updating of auditory scenes ‘mimics’ the spatial updating of visual scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achille ePasqualotto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution is used to convey visual information through audition, and it was initially created to compensate for blindness; it consists of software converting the visual images captured by a video-camera into the equivalent auditory images, or ‘soundscapes’. Here, it was used by blindfolded sighted participants to learn the spatial position of simple shapes depicted in images arranged on the floor. Very few studies have used sensory substitution to investigate spatial representation, while it has been widely used to investigate object recognition. Additionally, with sensory substitution we could study the performance of participants actively exploring the environment through audition, rather than passively localising sound sources. Blindfolded participants egocentrically learnt the position of six images by using sensory substitution and then a judgement of relative direction task (JRD was used to determine how this scene was represented. This task consists of imagining being in a given location, oriented in a given direction, and pointing towards the required image. Before performing the JRD task, participants explored a map that provided allocentric information about the scene. Although spatial exploration was egocentric, surprisingly we found that performance in the JRD task was better for allocentric perspectives. This suggests that the egocentric representation of the scene was updated. This result is in line with previous studies using visual and somatosensory scenes, thus supporting the notion that different sensory modalities produce equivalent spatial representation(s. Moreover, our results have practical implications to improve training methods with sensory substitution devices.

  10. Implicit and explicit categorization of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Maurizio; Ferrari, Vera; De Cesarei, Andrea; Cardinale, Rossella

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have consistently found that emotionally arousing (pleasant and unpleasant) pictures elicit a larger late positive potential (LPP) than neutral pictures in a window from 400 to 800 ms after picture onset. In addition, an early ERP component has been reported to vary with emotional arousal in a window from about 150 to 300 ms with affective, compared to neutral stimuli, prompting significantly less positivity over occipito-temporal sites. Similar early and late ERP components have been found in explicit categorization tasks, suggesting that selective attention to target features results in similar cortical changes. Several studies have shown that the affective modulation of the LPP persisted even when the same pictures are repeated several times, when they are presented as distractors, or when participants are engaged in a competing task. These results indicate that categorization of affective stimuli is an obligatory process. On the other hand, perceptual factors (e.g., stimulus size) seem to affect the early ERP component but not the affective modulation of the LPP. Although early and late ERP components vary with stimulus relevance, given that they are differentially affected by stimulus and task manipulations, they appear to index different facets of picture processing.

  11. Behind the scenes of GS: Sweet dreams!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Hostel is located in the heart of the Meyrin site and provides the Organization’s many users with a comfortable and peaceful place to stay. The services offered by the Hostel, which is managed by the GS-IS Group, have seen many changes over the years.   The first CERN Hostel (Building 38) was built in 1982 in response to an increasing demand for accommodation, which until then had been met by a handful of converted bedrooms in Building 5 and, since 1974, by 81 additional bedrooms made available to CERN through an agreement with the Foyer Schumann in Saint-Genis-Pouilly. Let’s not even mention the fact that the barracks now occupied by the CERN clubs used to be dormitories… The Hostel was gradually extended, particularly in 1995 with the construction of Building 39, and then in 2007, when Building 41 was added, resulting in a total of 413 rooms (495 beds) today. In addition, a new agreement now gives users access to 151 low-cost rooms at the Foyer Schuma...

  12. [Scenes in movement. Movement disorders on film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Romero, J

    2010-03-01

    There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.

  13. Scene perception and memory revealed by eye movements and receiver-operating characteristic analyses: does a cultural difference truly exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kris; Rotello, Caren M; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2009-02-01

    Cultural differences have been observed in scene perception and memory: Chinese participants purportedly attend to the background information more than did American participants. We investigated the influence of culture by recording eye movements during scene perception and while participants made recognition memory judgements. Real-world pictures with a focal object on a background were shown to both American and Chinese participants while their eye movements were recorded. Later, memory for the focal object in each scene was tested, and the relationship between the focal object (studied, new) and the background context (studied, new) was manipulated. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that both sensitivity and response bias were changed when objects were tested in new contexts. However, neither the decrease in accuracy nor the response bias shift differed with culture. The eye movement patterns were also similar across cultural groups. Both groups made longer and more fixations on the focal objects than on the contexts. The similarity of eye movement patterns and recognition memory behaviour suggests that both Americans and Chinese use the same strategies in scene perception and memory.

  14. Open and scalable analytics of large Earth observation datasets: From scenes to multidimensional arrays using SciDB and GDAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Marius; Lahn, Florian; Buytaert, Wouter; Pebesma, Edzer

    2018-04-01

    Earth observation (EO) datasets are commonly provided as collection of scenes, where individual scenes represent a temporal snapshot and cover a particular region on the Earth's surface. Using these data in complex spatiotemporal modeling becomes difficult as soon as data volumes exceed a certain capacity or analyses include many scenes, which may spatially overlap and may have been recorded at different dates. In order to facilitate analytics on large EO datasets, we combine and extend the geospatial data abstraction library (GDAL) and the array-based data management and analytics system SciDB. We present an approach to automatically convert collections of scenes to multidimensional arrays and use SciDB to scale computationally intensive analytics. We evaluate the approach in three study cases on national scale land use change monitoring with Landsat imagery, global empirical orthogonal function analysis of daily precipitation, and combining historical climate model projections with satellite-based observations. Results indicate that the approach can be used to represent various EO datasets and that analyses in SciDB scale well with available computational resources. To simplify analyses of higher-dimensional datasets as from climate model output, however, a generalization of the GDAL data model might be needed. All parts of this work have been implemented as open-source software and we discuss how this may facilitate open and reproducible EO analyses.

  15. 75 FR 53998 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... characteristics and risks of security futures. \\6\\ 15 U.S.C. 78o-3(b)(6). B. Self-Regulatory Organization's...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Security Futures Risk Disclosure Statement August 27, 2010...

  16. 75 FR 5157 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change... Consolidated FINRA Rulebook January 25, 2010. On December 2, 2009, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority... later in the rulebook consolidation process. It is therefore ordered, pursuant to Section 19(b)(2) of...

  17. 77 FR 47470 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt FINRA Rule 2231 (Customer Account Statements) in the Consolidated FINRA Rulebook August 2, 2012. On April 22, 2009, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') (f/k/a...

  18. 76 FR 50796 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Increase the Position Limit for Options on the Standard and Poor's... Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  19. Technicolor/INRIA team at the MediaEval 2013 Violent Scenes Detection Task

    OpenAIRE

    Penet , Cédric; Demarty , Claire-Hélène; Gravier , Guillaume; Gros , Patrick

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the work done at Technicolor and INRIA regarding the MediaEval 2013 Violent Scenes Detection task, which aims at detecting violent scenes in movies. We participated in both the objective and the subjective subtasks.

  20. 3D Aware Correction and Completion of Depth Maps in Piecewise Planar Scenes

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem; Lahoud, Jean; Asmar, Daniel; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    RGB-D sensors are popular in the computer vision community, especially for problems of scene understanding, semantic scene labeling, and segmentation. However, most of these methods depend on reliable input depth measurements, while discarding

  1. Feature diagnosticity and task context shape activity in human scene-selective cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew X; Gallivan, Jason P; Ferber, Susanne; Cant, Jonathan S

    2016-01-15

    Scenes are constructed from multiple visual features, yet previous research investigating scene processing has often focused on the contributions of single features in isolation. In the real world, features rarely exist independently of one another and likely converge to inform scene identity in unique ways. Here, we utilize fMRI and pattern classification techniques to examine the interactions between task context (i.e., attend to diagnostic global scene features; texture or layout) and high-level scene attributes (content and spatial boundary) to test the novel hypothesis that scene-selective cortex represents multiple visual features, the importance of which varies according to their diagnostic relevance across scene categories and task demands. Our results show for the first time that scene representations are driven by interactions between multiple visual features and high-level scene attributes. Specifically, univariate analysis of scene-selective cortex revealed that task context and feature diagnosticity shape activity differentially across scene categories. Examination using multivariate decoding methods revealed results consistent with univariate findings, but also evidence for an interaction between high-level scene attributes and diagnostic visual features within scene categories. Critically, these findings suggest visual feature representations are not distributed uniformly across scene categories but are shaped by task context and feature diagnosticity. Thus, we propose that scene-selective cortex constructs a flexible representation of the environment by integrating multiple diagnostically relevant visual features, the nature of which varies according to the particular scene being perceived and the goals of the observer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A view not to be missed: Salient scene content interferes with cognitive restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt, A.P.N.; Craig, Tony; Brewer, Mark J.; Pearson, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Attention Restoration Theory (ART) states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that

  3. Scene complexity: influence on perception, memory, and development in the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian J Chai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in memory formation for scenes in both children and adults. The development in children and adolescents of successful memory encoding for scenes has been associated with increased activation in PFC, but not MTL, regions. However, evidence suggests that a functional subregion of the MTL that supports scene perception, located in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, goes through a prolonged maturation process. Here we tested the hypothesis that maturation of scene perception supports the development of memory for complex scenes. Scenes were characterized by their levels of complexity defined by the number of unique object categories depicted in the scene. Recognition memory improved with age, in participants ages 8-24, for high, but not low, complexity scenes. High-complexity compared to low-complexity scenes activated a network of regions including the posterior PHG. The difference in activations for high- versus low- complexity scenes increased with age in the right posterior PHG. Finally, activations in right posterior PHG were associated with age-related increases in successful memory formation for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. These results suggest that functional maturation of the right posterior PHG plays a critical role in the development of enduring long-term recollection for high-complexity scenes.

  4. Separate and simultaneous adjustment of light qualities in a real scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Pont, S.C.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.R.

    2017-01-01

    Humans are able to estimate light field properties in a scene in that they have expectations of the objects' appearance inside it. Previously, we probed such expectations in a real scene by asking whether a "probe object" fitted a real scene with regard to its lighting. But how well are observers

  5. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  6. Defining spatial relations in a specific ontology for automated scene creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Contraş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the approach of building an ontology for automatic scene generation. Every scene contains various elements (backgrounds, characters, objects which are spatially interrelated. The article focuses on these spatial and temporal relationships of the elements constituting a scene.

  7. Multimodal computational attention for scene understanding and robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Schauerte, Boris

    2016-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art computational attention models that have been successfully tested in diverse application areas and can build the foundation for artificial systems to efficiently explore, analyze, and understand natural scenes. It gives a comprehensive overview of the most recent computational attention models for processing visual and acoustic input. It covers the biological background of visual and auditory attention, as well as bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms and discusses various applications. In the first part new approaches for bottom-up visual and acoustic saliency models are presented and applied to the task of audio-visual scene exploration of a robot. In the second part the influence of top-down cues for attention modeling is investigated. .

  8. [Changes of CD(4)(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and CD(4)(+)IL-17(+)T cells in cigarette smoke-exposed rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing-jing; Zhong, Xiao-ning; Bai, Jing; He, Zhi-yi; Zhang, Jian-quan; Huang, Qiu-pin

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of CD(4)(+)IL-17(+) T (Th17) and CD(4)(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and therefore to explore the role of Th17 and Treg in cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation/COPD in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: a 12 wk smoke-exposure group, a 24 wk smoke-exposure group, a 12 wk control group and a 24 wk control group (n = 10 each). Cells in BALF were collected and analyzed by absolute and differential cell counts. IL-17 and IL-6 levels in serum and BALF were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of CD(4)(+)IL-17(+) T and CD(4)(+)Foxp3(+) Treg in peripheral blood and BALF were determined by flow cytometry. The mRNA expressions of IL-17 and Foxp3 were measured by real-time PCR. Comparisons of the data between different groups were performed using one-way ANOVA, and SNK and Games-Howell test were used for comparison between 2 groups. Levels of IL-17 were remarkable increased in the 12 wk smoke-exposure group and the 24 wk smoke-exposure group in serum [(52.6 ± 1.8) ng/L, (75.4 ± 6.0) ng/L] and BALF [(78.1 ± 5.8) ng/L, (95.0 ± 6.8) ng/L] compared with the 12 wk control group [(40.0 ± 3.2)ng/L, (54.5 ± 4.6) ng/L] and the 24 wk control group [(36.7 ± 3.2) ng/L, (53.9 ± 3.7) ng/L], all P cells and macrophages (r = 0.512, 0.543, all P cells and an increase of inflammatory cytokines were evident in airway inflammation of cigarette smoke-exposed rats, suggesting that Treg was involved in the immunological regulation and Th17 was associated with the persistent inflammation in cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation in rats.

  9. Enhancing Visual Basic GUI Applications using VRML Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Dhandayuthapani Veerasamy

    2010-01-01

    Rapid Application Development (RAD) enables ever expanding needs for speedy development of computer application programs that are sophisticated, reliable, and full-featured. Visual Basic was the first RAD tool for the Windows operating system, and too many people say still it is the best. To provide very good attraction in visual basic 6 applications, this paper directing to use VRML scenes over the visual basic environment.

  10. Context modulates attention to social scenes in toddlers with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Macari, Suzanne; Shic, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Background In typical development, the unfolding of social and communicative skills hinges upon the ability to allocate and sustain attention towards people, a skill present moments after birth. Deficits in social attention have been well documented in autism, though the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Methods In order to parse the factors that are responsible for limited social attention in toddlers with autism, we manipulated the context in which a person appeared in their visual field with regard to the presence of salient social (child-directed speech and eye contact) and nonsocial (distractor toys) cues for attention. Participants included 13- to 25-month-old toddlers with autism (AUT; n=54), developmental delay (DD; n=22), and typical development (TD; n=48). Their visual responses were recorded with an eye-tracker. Results In conditions devoid of eye contact and speech, the distribution of attention between key features of the social scene in toddlers with autism was comparable to that in DD and TD controls. However, when explicit dyadic cues were introduced, toddlers with autism showed decreased attention to the entire scene and, when they looked at the scene, they spent less time looking at the speaker’s face and monitoring her lip movements than the control groups. In toddlers with autism, decreased time spent exploring the entire scene was associated with increased symptom severity and lower nonverbal functioning; atypical language profiles were associated with decreased monitoring of the speaker’s face and her mouth. Conclusions While in certain contexts toddlers with autism attend to people and objects in a typical manner, they show decreased attentional response to dyadic cues for attention. Given that mechanisms supporting responsivity to dyadic cues are present shortly after birth and are highly consequential for development of social cognition and communication, these findings have important implications for the understanding of the

  11. Overt attention in natural scenes: objects dominate features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Josef; Thrun, Michael; Nuthmann, Antje; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Whether overt attention in natural scenes is guided by object content or by low-level stimulus features has become a matter of intense debate. Experimental evidence seemed to indicate that once object locations in a scene are known, salience models provide little extra explanatory power. This approach has recently been criticized for using inadequate models of early salience; and indeed, state-of-the-art salience models outperform trivial object-based models that assume a uniform distribution of fixations on objects. Here we propose to use object-based models that take a preferred viewing location (PVL) close to the centre of objects into account. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that, when including this comparably subtle modification, object-based models again are at par with state-of-the-art salience models in predicting fixations in natural scenes. One possible interpretation of these results is that objects rather than early salience dominate attentional guidance. In this view, early-salience models predict fixations through the correlation of their features with object locations. To test this hypothesis directly, in two additional experiments we reduced low-level salience in image areas of high object content. For these modified stimuli, the object-based model predicted fixations significantly better than early salience. This finding held in an object-naming task (experiment 2) and a free-viewing task (experiment 3). These results provide further evidence for object-based fixation selection--and by inference object-based attentional guidance--in natural scenes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. TESSITURA OF A CREATIVE PROCESS: AUTOBIOGRAPHY ON SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This text presents weavings of a way to make the arts scene using the autobiographical support the creative process. Thus, we elucidate some of these weavings process while legitimizing the production of knowledge through artistic praxis, of sensitive experience. Introducing the concept of autobiography in analogy to the artistic and sequentially present the possibility of a laboratory setting amalgamated into reality/fiction. Keywords: creative process; autobiography; body.

  13. Neural Correlates of Divided Attention in Natural Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Individuals are able to split attention between separate locations, but divided spatial attention incurs the additional requirement of monitoring multiple streams of information. Here, we investigated divided attention using photos of natural scenes, where the rapid categorization of familiar objects and prior knowledge about the likely positions of objects in the real world might affect the interplay between these spatial and nonspatial factors. Sixteen participants underwent fMRI during an object detection task. They were presented with scenes containing either a person or a car, located on the left or right side of the photo. Participants monitored either one or both object categories, in one or both visual hemifields. First, we investigated the interplay between spatial and nonspatial attention by comparing conditions of divided attention between categories and/or locations. We then assessed the contribution of top-down processes versus stimulus-driven signals by separately testing the effects of divided attention in target and nontarget trials. The results revealed activation of a bilateral frontoparietal network when dividing attention between the two object categories versus attending to a single category but no main effect of dividing attention between spatial locations. Within this network, the left dorsal premotor cortex and the left intraparietal sulcus were found to combine task- and stimulus-related signals. These regions showed maximal activation when participants monitored two categories at spatially separate locations and the scene included a nontarget object. We conclude that the dorsal frontoparietal cortex integrates top-down and bottom-up signals in the presence of distractors during divided attention in real-world scenes.

  14. The Anthropo-scene: A guide for the perplexed.

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    Lorimer, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    The scientific proposal that the Earth has entered a new epoch as a result of human activities - the Anthropocene - has catalysed a flurry of intellectual activity. I introduce and review the rich, inchoate and multi-disciplinary diversity of this Anthropo-scene. I identify five ways in which the concept of the Anthropocene has been mobilized: scientific question, intellectual zeitgeist, ideological provocation, new ontologies and science fiction. This typology offers an analytical framework for parsing this diversity, for understanding the interactions between different ways of thinking in the Anthropo-scene, and thus for comprehending elements of its particular and peculiar sociabilities. Here I deploy this framework to situate Earth Systems Science within the Anthropo-scene, exploring both the status afforded science in discussions of this new epoch, and the various ways in which the other means of engaging with the concept come to shape the conduct, content and politics of this scientific enquiry. In conclusion the paper reflects on the potential of the Anthropocene for new modes of academic praxis.

  15. Oxytocin increases amygdala reactivity to threatening scenes in females.

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    Lischke, Alexander; Gamer, Matthias; Berger, Christoph; Grossmann, Annette; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Heinrichs, Markus; Herpertz, Sabine C; Domes, Gregor

    2012-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is well known for its profound effects on social behavior, which appear to be mediated by an OT-dependent modulation of amygdala activity in the context of social stimuli. In humans, OT decreases amygdala reactivity to threatening faces in males, but enhances amygdala reactivity to similar faces in females, suggesting sex-specific differences in OT-dependent threat-processing. To further explore whether OT generally enhances amygdala-dependent threat-processing in females, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a randomized within-subject crossover design to measure amygdala activity in response to threatening and non-threatening scenes in 14 females following intranasal administration of OT or placebo. Participants' eye movements were recorded to investigate whether an OT-dependent modulation of amygdala activity is accompanied by enhanced exploration of salient scene features. Although OT had no effect on participants' gazing behavior, it increased amygdala reactivity to scenes depicting social and non-social threat. In females, OT may, thus, enhance the detection of threatening stimuli in the environment, potentially by interacting with gonadal steroids, such as progesterone and estrogen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Benchmark for Endoluminal Scene Segmentation of Colonoscopy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vázquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, the standard approach to reduce CRC-related mortality is to perform regular screening in search for polyps and colonoscopy is the screening tool of choice. The main limitations of this screening procedure are polyp miss rate and the inability to perform visual assessment of polyp malignancy. These drawbacks can be reduced by designing decision support systems (DSS aiming to help clinicians in the different stages of the procedure by providing endoluminal scene segmentation. Thus, in this paper, we introduce an extended benchmark of colonoscopy image segmentation, with the hope of establishing a new strong benchmark for colonoscopy image analysis research. The proposed dataset consists of 4 relevant classes to inspect the endoluminal scene, targeting different clinical needs. Together with the dataset and taking advantage of advances in semantic segmentation literature, we provide new baselines by training standard fully convolutional networks (FCNs. We perform a comparative study to show that FCNs significantly outperform, without any further postprocessing, prior results in endoluminal scene segmentation, especially with respect to polyp segmentation and localization.

  17. Higher-order scene statistics of breast images

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    Abbey, Craig K.; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha N.; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2009-02-01

    Researchers studying human and computer vision have found description and construction of these systems greatly aided by analysis of the statistical properties of naturally occurring scenes. More specifically, it has been found that receptive fields with directional selectivity and bandwidth properties similar to mammalian visual systems are more closely matched to the statistics of natural scenes. It is argued that this allows for sparse representation of the independent components of natural images [Olshausen and Field, Nature, 1996]. These theories have important implications for medical image perception. For example, will a system that is designed to represent the independent components of natural scenes, where objects occlude one another and illumination is typically reflected, be appropriate for X-ray imaging, where features superimpose on one another and illumination is transmissive? In this research we begin to examine these issues by evaluating higher-order statistical properties of breast images from X-ray projection mammography (PM) and dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT). We evaluate kurtosis in responses of octave bandwidth Gabor filters applied to PM and to coronal slices of bCT scans. We find that kurtosis in PM rises and quickly saturates for filter center frequencies with an average value above 0.95. By contrast, kurtosis in bCT peaks near 0.20 cyc/mm with kurtosis of approximately 2. Our findings suggest that the human visual system may be tuned to represent breast tissue more effectively in bCT over a specific range of spatial frequencies.

  18. The Hip-Hop club scene: Gender, grinding and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Weinstein, Hannah; Parker, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Hip-Hop culture is a key social medium through which many young men and women from communities of colour in the USA construct their gender. In this study, we focused on the Hip-Hop club scene in New York City with the intention of unpacking narratives of gender dynamics from the perspective of young men and women, and how these relate to their sexual experiences. We conducted a three-year ethnographic study that included ethnographic observations of Hip-Hop clubs and their social scene, and in-depth interviews with young men and young women aged 15-21. This paper describes how young people negotiate gender relations on the dance floor of Hip-Hop clubs. The Hip-Hop club scene represents a context or setting where young men's masculinities are contested by the social environment, where women challenge hypermasculine privilege and where young people can set the stage for what happens next in their sexual and emotional interactions. Hip-Hop culture therefore provides a window into the gender and sexual scripts of many urban minority youth. A fuller understanding of these patterns can offer key insights into the social construction of sexual risk, as well as the possibilities for sexual health promotion, among young people in urban minority populations.

  19. Exploring eye movements in patients with glaucoma when viewing a driving scene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Crabb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease and a leading cause of visual disability. Automated assessment of the visual field determines the different stages in the disease process: it would be desirable to link these measurements taken in the clinic with patient's actual function, or establish if patients compensate for their restricted field of view when performing everyday tasks. Hence, this study investigated eye movements in glaucomatous patients when viewing driving scenes in a hazard perception test (HPT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HPT is a component of the UK driving licence test consisting of a series of short film clips of various traffic scenes viewed from the driver's perspective each containing hazardous situations that require the camera car to change direction or slow down. Data from nine glaucomatous patients with binocular visual field defects and ten age-matched control subjects were considered (all experienced drivers. Each subject viewed 26 different films with eye movements simultaneously monitored by an eye tracker. Computer software was purpose written to pre-process the data, co-register it to the film clips and to quantify eye movements and point-of-regard (using a dynamic bivariate contour ellipse analysis. On average, and across all HPT films, patients exhibited different eye movement characteristics to controls making, for example, significantly more saccades (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval for mean increase: 9.2 to 22.4%. Whilst the average region of 'point-of-regard' of the patients did not differ significantly from the controls, there were revealing cases where patients failed to see a hazard in relation to their binocular visual field defect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Characteristics of eye movement patterns in patients with bilateral glaucoma can differ significantly from age-matched controls when viewing a traffic scene. Further studies of eye movements made by glaucomatous patients could

  20. Exploring eye movements in patients with glaucoma when viewing a driving scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, David P; Smith, Nicholas D; Rauscher, Franziska G; Chisholm, Catharine M; Barbur, John L; Edgar, David F; Garway-Heath, David F

    2010-03-16

    Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease and a leading cause of visual disability. Automated assessment of the visual field determines the different stages in the disease process: it would be desirable to link these measurements taken in the clinic with patient's actual function, or establish if patients compensate for their restricted field of view when performing everyday tasks. Hence, this study investigated eye movements in glaucomatous patients when viewing driving scenes in a hazard perception test (HPT). The HPT is a component of the UK driving licence test consisting of a series of short film clips of various traffic scenes viewed from the driver's perspective each containing hazardous situations that require the camera car to change direction or slow down. Data from nine glaucomatous patients with binocular visual field defects and ten age-matched control subjects were considered (all experienced drivers). Each subject viewed 26 different films with eye movements simultaneously monitored by an eye tracker. Computer software was purpose written to pre-process the data, co-register it to the film clips and to quantify eye movements and point-of-regard (using a dynamic bivariate contour ellipse analysis). On average, and across all HPT films, patients exhibited different eye movement characteristics to controls making, for example, significantly more saccades (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval for mean increase: 9.2 to 22.4%). Whilst the average region of 'point-of-regard' of the patients did not differ significantly from the controls, there were revealing cases where patients failed to see a hazard in relation to their binocular visual field defect. Characteristics of eye movement patterns in patients with bilateral glaucoma can differ significantly from age-matched controls when viewing a traffic scene. Further studies of eye movements made by glaucomatous patients could provide useful information about the definition of the visual field component required for